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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009106116: CIA- RDP01- 007078000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R00020 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Couniry Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fa--t- book, a ready reference publication `hat semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An ,nclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies if NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY n EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA -RDP01 -00707 R000200110042 -7 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Secority Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 Page B. Organization, planning, and financing of research 2 All scientific research and development under the direction of the Communist party and the gov- ernment; function and organization of principal coordinating bodies; research facilities subor- dinate to the MTA and individual ministries; institutes of higher education as sources of scien- tific research; role of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federation of Technical and Scientific Societies; funding and expenditures. C. Scientific education, manpower, and fa- cilities Higher educational institutions offering scientific instruction; quality of training; number of scien- tific and technical personnel; adequacy of re- search facilities and equipment. D. Major research fields 6 1. Air and ground weapons 6 Meager weapons research and development capabilities; ground forces equipment; air- craft development and production; satellite tracking stations; excellent capacity for the design and development of instruments, espe- cially field survey equipment. 2. Biological and chemical warfare 7 Adequate personnel, technology, and facilities to conduct biological warfare, research, and development; some findings possibly contrib- uting to a defensive or offensive BW pro- gram; modest chemical warfare research and development program, primarily defensive. FIGURES Page 3. Atomic energy 9 Small nuclear energy program, growth re- stricted by foreign controls; nuclear research facilities and equipment; development of nu- clear power. 4. Electronics Capability to exploit foreign designs as well as to :Manufacture domestically high quality components and equipment; scope of research activities. 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine High quality biomedical research; efforts in neurophysiology, biochemistry, biophysics, pharmacology, microbiology, and veterinary medical research. 6. Other sciences a. Chemistry and metallurgy High quality basic chemical research; gen- erally weak in applied chemical research except in specialized areas; efforts in or- ganic, physical, analytical, and inorganic chemistry and biochemistry; scope of metallurgical research. b. Physics and mathematics Limited capability to do significant physics research; emphasis on nuclear and solid -state physics; laser research; highly qualified mathematicians; good capability for mathematical research in limited areas, emphasis on applied mathematics. c. Astrogeophysical sciences Astronomical research facilities; satellite tracking stations; upper atmospheric, me- teorolopical, geophysical, geological, geo- detic, hydromechanical, and hydraulic re- search. 9 10 11 11 13 15 Page Page Fig. 1 'Organization of scientific and tech- Fig. 3 Measurement of reaction kinetics nical research chart) 3 with a Pulfrich photometer photo) 12 Fig. 2 Ko -B1 code theodolite photo) 8 Fig. 4 Sites of scientific activity (nap) 17 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 Science A. General (S) Science and technology hold a significant and increasingly important position in Hungary. Although seldom considered excellent by Western standards, Hungarian efforts in scientific research and development are highly respected by other Com- munist countries and have received international recognition in certain areas of medicine, pharmacy, and biochemistry. During the first half of the 20th century, Hungary produced it surprisingly large number of prominent scientists, including the physicists Lco Szilard, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner; mathematician- physicist John von Neu man; mathematicians Paul Erdos. Georg Otto Szasz, and Gabor Szego; chemist George Hevesy; biologist Albert Szent- Gvorgyi; anti physicist aeronautical engineer Theodore von Karman. Manv of these scientists emigrated to other countries, especially the United States. Although the quality of basic research is good, only limited progress has been made in applied research. The government is aware of the need to improve such research. One of the most important considerations in assigning priority in research and in providing financial support is that the research project be oriented toward applied arras that will benefit the veonorny in the shortest possible time. A 20 -year scientific research plan (1961 -80) was drawn up by the government to keep research within economically productive bounds and to concentrate efforts on priority projects i!r industry and agriculture. A number of governing bodies direct research activities and expedite the industrial application of research results. The Council for Economic Mutual Assistance (CEMA) encourages the coordination of economic and scientific efforts among its member countries and has assigned to Hungary industrial priorities in such fields as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, telecommunica- tions, electronics, and instruments and precision maci Hungarian scientific research and development efforts are related to the industrial specifications of CEMA. Several factors have hindered scientific advance- ment. During World War II many research facilities were damaged or destroyed. Before the war and following the unsuccessful uprising against the Communist regime in 1976, many talented scientists and engineers emigrated to other countries. In addition, the economy has been unable to provide the financial support for science that larger and more prosperous countries can afford. Scientists have been unable to purchase modern scientific equipment abroad or have experienced long delays in securing such equipment. In some fields of science, laboratory instrumentation and methodology are several years behind those of advanced countries. Considerable difficulty has been encountered in commercializing scientific developments, because government -owned industrial plants are reluctant to accept risk in applying new processes. Political factors also have had an adverse effect on scientific research; the selection or promotion of administrators often has been based on loyalty to the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party (HSWP) rather than on abilitv. Some researchers are retained in their positions despite technical incompetence because of party pressure. In an effort to make education and science serve the purpose of its economic goals, Hungary embarked on a highly optimistic manpower training program slated to extend through 1980. Facilities are being expanded to accommodate the anticipated large increases in enrollments in educational institutions. Heavy emphasis has been placed on scientific and technical education at the advanced level. Educational reforms of the early 1960's were aimed at providing the state with it skilled and professional work force and stressed vocational specialization at an earlier age, scientific concentration in curriculums at all levels, and the introduction of the polvtechnica) concept of student training (combining study with practice). Because of its inability to compete successfully in all scientific fields, Hungary relies on the results of research conducted in other countries, and, consequently, maintains close relations with numerous foreign scientific 1) Aies. Hungary participates in APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 numerous international scientific organizations and meetings. In 1965, for example, the Iungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA) sent 400 scientists to various international scientific meetings, 180 of them to Western countries. A much greater number of scientists were sent abroad by universities, ministries, scientific societies, and industrial enterprises. The Institute for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Budapest, concentrates on establishing links with individuals and educational institutions in an effort to expand the Hungarian scientific and cultural presence in the West. Hungary is a member of the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World health Organization (WHO), the Interna- tional Atomic Energy Agency (IAE'A), and the International Astronautics Federation OF). Hungary belongs to the principal international astrogeopnvsical organizations. It cooperates in astrogeophysical efforts primarily with Communist countries and is active in satellite tracking. Hungary is a member of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in the Soviet Union and contributes financially to its support. It is also a member of the International Center for Theoretical Physics at "Trieste, which is sponsored by the IAEA and UNESCO. It is active in the Soviet Intercosrnos program, the Vienna� Bratislava �Buda- pest Triangic on particle physics, the European Center for Nuclear Research (CF,RN), and the European Physical Society. Scientific and technical cooperative agreements are in force with other Communist countries, as well as with the West. VITA maintains relations with the scientific acadernies of the U.S.S.R., East Germany, the People's Republic of China, North Korea, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria, as well as with the French National Center for Scientific Research; and the Royal Society of London. U.S. scientists generally are received cordially by Hum -arian scientists at their research institutes, but Official policy has been to delay extensive cooperation with the United States in scientific and cultural affairs until political and economic relations between the two countries improve. In 1970 a bilateral agreement was concluded for the exchange of visits by scientists from both countries. In July 1972 a cooperative scientific research agreement was signed by the Institute for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries and the U.S. National Science Foundation for the develop rnent of joint research projects in the physical sciences. Hungarian research institutes have provided technical assistance to developing countries in Latin Arnerica, Africa, and the Middle E:;st. n B. Organization, planning, and financing of research (S) All scientific research and development arc under the direction of the IISWP and the government Figure 1). Aii extensive organization has been established to administer and coordinate research activities; the main functions of this organization are to insure scientific and technological development in the various branches of science, to coordinate scientific activities, to provide direction in the solution of important research problems, to finance scientific activities in accordance with the national needs, and to encourage scientific communication and the practical application of scientific discoveries. Scientific research is conducted in institutes subordinate to the VITA, the ministries, and institutions of higher learning under the Ministry of Culture. In November 1967 the Central Committee of the party authorized an extensive stuck- of science policy and the control and guidance of research. The resulting report, representing the efforts of about 200 scientists, research administrators, and government and party leaders, was completed in mid 1969. Although no radical changes in science policy were proposed, the report stressed the need for increasing the effectiveness of scientific research and develop- ment to stimulate economic growth and advocated increased research by universities and industry. It also called fou greater cooperation among scientists from different branches of sciences and among different types of research installations on important problems and emphasized the importance of international cooperation in science. Although the report pal, lipservice to the freedom of science as an important factor in Hungarian science policy, since 1968 there has been a trend toward stronger domination of the M'TA by the government and the Communist part In an effort to bring the VITA under greater party influence, the Industrial Scientific Planning Committee t.f the party has recommended that some of the power of institute directors he reduced and the number of party members on M'rA scientific committees be increased. The highest coordinating body for all scientific activity is the ouncil on Science and higher Education "TF I'). Created in 1957, it is composed of about 40 scientists and leading ministerial officials and reports directly to the Council of Ministers. It has the power to make recommendations to the Council of Ministers regarding the coordination, merger, wind dissolution of research institutes. It decides on the type APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 FIGURE 1. Organization of scientific and technical research, 1972 (C) and method of training of scientists and engineers and the number to be trained by the universities in relation to the nranpo%%er needs of the national economy. The TFT drew up a 20 -year research pion, approved in March 1962, which directs research goals to the Manned technological advances of Ilungarian industry. The plan enumerates 73 priority problems on which funds and efforts are to be concentrated during the period of the plan. The MTA and the governmental ministries draw up 5 -year research plans within the framework of the long -range plan. The National Technical Development Cw-uw:ittec (M/11- established in 1961, is concerned with expediting the application of research results in industry. Subordinate to the Council of Ministers, it has a nu�mbership of approximately -15 scientists and technologists and a chairmen of ministerial rank. The OM FB has three major functions: I to study major technical problems related to the development of the ecirnomy; to cooperate with the National Planning Office, 'TFT, MTA, and the ministries in the preparation of long -range technical development plans, ,in(] 3) to advise the Council of Ministers and other governmental agencies on the improvement of technological development. It has the power to disapprove import licenses for the purchase of major equipment, Snell as computers, which help to determine the course of technological development. The M'I'A is the most important scientific body in Hungary and holds ministerial status. It was formed in 18 and since 19=49 has directed the country's scientific effort. Its main respons`.bility is organizing, directing, and coordinating basic research, but it is a Iso involved in those aspects of applied sciences which are concerted with the promotion of the national economy. The NI TA is supported by the state and enjoys considerable prestige since the intellectual level of its members is even higher than that of the universities. It includes many of the eountrv's leading scientists and technical experts, and the MITA's decisions in scientific matters are important, although final authority rests with the Council of Ministers. In 1966 the M'I'A had a membership of 210, including 87 regular members, 7 -1 ecrre members, and 49 honorary members. It is organized into 10 sections: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Medical Sciences, 'Technical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Earth and Mining Sciences, and three sections concerned with the social sciences. The work of the MTA is directed by its president, as head of the presidium, while the secretary general is responsible for implementing 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 decisions and for routine administrative matters. Sectional secretaries are elected from the members. The M'I'A directs the research activities of -13 research institutes, 30 of which are concerned with natural and technical sciences. Each of the sections and each institute reports periodically to the Academy's presidium. The presidium has many subordinate committees, including ones for nicteorol- ogy, geology, geophysics, geoehemistry, and astron- omy; the last committee includes a subcommittee for space tracking. Although the N1TA's funds have not been sufficient to provide adequate housing for all research facilities, some of the institutes, particularly the Central Research Institute for Chemistry in Budapest, the Central Research Institute for Physics in Csillcberc,t :Md the Experimental Research Institute for Medical Sciences in Budapest, are well housed. A new biological research institute under the MTA is being built at Szeged at it cost of US$8 million. The NITA publishes it large number of scientific journals and periodicals and translates foreign scientific literature, most of it of Soviet origin. It also maintains contact ,yith over 100 international scientific organizations and has been participating increasingly in international conferences. 'I'll(- most important physics research institutes are the Central Research Institute for Physics, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Debrecen, and the Institute fr 'Technical Physics in Budapest. All are subordinate to the MTA, which also has other, smaller research groups engaged in physics research. The MTA*s Mathematical Research Institute and Center for Computation Techniques, both in Budapest, ca ryout investigations in pure and applied mathematics, respectively. The academy also has an institute to conduct research in automation. Dour major laboratories tinder the MTA are engaged in chemical research. It also maintains research groups in 10 university departments for chemical studies. Its important center for research in pure and applied chemistry is the Central Research Institute for Chemistry and in biochemistry the Biochemical Research Institute in Budapest. "rhrec institutes engage in medical research, of which the Research Institute for Experimental Medicine is the most important. 'I'll(! academy's Veterinary Medical Research Institute in Budapest engages in research in infectious and parasitic diseases of animals. In the field of agronomics, the Agricultural Research Institute at Martonvasar and the Research Institute of 'For diacritics on place names see the list of namev. at the end of the chapter. Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry zit Rudaoest are doing the most notable research. The former is involved in research on plant genetics, physiology, and breeding. The latter is concerned with soil physics, chemistry, and microbiology; reclaniatlow conser- vation; and plant physiology and biochemistry. Individual ministries have established their own specialized research institutes for applied research and technical development. Nearly 90 of these institutes operate in manv fields related to industrial, agricultural, and public health research. The industrial ministries supervise 50 research institutes and employ about half of the country's scientific manpower. They receive a substantial portion of the total funds available for research. About 127 industrial firms have laboratories for product development, but the government prefers that all industrial research be carried out in ministerial research institutes to insure easier supervision and coordination. The Ministry of Health has 12 research centers and also conducts research at hospitals and clinics. Medical research also is conducted at several institutes under the MTA. Both basic and applied research are carried out in universities and specialized higher educational institutions. Most university departments have been concerned primarily with fundamental research in the past but are gradually undertaking considerable applied research. Research at the universities has concentrated on projects covered in the national long range plan, as well as on projects involving the developtnelit of various branches of science being encouraged by international bodies. Although the government maintains that scientists are free to conduct research of interest to them, actual priority in university research is decided by a group of academicians who have considerable influence in Communist party circles. Projects favored by these scientists receive good financial support. Manage- ment, supervision, and financing of scientific research at higher educational institutions are handled by the ministry that oversees them. 'rhe M "rA also provides funds for research aml has authority over its researchers within the framework of university departments. The National Atomic Energy Commission, established in 1956, is subordinate to the Council of Ministers. It functions at the ministerial level and is composed of various ministers, high- ranking governmental officials, and leading scientists. The commission acts as an administrative body which coordinates and essentially controls all activities directed toward the utilization of nuclear energy APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 within the country. It is charge with planning the development of nuclear power; making provisions for the use of radioactive isotopes in research, agriculture, industry, and medicine; promoting the production of instruments used in nucle rese arch; and undertaking other tasks arising in connection with the peaceful application of atomic energy. The Federation of "rechnical and Scientific Societies, Budapest, is important in scientific and technical activities. It is a voluntary group of 25 professional societies and has as its main objective the promotion of science arid technology. It is engaged in preparing it long -range technical development plan and has set up .work commissions for this purpose. [n all, there are ahout 500 permanent and short -terra commissions dealing with various problems of science, industry, and technology The federation does not have any research institutes of its own nor does it actively participate in research. Although nominally independent, the federation is controlled by the MTA and the OMFB. Half of its funds are provided by the government while the balance is secured from membership fees and contributions. The government's continuing awareness of the importance of science and technology to the country's growth is reflected in the fairly large proportion of the national income allocated each year for scientific and technical research. Expenditures for scientific research in 1964 amounted to about 1.5� %0 of the national income; during 1970 expenditures reportedly amounted to $425 million or about 2/0 of the national income. Technical research projects have priority and in 1966 received 55q of research funds, while natural science research received about 18 agricultural research, 1 medical research, 9 and research in the social sciences, 5 Industrial ministries have received about half of the available research funds, and the remainder has been divided between the MTA and universities. 'rte MTA operating budget has grown about 10% annually in recent years and amounted to approximately US$3i million in 1968. About 10% of the budget was spent for administrative purposes; 25% to finance research projects in universities; and 65% for research, primarily basic, in its own institutes. Funds available to the MTA in 1971 amounted to $64 to $68 million, including both operating budget arid funds for capital investment in new buildings and equipment. In .1968 the MTA's Central Research Institute' for Physics had an operating budget of approximate y $8.5 million. During 196 the OMFB had a budget of $3.2 million and the Federation of Technical and Scientific Societies' budget amounted to $3.4 million. A major source of research funds used prinurril% for development purposes has been the Technical Development Fund, which %vas set up in 1958 to give impetus to the Hungarian drive for developing technology to the level of the Nest. C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities (S) 'rte Ilungarian Communist regime places considerable emphasis on the education of scientists, engineers, and technicians. The quality of scientific education is good. The country has nine universities, six technical universities, three agricultural univer- sities, four agricultural colleges, and four medical universities. The 650 departments within these schools constitute important research and training centers. Several colleges also have facilities for research. Four of the universities have an important role in scientific training and research. The Lorand Eotvos University in Budapest, jozsef Attila University in Szeged, Lajos Kossuth University in Debrecen, and the Technical University of Budapest. Through a series of educational reforms, Hungary has attempted to meet its industrial and professional manpower requirements. Advanced schools for technical and engineering training were established in the early 1960's to provide polytechnic education to more than 100,000 students. However, courses of study at these schools were aimed at producing engineering technicians with training in a narrow field arid with a minimum of theoretical education. The curriculums of the country's universities and technical institutions have not been affected significantly by the educational reforms since the 1956 uprising. Students pursue a 5 -year academic program which includes on- the-joh training in their major fields of study. Scholarships are available and in addition industries will subsidize students under it contract which requires them to work for it number of years for the industry providing the grant. Facilities at the university level are crowded, competent teachers are scarce, and admission to higher educational institutions is difficult to obtain. Nevertheless, the quality of scientific education in the basic sciences has remained at a high level. Good chernical training is available at the major universities and at the 'Technical University of Budapest and the specialized 'rechnical University of Chemical Engineering in Veszprern. Scientists, academicians, and professors are highly respected and enjoy considerable political immunity because of their valuable talents. Promotions, however, often influenced by political considera- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 lions. and preferential treatment is given to loNal part) members. As it result, noun Iii ghly competent scientists are restricted to routine work, and the morale of researchers has suffered. Althoutgh the income of scientists and engineers is only marginally above that of skilled industrial workers, educated persons receive preferential treatment that favorably affects their standard of living. faculty murnIbers of higher e(Iucational institutions also are not well paid, and it is c�ustomuary for them to lake jobs vs consultants to supplement their income. A professor receives addition.,! compensation if he is a regid ar or corresponding member of the MT,k or if he has all advanced degree. Scientists and professors enjoy lifetime jot) tenure under normal circumstances. "There is a slight shortage of research personnel, particularly in the engineering field. lit 1967 aptxoxinsately 41.000 or O.Wi of the wage earners were cmp!oye(I ill some form of research activity as scientists, oogincers, technicians, admsinistrators, or ill servic�es.:1t the present time, between 6.300 and 7,000 researchers are employed at research institutes; 7,000 persons at universities teach and conduct research, and about 800 others are engaged ill nonteachiug research projects. Some 2,000 to 2,500 researchers work in the lahomiories of industrial enterprises and ministries. Of the Dotal number of researchers, about 7.000 have professional degrees. The research staffs of the VITA have grown significantly since the early 1960's, and more than 5,000 individuals are employed in its institutes. The MTA Isotope Institute has approxi- mately I,()00 people engaged in the production of isotopes. The Central Research Institute for Physics has a total staff of 1 300, of whom more than 250 are scientists and engineers. Since 196 -1 the Research Institute for Tclec�omunumicatioms, Budapest, has grown significantly, increasing its staff from 700 to 1,200. Because of the limited possibilities, tnaun scientists are reluctant to go into research or, especially, to conduct basic researeh at it university. The low salaries paid b} the "Technical University of Budapest are su pplemented by income from contract research. The research worker tins tends to abandon basic research am(I to concentrate oil work with immediate industrial application. Researchers participating in contract research at the 'Technical University of Budapest are appointed by the deans. 'I'll( participating scientists receive about Wi of the income from contract research, while the remainder goes to the university. 'I'll( project chief, often the dean of the department, receives a major share of the funds. With a fe%\ exceptions, scientific research institutes arc small, particularly most of those affiliated \\itls the %1TA. The average institute hies a Itaff of only about 100 persons. 'These small institutes often arc hauscfic�appe(l by inade(luate doc�unsentatiom services, a luck of modern equipment, and insufficient supporting personnel. Research institutes ary in quality according to the field of research. 'I'll(- Central Research Institute for Chemistry of the NIT:k is new, and attractive in appearance, but it is not as well provided \\ith scientific equipment as the better laboratories ill the United States. TIIe Cetltral Research lnstitutc for Physics has impressive buildings, but much of the equipment is homemade and of poor quality. The E'xperimcntal Research Institute for Medical Science has a very modern I1- story building. The Industrial Research Institute for Electronics, does not have adequate equipment or facilities to carry out a productive solid state research effort. "I'hc general lack of instrumenta- tion has caused an upsurge in its development, and industries are producing fairly modern c(tuipment. I owever, im my of their best items of apparatus are earmarked for export to the U.S.S.R. and other countries for the purpose of improving I hingary's poor foreign exchange status. D. Major research fields 1. Air and ground weapons (S) Wcapons research and development capabilities are meager. Since World War It the country has concentrated its technological resources in fields other than the design and development of weapons systems and remains dependent oil the U.S.S.R. for weapons for its operational forces. 'I'll(- Soviets monitor all indigenoets research being performed by Iiungarian researchers for possible military value. For the most part, military research consists of modifying wveapoms and vehicles of foreign origin to meet domestic requirements. One of the military- related research efforts krsowm to be underway is it Soviet- dircc�ted program concerned with investigating the properties of Soviet rocket propellants. This work includes a stud\ of the long -term stability of annnmium pereblorate crystals (probably for prediction of the shelf life of solid propellants), and a stu(ly of various solid propellant formulations that exhibit the hest extinction characteristics following ignition shut(Irnym. The results of these investigations are used to supplement the Soviet Union's research programs. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 Hungary has it modest research and development effort in the fields of tr-ncoortation vehicles and engine technology, a and stream- crossing, construction and 11- 1110ving, and materials handling equipment. Current research efforts include the development of it 3 -axle truck tractor for the military and improved components for existing vehicles, including power steering, powered axle assemblies, and transmissions. The number of high quality components heing introdnced into worldwide markets reflects I-I!!iigarian success in this field. In addition, reinforced Mastic materials have been developed to replace sheet metal in truck cabs. Experimental results show reduced weight and lower noise levels in the cab. A nidirnentary air cushion vehicle project is underway with one pn,totype thus far prodnced, but no significant developments are expected in the foreseeable future. Engine research of military significance is primarily aimed toward the cventual production by the Raba -MAN Com y pan in Gyor of a 150 horsepower, 5- cylinder diesel engine, currently in development testing. Research is conducted on foreign toick designs to find ideas that can he taken up in 61,,nestic manufacturing and, in addition, to partially satisfy_ military requirements for such vehicles. Hungary has collaborated with Czechoslovakia on the design and manufacture of two versions of wheeled armored reconnaissance vehicles. Must antoinotive research is carried out by the Military Technical Institute in conjunction with engineers of the Csepel Motor Vehicle Plant in Rudapest. 'I'll(! Technological University of Budapest has it department for motor vehicle engineering ahicl, is capable of providing it small number of technically qualified personnel for antornotive design work. All antonwtive design facilities have come into existence since World War 11. "They are still not adequate to support an indigenous industry capable of supplying the military services with an adeclnate range of motor vehicies. Although the country's acronantical industry dates back to 1928. its activities since World War 11 have been restricted to the development and limited production of small general- purpose type aircraft and gliders. There is no curreni development and production activity on air weapons in either the aircraft or :nissile fields. Space- related activih is mostly confined to satellite tracking and data collection on foreign systems in earth orbit. Some space related research of an academic nature is accomplished at universities. The country's four satellite- tracking slations are located in Budapest, Raja, Miskolc, and Szombathely: all are operated under the direction of the VITA. Hungary ungary has membership on both the Soviet Intercosmos and Intersputnik programs. The capability for the design and development of Borne types of instruments, especially field survey (except photogr rnnictric) equipment, is excellent. The country is close to world leadership in the development of gyrotheodolites, six models of which were successfully developed during the INN s. An automated high precision model is in an advanced stage of development and may be the highest performance gyrotheodolite built anywhere in the world. Several thousand gyrotheodolites have been exported to the U.S.S.R. and reportedly are to be used in Soviet missile survey operations. "Three models of electronic geodetic distance- measuring instruments have been designed: the GE "T -131 is in use by the Warsaw Pact armies, but the others have not reached the production stage. A code theodolite, Ko -131 (Figure 2), possibly developed for military application, can function either as an automatic recording geodetic survey instrument or as it high- precision recording code cinetheodolite. It is the most advanced instrument of this type developed in any of the Communist countries. The code theodolites, gyrotheodolites, and numerous niodcls of conven- tional optical equipment (theodolites, levels, auto reducing levels, tachymeters, alidadcs) were developed at the Hungarian Optical Works, Budapest, in collaboration with the INITA's Geodetic Research Laboratory in Sopron. The latter facility has a special underground laboratory for testing gyrotheodolites. 2. Biological and chemical warfare (C) Hungary has adequate personnel, technology, and facilities to conduct biological warfare (I3W) research and development. There is no evidence to show that the country has an organization which controls a prograrn for the development of 13W agents or munitions, but sophisticated research is underway in modern laboratories on potential BW agents which cause anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, tularemia, and arthropod -borne encephalitides. The etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases have been studied. Candidate antianimal 13W agents studied include those. which cause hog cholera, swine fever, Foot -and -mouth disease, and Anieszky's disease. An excellent pharmaceutical industry which prodnces high quality vaccines, sera, and antibiotics for human and aninial use could contribute to it defensive or offensive Bib' program. Large quantiiics of pharmaceuticals are N APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 FIGURE 2. Ko -BI code theodolite (U /OU) exported to the U.S.S.R. and other Communist countries, indicating a stockpile capability. Original research on microbiological fermentation technology and agent purification provides increased production potential. Work in anticrop BW- related research appears to be superior to that of the U.S.S. R. and other Communist countries. Studies have continued on antifrtngal antibiotics for application on grain diseases, on organophosphate insecticides, species specific pesticides, and biological control of insects. Although these studies appear to he strictly in the public health or agricultural domain, the findings front some of them could be used for defensive and offensive BW applications. Scientists are familiar with techniques for detection of BW agents and have evaluated modern methods of identification including fluorescent antibodies, infrared absorption, membrane and soluble filters, and selective media. At least one nonautomated device, it testing kit utilizing selective media, has been developed for field use. Organizations for chemical, biological, and radiological defense for military and civilian personnel follow Soviet counterparts. Defensive BW equipment is obtained either from the U.S.S.R. or is indigenously produced based on Soviet design. Military publica- tions and official directives discuss potential hazards of BW and contain detailed descriptions of protective measures to be taken in event of BW attacks. Training, however, appears to have less emphasis than in other Warsaw Pact countries. The chemical warfare (CW) research and development program is primarily defensive and is modest when compared with those of other Fast European countries. Research on toxic agents is limited, largely because of Soviet restrictions. Nevertheless, Hungarian scientists are knowledgeable of World War II types of toxic CW agents and prior to the 1956 revolt had experimented with a number of nerve agents. Research has been conducted on the role of acetyleholinesterase on the autonomic nervous system which could have CW defensive (therapeutic) or offensive (nerve agent) implications. The Military Technical Institute in Budapest, under the Ministry of Defense, is considered the primary center for research on CW agents, particularly nerve agents. Since 1967 few articles on organophos- phorous research applicable to CW agent development have appeared in Hungarian literature. C:yclosarin, a nerve agent similar in structure to Sarin, the standard U.S. nonpersistent nerve agent, has been mentioned briefly and is claimed to have a higher toxicity than that of Sarin. Ergot production research is emphasized, probably because ergot, from �vhich lysergic acid diethylarnide (1,SD -25) is derived, is a Hungarian export. It is doubtful that this work is related to the study of the properties of LSD as an incapacitating agent since the characterization and physiological effects of ergot alkaloids apparently have not been investigated. The Hungarians reportedly are developing an automatic chemical alarm, the CIIPN, presumably for APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 the� detection of nerve agents; it is to replace the Soviet GSP -I antornatic alarm which detects G -type nerve agents such as Sarin and the PKh -i -I detector kit Which, with the inclusion of a special tithe, detects both V- and G- agents. \'-agents include VX which acts primarily through the skin rather than through the respiratory tract, the primary route of entry for G- agents. 3. Atomic energy (S) Hungary has a small nuclear energy program which is administratively controlled by the National Atomic Ene,gy Commission. However, the Soviets essentially dictate the limits of the research which may be conducted. The growth of the nuclear program is restricted by the stringent Soviet controls, as well as by limited scientific manpower, research facilities, and financial resources. The program is directed primarily toward basic nuclear research, and the production and utilization of radioactive isotopes. Nuclear scientists receive token assistance from the Soviets, specifically through nuclear training at the Joint Instita.Fe for Nuclear Research at Dubna, U.S.S.R. Since .967 Ilungary also has received some assistance from (ALA. Most of the nuclear research is conducted at the (ventral Research Institute for Physics and at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Debrecen. The Central Research Institute for Physics hits it research reactor provided by the Soviet Union in 1958 and it zero -power reactor which has been operating since 1963. 'C he research reactor, originally it 2- megawatt thermal (MWt) reactor, was modified to increase its power level to 4 -5 MWt; its isotope production capacity also was increased significantly. Hungary also has several accelerators ranging in energy from 200 Kev to 4 Mev. These are used in basic low and intermediate energy physics research. A high -flux materials testing reactor was reportedly under construction during 1966 at the Institut;! of Nuclear Research; however, nothing is known of its status. Also during 1966 it 10- kilowatt research reactor was under construction at the Budapest Technical University. Although scheduled for completion in 1967, this reactor did not achieve initial criticality until mid -1971. The MTA's Isotope Institute stores and distributes isotopes produced in Hungary and imported from abroad. It also prornotes the nse of isotopes for industrial control and testing. Only it moderate effort has been directed toward the development of nuclear power. Hungary and the Soviet Union signed an agreement in 1966 whereby the Soviets would provide it two reactor, 880 electrical megawatts (MWE) nuclear power station to be built at Paks on thv Danube. At the request of Hungarian officials construction of the station has been delayed, and the first reactor, scheduled to become operational in 1975, is expected to become operational in 1980. 4. Electronics (S) Ilungary has demonstrated the ability to produce significant results in electronic research and development but is handicapped by lack of funds, shortages of materials, and conflicting priorities. The country has the know -how and resources io exploit foreign designs as well as the capability for the manufacture of high quality components and cgnipnent. The main center of electronics research and development is the "Telecommunications Industrial Research Institute, Budapest, where it broad range of activities is underway. Semiconductor and transistor research and development continue to be stressed in all areas, from basic research in transistor technology to manufactur- ing techniques. Nevertheless, difficulty in obtaining such semiconductor materials as gallium arsenide has impeded research in this field. The Telecommunica- tions Industrial Research Institute has under development ultra- high frequency silicon transistors and diodes. The Research Institute of the Electronic Industry in Budapest is involved in studies relating to the production of high -grade silicon carbide for semiconductor use, thyristor development, and semiconductor control devices. Power diodes of 20- a and 60- ampere capacity at 600 -volt operation are being developed. Vacuum tube research and development generally are based on work done in the West. The Hungarians have done some major work in developing microwave tubes and materials. Cathode bases have been made from tantalum and titanium instead of the usual active nickel. Also developed was a special high- temperature I.-type cathode with the same emission characteristics as an ordinary (.-type. The Hungarians have developed E /F-band reflex klystrons, G /11 -band and E/F -band traveling wave tubes, and G /11 -hand triodes. Hungary is currently dependent upon the U.S.S.R. for electronic warfare equipment and for fire control and surveillance radars. While there appca� io be no significant research and development in these fields, radars have been produced domestically since 1955. In the area of cormunications, the Iungarians have developed radio -relay systems for use in the U.S.S.R. The stations are designed for communications on super -high frequencies of from 7900 -8000 megahertz. 9 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 Efforts to develop ferrite magnetic materials and magnetic cores have [)cell successful, and research and development in this area are nearly edtial to that of the more advanced West;-nn countries. Nickel oxide is produced for ferrite cores. Other production includes radio frequency fcrrites, computer memory core fcrrites, barium fcrrites, and printed circuits. Research in infrared technology includes projects on electron microscopy, photon detectors, image converters, optical materials, and optical properties of films. The Iltntgarian Optical Works has produced fiber optic illumination units; cone of tile. work is outstanding, Imt excellent spectrographic equipment for obtaining emission spectra has been developed. Research is underway on a dye for military uniforms that will produce the saner infrared absorbence as the foliage that is characteristic of the country. Hungary has assumed it position of leadership atrtong the Eastern European countries in the development and production of small computers. The Central Research Institute for Physics has developed a model, designated IPA -I, which has exported to the U.S.S.R. and other Eastern European countries. An improved version, IPA -2, is entering prodnction. The Electrical Measuring Instrument Factory, Budapest, developed and in 1968 began prodnction of the first domestic model of all electronic digital conipnter, the transistorized EMC -840. Although not competitive with current Western coniputcrs, it appears espial to some of the hest transistorized coniptiters that have been developed in other Eastern European countries. This factory also has developed and produced several devices for automatic control systems. The most advanced logic circuits known co have been produced in Hangar} employ pri:ited circuits vyith transistors and other discrete components. In addition to the Electrical Measuring Instrument factory, such facilities as the Tcicconimullications Industrial Research Institute have conducted engineering research on tItiit- filet hybrid and integrated circuits. Considerable emphasis is placed on the automation of rneasnreinent techniques. During 1970 Ilungary signed an agreement with France to inanofactiire tinder license in Ilongary a ,mall, third generation coniputer to be called the F, \i -810. The number of installed computers increased from I`; in 1967 to 80 at the end of 1969. litingarian sources say that the goal for the next 5 years will call for the installation of 400 to 600 computers, although others estimate that the country cannot absorb more than 30 per year. 11ongary was among tle first of the Eastern European countries to establish a central registry for computer programs. 'I'hc registry, under the Department of Information and Documentation of the National Management Mechanization Control, publishes lists of available programs and disseminates suitable programs to users. In 1970 the Hungarian Research Institute for Scientific Instrtunents in Budapest had developed 40 types of instninents for laboratory attd industrial use. The range of instrunicnts includes integrated digital voltmeters, circuit testers, gas analyzers, biological simulators, and temperature and pressure transducers. The Hungarian company which handles the sale of scientific instrtunents is METRIMPEX, which is also located in Budapest and produces it quarterly publication "Hungarian Scientific Instruments" describing domestic developments in the instrument field. 5. Medical sciences, including veterinary medicine (S) Biomedical research, though limited in volume, is of high duality and compares favorably with the finest in Eastern Europe. Progress is limited by shortages of funds and equipment. Research is undertaken at institutes of the VITA, Ministry of Health, universities, and industry. The inauguration in 1971 of a new Biological Research Center of the VITA, at Szeged, has given Ilungary superior facilities for interdisciplinary research in molecular biology. Excellent work is being done in neurophysiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and pharmacology. Pharmaceutical research largely duplicates Western achievements, but the (Irugs developed meet high international standards. Hungary has made unique contributions in the .synthesis of hormones and antincoplw, tic agents. Physiologists are making an outstanding contribu- tion to the study of the regulation of brain functions and to the determination of brain circuitry. Hungary leads the Communist world in research on sensory and visual morphology, and good work is underway on the study of excitation and condtiction of nerves and lie, uro- hormonal activity. Excellent models of nerve cell networks have been developed and are being tested on computers and modified according to electrophysiological observations in animals. Nenro- physiological investigations are assisted by research on (Irugs which act upon the central nervous system, particularly in areas of the brain which regulate or organize behavioral reactions. Research in hiochcinistry has been steadily expanding in volume. Prospects for major progress in molecular biology have been enhanced with the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 opening of the Szeged center. This facility has four research institutes for biochemistry, genetics, biophysics, and plant physiology, which are carrying ont good molticlisciplinary research in photosynthesis, regulation of enzynu activity, and regulation of genetic activity. Pharmacology is the most active field in lhionxxlical research and furnishes basic support to the pharmaceutical industry, it very prodwtive element of the national economy. Hungary leads other East European countries in the development of drugs. Most of the research and development is centered in the Research Institute of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Budapest and in the Department of Drug Research of the Research Institute for Experimental Nleclicine. Research support of the industry is also furnished by the Biological Research Center. Important advances include the synthesis of prostaglandin; the unique synthesis of human aclrenoc�orticotropie hormone, research on the genetics of ergot and isolation of its active components; the chemical and microbiological synthesis of steroids; and the study of plant derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Extensive research is devoted to e w1flitation of active principles of medicinal plants. Research also has proclucecl anti- inflammatory agents, contraceptives, tranquilizers, and analgesics. Research in microbiology is good but is undertaken on i modest scale. Studies are clone on the standard development of sera and vaccines, production of monkey kidney cells for agent propagation, and production of three types of cholera vaccine. Careful work is being devoted to the study of arbovirus multiplication in rnosgnitus and ticks. Other research concerns the induction of interferon in mouse cells and the viral etiology of cancer. The Hungarians are doing good but not original work on the stimulatiy anal destructive effects of laser radiation, inactivation of enzyme function by ionizing raeliation, and the use of radiation to sterilize feeds. Tec�hnidues are being developed to improve the control of ionizing radiation dosage and to analyze the homogeneity of radiation energy. With limited wsonrces, the country is developing high quality equipment, cspec�ially optical instruments for brain wsearch, but has riot yet regained its international position in the production of ine(lical instruments. Cornputer technology is exploited to support diagnostic procedures. The veterinary research capability is comparable to that of other neighboring countries hilt clots not equal that of the U.S.S.R. or East Germany. Research is primarily applied and cmphasi�res the study of improved diagnostic techniques for and the development of more effective vaccines against animal diseases of economic importance to the country. Individual scientists occasionally emhark on sophisticated research which indicates an achvanced capahility in veterinary science. Studies are underway in bacterial research on the agents producing anthrax, leptospirosis, tuherculosis, salmonellosis, and clostridial infections. 'Tissue culture techniques and nuxlificatior, of virus strains are investigated. The emphasis in parasitology is on the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment and control of parasitic infestations. The Veterinary Medical Research Institute of the MTA in Budapest is the major veterinary research institute. 6. Other sciences (S) a. Chemistry and metallurgy Hungary does a substantial amount of basic and applied chemical research all(] development. Basic chemical research of higb quality is underway in the universities and institutes of the MTA. Despite the government's continuing emphasis on applicc] chemical research to support the growing chemical industry, this aspect is generally weak except in specialized areas such as pharmaceutical chemistry, which is well supported by the drug industry. The Chemical Sciences Section of the MTA supports several institutes concerned with chemistry, notably the Central Research Institute for Chemistry, the Isotope 17nsttUtC, and the Research Institute for Technical Chemistry in Veszprcm. The Chemical Sciences Section also supports I university chairs, each held by a professor and assisted by a research team. Partly because of strong support by the M'I'A, organic chemistry has achieved considerable importance. Research on alkaloids and other natural products, chemical transformations of hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and polymers has been encouraged. Lorancl Farkas, a leader of the MTA research groups for alkaloid chemistry at the Technical University of Budapest, has clone excellent work on flavones, isoflavones, glucosides, and other natural products. Coocl synthetic organic research has also been done at this University on hydantoins, thiohydantoins, pyrimidines, and other heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Several of the major pharmaceutical companies, especially the Chinoin Pharmaceutical and Chemical Products Company, Budapest, are doing excellent synthetic organic work related to various types of pharmacologically active substance;. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 Research on the reactions of hydrocarbons is under investigation by the Hungarian Oil and Gas Research Institute, Veszprern, which also is concerned with petrochemicals, catalysts, lubricating oils, and greases. The Research Institute for the Plastics Industry, Budapest, is the principal facility engaged in polymer research. The effort encompasses studies on resin adhesives, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, catalysts for ethylene polymerization, polyarnides, properties of polymers, and polymer structure. Dr. Gyula Hardy, the director of this institute and also u professor at the Technical University of Budapest, is a capable scientist who has done considerable work on polymerization reactions, including radiation induced solid -state polymerization. Good theoretical work on the kinetics of polymerization and the kinetics of inhibition of free radical polymerization has been carried out at the Central Research Institute for Chemistry. There is some effective research in physical organic chemistry, particularly on reaction kinetics at the Central Research Institute for Chemistry (figure :3) and on bond structures of organosilicon compounds at the 'Technical University of Budapest, but the development of physical organic chemical research has been retarded by the shortage of instrumentation. Por example, in 1969 fey scientists had access to nuclear magnetic resonance equipment, which was located only at the Central Research Institute for Chemistry the Central Research Institute for Physics, and possibly at the Chinoin pharmaceutical plant. In physical chemistry, considerable work is being done in electrochemistry, reaction kinetics, and catalysis. The Central Research Institute for Chemistry is engaged in fundam --ntal research problems in chemical kinetics of inorganic reactions and in fast reaction techniques. There is a concentration of effort on kinetics of catalytic hydrogenation and on electrolytic hydrogenation and adsorption phenomena on platinum electrodes, as well as on oxidation on nickel hydroxide electrodes. Tibor Erdey -Gruz, president of the NITA, and his associates at the Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, arc concerned with ion migrations, adsorption, electrode potentials, reduction of metal ions on electrodes, and the effect of sinusoidal current on electrode processes. A group at the 'Technical University of Chemical Engineeritw does research on polarography, polariza- tion, and the effect of alternating current on the corrosion of metals. An outstanding figure in catalysis is Zoltan Csttros of the 'technical University of Budapest; lie h�ts worked on boron trifluoride catalysis, catalytic oxidations, and ,rtrticttlarly on Raney nickel catalysts for hydrogenation. An FIGURE 3. Measurement of reac- tion- kinetics with a Pulfrich pho- tometer at the Central Chemical Research Institute (U /OU) 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 important study at the Jozsef Attila University, Szeged, is on the thermal stability aril thermal decomposition of chlorine and oxygen salts, including work on ammonium perchlorate, an important component of solid rocket propellants. Hungary is particularly active in analytical and inorganic chemical research and has some outstanding research personnel in the analytical field. Prof. Laszlo Erdey of the Technical University of Budapest is very well known for a variety of research on precipitation exchange reactions, oxidation- reduction indicators, gravitnetric analysis, new analytical reagents, and therrnoanalytical techniques. Prof. Erno Pungor of the Technical University of Chemistry Engineering is also outstanding for his research on flame photometry, titrimetric analysis, ion specific electrodes, and, recently, on hcteropolyacids. A lesser amount of research in biochemistry is being clone, but the quality is good. Dr. F. Bruno Straub, director of the Institute of Biochemistry of the NITA, Budapest, is possibly the best biochemist in Eastern Europe. lie has done considerable research on ribonucleic acid and enzymes. One of Hungary's leading chemists, Prof. Byozo Bruckner of the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the L.orand Eotvos University, has clone excellent work on anthrax pol,'peptides, polyglutamic acids, and the synthesis of polypeptides and hormones. Because of his advanced age he appears to be no longer active in research. A substantial arnount of biochernical research on miscellaneous topics is conducted at the Experimental Research Institute for Medical Science and at the medical universities. The applied metallurgical research and develop- ment program is well balanced aril directed principally toward solving the problems of the industries contributing heavily to the economy, especially the steel and aluminum industries. Since about 1967 the amount of applied research has grown, and there has been an increase in the amount of research undertaken at plant facilities such as the Lenin Steel Works in Diosgyor, the Csepel Metal Works on Cscpclsziget, and at various aluminum producing plants. The most important metallurgical research facilities are the Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy and the Research Institute for Nonferrous Metallurgy, both in Budapest and under the Ministry of Metallurgy and Machine Industries. The Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, under the direction of Jozsef Vero, has done extensive research on stainless steels and the physical metallurgy of steel arid on the development of high- strength low a.loy steels. Research efforts have covered all facets of ferrous metals production and problem solving and have included blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace studies. Other efforts have concerned studies on the continuous casting of steel slabs, the heat treatment of hearing arid tool steels, the corrosion of stainless steels, fracture mechanics, fatigue studies, aril electron fractography. Efforts also have been directed toward the study of soft magnetic materials and transformer steels. The Research Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, directed by Laszlo Gillemot, has done extensive research on the refining of aluminum and on the metallurgy and processing of aluminum n" The research covers all stages of aluminum roduction from the processing of bauxite ores to the manufacturing of semifinished and finished wrought aluminum products. The institute is also studying precipitation hardening in several aluminum alloys and corrosion and stress corrosion of aluminum alloys. Other research has concerned the extraction of copper and manganese from their ores, as well as the physical metallurgy of copper alloys. Some work was done in the past on the refining of titanium and on titanium alloys; however, in recent years essentially no work has been undertaken on titanium, which suggests a decrease in interest in this aerospace material. Research on the hasic oxygen furnace and on blast furnace practice has been conducted at the Lenin Steel Works and on magnetic alloys and high purity oxygen -free copper at the Csepel Metal Works. Considerable research on welding technology also is pursued by various research facilities. Extensive research is underway on cast iron and includes the use of oxygen in refining and the physical metallurgy of cast iron. The Machine Manufacturing Technical Institute has concentrated its efforts on precision casting and continuous casting. Of the little fundamental metallurgical research underway, most of it is on semiconductors and thin metal films for the telecommunication industry. The research is narrow in scope and the most significant is being done at the Central Research Institute for Physics and involves the study of thin films and magnetic domains. The study of the morphology of thin germanium arid silicon films and of magnetic domains in magnetic alloys is of high quality. Some basic research is done on the deformation of metals at the L.orand Eotvos University arid on ordering in alloys at the 'Technical University of Heavy Industry in Miskolc. b. Physics and mathematics The country's capability to do significant research in physics is limited arid concentrated in only a fe areas with the emphasis on nuclear physics and solid state physics, especially semiconductors. The most 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 extensive research is carried out at the Central Research Institute for Physics Research. Hungary has a strong base in high energy physics research, which is localized at the Central Research Institute for Physics. The High- Energy Physics Division of the institute engages in cosmic ray studies. Domestic research in this field has been aided considerably by the presence of a Hungarian staff in the joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, U.S.S.R. Other high energy research has included ;:....ies on strong and weak particle interactions on the basis of emulsions and cloud chamber photographs prepared at foreign :accelerators. In addition, work has been done on the 'preparation and evaluation in Hungary of direct measurements carried out at their own accelerators. Theoretical studies also are done using complex quantum -field theory techniques. Research in particle physics has been aimed at gaining information on strongly interacting particles, the hadrons. However, the country does riot possess accelerators of sufficient energy for such studies, and the Hungarians work closely with other physicists at Dubna. The Hungarians have contributed to the complex analytical and algebraic methods needed to study correlations between data obtained at various high- energy facilities and the scattering and decay of hadrons in their many particle final states. A program of low energy physics is proceeding at a modest pace. Much of the activity is directed toward the applied aspects of reactor power engineering and the production of isotopes. In view of the country's lack of nuclear instrumentation and inability to purchase such equipment abroad, the Hungarians have done well in developing their own instruments. Physicists such as Leonard Pal, Norbet Kroo, and their associates at the Central Research Institute for Physics have developed a time -of -Flight spectrometer with a polarized neutron beam capable of providing spectrum measurements with good resolutions and high signal -to -noise ratios. Doctor Kroo has made contributions in studies dealing with inelastic neutron scattering based on high research of the dynamic properties of liquid -gas systems at the critical point. The Isotope Institute is well supported in its work involving the production of isotopes and developing techniques for their use, especially in industry. The program in solid -state physics, which is oriented mostly toward the support of the domestic semiconductor and electronics industries, is hampered by the shortage of scientists and inadequate equipment and facilities. Activities are concerned with developments leading to the preparation of gallium arsenide substrates, gallium phosphates, and epitaxial layers. Studies are underway at the Applied Physics Institute on impurities and other properties of semiconductors and luminescent materials. Experi- ments are underway on the purification or synthesis of compounds cf tellurium, cadmium, and gallium. The physicists at the institute are able to produce reasonably pure silicon and germanium crystals. Tungsten recrystallization through electron bom- bardment is underway at the institute, and some research is being done on bulk semiconductor materials for use in Gunn diodes. Research in microelectronics has met with limited success. Development of integrated circuit techniques is being stressed at the Telecommunications Engineering Industrial Research Institute. Although researchers at the institute have probed many of the international developments and in some cases duplicated them, they have been unable to produce microcircuits of acceptable quality for use. The Hungarians are doing limited research in superconductivity. The Solid -State Physics Laboratory of the Lorand Eotvos University is doing work in- volving the study of properties of transitions dealing with the critical temperatures associated with diamagnetic and paramagnetic impurities in superconductors. Theoretical research in superconduc- tivity is underway by specialists in institutes of the M TA. The Central Physics Research Institute is conducting research on lasers for use in various industrial and construction projects. The scope and depth of laser research and development are small by Western standards. Research in the theory and application of lasers is accomplished by the Telecommunications Research Institute and the Central Research Institute for Physics.. The latter institute has constructed ruby and helium -neon lasers that emitted visible light. Research is being done on the laser phenomena associated with metallic vapor of cadmium; the Hungarians are studying the photo effects of a nonlinear nature. A liquid laser having an organic base material and a gas laser using cadmium metallic vapor have been constructed. In the case of the liquid laser, some studies have been reported concerning the results of an investigation dealing with frequency tuning of the laser. From the technology standpoint, Hungary has begun production of laser equipment and has been interested in producing laser mirrors using substrates and films. Geodetic laser instruments, under development at the Hungarian Optica! Works, are designed to measure distance very rapidly. Machine tools operated with the aid of lasers have an accuracy within the limits of one micron. Investigations are being made at laboratory levels in the use of lasers in surgery and the effects of laser rays on cells and tissues. Consideration also is being given to the use of lasers in communication and computers. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 This interest in special laser devices may lead to increased research on laser materials and techniques. Hungary has a strong tradition for research in nathenatics and had produced many excellent inuthematiciaits. Several outstanding U.S. mathemati- cians emigrated from Hungary, including john von Neumann, Theodore von Karman, Gabor Szego, and Otto Szasz. The country has it good capability for mathematical research in limited areas as a result of the efforts of a few particularly strong or very highly qualified mathematicians. Among the most prolific mathematicians in Hungary are Paul Erdos and his frequent collaborator, Imre Katai. The most pronounced trend in Hungarian mathematics is the emphasis on applied mathematics. The major areas of study continue to be analysis, notably Fourier analysis, algebra, and geometry. There is a growing interest in probability, statistics, and information and communication theory. Some interest has been shown in the classical subject of theory of numbers. The Research Institute for Automation of the MTA was established to conduct research in the field of automatic control, and studies are underway on logic, control theory, use of cornputers and electronic devices, process control, and automation economics. c. Astrogeophysical sciences Although there is an active research program in the astrophysical and geophysical sciences, most of the research is routine and lacks originality and depth. Capabilities in astronomy and upper atmospheric research remain rather low. Although there are too few competent scientists and a limited number and variety of instruments available, some progress is being made in increasing the number of observatories and in installing new instruments. Astronomical research is centered at the MTA's Astronomical Institute, Budapest; at the NITA's Konkoly Observatory, and at the Solar Physics Observatory, Debrecen. The institute has done work in stellar statistics, as well as theoretical research in cosmology. Since 1961 it has published the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars for the International Astronomical Union. The activities of the Solar Physics Observatory have been confined largely to installing instruments and collecting data primarily of the photosphere. The Heliophysical Observatory of the M'I'A in Debrecen conducts reseal h in solar physics on sunspots, solar cycles, and solar flares. The principal astronomical facility is the Konkoly Observatory, located at Szabadsag -hegy, which is noted for its observational studies of variable stars. The observatory has a station on Piszkes Telco in the Matra Mountains. Established in 1962 it is equipped with it 90- centimeter Schmidt telescope and a 50- centimeter Newtonian Cassegrain reflecting telescope. The station also engages in research on variable stars. Space activity is limited to satellite tracking at optical stations at Baja, Budapest, Miskolc, and Szombathely. These stations participate in the Soviet sponsored Interobs program, for which the Baja station is the network coordinating center. The Hungarians are performing research on analytical techniques for determining satellite orbital periods and for deducing atmospheric density therefrom and on t nature of atmospheric density variations. The country also participates in the Soviet sponsored Vertikal (scientific rocket), Intercosmos (scientific satellite), and Intersputnik (communications satellite) programs. Upper atmospheric research is routine and concentrated primarily in the area of cosmic rays and the ionosphere. Cosmic ray research is under the direction of the Central Physics Research Institute. Ionospheric research is carried out by an ionospheric sounding station at Bekescsaba under the National Meteorological Institute. Theoretical studies of the ionospheric mat,netospheric relationships have been conducted at the Geophysical Research Laboratory of the MTA in Sopron. Meteorological resew ch is confined generally to climatological and synoptic studies. The National Meteorological Institute, the weather service of IIungary, conducts basic and applied research in addition to its operational functions. The country is primarily interested in the areas of forecasting, climatology, agrometeorology, and biometeorology. Work in these areas has not produced remarkable results but has been s6ticient to meet domestic meteorological needs. he observational network is rather dense, and the sl ations are located to give good distribution of observa; ions. Meteorological research is routine and has not produced any significant st ics. This is caused to some extent by a general shortage of meteorologists with advanced training. The National Meteorological Institute is subordi- nate to the Council of Ministers and is the central organization controlling meteorological activities in Hungary. It furnishes meteorological information for all military and civilian aviation. With the exception of synoptic stations at airfields controlled by the air force, the institute controls all the observational stations. The institute also has five subordinate observatories: the Gyorgy Marczell Aerological Observatory at Pestlorinc; three agrometeorological observatories at Martonvasar, Keeskemct, and Szarvas; and a meteorological observatory at Pecs. A storm warning center at Siofok near Balaton lake participates in it central European network. In addition to being a focal point of a Transdanubian Ib7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 station net,vork, it is an element of a sferics network headquartered in East Germany. The center was established because of the sudden severe storms that occur in the area and is equipped with modern instruments and communications facilities to receive synoptic reports from several hundred European stations. The Meteorological Scientific Committee of the MTA coordinates meteorological research and sets priorities. Hungary has conducted only a limited amount of research in numerical weather prediction. Its research in physical meteorology has been routine and has included studies in cloud and precipitation physics, including condensation of nuclei, growth of ice crystals and ice formation nuclei, microstructure of fog and clouds, atmospheric electricity, turbulence, avid atmospheric pollution. Research in synoptic meteorology is focused primarily on short- and medium -range forecasts with some effort directed toward long -range forecasts. Geomagnetic, telluric current, and related research is conducted at two centers, the Geophysical Research Laboratory and the Lorand Eotvos Hungarian State Geophysical Institute in Budapest. The former has an observatory at Nagycenk, while the latter has observatories at Tihany, near Balaton lake, and at Szarvas. The emphasis in research has been on the pulsating character of the geomagnetic field, and the frequencies of telluric currents with regard to their relation to the structure of the earth's crust and mantle. A telluric current station also is located at Bekesesaba. The National Seismological Institute, staffed by seismologists of the Lorand Eotvos University, operates a network of four stations Budapest, Keeskemet, Sopron, and at the Piszkes Teto (astronomical) observatory. Although Hungary is located in an aseismic area, routine observations are made and some research is conducted. The Lorand Eotvos Hungarian State Geophysical Institute has utilized seismic techniques to investigate the crustal structure of the Carpathian basin, partially in cooperation with other Fast European countries. Small -scale research has been conducted in earth modeling earthquake magnitudes, and microseisms. Very little work dealing with seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions has been published by the Hungarians, and they probably have not conducted research in this area. The country excels in the area of geophysical prospecting. The work is carried out under the auspices of the Ministry of Heavy Industry and the MTA. Seismic methods predominate, although other geophysical and geological techniques are utilized. 16 Hungary has done considerable geophysical prospt �A- ing in foreign countries and in 1967 initiated a general geophysical survey of Mongolia. It also is beginning to conduct geophysical oil prospecting under contract to other East European Communist countries. The principal center for geological research is the Hungarian State Geological Institute, which prepares geological maps for national and international purposes. The Geochemical Research Laboratory of the MTA also contributes to geological research. Recent efforts have included studies in paleomagnet- ism and vulcanisrn, as well as a study of the structure and evolution of the earth. Geodetic research and development have increased considerably since the early 1960's and, while not outstanding, generally have been adequate to solve problems encountered in the development of national geodetic nets. Hungary is second only to East Germany among the Communist countries in the design and production of geodetic instruments. The Geodetic Research Laboratory of the MTA is the principal facility responsible for the major portion of geodetic research in Hungary. The Geodetic and Cartographic Enterprise, Budapest, is responsible primarily for conducting geodetic and astronomical work. It also supports geodetic research in other facilities. The Hungarian Optica! Works continues to excel in the design and development of a wide variety of geodetic instruments and has carried out research and development on laser distance measuring equipment for geodetic purposes. Research in triangulation and leveling is centered on measurement methods, measurement error, adjustment error, adjustment of triangulation and leveling nets, and the design and development of geodetic instruments. One of the most noteworthy achievements was the final adjustment of the fictitious first -order fill -net of the Transdanubian area, based on the first -order triangulation points of the principal net. Geodesists have developed several new methods for simplifying adjustment computation in triangulation nets, radial triangulation, traversing, and linear intersection. Although the first-order triangulation net is still adequate for scientific needs, Hungary has begun modifying and improving the net to meet accuracy requirements of the future. The reconstruc- tion of the precise leveling network, which began in 1961, was 80% complete at the end of 1970. Work has continued on the precise leveling net needed for investigating recent crustal movements. Experiments and theoretical research also are being conducted to facilitate the selection of instruments suitable for investigating crustal movements as well as for setting up the measuring an.; calculation methods. Hungary APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 is utilizing U.S., Soviet, and Polish electronic data processing equipment to speed up computation and adjustment studies. Activity in geodetic astronomy has been devoted chiefly to the determination of astronomical positions for use in geoidal studies and to establish the proper orientation of the new first -order triangulation network. Hungarian scientists have been active also in determinations of international longitude differences and have conducted national and international gravity surveys using gravity meters and torsion balance. `nvestigations have been carried out for the determimition of the gravity field and the figure of the earth from orbital data of artificial satellites. As a member of the East European Subcommission for Satellite Geodesy, Hungary participates in geodetic observations and studies based on these observations. The tracking station at Baja is taking part in the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEY) to observe faint satellites for dynamical purposes. Studies have been clone on the adjustment and scaling of geodetic satellite networks, techniques of geodetic doppler measurements, and dynamic methods of geodetic applications of satellites. Research activity also has been focused on a new adjustment of satellite and traditional geodetic networks, a method of determining the equatorial coordinates of satellites and the automation of satellite tracking and compilation for geodetic purposes. The Hungarians engage in hydrologic, hydro mechanical, and hydraulic research directed toward solving the problems of flood protection, inland waterways regulation, irrigation, and land reclama- tion. Extensive use has been made of hydraulic models and field tests for studies of lowhead dams, stream hydraulics, sedimentation phenomena, and the dynamics of filtration under hydraulic structures. The Hungarians are active in the development of instruments for use in hydrologic and hydraulic research. 1 2 POL: 0 25 50 Man :75 KU Om CZECHOSL0VAK:IA ONFIDENTIAL U as D16sgy6r. �Miskolc P y NeuatwR Plszk6s Tet6 sae. ,o Danu So ron Gye Kec kembt A U S T R IA r Nagyeenk Kdbu Cslllebere BUDAPEST Debrecen Szabadsbg- hegy��� PestlBrinc 'Csepelszlget a Szom athely Martonvhsbr Veszprbm. CN ;u! Tiha 4xr Slbtok K6ns R�p�d� �r �Szarvas qo Bbkbaosaba. ROM A N I A Paks Szeged g1 6 Baia 06cs 46 QcJ 46- Y U G O S L A y LA ".e ow. oQ YUGOSLAVI O 6 601472 1.73 CIA 18 20 FIGURE 4. Selected sites of scientific activity (C) 17 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 SECRET 18 Places and features referred to in this chapter (U/OU) No FOREIGN D1sSEM SECII r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 COORDINATES 'N. 'E. Baja 46 11 18 58 Balaton lake 46 50 17 45 Bek6sesaba 46 41 21 06 Budapest 47 30 19 05 Csepelsziget (isl) 47 15 18 57 Csilleb6re (sec of Budapest) 47 29 18 57 Debrecen 47 32 21 38 Di6sgy5r (sec of Miskolc) 48 06 20 41 Gy6r 47 41 17 38 Keeskem6t 46 54 19 42 Martonvfisfir 47 19 18 47 Matra mts 47 53 19 57 Miskolc 48 06 20 47 Nagycenk 47 36 16 42 Paks 46 38 18 52 Hes 46 05 18 14 Pestl6rine (see of Budapest) 47 26 19 12 Piszk6s Tet6 (ml) 47 55 19 54 Si6fok 46 54 18 03 Sopron 47 41 16 36 Szabadsag -hegy (hill) 47 30 18 59 Szarvas 46 52 20 33 Szeged 46 15 20 10 Szombathely 47 14 16 37 Tihany 46 55 17 54 Veszpr6m 47 06 17 55 No FOREIGN D1sSEM SECII r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110042 -7