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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16 SECRET WGS /GP rl i ki Ecuador July. 1903 CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SUI F. 3`1 SECRET NO FOREIGN DIS' ;EM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 WARNING The NIS is No+ional intelligence and cnay not 'be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern ment or international. body except by specific authorization of the Director-of Central intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked mexv be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and taraphics are individually classified according to content. Classification/control designo- ?ions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /for Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 EC:UDO CONTENTS Th ChaPt 411I)crscrlrs Mr.. patilical carcrare in the Ceiieral Survey datcd Septembcr 1368, A. Introduction 1 H. Structure functioiiing of the government 2 1. Constitation 2 2. 1~xecutive brands 4 I Judicial branch 6 4. Provincial and local govermne,it 7 C. Political dynamic 8 I. Political r z. Military 8 b. Political partics 9 (1) Personalist 1zarties 9 (a) Na tional Vclasquista Fed cration 9 (b) Concentration of Popular Forces 9 (c) Social Christian Party 10 SeC:3er No Foimxx D iswNi APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 Page (2) Traditional parties 10 (a) Conservative Party 10 (b) Radical Liberal Party of Ecuador 10 (c) Ecuadorean Socialist Party 11 (3) Marxist parties I 11 (a) Communist Party of Ecuador 11 (b) Far leftist parties........... 12 2. Pressure gaups 12 a. Oligarchic interest groups 12 b. Students 13 c. The Ronan Catholic Church 14 d. Labor unions 14 3. Electoral practices 15 D. National policie... 15 1. Domestic ......I 16 a. political 16 b. Social 16 c. Petroleum 16 d. Economic and financial Controls 17 2. Foreign 17 a. Territorial sea and land boundaries 11' b. Relations with Communist countries 18 c. Other foreign relations 18 Fig. 1 Ecuadorean Chief Executves since 1956 (photos) Fig. 2 Structure of the government (char.) s 4 i f b' f i l Page E. Threats to government stability 19 1. Discontent and dissidence 19 a. Social and political disaffection 19 b. Economic. grievances 19 c. Dissident elements 20 (1) Students 20 (2) Labor 20 (3) Military .....I 20 2. Subversion 20 a. Historic4l perspective 20 b. Aetivitics of extralegal organizations 21 F. Maintenance of internal security 22 1. Police 22 2. Countersubversive and counterinsur- gency ,measures and .capabilities 23 G. Selected bibliography 23 Chronology 24 Glossary 25 FIGURES Page Page Fig. 3 Assad Bucaram (photo) 10: 3 5 Fig, 4 Pedro Saad (Photo) 11 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 Gnlapgoslaands";' o 'd 76 SOi SOO 1NwgrllA I e6UNb44r CtLNi A710N le jj NOT N[CLft AArLV AV'TMCMIr ATMK ,Pavia t. o o m b; a J Fww fnlr.wy. L t�r7o C;�road rri t I E~aRias f 5a Sshra lv,Trrs 1 'rroEOarl `x ti% C11CrGId. 5 ,,,I Tuan J C e I !7. Sa f P X14cla frxcxcd 9hu Oci Flap piCil Chi too Co! pax Aaanl an abl; Trna Rr!urrrc Lam- n }p� O POrfa.rrtp w+� �d F j r psla 4Ja�:�TW I S f GUByJ5 .pa.a Chm,s r,3Jc RA !fir lava F e r u Car r :ry Of03ia' I S Gorlp Put rira ,.r., r1 n xuiJy SIERRA r `IJ:?j'JtE111 RRalcalaPA 7u S Li Oro Pa�A Rapgr.rt Inw bone! boundAry S OJ 3 zAw fA w Plar,rlc+a wndar. P e ;r V Nat+onal uplal i Rnrinc:a L.apitil T M C Inc hipc sa iQt7T8 b73 L 7e =h Reglonal divislorts (U10 U) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 r r Government and Politic's' A. Ihtroduction (S) Ikfe [III', Spanish cYxiquest, tiie territory rongh correstwnding [o modern l;cuador was called Qtiitio .Lied was part of the Empire. The first inhabitants wens .known ;is the Quilu Indians. "I'Ileir civilization n"ached its lot-ak in the 10th century, 1Own they were lo osely organixcd in a large nurriber of sinall, weak groups.. They were t h en Inv aded by the Cata Indians. svho apparently carne front the Caribbean region. The Cara% developed the Khigdoin of Quito; they were unetuered in the late kith ventury. by the Inca mnlperor, f [uavna Capac, wilt) carne from what is now Peru. This txx:nrred, however, only Shortly before the fall of tile Inca Empire after. (lie aerival of tile. Spiiniards. The Inca civitization -:did not affect the utass of the Ecuadorean Indians, wile( roinaitiml Iargely.pamive under 6th colonial and suascguunt republican rule. Daring the coleoiiial period the area was known as the Audiencia of Quito and wac fora tiniesulorlinala to the Vicewyalty,of New C' ,as tille, with h cadeluarters in lima; it was later played under [lie Vicemyalty of Neu' Cr:enada, roiled from pkogota. These changes, as well :e.; tine generally vague rupture of colonial Ionnd:Iries, established the backgnoelnd for later disputes between Ectoador and its neighbors. When indepcndettea From Spain was assured by talc defeat of Spanish forces in the Battle.of Pichiucha in 1(122, the Aildiencia of Qtoi(o joined with C:.olombia and Verne %Umla to Form the Republic of Gem Cmlonibia. In 18KI a revoluti junta inr.eling in Quito declarec'.the province independent from Gran C olonihia; a congress declared the territory a sovereign st :I[e u nder the designation "State t of Fettador." Si 114-v etioleonial times t?cnador lead a suectisicru of constiMions written .tei emhody the ideas of a particular political figure, or group, with" powerful leaders ernerging ou .tile xYne front time to tithe to give' Eonte direction to tine political process, The eountry's presem Constitution is its 18th. All Ecuadoican s'_eyirlg calls itodep day --13 Map 1830� "the last d.iy of d e sp otism atoll the firs( day of (he saine:." in the 1.12 years since indepe{ulenev, there have hceto 48 el"eted Presiderils, only a fc-w O f a Iu,rti have cYtmptmed their terms of ,office. None of the g ov,! rn ment a l systems esta b lished b y the c.onstitutiorls has laid a solid base for subsetlosent political prtxTmes. After independence. I:e:oador' established :a nolninally democratic, constitutional government. In reality, however, power lnlonged to cutidfllos- political b efsscs with p ersoual lxtwei' bases. It was during [lie 14th ce:ntiny aiso that the basis was laid for the rivalry between the coast (Costa) and the Andean highlands (Sierra), which conti titles, to (tinder the development of a truly national consciousness. Quito, .tile capita] aiid oldctit city, is in the Sierra, while the largest city, Citil aguil, is in the Costa. Quito. still partially tvntrolled lay wealthy land eowncrs, 1s Celriservati "C and religious, whereas Guayaquil, strongly influenced" by businmss and crotnmercil!: intemms, is more progressive. Regionalist" has breo reinforced by granting both the Costu and the Sierra functional representation in Congress for amuticrcV, industry, and labor and by permitting regimial officials some aittonoiny in minor ad niinistra- tive rtlatters. The government has lx4!n able to mairitVirl o niv tenuous dorninitm E?cu sthird geographi area, the Spa ru;ly inhabited jungle region called the Oriente. A key f actor in the rise of raudfllos in Ecuador leas been the importance of persortalf.rtrw �the adhervrite to a leader brreause of his charisma and demagogic ability, The preeminent example of this phe�ionmettort in the last four decades is the octogetoarian juse Maria Velasao Iharra, who was chos President five times, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 but crntplcled oltly orle of the loon. Although ousters of hilt] raised little popular outer%: )te was ublc to relitnl with lnndillnillished appeal and to be elveled primarily tilt tilt bask of his oratory. His adiuirtislratiwe gifts slid 11c it match his elt;]risma, liowever. and his govenlrmrnts usually became riddled with graft awl mrruptioti, allliough Velascr himself, was apparelttly honest: In addition, Iris ability to inspire crmrifidellee rarely exteudercl !o 1x]liticians not Closely associated with him, altd he was uu:]blc I take the actions necessary for the well4wing of the muntry. Nevertheless, he has remained, even in exile, the leading pnlilical figure since the 1930"s (figure 1). l'her prescut :1clnlinixtralion which styles itself the. Nationalist Revolittrtm :try Government, is headed by Cen; (millerino 11oclrigue.J i a]ra. and carne to power ill rnilil,iry cmctp oil 1.3 February 1972, ousting Velascrr. As Conunancler of the Army, Rodriguez ;ls the rritural fit are aromid whieh the nnoveitlent fora coup c4o.110rcd, [)tit, he vacillated for some time helure selling the ouster of Vel:isco ill motion. Uuc reason for the coup was the presidetiliai election scheduled for Juue 1972. \lacy, tnililary leaden as well as the pillitical eslablishincrlt opposed Assad Rncaram; a polrolist reformist politician, who was :i leading Ulldidate. They would leave bee n willing for President Velascro to extend his terin past its collstitntiotial termination in Actgiist. Although Velastxi had n.ded with oictatorial lxmwwers silice J1]rle 1970, lie conuerinxi about faring well in the: judgment of history and was. de!ermined to cc. :nply as much as passible with the Constitution. An additional factor ill the nu]venletil :against velase o 1.1 in the desireof yonngerofficers to emulate the reformist government ill Peru. They disliked the inefficiency stmt ciirruplion of the Velasco adinimstra- tiun and ']elievecl. that any rather civilian gcmvarnrtient would be just as bad. FUrtherrnore, the milit :Iry slid Mot wwatit tilt state reverlrles expected from newly developell oilfields ill the cast to fall iutci the* !amts of corrupt civilian politicians. When the military seized power in YvIfrtlary 1972, there toss vela little popular inaction nnc wyiiy esr the other. Evers the parlis:uls of Asmicl Bucarant did not 1]roteM the action duet prev-inted their leader front callipaigt]ing for the lmrrsidcnc!. ,vfw::,t political parties either smpporled 11w government openly or adopted a 110110 i]ntnittul altiti :de. The !,oh!! exception wits the c,Alion a left. which, v. :itid frieginetlled, lacked power or influence to do rttore than make criticul st;ltcrnenis: After the cute, there was cXnsidera ill i.disagree it] etit within t6 gove rn file [it itself, as well w; amorig llu�rrihcrs of the inili tit r' who slid not hold goverunicnl posts. over t pate al w�ilid nrogrin]s. such as agrari:ol re form, should be uodellaken. Marty officers, espt;cialli� in the liav�, favored e11lick governuicnlal action to right age: -old wrongs. The President and imasiv of tits act iscn appreciatctil. the steed for reform but pl,u]ned ic: move ]more Slowly., during its first mouths in office the governmeot had a greal deal of trill Ible.w�ill] organisation. In addilioll, sonic officials exlxeted 111.11 the ticw revenues frorti the oilfields would [tell) solve nalioli;ll problems, and they preferred to wait mold this moot' became available. Some in the. military were hesitant to make r]];yor changes because of c eitplex at(vitclant problems and the relatively weak and i itlecisive naittrccif Preside Fit Hocirigoier.. who is easily swayed by differenl military. factions. They reinerilhcr the exlieriencr of the military junta of 1963 -66. whose. refornt'isnr arcrosed wicItspread ntlpo,itiou: As a result of longstanding deficiencies, however, the :1e11ic1ernellt of basic reforms. as well as the development elf a strong; deniocra tie tradition, is made very cliffic0t tinder MIN fornl.of goverutnctit. lnstc:td. the p mspvcts for violence. ineffective leadership, ecouoniic and social stagliatioa, and political instability are, reinforced by a poorly organized and cumbersome public administration and a low level of civic re spou�il]ility. Political factionillisin :nod thc irrespimmibilily of the disgrluitled aspirants for political po;rej, moreover, have created an Millosphere ill which basic national proble; is inay tonlll]lie to be ignored. B. Structure and functioning of the government 1. Constitution (V /OU) Fettador, perhaps even morn tll;ul most other 11ispanic- American nations, h a s liven plagued by fretlurrttly recurring "periods of Chaos, wheli little effective gnwer]tment has existed 131111e national level. During such tinges a constitutional vonvention has usuuily been called, apparently. can tllr assumptiow that those whir parlieipated ill drawing tip a constitution would seek to briiig alxntt a ntodican] of f nnetioning government under its provisions. Til lack of it workable political cm ensus arntilrg rulitigeircles, howevvr, is revealed by the use of this device 18 iin]cs between 1812 and 1967. Contributing to the freciriency of new constitutions has been the general. view that the purpr]xe.of t6 and legal systems is to serve as ideals and to elevate the poliiical APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 r Carlos Arosernena Mortroy Military Junta 1963 -&6 (961 (i3 f Marcos Gandara Inriquez Raman Castro Jilon Luis Cabrera Se Yi11a Guillermo FreNe Porto Josh Maria Velasco lbarra 1960-61 Cornet 196" l �,S APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 behavior of citi%eim The notion that vollsti toll iolls are ilttnlutaMe slatenlents of principle aad promdury is ilnt Wi4vIv held. Sigilificanlly, 1uhowever, the fres. Thcir Two student. groups in the past ha%v exerwd strength is much greatrf ill the Sierra than in the significant pre -sauce From thole to tints� The., major Costa, and they are especially powerful in provincial student group is the Federation of Elciiadoirrafi 't a nd m affv rs in thesertlth. U its d issoluti on Universit Students WEVE L which was f ole n de d Ill ire 1970, landowner associations were strongly 1945. It elai its to represent sr :ntc�;�Il1.t }till students at represented In Congress, Both through the regiona Five public ant! two Gi l h o l ir uni one ri oll sentors anti deputies representing the soutllent (:utholic priva university, .lint th highland provinces and through the.. functional schools, Although i'IsUI; is dominated by a stuall, senators. elcc,ted by the associations themselves. Ituniber of -Itiglhl'nHtsa lSvcr tart CFI:XX..., Crnhal i cuaroradna dr Orponi:aciunrit F�:cuadarean Ce:.trnl cf Cla" Orytanira- Clasisras Lions CfiO$F....... CortrArrociari Rctraloriano de Orponiar- C;!uadorean Confederation of Frye Lobar eiones Sindimles Libreir ?rganisaRioss C P.:..'.:.... Cottrenfracian de Fuer az Populares, ConcenlrAion of Popular Forces CRE........ Comurismo ftecodutionariodel l:'eaador, ReVolutivnen� Cottimuoism of Ecuador CTV....:.. Conjederacion de rrabojadores Ecua- Confrderittlon of Ecuadarean Workers lortanaa DGI........,. Direction General de 1+Irormacion.......Ccnend Dirretorate of Intciligenee FESF.......... Federacion de Smeadionles erundariu- Federation. of F.eundorean Secondary del Iftuadyr Student$ F1:UE..:.... Fcdtrardon do h'siudiamles Unirersilarias Federation of Ecuadorean University did Heaedar tudvats FittV:......... Fcdrracion National Felanuisfa...... National Vrlasquista Federation JIM Jverttlud Comunisra dd Rcuador...... Communist Youth of Reuador 1118........ Morisnienlo l:quierdo Hemiucionar�io Left Revolutionary ,Movement PC..:........ Parlida Consermdor Conrervative Party ME� Padide Comoni.ta del $cuador, Communist Party of Ecuador. PC 1. I....... Porrido Camunista des 13euador/ Communist N,.ty of Ecuador! \farxiat ,Varti4a Lcniniara Len3ulai PCN.... Policia Civil Naciona... National Civil Police PI.RE.:....... Partido Liberal Radical dd Ecuador, Padieal Liboial. Party of F.ouador PSC....... Partido Soiial Cristiaao.. Social Christian Party PSE.... P Crtido Sacialiara &I JR tj4dor.:. CwU"orean Socialist Party PSRF.......... Partido Sodalisla Reralucionario del Revolutionary Soeiallat Party of d4cuador rcuador P.SU..... Parfido Social isfa Ustido........... Unified Sadaast Party VAJE........ Union Revofueioaaria do to Iusvnfud del ltrvulutfoaasy Union of Ecuadorean Hjuados Youth APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9 Places and features referret; to in this chapter tut ou) Is. a 141, Ambato ........::.......::...........I 15. 78 37 Andes (mfr) 2 00 78 40 Cuencaa..., 2 53 78 59 Fameratdaa 0 59N. 70 42 Calapngos Islanda (fists).. 0 30 00 30 Guayaquil 2 10 70 50 C. do Guayaquil (gulf) 3 go 80 30 Efaya del Carchi (baiin) 0 45N. 77 45 I barra iaja 4 00 70 13 Orito Wlfidd).. Quito.. 0 13 78 30 Rjobamba 1 40 78 38 Rio Guayas (siren) 2 36 79 52 Santo Domingo...... 0 i5 79 0Q NOTE: �Ail latitudes are South nalem othervrise indleated. 28 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110031 -9