NATIONAL BASIC INTELLIGENCE FACTBOOK

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CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0
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RIPPUB
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S
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297
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December 22, 2016
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August 29, 2012
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1
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Publication Date: 
July 1, 1979
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REPORT
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 National Secret Foreign Assessment 7r- Center Secip-i! e" 25X1 Se1 ret National Basic Intelligence Factbook July 1979 ?Secret? GC BIF 79-002 July 1979 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 wG,. National ecret Foreign 25X1 t. '21'rYJ Assessment Center National Basic Intelligence Factbook July 1979 The Factbook, a compilation of basic data on political entities worldwide, is produced semiannually by the Office of Geographic and Cartographic Research with contributions provided by various components of the Central intelligence Agency, the Defense intelli- gence Agency, and the Department of State. Com- ments, suggestions, and requests for additional copies may be addressed to: Office of Geographic and Cartographic Research (Attn: Factbook) Central intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505 Secret GC B/F 79-002 July 1979 . 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET CONTENTS Page Abbreviations for International Organizations Commodity Organizations xi United Nations (U.N.): Structure and Related Agencies xii ?A? Abu Dhabi (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) AFGHANISTAN 1 `Ajman (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) ALBANIA 2 ALGERIA 4 ANDORRA 5 ANGOLA 6 Anguilla (see ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS) ANTIGUA 7 ARGENTINA 8 AUSTRALIA 10 AUSTRIA 12 Azores (see PORTUGAL) ?B? BAHAMAS, THE 14 BAHRAIN 15 Balearic Islands (see SPAIN) BANGLADESH 16 BARBADOS 17 BELGIUM 18 BELIZE 20 BENIN 22 BERMUDA 23 BHUTAN 24 BOLIVIA 25 Bophuthatswana (see SOUTH AFRICA) BOTSWANA 27 BRAZIL 28 British Honduras (see BELIZE) British Solomon Islands (see SOLOMON ISLANDS) BRUNEI 30 BULGARIA 31 BURMA 33 BURUNDI 34 ?C? Cabinda (see ANGOLA) Cambodia (see KAMPUCHEA) CAMEROON 35 CANADA 37 SECRET 25X1 ill Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ?C? Page Canary Islands (see SPAIN) CAPE VERDE 39 CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE 40 Ceylon (see SRI LANKA) CHAD 41 CHILE 42 CHINA 44 COLOMBIA 47 COMOROS 48 CONGO (Brazzaville) 49 Congo (Kinshasa) (see ZAIRE) COOK ISLANDS 51 COSTA RICA 52 CUBA 53 CYPRUS 55 CZECHOSLOVAKIA 57 ?D? Dahomey (see BENIN) DENMARK 59 DJIBOUTI (formerly French Territory of the Afars and Issas) 61 DOMINICA 62 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 63 Dubai (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) ?E? ECUADOR 64 EGYPT 66 Ellice Islands (see TUVALU) EL SALVADOR 67 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 69 ETHIOPIA 70 ?F? FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS) 72 FAROE ISLANDS 73 Fernando Po (see EQUATORIAL GUINEA) FIJI 74 FINLAND 75 FRANCE 77 FRENCH GUIANA 79 FRENCH POLYNESIA 81 French Territory of the Afars and Issas (see DJIBOUTI) Fujairah (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) ?G? GABON 81 GAMBIA, THE 83 July 1979 25X1 iv SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET 25X1 ?G? GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GHANA GIBRALTAR GILBERT ISLANDS GREECE GREENLAND GRENADA GUADELOUPE GUATEMALA GUINEA GUINEA-BISSAU Guinea, Portuguese (see GUINEA-BISSAU) GUYANA ?H? HAITI HONDURAS HONG KONG HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN IRAQ IRELAND ISRAEL ITALY IVORY COAST JAMAICA JAPAN JORDAN ?K? KAMPUCHEA (formerly Cambodia) KENYA KOREA, NORTH KOREA, SOUTH KUWAIT ?L? LAOS LEBANON LESOTHO SECRET Page 84 86 88 90 91 91 93 94 95 97 98 99 101 102 103 105 106 108 109 111 113 115 116 118 120 122 123 125 127 128 129 131 132 134 136 137 139 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 25X1 ?L? Page LIBERIA 140 LIBYA 142 LIECHTENSTEIN 144 LUXEMBOURG 145 MACAO 146 MADAGASCAR 147 Madeira Islands (see PORTUGAL) Malagasy Republic (see MADAGASCAR) MALAWI 149 MALAYSIA 150 MALDIVES 153 MALI 154 MALTA 155 MARTINIQUE 156 MAURITANIA 158 MAURITIUS 159 MEXICO 160 MONACO 162 MONGOLIA 163 MOROCCO 164 MOZAMBIQUE 166 ?N? NAMIBIA (South-West Africa) 167 NAURU 169 NEPAL 170 NETHERLANDS 171 NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 173 NEW CALEDONIA 175 NEW HEBRIDES 176 NEW ZEALAND 176 NICARAGUA 178 NIGER 180 NIGERIA 181 Northern Rhodesia (see ZAMBIA) NORWAY 183 -0- OMAN 184 PAKISTAN 186 PANAMA 187 ?p? PAPUA NEW GUINEA 189 vi SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified July 1979 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET 25X1 _p_ Page PARAGUAY 190 Pemba (see TANZANIA) PERU 192 PHILIPPINES 194 POLAND 195 PORTUGAL 197 Portuguese Guinea (see GUINEA-BISSAU) Portuguese Timor (see INDONESIA) ?Q? QATAR 199 ?R-- Ras al Khaimah (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) REUNION 201 Rhodesia (see ZIMBABWE-RHODESIA) Rio Muni (see EQUATORIAL GUINEA) ROMANIA 202 RWANDA 203 ?5? ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS-ANGUILLA 205 ST. LUCIA 206 ST. VINCENT 207 SAN MARINO 208 SAO TOME and PRINCIPE 209 SAUDI ARABIA 210 SENEGAL 211 SEYCHELLES 213 Sharjah (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) SIERRA LEONE 214 SINGAPORE 216 SOLOMON ISLANDS (formerly British Solomon Islands) 217 SOMALIA 218 SOUTH AFRICA 219 Southern Rhodesia (see ZIMBABWE-RHODESIA) South-West Africa (see NAMIBIA) SPAIN 221 Spanish Sahara (see WESTERN SAHARA) SRI LANKA (formerly Ceylon) 224 SUDAN 225 SURINAME 227 SWAZILAND 228 SWEDEN 229 SWITZERLAND 231 SYRIA 233 SECRET vii Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ?T? TAIWAN 234 Tanganyika (see TANZANIA) TANZANIA 236 Tasmania (see AUSTRALIA) THAILAND 238 TOGO 239 TONGA 241 Transkei (see SOUTH AFRICA) TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 242 TUNISIA 243 TURKEY 245 TUVALU (formerly Ellice Islands) 246 ?U? UGANDA 247 Umm al Qaiwain (see UNITED ARAB EMIRATES) U.S.S.R. 248 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Abu Dhabi, `Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah, Umm al Qaiwain 251 United Arab Republic (see EGYPT) UNITED KINGDOM 252 UNITED STATES 273 UPPER VOLTA 254 URUGUAY 255 Page ?V? VATICAN CITY 257 VENEZUELA 258 VIETNAM 259 WALLIS and FUTUNA 261 Walvis Bay (see SOUTH AFRICA) WESTERN SAHARA (formerly Spanish Sahara) 262 WESTERN SAMOA 263 _y_ YEMEN (Aden) 264 YEMEN (Sana) 265 YUGOSLAVIA 266 ?Z? ZAIRE 268 ZAMBIA 270 Zanzibar (see TANZANIA) ZIMBABWE-RHODESIA 271 July 1925X1 viii SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET 25X1 MAPS I CANADA II MIDDLE AMERICA III SOUTH AMERICA IV EUROPE V THE MIDDLE EAST VI AFRICA VII U.S.S.R. and ASIA VIII OCEANIA SECRET ix Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 25X1 SECRET ABBREVIATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AA PSO Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organization ADB Asian Development Bank AFDB African Development Bank ANZUS ANZUS Council; treaty signed by Australia, New Zealand, and the United States ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASPAC Asian and Pacific Council BENELUX Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg Economic Union BLEU Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union CACM Central American Common Market CARICOM Caribbean Common Market CARIFTA Caribbean Free Trade Association CEA() West African Economic Community CEMA Council for Economic Mutual Assistance CENTO Central Treaty Organization Colombo Plan . . . Council of Europe DAC Development Assistance Committee (OECD) EAMA African States associated with the EEC EC European Communities (EEC, ECSC, EURATOM) ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States ECSC European Coal and Steel Community EEC European Economic Community (Common Market) EFTA European Free Trade Association EIB European Investment Bank ELDO European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organization EMA European Monetary Agreement ENTENTE Political-Economic Association of Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, and Togo ESRO European Space Research Organization EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community G-77 Group of 77 IADB Inter-American Defense Board ICES International Cooperation in Ocean Exploration IDB Inter-American Development Bank lEA International Energy Agency (Associated with OECD) IHO International Hydrographic Organization IPU Inter-Parliamentary Union IRC International Red Cross LAFTA Latin American Free Trade Association LICROSS League of Red Cross Societies NAM Non-Aligned Movement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization OAS Organization of American States OAU Organization of African Unity OCAM Afro-Malagasy and Mauritian Common Organization ODECA Organization of Central American States OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development July 1979 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 25X1 July 1979 SECRET ABBREVIATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (Cont.) SELA Latin American Economic System UDEAC Economic and Customs Union of Central Africa UEAC Union of Central African States WEU Western European Union WPC World Peace Council WTO World Tourism Organization COMMODITY ORGANIZATIONS AIOEC Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries ANRPC Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries APC African Peanut (Groundnut) Council ASSIMER International Mercury Producers Association CIPEC Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries IATP International Association of Tungsten Producers IBA International Bauxite Association ICAC International Cotton Advisory Committee ICCO International Cocoa Council ICO International Coffee Organization . . . International Lead and Zinc Study Group 100C International Olive Oil Council ISO International Sugar Organization ITC International Tin Council IWC International Whaling Commission IWC International Wheat Council OAPEC Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries UPEB Union of Banana Exporting Countries WSG International Wool Study Group SECRET ?xi Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 25X1 UNITED NATIONS (U.N.): STRUCTURE AND RELA-TED AGENCIES Principal Organs: SC Security Council GA General Assembly ECOSOC Economic and Social Council TC Trusteeship Council ICJ International Court of Justice Secretariat . . . Operating Bodies: UNCTAD U.N. Conference on Trade and Development TDB Trade and Development Board UNDP U.N. Development Program UNICEF U.N. Children's Fund UNIDO U.N. Industrial Development Organization Regional Economic Commissions: ECA Economic Commission for Africa ECE Economic Commission for Europe ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America ECWA Economic Commission for Western Asia ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Intergovernmental Agencies Related to the U.N.: FAO Food and Agriculture Organization GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IDA International Development Association (IBRD Affiliate) IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFC International Finance Corporation (IBRD Affiliate) ILO International Labor Organization IMCO Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMF (FUND) International Monetary Fund ITU International Telecommunication Union UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UPU Universal Postal Union WFC World Food Council WHO World Health Organization WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization Autonomous Organization Under the U.N.: IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency xii SECRET I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 Approximate Metric Conversions SECRET Symbol When You Know Multiply by To Find Symbol Symbol When You Know Multiply by To Find Symbol LENGTH LENGTH mm millimeters 0.04 inches in in inches 2.5 centimeters cm cm centimeters 0.4 inches in ft feet 30 centimeters Cm meters 3.3 feet ft yd yards 0.9 meters meters 1.1 yards yd. mi miles 1.6 kilometers km km kilometers 0.6 miles mi AREA AREA in2 square inches 6.5 square centimeterscm2 CO12 square centimeters 0.16 square inches in2 f t2 square feet 0.09 square meters m2 m2 square meters 1.2 square yards yd2 yd2 square yards 0.8 square meters m2 km2 square kilometers 0.4 square miles mi2 mi2 square miles 2.6 square kilometers km2 ha hectares (10,000 m2) 2.5 acres acres 0.4 hectares ha MASS (weight) MASS (weight) g gram 0.035 ounces OZ oz ounces 28 grams kg kilograms 2.2 pounds lb lb pounds 0.45 kilograms kg tonnes (1000 kg) 1.1 short tons short tons 0.9 tonnes VOLUME (2000 lb) ml milliliters 0.03 fluid ounces fl oz VOLUME liters 2.1 pints pt tsp teaspoons 5 milliliters ml liters 1.06 quarts qt Tbsp tablespoons 15 milliliters ml liters 0.26 gallons gal fl oz fluid ounces 30 milliliters ml m3 cubic meters 35 cubic feet ft3 cups 0.24 liters m3 cubic meters 1.3 cubic yards yd3 pt qt gal f t3 yd3 pints quarts gallons cubic feet cubic yards 0.47 liters 0.95 liters 3.8 liters 0.03 cubic meters 0.76 cubic meters m3 m3 SECRET 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET Dates of Information: The information in this edition of the Factbook is current as of mid- to late-April 1979 except as follows: ? Population estimates have been projected to 1 July 1979, ? Military manpower estimates are as of 1 January 1979, except for numbers of males reaching military age, which are projected averages for the five-year period 1979-83. Explanatory Notes: Land Utilization: Most of the land utilization percentages are rough estimates. Figures for "arable" land in some cases reflect the area under cultivation rather than the total cutivable area. Maritime Zones: Fishing and economic zones claimed by coastal states are included only when they differ from territorial sea limits. GNP vs. GDP: For some countries GDP, rather than GNP, is shown. GDP is the total market value of all goods and services produced within the domestic borders of a country over a particular time period, normally a year. GNP equals GDP plus the income accruing to domestic residents arising from investment abroad less income earned in the domestic market accruing to foreigners abroad. Money: All money figures are in U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated. Fiscal Year: The abbreviation FY stands for U.S. fiscal year; all years are calendar years unless otherwise indicated. July 1979 25X1 xiv SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 AFGHANISTAN AFGHANISTAN are felerence map VII) LAND 647,500 km2; 22% arable (12% cultivated, 10% pasture), 75% desert, waste, or urban, 3% forested Land boundaries: 5,510 km PEOPLE Population: 14,702,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Afghan(s); adjective?Afghan Ethnic divisions: 50% Pushtuns, 25% Tajiks, 9% Uzbeks, 9% Hazaras; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Kizelbashes, and others Religion: 87% Sunni Muslim, 12% Shia Muslim, 1% other Language: 50% Pushtu, 35% Afghan Persian (Dari), 11% Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen), 10% thirty minor languages (primarily Baluchi and Pashai); intich bilingualism Literacy: under 10% Labor force: about 5.88 million (FY78 est.); 75%-80% agriculture and animal husbandry, 20%-25% commerce, small industry, services; massive shortage of skilled labor Organized labor: none GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Type: martial law Capital: Kabfil Political subdivisions: 26 provinces with centrally ap- pointed governors Legal system: not established; legal education at Uni- versity of Kabul; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Branches: leaders of the Communist People's Democratic Party (PDPA) day-to-day policy decisions are made by the political bureau of the party's central committee SECRET SECRET Government leaders: President of Republic, President of the Revolutionary Council, and Secretary General of the PDPA Nur Mohammad Taraki; First (Prime) Minister, Secretary of the Central Committee, and Minister of Foreign Affairs Hafizullah Amin Suffrage: universal from age 18 Political parties and leaders: The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan is the sole legal political party Communists: Parcham, a rival faction in the PDPA, is led by exiled former Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal; the Sholaye-Jaweid is a much smaller pro-Peking group Other political or pressure groups: the military supports the government; tribal rebellion continues in several parts of the country; widespread opposition on religious grounds Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $2.8 billion (FY78 est.), $130 per capita; real growth rate about 3.7% (1970-78) Agriculture: agriculture and animal husbandry account for over 50% of GNP and occupy nearly 85% of the labor force; main crops?wheat and other grains, cotton, fruits, nuts; largely self-sufficient; food shortages?wheat, sugar, tea Major industries: cottage industries, food processing, textiles, cement, coal mining -Electric power: 360,000 kW capacity (1978); 756 million kWh produced (1978), 50 kWh per capita Exports: $340 million (f.o.b., FY78); fresh and dried fruits, natural gas, karakul skins, carpets, hides, wool and cotton Imports: $410 million (f.o.b., FY78); non-metallic miner- als, sugar, tires and tubes, textiles, tea, used clothing, tobacco, transportation, and wheat Major trade partners: exports?U.S.S.R., India, U.K., Pakistan, West Germany, Switzerland, U.S.; imports?Japan, U.S.S.R., India, West Germany, U.K., U.S. Aid: economic?(1970-77), U.S. $175.2 million commit- ted; U.S.S.R. (1970-77), $569.9 million; Eastern Europe (1970-77), $28 million; China (1970-77), $48.5 million; OPEC (1974-78), $899 million; military?U.S. (FY 70/77), $1.6 million; U.S.S.R. (1970-77), $320 million; Eastern Europe (1970-77), $11 million Budget: current expenditures $158 million, capital expenditures $163 million for FY76 Monetary conversion rate: 45 Afghanis=US$1 (official, early June 1978) Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 0.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gage, government-owned spur of 'Soviet line 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET AFGHANISTAN/ALBANIA Highways: 21,115 km total (1977); 2,960 km paved, 3,910 km gravel, 8,735 km improved earth, and 5,780 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; steamers use Amu Darya Ports: 3 minor river ports; largest Shen Khan Pipelines: natural gas, 161 km Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft Airfields: 37 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television to be introduced by 1979; 35,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3.4 million; 1.8 million fit for military service; about 153,000 reach military age (22) annually Supply: dependent on foreign sources, almost exclusively the U.S.S.R. Military budget: estimated expenditures for fiscal year ending 31 March 1978, about $60.7 million; approximately 8.3% of central government budget ALBANIA LAND 28,749 km2; 19% arable, 24% other agricultural, 43% forested, 14% other Land boundaries: 716 km 2 July 1979 Mediterranean Sea (See reference map. IV) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 15 nm Coastline: 418 km (including Sazan Island) PEOPLE Population: 2,626,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Albanian(s); adjective?Albanian Ethnic divisions: 96% Albanian, remaining 4% are Greeks, Vlachs, Gypsies, and Bulgarians Religion: 70% Muslim, 20% Albanian Orthodox, 10% Roman Catholic; observances prohibited; Albania claims to be the world's first atheist state Language: Albanian, Greek Literacy: about 70%; no reliable current statistics avail- able, but probably greatly improved Labor force: 911,000 (1969); 60.5% agriculture, 17.9% industry, 21.6% other nonagricultural GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Socialist Republic of Albania Type: Communist state Capital: Tirane Political subdivisions: 27 rethet (districts), including capital, 200 localities, 2,600 villages Legal system: based on constitution adopted in 1976; judicial review of legislative acts only in the Presidium of the People's Assembly, which is not a true court; legal education at State University of Tirane; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November Branches: People's Assembly, Council of Ministers, judiciary Government leaders: Chairman of Council of Ministers, Mehmet Shehu; Chairman, Presidium of the People's Assembly, Haxhi Lleshi (Chief of State) Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 SECRET A ft 25X1, 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 Declassified Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET ALBANIA Elections: national elections theoretically held every 4 years; last elections 6 November 1978; 99.99% of electorate voted Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party only; First Secretary, Enver Hoxha Communists: 101,500 party members (November 1976) Member of: CEMA, IAEA, IPU, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO; has not participated in CEMA since rift with U.S.S.R. in 1961; officially withdrew from Warsaw Pact 13 September 1968 ECONOMY GNP: $1.2 billion in 1972 (at 1970 prices), $520 per capita Agriculture: food deficit area; main crops?corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, cotton; food shortages?wheat; caloric intake, 2,100 calories per day per capita (1961/62) Major industries: agricultural processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, and extractive industries Shortages: spare parts, machinery and equipment, wheat Electric power: 750,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 850 kWh per capita Exports: $162 million (1977 est.); 1964 trade-55% minerals, metals, fuels; 23% foodstuffs (including cigarettes); 17% agricultural materials (except foods); 5% consumer goods Imports: $190.1 million (1977); 1964 trade-50% machin- ery, equipment, and spare parts; 16% minerals, metals, fuels, construction materials; 16% foodstuffs; 7% consumer goods; 7% fertilizers, other chemicals, rubber; 4% agricultural materials (except foodstuffs) Major trade partners: $352.1 million; China, which replaced Soviet Union as Albania's major trade partner after the 1961 Albanian-Soviet break, has withdrawn all of its aid from Albania; 1977 est. trade-38% China, 30% East European Communist countries, 32% non-Communist coun- tries Aid: Albania claims to have drawn $1.3 billion in Chinese economic aid since 1960 Monetary conversion rate: 5 leks=US$1 (commercial); 12.5 leks=US$1 (noncommercial) Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 277 km standard gage (1.435 m), single track, government-owned (1975) Highways: 4,989 km total; 1,287 km paved, 1,609 km crushed stone and/or gravel, 2,093 km improved or unimproved earth (1975) Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1979) SECRET Freight carried: rail-2.8 million metric tons, 180 million metric ton/km (1971); highways-39 million metric tons, 900 million metric ton/km (1971) Ports: 1 major (Durres), 3 minor (1979) Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,677 GRT, 73,791 DWT; includes 10 cargo Pipelines: crude oil, 117 km; refined products, 65 km; natural gas, 64 km Civil air: no civil airline Airfields: 11 total; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 6 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 1 heliport Telecommunications: least developed of any European Communist country; serves only basic needs of government with very limited service to public; limited coverage by radio and wired broadcasts; 8 AM stations, 173,000 receivers; 1 TV station, 4,000 receivers; 13,000 telephones DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 665,000; 551,000 fit for military service; 31,000 reach military age (19) annually Personnel: (estimated) ground forces 25,000; naval forces 3,200; air and air defense forces 12,600; paramilitary forces 12,500 Personnel in reserve (not on active duty): estimated round forces 180,000, naval forces 6,000, air force unknown 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Mi itary susget (announces): or fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, 835 million leks; 10.7% of total budget 3 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ALGERIA (See reference map VI ALGERIA LAND 2,460,500 km2; 3% cultivated, 16% pasture and meadows, 1% forested, 80% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 6,260 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 1,183 km PEOPLE Population: 18,249,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Algerian(s); adjective?Algerian Ethnic divisions: 99% Arab-Berbers, less than 1% Europeans Religion: 99% Muslim, 1% Christian and Hebrew Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy: 25% (5% Arabic, 9% French, 11% both) Labor force: 4.0 million; 50% agriculture, 20% industry, 25% other (military, police, civil service, transportation workers, teachers, merchants, construction workers); at least 20% of urban labor unemployed Organized labor: 25% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Type: republic Capital: Algiers Political subdivisions: 31 Wilayas (departments or provinces) Legal system: based on French and Islamic law, with socialist principles; new constitution adopted by referendum November 1976; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc 4 July 1979 Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court divided into 4 chambers; legal education at Universities of Algiers, Oran, and Constantine; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 1 November Branches: executive dominant; unicameral legislature reconvened in March 1977; judiciary Government leader: President, Col. Chadhi Bendjedid, elected 7 February 1979 as successor to deceased President Boumediene Suffrage: universal over age 19 Elections (latest): presidential 7 February 1979; depart- mental assemblies 2 June 1974; local assemblies 30 March 1975; legislative elections held 25 February 1977 Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Front (FLN), Secretary General Chadhi Bendjedid; party coordi- nator, Mohamed Yahiaoui Communists: 400 (est.); Communist Party illegal (banned 1962) Member of: AFDI3, AIOEC , Arab League, ASSIMER, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, 100C, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $21.8 billion (1978 est.), $1,235 per capita; in real terms, 8.8% growth in 1977 Agriculture: main crops?wheat, barley, grapes, citrus fruits Major industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, petrochemical, electrical, and automotive plants under construction Electric power: 1,700,000 kW capacity (1978); 4.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 250 kWh per capita Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 1978 est.); 90% hydrocarbons, also wine, citrus fruit, iron ore, vegetables; U.S. took 56.2% of Algerian crude oil, supplanting France as Algeria's leading trade partner Imports: $6.9 billion (c.i.f., 1978); major items?capital goods 35%, semi-finished goods 38%, foodstuffs 25%; from France 23%, U.S. 9% Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $2,900 million; U.S. $442.1 million; Communist countries, $1,021.2 million; military?(1970-77) Communist countries, $1,350 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 DA=US$0.24 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3;950 km total; 2,690 km standard gage (1.435 m), 1,140 km 1.055-meter gage, 120 km meter gage (1.000 m); 302 km electrified; 193 km double track SECRET 1 0 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ALGERIA/ANDORRA Highways: 78,410 km total; 45,070 km concrete or bituminous, 33,340 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth Ports: 9 major, 8 minor Merchant marine: 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,274,204 GRT, 1,905,008 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 23 cargo, 3 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 9 bulk, 11 specialized carrier Pipelines: crude oil, 3,983 km; refined products, 298 km; natural gas, 2,398 km Civil air: 33 major transport aircraft including 3 leased in Airfields: 184 total, 171 usable; 55 with permanent-sur- face runways; 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 89 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate domestic and interna- tional service in the north, sparse in the south; Atlantic and Indian Ocean satellite stations plus domestic satellite system with 14 stations; 266,000 telephones (1.5 per 100 popl.); 18 AM and 32 TV stations; 5 submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,720,000; 2,224,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually 193,000 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $600 million; 5% of central government budget SECRET ANDORRA (See 'derma map LAND 466 km' Land boundaries: 105 km SECRET PEOPLE Population: 29,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1976) Nationality: noun?Andorran(s); adjective?Andorran Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; 30% Andorrans, 61% Spanish, 6% French, 3% other Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic Language: Catalan, many also speak some French and Castilian Labor force: unorganized; largely shepherds and farmers GOVERNMENT Legal name: Andorra; Valls &Andorra (Catalan) Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of President of France and Spanish Bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called verguers Capital: Andorra Political subdivisions: 6 districts?Andorra la Vella", Saint Julia de Loria, Encamp, Canillo, La Massana, and Ordino Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; Plan of Reform adopted 1866 serves as constitution; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Branches: legislature (General Council) consisting of 24 members with one-half elected every 2 years for 4-year term; executive?syndic (manager) and a deputy sub-syndic chosen by General Council for 3-year terms; judiciary chosen by coprinces who appoint 2 civil judges, a judge of appeals, and 2 Batles (court prosecutors); final appeal to the Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan, France, or to the Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain Suffrage: males of 21 or over who are third generation Andorrans vote for General Council members; same right granted to women in April 1970 5 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ANDORRA/ANGOLA Elections: half of General Council chosen every 2 years, last election December 1977 Political parties and leaders: traditionally no political parties but only partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council, on the basis of competence, personality and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party?Andorran Democratic Associ- ation?formed in November 1976 Communists: negligible Member of: UNESCO ECONOMY Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables (less than 4% of land is arable) Major industries: tourism, sheep, timber, tobacco, and smuggling Shortages: food Electric power: 25,000 kW capacity (1978); 100 million kWh produced (1978), 3,448 kWh per capita; power is mainly exported to Spain . and France Major trade partners: Spain, France COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: about 96 km Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: none Telecommunications: international circuits to Spain and France; 2 AM stations, 1 FM, 1 TV station; about 3,900 telephones (14.3 per 100 popl.) DEFENSE FORCES Andorra has no defense forces; Spain and France are responsible for protection as needed ANGOLA LAND 1,245,790 km2; 1% cultivated, 44% forested, 22% meadows and pastures, 33% other (including fallow) Land boundaries: 5,070 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 20 nm Coastline: 1,600 km PEOPLE Population: Angola (including Cabinda), 6,606,000 (July 1979), does not take into account emigration from Angola, average annual growth rate 2.4% (current); Cabinda, 106,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (12-60 to 12-70) 6 July 1979 Cabinda Oanda Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VI) Nationality: noun?Angolan(s); adjective?Angolan Ethnic divisions: 93% African, 5% European, 1% mestizo Religion: about 84% animist, 12% Roman Catholic, 4% Protestant Language: Portuguese (official), many native dialects Literacy: 10-15% Labor force: 2.6 million economically active (1964); 531,000 wage workers (1967) Organized labor: approx. 65,000 (1967) GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Angola Type: republic; achieved independence from Portugal in November 1975; constitution promulgated 1975; govern- ment formed after civil war which ended in early 1976 Capital: Luanda Political subdivisions: 17 provinces including the coastal exclave of Cabinda Legal system: formerly based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; being modified along "socialist" model National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November Branches: the official party is the supreme political institution Government leaders: Dr. Agostinho Neto, President Suffrage: to be determined Elections: none held to date Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party (MPLA-Labor Party), led by Agostinho Neto, only legal party; National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), defeated in civil war, carrying out insurgencies Member of: G-77, ILO, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNICEF, WHO SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ANGOLA/ ANTIGUA ECONOMY GDP: $2.66 billion (1978 est.), $412 per capita, 6.1% real growth (1970-72); real GDP growth has declined by at least 15% since independence; 5% drop in 1978 Agriculture: cash crops?coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, and tobacco; food crops?cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas, and other local foodstuffs; largely self-sufficient in food Fishing: catch 153,580 metric tons (1975); exports $53.0 million; imports $5.6 million (1973) Major industries: mining (oil, diamonds), fish processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar processing, textiles, cement, food processing plants, building construction Electric power: 525,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.3 billion kWh produced (1977), 210 kWh per capita Exports: est. $900 million (f.o.b., 1977); oil, coffee, diamonds, sisal, fish and fish products, iron ore, timber, corn, and cotton; exports down sharply 1975-77 Imports: est. $720 million (f.o.b., 1977); capital equip- ment (machinery and electrical equipment), wines, bulk iron and ironwork, steel and metals, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; military deliveries partially offset drop in imports in 1975-77 Major trade partners: Cuba, U.S.S.R., Portugal, and U.S. Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $215 million; Communist countries (1976 and 77), $29 million; U.S. (1970-77), $14.3 million; military?Communist countries (1976 and 77), $386 million Budget: (1975) balanced at about $740 million by former Portuguese administration; budget not yet published by new government Monetary conversion rate: 40.643 escudos=US$1 as of November 1977 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,108 km total; 2,798 km 1.067-meter gage, 310 km 0.600-meter gage Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 28,723 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 3,220 km navigable Ports: 3 major (Luanda, Lobito, Mocamedes), 15 minor Merchant marine: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,600 GRT, 42,100 DWT; includes 7 cargo, 1 tanker Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km c Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in Airfields: 524 total, 503 usable; 27 with permanent- surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 97 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of wire and radio-relay; troposcatter/radio relay system under construction; HF used extensively for military/Cuban links; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 32,000 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 5 FM, and 1 TV station SECRET SECRET DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,608,000; 806,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually, 62,000 25X1 Supply: dependent on foreign sources, especially U.S.S.R.; some equipment left by the Portuguese ANTIGUA (See reference map II) LAND 280 km2; 54% arable, 5% pasture, 14% forested, 9% unused but potentially productive, 18% wasteland and built on WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 153 km PEOPLE Population: 74,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (7-70 to 7-77) 7 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ANTIGUA/ ARGENTINA Nationality: noun?Antiguan(s); adjective?Antiguan Ethnic divisions: almost entirely African Negro Religion: Church of England (predominant), other Protestant sects, and some Roman Catholic Language: English Literacy: about 80% Organized labor: 18,000, 20% unemployment GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Antigua Type: dependent territory with full internal autonomy as a British -Associated State" Capital: St. Johns Political subdivisions: 6 parishes, 2 dependencies (Bar- buda, Redonda) Legal system: based on English law; British Caribbean Court of Appeal has exclusive original jurisdiction and an appellate jurisdiction, consists of Chief Justice and 5 justices Branches: legislative, 21-member popularly elected House of Representatives; executive, Prime Minister and Cabinet Government leaders: Premier Vere C. Bird, Sr.; Deputy Premier Lester Bird; Governor Sir Wilfred Ebenezer Jacobs Suffrage: universal suffrage age 18 and over Elections: every 5 years; last general election 11 February 1976 Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. Bird, Sr., Lester Bird; Progressive Labor Movement (PLM), George Herbert Walter; Antigua People's Party (APP), J. Rowan Henry Voting strength: 1976 election?House of Representative seats?ALP 10, PLM 5, independent 1, tie 1 Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: Afro-Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM), a small black nationalist group led by Timothy Hector; Antigua Freedom Fighters (AFF), a small black radical group, leaders unknown Member of: CARICOM, ISO ECONOMY GDP: $52 million (1977 est.), $720 per capita; 2.0% real growth Agriculture: main crop, cotton Major industries: oil refining, tourism Shortages: electric power Electric power: 31,200 kW capacity (1977); 60 million kWh produced (1977), 780 kWh per capita Exports: $22 million (f.o.b., 1975); petroleum products, cotton Imports: $54 million (c.i.f., 1975); crude oil, food, clothing Major trade partners: 30% U.K., 25% U.S., 18% Commonwealth Caribbean countries (1975) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-76) from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $13.9 million; no military aid 8 July 1979 Budget: (current) revenues, $12 million; current expendi- tures, $15 million (1977/78) Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dol- lars=US$1 (July 1976) Fiscal year: 1 April-30 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 78 km narrow gage (0.760 m), employed almost exclusively for handling cane Highways: 380 km total; 240 km main, 140 km secondary Ports: 1 major (St. Johns), 1 minor Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with asphalt runway 2,745 m Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 3,500 telephones (4.9 per 100 popl.); tropospheric scatter links with Tortola and St. Lucia; 3 AM stations, 2 FM stations, and I TV station; 1 coaxial submarine cable ARGENTINA LAND 2,771,300 km2; 57% agricultural (11% crops, improved pasture and fallow, 46% natural grazing land), 25% forested, 18% mountain, urban, or waste Land boundaries: 9,414 km WATER? Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (continen- tal shelf, including sovereignty over superjacent waters) Coastline: 4,989 km PEOPLE Population: 26,829,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Argentine(s); adjective?Argentine Ethnic divisions: approximately 85% white, 15% Mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups SECRET 25X1 25X1 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 1 1 4 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ARGENTINA (See reference mep III) Religion: 90% nominally Roman Catholic (less than 20% practicing), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 6% other Language: Spanish Literacy: 85% (90% in Buenos Aires) Labor force: 10 million; 19% agriculture, 25% manufac- turing, 20% services, 11% commerce, 6% transport and communications, 19% other; 2.2% estimated unemployment (1977) Organized labor: 25% of labor force (est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Argentine Republic Type: republic; under military rule since 1976 Capital: Buenos Aires Political subdivisions: 22 provinces, 1 district (Federal (:apital), and 1 territory Legal system: based on Spanish and French civil codes; constitution adopted 1853 partially superseded in 1966 by the Statute of the Revolution which takes precedence over the constitution when the two are in conflict, further changes may be made by new government; judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at University of Buenos Aires and other public and private universities; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May Branches: presidency; national judiciary Government leader: President, Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Jorge Rafael Videla, chosen by the three-man Junta that took power on 24 March 1976 Government structure: The President and the Junta, composed of the chiefs of the three armed services, retain supreme authority; active duty or retired officers fill all but two cabinet posts and administer all provincial and many local governments; in addition, the military now oversee the SECRET SECRET nation's principal labor confederation and unions, as well as other civilian pressure groups; Congress has been disbanded and all political activity suspended; a nine-man Legislative Council, composed of senior officers, advises the junta on lawmaking Political parties: a number of civilian political groupings remain potentially influential, despite the suspension of all partisan activity; these include Justicialist Party (Peronist coalition that formerly governed) and the Radical Civic Union, center-left party providing the chief civilian opposition to the Peronists; the Moscow-oriented Communist Party remains legal, but extreme leftist splinter groups have been outlawed Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including a stnall nucleus of activists Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement, General Economic Confederation (Peron- ist-leaning association of small businessmen), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturer's association), Argentine Rural Society (large landowner's association), business organizations, students, and the Catholic Church Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADI3, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB, JFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, 100C, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commis- IWC?International Wheat Council, LAFTA, NAM, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $51 billion (1978), $1,925 per capita; 73% consumption, 21% investment, 6% net foreign demand (1978); real GDP growth rate 1978, ?4.1% Agriculture: main products?cereals, oilseeds, livestock products; Argentina is a major world exporter of temperate zone foodstuffs Fishing: catch 281,727 metric tons (1976); exports $42 million (1976 est.) Major industries: food processing (especially meatpack- ing), motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals, printing, and metallurgy Crude steel: 2.8 million metric tons produced (1978), 105 , kg per capita Electric power: 9.16 million kW capacity (1977); 29 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,095 kWh per capita Exports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); meat, corn, wheat, wool, hides, oilseeds Imports: $4.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); machinery, fuel and lubricating oils, iron and steel, intermediate industrial products Major trade partners (1977): exports-10% Netherlands, 8% Brazil, 8% Italy, 7% U.S., 5% Japan; imports-19% U.S., 10% FRG, 9% Japan, 9% Brazil Aid: (FY70-76) economic?from U.S. $248 million; from other Western countries $797 million; from Communist countries $458 million; military?from U.S. $137 million 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 ARGENTINA/ AUSTRALIA Budget: (1978) 920,500 billion pesos=$17 billion at. exchange rate of 1 May 1978 Monetary conversion rate: 1,206 pesos=US$1 (I May 1979) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 39,738 km total; 3,086 km standard gage (1.435 in), 22,788 km broad gage (1.676 m), 13,461 km meter gage (1.000 in), 403 km 0.750-meter gage Highways: 207,300 km total, of which 43,900 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 104,000 km improved earth, 19,900 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable Ports: 7 major, 21 minor Merchant marine: 213 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,075,110 GRT, 3,110,118 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 98 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, I beach landing cargo ship, 70 tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 27 bulk, 2 combination ore/oil, 7 specialized carrier; Pipelines: 4,090 kin crude oil; 2,200 kin refined products; 8,172 km natural gas Civil air: 48 major transport aircraft including 2 leased in Airfields: 2,393 total, 2,124 usable; 97 with permanent- surface runways; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 310 with runways 1,220-2,4:39 in Telecommunications: extensive modern system; tele- phone network has 2.54 million sets (9.8 per 100 popl.), radio relay widely used, 1 satellite station with 2 Atlantic Ocean antennas; 160 AM, 12 FM, and 64 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,535,000; 5,299,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually about 226,000 10 Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $1,478 million; about 15% of total central government budget AUSTRALIA Nee reference map VIII) 25X1 LAND 7,692,300 km2; 6% arable, 58% pasture, 2% forested, 34% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 12 nm; prawn and crayfish on continental shelf) Coastline: about 25,760 km PEOPLE Population: 14,400,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (current) 25X1 25X1 25)(1 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 AUSTRALIA Nationality: noun?Australian(s); adjective?Australian Ethnic divisions: 99% Caucasian, 1% Asian and aborigine Religion: 98% Christian Language: English Literacy: 98.5% Labor force: 6.3 million; 14% agriculture, 32% industry, 37% services, 15% commerce, 2% other; 6% unemployment Organized labor: 44% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Commonwealth of Australia Type: federal state recognizing Elizabeth II as sovereign or head of state Capital: Canberra Political subdivisions: 6 states and 2 territories (Austra- lian Capital Territory (Canberra) and Northern Territory) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted 1900; High Court has jurisdiction over cases involving interpretation of the constitution; accepts compul- sory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: 26 January Branches: Parliament (House of Representatives and Senate); Prime Minister and Cabinet responsible to House; independent judiciary Government leaders: Governor General Sir Zelman Cowen; Prime Minister J. Malcolm Fraser Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: held at 3-year intervals, or sooner if Parliament is dissolved by Prime Minister; last election December 1977 Political parties and leaders: Government?Liberal Party (Malcolm Fraser) and National Country Party (Douglas Anthony); opposition?Labour Party (William J. Hayden) Voting strength (1977 Parliamentary election): lower house: Liberal-Country Coalition, 86 seats; Labour Party, 38 seats; Senate: Liberal Country Coalition, 35 seats; Labour, 26 seats; Democrats, 2 seats; Independents, 1 seat Communists: 5,000 members (est.) Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Labour Party (anti-Communist Labour Party splinter group) Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANZUS, CIPEC (associate), Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, DAC, ELDO, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?Interna- tional Wheat Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $109.9 billion (1978), $7,720 per capita; 60% private consumption, 16% government current expenditure, 24% investment (1975); 1% real average annual growth (1975-78) SECRET SECRET Agriculture: large areas devoted to livestock grazing; 60% of area used for crops is planted in wheat; major products? wool, livestock, wheat, fruits, sugarcane; self-sufficient in food; caloric intake, 3,300 calories per day per capita Fishing: catch 113,961 metric tons (1976); exports $94.5 million (FY75), imports $86.2 million (FY75) Major industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals Crude steel: 7.8 million metric tons produced (FY76), 570 kg per capita Electric power: 23,505,000 kW capacity (1978); 87.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,900 kWh per capita Exports: $14.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal products (1977)-44% agricultural products, 14% metalliferous ores, 13% wool, 12% coal Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1978); principal products (1977)-41% manufactured raw materials, 28% capital equipment, 25% consumer goods Major trade partners: (1978) exports-34% Japan, 12% U.S., 5% New Zealand, 4% U.K.; imports-19% U.S., 11% U.K., 21% Japan Aid: economic?Australian aid abroad $3.6 billion (FY65-79); $455 million (FY79), 51% for Papua New Guinea Budget: expenditures, A$28.8 billion; receipts A$26.1 billion (FY79) Monetary conversion rate: 0.87 Australian dollar=US$1 (A$1=US$1.15), December 1978 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 40,636 km total (1978); 9,197 km 1.60-meter gage, 13,394 km standard gage (1.435 m), 18,045 km 1.067-meter gage; 800 km electrified (June 1962); govern- ment-owned (except for few hundred kilometers of privately owned track) Highways: 837,872 km total (1978); 207,650 km paved, 205,454 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface, 424,768 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow- draft craft Ports: 12 major, numerous minor Pipelines: crude oil, 740 km; refined products, 340 km; natural gas, 6,947 km Civil air: around 150 major transport aircraft Airfields: 1,617 total, 1,559 usable; 201 with permanent- surface runways, 2 with runways over 3,660 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 626 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 11 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET AUSTRALIA/AUSTRIA Telecommunications: very good international and do- mestic service; 5.5 (39.5 per 100 popl.) million telephones; 204 AM stations, 5 FM stations, 112 TV stations and 66 repeaters; 3 earth satellite stations; submarine cables to New Zealand, New Guinea, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Guam DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,795,000; 3,360,000 fit for military service; 136,000 reach military age (17) annually AUSTRIA LAND 83,916 km2; 20% cultivated, 26% meadows and pastures, 15% waste or urban, 38% forested, 1% inland water Land boundaries: 2,582 km PEOPLE Population: 7,498,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate ?0.1% (1-77 to 7-78) 12 -fl FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY July 1979 (See reference map IV) Nationality: noun?Austrian(s); adjective?Austrian Ethnic divisions: 98.1% German, 0.7% Croatian, 0.3% Slovene, 0.9% other Religion: 85% Roman Catholic, 7% Protestant, 8% none or other Language: German Literacy: 98% Labor force: 2,757,700 (1978); 18% agriculture and forestry, 49% industry and crafts, 18% trade and communi- cations, 7% professions, 6% public service, 2% other; 2.1% registered unemployed; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 176,710 Organized labor: about two-thirds of wage and salary workers (1971) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Austria Type: federal republic Capital: Vienna. Political subdivisions: 9 states (Laender) including the capital Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; constitution adopted 1920, repromulgated in 1945; judicial review of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; legal educa- tion at Universities of Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg, and Linz; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 26 October Branches: bicameral parliament, directly elected Presi- dent whose functions are largely representational, independ- ent federal judiciary Government leaders: President Rudolf Kirchschlaeger, Chancellor Bruno Kreisky leads a one-party .Socialist government Suffrage: universal over age 19; compulsory for presiden- tial elections SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 AUSTRIA Elections: presidential, every 6 years (next 1980); parliamentary, every 4 years (next 1983) Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party of Austria (SP0e), Bruno Kreisky, Chairman; Austrian People's Party (0eVP), Josef Taus, Chairman; Liberal Party (FP0e), Alexander Gotz, Chairman; Communist Party, Franz Muhri, Chairman Voting strength (1975 election): 50.6% SP0e, 42.7% OeVP, 5.3% FP0e, 1.2% Communist Communists: membership 25,000 est.; activists 7,000-8,000 Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (0eVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; the OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrial- ists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, ECE, EFTA, EMA, ESRO (observer), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Coun- cil, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $58 billion (1978), $7,725 per capita; 58.4% private consumption, 16.2% public consumption, 27.0% investment, 1.7% stock building (1977); ?3.3% net foreign balance; 1978 real GNP growth rate, 1.5% Agriculture: livestock, cereals, potatoes, sugar beets; 84% self-sufficient; caloric intake 3,230 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Major industries: foods, iron and steel, machinery, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and pulp Crude steel: 4.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 577 kg per capita (1978) Electric power: 11,700,000 kW capacity (1978); 39 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,195 kWh per capita Exports: $13.4 billion (1978); iron and steel products, machinery and equipment, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals Imports: $17.0 billion (1978); machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, petroleum, foodstuffs Major trade partners: (1977) 35.9% West Germany, 8.9% Italy, 6.4% Switzerland, 3.9% U.K., 3.1% U.S.; 76.8% OECD, 59.0 EC; 11.4% Communist countries Aid: (1970-77) bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $474 million Budget: expenditures, $18.3 billion; revenues, $14.8 billion; deficit, $3.5 billion (1978) Monetary conversion rate: 14.52 shillings=US$1, 1978 average Fiscal year: calendar year SECRET SECRET COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 6,517 km total; 5.877 km government-owned; 5,397 km standard gage (1.435 m) of which 2,730 km electrified and 1,333 km double tracked; 480 km narrow gage (0.760 m) of which 91 km electrified; 640 km privately owned (1.435- and 1.000-meter gage) Highways: approximately 33,600 km total national classified network, including 10,400 km federal and 23,200 km provincial roads; about 20,800 km paved (bituminous, concrete, stone block) and 12,800 km unpaved (gravel, crushed stone, stabilized soil); additional 60,800 km commu- nal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth) Inland waterways: 427 km Ports: 2 major river (Vienna, Linz) Merchant marine: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 79,486 GRT, 121,781 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 2 container, 2 bulk Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,611 km natural gas; 171 km refined products Civil air: 18 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 50 total, 49 usable; 15 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed and efficient; extensive TV and radiobroadcast systems with 160 AM, 190 FM, and 350 TV stations; 1 Comsat station U/C; 2.28 million telephones (29.9 per 100 popl.) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,778,000; 1,506,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually about 60,000 25X1 25X1 Supply: produces some small arms and ammunition, trucks, and tank destroyers; current sources of other items are the U.S., Western Europe, Sweden, and the Communist countries Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $859 million; about 3.8% of the federal budget 25X1 25X1 13 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET THE BAHAMAS UNITED . STATES CUBA Caribbean Sea . Atlantic Ocean THE BAHAMAS ) , HAITL DOMINICAN C REPUBLIC (See reference map III THE BAHAMAS LAND 11,396 km'; 1% cultivated, 29% forested, 70% built on, wasteland, and other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 3,542 km (New Providence Is. 76 km) PEOPLE Population: 233,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (7-76 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Bahamian (sing., pl.); adjective? Bahamian Ethnic divisions: 80% Negro, 10% white, 10% mixed Religion: Baptists 29%, Church of England 23%, Roman Catholic 23%, smaller groups of other Protestant, Greek Orthodox, and Jews Language: English Labor force: 84,228 (1976), 25% organized; 25% unem- ployment (1977) GOVERNMENT Legal name: The Commonwealth of The Bahamas Type: independent commonwealth since July 1973, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: Nassau (New Providence Island) Legal system: based on English law National holiday: Independence Day, 10 July Branches: bicameral legislature (appointed Senate, elected House); executive (Prime Minister and cabinet); judiciary Government leaders: Prime Minister Lynden 0. Pindling; Acting Governor General Gerald C. Cash Suffrage: universal over age 18; registered voters (July 1977) 73,309 14 July 1979 Elections: House of Assembly (19 July 1977); next election due constitutionally in 5 years Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), predominantly black, Lynden 0. Pindling; Bahamian Democratic Party (BDP), Henry Bostwick; Free National Movement (FNM), Cecil Wallace-Whitfield Voting strength (1977 election): PLP (55%) 30 seats, BDP (27%) 6 seats, FNM (15%) 2 seats, others (3%) 0 seats Communists: none known Member of: CDB, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMCO, IMF, U.N., WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $758 million (at market prices, 1977), $3,510 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 3.5% Agriculture: food importer, main crops?fish, fruits, vegetables Major industries: tourism, cement, oil refining, lumber, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral weld, and steel pipe Electric power: 250,000 kW capacity (1977); 680 million kWh produced (1977), 3,150 kWh per capita Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1977); fuel oil, pharmaceuti- cals, cement, rum Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1977); crude oil, foodstuffs, manufactured goods Major trade partners: non-oil exports?U.S. 41%, U.K. 12%, Canada 3%; non-oil imports?U.S. 73%, U.K. 13%, Canada 2% (1973) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (1970-76) from U.S. $34.3 million; from other Western countries, $136.6 million; no military aid Budget: (1978 projected), revenues, $186 million; expend- itures, $199 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$1)= 1)S$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 3,350 km total; 1,350 km paved, 2,000 km gravel Ports: 2 major (Freeport, Nassau), 9 minor Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,282 GRT, 79,206 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 tanker, 1 bulk, 1 passenger, 1 roll-on/roll-off; a flag of convenience registry Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 54 total, 51 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 THE BAHAMAS/BAHRAIN Telecommunications: telecom facilities highly developed, including 58,000 telephones (27.5 per 100 popl.) in totally automatic system; tropospheric scatter link with Florida; 3 AM, 2 FM stations and 1 TV station; 3 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Local security forces: Bahamas Defense Force, 100 (only a naval element, not a legal entity yet), 2 fast patrol boats (PCF), 8 patorl boats (PB); Royal Bahamas Police Force, 1,110; reserve police force, 200; prison guards, 140 BAHRAIN (See reference men VI LAND 596 km2 plus group of 32 smaller islands; 5% cultivated, negligible forested area, remainder desert, waste, or urban WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 161 km PEOPLE Population: 365,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 4.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Bahraini(s); adjective?Bahraini Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 7% Iranian, Pakistani, and Indian, 3% others Religion: Muslim Language: Arabic, English also widely spoken Literacy: about 40% Labor force: 100,000 (1978) SECRET SECRET GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Bahrain Type: traditional monarchy; independence declared in 1971 Capital: Manama Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law; constitution went into effect December 1973 National holiday: 16 December Branches: Amir rules with help of a cabinet led by Prime Minister; a National Assembly, made up of cabinet and 30 directly elected members, was formed in early 1974; Amir 25X1 dissolved assembly in August 1975 and suspended the25X1 constitutional provision for election of the assembly Government leader: Amir ibn Salman Al Khalifa Political parties and pressure groups: political parties prohibited; no significant pressure groups although numer- ous small clandestine groups are active Communists: negligible Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IMF, NAM, OAPEC, U.N., UNESCO, WHO 25X1 ECONOMY GDP: $1.7 billion (1977 est.), annual growth rate 8.8% in GDP, $5,000 per capita, dominated by oil industry; 1977 average daily crude oil production, 56,000 bbls (oil expected to last 15 years if no new discoveries are made); 1975 nonassociated natural gas production, 102 billion ft2; government oil revenues for 1977 are estimated at $470 million Agriculture: produces dates, alfalfa, vegetables; dairy and poultry farming; fishing; not self-sufficient in food Major industries: petroleum refining, aluminum smelt- ing, boatbuilding, shrimp fishing, pearls and sailmaking on a small scale; major development projects include flourmill, and ISA town; OAPEC dry dock to be built by 1977 Electric power: 700,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 8,650 kWh per capita Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978); non-oil exports. (including reexports), $396.8 million (1978); oil exports, $1.5 billion (1978) Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1977) Major trade partners: Saudi Arabia, U.K., U.S., Japan, EC Aid: economic?OPEC (1974-77), $415 million, U.S. (1970-77), $2 million; other Western (non-U.S.) (1970-77), $7 million ? Budget: (1977) $291 million current expenditure, $357 million capital Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bahrain dinar=US$2.58 (1978) Fiscal year: calendar year 15 25X1 ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BAHRAIN/BANGLADESH COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 93 km bituminous surfaced; undetermined mileage of natural surface tracks Ports: I major (Bahrain) Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship of 1,600 GET, 2,600 DWT Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 1 with runway 1,220- 2,439 m; 1 seaplane station Telecommunications: excellent international telecom- munications; limited domestic services; 31,000 telephones (11.6 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and 1 TV station, 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; tropospheric scatter and microwave to Qatar and United Arab Emirates DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 64,000; fit for military service, 37,000 Supply: from several West European countries, especially France and U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978; $42.8 million, 6% of central government budget BANGLADESH LAND 142,500 km2; 66% arable (including cultivated and fallow), 18% not available for cultivation, 16% forested Land boundaries: 2,535 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm; fishing 200 nm Coastline: 580 km PEOPLE Population: 88,092,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun--Bangladeshi(s); adjective?Bangla- desh 16 July 1979 (See reference map VII) Ethnic divisions: predominantly Bengali; fewer than 1 million -Biharis- and fewer than 1 million tribals Religion: about 83% Muslim, 16% Hindu; less than 1% Buddhist and other Language: Bengali Literacy: about 25% Labor force: over 20 million; extensive export of labor to U.A.E., Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq, and Oman; over 75% of labor force is in agriculture GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Bangladesh Type: independent republic since December 1971; Gov- ernment of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman overthrown in August 1975; two other coups followed; following 4 years of martial law rule presidential elections were held in June 1978 and a new parliament was elected in February 1979 Capital: Dacca Political subdivisions: 19 districts, 413 thanas (counties), 4,053 unions (village groupings) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted December 1972; amended January 1975 to more authoritarian presidential system, changed by proclamation in April 1977 to reflect Islamic character of nation; President has promised a new constitution will be written in 1979 National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March Branches: constitution provides for unicameral legisla- ture, strong president; independent judiciary Government leader: President, Lt. Gen. Ziaur Rahman Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: Second Parliament (House of the Nation) elected in February 1979; elections every 5 years; President elected June 3, 1978 Communists: 2,500 members (est.) Other political or pressure groups: 18 political parties legalized by government as of October 1978, student groups, bands of former guerrillas SECRET 25X1 25X1 I 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 1 July 1979 BANGLADESH/BARBADOS Member of: ADB, Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organi- zation, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IMF, ILO, NAM, U.N., UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $7.4 billion est. (FY78, current prices), $88 per capita; real growth, 7.4% (FY78) Agriculture: large subsistence farming, heavily dependent on monsoon rainfall; main crops are jute and rice; shortages?grain, cotton, and oilseeds Fishing: catch 821,000 metric tons (FY76) Major industries: jute manufactures, food processing and cotton textiles Electric power: 975,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.6 billion kWh produced (1978), 20 kWh per capita Exports: $498 million (FY78); raw and manufactured jute, leather, tea Imports: $1,349 million (FY78 est.); foodgrains, fuels, raw cotton, fertilizer, manufactured products Major trade partners: exports?U.S. 14%, U.K. 13%; imports?Japan 22%, U.S. 10% (FY77) Aid: economic?FY78 est. disbursements, $797 million, of which foodgrain aid, $190 million; (1970-77) commitments: U.S.S.R., $261 million; Eastern Europe, $157 million; OPEC bilateral, $578 million; U.S., $1,199 million; military? (1970-77) commitments: U.S.S.R., $73 million Budget: (FY78 est.) domestic revenues, $823 million; expenditures, $1,578 million Monetary conversion rate: 15.52 taka=US$1 (February 1979) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,909 km total (1977); 1,910 km meter gage (1.000 m), 964 km broad gage (1.676 m), 35 km narrow gage (0.762 m), 300 km double track; government-owned Highways: 44,930 km total; 4,044 km paved, 2,022 km gravel, 38,864 km earth Inland waterways: 7,000 km; river steamers navigate main waterways Ports: 1 major, Chittagong; 5 minor Pipelines: 150 km natural gas Merchant marine: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,614 GRT, 339,146 DWT, includes 20 cargo, 2 tanker, 1 bulk, 1 passenger, and 1 ore/oil carrier Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft Airfields: 23 total, 16 usable; 18 with permanent surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate international radiocom- munications and landline service; fair domestic wire and SECRET SECRET microwave service; fair broadcast service; 100,000 (est.) telephones (0.1 per 100 pool.); 8 AM, 1 FM, 3 TV stations, and 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 18,237,000; 10,498,000 fit for military service Personnel: army 65,000, navy 4,000, air force 2,000 est. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1978, $145.0 million; about 8.8% of the central government budget 25X1 25X1 25X1 BARBADOS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO RICO RICO Caribbeah Sea - a 0 a Atlantic Ocean BARBADOS VENEZUELA (Sea reference map II) LAND 430 km2; 60% cropped, 10% permanent meadows, 30% built on, waste, other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 97 km 17 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 BARBADOS/BELGIUM PEOPLE Population: 273,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.2% (1-68 to 1-78) Nationality: noun?Barbadian(s); adjective?Barbadian Ethnic divisions: 80% African, 17% mixed, 4% European Religion: Anglican (70%), Roman Catholic, Methodist, and Moravian Language: English Literacy: over 90% Labor force: 97,000 (1973 est.) wage and salary earners; unemployment 20-25% (1976) Organized labor: 32% GOVERNMENT Legal name: Barbados Type: independent sovereign state within the Common- wealth since November 1966, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: Bridgetown Political subdivisions: 11 parishes and city of Bridgetown Legal system: English common law; constitution came into effect upon independence in 1966; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 30 November Branches: legislature consisting of a 21-member ap- pointed Senate and a 24-member elected House of Assembly; cabinet headed by Prime Minister Government leader: Prime Minister J. M. G. "Tom" Adams; Governor General Sir Deighton H. L. Ward Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: House of Assembly members have terms no longer than 5 years; last general election held 2 September 1976 Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party (BLP), J. M. G. "Tom" Adams; Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Errol Barrow Voting strength (1976 election): Barbados Labor Party (BLP), 53%; Democratic Labor Party, 46%; Independent, negligible; House of Assembly seats?BLP 17, DLP 7 Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: People's Progressive Movement (PPM), a small black-nationalist group led by Calvin Alleyne Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, 1DB, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $440 million (1977), $1,840 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 3.0% Agriculture: main products?sugarcane, subsistence foods Major industries: tourism, sugar milling, light manu- facturing 18 Electric power: 107,000 kW capacity (1977); 220 million kWh produced (1977), 920 kWh per capita Exports: $95 million (f.o.b., 1977); sugar and sugarcane byproducts, clothing Imports: $274 million (c.i.f., 1977); foodstuffs, machinery, manufactured goods Major trade partners: exports-34% U.S., 27% CARI- COM, 10% U.K., 29% other; imports-25% U.S., 19% U.K., 16% CARICOM, 7% Canada, 33% other (1977) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (1970-76) from U.S., $3.7 million; from other Western countries, $41.4 million; no military aid Budget: (1978/79) revenues, $129 million; expenditures, $191 million Monetary conversion rate: 2 Barbados dollars= US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 1,450 km total; 1,350 km paved, and 100 km gravel, and earth Ports: 1 major (Bridgetovim), 2 minor Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft (including 4 leased in) Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 111 Telecommunications: islandwide automatic telephone system with 44,000 telephones (17.8 per 100 popl.); tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; UHF/VHF links to St. Vincent and St. Lucia; 2 AM stations, 1 FM station, 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 62,000; 44,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually, 3,000; no conscription BELGIUM 25X1 25X1 LAND 30,562 km2; 28% cultivated, 24% meadow and pasture, 28% waste, urban, or other; 20% forested Land boundaries: 1,377 km SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BELGIUM / D 9-3 UNITED KINGDOM North Sea LUX. 1 1 LANDS FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY FRANCE (See reference map IV) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 64 km PEOPLE Population: 9,874,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Belgian(s); adjective?Belgian Ethnic divisions: 55% Flemings, 33% Walloons, 12% mixed or other Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% none or other Language: French, Flemish (Dutch), German, in small area of eastern Belgium; divided along ethnic lines Literacy: 97% Labor force: 4.09 million (July 1978); in June 1976, 46.7% in services, 28.0% in mining and manufacturing, 7.4% in construction, 6.6% in transportation, 3.2% in agriculture, 1.0% commuting foreign workers, 0.4% in public works, 6.7% unemployed; 7% unemployed 1978 annual average Organized labor: 48% of labor force (1969) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Belgium Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Brussels Political subdivisions: 9 provinces Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; constitution adopted 1831, since amended; judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at 4 law schools; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: National Day, 21 July Branches: executive branch consists of King and cabinet; cabinet responsible to bicameral parliament; independent judiciary; coalition governments are usual Government leader: Head of State, King Baudouin I; Prime Minister Wilfried Martens SECRET SECRET Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: held 17 December 1978 (held at. least once every 4 years) Political parties and leaders: Flemish Social Christian, Leo Tindemans, president; Francophone Social Christian, Charles Hanin, president; Flemish Socialist, Karel Van Miert, president; Francophone Socialist, Andr?ools, president; Flemish Liberal, Willy De Clercq, president; Francophone Liberals, Andr?amseaux; Francophone Democratic Front, Antoinette Spaak, president; Volksunie (Flemish Nationalist), Hugo Schiltz, president; Communist, Louis Van Geyt, president; Walloon Rally, Henri Mordant Voting strength (1978 election): 82 seats Social Christian, 58 seats Socialist, 37 seats Liberal, 14 seats Volksunie, 11 seats Francophone Democratic Front, 4 seats Walloon Rally, 4 seats Communist, 2 seats independent Communists: 9,000 members (est.) Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; the Federation of Belgium Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufac- turers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia Member of: ADB, Benelux, BLEU, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE, ECOSOC, ECSC, EEC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, ICES, IDA, LEA, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, 100C, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $79 billion (1977), $8,040 per capita; 61.9% consumption, 21.1% investment, 17.4% government, 0.3% stock building, ?0.7% net foreign balance; 2.0% real growth rate in 1978 Agriculture: livestock production predominates; main crops?grains, beets, potatoes; 80% self-sufficient in food; caloric intake, 3,230 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Fishing: catch 44,410 metric tons (1976); exports $37 million (1975), imports $178* million (1975) Major industries: engineering and metal products, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, and Petroleum Crude steel: 12.6 million metric tons produced; 1,150 kg per capita (1978) Electric power: 11,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 51 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,180 kWh per capita Exports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) $37.5 billion (f.o.b., 1977); iron and steel products, finished or semifinished precious stones, textile products Imports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) $40.3 billion (c.i.f., 1977); nonelectrical machinery, motor vehicles, textiles, chemicals, fuels 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BELGIUM/BELIZE Major trade partners: (13elgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, 1977) 69.3% EC (22.3% West Germany, 17.5% France, 16.8% Netherlands, 7.3% U.K., 4.2% Italy), 5.1% U.S. Aid: (1970-77) bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $1,973 million Budget: (1977) revenues, $21.9 billion; expenditures, $24.0 billion; deficit, $2.1 billion Monetary conversion rate: (1978 average) Belgian Franc 31.410 = US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,219 km total; 4,003 km standard gage (1.435 m) and government-owned, 2,536 km double track, 1,287 km electrified; 216 km privately owned, electrified meter gage (1.000 m) Highways: 104,612 km total; 1,051 km paved, limited access, divided autoroute; 51,780 km other paved; 51,781 km unpaved Inland waterways: 2,043 km, of which 1,528 km are in regular use by commercial transport Ports: 5 major, 1 minor Merchant marine: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,528,563 GRT, 2,421,461 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 27 cargo, 3 container 11 tanker, 22 bulk, 1 specialized carrier, 1 liquefied gas Pipelines: refined products, 1,115 km; crude, 161 km; natural gas, 3,218 km Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in and 3 leased out Airfields: 46 total, 45 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent domestic and interna- tional telephone and telegraph facilities; 2.95 million telephones (30.0 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 21 FM, and 25 TV stations; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,369,000; 1,999,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually 78,000 July 1979 Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $2.3 billion; about 7% of proposed central government budget 20 BELIZE (formerly British Honduras) LAND 22,973 km2; 38% agricultural (5% cultivated), ?46% exploitable forest, 16% urban, waste, water, offshore islands or other Land boundaries: 515 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 386 km PEOPLE Population: 156,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Belizean(s); adjective?Belizean Ethnic divisions: 51% Negro, 22% mestizo, 19% Amerin- dian, 8% other Religion: 50% Roman Catholic; Anglican, Seventh-day Adventist, Methodist, Baptist, Jehovah's Witnesses, Men- nonite SECRET 25X1 5X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET Gulf of Mexico *Fiplmopan BELIZE Caribbean Sea Pacific Ocean (See reference map II) BELIZE Language: English, Spanish, Maya, and Can)i Literacy: 70%-80% Labor force: 34,500; 39% agriculture, 14% manufactur- ing, 8% commerce, 12% construction and transport, 20% services, 7% other; shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel; over 15% are unemployed Organized labor: 8% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Belize Type: internal self-governing British colony Capital: Belmopan Legal system: English law; constitution came into force in 1964, although country remains a British colony Branches: 18-member elected National Assembly and 8-member Senate (either house may choose its speaker or president, respectively, from outside its elected member- ship); cabinet; judiciary Government leaders: Premier George C. Price; Governor Peter Donovan McEntee Suffrage: universal adult (probably 21) Elections: must be held within 5 years of last elections held in October 1974 Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP), George Price; United Democratic Party (UDP), a coalition comprised of the National Independence Party (NIP) led by Philip Goldson, the People's Democratic Union (PDM) led by Dean Lindo, and the Liberal Party (LP) led by Harry Lawrence; Corozal United Front (CUF), San- tiago Ricalde; United Black Association for Development (UBAD), Evan X. Hyde Voting strength (National Assembly): PUP 12 seats, UDP 6 seats Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: Christian Workers' Union (CWU) Which is connected with PUP Member of: CARICOM, ISO SECRET ECONOMY GDP: $96 million (1975), $700 per capita; 78% private consumption, 17% public consumption, 36% domestic investment, ?31% net foreign balance (1968) Agriculture: main products?sugarcane, citrus fruits, corn, molasses, rice, beans, bananas, livestock products; net importer of food; caloric intake, 2,500 calories per day per capita Major industries: timber and forest products, food processing, furniture, rum, soap Electric power: 16,000 kW capacity (1977); 32 million kWh produced (1977), 230 kWh per capita Exports: $73 million (f.o.b., 1975); sugar, molasses, clothing, lumber, citrus fruits, fish Imports: $86 million (c.i.f., 1975); vehicles, building materials, petroleum, food, textiles, machinery Major trade partners: exports?U.S. 30%, U.K. 24%, Mexico 22%, Canada 13%; imports?U.S. 34%, U.K. 25%, Jamaica 7% (1970) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $56.5 million; from U.S., $2.5 million; no military aid Monetary conversion rate: 2 Belize dollars=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 2,550 km total; 300 km paved, 1,150 km gravel, 950 km improved earth and 300 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 800 km river network used by shallow-draft craft Ports: 1 major (Belize), 4 minor Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 37 total, 36 usable,. 4 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 5,600 telephones in automatic and manual network (4.3 per 100 popl.); radio-relay system; 6 AM stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 35,000; 21,000 fit for military service; 1,700 reach military age (18) annually ? 21 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BELIZE/BENIN BENIN (formerly Dahomey) NIGER NIGERIA Porto- Novo Gulf of Guinea 0 (See &mere map VII LAND 115,773 km% southern third of country is most fertile; arable land 80% (actually cultivated 11%), forests and game preserves 19%, non-arable 1% Land boundaries: 1,963 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (100 nm mineral exploitation limit) Coastline: 121 km PEOPLE Population: 3,379,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Beninese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Beninese Ethnic divisions: 99% Africans (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), 5,500 Europeans ? Religion: 12% Muslim, 8% Christian, 80% animist 22 July 1979 Language: French official; Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in south, at least 6 major tribal languages in north Literacy: about 20% Labor force: 85% of labor force engaged in agriculture; 15% civil service, artisans, and industry . Organized labor: approximately 75% of wage earners, divided among two major and several minor unions GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Benin Type: party state, under military rule since 26 October 1972 Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto) Political subdivisions: 6 provinces, 46 districts Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; legal education generally obtained in France; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 30 November Branches: National Revolutionary Council, Council of Ministers, Central Committee of Party Government ?leader: Col. Mathieu Kerekou, President, and Chief of State Charged with National Defense Suffrage: suspended Elections: current government has held no elections and none are scheduled Political parties: People's Revolutionary Party of Benin established in 1975 Communists: sole party espouses Marxism-Leninism Member of: AFDI3, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $660 million (1977 est.), $200 per capita; 1.5% real growth during 1970-1977 Agriculture: major cash crop is oil palms; peanuts, cotton, coffee, sheanuts, and tobacco also produced commercially; main food crops?corn, cassava, yams, rice, sorghum and millet; livestock, fish Fishing: catch 25,504 metric tons (1976); exports 600 metric tons, imports 8,875 metric tons (1975) Major industries: palm oil and palm kernel oil processing Electric power: 11,000 kW capacity (1977); 55 million kWh produced (1977), 20 kWh per capita Exports: $106 million (f.o.b., 1977); palm products (34%); other agricultural products Imports: $264 million (c.i.f., 1977); clothing and other consumer goods, cement, lumber, fuels, foodstuffs, machin- ery, and transport equipment SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BENIN 'BERMUDA Major trade partners: France, EC, franc zone; preferen- tial tariffs to EC and franc zone countries Aid: economic?Communist countries (1970-76), $49.3 million; U.S. (1970-77), $7.6 million; OPEC (ODA) (1970- 77), $1.1 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $10 million Budget: 1977 est.?receipts $110 million, expenditures $109 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine (CFA) francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 579 km, all meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 3,303 km total; 705 km paved, 2,598 km improved earth Inland waterways: 645 km navigable Ports: 1 major (Cotonou), 1 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 3,000 GRT, 4,400 DWT Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft Airfields: 10 total, 10 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system of open wire and radio relay; 9,900 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 735,000; 370,000 fit for military service; about 34,000 males and 35,000 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes liable for military service Supply: depends mainly on France and the U.S.S.R.; some aid from the Netherlands and other countries as well Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $10.9 million; about 9.7% of central government budget SECRET SECRET BERMUDA dassi UNITED STATES Adam* Ocean BERMUDA ? (See reference mop II) LAND 54.4 km2; 8% arable, 60% forested, 21% built on, wasteland, and other, 11% leased for air and naval bases WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 103 km PEOPLE Population: 61,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (7-70 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Bermudian(s); adjective?Bermudian Ethnic divisions: approximately 59% black, 41% white Religion: 47.5% Church of England, 38.2% other Protes- tant, 10.2% Catholic, 4.1% other Language: English Literacy: virtually 100% Labor force: 25,200 (1975) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Bermuda Type: British colony Capital: Hamilton Political subdivisions: 9 parishes Legal system: English law Branches: Executive Council (cabinet) appointed by governor, led by government leader; bicameral legislature with an appointed Legislative Council, .and a 40-member directly elected House of Assembly; Supreme Court Government leaders: Governor, Sir Peter Ramsbotham; Premier, J. David Gibbons Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: at least once every 5 years; last general election, May 1976 2:3 ? 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BERMUDA/BHUTAN Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (U13P), J. David Gibbons; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Lois 13rowne Evans Voting strength (1976 elections): Ul3P 55.5%, PLP 44.4%; House of Assembly seats?U13P 26%, PLP 14% Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (I3IU) ECONOMY GNP: $430 million (1976 est.), $7,540 per capita; real growth rate 1976, est 2.0% Agriculture: main products?bananas, vegetables, Easter lilies, dairy products, citrus fruits Major industries: t:mrism, finance Electric power: 86,200 kW capacity (1977); 300 million kWh produced (1977), 5,170 kWh per capita Exports: $47 million (f.o.b., 1976); mostly reexports of drugs and bunker fuel Imports: $165 million (f.o.b., 1976); fuel, foodstuffs, machinery Major trade partners: 45% U.S., 22% U.K., 9% Canada (1976) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-76), from U.S. $34 million; from other Western countries $109 million; no military aid Budget: revenues, $87 million; expenditures $89 million; expenditures $89 million (proposed 1978/79) Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bermuda dollar=US$1 Fiscal year: I April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 190 km, all paved Ports: 3 major (Hamilton, St. George Freeport, Ireland Island) Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft Airfields: 1 with asphalt runway 2,945 m Telecommunications: modern telecom system, includes fully automatic telephone system with 38,606 sets (66.6 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 1 FM, and 2 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Local security forces: Bermuda Regiment, 463 (force is basically a reserve unit?includes headquarters staff of 20 and Volunteer Reserve Force of 38); Bermuda Police Force, 365; Bermuda Reserve Constabulary, 78 24 July 1979 BHUTAN 25X1 (See reference imp VII LAND 46,600 km2; 15% agricultural, 15% desert, waste, urban, 70% forested Land boundaries: about 870 km PEOPLE Population: 1,297,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective? Bhutanese Ethnic divisions: 60% 13hotias, 25% ethnic Nepalese, 15% indigenous or migrant tribes Religion: 75% Lamaistic Buddhism, 25% Buddhist- influenced Hinduism Language: Bhotias speak various Tibetan dialects, most widely spoken dialect is Dzongkha, the official language; Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects Literacy: insignificant Labor force: 300,000; 99% agriculture, I% industry; massive lack of skilled labor GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Bhutan Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India Capital: Thimphu Political subdivisions: 4 regions (east, central, west, south), further divided into 15-18 subdivisions Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; in 1964 the monarch assumed full power?no constitution existed beforehand; a Supreme Court hears appeals from district administrators; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BHUTAN/BOLIVIA National holiday: 17 December Branches: appointed Minister and indirectly elected Assembly consisting of village elders, monastic representa- tives, and all district and senior government administrators Government leader: King Jigme Singye Wangchuk Suffrage: each family has -one vote Elections: popular elections on village level held every 3 years Political parties: all parties illegal Communists: no overt Communist presence Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist Clergy Member of: Colombo Plan, G-77, NAM, UPU, U.N. ECONOMY GNP: $90 million (1976); $70 per capita Agriculture: rice, barley, wheat, potatoes, ? fruit Major industries: handicrafts (particularly textiles) Electric power: 3,000 kW capacity (1978); 8 million kWh produced (1978), 6 kWh per capita Exports: about $1 million annually; rice, dolomite, and handicrafts Imports: about $1.4 million annually Major trading partner: India Aid: economic?India (FY61-72), $180 million Monetary conversion rate: both ngultrums and Indian rupees are legal tender; 8.77 ngultrums=8.77 Indian rupees=US$1 as of October 1975 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km unimproved earth Freight carried: not available, very light traffic Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 1 asphalt runway 1,372 m, and 1 with concrete runway 899 m Telecommunications: facilities inadeouate; 1,000 tele- phones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 6,000 est. radio sets; no TV sets; 1 AM station and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 306,000; 166,000 fit for military service; about 14,000 reach military age (18) annually Defense is the de facto responsibility of India since 1949; Supply: dependent on India SECRET SECRET BOLIVIA (See reference map III) LAND 1,098,160 km2; 2% cultivated and fallow, 11% pasture and meadow, 45% urban, desert, waste, or other, 40% forest, 2% inland water Land boundaries: 6,083 km PEOPLE Population: 5,216,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Bolivian(s); adjective?Bolivian Ethnic divisions: 50%-75% Indian, 20%-35% mestizo, 5%-15% white Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; active Protes- tant minority, especially Methodist Language: Spanish, Aymara, Quechua Literacy: 35%-40% Labor force: 2.8 million (1977); 70% agriculture, 3% mining, 10% services and utilities, 7% manufacturing, 10% other Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in min- ing, industry, construction, and transportation GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Bolivia Type: republic; de facto military dictatorship government Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary) Political subdivisions: 9 departments with limited autonomy Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; constitution adopted 1967; constitution in force except where contrary to dispositions dictated by governments since 1969; legal education at University of San Andres and several others; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August Branches: executive; congress of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies), congress disbanded after 26 September 1969 ouster of President Siles; judiciary 25 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BOLIVIA Government leaders: President David PADILLA Arancibia Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 if married, 21 if single Elections: presidential and congressional elections held on 9 July 1978, Bolivia's first elections in 12 years were subsequently declared invalid by the Banzer government following widespread reports of fraudulent balloting; on 21 July General Pereda, the official candidate, took power in a bloodless coup; (Perecla has since been deposed by Padilla); elections are now tentatively set for July 1979 Political parties and leaders: ban on political parties was lifted in December 1977, but party activity is disorganized so far; the two traditional political parties in Bolivia are the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR) and the Boliv- ian Socialist Phalange (FS3), both are seriously factionalized; Bolivian Socialist Falange (Mario Gutierrez); Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of the People (Jaime Arellano); Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of Left (Hernan Siles Zuazo); Authentic Revolutionary Party (Walter Guevara Arce); Christian Democratic Party (Benjamin Miguel); Nationalist Revolutionary Party of Left (Juan Lachin Oquendo); Paz Estenssorista MNR (Leonidas Sanchez); in addition, former President Banzer has formed the National- ist Democratic Action Party (ADN) and is planning to enter the presidential race Voting strength (1966 elections): Frente de la Revolucion ,Boliviana (a coalition composed of the MPC, PIR, PRA, PSD, and two interest groups, the campesinos and Chaco War Veterans) 61%, FSB 12%, MNR 10%, other 17% Communists: three parties; PCB/Soviet led by Jorge Kolle Cueto, about 300 members; PCB/Chinese led by Oscar Zamora, 150 (including 100 in exile); POR (Trotskyist), about 50 members divided between three factions led by Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso, Guillermo Lora Escobar, and Amadeo Arze Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, IADB, IATP, 11311D, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, LAFTA and Andean Sub-Regional Group (created in May 1969 within LAFTA), OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $4.5 billion (1978, in 1978 dollars), .$875 per capita; 70% private consumption, 12% public consumption, 18% gross domestic investment, ? 5.5% net foreign balance (1978); real growth rate (1972-78), average 5.6%; 1978 growth, 3.6% Agriculture: main crops?potatoes, corn, rice, sugarcane, yucca, bananas; imports significant quantities of wheat; caloric intake, 70% of requirements (1976) - Major industries: mining, smelting, petroleum refining, food processing, textiles, and clothing Electric power: 367,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.1 billion kWh produced (1977), 230 kWh per capita 26 July 1979 Exports: $670 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); tin, petroleum, lead, zinc, silver, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, gold, coffee, sugar, cotton, natural gas Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1978); foodstuffs, chemicals, capital goods, pharmaceuticals, transportation Major trade partners: exports?Western Europe, 19% (of which UK is largest market); Latin America, 38%; U.S., 30%; Japan, 3.9%; imports?U.S., 24%; Western Europe, 15.4% (of which West Germany is largest supplier); Japan, 15.7%; Latin America, 33.6% (1975) Aid: economic?extensions from U.S. (FY46-76), $335 million in loans, $342 million in grants; from international organizations (FY46-75), $372 million; from other Western countries (1960-75), $53.8 million; Communist countries (1970-74), $59.7 million; military?assistance from U.S. (FY52-76), $70 million Budget: $474 million revenues, $583 million expenditures (1978) Monetary conversion rate: 20 pesos=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,572 km total, goverment owned, single track; 3,540 km meter gage (1.000 m), 32 km 0.760-meter gage; in addition, 96 km meter gage (1.000 m) privately owned Highways: 37,300 km total; 1,150 km paved, 6,550 km gravel, 5,950 km improved earth, 23,650 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: officially estimated to be 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways Pipelines: crude oil, 1,670 km; refined products, 1,495 km; natural gas, 580 km Ports: none (Bolivian cargo moved through Arica and Antofagasta, Chile, and Matarani, Peru) Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4 200 GRT 6,400 DWT; owned by Bolivian Navy Civil air: 50 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 587 total, 546 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 128 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: radio-relay system from La Paz to Santa Cruz; improved international services; 55,000 tele- phones (1.2 per 100 popl.); 122 AM, 18 FM, and 5 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,213,000; 767,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually about 54,000 SECRET a 4 25X14 25X1 25X14 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BOLIVIA/BOTSWANA Supply: totally dependent on foreign sources, primarily U.S., also Argentina Brazil, Switzerland, Netherlands, and Canada Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $90.2 million; about 13.2% of central government budget BOTSWANA ANGOLA NAMIBIA Atlantic Ocean ZAMBIA BOTSW Gaborone SOUTHERN ? HOD SIA A 0 SOUTH AFRICA MOZAMBIQUE Indian Ocean (See reference men W LAND 569,800 km2; about 6% arable, less than 1% under cultivation, mostly desert Land boundaries: 3,774 km PEOPLE Population: 770,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun-13otswana (sing.), I3atswana (pl.); adjective-13otswana Ethnic divisions: 94% Tswana, 5% Bushmen, 1% Euro- pean Religion: 85% animist, 15% Christian Language: Africans speak Tswana vernacular Literacy: about 22% in English; about 32% in Tswana; less than 1% secondary school graduates SECRET SECRET Labor force: 385,000; most are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture; about 51,000 in internal cash economy, another 60,000 spend at least 6 to 9 months per year as wage earners in South Africa (1971) Organized labor: eight trade unions organized with a total membership of approximately 9,000 (1972 est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Botswana Type: parliamentary republic; independent member of Commonwealth since 1966 Capital: Gaborone Political subdivisions: 12 administrative districts Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; constitution came into effect 1966; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; legal education at University of Botswana and Swaziland (21/2 years) and University of Edinburgh (2 years); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 30 September Branches: executive?President appoints and presides over the cabinet which is responsible to Legislative Assembly; legislative?Legislative Assembly with 32 popu- larly elected members and 4 members elected by the 32 representatives, House of Chiefs with deliberative powers only; judicial?local courts administer customary law, High Court and subordinate courts have criminal jurisdiction over all residents, Court of Appeal has appellate jurisdiction Government leader: President, Sir Seretse M. Khama; Vice President, Dr. Quett K. J. Masire Suffrage: universal, age 21 and over Elections: general elections held 26 October 1974 Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Seretse Khama; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth Koma; Bechuanaland People's Party (BPP), Philip Mkante; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai Mpho Voting strength: (October 1974 election) BDP (27 seats); BPP (2 seats); BNF (2 seats); BIP (I seat) Communists: no known Communist organization; Koma of BNF has long history of Communist contacts Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, IDA, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UPU, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $365.2 million (1976/77), growth in constant prices, less than 5% in 1977 Agriculture: principal crops are corn and sorghum; livestock raised and exported Major industries: livestock processing, mining of dia- monds, copper, nickel, and coal Electric power: 75,000 kW capacity (1977); 85 million kWh produced (1977), 120 kWh per capita 27 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BOTSWANA/BRAZIL Exports: $189.3 million (1977 est.); cattle, animal pro- ducts, minerals Imports: $243.7 million (1977 est.); foodstuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products Major trade partners: South Africa and U.K. Aid: economic?(1970-77), Western (non-U.S.) countries, $330 million; U.S. (1977), $30.8 million; Communist countries, $3.5 million; military?Communist countries, $1.0 million Budget: (1977) revenue $107 million ($78 million from domestic taxes and $29 million from borrowing and foreign aid), current expenditures $70 million, investment expendi- tures $44 million . Monetary conversion rate: 1 pula=about US$1.20 as of October 1977 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 726 km 1.067-meter gage Highways: 10,476 km total; 579 km paved; 1,453 km crushed stone or gravel; 5,407 km improved earth and 3,037 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: native craft only; of local importance Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 81 total, 64 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: the system is a minimal combina- tion of open-wire lines, radio-relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; Gaborone is the center; 7,900 telephones (1.2 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 148,000; 78,000 fit for military service; 9,000 reach military age (18) annually BRAZIL LAND 8,521,100 km2; 4% cultivated, 13% pasture, 23% built-on area, .waste, and other, 60% forested Land boundaries: 13,076 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 7,491 km 28 July 1979 Atlantic Ocean (See reference men 1111 PEOPLE Population: 124,428,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) Nationality: noun?Brazilian(s); adjective?Brazilian Ethnic divisions: 60% white, 30% mixed, 8% Negro, and 2% Indian (1960 est.) Religion: 93% Roman Catholic (nominal) Language: Portuguese Literacy: 83% of the population 15 years or older (1978) Labor force: about 30 million in 1970 (est.); 44.2% agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fishing, 17.8% industry, 15.3% services, transportation, and communication, 8.9% commerce, 4.8% social activities, 3.9% public administration, 5.1% other Organized labor: about 50% of labor force; only about 1.5 million pay dues GOVERNMENT Legal name: Federative Republic of Brazil Type: federal republic; military-backed presidential re- gime since April 1964 Capital: Brasilia Political subdivisions: 22 states, 3 territories, federal district (Brasilia) Legal system: based on Latin codes; dual system of courts, state and federal; constitution adopted 1967 and extensively amended in 1969; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September Branches: strong executive with very broad powers; bicameral legislature (powers of the two bodies have been sharply reduced); 11-man Supreme Court Government leader: President, Joao Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo Suffrage: compulsory over age 18, except illiterates and those stripped of their political rights; approximately 30 million registered voters in October 1970 SECRET 1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BRAZIL Elections: Figueiredo, who took office on 15 March 1979, was chosen by an electoral college, composed of the members of Congress and delegates selected from the state legislatures on 15 October 1978; next election 1984 Voting strength: (November 1974 congressional elections) 33.6% ARENA, 31.9% MDI3, 35.5% blank and void Political parties and leaders: National Renewal Alliance (ARENA), pro-government, Jos?arney, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDI3), opposition, Ulisses Guimar- aes, president Communists: 6,000, less than 1,000 militants Other political or pressure groups: excepting the military, the Catholic Church is the only active nationwide pressure group, however, divisions within the Church often prevent it from speaking with one voice; labor and student groups have become more vocal in recent months Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO , ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $187 billion (1978 est.), $1,620 per capita; 25% gross investment, 80% consumption, ?5% net foreign balance (1976); real growth rate 6.32% (1978) Agriculture: main products?coffee, rice, beef, corn, milk, sugarcane, soybeans; nearly self-sufficient; caloric intake, 2,900 calories per day per capita (1962) Fishing: catch 950,000 metric tons (1976 est.); exports, $53.8 million (f.o.b., 1976); imports, $60.8 million (f.o.b., 1976) Major industries: textiles and other consumer goods, chemicals, cement, lumber, steel, motor vehicles, other metalworking industries Crude steel: 12.0 million metric tons capacity (1977 est.); 11.2 million metric tons produced (1977); 100 kg per capita Electric power: 24,500,000 kW capacity (1977); 88.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 765 kWh per capita Exports: $12,650 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee, manufac- tures, iron ore, cotton, soybeans, sugar, wood, cocoa, beef, shoes Imports: $13,639 million (f.o.b., 1978); machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum, wheat, copper, aluminum Major trade partners: exports-17.7% U.S., 8.8% West Germany, 7.7% Netherlands, 5.6% Japan, 5.6% Italy, 4% Spain; imports (non-oil)-20% U.S., 8.6% West Germany, 7% Japan, 2.5% Italy, (1977) Aid: economic?bilateral, including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from U.S., $1,670.6 million; from other Western countries, $3,069.4 million; from Communist countries, $303.5 million; military?from U.S. (FY70-76), $214.1 million SECRET SECRET Budget: (1977) revenues $17.2 billion, expenditures $17.1 billion Monetary conversion rate: 23 cruzeiros=US$1 (March 1979, changes frequently) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 30,300 km total; 26,543 km meter gage (1.000 m), 3,361 km 1.60-meter gage, 194 km standard gage (1.435 m), 202 km 0.76-meter gage; 2,249 km electrified Highways: 1,510,900 km total; 75,900 km paved, 1,435,000 km gravel or earth Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable Ports: 8 major, 23 significant minor Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 465 km; natural gas, 257 km Merchant marine: 285 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,716,000 GRT, 6,128,284 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 182 cargo, 54 tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 31 bulk, 11 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized carrier, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo. Civil air: 124 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 4,326 total, 3,771 usable; 172 with permanent- surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 416 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair telecom system; good radio relay facilities; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station with 2 antennas; 5 domestic satellite stations; 3.99 million tele- phones (3.5 per 100 popl.); 1,100 AM stations, 150 FM, and 175 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 28,698,000; 18,679,000 service; 1,321,000 reach military age (18) fit for military annually 29 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BRAZIL/BRUNEI Supply: produces small arms, light artillery, ammunition, explosives, and light aircraft; wheeled armored and cargo vehicles, patrol boats, and auxiliary ships; Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $2,364 million; 8.3% of central government budget BRUNEI (See (elven. mep VIII LAND 5,776 km'; 3% cultivated; 22% industry, waste, urban or other; 75% forested Land boundaries: 381 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 161 km PEOPLE Population: 199,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) :30 July 1979 Nationality: noun-13runeian(s); adjective?I3runeian Ethnic divisions: 52% Malays, 28% Chinese, 15% indigenous tribes, 5% other Religion: 60% Muslim (Islam official religion); 8% Christian; 32% other (Buddhist and animist) Language: Malay and English official, Chinese Literacy: 45% Labor force: 32,155; 30.5% agriculture; 32.8% industry, manufacturing, and construction; 33.8% trade, transport, services; 2.9% other Organized labor: 8.4% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Brunei Type: British protectorate; constitutional sultanate Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts Legal system: based on Islamic law; constitution promul- gated by the Sultan in 1959 Branches: Chief of State is Sultan (advised by appointed Privy Council) who appoints Executive Council and Legislative Council Government leader: Sultan Hassanal 13olkiah Suffrage: universal age 21 and over; 3-tiered system of indirect elections; popular vote cast for lowest level (district councilors) Elections: last elections?March 1965; further elections postponed indefinitely Political parties and leaders: antigovernment, exiled Brunei People's Party, Chairman A. M. N. Azahari Communists: information not available ECONOMY GNP: $460 million (1975 est.), $2,970 per capita Agriculture: main crops?rubber, rice, pepper, must import most. food Major industry: crude petroleum, liquefied natural gas Electric power: 84,000 kW capacity (1978); 230 million kWh produced (1978), 1,200 kWh per capita Exports: $1,900 million (f.o.b., 1978); 95% crude petro- leum and liquefied natural gas Imports: $261 million (c.i.f., 1978); 25% machinery and transport equipment, 46% manufactured goods, 16% food Major trade partners: exports of crude petroleum and liquefied natural gas to Japan; imports from Japan 30%, U.S. 24%, U.K. 15%, Singapore 9% Budget: (1979) revenues $1 billion, expenditures $507 million, surplus $493 million; 70% defense Monetary conversion rate: 2.3 13runei dollars=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year SECRET 1 25X1 25X1] 1 25X11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BRUNEI/BULGARIA COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 9.6 km narrow gage (0.610 m) Highways: 1,206 km total; 376 km paved (bituminous treated), 402 km gravel or stone, 428 km unimproved Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters Ports: 2 minor (Bandar Seri Begawan, formerly 13runei, and Kuala 13elait) Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 56 km; natural gas, 56 km; crude oil and natural gas, 241 km under construction Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: service throughout country is ade- quate for present needs; international service good to adjacent Sabah and Sarawak; radiobroadcast coverage good; 11,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); Radio Brunei broadcasts from 6 AM stations and 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 41,000; 24,000 fit for military service; about 1,900 reach military age (18) annually BULGARIA LAND 111,852 km2; 41% arable, 11% other ,agricultural, 33% forested, 15% other Land boundaries: 1,883 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 354 km SECRET SECRET 4 (See re(erence map IV) PEOPLE Population: 8,892,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Bulgarian(s); adjective?Bulgarian Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarians, 8.5% Turks, 2.6% Gypsies, 2.5% Macedonians, 0.3% Armenians, 0.2% Russians, 0.6% other Religion: regime promotes atheism; religious background of population is 85% Bulgarian Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, Gregorian- Armenian and other Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely corre- spond to ethnic breakdown Literacy: 95% (est.) Labor force: 5.0 million (1974); 32% agriculture, 33% industry, 35% other GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Bulgaria Type: Communist state Capital: Sofia Political subdivisions: 28 okrugs (districts), including capital city, of Sofia Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; new constitution adopted in 1971; judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; legal education at University of Sofia; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 September Branches: legislative, National Assembly; judiciary, Su- preme Court Government leaders: Todor Zhivkov, Chairman, State Council (President and Chief of State); Stanko Todorov, Chairman, Council of Ministers (Premier) Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: theoretically held every 5 years for National Assembly; last elections held on 20 May 1976; 99.85% of the electorate voted 31 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BULGARIA Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, First Secretary; Bulgarian National Agrarian Union, a puppet party, Petur Tanchev, secretary of Permanent Board Communists: 817,000 party members (January 1978) Mass organizations and front groups: Fatherland Front, Dimitrov Communist Youth League, Central Council of Trade Unions, National Committee for Defense of Peace, Union of Fighters Against Fascism and Capitalism, Commit- tee of Bulgarian Women, All-National Committee for Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship Member of: CEMA, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, Interna- tional Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO; Warsaw Pact, International Organization of Journalists, International Medical Associ- ation, International Radio and Television Organization ECONOMY GNP: $24.8 billion, 1978 (1978 dollars), $2,799 per capita; 1978 real growth rate, 4.4% Agriculture: mainly self-sufficient; main crops?grain, vegetables; caloric intake, 3,000 calories per day per capita (1969/70) Fishing: catch 138,000 metric tons (1977) Major industries: agricultural processing, machinery, textiles and clothing, mining, ore processing, timber Shortages: some raw materials, metal products, meat and dairy products; fodder Crude steel: 2.5 million metric tons produced (1978), 280 kg per capita Electric power: 7,760,000 kW capacity (1978); 31.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,550 kWh per capita Exports: $7,405 million (f.o.b., 1978); 46% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 15% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, and other industrial material; 2% agricultural raw materials; 29% foodstuffs, raw materials for food industry, and animals; 10% industrial consumer goods (1977) Imports: $7,508 million (f.o.b., 1978); 39% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 45% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, other materials; 7% agricul- tural raw materials; 4% foodstuffs and animals; 5% industrial consumer goods (1977) Major trade partners: $14,913 million in 1978; 20% with non-Communist countries, 57% with U.S.S.R., 23% with other Communist countries Aid: U.S.S.R.?about $2.03 billion economic aid extended (1954-76); Bulgaria has extended foreign aid totaling more than $64 million to Communist countries (1945-70), and $585 million to the less developed non-Communist countries (1956-78) Monetary conversion rate: 0.90 leva=US$1 (1978) 32 July 1979 Fiscal year: calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year 1 July-30 June NOTE: Foreign trade figures were converted at the 1977 rate of 0.911 leva=US$1 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,415 km total; about 4,170 km standard gage (1.435 m), 245 km narrow gage; 295 km double track; 1,446 km electrified; government-owned (1977) Highways: 31,320 km total; 55 km superhighway, 6,610 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 6,031 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 18,624 km earth (1977) Inland waterways: 471 km (1979) Freight carried: rail-75.2 million metric tons, 17.1 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-815 million metric tons, 15.5 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway-4.6 million metric tons, 2.5 billion metric ton/km (excl. intl. transit traffic) (1977); approximately 257 waterway craft with 260,000 metric ton capacity (1978) Ports: 3 major (Varna, Varna West, Burgas), 4 minor (1979); principal river ports are Ruse and Lom (1979) Airfields: 380 total; 118 with permanent-surface runways; 12 with runways 2,500-3,000 ' m, 33 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 335 with runways less than 1,000 m; 3 heliports Merchant marine: 105 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,038,000 GRT, 1,544,641 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 44 cargo, 1 cargo training, 18 tanker, 36 bulk, 1 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized carrier Civil air: 45 major transport aircraft (1978) Pipelines: crude oil, 193 km; natural gas, 900 km; refined, ,418 km Telecommunications: inferior to most other East Europe- an countries; meets only minimum requirements of govern- ment and public; wired broadcasts used extensively; 10 AM, 5 FM stations, 2,301,462 receivers; 1 major and 25 relay TV stations, 1,441,122 receivers; 640,842 telephones, 90.7% automatic DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,262,000; 1,843,000 fit for military service; about 64,000 reach military age (19) annually SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1, 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BULGARIA/BURMA Supply: dependent primarily on U.S.S.R.; domestic production of infantry weapons, ammunition, trucks, and small quantities of defensive chemical warfare materiel; Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, est. 550 million leva; 5.1% of total budget BURMA Rangoon Bay of Bengal South China Sea (See reference map VII LAND 678,600 km2; 28% arable, of which 12% is cultivated, 62% forest, 10% urban and other (1969) Land boundaries: 5,850 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) Coastline: 3,060 km SECRET SECRET PEOPLE Population: 33,517,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Burman(s); adjective?Burmese Ethnic divisions: 72% Burman, 7% Karen, 6% Shan, 2% Kachin, 2% Chin, 2% Chinese, 3% Indian, 6% other Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist and other Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages Literacy: 70% (official claim) Labor force: 12.2 million (1976); 67% agriculture, 9% industry, 20% services, commerce, and transportation Organized labor: no figure available; old labor organiza- tions have been disbanded, and government is forming one central labor organization GOVERNMENT Legal name: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma Type: republic under 1974 constitution Capital: Rangoon Political subdivisions: seven divisions and seven constitu- ent states; subdivided into townships, villages, and wards Legal system: People's Justice system and People's Courts instituted under 1974 constitution; legal education at Universities of Rangoon and Mandalay; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January Branches: State Council rules through a Council of Ministers; People's Assembly has legislative power Government leader: Chairman of State Council and President, Gen. U. Ne Win Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: People's Assembly and local People's Councils elected in 1978 Political parties and leaders: government-sponsored Burma Socialist Program Party only legal party Communists: estimated 5,000-8,000 Other political or pressure groups: People's Patriotic Party; Kachin Independence Army; Karen Nationalist Union, several Shan factions Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $4.4 billion (FY77/78, in current prices), $140 per capita; real growth rate 6.5% (1977/78); 2.5% over past decade Agriculture: accounts for nearly 70% of total cmployment and about 27% of GDP; main crops?paddy, sugarcane, corn, peanuts; almost 100% self-sufficient; most rice grown in deltaic land Fishing: catch 501,560 metric tons (1976) 33 25X1 25X1 2bAl 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BURMA/BURUNDI Major industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining Electric power: 450,000 kW capacity (1978); 890 million kWh produced (1978), 30 kWh per capita Exports: $243 million (f.o.b., 1978); rice, teak Imports: $309 million (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and transportation equipment, textiles, other manufactured goods Major trade partners: exports?Singapore, Western Eu- rope, China, U.K., Japan; imports?Japan, Western Europe, Singapore, U.K. Aid: economic?China (1970-77), $80.7 million extended; U.S.S.R. (1970-77), $1 million extended; U.S. (1970-77), $11 million; other Western (1970-77), $648 million Budget: (FY78) $2.765 billion revenues; $2.975 billion expenditures; $210 million deficit; 30% military, . 70% civilian - Monetary conversion rate: 6.8651 kyat=US$1 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,285 km total; 3,172 km meter gage (1.00 m), 113 km narrow-gage industrial lines; 328 km double track; government-owned Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth, gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels Pipelines: 144 km crude oil Ports: 4 major, 6 minor Merchant marine: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totalin 41,279 GRT, 57,922 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 1 tanker Civil .air: about 20 major transport aircraft Airfields: 80 total, 78 Usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: provide minimum requirements for local and intercity service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas; 31,400 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations; one ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 7,598,000; 4,054,000 fit for military service; about 338,000 males and 333,000 females reach military age (18) annually; both are liable for military service 34 July 1979 Supply: very limited local production; various countries suppliers; Military budget: (announced) for fiscal year ending 31 March 1978; $148.9 million, 5% of central government budget BURUNDI RWA ZAIRE Bujumbura (See (defence map VII LAND 28,490 km2; about 37% arable (about 66% cultivated), 23% pasture, 10% scrub and forest, 30% other Land boundaries: 974 km PEOPLE Population: 4,314,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Burundian(s); adjective?Burundi Ethnic divisions: Africans-85% Hutu (Bantu), 14% Tutsi (Hamitic), 1% Twa (Pigmy); other Africans include perhaps 10,000 Zairians (approximately 40,000 were recently repatri- ated), and 40,000 Rwandans; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 1,000 South Asians Religion: about 60% Christian (53% Catholic, 7% Protestant); rest mostly animist plus perhaps 2% Muslims Language: Kirundi and French official plus Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area) SECRET 25X1 25X1 2bAl 25X1 25X1' 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 S Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 BURUNDI/CAMEROON Literacy: about 15% in Kirundi, 3% in French, no serviceable estimate for Kiswahili Labor force: about 2 million (1976 est.) Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally); figures denoting -active membership- have been unobtainable GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Burundi Type: republic; military government overthrown by military coup, November 1976; constitution abolished Capital: Bujumbura Political subdivisions: 8 provinces, subdivided into 18 arrondissements and 78 communes; Bujumbura city (popula- tion est. 160,000) has status equal to a province Legal system: based on German and French civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July Branches: Supreme Revolutionary Council is governing body Government leader: Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, Chairman of Supreme Revolutionary Council, established November 1976 Suffrage: universal Elections: last legislative election May 1965; legislature dissolved in 1966 Political parties and leaders: National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), a Tutsi led party, declared sole legitimate party in 1966 Communists: no Communist party; resumed diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in October 1971 following a six-year suspension; U.S.S.R., North Korea, and Romania also have diplomatic missions in Burundi Member of: AFDB, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: about $450 million (1976), $120 per capita; 2% real growth (1970-74); real GDP growth in 1976, 7.8% Agriculture: major cash crops?coffee, cotton, tea; main food crops?manioc, yams, corn, sorghums, bananas, haricot beans; marginally self-sufficient Industries: light consumer goods such as beverages, blankets, shoes, soap, assembly of imports Electric power: 7,500 kW capacity (diesel generator 1977); 25 million kWh produced (1977), 6 kWh per capita Exports: $125 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee (90%), tea, cotton, hides, skins Imports: $74.2 million (c.i.f., 1977); textiles, foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products Major trade partners: U.S., EEC countries SECRET SECRET Aid: economic?from Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970- 77), $165 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $20.0 million; U.S. (1970-77), $7.0 million; OPEC (ODA) (1970- 77), $42.5 million; military?from Communist countries (1970-76), $8.0 million Budget: FY77?revenue $103.1 million, expenditure $81.9 million Monetary conversion rate: 90 Burundi francs= US$1 (official) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 7,800 km total; 300 km bituminous, 2,500 km crushed stone, gravel, or laterite, and 3,000 km improved earth, and 2,000 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika navigable for lake steamers and barges, 1 minor lake port Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 12 total, 12 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: sparse system of wire and low- capacity radio-relax links; telegraph primary means of communication; about 6,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 966,000; 500,000 fit for military service; 46,000 reach military age (16) annually Supply: formerly by Belgium, but in recent years has received materiel from the U.S.S.R., China, Egypt, France, North Korea, the U.K., and Greece Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $21,278,000; about 17.4% of central government budget CAMEROON LAND 475,400 km2; 4% cultivated, 18% grazing, 13% fallow, 50% forest, 15% other Land boundaries: 4,554 km 35 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET CAMEROON EQUATORIAL GUINEA. CAMEROON *Yaounde GABON CHAD CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE CONGO (See reference map VII WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 18 nm Coastline: 402 km PEOPLE Population: 8,168,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Cameroonian(s); adjective?Camer- oonian Ethnic divisions: about 200 tribes of widely differing background; 31% Cameroon Highlanders, 19% Equatorial Bantu, 8% Northwestern Bantu, 10% Fulani, 7% Eastern Nigritic, 11% Kirdi, 13% other African, less than 1% non-African Religion: about one-half animist, one-third Christian; one- sixth Muslim Language: English and French official, 24 major African language groups Literacy: South 40%, North 10% Labor force: most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture and herding; 200,000 wage earners (maximum) including 22,000 government employees, 63,000 paid agricultural workers, 49,000 in manufacturing Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Republic of Cameroon Type: unitary republic; one-party presidential regime Capital: Yaounde Political subdivisions: 7 provinces divided into 39 departments Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; new unitary constitution adopted 1972; judicial review in Supreme Court, when a question of constitutionality is referred to it by the President of the Republic; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Day, 20 May Branches: executive (President), legislative (National Assembly), and judicial (Supreme Court) 36 July 1979 Government leader: President Ahmadou Ahidjo Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: presidential elections held 5 April 1975; parliamentary elections held 28 May 1978 Political parties and leaders: single party, Cameroonian National Union (UNC), instituted in 1966, President Ahmadou Ahidjo Communists: no Communist Party or significant number of sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: Cameroon Peoples Union (UPC), an illegal terrorist group now reduced to scattered acts of banditry with its factional leaders in exile Member of: AF13D, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, UDEAC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2,500 million (mid 1977), per capita about $380; real growth rate, 3.2% (1970-77) Agriculture: commercial and food crops?cocoa, coffee, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, peanuts, palm oil and palm kernels; root starches, livestock, millet, sorghum, and rice Fishing: imports 7,024 metric tons, $2.2 million; exports 909 metric tons (largely shrimp), $3.5 Million (1975) Major industries: small aluminum plant, food processing and light consumer goods industries, sawmills Electric power: 358,000 kW capacity (1977); 1,347 million kWh produced (1977), 200 kWh per capita Exports: $615 million (f.o.b., FY77); cocoa and coffee about 60%; other exports include timber, aluminum, cotton, natural rubber, bananas, peanuts, tobacco, and tea Imports: $658 million (f.o.b., FY77); consumer goods, machinery, transport equipment, alumina for refining, petroleum products, food and beverages Major trade partners: about 70% of total trade with France and other EC countries; about 5% of total trade with U.S. Aid: economic?from Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970- 77), $710 million; from Communist countries (1970-77), $103.2 million; from U.S. (1970-77), $34 million; from OPEC (ODA) (1970-77), $4.0 million; military?from Communist countries (1970-76), $5.0 millior Budget: FY78 budget est. balanced at $560 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine francs=US$1 as of November 1977 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June 25X1 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,003 km total; 858 km meter gage (1.00 m), 145 km 0.600-meter gage Highways: approximately 29,866 km total; including 2,155 km bituminous, 27,711 km gravel and earth SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CAMEROON/CANADA Inland waterways: 2,090 km Ports: 1 major (Douala), 3 minor Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,200 GRT, 41,700 DWT Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft Airfields: 63 total, 60 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of open wire and radio relay; 26,000 telephones (0.4 per 100 pop!.); 6 AM, no FM, and no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,799,000; 906,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually about 84,000 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $62,534,667; 8.5% of central government budget CANADA LAND 9,971,500 km2; 4% cultivated, 2% meadows and pastures, 44% forested, 42% waste or urban, 8% inland water Land boundaries: 9,010 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 90,908 km SECRET Arctic Ocean UNITED STATES (See reference map!) SECRET PEOPLE Population: 23,755,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Canadian(s); adjective?Canadian Ethnic divisions: 44% British Isles origin, 30% French origin, 26% other Religion: 48% Protestant, 47% Catholic, 5% other Language: English and French official Labor force: 10.789 million (January 1978 rev.); 29% service, 22% manufacturing, 16% trade, 8% transportation and utilities, 6% agriculture, 6% construction, 8% other; 8.4% unemployment (1978 average); 7.9% unemployment (March 1979) Organized labor: 30% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Canada Type: federal state recognizing Elizabeth II as sovereign Capital: Ottawa Political subdivisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; constitution is British' North America Act of 1867 and various amendments; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- tion, with reservations National holiday: Dominion Day, 1 July Branches: federal executive power vested in cabinet collectively responsible to House of Commons, and headed by Prime Minister; federal legislative authority resides in Parliament consisting of Queen represented by Governor- General, Senate, and Commons; judges appointed by Governor-General on the ?advice of the government; Supreme Court is highest tribunal Government leaders: Prime Minister Charles Joseph (-Joe") Clark; Governor General Edward Schreyer Suffrage: universal over age 18 37 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: C-IA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET CANADA Elections: legal limit of 5 years but in practice usually held within 4 years, last election May 1979 Political parties and leaders: Liberal, Pierre Trudeau; Progressive-Conservatives, Joe Clark; New Democratic, Edward Broadbent; Social Credit, Fabien Roy Voting strength (1979 election (numbers in parens indicate current party strengths in Parliament)): Progres- sive Conservative 35.8% (135 seats); Liberal 40.3% (115 seats); New Democratic Party 17.8% (26 seats), Social Credit 5% (6 seats), other 1%, total seats in Parliament 282 Communists: 2,000 approx. Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Commomwealth, DAC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, 1BRD, ICAO, ICES, ICO, ICRC, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC? International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $203.3 billion (1978 in 1978 prices), $8,574 per capita (1978); 63.0% consumption, 18.4% investment, 21.0% government (1978); growth rate 4.7% (1970-78, real terms) Agriculture: main products?livestock, grains (principally wheat), dairy products; food shortages?fresh fruits and vegetables; caloric intake, 3,180 calories per day per capita (1966-67) Fishing: catch 892,000 million metric tons; exports 784.7 million metric tons (1978) Major industries: mining, metals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals Shortages: rubber, rolled steel, fruits, precision instruments Crude steel: 14.8 million metric tons produced (1978) Electric power: 71,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 350,000 million kWh produced (1978), 14,760 kWh per capita Exports: $43,373 million (f.o.b., 1977, source: IFS.); principal items?transportation equipment, wood and wood products including paper, ferrous and nonferrous ores, crude petroleum, wheat; Canada is a major food exporter Imports: $42,052 million (c.i.f., 1977, source: IFS.); principal items?transportation equipment, machinery, crude petroleum, communication equipment, textiles, steel, fabricated metals, office machines, fruits and vegetables Major trade partners: 70.0% U.S., 9.3% EC, 5.2% Japan (1978) Aid: economic?(received U.S., $380.9 million Ex-Im Bank); Canada commitments to LDCs (1970-76), bilateral ODA and OOF commitments, $6.5 billion Budget: total revenues $33,781 million; current expendi- tures $39,930 million; gross capital formation $6,833 million; budget deficit $6,149 million (1977) (National Accounts Basis) 38 July 1979 Monetary conversion rate: there is no designated par value for the Canadian dollar, which was allowed to float freely on the exchanges beginning 1 June 1970; since then the Canadian dollar has moved between US$0.84-1.04 in value, 1C$=US$0.8770 (official rate, 1978 average) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 68,978 km total; 67,616 km standard gage (1.435 m) (43 km electrified); 1,183 km 1.067-meter gage (in Newfoundland); 179 km 0.914-meter gage Highways: 829,325 km total; 640,850 km surfaced (189,800 km paved), 188,475 km earth Inland waterways: 3,000 km Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and refined; natural gas, 74,980 km Ports: 19 major, 300 minor Merchant marine: 103 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 628,022 GRT, 833,614 DWT; includes 9 passenger, 33 cargo, 4 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 28 tanker, 20 bulk, 7 specialized carrier Civil air: 535 major transport aircraft Airfields: 1,802 total, 1,449 usable; 304 with permanent- surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m, 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 282 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent service provided by mod- ern telecom media; 13.8 million telephones (60.4 per 100 pop!.); countrywide AM, FM, and TV coverage including 630 AM, 80 FM, and 500 TV stations; 8 coaxial submarine cables; 2 satellite stations with 2 Atlantic Ocean antennas and 1 Pacific Ocean antenna and 70 domestic satellite stations SECRET 25X11 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CANADA/CAPE VERDE CAPE VERDE CAPE VERDE c..? 0 .0 Praia Atlantic Ocean MAURITANIA SENEGAL THE G SIN SENEGAL GUINEA- BISSAU (See reference map 119 LAND 4,040 km', divided among 10 islands and several islets WATER Limits of territorial waters: 100 nm Coastline: 965 km PEOPLE Population: 328,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Capeverdean(s); adjective?Capever- dian Ethnic divisions: about 28% African; 70% mulatto; 2% European Religion: Catholicism, fused with local superstitions Language: Portuguese and crioula, a blend of Portuguese and West African words Literacy: 14% Labor force: bulk of population engaged in subsistence agriculture GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Cape Verde National holiday: 12 September Type: republic; achieved independence from Portugal in July 1975 SECRET SECRET Capital: Praia Political subdivisions: 10 islands Legal system: to be determined National holiday: 12 September Branches: National Assembly, 56 members; the official party is the supreme political institution Government leaders: President, Aristides Pereira; Prime Minister, Pedro Pires; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Abilio Duarte Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: to be determined Political parties and leaders: only legal party, Partido Africano da Independencia da Guinee e Cabo Verde (PAIGC), led by Aristides Pereira, Secretary-General Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers Member of: G-77, NAM, OAU, U.N. ECONOMY GDP: $57 million (1978 est.); $180 per capita income; 0.0% growth rate Agriculture: main crops?corn, beans, manioc, sweet potatoes; barely self-sufficient in food Fishing: catch, 4,400 metric tons (1976 est.); largely undeveloped but provides major source of export earnings Major industries: Salt mining Electric power: 6,000 kW capacity (1977); 7 million kWh produced (1977); 20 kWh per capita Exports: $1.41 million (f.o.b., 1976); fish, bananas, salt Imports: $26.8 million (c.i.f., 1976); machinery, textiles Major trade partners: Portugal, U.K., Japan, African neighbors Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $85 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $20.6 million; U.S. (1970-77), $12.7 million; OPEC (1977), $0.7 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $2.0 million Budget: (est. 1976) $30 million expenditures, $15 million revenues Monetary conversion rate: 40.643 escudos=US$1 (November 1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Ports: 1 major (Mindelo), 3 minor Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 totaling 3,199 GRT, 5,812 DWT Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft. Airfields: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: interisland radio-relay system, HF radio to mainland Portugal, about 1,600 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 1 FM and 5 AM stations; ?2 coaxial submarine cables GRT or over) 39 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET CAPE VERDE/CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 79,000; 44,000 fit for military service Supply: ammunition, trucks, armored vehicles have been received from the U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year including 31 December 1978, $3 million; about 5% of central government budget CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE (See reference mep VI) LAND 626,780 km2; 10%-15% cultivated, 5% dense forests, 80%-85% grazing, fallow, vacant arable land, urban, waste Land boundaries: 4,981 km PEOPLE Population: 2,418,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Central African(s); adjective?Cen- tral African Ethnic divisions: approximately 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which have related ethnic and linguistic characteristics; Banda (32%) and I3aya-Mandjia (29%) are largest single groups; 6,500 Europeans, of whom 6,000 are French and majority of the rest Portuguese Religion: 40% Protestant, 28% Catholic, 24% animist, 8% Muslim; animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority Language: French official; Sangho, lingua franca and national language 40 Literacy: estimated at 5%-10% Labor force: about half the population economically active, 80% of whom are in agriculture; approximately 64,000 salaried workers Organized labor: 1% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Central African Empire Type: constitutional monarchy, founded on a single party Capital: Bangui Political subdivisions: 14 prefectures, 47 subprefectures Legal system: based on French law; in 1966 the Chief of State assumed all power and abrogated the constitution; in 1976 he promulgated a new constitution; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 4 December Branches: Emperor Bokassa is Chief of State and rules by decree; government is headed by a Prime Minister assisted by the Council of Ministers; judiciary, Supreme Court, court of appeals, criminal court, and numerous lower courts; constitution calls for a National Assembly Government leader: Emperor Bokassa I Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: tentatively planned for late 1979 but none have been held yet under Bokassa regime; provided for in new constitution Political parties and leaders: Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MESAN), ruling party under former regime, continues as a key body for organizing support for the regime led by Emperor 13okassa Communists: no Communist Party or significant number of sympathizers Member of: AFDB, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UDEAC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $491.7 million (1978 est.), $259 per capita Agriculture: commercial?cotton, coffee, peanuts, ses- ame, wood; main food crops?manioc, corn, peanuts, rice, potatoes, beef; requires wheat, flour, rice, beef, and sugar imports Major industries: sawmills, cotton textile mills, brewery, diamond mining and splitting Electric power: 44,000 kW capacity (1977); 106 million kWh produced (1977), 60 kWh per capita Exports: $97.4 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); cotton, coffee, diamonds, timber Imports: $94.9 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); textiles, petro- leum products, Machinery and electrical equipment, motor vehicles and equipment, chemicals and pharmaceuticals SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CENTRAL AFRICAN EMPIRE/CHAD Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $180 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $13.3 million; OPEC (ODA) (1970-73), $10.5 million; U.S. (1970-77), $9.9 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $13.0 million Major trade partners: France, Yugoslavia, Japan, U.S. Budget: 1978 budget receipts and grants $83 million, expenditures $103 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 21,950 km total; 290 km bituminous, 7,500 km gravel and/or crushed stone, 14,160 km improved earth, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 7,080 km; traditional trade carried on by means of dugouts on the extensive system of rivers and streams Ports: Bangui (river port) Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 56 total, 47 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 in Telecommunications: facilities are meager; network is composed of low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunica- tion stations and radio-relay links; 5,540 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station, 1 FM station, and 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 437,000; 227,000 fit for military service Supply: mainly dependent on France, but has received equipment from Israel, Italy, U.S.S.R., and FRG Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $7.5 million (current budget only); about 10.6% of central government current budget SECRET SECRET CHAD ace reference map VII LAND 1,284,640 km2; 17% arable, 35% pastureland, 2% forest and scrub, 46% other uses and waste Land boundaries: 5,987 kin PEOPLE Population: 4,523,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Chadian(s); adjective?Chadian Ethnic divisions: over 240 tribes representing 12 major ethnic groups?Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Fulani, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, 13aguirmi, 13oulala, and Wadai) in the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Mayo-Kebbi, and Chari) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, 5,000 of them French Religion: about half Muslim, 5% Christian, remainder animist Language: French official; Chadian Arabic is lingua franca in north, Sara and Sangho in south Literacy: estimated 5%-10% Labor force: only 55% of population in economically active group, of which 90% are engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and fishing; 47,000 wage earners in industry and civil service Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Chad Type: republic; New National Union Transition Govern- ment formed. April 1979 to establish timetable for transfer- ring power to elected government Capital: N'Djamena Political subdivisions: 14 prefectures Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; constitution adopted 1962; constitu- tion suspended and national assembly dissolved April 1975; judicial review of legislative acts in theory a power of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ juris- diction 41 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET CHAD/CHILE National holiday: 13 April Branches: Presidency; Council of Ministers Government leader: President Mahamat Lol Choua Suffrage: universal Elections: all political activity banned Political parties and leaders: political parties banned Communists: no front organizations or underground party; probably a few Communists and some sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: new government does not include several Mtkslim rebel groups that have been in rebellion since October 1965 in east-central Chad; govern- ment opposition also possible from United Southern Front, a recessionist group organized in April 1979 in protest against loss of southern Christian control of government Member of: AFDB, flonference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EEC (associate), FAQ G-77, GATT, ICAC, ICAO, IBRD, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UEAC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $849 million (1978 est.), $198 per capita; estimated real annual growth rate 16% Agriculture: commercial?cotton, gum arabic, livestock, fish; food crops?peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, dates; imports food Fishing: catch 70,000 metric tons (1978 est.) Major industries: agricultural and livestock processing plants (cotton textile mill, slaughterhouses, brewery), natron Electric power: 22,000 kW capacity (1977); 60 million kWh produced (1977), 15 kWh per capita Exports: $98.5 million (f.o.b., 1979 est.); cotton 80%, livestock and animal products Imports: $184.4 million (f.o.b., 1979 est.); cement, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery, textiles, and motor vehicles Major trade partners: France (about 40% in 1973) and UDEAC countries; preferential tariffs to EC and franc zone countries Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $255 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $70.4 million; OPEC (ODA) (1970-73), $25.7 million; U.S. (1970-77), $31.1 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $7.0 million Budget: (1978 est.) $82 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 27,505 km total; 242 km bituminous, 4,385 km gravel and laterite, and remainder unimproved 42 July 1979 Inland waterways: approximately 2,090 km of year- round navigability, increased to 4,830 km during high-water period Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 66 total, 62 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; principal center N'Djamena, secondary center Sarh; 5,480 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, no FM, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,051,000; 544,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually about 44,000 Supply: dependent on France primarily Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $22.2 million; about 33% of total budget CHILE LAND 756,626 km2; 2% cultivated, 7% other arable, 15% permanent pasture, grazing, 29% forest, 47% barren mountains, deserts, and cities Land boundaries: 6,325 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 6,435 km PEOPLE Population: 10,850,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Chilean(s), adjective?Chilean SECRET 25X1 25X1j 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 fr Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CHILE Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Ethnic divisions: 95% EuropeanfseesCrtid mixed European with some Indian admixture, 3% Indian, 2% other Religion: 89% Roman Catholic, 11% Protestant Language: Spanish Literacy: 90% (1977) Labor force: 3.7 million economically active (1977); 30% agricultural, 29% industry and construction, 7% services, 10% commerce, 7% mining, 9% transportation, 8% other (1977) Organized labor: 25% of labor force (1973) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Chile Type: republic Capital: Santiago Political subdivisions: 12 regions plus one metropolitan district, 41 provincial subdivisions. Legal system: based on Code 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; constitution adopted 1925, amended since then, currently being revised; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of Chile, Catholic University, and several others; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September Branches: four-man Military-Police Junta, which exer- cises constituent and legislative powers and has delegated executive powers to President of Junta; the President has announced a plan for transition from military to civilian rule by 1985; Congress dissolved; civilian judiciary remains Government leader: President, Maj. Gen. Augusto PINO- CHET Ugarte; other Junta members, Adm. Jose Toribio MERINO Castro, Brig. Gen. Fernando MATTHEI Aubel, Gen. Cesar MENDOZA Duran SECRET SECRET Suffrage: none Elections: prohibited by decree; all electoral registers were destroyed in 1974 Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres Zaldivar and Eduardo Frei; National Party (PN), Sergio Onofre Jarpa; PDC and (PN) are officially recessed; Popular Unity coalition parties (outlawed)? Communist Party (PCCh), Luis Corvalan (in exile); Socialist Party (PS), Clodomiro Almeyda and Carlos Altamirano (both in exile); Radical Party (PR); Christian Left (IC); United Popular Action Movement (MAPU); Independent Popular Action (API) Voting strength (1970 presidential election): 36.6% Popular Unity coalition, 35.3% conservative independent, 28.1% Christian Democrat; (1973 Congressional election) 44% Popular Unity coalition, 56% Democratic Confeder- ation (PDC and PN) Communists: 248,000 when PCCh was legal in 1973; active militants now estimated at about 20,000 Other political or pressure groups: organized labor; business organizations; landowners' associations (SNA? Sociedad Nacional de Agricultural); Catholic church; ex- treme leftist, Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR), outlawed; rightist, Patria y Libertad (PyL), outlawed Member of: CIPEC, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $10.9 billion (1978), 81,015 per capita; 76.0% private consumption, 15.8% government consumption; 9.2% gross investment, ? 1.0% net imports and factor payments abroad; real growth rate, 1978, 6.0%; 1972-78 average annual increase, 1.3% Agriculture: main crops?wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beet, onions, beans, fruits; about 90% self-sufficient; 2,650 calories per day per scapita (1971 est.) Fishing: catch 1.28 million metric tons (1977); exports $127.9 million (1977) Major industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, transportation equipment, iron and steel, pulp, paper, and forestry products Crude steel: 0.7 million metric tons capacity (1978); 537,600 metric tons produced (1978), 50 kg per capita Electric power: 2,775,000 kW capacity (1977); 10.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 975 kWh per capita Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); copper, iron ore, paper products, fishmeal, fruits, basic metal products Imports: $3.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); petroleum, wheat, cotton, textiles, plastics Major trade partners: exports-30% EC, 28% LAFTA, 14% U.S., 13% Japan; imports-30% LAFTA, 25% U.S., 15% EC, 8% Japan (1978) 43 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET CHILE/CHINA Aid: economic?bilateral ODA and OOF (1970-76), U.S. $381 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries, $384.8 million; Communist countries, $386.2 million; military?U.S. (1970- 76), $50.4 million Budget: $2.5 billion revenues, $2.8 billion expenditures (1977) Monetary conversion rate: 34.72 pesos=US$1 (March 1979), changes daily Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 6,361 km total; 3,111 km 1.676-meter gage, 135 km standard gage (1.435 m), 3,115 km meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 75,200 km total; 9,000 km paved, 38,200 km gravel, 28,000 km improved and unimproved earth Inland waterways: 725 km Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km Ports: 10 major, 20 minor Merchant marine: 48 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 513,846 GRT, 807,596 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 33 cargo, 2 tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 7 bulk, 2 combination ore/oil; Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft Airfields: 351 total, 341 usable; 46 with permanent- surface runways; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 51 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive radio relay facilities; 473,000 telephones (4.5 per 100 popl.); 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 1 domestic satellite station; 180 AM, 30 FM, and 56 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,740,000; 2,064,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually about 110,000 Supply: small amounts of small arms, rockets, ammuni- tion, and military propellant and explosives are produced; has depended mainly on U.K. for naval craft; aircraft from Western Europe 44 July 1979 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $735 million; about 21.4% of central government budget CHINA ISee refetainn mop VIII LAND 9.6 million km2; 11% cultivated, sown area extended by multicropping, 78% desert, waste, or urban (32% of this area consists largely of denuded wasteland, plains, rolling hills, and basins from which about 3% could be reclaimed), 8% forested; 2%-3% inland water Land boundaries: 24,000 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 14,500 km PEOPLE Population: 1,017,477,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.5% (current) SECRET Z5(-1' 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 Jo CHINA Nationality: noun?Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective? Chinese Ethnic divisions: 94% Han Chinese; 6% Chuang, Uighur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Pu-I, Korean, and numerous lesser nationalities Religion: most people, even before 1949, have been pragmatic and eclectic, not seriously religious; most impor- tant elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, ancestor worship; about 2%-3% Muslim, 1% Christian Language: Chinese (Mandarin mainly; also Cantonese, Wu, Fukienese, Amoy, Hsiang, Kan, Hakka dialects), and minority languages (see ethnic divisions above) Literacy: at least 25% Labor force: 335 million (mid-1966); 85% agriculture, 15% other; shortage of skilled labor (managerial, technical, mechanics, etc.); surplus of unskilled labor GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of China Type: Communist state; real authority lies with Commu- nist party's political bureau; the National People's Congress, in theory the highest organ of government, in reality merely rubber stamps the party's programs; the State Council is the actual governing organism Capital: Beijing (Peking) Political subdivisions: 21 provinces, 3 centrally governed municipalities, and 5 autonomous regions Legal system: before 1966, a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal; little ostensible development of uniform code of administrative and civil law; highest judicial organ is Supreme People's Court although legal activity centered in parallel network of Public Security organs; laws and legal procedure clearly subordinated to priorities of party policy; whole system largely suspended during Cultural Revolution, but has been revived National holiday: National Day, 1 October Branches: prior to 1966 control was exercised by Chinese Communist Party, through State Council, which supervised more than 50 ministries, commissions, bureaus, etc., all technically under the standing committee of the National People's Congress; this system broke down under -Cultural Revolution- pressures but has been reconsolidated and streamlined to 41 ministries Government leader: Premier of State Council, Hua Guofeng (Kuo-feng); government subordinate to central committee of CCP, under Chairman Hua Guofeng Suffrage: universal over age 18, though this is academic Elections: no meaningful elections Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), headed by Hua Guofeng; Hua is Chairman of Central Committee; a new central committee was formed at the 11th Party Congress held in August 1977 SECRET SECRET Voting strength: 100% Communist for practical purposes; no political nonconformity permitted Communists: about 37 million party members in 1977 Other political or pressure groups: army (PLA) remains a major force, although many soldiers who acquired a wide range of civil political-administrative duties during the Cultural Revolution have been removed; many veteran civilian officials, in eclipse since the Cultural Revolution, have been reinstated; mass organizations, such as the trade unions and the youth league, have been rebuilt Member of: FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, Red Cross, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, other international bodies ECONOMY GNP: $407 billion (1978), $405 per capita Agriculture: main crops?rice, wheat, miscellaneous grains, cotton; caloric intake, 2,000 calories per day per capita (1978); agriculture mainly subsistence; grain imports 9.4 million metric tons in 1978 Major industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum Shortages: complex machinery and equipment, highly skilled scientists and technicians Crude steel: 31.7 million metric tons produced, 32 kg per capita (1978) Electric power: 46 million kW capacity (1978); 160 billion kWh produced (1978), 160 kWh per capita Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978); agricultural products, oil, minerals and metals, manufactured goods Imports: $10.6 billion (c.i.f., 1978); grain, chemical fertilizer, steel, industrial raw materials, machinery and equipment Major trade partners: Japan, Hong Kong, West Germany, U.S., France, Australia, Canada, Romania, U.S.S.R., U.K. (1978) Monetary conversion rate: as of 24 February 1979, about 1.57 yuan = US$1 (arbitrarily established) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: networks total about 45,000 route km com- mon-carrier lines; about 600 km meter gage (1.00 m); rest standard gage (1.435 m); all single track except 9,000 km double track on standard gage lines; approximately 1,025 km electrified; about 9,700 km industrial lines (gages range from 0.59 to 1.435 m) Highways: about 835,000 km all types roads; almost half (about 300,000 km) unimproved natural earth roads and tracks; about 215,000 km improved earth roads about 2- to 5-meters wide and in poor to fair condition; remainder (about 260,000 km) includes majority of principal roads Inland waterways: 168,981 km; 40,234 km navigable by modern motorized craft 45 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 CHINA Pipelines: crude oil, 5,000 km; refined products, 1,200 km; natural gas, 1,100 km est. Ports: 10 major, 180 minor Merchant marine: 763 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,995,800 GRT, 10,471,100 DWT; includes 37 passenger, 497 cargo, 4 cargo training, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 specialized carrier, 121 tanker, 99 bulk; in terms of DWT, about 40% of the fleet is employed in domestic operations and the remainder in international operations to all continents; China beneficially owns an additional 95 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 840,000 GRT, 1,228,000 DWT which operate under the Panamanian and British (Hong Kong) flags Civil air: 147 major transport aircraft Airfields: 370 total; 252 with permanent surface runways; 9 with runways 3,500 m and over; 57 with runways 2,500 to 3,499 m; 231 with runways 1,200 to 2,499 m; 62 with runways less than 1,200 m; 2 seaplane stations; 9 airfields under construction. Telecommunications: urban and industrial areas served by reasonably adequate facilities for domestic and interna- tional communication needs; facilities being expanded; effective broadcast coverage is provided by radio, extensive wired-broadcast networks, and an expanding TV network; estimated 5 million telephones, 45 million radio receivers, 140 million wired-speakers and est. 500,000 TV receivers; 250 AM, 7 FM, and 120 TV transmitter and rebroadcast stations; 3 standard international communications satellite ground stations; coaxial cable links Guanazhou (Canton) to Hong Kong; submarine cable links Shanghai to Japan; additional submarine cables planned DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 257,256,000, about 140,599,000 fit for military service; about 10,938,000 reach military age (18) annually 46 Supply: military industrial base supports a comprehensive and integrated modern weapons program; production includes substantial quantities of infantry weapons, tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery pieces, ammunition, radar and signal equipment, trucks and jeeps, jet aircraft, lesser quantities of surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air and naval cruise missiles, as well as some air-to-air missiles; naval ships including submarines and guided missile destroyers, transport aircraft obtained from U.S.S.R., U.K., and U.S.; helicopters from France and West Germany Military budget: the PRC does not publish a defense budget; a meaningful dollar value for total military expenditures has not been estimated; however, dollar costs of Chinese military equipment procured in 1978 estimated to be about $4.5 billion SECRET 25X11 25X1` 25X1: 4 25X11 25X1 25X1 25X1; 25X1 25X1i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET CHINA/COLOMBIA COLOMBIA Caribbean Sea, VENEZUELA Pacific Ocean (See reference map 1111 LAND ,1,139,600 km2; settled area 28% consisting of cropland and fallow 5%, pastures 14%, woodland, swamps, and water 6%, urban and other 3%; unsettled area 72%?mostly forest and savannah Land boundaries: 6,035 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 2,414 km PEOPLE Population: 26,115,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Colombian(s); adjective?Colombian Ethnic divisions: 58% mestizo, 20% caucasian, 14% mulatto, 4% Negro, 3% mixed Negro-Indian, 1% Indian Religion: 95% Roman Catholic SECRET Language: Spanish Literacy: 47% of population over 15 years old Labor force: 5.6 million (1966); 47% agriculture, 13% manufacturing, 18% services, 9% commerce, 13% other (1964); 10%-13% unemployment (1975) Organized labor: 13% of labor force (1968) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Colombia Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure Capital: Bogota Political subdivisions: 22 departments, 3 Intendants, 5 Commissariats, Bogota Special District Legal system: based on Spanish law; religious courts regulate marriage and divorce; constitution decreed in 1886, amendments codified in 1946 and 1968; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July Branches: President, bicameral legislature, judiciary Government leader: President Julio Cesar TURBAY Ayala Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: every fourth year; last presidential and congressional elections June 1978; municipal and depart- mental elections, February 1978 Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, .President Julio Cesar Turbay; Conservative Party, Alvaro Gomez Hurtado; Alianza Nazional Popular, Maria Eugenia Rojas de Moreno Voting strength: 1978 presidential election?Julio Cesar Turbay 49%, Belisario Betancur 46%, Gen. Alvaro Valencia 1.3%; 1978 municipal election, 55% Liberal Party, 36% Conservative Party, 9% combined far left parties; 70% abstention of eligible voters Communists: 10,000-12,000 members est. Other political or pressure groups: Communist Party (PCC), Gilberto Vieira White; PCC/ML, Chinese Line Communist Party Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, LAFTA and Andean Sub-Regional Group (created in May 1969 within LAFTA), OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $18.5 billion, est. (1978 est.), $830 per capita; 75% private consumption, 6% public consumption, 18% gross investment, 1.0% net foreign balance (1977) Agriculture: main crops?coffee, rice, corn, sugarcane, plantains, bananas, cotton, tobacco; caloric intake, 2,140 calories per day per capita. (1970) 47 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET COLOMBIA/COMOROS Fishing: catch 75,107 metric tons 1976; exports $10.6 million (1973), imports $10.3 million (1973) Major industries: textiles, food processing, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, and metal products Crude steel: 356,000 metric tons produced (1976), 14 kg per capita Electric power: 4,650,000 kW capacity (1977); 18,800 million kWh produced (1978), 735 kWh per capita Exports: $2,900 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee, fuel oil, cotton, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cattle and hides Imports: $3,400 million (c.i.f., 1978); transportation equipment, machinery, industrial metals and raw materials, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, fuels, fertilizers, paper and paper products, foodstuffs and beverages Major trade partners: exports-48% Japan, 27% U.S., 16% Germany, 10% Venezuela, 6% Netherlands; imports- 38% U.S., 9% Germany, 8% Japan, 5% Ecuador (1976) Aid: economic?extensions from U.S. (FY46-76), $991 million loans, $325 million grants; from international organizations (FY46-75), $1.8 billion; from other Western countries (1970-76), $249.8 million; from Communist countries (1970-76), $275.4 million; military?assistance from U.S. (FY46-76), $130 million Budget: (1978) revenues $2.09 billion; expenditures $2.30 billion Monetary conversion rate: 39.02 pesos=US$1 (June 1978, changes frequently) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,436 km, all 0.914-meter gage, single track, 35 km electrified Highways: 52,100 km total; 8,200 km paved, 43,900 km gravel and earth Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km; natural gas, 830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km Ports: 5 major, 5 minor Merchant marine: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 276,355 CRT 360 047 DWT includes 33 cargo, 5 bulk, 2 tankers Civil air: 97 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 675 total, 674 usable; 44 with permanent- surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 89 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: nationwide radio-relay system; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station and 1 domestic satellite station; 1.34 million telephones (5.5 per 100 popl.); 325 AM, 130 FM, and 48 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,914,000; 3,871,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually about 298,000 48 July 1979 Supply: small arms, small arms ammunition, and antitank mines produced; U.S. is principal supplier of ground force equipment; France is now important supplier of aircraft; Italy delivered 2 unassembled midget submarines (assembly completed during 1973), and West Germany delivered two 1,000-ton submarines in 1975 Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $263.6 million; about 8.8% of central government budget COMOROS Moron Indian Ocean COMOROS LAND 2,170 lun'; 4 main islands; forests 16%, pasture 7%, cultivable area 48%, non-cultivable area 29% SECRET 1 25X1, 25X11 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 COMOROS/CONGO WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 340 km PEOPLE Population: 323,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Comoran(s); adjective?Comoran Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Malay, Negroid Religion: predominantly Islamic Language: French, Arabic, Swahili Literacy: presumably low Labor force: mainly agricultural GOVERNMENT Legal name: Federal and Islamic Republic Comoros Type: three of the four islands comprise an independent republic, following local government's unilateral declaration of independence from France in July 1975; other island, Mayotte, disallowed declaration and is now a French Territorial community ? Capital: Moroni Political subdivisions: the three islands are organized into 7 regions Legal. system: French and Muslim law Branches: Mohamed Abdallah elected President of the Comoros, October 21, 1978, having regained power last May following a coup, led by French-born mercenary Bob Denard, which toppled Ali Soilih; Soilih had come to power in 1977 through a coup that ousted Abdallah; Soilih was killed in the recent coup Suffrage: universal adult Elections: next presidential election scheduled to take place in 1984 Communists: information not available Member of: G-77, NAM, OAU, U.N. ECONOMY GDP: $69.5 million (1975), about $240 per capita; growth probably negligible through 1974 Agriculture: food crops?rice, manioc, maize, fruits, vegetables; export crops?essential oils for perfumes (mainly ylang-ylang), vanilla, copra, cloves Exports: $10.3 million (f.o.b., 1976); perfume oils, vanilla, copra, cloves Imports: $13.9 million (c.i.f., 1976); foodstuffs, cement, fuels, chemicals, textiles Major trade partners: France, Malagasy Republic, Italy, Kenya, Tanzania and U.S. Electric power: 2,400 kW capacity (1977); 3 million kWh produced (1977); 10 kWh per capita of the SECRET SECRET Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $100 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $26.8 million Budget:1 977 projected?revenues, $4 million; expendi- tures, $10 million; investment expenditures, $5 million; deficit, $10 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine (CFA) francs=US$1 in 1977, floating COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 999 km total; approximately 295 km bitumi- nous, remainder crushed stone or gravel Ports: 1 minor (Moroni on Grande Comore) Civil air: 3 major transports (2 registered in France) Airfields: 5 total, 5 usable; 5 with permanent surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: sparse system of HF radiocom- munication stations for interisland, island and external communications to Malagasy and Reunion; 1,100 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Personnel: 1,000-man -People's Army; nominal air force created in 1977 CONGO Atlantic ? Ocean (See lEference map VI) LAND 349,650 km2; 63% dense forest or woodland, 33% cultivable or grazing (2% cultivated est.), 4% urban or waste Land boundaries: 4,514 jun 49 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET CONGO WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 30 nm Coastline: 169 km PEOPLE Population: 1,504,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective? Congolese or Congo Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75 tribes, almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in south, Teke (17%) in center, M'Bochi (12%) and Sangha (20%) in north; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly French Religion: about half animist, half nominally Christian, less than 1% Muslim Language: French official, many African languages with Lingala and Kikongo most widely used Literacy: about 20% Labor force: about 40% of population economically active, most engaged in subsistence agriculture; 79,100 wage earners; 40,000-60,000 unemployed Organized labor: 16% of total labor force (1965 est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of the Congo Type: republic; military regime established September 1968 Capital: Brazzaville Political subdivisions: 9 regions divided into districts Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1973 National holiday: National Day, 15 August Branches: President, Military Committee, Council of State; judiciary; all policy made by Congolese Workers Party Central Committee and Politburo Government leaders: President, Col. Denis Sasson- Nguesso replaced Joachim Yhombi-Opango as President in March 1979, following an intraparty squabble; Prime Minister Col. Louis Sylvain-Goma is Head of Government Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: local elections set for July 1979 Political parties and leaders: Congolese Workers Party (PCT) is only legal party Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union of Congolese Union (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC) Member of: AFDB, Conference of East and Central African States, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UEAC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO 50 July 1979 ECONOMY GDP: about $700 million (1977 est.), $490 per capita; real growth rate 2.5% per year (197077) Agriculture: cash crops?sugarcane, wood, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, peanuts, tobacco; food crops?root crops, rice, corn, banana, manioc, fish Fishing: catch 19,447 metric tons (1978 est.) Major industries: crude oil, sawmills, brewery, cigarettes, sugar mill, soap Electric power: 63,200 kW capacity (1977); 130 million kWh produced (1977), 90 kWh per capita Exports: $214 million (f.o.b., 1977 est.); oil (58%), lumber, tobacco, veneer, and plywood Imports: $266 million (f.o.b., 1977 est.); machinery, transport equipment, manufactured consumer goods, iron and steel, foodstuffs, petroleum products, sugar Major trade partners: France and other EC countries Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $435.0 'million; Communist countries (1970-77), $106.0 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $55.2 million; U.S. (1970- 77), $5.8 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $60.0 million Budget: 1977 est.?revenue $216 million, expenditures $240 million Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 800 km, 1,067-meter gage, single track Highways: 8,246 km total; 555 km bituminous surface treated; 848 km gravel, laterite, 1,623 km improved earth, and 5,220 km unimproved roads Inland waterways: 6,485 km navigable Pipelines: crude oil 25 km Ports: 1 major (Pointe-Noire) Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (including 1 leased in) Airfields: 68 total, 51 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 seaplane station Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; network is comprised of low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication stations, coaxial cables and wire lines; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 10,500 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 3 AM stations, 1 FM station, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49,330,000; 166,000 fit for military service; about 14,000 reach military age (20) annually SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 e July 1979 CONGO/COOK ISLANDS Supply: former dependence on U.S.S.R. and China France replaced by Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1976, $37,517,400; about 17% of central government budget COOK ISLANDS ,N 1/4 UINEA Pacific Ocean e. ?FIJI Pacific Ocean NEW %.\ZEALAND COOK ISLANDS (See reference map VIII) LAND About 240 km' WATER Limits of territorial waters: 3 nm Coastline: about 120 km PEOPLE Population: 18,000 (official estimate for 30 June 1977) Nationality: noun?Cook Islander(s); adjective?Cook Islander Ethnic divisions: 81.3% Polynesian (full blood), 7.7% Polynesian and European, 7.7% Polynesian and other, 2.4% European, 0.9% other Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church GOVERNMENT Legal name: Cook Islands SECRET SECRET Type: self-governing in -free association- with New Zealand; Cook Islands government fully responsible for internal affairs and has right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with Cook Islands government Capital: Rarotonga Branches: New Zealand Governor General appoints Representative to Cook Islands, who represents the Queen and the New Zealand government; Representative appoints the Premier; Legislative Assembly of 22 members, popularly elected; House of Arikis (chiefs), 15 members, appointed by Representative, an advisory body only Government leader: Premier Dr. Tom Davis Suffrage: universal adult Elections: every 4 years, latest in March 1978 Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Sir Albert Henry; Democratic Party, Dr. Thomas Davis Voting strength (1978): Democratic Party, 16 seats, Cook Islands Party, 6 seats ECONOMY GDP: $400 per capita (1973) Agriculture: export crops include copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, and bananas, with subsistence crops of yams and taro Industry: fruit processing Electric power: 3,000 kW capacity (1978); 10 million kWh produced (1978), 560 kWh per capita Exports: $2.7 million (1971); 'fruit juice, clothing, citrus fruits Imports: $5.8 million (1971) Major trade partners: (1970) exports-98% New Zealand, imports-76% New Zealand, 7% Japan Monetary conversion rate: 1 NZ$=US$0.94 (September 1978) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 187 km total (1977); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: none Ports: 2 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 6 AM, no FM, and no TV stations; 7,000 radio receivers, and 956 telephones DEFENSE FORCES Personnel: no military forces maintained, but there is a Police Force of about 54 men; the Rarotonga police station is in Avarua next to the post office 51 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET COSTA RICA (See reference map II) COSTA RICA LAND 51,000 km2; 30% agricultural land (8% cultivated, 22% meadows and pasture), 60% forested, 10% waste, urban, and other Land boundaries: 670 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; specialized competence over living resources to 200 nm) Coastline: 1,290 km PEOPLE Population: 2,168,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Costa Rican(s); adjective?Costa Rican Ethnic divisions: 98% white (including mestizo), 2% Negro Religion: 95% Roman Catholic Language: Spanish Literacy: about 90% Labor force: 793,000 (1978 est.); 32.6% agriculture; 13.8% manufacturing; 15.3% commerce; 6.1% construction; 5.2% transportation, utilities; 20.3% service (government, educa- tion, social); 0.5% other; 4.4% unemployment (1978 est.) Organized labor: about 11.5% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Costa Rica Type: unitary republic Capital: San Jos? Political subdivisions: 7 provinces Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; constitution adopted 1949; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of Costa Rica; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 52 July 1979 National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September Branches: President, unicameral legislature, Supreme Court elected by legislature Government leader: President Rodrigo CARAZO Odio Suffrage: universal and compulsory age 18 and over Elections: every 4 years; next, February 1982 Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN), Daniel Oduber, Luis Alberto Monge, Carlos Manuel Castillo; Democratic Renovation Party (PRD), Rodrigo Carazo; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge Monge Zamora; Popular Vanguard Party (PVP, Communist), Manuel Mora Valverde; Republican Calderonista Party (PRC), Rafael Angel Calderon Fournier; Popular Union Party (PUP), San Joaquin Trejos Fernandez; Unity Coalition composed of the PRD, the PDC, the PUP, and the PRC Voting strength (1978 election): Unity Coalition 43.4%, 27 seats; PLN 38.8%, 25 seats; Leftist Coalition Party (PPU) 7.6%, 3 seats; others, 2 seats Communists: 3,200 members, 10,000 sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confed- eration of Democratic Workers (CCTD), General Confeder- ation of Workers (CGT), Chamber of Coffee. Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE) Member of: CACM, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC? International Wheat Council, NAMUCAR (Caribbean Mul- tinational Shipping Line?Naviera Multinacional del Car- ibe), OAS, ODECA, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPE13, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $3.3 billion (1978, in current prices), $1,590 per capita; 72.5% private consumption, 14.8% public consump- tion, 25.4% gross domestic investment, ? 12.7% net foreign balance (1978); 5.9% real growth rate (1978) Agriculture: main products?bananas, coffee, sugarcane, rice, corn, cocoa, livestock products; caloric intake, 2,535 calories per day per capita (1974); protein intake 58 grams per day per capita Fishing: catch 12,728 metric tons (1976); exports, $5.1 million (1976), imports, $0.3 Million (1976) Major industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer Electric power: 410,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.7 billion kWh produced (1977), 830 kWh per capita Exports: $858 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cacao Imports: $1,185 million (c.i.f., 1978); manufactured prod- ucts, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, fertilizer Major trade partners: exports-38% U.S., 31% CACM, 13% West Germany; imports-32% U.S., 17% CACM, 5% West Germany, 14% Japan (1978) SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET COSTA RICA/CUBA Aid: (1970-76) economic bilateral commitments: U.S. $72 million, other Western countries $78 million, Communist $17 million; military commitments negligible Budget: (1978) $492 million current revenues, $708 million total expenditures including debt amortization Monetary conversion rate: 8.57 colones=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 563 km 1.067-meter gage, all single track, 115 km electrified Highways: 26,050 km total; 2,000 km paved, 15,900 km gravel 8,150 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: about 730 km perennially navigable Pipelines: refined products, 318 km Ports: 3 major (Limon, Golfito, Puntarenas), 4 minor Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo ship totaling 1,600 GRT, 2,800 DWT Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft Airfields: 236 total, 224 usable; 29 with permanent- surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good domestic telephone service; 127,000 telephones (6.2 per 100 popl.); connection into Central American microwave net; 55 AM, 10 FM, and 12 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 536,000; 352,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually about 26,000 Supply: dependent on imports from U.S. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $16.2 million for Ministry of Public Security, including the Civil Guard; about 3% of total central government budget CUBA LAND 114,478 km2; 35% cultivated, 30% meadow and pasture, 20% waste, urban, or other, 15% forested SECRET Golf of Mexico a , ? THE \ BAHAMAS Havana A tlantic Ocean (See reference map WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 3,735 km PEOPLE Population: 9,824,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Cuban(s); adjective?Cuban Ethnic divisions: 51% mulatto, 37% white, 11% Negro, 1% Chinese Religion: at least 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power Language: Spanish Literacy: about 96% Labor force: 2.7 million in 1976; 33% agriculture, 17% industry, 9% construction, 7% transportation, 32% services, 2% unemployed GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Cuba Type: Communist state Capital: Havana Political subdivisions: 14 provinces and 169 munici- palities Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; Fundamental Law of 1959 replaced Constitution of 1940; a new constitution was approved at the Cuban Communist Party's First Party Congress in December 1975 and by a popular referendum which took place on 15 February 1976; portions of the new constitution were put into effect on 24 February 1976, by means of a Constitutional Transition Law, and the entire constitution became effective on 2 December 1976; legal education at Universities of Havana, Oriente, and Las Villas; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 53 25X1 25X1 ? 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 CUBA National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 January Branches: executive; legislature (National People's Assem- bly); controlled judiciary Government leader: President Fidel CASTRO Ruz Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 16 Elections: National People's Assembly (indirect election) every five years; election held November 1976 Political parties and leaders: Cuban Communist Party (PCC), First Secretary Fidel Castro Ruz, Second Secretary Raul Castro Ruz Communists: approx. 200,000 party members Member of: CEMA, ECLA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB (nonparticipant), ICAO, IHO, ILO, IMCO, International Rice Commission, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, NAMUCAR (Caribbean Multinational Ship- ping Line?Naviera Multinacional del Caribe), OAS (non- participant), Permanent Court of Arbitration, Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $11.8 billion (1977 est., in 1977 prices), $1,235 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 3.5% Agriculture: main crops?sugar, tobacco, rice, potatoes, tubers, citrus fruits, coffee Fishing: catch 220,000 metric tons (1978); exports $82 million (1977) Major industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals Shortages: spare parts for transportation and industrial machinery, consumer goods Crude steel: 330,500 metric tons produced (1977); 34 kg per capita Electric power: 2,400,000 kW capacity (1978); 7.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 760 kWh per capita Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1978); sugar, nickel, shellfish tobacco Imports: $4.2 billion (c.i.f., 1978); capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum Major trade partners: exports-65% U.S.S.R., 15% other Communist countries; imports-49% U.S.S.R., 14% other Communist countries, 6% Spain (1976) Aid: $41.5 million from U.S. (FY46-61); loans $37.5 million, grants $4.0 million; economic aid (CY60-78) from U.S.S.R.: $5.1 billion in economic credit and $7.9 billion in subsidies; military assistance from the U.S.S.R. (1959-78), $1.6 billion Budget: $12.4 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 peso=US$1.32 (nominal) Fiscal year: calendar year 54 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 14,640 km total, government-owned; 5,040 km common-carrier lines of which 4,960 km standard gage (1.435 m), 80 km 0.914-meter gage; about 9,600 km plantation/industrial lines, 6,400 km standard gage (1.435 m), 3,200 narrow gage Highways: 20,700 km total; 8,800 km paved, 11,900 km gravel and earth surfaced Inland waterways: 240 km Pipelines: natural gas, 80 km Ports: 8 major (including, U.S. Naval Base at Guantan- amo), 44 minor Merchant marine: 76 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 591,193 GRT, 814,153 DWT; includes 54 cargo, 10 tanker, 6 bulk, 3 cargo training, 2 specialized carrier, 1 passenger; Cuba beneficially owns 8 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 72,900 GRT, 106,800 DWT, under Panama- nian? flag Civil am 34 major transport aircraft Airfields: 202 total, 192 usable; 54 with permanent- surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern facilities adequately serve military, governmental, and some civilian needs; excellent international facilities via HF and satellite; 380,000 tele- phones (3.9 per 100 popl.); 100 AM, 25 FM, and 24 TV stations; DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 2,425,000; 1,523,000 fit for military service; about 120,000 males and 116,000 females reach military age (17) annually 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CUBA/CYPRUS Supply: almost wholly dependent upon U.S.S.R.; produces some ammunition and possibly small arms; assembles some transport vehicles Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $1.02 billion; about 8.9% of total budget CYPRUS 116diterranean Sea EGYPT (See reference map VI LAND 9,251 km2; 47% arable and land under permanent crops, 18% forested, 10% meadows and pasture, 25% waste, urban areas, and other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm PEOPLE Population: 614,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.1% (8-76 to 8-77) Nationality: noun?Cypriot(s); adjective?Cypriot Ethnic divisions: 78% Greek; 18% Turkish; 4% British, Armenian, and other SECRET SECRET Religion: 78% Greek Orthodox, 18% Muslim, 4% Maron- ite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other Language: Greek, Turkish, English Literacy: about 89% of population 15 years or older, 99% of population aged 15-39 Greek Sector labor force: 202,700 (1977), 27.5% services; 25.8% industry; 23.0% agriculture, forestry, fishing; 5% public administration; 15.2% employed overseas or in military; 3% unemployed Turkish Sector labor force: 179,400 (145,900 employed, 33,500 unemployed); 31% agriculture, 18% services, 1-7% manufacturing, 12% wholesale and retail trade, 22% other (1975) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Cyprus Type: republic since August 1960; separate de facto Greek Cypriot, and Turkish Cypriot governments have evolved since outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974; negotiations, which have been going on since January 1975, have focused on the creation of a federal system of government with substantial autonomy for each of the two communities Capital: Nicosia Political subdivisions: .6 administrative districts Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been going on intermittently National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October Branches: currently a rump government with effective authority only over the Greek Cypriot community, consist- ing of Greek Cypriot parts of bodies provided for by constitution; headed by President of the Republic and comprised of Council of Ministers, House of Representatives, and Supreme Court; Turkish Cypriots have their own "Constitution" and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" Government leaders: Greek Sector: President, Spyros Kyprianou, elected interim President in September 1977, to serve out the remainder of the term of Archbishop Makarios who died on 3 August 1977, and elected President in his own right by acclamation in February. 1978; Turkish Sector: -President," Rauf Denktas; -Prime Minister," Osman Orek Suffrage: universal age 21 and over Elections: officially every 5 years; Turkish Cypriot -Presidential" and -Parliamentary- elections held June 1976; Greek Cypriot parliamentary elections held in September 1976 55 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020651-6 SECRET CYPRUS Political parties and leaders: Greek Sector: Restorative Party of the Working People (AKEL) (Communist Party), Ezekias Papaioannou; Democratic Rally (DS), Glavkos Kliridis; Democratic Party (DK) (pro-Makarios), Spyros Kyprianou; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vasos Lyssaridis; Turkish Sector: National Unity Party (UBP), Rauf Denktas; Populist Party (HP), Alper Orhon; Communal Salvation Party (TKP), Alpay Durduran; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker Ozgur Voting strength: Rauf Denktas won the 1976 -Presiden- tial- contest in the Turkish Cypriot zone with 76% of the vote and his party won 30 of 40 seats in the -Assembly- with 54% of the vote. In the Greek Cypriot parliamentary election of September 1976, a pro-Makarios coalition composed of AKEL, EDEK, and the Democratic Faction (DF) received 69.5% of ihe vote and 34 of 35 seats while Kliridis' Democratic Rally (DS) won 25% of the vote and no seats; the remaining seat was given to independent Tasos Papadopoulos Communists: 12,000; sympathizers estimated to number 60,000 Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON) (Communist-controlled); Pan Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO) (Communist-controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK) (pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (KTIBF); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (DISK) Member of: Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G- 77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $1,091 million (1977), $1,580 per capita; 1977 real growth rate 20% Agriculture: main crops?potatoes, grapes, citrus fruit, grains Major industries: mining (iron pyrites, gypsum, asbestos), manufactures principally for local consumption?beverages, footwear, clothing, cement Electric power: 430,000 kW capacity (1978); 900 million kWh produced (1978), 1,400 kWh per capita Exports: $304 million (f.o.b., 1977); principal items?food an'd beverages including citrus, raisins, potatoes and wine, also cement and clothing Turkish Sector exports: $15.7 million (f.o.b., 1976); principal items?citrus fruits, potatoes, metal pipes and pyrites Imports: $559 million (c.i.f., 1977); principal items? manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, food Turkish Sector imports: $65.9 million (c.i.f., 1976); principal items are foodstuffs, raw materials, fuels, machinery 56 July 1979 Major trade partners: imports (1978)-22.1% U.K., 11.6% Italy, 7.4% West Germany, 6.3% Greece, 5.6% U.S., 5.4% Japan, 4.8% France, 5.3% Iraq, 50.8% EC; exports (1978)- 27.7% U.K., 9.7% Saudi Arabia, 5.4% Syria, 5.4% Lebanon, 5.2% Libya, 4.1% Kuwait, 1.7% Greece, 1.3% U.S., 36.4% EC Turkish Sector major trade partners: imports (1976)- 48% Turkey, 22% U.K., 7% West Germany, 5% France, 3% Netherlands, 3% Italy; exports (1976)-33% U.K., 29% Turkey, 18% Netherlands, 10% Italy Aid: economic?U.S., $92 million authorized (FY70-77); other Western bilateral authorizations (ODA and 00F), $40 million (1970-77); Greece, $79 million (1976); OPEC $7 million (1977) Turkish Sector aid: Turkey, probably $20-30 million annually since 1975; primarily development and budgetary aid with some balance of payments support Budget: 1978?revenues $273.3 million, expenditures $331.7 million, deficit $58.4 million Turkish Sector budget: 1978 revenues $44.9 million, expenditures $65.6 million, deficit $20.7 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Cyprus pound=US$2.6797 (1978 average) Turkish Sector monetary conversion rate: 24.282 Turk- ish lira=US$1 (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 9,710 km total; 4,580 km bituminous surface treated; 5,130 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth Ports: 3 major (Famagusta, Larnaca, Limassol), 6 minor; Famagusta under Turkish control Merchant marine: 484 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,329,100 GRT, 3,359,100 DWT; includes 12 passenger, 395 cargo, 3 container, 17 tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 44 bulk, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 specialized carrier; all but a few are owned and operated by Greek nationals Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in and 1 leased out Airfields: 13 total, 12 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,656 m Telecommunications: moderately good telecommunica- tion system in both Greek and Turkish sectors; 77,000 telephones (11.2 per 100 popl.); 12 AM, 4 FM, and 7 TV stations; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and Turkey; 2 submarine coaxial cables; 1 COMSAT station under construction in Greek sector DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 160,000; 113,000 fit for military service, about 7,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified ) in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 CYPRUS/CZECHOSLOVAKIA Supply: some handmade small arms and ammunition produced by Turkish-Cypriots for their own use; Greek- Cypriots (government forces) entirely dependent on foreign supplies for their material; since 1964 have received infantry weapons, machineguns, mortars, artillery, ammunition, trucks, armored personnel carriers, tanks, anti-tank missiles and launchers from Czechoslovakia and the U.S.S.R.; torpedo boats from Yugoslavia, Malta, and the U.S.S.R; also, U.K. and U.S.-manufactured infantry weapons, artillery, patrol boats, armored cars, and radar equipment were received from Greece Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $43.2 million about 18% of central government budget SECRET SECRET CZECHOSLOVAKIA k I GERMAN 'DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY U.S.S.R. ROMANIA ITALY YLIGOSLAVIA (See reference map 11/) LAND 127,946 km2; 42% arable, 14% other agricultural, 35% forested, 9% other Land boundaries: 3,540 km PEOPLE Population: 15,240,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Czechoslovak(s); adjective?Czecho- slovak Ethnic divisions: 64.3% Czechs, 30.0% Slovaks, 4.0% Magyars, 0.6% Germans, 0.5% Poles, 0.4% Ukrainians, 0.2% others (Jews, Gypsies) Religion: 77% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 2% Orthodox, 1% other Language: Czech, Slovak, Hungarian Literacy: almost complete Labor force: 7.4 million; 14% agriculture, 38.6% industry, 11% services, 36.4% construction, communications and others GOVERNMENT Legal name: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (C.S.S.R.) Type: Communist state Capital: Prague Political subdivisions: 2 ostensibly separate and nomi- nally autonomous republics (Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic); 7 regions (kraj) in Czech lands, three regions in Slovakia; national capitals of Prague and Bratislava have regional status Legal system: civil law system based on Austrian- Hungarian codes, modified by Communist legal theory; revised constitution adopted 1960, amended in 1968 and 1970; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Charles University School of Law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 57 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 CZECHOSLOVAKIA National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May Branches: executive?President (elected by Federal As- sembly), cabinet (appointed by President); legislative? Federal Assembly (elected directly), Czech and Slovak National Councils (also elected directly) legislate on limited area of regional matters; judiciary?Supreme Court (elected by Federal Assembly); entire governmental structure domi- nated by Communist Party Government leaders: President Gustav Husak (elected May 1975), Premier Lubomir Strougal Suffrage: universal ,over age 18 Elections: governmental bodies every 5 years (last election, October 1976); President every 5 years Dominant political party and leader: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Gustav Husak, General Secretary; Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS) has status of "provincial KSC organization" Voting strength (1976 election): 99.7% for Communist- sponsored single slate Communists: 1.45 million party members and candidate members (January 1978) Other political groups: puppet parties?Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak People's Party, Slovak Free- dom Party, Slovak Revival Party Member of: CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $70.7 billion in 1978 (in 1978 dollars), $4,673 per capita; 1978 real growth rate 2.5% Agriculture: diversified agriculture; main crops?wheat, rye, potatoes, sugar beets; net food importer?meat, wheat, vegetable oils, fresh fruits and vegetables; caloric intake, 3,100 calories per day per capita (1967) Major industries: machinery, food processing, metal- lurgy, textiles, chemicals Shortages: ores, crude oil Crude steel: 15.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 1,000 kg per capita Electric power: 16,125,000 kW capacity (1978); 69 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,545 kWh per capita Exports: $12,071 million (f.o.b., 1978); 51% machinery, equipment; 28% fuels, raw materials; 3% foods, food products, and live animals; 18% consumer goods, excluding foods (1977) Imports: $12,304 million (f.o.b., 1978); 39% machinery, equipment; 45% fuels, raw materials; 10% foods, food products, and live animals; 6% consumer goods, excluding foods (1977) Aid: Czechoslovakia has extended economic credits totaling $1,802 million to less developed countries (1954-77) 58 and has received some medium- and long-term credits from Western countries and the U.S.S.R.; Czechoslovakia has used 1% of its national income to extend long-term credits to socialist and developing countries (1961-70) Monetary conversion rate: noncommercial 9.01 crowns=$1, commercial 5.35 crowns=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year NOTE: foreign trade figures were converted at the rate of 5.46 crowns= US$1 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 13,186 km total; 12,881 km standard gage (1.435 m), 112 km broad gage (1.524 m), 193 km narrow gage (0.750 m and 0.760 m); 2,807 km double track; 2,718 km electrified; government-owned (1977) Highways: 73,677 km total; 60,157 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 13,520 km gravel, crushed stone (1976) Inland waterways: 483 km (1977) Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 861 km; natural gas, 5,601 km Freight carried: rail-274.3 million metric tons, 71.6 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-1,049.7 million metric tons, 16.7 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway- 6.8 million metric tons, 3.5 billion metric ton/km (excl. intl. transit traffic) in approximately 766 waterway craft with 454,370 metric ton capacity (1978) Ports: no maritime ports; outlets are Gdynia, Gdansk, and Szczecin in Poland; Rijeka and Koper in Yugoslavia; Hamburg, FRG; Rostock, GDR; principal river ports are Prague, Deein, Komarno, Bratislava (1979) Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,000 GRT, 230,347 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 6 bulk Civil air: 24 major transport aircraft (1977) Airfields: 133 total; 37 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 3,500 m or over; 13 with runways 2,500-3,499 m; 78 with runways 1,000-2,499 m; 41 with runways less than 1,000 m; 5 heliports Telecommunications: systems are used primarily to support operations of government and industry; require- ments of public receive secondary consideration; good coverage is provided by 23 AM and 16 FM broadcast stations; 3,883,882 receivers; 10 major TV stations, supple- mented by 300 relay stations; 3,370,000 TV receivers; 2,246,208 est. telephones (96% automatic) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,703,000; 2,856,000 fit for military service; about 111,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET 25X1 25)(1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET CZECHOSLOVAKIA/DENMARK Supply: produces substantial quantities of infantry weap- ons, rocket launchers, ammunition, trucks, tactical signal equipment, APC's, self-propelled AA guns, and tanks; produces copies of Soviet antitank missiles, and jet trainer and small transport aircraft dependent on the U.S.S.R. for more complex equipment and combat aircraft; amphibious armored reconnaissance cars obtained from Hungary Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, est. 20.0 billion crowns, 7% of total budget DENMARK (See reference mop LAND 42,994 km' (exclusive of Greenland and Faroe Islands); 64% arable, 8% meadows and pastures, 11% forested, 17% other SECRET Land boundaries: 68 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 3,379 km PEOPLE Population: 5,118,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Dane(s); adjective?Danish Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population Religion: 96% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 1% other Language: Danish; small German-speaking minority Literacy: 99% Labor force: 2,625,223 (January 1979); 8.6% agriculture, forestry, fishing, 24.6% manufacturing, 8.1% construction, 15.4% commerce, 6.6% transportation, 5.4% services, 29.3% government, 2.0% other; 7.7% (190,600) registered unem- ployed as a percentage of total labor force (1978 annual average) Organized labor: 65% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Denmark Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Copenhagen Political subdivisions: 14 counties, 277 communes, 88 towns Legal system: civil law system; constitution adopted 1953; judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Universities of Copenhagen and Arhus; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with 'Crown and parliament (Folketing); executive power vested in Crown but exercised by cabinet responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, 2 superior courts, 106 lower courts Government leaders: Queen Margrethe II; Prime Minis- ter, Anker JOrgensen Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: on call of prime minister but at least every four years (last election 15 February 1977) Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Anker JOrgensen; Liberal, Henning Christopherson; Conservative, Ib Setter; Radical Liberal, Thorkild M011er; Socialist Peoples, Gert Petersen; Communist, Joergen Jensen; Left Socialist, Preben Wilhjelm; Center Democratic, Peder Duetoft; Christian People's, Jens Willer; Justice, Lars Fredsted Kristensen; Trade and Industry Party, Asger J. Lindinger Voting strength (1977 election): 37.5% Social Democratic, 14.3% Progressive, 12.3% Moderate Liberals, 8.3% Conserva- tive, 6.4% Center Democratic, 3.9% Socialist Peoples, 3.7% Communist, 3.6% Radical Liberal, 3.5% Christian, 3.2% Justice, 2.7% Leftist Socialist 59 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET DENMARK Communists: 7,500-8,000; a number of sympathizers, as indicated by 114,034 Communist votes cast in 1977 elections Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EEC, ELDO (observer), EMA, ESRD, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $54.1 billion (1978 est.), $10,608 per capita; 56.7% private consumption, 23.6% investment, 24.9% government, ?5.2% net foreign sector and stock building; 1978 growth rate 1.2%, constant prices Agriculture: highly intensive, specializes in dairying and animal husbandry; main crops?cereals, root crops; food imports?oilseeds, grain, feedstuffs; caloric intake, 3,180 calories per day per capita (1968-69) Fishing: catch 1.91 million metric tons (1976), exports $462 million (1977) Major industries: food processing, machinery and equip- ment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, electronics, transport equipment, metal products, brick and mortar, furniture and other wood products Crude steel: 863,000 metric tons produced (1978), 170 kg per capita Electric power: 6,900,000 kW capacity (1978); 21 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,110 kWh per capita Exports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1977); principal items? meat, dairy products, industrial machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemical products, transport equip- ment, fish, furs, and furniture Imports: $14.8 billion (c.i.f., 1977); principal items? industrial machinery, transport equipment, petroleum, textile fibers and yarns, iron and steel products, chemicals, grain and feedstuffs, wood and paper Major trade partners: 48.5% EC-nine (19.1% West Germany, 12.8% U.K.); 13.0% Sweden; 5.5% U.S.; 5.3% Norway; 4.7% Netherlands; 4.0% Communist countries (1978) Aid: donor?bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F) $955 million (1970-77) Budget: (FY78 est.) expenditures $20.5 billion, revenues $18 billion Monetary conversion rate: 5.5146 Kroner=US$1 (1978, average exchange rate) Fiscal year: calendar year, beginning 1 January 1979 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,591 km standard gage (1.435 m); Danish State Railways (DSB) operate 2,101 km (1,999 km rail line 60 July 1979 and 102 km rail ferry services); 97 km electrified, 730 km double tracked; 490 km of standard gage lines are privately-owned and operated Highways: approximately 66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block; 1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth Inland waterways: 417 km Pipelines: refined products, 418 km Ports: 16 major, 44 minor Merchant marine: 320 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,051,467 GRT, 8,364,284 DWT; includes 22 passenger, 149 cargo, 18 container, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 47 tanker, 14 liquefied gas, 37 bulk, 4 combination ore/oil, 17 specialized carrier, and 1 barge/lighter carrier Civil air: 73 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in and 1 leased out Airfields: 180 total, 137 usable; 23 with permanent- surface runways; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast services; 2.53 million telephones (48.9 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 13 FM, and 34 TV stations; 16 submarine coaxial cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,261,000; 1,106,000 fit for military service; 39,000 reach military age (20) annually Supply: dependent on U.S., Canada, U.K., and Western Europe; most naval ships produced domestically; produces small quantities of CW/BW defensive equipment; some small arms ammunition, some airframe, avionics and engine parts and electronic equipment Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $1,254 million; about 7% of proposed central government budget SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 iDeclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET DJIBOUTI DJIBOUTI (formerly French Territory of the Afars and Issas) (See reference mep LAND 23,310 km2; 89% desert wasteland, 10% permanent pasture, and less than 1% cultivated Land boundaries: 517 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 314 km (includes offshore islands) PEOPLE Population: 314,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Afar(s), Issa(s); adjective?Afar, Issa Ethnic divisions: (approximate figures) 96,300 Somalis, mostly Issas (large number of the Somalis are temporary immigrants from Somalia, not citizens of territory), 90,500 Afars, 6,000 Arabs, 7,000 French (inclusive of French military forces) Religion: 94% Muslim, 6% Christian Language: Somali, Afar, French, Arabic, all widely used Literacy: about 5% Labor force: a small number of semiskilled laborers at port Organized labor: some 3,000 railway workers organized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Djibouti Type: republic Capital: Djibouti Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices and Islamic law Branches: 65-member parliament, cabinet, president, prime minister Government leader: President, Hassan Gouled Aptidon SECRET Suffrage: universal Elections: Parliament elected May 1977 Political parties and leaders: National Independence Union (UNI), Ali Aref Bourhan; Peoples Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan Gouleo; Popular Liberation Movement, Kamil Ali; Front for the Liberation of the Somali Coast (FLCS) Communists: possibly a few sympathizers Member of: Arab League ECONOMY GNP $336 million (1976) Agriculture: livestock; desert conditions limit commercial crops to about 15 acres, including fruits and vegetables Industry: ship repairs and services of port and railroad drastically reduced with war in Ethiopia's Ogaden that cut the railroad line Electric power: 23,500 kW capacity (1977); 55 million kWh produced (1977), 310 kWh per capita Imports: $72 million (1976); almost all domestically needed goods?foods, machinery, transport equipment Exports: $4.7 million (1976); hides and skins, and transit of coffee; since railroad line has been cut, values have plummeted Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $30 million; OPEC (1970-77), $25 million Monetary conversion rate: 178 Djibouti francs=US$1 Fiscal year: probably same as that for France (calendar year) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 97 km meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 770 km total; 220 km paved, 550 km improved earth Ports: 1 major (Djibouti) Airfields: 8 total, 8 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft (leased in) Telecommunications: fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and radiocommunication stations at outlying places; 3,600 telephones (2.0 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, no FM, and 1 TV station; 1 COMSAT station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, about 43,000; about 25,000 fit for military service Defense is responsibility of France 61 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET DIIBOUTI/DOMINICA DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO 0% DOMINICA0 0 At/antic Ocean Caribbean Sea (See reference map II) LAND 790 km2; 24% arable, 2% pasture, 67% forests, 7% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 148 km PEOPLE Population: 78,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.7% (1-75 to 1-77) Nationality: noun?Dominican(s); adjective?Dominican Ethnic divisions: mostly of African Negro descent Religion: Roman Catholic, Church of England, Methodist Language: English; French patois Literacy: about 80% Labor force: 23,000; about 50% in agriculture; 24% unemployment Organized labor: 25% of the labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Commonwealth of Dominica Type: independent state within Commonwealth as of 3 November 1978, recognizes Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: Roseau Political subdivisions: 10 parishes Legal system: based on English common law; three local magistrate courts and the British Caribbean Court of Appeals Branches: legislature, 11 member popularly elected House of Assembly; executive, cabinet headed by Premier Government leaders: Prime Minister Oliver Seraphin (interim Prime Minister until elections held) 62 July 1979 Suffrage: universal adult suffrage over age 18 Elections: every 5 years; most recent March 1975 Political parties and leaders: Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Patrick John; Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Miss M. Eugenia Charles (unofficial) Voting strength: House of Assembly seats?DFP 3 seats, DLP 16 seats, independent 2 seats Communists: negligible Member of: CARICOM, U.N. ECONOMY GNP: $32 million (1977 est.), $410 per capita; real growth rate, 1977, 2.0% est. Agricultural products: bananas, citrus, coconuts, cocoa Major industries: agricultural processing, tourism Electric power: 10,000 kW capacity (1977); 7 million kWh produced (1977), 90 kWh per capita Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1976); bananas, lime juice and oil, cocoa, reexports Imports: 818 million (c.i.f., 1976); machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured articles, cement Major trade partners: 47% U.K., 15% Commonwealth Caribbean countries, 7% U.S., 6% Canada (1975) Aid: economic?bilateral including Ex-Im (1970-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $57 million; no military aid Budget: revenues, $8 million; expenditures, $11 million (1977/78 est.) Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dol- lars=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 750 km total; 500 km paved, 250 km gravel and earth Ports: 2 minor (Roseau, Portsmouth) Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 1 with asphalt runway 1,472 m Telecommunications: 3,600 telephones in fully automatic network (4.8 per 100 popl.); VHF and UHF link to St. Lucia; 2 AM and 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Local security force: Royal Dominica Defense Force, 120 (force is a regular unit); Royal Dominica Police Force, 260; Rural Constabulary, 100 U.K. is responsible for external detense;I SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Ogyi 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET DOMINICAN REPUBLIC DOMINICAN REPUBLIC JAMAICA Atlantic Ocean DOMINICAN HAITI, REPUBLIC Santo Domingo VW Caribbean Sea At VENEZUELA Th (See reference map II) LAND 48,692 km2; 14% cultivated, 4% fallow, 17% meadows and pastures, 45% forested, 20% built-on or waste Land boundaries: 361 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone a Coastline: 1,288 km PEOPLE Population: 5,539,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Dominican(s); adjective?Dominican Ethnic divisions: 73% mulatto, 16% white, 11% Negro Religion: 95% Roman Catholic Language: Spanish Literacy: 68% Labor force: 1.3 million; 73% agriculture, 8% industry, 19% services and other Organized labor: 12% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Dominican Republic Type: republic Capital: Santo Domingo Political subdivisions: 26 provinces and the National District Legal system: based on French civil codes; 1966 constitution National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February Branches: President popularly elected for a 4-year term; bicameral legislature consisting of Senate (27 seats) and Chamber of Deputies (91 seats) elected for 4-year terms; Supreme Court Government leader: President Antonio (Silvestre) GUZ- MAN Fernandez SECRET Suffrage: universal and compulsory, over age 18 or married, except members of the armed forces and police, who cannot vote Elections: last national election May 1978; next election May 1982 Political parties and leaders: Reformist Party (PR), Joaquin Balaguer; Dominican. Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jorge Blanco; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan Bosch; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (POD), Elias Wessin y Wessin; Revolutionary Social Christian Party (PRSC), Rogelio Delgado Bogaert; Movement for National Concilia- tion (MNC), Jaime Manuel Fernandez Gonzalez; Anti-re- election Movement of Democratic Integration (MIDA), Francisco Augusto Lora; National Civic Union (UCN), Guillermo Delmonte Urraca; National Salvation Movement (MSN), Luis Julian Perez; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Homero Lajara Burgos; Fourteenth of June Revolutionary Movement (MR-1J4), split into several factions, illegal; Dominican Communist Party (PCD), central committee, legalized in 1978; Dominican Popular Movement (MPD), illegal; 12th of January National Liberation Movement (ML-12E), Plinio Matos Moquete, illegal; Communist Party of the Dominican Republic (PACOREDO), Luis Montas Gonzalez, illegal; Popular Socialist Party (PSP), illegal Voting strength (1978 election): 51.7% PRD, 40.9% PR, 7.4% thirteen minor parties Communists: an estimated 1,500 to 1,800 members in six different factions; effectiveness limited by ideological differences and organizational inadequacies Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, ISO, ITU, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $4.4 billion (1977), $880 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 3.3% Agriculture: main crops?sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, to- bacco, rice, corn . Major industries: sugar processing, nickel mining, bauxite mining, gold mining, textiles, cement Electric power: 670,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.1 billion kWh produced (1978), 385 kWh per capita Exports: $780 million (f.o.b., 1977); sugar, nickel: coffee, tobacco, cocoa, bauxite Imports: $848 million (f.o.b., 1977); foodstuffs, petroleum, industrial raw materials, capital equipment Major trade partners: exports-81% U.S. (1977); im- ports-50% U.S. (1977) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from U.S., $252 million; other Western countries, $78 million; military?from U.S., $12 million Budget: revenues, $600 million; expenditures, $635 million (1978 est.) 63 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 IDeclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 i DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/ECUADOR Monetary conversion rate: 1 peso=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,600 km total; 104 km government-owned common-carrier 1.065-meter gage; 1,496 km privately owned plantation lines of 4 different gages ranging from 0.60 m to 1.43 m, 0.760-meter gage predominating Highways: 11,400 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved earth Pipelines: refined products, 69 km Ports: 5 major (Santo Domingo, Barahona, Haina, Las Calderas, San Pedro de Macoris), 17 minor Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,949 GRT, 18,019 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 bulk Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft Airfields: 51 total, 45 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: relatively efficient domestic system based on islandwide radio relay network; 127,000 telephones (2.6 per 100 popl.); 135 AM, 31 FM, and 11 TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,116,000; 712,000 fit for military service; 59,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: dependent upon U.S. and Western Europe; has assembled some armored cars Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $91 million; about 12.4% of central government budget 64 ECUADOR (See reference MO LAND 274,540 km' (including Galapagos Islands); 11% culti- vated, 8% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 26% waste, ?urban, or other (excludes the Oriente and the Galapagos Islands, for which information is not available) Land boundaries: 1,931 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 2,237 km (includes Galapagos Is.) PEOPLE Population: 7,781,000, excluding nomadic Indian tribes, (July 1979), average annual growth rate .3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Ecuadorean(s); adjective?Ecuador- ean Ethnic divisions: 40% mestizo, 40% Indian, 10% white, 5% Negro, 5% Oriental and other Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (majority nonpracticing) Language: Spanish, Quechua Literacy: 57% Labor force: 2 million, of which 56% agriculture, 13% manufacturing, 4% construction, 7% commerce, 4% public administration, 16% other services and activities Organized labor: less than 15% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Ecuador National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August Type: republic; under military regime since 1972 Capital: Quito Political subdivisions: 20 provinces including Galapagos Islands Legal system: based on civil law system; progressive new constitution passed in January, 1978 referendum will come into effect following the inauguration of a new civilian president in August 1979; legal education at 4 state and 2 private universities; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ECUADOR National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August Branches: Supreme Council of Government, made up of the three military chiefs, assumed power January 1976; judiciary system supervised by Supreme Court; six special tribunals established in July 1972 Government leader: President of Supreme Council Vice Admiral Alfredo POVEDA Burbano Suffrage: universal for literates over age 18 Elections: first round of presidential election and municipal elections were held 16 July 1978; will be followed by second round of presidential election and parliamentary elections in April 1979 Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces, Assad Bucaram, populist; Radical Liberal Party, Ignacio Hidalgo, center right; Conservative Party, Rafael Armijos, center right; Democratic Left, Gonzalo Cordova, center left Voting strength: results of July 1978 presidential election (first round): Jaime Roldos, Concentration of Popular Forces, 28%; Sixto Duran-Ballen, center-right coalition, 24%; Raul Clemente Huerta, center-left coalition, 23% Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro- Moscow, Pedro Saad?secretary-general), 500 members plus an estimated 3,000 sympathizers; Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE/ML, pro-Peking), 100 members; Revolution- ary Socialist Party of Ecuador (PSRE), 200 members Member of: ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, LAFTA and Andean Sub-Regional Group (formed in May 1969 within LAFTA), OAS, OPEC, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $7.2 billion (1978), $903 per capita; 70% consumption, 10% public consumption, 20% gross ment; average annual real growth rate 1975-78, private invest- 6.8% Agriculture: main crops?bananas, coffee, cocoa, sugar- cane, fruits, corn, potatoes, rice; caloric intake, 1,970 calories per day per capita (1970) Fishing: catch 475,000 metric tons (1977); exports $73 million (1977), imports negligible Major industries: food processing, textiles, chemicals, fishing, petroleum Electric power: 552,000 kW capacity (1977); 2.1 billion kWh produced (1977), 290 kWh per capita Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1978); petroleum, bananas, coffee, cocoa, sugar, fish products Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1978); agricultural and industrial machinery, industrial raw materials, building supplies, chemical products, transportation and communica- tion equipment Major trade partners: exports (1977)-41% U.S., 20% LAFTA, 15% EC; imports (1977)-41% U.S., 22% EC, 18% Japan, 14% LAFTA SECRET Declassified SECRET Aid: economic?bilateral ODA and OOF (1970-76), U.S., $117.5 million; other Western countries, $157.9 million; OPEC, $22 million; Communist countries, $9.4 million; military?(1970-76) U.S., $13.6 million Budget: (1978) revenues, $992 million; expenditures, $1,165 million Monetary conversion rate: 25 sucres=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,121 km total; 966 km 1.067-meter gage, 155 km 0.750-meter gage; all single track Highways: 22,250 km total; 3,300 km paved, 11,300 km otherwise improved, 7,650 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,500 km Pipelines: crude oil, 623 km; refined products, 1,358 km Ports: 3 major (Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar), 11 minor Merchant marine: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,035 GRT, 210,281 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 7 tanker Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft Airfields: 173 total, 173 usable; 16 with permanent- surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: facilities adequate only in largest cities; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 174,000 telephones (2.5 per 100 popl.); 250 AM, 38 FM, and 10 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,744,000; 1,040,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually 80,000 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $169.8 million; about 17.5% of central government budget 65 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ECUADOR/ EGYPT EGYPT SAUDI ARABIA (See reference map VI LAND 1,000,258 km2 (including 48,931 km' occupied by Israel as of 26 June 1979); 2.8% cultivated (of which about 70% multiple cropped); 96.5% desert, waste, or urban; 0.7% inland water Land boundaries: 2,527 km (1967); approximately 2,580 km including border of occupied Sinai area (since September 1975) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm -necessary supervision zone-) Coastline: 2,450 km (1967); includes approximately 500 km within occupied Sinai area (since September 1975) PEOPLE Population: 40,958,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Egyptian(s); adjective?Egyptian or Arab Republic of Egypt Ethnic divisions: 90% Eastern Hamitic stock; 10% Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese Religion: (official estimate) 94% Muslim, 6% Copt and other Language: Arabic official, English and French widely understood by educated classes Literacy: around 40% 66 July 1979 Labor force: 13 million; 45 to 50% agriculture, 10% industry, 10% trade and finance, 30% services and other; shortage of skilled labor Organized labor: 1 to 3 million GOVERNMENT Legal name: Arab Republic of Egypt Type: republic; under presidential rule since June 1956 Capital: Cairo Political subdivisions: 26 governorates Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; permanent constitution written in 1971; judicial review of limited nature in Supreme Court, also in Council of State which oversees validity of administrative decisions; legal education at Cairo University; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: National Day, 23 July Branches: executive power vested in President, who appoints cabinet; People's Assembly gradually gaining power as political liberalization program is implemented; independent judiciary administered by Minister of Justice Government leader: President Anwar al-Sadat Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: regular elections to People's Assembly every 5 years (most recent June 1979); presidential elections every 6 years (most recent September 1976) Political parties and leaders: formation of political parties must be approved by government; National Demo- cratic Party, formed in mid-1978 by President Sadat, is the major party; various small opposition parties Communists: approximately 500, party members Member of: AAPSO, AFDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, 100C, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WPC, WSG, WTO; Egypt suspended from Arab League and OAPEC in April 1979 ECONOMY GNP: $11.7 billion (1978), $290 per capita; average annual growth rate of 9% in 1978 Agriculture: main cash crop?cotton; other crops?rice, onions, beans, citrus fruit, wheat, corn, barley; not self-suffi- cient in food, but agriculture a net earner of foreign exchange Major industries: textiles, food processing, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement Electric power: 5,000,000 kW capacity (1978); 14 billion kWh produced (1978), 350 kWh per capita Exports: $2,725 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); raw cotton, cotton yarn and fabric, crude petroleum, rice, onions, potatoes, chemicals, cement Imports: $4,900 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, woods SECRET 25X1 1 25X1 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 Major trade partners: EC countries, U.S. Aid: OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $7,713.5 million; U.S. (1970-77), $2,318.2 million; Western countries (1970-77), $2,185.6 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $821.5 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $2,732.0 million Monetary conversion rate: official rate-1 Egyptian pound =US$2.54 (selling rate); 0.394 Egyptian pound= US$1 (selling rate); parallel market rate-1 Egyptian pound =US$1.43, 0.699 Egyptian pound =US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year, beginning in 1973 EGYPT/EL SALVADOR COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,857 km total; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified; 4,510 km standard gage (1.435 m), 347 km 0.750-meter gage Highways: 47,025 km total; 12,300 km paved, 2,500 km gravel and crushed stone, 14,200 km improved earth, 18,025 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 3,360 km; Suez Canal, 160 km long, used by ocean-going vessels drawing up to 11.5 meters of water; Alexandria-Cairo waterway navigable by barges of metric ton capacity; Nile and large canals by barges of 420-metric ton capacity; Ismailia Canal by barges of 200- to 300-metric ton capacity; secondary canals by sailing craft of 10- to 70-metric ton capacity Freight carried: Suez Canal (1966)-242 million metric tons of which 175.6 million metric tons were POL Pipelines: crude oil, 675 km; refined products, 240 km; natural gas, 365 km Ports: 3 major (Alexandria, Port Said, Suez), 8 minor Merchant marine: 85 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 425,586 GRT, 572,426 DWT; includes 8 passenger, 62 cargo, 14 tanker, 1 bulk Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in Airfields: 105 total, 75 usable; 67 with permanent-surface runways; 47 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system is large but inadequate for needs and poorly maintained; principal centers Alexandria and Cairo, secondary centers Al Mansurah, Ismailia, and Tanta; intercity connections by coaxial cable and micro- wave; extensive upgrading in progress; 500,000 telephones (1.3 per 100 popl.); 22 AM, no FM, and 29 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; Symphonie satellite station; 2 submarine coaxial cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,027,000; 6,517,000 fit for military service; about 423,000 reach military age (20) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: produces infantry weapons, ammunition, small naval oilers, patrol boats; is dependent on foreign sources for other equipment Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $1.5 billion; 19% of central government budget EL SALVADOR Caribbean Sea San Sal EL SALVADOR Pacific Ocean (See reference map III LAND 21,400 km', 32% cropland (9% corn, 5% cotton, 7% coffee, 11% other), 26% meadows and pastures, 31% nonagricul- tural, 11% forested Land boundaries: 515 km 67 25X1 2-g561 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET EL SALVADOR WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 307 km PEOPLE Population: 4,646,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Salvadoran(s); adjective?Salvadoran Ethnic divisions: 84%-88% mestizo; Indian and white minorities, 6%-8% each Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic, probably 97%-98% Language: Spanish Literacy: 50% literacy in urban areas, 30% in rural areas Labor force: 1,500,000 (est. 1977); 57% agriculture, 14% services, 14% manufacturing, 6% commerce, 9% other; shortage of skilled labor and large pool of unskilled labor, but manpower training programs improving situation Organized labor: 5% of total labor force; 10% of nonagricultural labor force (1977) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of El Salvador Type: republic Capital: San Salvador Political subdivisions: 14 departments Legal system: based on Spanish law, with traces of common law; constitution adopted 1962; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of El Salvador; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- tion, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September Branches: traditionally dominant executive, unicameral legislature, Supreme Court Government leader: President, Gen. Carlos Humberto ROMERO Mena Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: legislative elections every 2 years; presidential elections every 5 years; presidential elections 1982, legisla- tive and municipal elections March 1980 Political parties and leaders: National Conciliation Party (PCN), President, Carlos Humberto Romero; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Juan Ramirez Rauda, Dr. Pablo Mauricio Alvergue, Jose Napoleon Duarte; Salvadoran Popular Party (PPS), Benjamin Wilfredo Navarrete, Roberto Quinonez Meza, Dr. Jose Antonio Guzman; Communist Party of El Salvador (PCES), illegal, Jorge Shafick Handal; National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Dr. Guillermo Manuel Ungo; National Democratic Union Party (PUDN), Communist Front, Jorge Shafick Handal, Francisco Roberto Lima, Julio Ernesto Contreras, Julio Castro Belloso; ? 68 July 1979 Independent Democratic United Front (FUDI), Gen. Jose A. Medrano, Raul Salaverria Voting strength: February 1977 presidential election? PCN 66%, PDC, PUDN, and MNR coalition, 34%; March 1978 legislative election?PCN, 50 seats; PPS, 4 seats; all other opposition parties boycotted the election Communists: 220 to 225 active members; sympathizers, 5,000; 2,000 members of radical terrorist groups Other political or pressure groups: the military; about 100 prominent families; General Confederation of Trade Unions (CGS); Unifying Federation of Salvadoran Trade Unions (FUSS), Communist dominated; United Confeder- ation of Workers (CUT), Communist dominated Federation of Construction and Transport Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent; Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS): Christian Federation of Salvadoran Peasants (FECCAS); Union of Rural Workers (UTC); Popular Revolutionary Bloc (BPR); United Popular Action Front (FAPU); Catholic Church; Salvadoran National Association of Educators (ANDES); National Association of Private Enterprise (ANEP); National Democratic Organization (ORDEN) Member of: Central American Common Market (CACM), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $2.9 billion (1978), $640 per capita; 71.3% private consumption, 12.9% government consumption, 24.5% do- mestic investment; ? 8% net foreign balance; real growth rate, 4.4% (1978) Agriculture: main crops?coffee, cotton, corn, sugar, rice, beans; caloric intake, 1,912 calories per day per capita (1974); protein intake 51 grams per day per capita Fishing: catch 9,130 metric tons (1976) Major industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, petroleum products Electric power: 557,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.2 billion kWh produced (1977), 280 kWh per capita Exports: $934 million (f.p.b., 1977); coffee, cotton, sugar Imports: $1,120 million (c.i.f., 1977); machinery, auto- motive vehicles, petroleum, foodstuffs, fertilizer Major trade partners: exports-33% U.S., 24% CACM, 11% other (1976); imports-29% U.S., 24% CACM, 7% Venezuela, 14% West Germany, 8% Netherlands, 40% other (1976) Aid: economic?(FY70-76) from U.S., $60 million; from other Western countries, $36 million; military?from U.S., $10 million Budget: (1977) $473 million current revenues, $405 million total expenditures including amortization SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET EL SALVADOR/EQUATORIAL Monetary conversion rate: 2.5 colones = US$1 (official) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 600 km 0.914-meter gage, single-tracked; Highways: 7,250 km total; 1,500 km paved, 1,300 km gravel 4,400 km improved and unimproved earth Inland waterways: Lempa River partially navigable Ports: 2 major (Acajutla, La Union), 1 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 1,800 GRT, 3,200 DWT Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft Airfields: 157 total, 144 usable; 4 with permanent- surfaced runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: nationwide trunk radio relay sys- tem; connection into Central American microwave net; 54,200 telephones (1.3 per 100 popl.); 60 AM, 9 FM, and 5 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean Satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,034,000; 636,000 fit for military service; 53,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: army and air force equipment procured from Western Europe, Israel, and Yugoslavia; navy depends on U.S. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December. 1979, $50.9 million; 8.8% of central government budget SECRET GUINEA EQUATORIAL GUINEA NIGERIA Malabo,. C'F EQUATORIAL GUINEA Atlantic Ocean CAMEROON GABON CONGO (See reference map WI LAND 27,972 km2; Rio Muni, about 25,900 km', largely forested; Fernando Po, about 2,072 km2 Land boundaries: 539 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 296 km PEOPLE Population: 341,000 (July 1979), this estimate does not take into account emigration from Equatorial Guinea during the last several years, which could have amounted to one- third of .the total population; average annual growth rate 1.8% (7-68 to 7-69); Rio Muni, 239,000, average annual growth rate 1.5% (7-68 to 7-69); Fernando Po, 103,000, average annual growth rate 2.6%- (7-68 to 7-69) Nationality: noun?Equatorial Guinean(s); adjective? Equatorial Guinean Ethnic divisions: indigenous population of Province Macias Nguema Biyogo, primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos; of Rio Muni primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans, primarily Spanish Religion: natives all nominally Christian and predomi- nantly Roman Catholic; some pagan practices retained Language: Spanish official language of government and business; also pidgin English, Fang Literacy: 20% Labor force: most Equatorial Guineans involved in subsistence agriculture GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea Type: republic, one-party presidential. regime since 1968 Capital: Malabo, Province Macias Nguema Biyogo Political subdivisions: 2 provinces (Province Macias Nguema Biyogo and Rio Muni) 69 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET EQUATORIAL GUINEA/ETHIOPIA Legal system: based on Spanish Civil law system and customary law, new constitution adopted August 1973; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 5 March Branches: there are legislative and judicial branches but President exercises virtually unlimited power Government leader: President for life, Masie Nguema Biyogo ISlegue Ndong Suffrage: universal age 21 and over Elections: parliamentary elections held December 1973 Political parties and leaders: National Unity Party of Workers (PUNT) is the sole legal party, led by President Masie Communists: no significant number of Communists or sympathizers Member of: Conference of East and Central African States, ECA, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UPU ECONOMY GNP: $70 million (1972); $240 per capita Agriculture: major cash crops?Rio Muni, timber, coffee; Fernando Po, cocoa; main food products?rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts, manioc, and livestock Major industries: fishing, sawmilling Electric power: 5,000 kW capacity (1977); 17 million kWh produced (1977), 50 kWh per capita Exports: $36 million (1974); cocoa, coffee, and wood Imports: $20 million (1974); foodstuffs, chemicals and chemical products, textiles Major trade partner: Spain Aid: economic?from Communist countries (1970-76), $24.1 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $6.0 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $9.0 million Budget: (1973) million Monetary conversion rate: 68.85 Ekuele=US$1 (January 1977) receipts $9 million, expenditures $12 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: Rio Muni-2,460 km, including approx. 185 km bituminous, remainder gravel and earth; Fernando Po- 300 km, including 146 km bituminous, remainder gravel and earth Inland waterways: Rio Muni has approximately 167 km of year-round navigable waterway, used mostly by pirogues Ports: 2 major (Macias Nguema Biyogo, Rey Malabo), 3 minor Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,400 GRT, 6,600 DWT Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (leased in) Airfields: 5 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m 70 July 1979 Telecommunications: fair system with adequate govern- ment services; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; other facilities planned; 2,000 telephones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 91,000; 44,000 fit for military service Supply: since 1970 has received mortars, small arms, a few armored vehicles, 4 patrol boats, and a harbor launch from the U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1970, $3,475,700; 14.3% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 ETHIOPIA SAUDI ARABIA Indian Ocean (Sea mfemnce map VI) LAND 1,178,450 km2; 10% cropland and orchards, 55% meadows and natural pastures, 6% forests and woodlands, 29% wasteland, built-on areas, and other Land boundaries: 5,198 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm; sedentary fisheries extends to limit of fisheries Coastline: 1,094 km (includes offshore islands) SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ETHIOPIA PEOPLE Population: 31,743,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Ethiopian(s); adjective?Ethiopian Ethnic divisions: Galla 40%, Amhara and Tigrai 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% Religion: 35%-40% Ethiopian Orthodox, 40%-45% Mus- lims, 15%-20% animist, 5% other Language: Amharic official; many local languages and dialects; English major foreign language taught in schools Literacy: about 5% Labor force: 90% agriculture and animal husbandry; 10% government, military, and quasi-government Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members GOVERNMENT Legal name: Ethiopia Type: under military rule since mid-1974; monarchy abolished in March 1975, but republic not yet declared Capital: Addis Ababa ' Political subdivisions: 14 provinces (also referred to as regional administrations) Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common and customary law influences; constitution sus- pended September 1974; military leaders have promised a new constitution but established no time frame for its adoption; legal education at Addis Ababa University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Popular Revolution Commemoration Day, 12 September Branches: effective power exercised by Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), a group estimated at 40-100 officers and enlisted men which operates on committee system; predominantly civilian cabinet is ineffec- tual and holds office at suffrance of military; legislature dissolved September 1974; judiciary at higher levels based on Western pattern, at lower levels on traditional pattern, without jury system in either Government leader: Lt. Col. Mengistu Haile-Mariam, Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: union dwellers' association officials elected October-December 1976 Political parties and leaders: common front of Ethiopian Marxist-Leninist organizations, encompassing three quasi- official groups?Revolutionary Flame (Seded), and two less important ones Communists: Ethiopian Communist Party is a small group opposed to military government SECRET SECRET Other political or pressure groups: important dissident groups include Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), and Eritrean Liberation Front/Popular Liberation Forces in Eritrea; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP), a radical left under- ground movement concentrated in Addis Ababa and made up predominantly of students and intellectuals; it has been severely reduced by a government eradication campaign; and Ethiopian Democratic Union (EDU), primarily an exile group; several other dissident groups with ethnic or provincial bases of support Member of: AFDR, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICO, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2,891 million (1977 est.), $100 per capita; average annual real growth rate 4% (1967-73), zero (1974 and in 1975) Agriculture: main crops?coffee, teff, durra, barley, wheat, corn, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, oilseeds; livestock Major industries: cement, sugar refining, cotton textiles, food processing, oil refinery Electric power: 297,000 kW capacity (1977); 500 million kWh produced (1977), 20 kWh per capita Exports: $193 million (f.o.b., 1977/78); 75% coffee, 7% hides and skins, 6% pulses, 2% oilseeds Imports: $512 million (c.i.f., 1977/78); 18% petroleum Major trade partners: imports?Saudi Arabia, Japan, Italy, West Germany, Iran, U.K., France, and U.S.; exports?U.S., Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Italy, West Germany Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $375.0 million; U.S., $167.1 million; Communist countries, $129.9 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $20.2 million; military?(1970-77) U.S., $283.9 million; Communist coun- tries, $1,288 million Monetary conversion rate: 2.07 Ethiopian Birr=US$1 Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,014 km total; 676 km meter gage (1.00 m), 32 km 1.067-meter gage, 306 km 0.95-meter gage; all single track Highways: 11,435 km total; 3,770 km-bituminous, 7,665 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized earth, remainder earth Inland waterways: 41 navigation possible on Lake Tana and on approx. 225 km of unconnected and basically unimproved waterways, of which only 114 km are navigable year round Ports: 2 major (Aseb, Mits' iwa) Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over totalm 19,000 GRT, 25,300 DWT; 3 cargo, 1 tanker Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft 71 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ETHIOPIA/FALKLAND Airfields: 190 total, 176 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 47 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of radio relay, open wire and radiocommunication stations; principal center Addis Ababa, secondary center Asmara; 73,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, no FM, and 1 TV station; 1 satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,317,000; 3,922,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually 331,000 Supply: produces some small-arms ammunition; tormerly most equipment from U.S., but now mostly from the U.S.S.R.; ground force materiel has been purchased from a number of non-Communist countries; aircraft from Sweden, U.K., U.S., Canada, France, and also more recently from the U.S.S.R. and PRC; naval material from the U.S., Yugoslavia, France the Netherlands, and the U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 6 July 1979, $334,879,227; 33% of central government budget FALKLAND ISLANDS (Islas Malvinas) LAND Colony-12,168 km; area consists of some 200 small islands, chief of which are. East Falkland (6,680 km') and West Falkland (5,276 kmif, dependencies?consists of the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, and the Shag and Clerke Rocks ' The possession of the Falkland Islands has been disputed by the U.K. and Argentina (which refers to them as the Islas Malvinas) since 1833. 72 ISLANDS Atlantic Ocean FALKLAND ISLANDS July 1979 (See reference map IN WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 1,288 km PEOPLE Population: 2,000 (official estimate for 31 December 1977) Nationality: noun?Falkland Islander(s); adjective?Falk- land Island Ethnic divisions: almost totally British Religion: predominantly Church of England Language: English Literacy: compulsory education up to age 14 Labor force: 1,100 (est.); est. over 95% in agriculture, mostly sheepherding GOVERNMENT Legal name: Colony of the Falkland Islands Type: British crown colony Capital: Stanley Political subdivisions: local government is confined to capital Legal system: English common law Branches: Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council Government leader: Governor and Commander in Chief J.R.W. Parker (also High Commissioner for British Antarctic Colony) Suffrage: universal ECONOMY Government budget: Colony?revenues, $1.0 million (FY68); expenditures, $1.1 million (FY68) Agriculture: Colony?predominantly sheep farming; de- pendencies?whaling and sealing Major industries: Colony?wool processing; depend- encies?whale and seal processing Electric power: 1,250 kW capacity (1977); 2.5 million kWh produced (1977), 1,150 kWh per capita SECRET 25X1 25X1 I 25X1e, 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET FALKLAND ISLANDS/FAROE ISLANDS Exports: Colony?$2.28 million (1969); wool, hides and skins, and other; dependencies?no exports in 1968 or 1969 Imports: Colony?$1.22 million (1969); food, clothing, fuels, and machinery; dependencies?$8,368 (1969); mineral fuels and lubricants, food, and machinery Major trade partners: nearly all exports to the U.K., also some to the Netherlands and to Japan; imports from Curacao, Japan, and the U.K. Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries, $13 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Falkland Island pound =US$2.60 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km Ports: 1 major (Port Stanley), 4 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable, 1 with permanent surface runway; 1 with runway 1,200-2,439 m Telecommunications: government-operated and radio- telephone networks providing effective service to almost all points on both islands; approximately 650 telephones (est. 30 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station FAROE ISLANDS LAND 1,340 km2; less than 5% arable, of which only a fraction cultivated; archipelago consisting of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm; fishing 200 nm Coastline: 764 km PEOPLE Population: 43,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.4% (1-75 to 1-77) Nationality: noun?Faroese (sing., pl.); adjective? Faroese Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population Religion: Evangelical Lutheran Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish SECRET (See reference map IV) Literacy: 99% Labor force: 15,000; largely engaged in fishing, manufac- turing, transportation, and commerce GOVERNMENT Legal name: Faroe Islands Type: self-governing province within the Kingdom of Denmark; 2 representatives in Danish parliament Capital: Torshavn on the island of Streymoy Political subdivisions: 7 districts, 49 communes, 1 town Legal system: based on Danish law; Home Rule Act enacted 1948 Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with Crown, acting through appointed High Commissioner, and provin- cial parliament (Lagting) in matters of strictly Faroese concern; executive power vested in Crown, acting through High Commissioner, but exercised by provincial cabinet responsible to provincial parliament Government leaders: Queen Margrethe ll; Prime Minis- ter, Atli Dam; Danish Governor, Leif Groth Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 21 Elections: held every 4 years; next election 1981 (coincides with Danish elections) Political parties and leaders: Peoples, Hakun Djurhuus; Republican, Erlendur Patursson; Home Rule, Samuel Petersen; Progressive, Kjartan Mohr; Social Democratic, Atli Dam; Union, Kristian Djurhuus Voting strength (1975 election): Social Democratic 25.8%, Republican 22.5%, Peoples 20.5%, Union 19.1%, Home Rule 7.2%, Progressive 2.5% Communists: insignificant number Member of: Nordic Council ECONOMY GDP: $173.4 million (1974), about $4,340 per capita Agriculture: sheep and cattle grazing Fishing: catch 341,962 metric tons (1976); exports, $94.7 million (1976) 73 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 SECRET FAROE ISLANDS/FIJI Major. industry: fishing Electric power: 28,500 kW capacity (1977); 90 million kWh produced (1977), 2,140 kWh per capita Exports: $104.4 million (f.o.b., 1976); mostly fish and fish products Imports: $130.7 million (c.i.f., 1976); machinery and transport equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, food products Major trade partners: 50.2% Denmark, 13.7% Norway, 7.9% U.K., 7.2% U.S., 4.4% Italy (1976) Budget: (FY76) expenditures $52.8 million, revenues $52.8 million Monetary conversion rate: 5.5146 Danish Kroner=US$1 (1978, average) Fiscal year: calendar year beginning 1 January 1979 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: none Ports: 1 minor Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface runway, less than 1,220 in Civil air: no major transport aircraft Telecommunications: good international communica- tions; fair domestic facilities; 15,000 telephones (35 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, and 3 FM stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49 included with Denmark Denmark retains responsibility for defense of islands; Royal Danish Navy operates 1 or 2 patrol escort ships in islands' waters for fishery inspection; the ships can accommodate helicopters; Royal Danish Air Force has a control and reporting post at Torshavn, manned by 108 personnel; the islands have no organized native military forces; only a small police force is maintained FIJI LAND 18,272 km2; landownership-83.6% Fijians, 1.7% Indians, 6.4% government, 7.2% European, 1.1% other; about 30% of land area is suitable for farming WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 1,129 km PEOPLE Population: 621,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Fijian(s); adjective?Fijian Ethnic divisions: 44% Fijian, 50% Indian; 6% European, Chinese and others 74 July 1979 PAPUA NEW G"ii11A Coral Sea ' AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Nal FIJI (See reference map VIII) Religion: Fijians mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu with a Muslim minority Language: English and Fijian (official), Hindustani spoken among Indians Literacy: over 80% Labor force: 95,000; over 50% in agriculture, no breakdown on remainder Organized labor: about 50% of labor force organized into 22 unions; unions organized along lines of work, breakdown by ethnic origin causes further fragmentation GOVERNMENT Legal name: Fiji Type: independent state within Commonwealth; Eliza- beth II recognized as chief of statc Capital: Suva Political subdivisions: 14 provinces Legal system: based on British National holiday: 10 October Branches: ? executive?Prime Minister; legislative- 52-member House of Representatives (Alliance Party 36 seats, National Federation Party 15 seats); 1 independent 22 member appointed Senate; judicial?Supreme court Government leader: Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara Suffrage: universal adult Elections: every 5 years unless House dissolves earlier, last held September 1977 Political parties: Alliance, primarily Fijian, headed by Ratu Mara; National Federation, primarily Indian, headed by Jai Ram Reddy Communists: few, no figures available Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, EEC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, U.N., UPU, WHO, WIPO SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET FIJI/FINLAND ECONOMY GNP: $710 million (1978), $1,154 per capita; 2.4% real growth rate (1977-78) Agriculture: main crops?sugar, coconut products, ba- nanas, ginger, rice; major deficiency, grains Major industries: sugar processing, tourism Electric power: 90,000 kW capacity (1978); 270 million kWh produced (1978), 450 kWh per capita Exports: $187 million (f.o.b., 1977, including reexports); 70% sugar, 11% coconut oil, 9% gold Imports: $279 million (f.o.b., 1977); 20% manufactured goods, 19% food, 16% machinery, fuels, chemicals (1977) Major trade partners: U.K., New Zealand, U.S., Canada, Australia, Japan Aid: disbursed I968?Australia $1.5 million, U.S. $0.6 million, U.K. $4.2 million Budget: (FY75) revenues $107 million, expenditures $129 million Monetary conversion rate: Fijian dollar =US$1.2119 (September 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 644 km narrow gage (0.610 m); owned by Fiji Sugar Corp., Ltd. Highways: 3,472 km total (1977); 346 km paved, 2,706 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric ton barges Ports: I major, 6 minor Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,879 GRT, 5,935 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 liquefied gas, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargc Civil air: 1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft Airfields: 15 total, 15 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-pur- pose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between U.S./Canada and New Zealand/Australia, et al.; 30,700 telephones (5.3 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 2 FM, and ? no TV stations; I ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES ' Military manpower: males 15-49, 170,000; 95,000 fit for military service; 8,000 reach military age (18) annually Military budget: the defense of the Fiji Islands was the responsibility of the U.K. until 10 October 1970; military budget for 1971, $314,000 25X1 25X1 SECRET FINLAND (See reference map IW) LAND 336,700 km2; 8% arable, 58% forested, 34% other Land boundaries: 2,534 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm; fishing 12 nm; Aaland Islands, 3 nm Coastline: 1,126 km (approx.) excludes islands and coastal indentations PEOPLE Population: 4,771,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (7-77 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?Finn(s); adjective?Finnish Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population, small Lappish minority Religion: 93% Evangelical Lutheran, 1% Greek Orthodox, 1% )other, 5% no affiliation Language: Finnish 92%, Swedish 7%; small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities Literacy: 99% 75 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 FINLAND Labor force: 2.2 million; 16.6% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 26.4% mining and manufacturing, 8.4% construc- tion, 15.4% commerce, 6.8% transportation and communica- tions, 4.0% banking and finance, 20.1% services; 7.3% (163,000) unemployed (1978 average) Organized labor: 60% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Finland Type: republic Capital: Helsinki Political subdivisions: 12 provinces; 443 communes, 78 towns Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; constitution adopted 1919; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; legal education at Universities of Helsinki and Turku; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with President and parliament (Eduskunta); executive power vested in President and exercised through cabinet responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, 4 superior courts, 193 lower courts Government leader: President Urho Kekkonen; Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa Suffrage: universal, 18 years and over; not compulsory Elections: parliamentary, every 4 years (last in 1979); presidential, every 6 years (President Kekkonen reelected to 6-year term in January 1978) Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Kalevi Sorsa; Center, Johannes Virolainen; Peoples Democratic League (Communist front), Ele Alenius; Conservative, Harri Holkeri; Liberal, Jaakko Itala; Swedish Peoples Party, Par Stenback; Rural, Veikko Vennamo; Finnish People's Unity Party, Eino Haikala; Communist, Aarne Saarinen Voting strength (1979 election): 23.9% Social Democratic Center, 21.6% Unionist, 17.8% Peoples Democratic League, 17.4% Center, 4.8% Christian League, 4.6% Finnish Rural Party, 4.6% Swedish Peoples, 3.7% Liberal Peoples, 1.2% Constitutional Peoples, 0.3% Finnish Peoples Unity Party, 0.1% Socialist Workers Party Communists: 43,000; an additional 65,000 persons belong to Peoples Democratic League; a further number of sympathizers, as indicated by 517,198 votes cast for Peoples Democratic League in 1979 elections Member of: ADB, CEMA (special cooperation agree- ment), DAC, EC (free trade agreement), EFTA (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC-International Wheat Coun- cil, Nordic Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 76 ECONOMY GNP: $31 billion (1978), $6,530 per capita; 51% consumption, 25% investment, 21% government; 3% net exports of goods and services; 1978 growth rate 1.8% (constant prices) Agriculture: animal husbandry, especially dairying, pre- dominates; forestry important secondary occupation for rural population; main crops-cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient; shortages-food and fodder grains; caloric intake 2,940 calories per day per capita (1970-71) include metal manufacturing and and wood processing (pulp, paper), Major industries: shipbuilding, forestry copper refining Shortages: fossil fuels; wood, and iron ore Crude steel: 1.7 million kg per capita Electric power: 9,400,000 industrial raw materials, except metric tons produced (1976), 360 kW capacity (1978); 34.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 7,255 kWh per capita Exports: $8.5 billion (f.o.b., 1978); timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, iron and steel, clothing and footwear Imports: $7.8 billion (c.i.f., 1978); foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics Major trade partners: (1978) 37% EC-nine (11% West Germany, 11% U.K.); 18% U.S.S.R., 14% Sweden; 4% U.S. Aid: donor-(1977) bilateral (ODA), $23 million Budget: (1979) expenditures $9.61 billion Monetary conversion economic aid authorized $10.88 billion, revenues rate: new markka (Fmk) 4.1173=US$1 (1978 average, IMF) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 6,038 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total 6,010 km 1.524-meter gage, 477 km multiple track, and 608 km electrified; 22 km 0.750-meter gage and 6 km 1.524-meter gage are privately owned Highways: about 73,552 km total in national classified net work, including 31,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete, bituminous surface treated) and 42,552 km unpaved (stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); additional 29,440 km of private (state subsidized) roads Inland waterways: 6,597 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers; Saimaa Canal locks (84 m by 13.2 m with a 5.2 m depth over sill) can accommodate vessels of up to 82 m in length, 11.8 m beam, 4.4 m draft, and 24.5 m mast height Pipelines: natural gas, 161 km Ports: 11 major, 14 minor Merchant marine: 200 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,254,274 GRT, 3,412,455 DWT; includes 22 passenger, 81 cargo, 1 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 37 tanker 36 bulk, 3 specialized carrier, 2 liquefied gas carrier SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 FINLAND/FRANCE Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased out Airfields: 134 total, 132 usable; 36 with permanent- surface runways; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 24 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good telecom service from cable and radio-relay network; 1.94 million telephones (40.9 per 100 pool.); 15 AM, 40 FM, and 76 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,265,000; 1,028,000 fit for military service; 40,000 reach military age (17) annually Supply: produces small quantities of ammunition and equipment up to medium artillery; has developed an armored car; remainder from U.S.S.R., U.K., West Ger- many, Sweden, France, Switzerland; most naval ships (except principal surface combatant types) produced domes- tically; production also includes small quantities of chemical warfare defensive materiel Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $520 million; about 4.8% of central government budget FRANCE LAND 551,670 km2; 35% cultivated, 26% meadows and pastures, 14% waste, urban, or other, 25% forested Land boundaries: 2,888 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 km) PEOPLE Population: 53,451,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (current) SECRET Atlantic Ocean SECRET Mediterranean Sea (See reference map 119 Nationality: noun?Frenchman (men); adjective? French Ethnic divisions: 45% Celtic; remainder Latin, Germanic, Slav, Basque Religion: 83% Catholic, 2% Protestant, 1% Jewish, 1% Muslim (North African workers), 13% unaffiliated Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declin- ing regional patois?Provencal, Breton, Germanic, Corsican, 25X1 Catalan, Basque, Flemish Literacy: 97% Labor force: 22.4 million (est. in mid-1978); 47% services, 38% industry, 10% agriculture, 6% unemployed Organized labor: approximately 17% of labor force, 23% of salaried labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: French Republic Type: republic, with president having wide powers Capital: Paris Political subdivisions: 96 metropolitan departments, 21 regional economic districts Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; new constitution adopted 1958, amended concerning elec- tion of President in 1962; judicial review of administrative but not legislative acts; legal education at over 25 schools of law National holiday: National Day, 14 July Branches: presidentially appointed Prime Minister heads Council of Ministers, which is formally responsible to National Assembly; bicameral legislature?National Assem- bly (491 members), Senate (295 members) restricted to a delaying action; judiciary independent in principle Government leader: President Valery Giscard d'Estaing Suffrage: universal over age 18; not compulsory Elections: National Assembly?every 5 years, last election March 1978, direct universal suffrage, 2 ballots; Senate? indirect collegiate system for 9 years, renewable by 77 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 FRANCE one-third every 3 years, last election September 1977; President, direct, universal suffrage every 7 years, 2 ballots, last election May 1974 Political parties and leaders: Majority Coalition-Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques Chirac; Republicans (PR), Jacques Blanc; Center for Social Demo- crats (CDS), Jean Lecanuet; Radical Socialist (RS), Jean- Jacques Servan-Schreiber; Union for French Democracy (federation of PR, CDS, and RS), Jean Lecanuet; Left Opposition-Socialist Party (PS), Francois Mitterrand; Com- munist Party (PCF), Georges Marchais; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Michel Crepeau; Unified Socialist Party (PSU), Michel Mousel Voting strength (first ballot, 1978 election): extreme left, 3.3%; Communist, 21.25%; Socialist, 23.03%; left Radicals 2.28%; RPR, 22.19%; UDF, 21.39%; divided right, 1.68%; other 4.87% Communists: 600,000 claimed; Communist voters, 5 million average Other political or pressure groups: Communist-con- trolled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail- CFDT) about 800,000 members est.; Independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) about 800,000 members est.; Independent white collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 200,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais- CNPF or Patronat) Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECSC, EEC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC-Interna- tional Whaling Commission, NATO (signatory), OAS (ob- server), OECD, South Pacific Commission, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $469 billion (1978), $7,150 per capita; 62.3% private consumption, 21.8% investment (including government), 15,1% government consumption; 1978 real growth rate, 3.2%; average annual growth rate, 4.7% (1966-77) Agriculture: Western Europe's foremost producer; main products-beef, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate zone foodstuffs; food shortages-fats and oils, tropical produce; caloric intake, 3,270 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Fishing: catch 805,925 metric tons (1976); exports (includes shellfish, etc.) $122 million, imports $506 million (1976) Major industries: steel, machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, aircraft, motor vehicles Shortages: crude oil, textile fibers, most nonferrous ores, coking coal, fats and oils 78 Crude steel: 27.4 million metric tons produced (1978), 410 kg per capita Electric power: 57,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 227 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,240 kWh per capita Exports: $79.5 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal items- machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, agri- cultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing, chemicals Imports: $82.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); principal items- crude petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel products, foodstuffs, agricultural products Major trade partners: 18% West Germany; 9% Belgium- Luxembourg; 10% Italy; 6% U.S.; 6% Netherlands; 6% U.K.; 2% Eastern Europe; 2% U.S.S.R.; 8% Franc Zone (1977) Aid: donor-bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $16,222 million (1970-77) Budget: (1978) expenditures 410 billion francs, revenues 375 billion francs, deficit 35 billion francs Monetary conversion rate: 1 franc=US$0.2216 (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 36,571 km total; French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,597 km standard gage (1.435 m); 9,856 km electrified, 15,630 km double or multiple track; 1,974 km of various gages (1,000 m to 1,440 m), privately owned and operated Highways: 788,580 km total; 128,745 km bitumen and concrete (incl. 3,144 km of controlled access, divided -AUTOROUTES"); 339,315 km bituminous treated; 301,000 km crushed stone and gravel; 19,520 km improved earth; in addition, there are approximately 700,065 km of local farm and forest roads Inland waterways: 14,912 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled Pipelines: crude oil, 2,253 km; refined products, 4,344 km; natural gas, 22,047 km Ports: 23 major, 165 minor Merchant marine: 394 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,547,836 GRT, 20,325,922 DWT; includes 17 passenger, 131 cargo, 19 container, 51 roll-on/off cargo, 92 tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 43 bulk, 5 combination ore/oil 1 beach landing cargo, 26 specialized carrier Civil air: 307 major transport aircraft, including 7 leased in and 13 leased out Airfields: 459 total, 440 usable; 226 with permanent- surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,660 m, 32 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 121 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory telephone, telegraph, and radio and TV broad- cast services; 15.5 million telephones (29.3 per 100 popl.); 55 AM, 94 FM, and 1,500 TV stations; 23 submarine coaxial cables; 2 communication satellite ground stations with 4 Atlantic Ocean, and 2 Indian Ocean antennas SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 FRANCE/FRENCH GUIANA SECRET DEFENSE FORCES Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 Military manpower: males 15-49, 13,246,000; fit for December 1979, $18.0 billion; about 17% of proposed military service 10,695,000; 425,000 reach military age (18) central government budget annually SECRET FRENCH GUIANA Cu flA Atlantic Ocean FRENCH GUIANA ayenne BRAZIL (See reference map LAND 90,909 km2; 90% forested, 10% wasteland, built-on, inland water and other, of which .05% is cultivated and pasture Land boundaries: 1,183 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 378 km 79 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET FRENCH GUIANA PEOPLE Population: 61,000 (July 1979), annual growth rate 2.2% (10-74 to 11-77) Nationality: noun?French Guianese (sing., pl.); adjec- tive?French Guiana Ethnic divisions: 959' Negro or mulatto, 5% caucasian, 10,000 East Indian, Chinese Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic Language: French Literacy: 73% Labor force: 17,012 (1967 census); services 49%, construc- tion 21%, agriculture 18%, industry 8%, transportation 4%; information on unemployment unavailable Organized labor: 7% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Department of French Guiana Type: overseas department and region of France; represented by one deputy in French National Assembly and one senator in French Senate; Deputy Hector Rivierez reelected to National Assembly 12 March 1978 Capital: Cayenne Political subdivisions: 2 arrondissements, 19 communes each with a locally elected municipal council Legal system: French legal system; highest court is Court of Appeal based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana Branches: executive: prefect appointed by Paris; legisla- tive: popularly elected 16-member General Council and a Regional Council composed of members of the local General Council and of the locally elected deputy and senator to the French parliament; judicial, under jurisdiction of French judicial system Government leader: Prefect Herve Bourseiller Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: General Council elections normally are held every 5 years; last election March 1978 Political parties and leaders: Parti Socialiste Guyanais (PSG), Leopold Heder, Senator; Union du Peuple Guyanaise (UPG), weak leftist allied with, but also reported, to have been absorbed by the PSG; Rassemblement Pour La Republique (RPR), Hector Rivierez, delegate to French National Assembly Communists: Communist party membership negligible ECONOMY GNP: $100 million (at market prices, 1975), $800 per capita Agriculture: main crops?rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugarcane Fishing: catch 1,113 metric tons (1976) Major industries: timber, rum, gold mining, production of rosewood essence, and space center 80 July 1979 Electric power: 29,000 kW capacity (1977); 60 million kWh produced (1977), 1,000 kWh per capita Exports: $7.2 million (1977); shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence Imports: $143.4 million (1977); food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods, and petroleum Major trade partners: exports-78% U.S., 11% France, 5% Martinique; imports-49% France, 10% U.S., 3% Trinidad and Tobago (1969) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $356 million, no military aid Monetary conversion rate: 4.92 French francs=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 32 km private plantation line, 0.600-meter gage Highways: 600 km total; 450 km paved, 150 km improved and unimproved earth Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small ocean- going vessels and river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly navigable by native craft Ports: 1 major (Cayenne), 7 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 12 total, 10 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: limited open-wire and radio-relay system with about 8,900 telephones (17.8 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM, and 2 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,000; 10,000 fit for military service Defense is responsibility of France; France maintains an army force in French Guiana; also available army and naval forces located in Martinique and Guadeloupe 25X1 25X1 SECRET 1 (I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 FRENCH POLYNESIA/GABON FRENCH POLYNESIA (See reference mep VIII) LAND About 4,000 km2 WATER Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm Coastline: about 2,525 km PEOPLE Population: 144,000 (July 1979), annual growth rate 2.3% (current) Nationality: noun?French Polynesian(s); adjective? French Polynesian Ethnic divisions: 78% Polynesian, 12% Chinese, 6% local French, 4% metropolitan French Religion: mainly Christian; 55% Protestant, 32% Catholic GOVERNMENT Legal name: Territory of French Polynesia Type: overseas territory of France, administered by French Ministry for Overseas Territories Capital: Papeete Political subdivisions: 5 districts Legal system: based on French; lower and higher courts Branches: 33-member Territorial Assembly, popularly elected; 5-member Council of Government, elected by Assembly; popular election of two deputies to National Assembly in Paris, also one Senator Government leader: High Commissioner, Paul Cousseran, Governor, appointed by French government Suffrage: universal adult Elections: every 5 years, May 1977 Political parties and leaders: Le Front Uni, autonomist coalition, Francis Sanford; Tahoeraa Hairaatira, conservative Gaullist, Gaston Flosse Voting strength (1977 election): Le Front Uni, 14 seats; Tahoerra Huiraatira, 10 seats; Independents, 9 seats SECRET SECRET ECONOMY GDP: $259 million (1970) $1,960 per capita Agriculture: coconut main crop Major industries: maintenance of French nuclear test base, tourism Electric power: 36,000 kW capacity (1978); 105 million kWh produced (1978), 735 kWh per capita Exports: $19 million (1973); principal products?coconut products (79%), mother-of-pearl (14%) (1971) Imports: $211 million (1973) Major trade partners: imports-59% France, 14% U.S.; exports-86% France Aid: France $16 million (1973) Monetary conversion rate: 100 CFP=1NZ$ (1971) COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 3,700 km, all types Ports: 1 major, 6 minor Airfields: 32 total, 32 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways, 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Civil air: about 3 major transport aircraft Telecommunications: 14,700 telephones (11.3 per 100 popl.); 72,000 radio and 14,000 TV sets; 5 AM, 2 FM, and 6 TV stations; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Defense is responsibility of France. GABON LAND 264,180 km2; 75% forested, 15% savanna, 9% urban and wasteland, less than 1% cultivated Land boundaries: 2,422 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 100 nm; fishing, 150 nm Coastline: 885 km PEOPLE Population: 580,000 (July 1979), this estimate does not take into account immigration to Gabon during last several years; average annual growth rate 1.7% (7-66 to 7-70) Nationality: noun?Gabonese (sing., pl.); adjective? Gabonese 81 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NIGERIA - EQUATORIAL GUINEA? CAMEROON Atlantic Ocean Ltbrevill GABON CONGO ANGOLA ZAIRE (See reference map VI) GABON Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, including 4 major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira, Mbede, Okande); about 100,000 expatriate Africans and Europeans, including 20,000 French Religion: 55% to 75% Christian, less than 1% Muslim, remainder animist Language: French official language and medium of instruction in schools; Fang is a major vernacular language Literacy: government claims more than 80% of school age children in school, but literacy rate is substantially below this figure Labor force: about 280,000 of whom 129,000 are wage earners in the modern sector Organized labor: no data available GOVERNMENT Legal name: Gabonese Republic Type: republic; one-party presidential regime since 1964 Capital: Libreville Political subdivisions: 9 provinces subdivided into 36 prefectures Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1961; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; legal education at Center of Higher and Legal Studies at Libreville; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted National holiday: 12 March, 17 August Branches: power centralized in President, elected by universal suffrage for 7-year term; unicameral 70-member National Assembly has limited powers; constitution to be amended in 1979 so that Assembly Deputies will serve 5- year terms; independent judiciary Government leader: President El Hadj Omar Bongo Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: Presidential and parliamentary elections last held February 1973; next presidential elections in 1980; recent constitutional change separates dates for presidential and parliamentary elections 82 July 1979 Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) led by President Bongo is only legal party Communists: no organized party; probably some Com- munist sympathizers Member of: AFDB, Conference of East and Central African States, BDECA (Central African Development Bank), EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCO, ICO, IDA, 1FC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAB (African Wood Organization), OAU, OPEC, UDEAC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2.2 billion (1978 est.), $3,817 per capita; 10% growth (1970-77) Agriculture: commercial?cocoa, coffee, wood, palm oil, rice; main food crops?bananas, manioc, peanuts, root crops; imports food Fishing: catch 2,500 metric tons (1977) Major industries: petroleum production, sawmills, petro- leum refinery; mining of increasing importance; major minerals?manganese, uranium, iron (not produced) Electric power: 125,400 kW capacity (1977); 376 million kWh produced (1977), 670 kWh per capita Exports: $8.77 million (f.o.b., 1978); crude petroleum, wood and wood products, minerals (manganese, uranium concentrates, gold), coffee Imports: $631 million (c.i.f. est., 1978); excluding UDEAC trade; mining, roadbuilding machinery, electrical equip- ment, transport vehicles, foodstuffs, textiles Major trade partners: France, U.S., West Germany, and Curacao; preferential tariffs to EC and franc zone Aid: Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $325.0 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $25.0 million; U.S. (1970-77), $22.8 million; military?U.S. (1970-77), $4.0 million Budget: 1979 est.?balanced at $1.3 billion Monetary conversion rate: 245.67 Communaute Finan- ciere Africaine francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 970 km standard gage (1.437 m) under construction; 180 km are completed Highways: 6,797 km total; 308 km paved, 5,589 km gravel and/or improved earth, 500 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: approximately 1,600 km perennially navigable Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km Ports: 2 major (Libreville/Owendo, Port-Gentil), 2 minor Merchant marine: 1 tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 74,100 GRT, 138,700 DWT Civil air: 29 major transport aircraft, including -1 leased in and 1 leased out SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ' Declassified July 1979 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 GABON/THE Airfields: 161 total, 101 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system of open-wire, radio-relay, tropospheric scatter links and radiocommunication stations; telephone expansion in progress; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 8 AM, 2 FM, and 8 TV stations; 7,000 telephones (1.3 per 100 popl.) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 128,000; 64,000 fit for military service; 5,000 reach military age (20) annually Supply: primarily dependent on France; 1 patrol boat from Italy Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $67,767,442; 5.2% of central government budget THE GAMBIA LAND 10,360 km2; 25% uncultivated savanna, 16% swamps, 4% forest parks, 55% upland cultivable areas, built-up areas, etc. Land boundaries: 740 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm Coastline: 80 km PEOPLE Population: 584,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Gambian(s); adjective?Gambian Ethnic divisions: over 99% Africans (Mandinka 40.8%, Fulani 13.5%, Wolof 12.9%, remainder Made up of several smaller groups), fewer than 1% Ebropeans and Lebanese SECRET SECRET GAMBIA THE Banjul GAMBIA MIME BISSAU. MALI Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VII Religion: 85% Muslim, 15% animist and Christian Language: English official; Mandinka and Wolof most widely used vernaculars Literacy: about 10% Labor force: approx. 165,000, mostly engaged in subsist- ence farming; about 15,000 are wage earners (government, trade, services) Organized labor: 25% to 30% of wage labor force at most GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of The Gambia Type: republic; independent since February 1965 Capital: Banjul Political subdivisions: Banjul and 5 divisions Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;. constitution came into force upon independ- ence in 1965, new republican constitution adopted in April 1970; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: 18 February Branches: cabinet of 10 members; 44-member House of Representatives, in which 4 seats are reserved for chiefs, 4 are appointed, 35 are filled by election for 5-year terms, a Speaker is elected by the House, and the Attorney General is an appointed member; independent judiciary Government leader: Sir Alhaji Dawda Kairaba Jawara, President Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP), Secretary General. Dawda K. Jawara, United Party (UP), John Forster, and National Convention Party, Sherrif Dibba Suffrage: universal adult Elections: general elections held April 1977; PPP 29 seats, NCP 5 seats, UP 1 seat Communists: insignificant number Member of: AFBD, APC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, IDA, IMF, NAM, OAU, U.N., WHO, WTO 83 25X1 25X1 25X1 ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET THE GAMBIA/GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC ECONOMY GNP: $123 million (FY76/77 est.), about $213 per capita Agriculture: main crops?peanuts, rice, palm kernels Fishing: catch 10,795 metric tons (1975); exports $956,000 (1974) Major industry: peanut processing Electric power: 10,000 kW capacity (1977); 30 million kWh produced (1977), 50 kWh per capita Exports: $58 million (f.o.b. 1976/77); peanuts and peanut products 90% to 95%, palm kernels Imports: $69 million (f.o.b. 1976/77); textiles, foodstuffs, tobacco, machinery, petroleum products Major trade partners: exports?U.K. and France; im- ports?U.K. and Japan Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $45.0 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $16.2 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $33.7 million; U.S. (1970-77), $9.5 million Budget: (FY77 est.) current expenditures $25 million, receipts $30 million; development expenditures $14 million, development receipts $7.2 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Dalasi=US$0.48 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 1,858 km total; 190 km bituminous-surface treated, 1,330 km gravel/laterite, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 605 km Ports: 1 major (Banjul) Merchant Marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 1,600 GRT, 2,700 DWT Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: adequate network of radio-relay; 2,700 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station (1,000 GRT or over) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 135,000; 67,000 fit for military service 84 July 1979 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC t Berlin GER. eb. EM.RE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY (See reference map IV) LAND 108,262 km2; 43% arable, 15% meadows and pasture, 27% forested, 15% other Land boundaries: 2,309 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): nm Coastline: 901 km (including islands) PEOPLE Population: 16,793,000, including East Berlin (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.1% (current) Nationality: noun?German(s); adjective?German Ethnic divisions: 99.7% German, .3% Slavic and other Religion: 53% Protestant, 8% Roman Catholic, 39% unaffiliated or other; less than 5% of Protestants and about 25% of Roman Catholics actively participate 25X1 Language: German, small Sorb (West Slavic) minority ? Literacy: 99% Labor force: 8.2 million; 34.1% industry; 4.7% handi- crafts; 6.8% construction; 11.9% agriculture; 6.8% transport and communications; 10.1% commerce; 16.8% services; 2.5% other Organized labor: 87.7% of total labor force GOVERNMENT ? Legal name: German Democratic Republic Type: Communist state Capital: East Berlin (not officially recognized by U.S., U.K., and France, which together with the U.S.S.R. have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin) Political subdivisions: (excluding East Berlin) 14 districts (Bezirke), 218 counties (Kreise), 7,643 communities (Gemeinden) SECRET 25X11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Legal system: civil law system modified by Communist legal theory; new constitution adopted 1974; court system parallels administrative divisions; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Universities of Berlin, Leipzig, Halle and Jena; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; more stringent penal code adopted 1968, amended in 1974 National holiday: Foundation of German Democratic Republic, 7 October Branches: legislative?Volkskammer (elected directly); executive?Chairman of Council of State, Chairman of Council of Ministers, Cabinet (approved by Volkskammer); judiciary?Supreme Court; entire structure dominated by Socialist Unity (Communist) Party Government leaders: Chairman, Council of State, Erich Honecker (Head of State); Chairman, Council of Ministers, Willi Stoph (Premier) Suffrage: all citizens age 18 and over Elections: national every 5 years; prepared by an electoral commission of the National Front; ballot supposed to be secret and voters permitted to strike names off ballot; more candidates than offices available; parliamentary elections held 17 October. 1976 Political parties and leaders: Socialist Unity (Commu- nist) Party (SED), headed by General Secretary Erich Honecker, dominates the regime; 4 token parties (Christian Democratic Union, National Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, and Democratic Peasant's Party) and an amalgam of special interest organizations participate with the SED in National Front Voting strength: 1976 parliamentary elections: 99.86% voted the regime slate; 1970 local elections: 99.85% voted the regime slate Communists: 1.9 million party members Other special interest groups: Free German Youth, Free German Trade Union Federation, Democratic Women's Federation of Germany, German Cultural Federation (all Communist dominated) Member of: CEMA, ICES, IPU, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $81.0 billion (1978, 1978 dollars), $4,834 per capita; 1978 growth rate 3.3% Agriculture: food deficit area; main crops?potatoes, rye, wheat, barley, oats, industrial crops; shortages in grain, vegetables, vegetable oil, beef; caloric intake, 3,000 calories per day per capita (71) Fish catch: 210,000 metric tons (1977) Major industries: metal fabrication, chemicals, light industry, brown coal, and shipbuilding Shortages: coking coal, coke, crude oil, rolled steel products, nonferrous metals Crude steel: 6.85 million metric tons produced (1977), approx. 405 kg per capita SECRET Declassified SECRET Electric power: 18,860,000 kW capacity (1978); 96.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,730 kWh per capita Exports: $14.3 billion, est. (f.o.b., 1978) Imports: $16.6 billion, est. (f.o.b., 1978) Major trade partners: $30,950 million (1978); 69% Communist countries, 31% non-Communist countries Aid: economic?from U.S.S.R., $990 million (1954-75); to less developed free world countries, $2,120 million (1956-78) Monetary conversion rate: 3.48 DME =US$1 for trade data (1976 rate) Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for the consumption year 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 14,215 km total; 13,906 km standard gage (1.435 m), 309 km meter (1.00 m) or other narrow gage, 2,971 km double track standard gage (1.435 m); 1,511 km overhead electrified (1977) Highways: 127,530 km total; 47,530 km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,679 are autobahn and limited access roads; over 80,000 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone, and earth (1976) Inland waterways: 2,538 km (1979) Freight carried: rail-298.6 million metric tons, 52.1 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-714.1 million metric tons, 20.0 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway- 14.4 million metric tons, 2.4 billion metric ton/km (excl. intl, transit traffic) (1978); approximately 1,410 waterway craft with 570,000 metric ton capacity (1978) Pipelines: crude oil, 1,075 km; refined products, 350 km; natural gas 483 km Ports: 4 major (Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz), 13 minor; principal inland waterway ports are E. Berlin, Riesa, Magdeburg, and Eisenhuttenstadt (1979) Merchant marine: 151 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,274,000 GRT, 1,821,544 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 115 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 tanker, 16 bulk, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 cargo training Civil air: 37 major transport aircraft (1978) Airfields: 144 total; 58 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 3,500 m or over, 43 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 67 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 32 with runways less than 1,000 m; 7 heliports Telecommunications: domestic and international facili- ties modern and adequate; good coverage provided by 21 AM and 18 FM broadcast stations, 6,082,400 receivers; 15 major TV stations supplemented by 300 rebroadcast stations; 4,966,500 TV receivers; 2,326,143 telephones (100% auto- matic) 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,235,000; 3,408,000 fit for military service; about 146,000 reach military age (18) annually 25X1 85 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC/GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF Supply: dependent on Communist countries, mainly the U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia and Poland, except for light infantry weapons, small arms ammunition, explosives, chemical warfare defensive materiel, signal equipment, transport vehicles, and some minesweepers, torpedo boats, amphibious and auxiliary ships and service craft Military budget: (announced) for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, 12.1 billion marks; about 8.8% of total budget GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF LAND 248,640 km' (including West Berlin); 33% cultivated, 23% meadows and pastures, 13% waste or urban, 29% forested, 2% inland water Land boundaries: 4,232 km Soviet forces (GSFG) in GDR as of 1 January 1979, 400,500 (360,000 ground; 40,500 air). 86 July 1979 (See reference map IV) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 1,488 km (approx.) PEOPLE Population: 61,181,000, including West Berlin (July 1979), average annual growth rate ?0.2% (current) Nationality: noun?German(s); adjective?German Ethnic divisions: 99% Germanic,' 1% other Religion: 48.9% Protestant, 44.7% Roman Catholic, 7.7% other (as of ,1975) Language: German Literacy: 99% Labor force: 26.7 million; 42.9% in manufacturing and 25X1 construction, 18.0% services, 12% commerce, 9.9% govern- ment, 6.3% agriculture, 5.9% communication and transpor- tation, 1% mining; 4.2% average unemployed as of 1977, excluding self employed Organized labor: 32.6% of total labor force; 41.4% of wage and salary earners 25X1 GOVERNMENT Legal name: Federal Republic of Germany Type: federal republic Capital: Bonn Political subdivisions: 10 Laender (states); Western sectors of Berlin are ultimately controlled by U.S., U.K., and France which, together with the U.S.S.R., have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; constitution adopted 1949; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Branches: bicameral parliament?Bundesrat (upper house), Bundestag (lower house); President (titular head of state), Chancellor (executive ? head of government); independent judiciary SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF Government leaders: President, Walter Scheel (to be replaced on 1 July 1979 by Karl Carstens, elected 23 May 1979 for a 5-year term); Chancellor, Helmut Schmidt leads coalition of Social Democrats and Free Democrats Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: next national election scheduled for fall of 1980 Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU), Helmut Kohl, Franz-Josef Strauss, Karl Carstens, Kurt Biedenkopf; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Willy, Brandt, Hans Koschnick, Helmut Schmidt; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Hans-Die- trich Genscher, Hans Friderichs, Wolfgang Mischnick; National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin Mussgnug; Communist Party (DKP), Herbert Mies Voting strength (1976 election): 42.6% SPD, 48.6% CDU/CSU, 7.9% FDP, 0.9% Splinter groups of left and right (no parliamentary representation) Communists: about 40,000 members and supporters Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans groups Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECSC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $638.1 billion (1978), $10,416 per capita (1978); 55% consumption, 22% investment, 20% government con- sumption; net foreign balance 3% (distribution based on current price series) Agriculture: main crops?grains, potatoes, sugar beets; 75% self-sufficient; food shortages?fats and oils, pulses, tropical products; caloric intake, 2,980 calories per day per capita (1975-76) Fishing: catch 394,452 metric tons, $155 million (1977); exports $201 million, imports $593 million (1978) Major industries: among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, ships, vehicles Shortages: fats and oils, sugar, cotton, wool, rubber, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, nonferrous metals, sulfur Crude steel: 69 million metric tons capacity; 41.2 million metric tons produced (1978); 672 kg per capita Electric power: 85,000,000 kW capacity (1978); 353.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,770 kWh per capita Exports: $142 billion (f.o.b., 1978); manufactures 91.7% (machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.1%, fuels 1.3%, raw materials 1.9% Imports: $121 billion (c.i.f., 1978); manufactures (exclud- ing chemicals) 54.6%, fuels 16.1%, agricultural products 13.5%, raw materials 15.8% SECRET Major trade partners: EC 47.4% (France 12.0%, Nether- lands 11.2%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.3%, Italy 8.1%, U.K. 5.5%); other Europe 17.8%; OPEC 8.3%; Communist economic 5.7%; U.S. 7.1% (data exclude interzonal trade) Aid: donor?(1970-77) bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $13,752 million Budget: (1978) expenditures $97.9 billion, revenues $85.2 billion, deficit $12.7 billion Monetary conversion rate: DM 2.01 (West German marks)=US$1 (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 33,453 km total; 29,032 km government- owned, standard gage (1.435 m), 12,491 km double track; 9,760 km electrified; 4,421 km non-government owned; 3,997 km standard gage (1:435 m); 214 km electrified; 424 km meter gage (1.00 m); 186 km electrified Highways: 398,720 km total; 161,400 km classified, includes 153,160 km cement-concrete, bituminou, or stone block (includes 5,792 km of autobahnen); 8,240 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth; in addition, 237,320 km of unclassified roads of various surface types Inland waterways: 5,222 km of which almost 70% usable by craft of 990 metric-ton capacity or larger Pipelines: crude oil, 1,931 km; refined products, 1,942 km; natural gas, 95,414 km Ports: 10 major, 11 minor Merchant marine: 557 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,886,735 GRT, 12,785,925 DWT; includes 12 passenger, 311 cargo, 63 container, 25 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 50 tanker, 12 liquefied gas, 68 bulk, 2 combination ore/oil, 13 specialized carrier, 1 cargo training Civil air: 185 major transport aircraft, including 12 leased out Airfields: 428 total, 388 usable; 214 with permanent- surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,660 m, 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 40 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed, modern tele- communication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 21.2 million telephones (34.4 per 100 popl.); 90 AM, 129 FM, and 2,350 TV stations; 9 submarine coaxial cables; satellite station with 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean antennas, and symphonie antenna DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,796,000; 13,054,000 fit for military service; 513,000 reach military age (18) annually 87 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF/GHANA Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $18.9 million; about 18% of the proposed central government budget SS GHANA UPPER VOLTA BENIN HANA Accra Gulf of Guinea (See reference map VII LAND 238,280 km2; 19% agricultural, 60% forest and brush, 21% other Land boundaries: 2,285 km WATER Coastline: 539 km Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm PEOPLE Population: 11,741,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Ghanaian(s); adjective?Ghanaian Ethnic divisions: 99.8% Negroid African (major tribes Ashanti, Fante, Ewe), 0.2% European and other Religion: 45% animists, 43% Christian, 12% Muslim Language: English official; African languages include Akan 44%, Mole-Dagbani 16%, Ewe 13%, and Ga-Adangbe 8% Literacy: about 25% (in English) Labor force: 3.4 million; 61% agriculture and fishing, 16.8% industry, 15.2% sales and clerical, 4.1% services, transportation, and communications, 2.9% professional; 400,000 unemployed Organized labor: 350,000 or approximately 10% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Ghana Type: republic; independent since March 1957; transition from military to civilian rule scheduled fro July 1979 Capital: Accra Political subdivisions: 8 administrative regions and separate Greater Accra Area; regions subdivided into 58 districts and 267 local administrative districts SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET GHANA Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; constitution suspended January 1972; new constitution has been prepared for civilian rule in July 1979; legal education at University of Ghana (Legon); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March Branches: executive and legislative authority vested in Supreme Military Council (SMC); independent judiciary Government leader: Chief of State, Chairman of SMC, Gen. Frederick W. K. Akuffo; civilian government will have a strong executive presidency with separate legislative and judicial branches Suffrage: universal over 21 under previous constitution, now suspended Elections: no elections since 1969; election leading to civil rule scheduled for June 1979 Political parties and leaders: political activity was legalized in January 1979, after a 7-year ban, to permit the organization of parties in preparation for elections in 1979 Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $14.3 billion (1977 est.) at current prices, about $1,241 per capita; real growth rate less than 1% (1970-77) Agriculture: main crop?cocoa; other crops include root crops, corn, sorghum and millet, peanuts; not self-sufficient, but can become so Fishing: catch 196,000 metric tons (1977) Major industries: mining, lumbering, light manufactur- ing, fishing, aluminum Electric power: 1,157,000 kW capacity (1977); 4.0 billion kWh produced (1977), 390 kWh per capita Exports: $979 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); cocoa (about 70%), wood, gold, diamonds, manganese, bauxite, and aluminum (aluminum regularly excluded from balance of payments data) Imports: $873 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); textiles and other manufactured goods, food, fuels, transport equipment Major trade partners: U.K., EC, and U.S. Aid: economic?U.S. (1970-77), $206.5 million; other Western countries (1970-77), $445 million; OPEC (ODA) (1970-77), $61.1 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $1.0 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $8.0 million; U.S. (1970-77), $0.1 million Budget: FY78 (proposed)?revenue $913 million (prelim. actual 1978); current expenditure $2,335 million (prelim. actual 1978), capital expenditure $444 million (prelim. actual 1978) SECRET Monetary conversion rate: 1 Cedi=US$0.66 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gage; 32 km double track; diesel locomotives gradually replacing steam engines Highways: 32,200 km total; 4,524 km concrete or bituminous surface, 27,676 km gravel or laterite, 9,242 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers provide 235 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; additional routes navigable seasonally by small craft; Lake Volta reservoir provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways Pipelines: refined products, 3 km Ports: 2 major (Tema, Takoradi), 1 naval base (Sekondi), 4 minor Merchant marine: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 139,600 GRT, 187,800 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 bulk Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 18 total, 17 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire and cable, radio-relay links and radiocommunication stations; 66,000 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, no FM, and 8 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station under construction and 1 station planned DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,537,000; 1,414,000 fit for military service; 136,000 reach military age (18) annually 89 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 'Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 GIBRALTAR ? GIBRALTAR (See 'throne,map/WI LAND 6.5 km' Land boundaries: 1.6 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 12 km PEOPLE Population: 30,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1977) Nationality: noun?Gibraltarian; adjective?Gibraltar Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portu- guese and Spanish descent Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic Language: English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian, Portuguese, and Russian also spoken; English used in the schools and for all official purposes Literacy: illiteracy is negligible Labor force: approx. 14,800, including non-Gibraltarian laborers Organized labor: over 6,000' GOVERNMENT Legal name: Gibraltar Type: U.K. colony Capital: none Legal system: English law; constitutional talks in July 1968; new system effected in 1969 after electoral enquiry Branches: parliamentary system comprised of the Gibral- tar House of the Assembly (15 elected members and 3 ex officio members), the. Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, and the Gibraltar Council; the Governor is appointed by the Crown Government leaders: Governor and Commander in Chief, Gen. Sir Willian Jackson; Chief Minister, Sir Joshua Hassan Suffrage: all adult Gibraltarians, plus other U.K. subjects resident 6 months or more 90 ? Elections: every 5 years; last held in September 1976 Political parties and leaders: Labor, Sir Joshua Hassan; Democratic Movement, Joe Boscano ? Voting strengths: (September 1976) Labor, 8 seats; Democratic Movement, 4 seats; independents, 3 seats Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: the Housewives Association; the Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Repre- sentatives Organization ECONOMY ? Economic activity in Gibraltar centers on commerce and large British naval and air bases; nearly all trade in the well-developed port is transit trade and port serves also as important supply depot for fuel, water, and ships' wares; recently built dockyards and machine shops provide maintenance and repair services to 3,500-4,000 vessels that call at Gibraltar each year. U.K. military establishments and civil government employ nearly half the insured labor force; local industry is confined to manufacture of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer, and canned fish; some factories for manufacture of clothing are being developed; a small segment of local population makes its livelihood by fishing; in recent years tourism has increased in importance. Electric power: 40,000 kW capacity (1978); 80 million kWh produced (1978), 2,670 kWh per capita Exports: $24.8 million (1976-77); principally rexports of tobacco, petroleum, and wine Imports: $58.6 million (1976-77); principally manufac- tured goods, fuels, and foodstuffs; 69% from U.K. Major trade partners: U.K., Morocco, Portugal, Nether- lands Budget: (1976-77) revenue, $32.9 million; expenditure $32.0 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Gibraltar pound=1 pound sterling=US$1.92 (1978) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 56 km, mostly paved Ports: 1 major (Gibraltar) Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft (leased in) Airfields: 1 permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: international radiocommunication facilities; automatic telephone system serving 8,100 tele- phones (27.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and 2 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, about 8,000; about 4,000 fit for military service Defense is responsibility of United Kingdom 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 GIBRALTAR/GILBERT ISLANDS/GREECE GILBERT ISLANDS Pacific Ocean GILBERT ISLANDS UNiTES'D STATES (See reference map VIII) NOTE: The islands that comprise the Gilbert Islands Colony are the Gilbert Islands; Fanning Atoll and Washing- ton Island in the Line Islands; Ocean Island; and those islands claimed by the United States: Caroline, Christmas, Flint, Malden, Starbuck, and Vostok in the Line Islands; and Birnie, Gardner, Hull, McKean, Phoenix, and Sydney in the Phoenix Islands. LAND About 684 km' WATER Limits of territorial waters: 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: about 1,143 km PEOPLE Population: 52,000 (preliminary total from census of 8 December 1973) Nationality: noun?Gilbertese or Gilbert Islander(s); adjective?Gilbertese, or Gilbert Islander Ethnic divisions: Micronesian Religion: Catholic Literacy: less than 50% GOVERNMENT Legal name: Gilbert Islands SECRET SECRET Type: British crown colony with large measure of self-government, to become independent on 12 July 1979 as new nation of Kiribat Capital: Tarawa Branches: 37-member House of Assembly elects a Chief Minister Government leader: Governor John H. Smith; Chief 25X1 Minister, Ieremia Tabai 'Political parties and leaders: Gilbertese National Party, Christian Democratic Party Member of: ADB ECONOMY GDP: $740 per capita (1974) Agriculture: copra, subsistence crops of vegetables, supplemented by domestic fishing Industry: phosphate production, expected to cease in 1978 Electric power: 16,000 -kW capacity (1978); 45 million kWh produced (1978), 865 kWh per capita Exports: $8.6 million (1970 est); 70% phosphate, copra Imports: $3.1 million (1970 est.); foodstuffs, fuel Budget: (est.) revenue 5.877 million NZ$, expenditure 4.577 million NZ$ Monetary ?conversion rate: 0.80 Australian$=US$1 March 1976 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 483 km of motorable roads Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Northern Line Islands Ports: 1 minor Civil air: 2 Trislanders, 'however, no major transport aircraft Airfields: 13 total, 12 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 1 AM broadcast station; 250 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.) . DEFENSE FORCES Personnel: no military force maintained; there are small police posts on all islands in the Gilbert Group GREECE 25X1 LAND 132,608 km', 29% arable and land under permanent crops, 40% meadows and pastures, 20% forested, 11% wasteland, urban, other Land boundaries: 1,191 km WATER Limits of, territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm Coastline: 13,676 km 91 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GREECE YUGOSLAVIA lonian Sea 4 Mediterranean Sea LIBYA CYPRUSC EGYPT (See reference map IV) PEOPLE Population: 9,390,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.7% (7-68 to 7-77) Nationality: noun-Greek(s); adjective-Greek Ethnic divisions: 98.8% Greek, 0.2% Turkish, 1.0% other Religion: 99% Greek Orthodox, 0.3% Moslem, 0.7% other Language: Greek; English and French widely understood Literacy: males about 94%; females about 79%; total about 86% Labor force: 3.4 million (1978 est.); approximately 38% agriculture, 19% industry, 8% construction, 30% services, 1% other; unemployment 4%; urban unemployment is under 3%, but substantial unreported unemployment exists in agriculture Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Hellenic Republic Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974 Capital: Athens Political subdivisions: 52 departments (nomoi) constitute basic administrative units for country; each nomos headed by officials appointed by central government and policy and programs tend to be formulated by central ministries; degree of flexibility each nomos may have in altering or avoiding programs imposed by Athens depends upon tradition and influence which prominent local leaders and citizens may exercise vis-a-vis key figures in central government. The departments of Macedonia and Thrace exercise some degree of autonomy from Athens since they are governed through the Ministry of Northern Greece. Legal system: new constitution enacted in June 1975 National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March Branches: executive consisting of a President (to be elected by the Vouli parliament) and a Prime Minister and cabinet; legislative comprising the 300-member Vouli; independent judiciary 92 July 1979 Government leaders: President Konstandinos Tsatsos; Prime Minister Konstandinos Karamanlis Suffrage: universal age 20 and over Elections: every 4 years; the government called for new elections on 20 November 1977 and was returned to power, albeit with a reduced majority Political parties and leaders: Union of the Democratic Center, loannis Zigdis; New Democracy, Konstandinos Karamanlis; Panhellenic Socialist Movement, Andreas Pa- pandreou; Communist Party-Exterior, Kharilaos Florakis; Communist Party-Interior, Kharalambos Drakopoulos; United Democratic Left, Ilias Iliou; Socialist Initiative, Georgios Mangakis; Nationalist Camp, Stefanos Stefanopoulos Voting strength: New Democracy, 172 seats; Democratic Center Union, 15 seats; Panhellenic Socialist Movement, 93 seats; Communists, 11 seats; The Alliance (leftist), 2 seats; National Camp, 5 seats; Neoliberals, 2 seats Communists: an estimated 25,000-30,000 members and sympathizers Member of: EC (associate), EIB (associate), EMA, GATT, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, 100C, ITU, IWC-International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $26.7 billion (1977 est.), $2,920 per capita; 65.7% consumption, 22.7% investment, 15.5% government; 1.9% change in stocks; net foreign balance -5.8%; real growth rate 3.7% (1977) Agriculture: main crops-wheat, olives, tobacco, cotton; nearly self-sufficient; food shortages-livestock products Major industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products Shortages: petroleum, minerals, feed grains Crude steel: 1.0 million metric tons produced (1976), 110 kg per capita Electric power: 5,200,000 kW capacity (1978); 19 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,030 kWh per capita Exports: $2,522 million (f.o.b., 1977); principal items- tobacco, cotton, fruits, textiles Imports: $5,685 million (f.o.b., 1977); principal items- machinery and automotive equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, manufactured consumer goods, chemi- cals, meat and live animals Major trade partners: (1977 est.) imports-15.4% Japan, 14.2% West Germany, 8.7% Italy, 6.3% France, 5.6% U.K., 5.5% Saudi Arabia, 5.0% U.S., 41.5% EC, 5.3% CEMA; exports-22.2% West Germany, 7.2% France, 6.7% Italy, 5.1% Saudi Arabia, 4.9% U.K., 4.8% U.S., 4.7% Libya, 48.2% EC, 12.3% CEMA Aid: economic (authorized)-U.S., $292 million (FY70-77); other Western bilateral (ODA and 00F), $756 million (1970-77); military-U.S., $862 million (FY70-77) SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 GREECE/GREENLAND Budget: (1978) expenditures $8.75 billion, revenues $6.89 billion, deficit $1.86 billion Monetary conversion rate: US$1=36.648 Greek drach- mas (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,476 km total; 1,565 km standard gage (1.435 m) of which 36 km electrified and 100 km double track, 889 km meter gage (1.000 m), 22 km narrow gage (0.750 in); all government-owned Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone and gravel, 5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: system consists of 3 coastal canals and 3 unconnected rivers which provide navigable length of just less than 80 km Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km, refined products, 547 km Ports: 17 major, 37 minor Merchant marine: 2,750 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,176,465 GRT, 59,453,142 DWT; includes 75 passenger, 1,438 cargo, 10 container, 324 tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 813 bulk, 47 combination ore/oil, 17 specialized carrier; ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under Liberian, Panamanian, Cypriot, and Lebanese flags Airfields: 73 total, 68 usable; 48 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Civil air: 33 major transport aircraft (including 1 leased in) Telecommunications: adequate modern networks reach all areas on mainland and islands; 2.18 million telephones (23.1 per 100 popl.); 31 AM, 30 FM, and 34 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 satellite station with 1 Atlantic Ocean antenna and 1 Indian Ocean antenna DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,172,000; 1,664,000 fit for military service; about 72,000 reach military age (21) annually SECRET Supply: dependent largely on foreign sources, mainly U.S. and other NATO countries; armored vehicles, missile attack boats and trucks from France and Italy, submarines and artillery from West Germany, and recoilless rifles from Spain; produces small arms and ammunition in small quantities Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $892 million; about 18% of central government budget SECRET GREENLAND (See reference map LAND 2,175,600 km2; less than 1% arable (of which only a fraction cultivated), 84% permanent ice and snow, 15% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 44,087 km (approx., includes minor islands) PEOPLE Population: 49,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.2% (1-73 to 1-78) Nationality: noun?Greenlander(s); adjective?Green- land 93 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GREENLAND/GRENADA Ethnic divisions: 86% Greenlander (Eskimos and Green- land-born whites), 14% Danes Religion: Evangelical Lutheran Language: Danish, Eskimo dialects Literacy: 99% Labor force: 12,000; largely engaged in fishing and sheep breeding GOVERNMENT Legal name: Greenland Type: province of Kingdom of Denmark; 2 representatives in Danish parliament; separate Minister for Greenland in the Danish cabinet Capital: Godhab '(administrative center) ,Political subdivisions: 3 counties, 19 communes Legal system: Danish law; transformed from colony to province in 1953; to limited home rule begun in spring 1979 Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with the elected 21-seat Landsting and Danish parliament; executive power vested in Premier and 4-person council; 19 lower courts Government leader: Queen Margrethe II, Premier Jonathan Motzfeldt Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 21 Elections: held every 4 years Political parties: Siumut?leading party in present government with 13 seats (moderate socialist, advocating more distinct Greenland identity and greater autonomy from Denmark); Atassut?second party in government with 8 seats (advocating close ties with Denmark); Sukaq (moderate socialist, advocating more distinct Greenland identity); Siumut (a more radical party advocating greater autonomy from Denmark) ECONOMY GNP: included in that of Denmark Agriculture: arable areas largely in hay; sheep grazing; garden produce Fishing: catch 44,675 tons (1976); exports $39.8 million (1976) Major industries: mining, slaughtering, fishing, sealing Electric power: 57,500 kW capacity (1978); 120 million kWh produced (1978), 2,400 kWh per capita Exports: $85.4 million (f.o.b., 1976); fish and fish products, metallic ores and concentrates ? Imports: $128.7 million (c.i.f., 1976); petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and transport equipment, food products Major trade partners: (1976) Denmark 76.4%, Finland 5.8%, U.S. 4.9%, West Germany 3.0%, France and Monaco 2.7% ? Monetary conversion rate: 5.5146 Danish Kroner=US$1 (1978, average) 94 July 1979 Fiscal year: calendar year beginning 1 January 1979 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 80 km Ports: 7 major, 16 minor Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft (registered in Denmark) Airfields:, 11 total, 6 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate domestic and interna- tional service provided by cables and radio relay; 9,000 telephones (17.0 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, 6 FM, and 2 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, included with Den- mark Defense is responsibility of Denmark, but under terms of a U.S.-Danish agreement of 1951, defense is actually shared by U.S. and Danish forces. t I. 25X1 1 25X1 GRENADA PUERTO CD RICO Caribbean ,ea VENEZUELA . a 0 - .GRENADA 13' Atlantic Ocean . URINAM -,.FRENCH GUIANA (See reference snap . LAND 344 km' (Grenada and southern Grenadines); 44% cultivated, 4% pastures, 12% forests, 17% unused but potentially productive, 23% built on, wasteland, other SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET GRENADA/GUADELOUPE WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 121 km PEOPLE Population: 107,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.4% (4-70 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Grenadian(s); adjective?Grenadian Ethnic divisions: mainly of African-Negro descent Religion: Church of England; other Protestant sects; Roman Catholic Language: English; some French patois Literacy: unknown Labor force: 27,314 (1960); 40% agriculture, 30% unemployed or underemployed Organized labor: 33% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Grenada Type: independent state since February 1974, recognizes Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: St. Georges Political subdivisions: 6 parishes Legal system: based on English common law; National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February Branches: following the 13 March 1979 coup, led by New Jewel Movement leader Maurice Bishop, constitution sus- pended on 25 March 1979 and replaced by People's Laws; 3- man electoral commission appointed; elections unscheduled Government leaders: Prime Minister Maurice Bishop; U.K. Governor General Paul Scoon Suffrage: universal adult Elections: formerly every 5 years; most recent general election 7 December 1976 Political parties and leaders: New Jewel Movement (NJM), Maurice Bishop; United People's Party (UPP), Winston Whyte; Grenada National Party (GNP), Herbert A. Blaize; Grenada United Labor Party (GULP) Voting strength (1976 election): GULP 51.7%, Opposition Coalition, 48.3%; Legislative Council seats, GULP 9, Opposition Coalition, 6 (NJM 3, UPP 1, GNP 1, unaffilated 1) Communists: negligible Member of: CARICOM, G-77, IMF, OAS, SELA, U.N. ECONOMY GDP: $54 million (in current prices, 1977), $500 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 5.8% Agriculture: main crops?spices, cocoa, bananas Electric power: 7,000 kW capacity (1977); 25 million kWh produced (1977), 230 kWh per capita Exports: $13 million (f.o.b., 1977); nutmeg, cocoa beans, bananas, mace Imports: $32 million (c.i.f., 1977); food, machinery, building materials SECRET Major trade partners: exports-33% U.K., 19% West Germany, 13% Netherlands; imports-27% West Indies, 27% U.K., 9% U.S. (1976) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $37.5 million; from OPEC, $1.2 million; no military aid. Budget: (est. 1978) revenues, $18 million; expenditures, $28 million Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dollars= US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved; 100 km Unimproved Ports: 1 major (St. Georges), 1 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: automatic, islandwide telephone system with 5,100 telephones (4.5 per 100 popl.); VHF and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; 3 AM stations GUADELOUPE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC Caribbean Sea PUERTO RICO GUADECOUPE VENEZUELA _ (See reference map II) LAND 1,779 km2; 24% cropland, 9% pasture, 4% potential cropland, 16% forest, 47% wasteland, built on; area consists of two islands 95 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GUADELOUPE WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 306 km PEOPLE Population: 318,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.1% (10-67 to 1-78) Nationality: noun?Guadeloupian(s); adjective?Guade- loupe Ethnic divisions: 90% Negro or Mulatto, less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese, 5% Caucasian Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African Language: French, creole patois Literacy: over 70% Labor force: 120,000; 25% agriculture, 25% unemployed Organized labor: 11% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Department of Guadeloupe Type: overseas department and region of France; represented by 3 deputies in the French National Assembly and 2 Senators in the Senate; last deputy election, 12 March 1978 Capital: Basse-Terre Political subdivisions: 3 arrondissements; 34 communes, each with a locally elected municipal council Legal system: French legal system; highest court is a court of appeal based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique Branches: executive, Prefect appointed by Paris; legisla- tive, popularly elected General Council of 36 members and a Regional Council composed of members of the local General Council and the locally elected deputies and senators to the French parliament; judicial, under jurisdic- tion of French judicial system Government leader: Prefect Jean Claude Aurousseau Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: General Council elections are held normally every 5 years; last General Council election took place in March 1978 Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement Pour la Republique (RPR), Gabriel Lisette; Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Henri Bangou; Socialist Party (MSG), leader unknown; Progressive Party of Guadeloupe (PPG), Henri Rodes; Independent Republicans; Federation of the Left Voting strength: MSG, 1 seat in French National Assembly; UDG, 2 seats; (1973 election) Communists: 3,000 est. Other political or pressure groups: Group of National Organization of Guadeloupe (GONG) 96 July 1979 ECONOMY GDP: $470 million (1975), $1,340 per capita; real growth rate (1975) 1.4% Agriculture: main crops, sugarcane and bananas Major industries: agricultural processing, sugar milling and rum distillation Electric power: 50,000 kW capacity (1977); 200 million kWh produced (1977), 610 kWh per capita Exports: $90 million (f.o.b., 1976); sugar, fruits and vegetables, bananas Imports: $309 million (c.i.f., 1976); foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, raw materials and supplies, and petroleum Major trade partners: exports-71% France, 17% U.S., 7% Germany, 5% other; imports-70% France, 9% U.S., 3% Germany, 3% Netherlands Antilles, 3% Netherlands, 12% other (1968) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from Western (non-US) countries, $1.2 billion; no military aid Monetary conversion rate: 4.75 French francs=US$1 (1976) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: privately owned, narrow-gage plantation lines Highways: 3,500 km total; 2,200 km paved, 1,300 km gravel and earth Ports: 1 major (Pointe-a-Pitre), 3 minor Civil air: 3 major transport .aircraft (leased in) Airfields: 8 total, 8 usable, 8 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: domestic facilities inadequate; 26,800 telephones (7.9 per 100 popl.); interisland VHF radio links; 2 AM and 3 TV transmitters DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, included with France Defense is responsibility of France; 25X1 25X1 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ? July 1979 GUATEMALA GUATEMALA Gulf of Mexico MEXICO GUA BE Caribbean Sea Guatem Pacific Ocean EL SALVADOR (See feference map III LAND 108,880 km2; 14% cultivated, 10% pasture, 57% forest, 19% other Land boundaries: 1,625 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 400 km PEOPLE Population: 6,817,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Guatemalan(s); adjective?Guatema- lan Ethnic divisions: 41.4% Indian, 58.6% Ladino (mestizo and westernized Indian) Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic Language: Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian language as a primary tongue Literacy: about 30% Labor force (1974): 1.8 million; 52.5% agriculture, 10.1% manufacturing, 21.7% services, 7.9% commerce, 3.9% construction, 2.1% transport, 0.7% mining, 1.2% electrical, 0.8% other. Unemployment estimates vary from 3% to 25% Organized labor: 6.4% of labor force (1975) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Guatemala Type: republic Capital: Guatemala Political subdivisions: 22 departments Legal system: civil law system; constitution came into effect 1966; judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at University of San Carlos of Guatemala; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September SECRET SECRET Branches: traditionally dominant executive; elected uni- cameral legislature; 7-member (minimum) Supreme Court Government leader: President Maj. Gen. Fernando Romeo LUCAS Garcia Suffrage: universal over age 18, compulsory for literates, optional for illiterates Elections: next elections (President and Congress) 1982 Political parties and leaders: Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Donaldo Alvarez Ruiz; Revolutionary Party (PR), Jorge Garcia-Granados Quinonez (secretary general); National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario Sandoval Alarcon; Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party (DCG), Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo (sec. gen.); Rene de Leon Schlotter (honorary President and party strongman); several unregis- tered parties Voting strength: (1978) for President?PID/PR, 269,973 (42.3%); MLN, 211,393 (33.1%), DCG, 156,730 (24.6%); for congressional seats?PID/PR, 34 seats; MLN, 20 seats; DCG, 7 seats Communists: Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT) outlawed; underground membership estimated at 750 Other political or pressure groups: several personalist political associations seeking registration as parties Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $6.6 billion (1978 est.), $880 per capita; 77% private consumption, 6% government consumption, 19% domestic investment (1977), ? 2% net foreign balance (1976); average annual real growth rate (1971-78), 5.7% Agriculture: main products?coffee, cotton, corn, beans, sugarcane, bananas, livestock; caloric intake, 2,200 calories Per day per capita (1967) Fishing: catch 3,653 metric tons (1976); exports $2.6 million (1973), imports $0.7 million (1973) Major industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, nonmetallic minerals, metals Electric power: 365,000 kW capacity (1977); 15 billion kWh produced (1977), 240 kWh per capita Exports: $1,160 million (f.o.b., 1978); coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, meat Imports: $1,258 million (f.o.b., 1978); manufactured products, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuels Major trade partners: exports (1974)-34% U.S., 28% CACM, 11% West Germany, 5% Japan; imports (1976)- 31% U.S., 13% CACM, 12% Venezuela, 9% Japan, 8% West Germany Aid: economic?from U.S. (FY46-76), $129 million loans, $236 million grants; from international organizations (FY46-75), $246 million; from other Western countries (1960-71), $12.3 million; military?assistance from U.S. (FY46-75), $41 million 97 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GUATEMALA/GUINEA Central government budget (1978 est.): expenditures, $943 million; revenues, $943 million Monetary conversion. rate: 1 quetzal =US$1 (official) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS , Railroads: 947 km, 0.914-meter gage, single-tracked; 832 km government-owned, 115 kin privately owned Highways: 25,500 km total; 2,750 km paved, 11,350 km gravel, and 11,400 km earth Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year-round; addi- tional 730 km navigable during high-water season Pipelines: crude oil, 48 km Ports: 2 major (Puerto Barrios, Santo Tomas de Castilla), 3 minor Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,232 GRT, 13,487 DWT Airfields: 499 total, 497 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft Telecommunications: ? modern telecom facilities limited to Guatemala City; 58,500 telephones (0.9 per 100 popl.); 97 AM, 20 FM, and 5 TV stations; connection into Central American microwave net DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,574,000; 1,025,000 fit for military service; about 74,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: current supplies from Western Europe; substan- tial quantities of army materiel obtained from U.S. and recently from Israel and the Republic of Korea Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $62 million; 5.9% of central government budget 98 July 1979 GUINEA GUINEA BISSAU SENEGAL Conakfy GUINEA SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA Atlantic Ocean MALI IVORY COAST (See lemma map VI) LAND 246,050 km', 3% cropland, 10% forest Land boundaries: 3,476 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 130 nm Coastline: 346 km PEOPLE Population: 5,276,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) Nationality: noun?Guinean(s); adjective?Guinean Ethnic divisions: 99% African (3 major tribes?Fulani, Malinke, Susu; and 15 smaller tribes) Religion: 75% Muslim, 25% animist, Christian, less than 1% Language: French official; each tribe has own language Literacy: 5% to 10%; French only significant written language Labor force: 1.8 million, of whom less than 10% are wage earners; most of population engages in subsistence agricul- ture Organized labor: virtually 100% of wage labor force' loosely affiliated with the National Confederation of Guinean Workers, which is closely tied to the PDG. GOVERNMENT 25X1 25X1-A Legal name: People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea ILLEGIB Type: republic; under one-party presidential regime Capital: Conakry Political subdivisions: 29 administrative regions, 209 arrondissements, about 8,000 local entities at village level Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law, and presidential decree; constitution adopted 1958; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 2 October SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 GUINEA/GUINEA-BISSAU Branches: executive branch dominant, with power concentrated in President's hands and a small group who are both ministers and members of the party's politburo; unicameral National Assembly and judiciary have little independence Government leader: President Ahmed Sekou Toure, who has been designated -The Supreme Leader of the Revolution" Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: approximate schedule-5 years parliamentary, latest in 1975; 7 years presidential, latest in 1975 Political parties and leaders: only party is Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG), headed by Sekou Toure Communists: no Communist party, although there are some sympathizers Member of: AFDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $1.1 billion (1977 est.), $240 per capita Agriculture: cash crops?coffee, bananas, palm products, peanuts, and pineapples; staple food crops?cassava, rice, millet, corn, sweet potatoes; livestock raised in some areas Major industries: bauxite mining, alumina, light manu- facturing and processing industries Electric power: 101,500 kW capacity (1977); 500 million kWh produced (1977), 110 kWh per capita Exports: $330 million (f.o.b., 1977 est.); bauxite, alumina, coffee, pineapples, bananas, palm kernels Imports: $280 million (f.o.b., 1977 est.); petroleum products, metals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles Major trade partners: Communist countries, Western Europe (including France), U.S. Aid: Communist countries (1970-76), $100.5 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $81.7 million; U.S. (1970-77), $61.4 million; other Western countries (1970-77), $70 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $55.0 milliorf Budget: (FY77 est.) current revenue $238 million, current expenditures $176 million Monetary conversion rate: 20.3 syli= US$1 floating (end 1978) Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 805 km; 662 km meter gage (1.000 m), 143 km standard gage (1.435 m) Highways: 7,604 km total; 4,949 km paved, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,795 km; 500 km navigable by small oceangoing vessels, 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft Ports: 1 major (Conakry), 3 minor SECRET Merchant marine: 1 bulk totaling 10,800 GRT, 15,300 DWT Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft Airfields: 18 total, 17 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: inadequate system of openwire lines, small radiocommunication stations, and 1 small radio-relay link; principal center Conakry, secondary center Kankan; 8,300 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station, no FM, and no TV stations; radio-relay net and satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,358,000; 682,000 fit for military service 25X1 25X1 Supply: dependent primarily on Communist countries, mainly U.S.S.R.: naval boats from China Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 September 1970 (latest information available), $6,073,000; 8.0% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 GUINEA-BISSAU (formerly Portuguese Guinea) LAND 36,260 km' (includes Bijagos archipelago) Land boundaries: 740 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 150 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 274 km 99 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 GUINEA-BISSAU Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VI) PEOPLE Population: 634,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Guinean(s); adjective?Guinean Ethnic divisions: about 99% African (13alanta 30%, Fulani 20%, Mandyako 14%, Malinke 13%, and 23% other tribes); less than 1% European and mulatto Religion: 66% animist, 30% Muslim, 4% Christian Language: Portuguese and numerous African languages Literacy: 3% to 5% Labor . force: 90% of economically active population engaged in subsistence agriculture GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Guinea-I3issau Type: republic; achieved independence from Portugal in September 1974; constitution promulgated 1974 Capital: Bissau Political subdivisions: 9 municipalities, 3 circumscrip- tions (predominantly indigenous population) Legal system: to be determined National holiday: 12 September Branches: National Popular Assembly to be elected for three-year term; Council of State Commissars, 16 members; the official party is the supreme political institution. Government leaders: President of Council of State and Chief of State is Luis de Almeida Cabral; Principal Commissioner (Head of Government), Maj. Joao Bernardo Vieira; Secretary General of the Official party, Aristides Pereira Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: none held to date Political parties and leaders: Partido Africano da Independencia da Guinee e Cabo Verde (PAIGC), led by Aristide Pereira. only legal party Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers Member of: G-77, NAM, OAU, U.N., UPU 100 ECONOMY GDP: $174 million (est. 1978), $278 per capita Agriculture: main crops?palm oil, root crops, rice, coconuts, peanuts Electric power: 11,000 kW capacity (1977); 17 million kWh produced (1977), 30 kWh per capita Exports: $10.5 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); principally peanuts, coconuts, shrimp, fish, wood Imports: $43.9 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, transport equipment Major trade partners: mostly Portugal, also immediate neighbors Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $85 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $32.7 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $1.6 million; U.S. (1970-77), $3.6 million; military?Communist countries (1975-76), $11.0 million Budget: (1978 est.) revenue $12.8 million, expenditure $29.3 millinn; deficit $43.5 million Monetary conversion rate: using Portuguese currency; 40.643 escudos=US$1 (November 1977) Fiscal year: probably is the calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: approx. 3,218 km (418 km bituminous, remainder earth) Inland waterways: scattered stretches Ports: 1 major (Bissau), 2 minor Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 60 total, 59 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: limited system of open-wire lines and radiocommunication stations; 2,700 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES: Military manpower: males 15-49, 147,000; 82,000 fit for military service Supply: dependent on outside sources, U.S.S.R. 25X1 25X1 primarily the 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 GUINEA-BISSAU/GUYANA GUYANA Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean Georgetown FRENCH IANA BRAZIL (See reference amp III) LAND 214,970 km'; 1% cropland, 3% pasture, 8% savanna, 66% forested, 22% water, urban, and waste Land boundaries: 2,575 km NVATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 tun) Coastline: 459 km PEOPLE Population: 824,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Guyanese (sing., pl.); adjective? Guyanese Ethnic divisions: 51% East Indians, 43% Negro and Negro mixed, 4% Amerindian, 2% white and Chinese Religion: 57% Christian, 33% Hindu, 9% Muslim, 1% other Language: English Literacy: 86% Labor force: 242,000 (1975); 29% agriculture, 31% manufacturing/mining, 40% services; 21% unemployed Organized labor: 34% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Cooperative Republic of Guyana Type: republic within Commonwealth Capital: Georgetown Political- subdivisions: 9 administrative districts Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compul- sory ICJ jurisdiction SECRET SECRET National holiday: 23 February Branches: Council of Ministers presided over by Prime Minister; 53-member unicameral legislative National Assem- bly (elected); Supreme Court Government leader: Prime Minister L. F. S. Burnham; President Arthur Chung Suffrage: universal over age 18 as of constitutional amendment August 1973 Elections: last held in July 1973; results of government sponsored referendum, held 10 July 1978, postponed required elections and empowered ruling party to draft a new constitution Political parties and leaders: People's National Congress (PNC), L. F. S. Burnham; People's Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi Jagan; United Force (UF), Feilden Singh Voting strength (1973 election): 70.2% PNC, 26.2% PPP, 3.6% other Communists: est. 100 hard-core within PPP; top echelons of P1313 and PYO (Progressive Youth Organization, militant wing of the PPP) include many Communists, but rank and file is conservative and non-Communist; small but unknown number of orthodox Marxist-Leninists within PNC, some of whom are PPP turncoats Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC); Working People's Alliance (WPA); Work- ing People's Vanguard Party (WPVP); Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GC10); Civil Liberties Action Com- mittee (CLAC); the latter two organizations are small and active but not well organized Member of: CARICOM, CDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $418 million (1977), $510 per capita; real growth rate 1977, ?6.2% Agriculture: main crops?sugarcane, rice, other food crops; food shortages?wheat flour, cooking oil, processed meat, dairy products Major industries: bauxite mining, alumina production, sugar and rice milling, timber Electric power: 175,000 kW capacity (1977); 370 million kWh produced (1977), 450 kWh per capita Exports: $258 million (f.o.b., 1977); bauxite, sugar, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, timber, diamonds, rum Imports: $314 million (c.i.f., 1977); manufactures, ma- chinery, food, petroleum Major trade partners: exports-31% U.K., 19% U.S., 16% CARICOM, 5% Canada; imports-26% U.S., 21% U.K., 26% CARICOM, 4% Canada (1977) Aid i economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from U.S., $36.7 million; from other Western countries, $63.9 million; from OPEC, $15 million; from Communist countries (1970-77), $66 million; no military aid 101 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET GUYANA/HAITI Budget: revenue, $189 million; ,expenditure, $252 million (1978) Monetary conversion rate: floating with US dollar, 1 US$=G$2.55 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 109 km total, all single track; 80 km 0.914- meter gage, 29 krr.i 1.067-meter gage Highways: 5,700 km total; 550 km paved, 1,850 km gravel, and 3,300 km earth Inland waterways: 5,900 km; Demerara River navigable to Mackenzie by ocean steamers, others by ferryboats, small craft only Ports: I major (Georgetown), 3 minor Merchant marine: 1 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,000 GRT, 3,100 DWT . Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 94 total, 87 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed telecom system with radio-relay network and over 22,500 telephones (2.6 per 100 popl.); tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; 5 AM, 1 FM and no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 196,000; 149,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly U.K., some U.S. equipment Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $17.5 million; 6.9% of central government budget HAITI LAND 27,713 km2; 31% cultivated, 18% rough pastures, 7% forested, 44% unproductive Land boundary: 361 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 1,771 km 102 July 1979 JAMAICA HAITL ort-eu? Prince Atlantic Ocean DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Caribbean Sea PUERTO (=RICO (See reference map II) 25X1 PEOPLE Population: 5,666,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Haitian(s); adjective?Haitian . Ethnic divisions: over 90% Negro, nearly 10% mulatto, few whites Religion: 10% Protestant, 75% to 80% Roman Catholic (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo) Language: French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak Creole Literacy: 10% to 12% 25X1 Labor force: 2.3 million (est. 1975); 79% agriculture, 14% services, 7% industry, 5% unemployed; shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant Organized labor: less than 1% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Haiti Type: republic under the 14-year dictatorship of Francois Duvalier who was succeeded upon his death on 21 April 1971 ,by his son, Jean-Claude Capital: Port-au-Prince Political subdivisions: 5 departments (despite constitu- tional provision for 9) Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; constitution adopted 1964 and amended 1971; legal educa- tion at State University in Port-au-Prince and private law colleges in Cap-Haitien, Les Cayes, Gonaives, and Jeremie; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January Branches: lifetime President, unicameral 58-member legislature of very limited powers, judiciary appointed by President Government leader: President-for-life, Jean-Claude Duvalier Suffrage: universal over age 18 SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 HAITI/HONDURAS Elections: constitution as amended in 1971 provides for lifetime president to be designated by his predecessor and ratified by electorate in plebiscite; legislative elections, which are held every 6 years, last held February 1979 ? Political parties: National Unity Party, only legal party; United Haitian Communist Party (PUCH), illegal (Com- munist) Voting strength (1973 legislative elections): 100%. Na- tional Unity Party (Duvalier) Communists: strength unknown; party leaders believed in exile Other political or pressure groups: none Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, 11311D, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $1.1 billion (1977), $230 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 1.9% Agriculture: main crops?coffee, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, pulses; caloric intake, 1,850 calories per day per capita Major industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement' manufacturing, bauxite mining, tourism, light assembly industries Electric power: 90,000 kW capacity (1978); 200 million kWh produced (1978), 40 kWh per capita Exports: $143 million (f.o.b., 1977); coffee, light industrial products, bauxite, sugar, essential oils, ?sisal Imports: $245 million (f.o.b., 1977); consumer durables, foodstuffs, industrial equipment, petroleum products, con- struction materials Major trade partners: exports-77% U.S.; imports-51% U.S. (1977) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76) from U.S., $77.2 million; from other Western countries, $51.7 million; military?U.S., $0.1 million Budget: (1978/79 est.) revenue, $140 million; expendi- ture, $257 million Monetary conversion rate: 5 gourdes=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 80 km narrow gage (0.760 m), single-track, privately owned industrial line; 8 km dual-gage 0.760- to I.065-meter gage, government line, dismantled Highways: 3,200 km total; 600 km paved, 950 km otherwise improved, 1,650 km unimproved Inland waterways: negligible; about 100 km navigable Ports: 2 major (Port-au-Prince, Cap Haitien), 12 minor Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft Airfields: 15 total, 12 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m SECRET SECRET Telecommunications: all domestic facilities inadequate, international facilities slightly better; telephone expansion program underway; 17,800 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 40 AM, 5 FM, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,238,000; 666,000 fit for military service; about 62,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: current supplies from U.S. commercial sources, and from Israel; sources in the past have included Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Jordan, Nicaraga, Yugoslavia, and primarily the U.S. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 September 1979, $13.8 million; about 5.2% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 HONDURAS Caribbean Sea' Pacific Ocean (See reference map ill LAND 112,150 km2; 27% forested, 30% pasture, 36% waste and built-up, 7% cropland Land boundaries: 1,530 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 820 km 103 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET HONDURAS PEOPLE Population: 3,639,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Honduran(s); adjective?Honduran Ethnic divisions: 90% mestizo, 7% Indian, 2% Negro, and 1% white Religion: about 97% Roman Catholic Language: Spanish Literacy: 47% of persons 10 years of age and over (est. 1970) Labor force: apprOx. 900,000 (est. mid-1972); 66% agriculture, 12% services, 8% manufacturing, 5% commerce, 6% unemployed, 3% unspecified Organized labor: -N; to 10% of labor force (mid-1972) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Honduras Type: republic Capital: Tegucigalpa Political subdivisions: 18 departments Legal system: based on Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of English common law; constitution adopted 1965; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; legal education at University of Honduras in Tegucigalpa; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September Branches: constitution provides for elected President, unicameral legislature, and national judicial branch Government leader: Chief of State Brig. Gen. Policarpo PAZ Garcia dominates a three-man junta Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: government leaders have indicated an inten- tion to hold elections in 1980 Political parties and leaders: while denied an institution- al role in government since the 4 December 1972 military takeover, the political parties were allowed to hold internal elections, issue public declarations, and continue their organizational activities; with the scheduling of elections the parties are expected to become more active; . . .beginning the process of refurbishing: Liberal Party (PLH), Modesto Rodas Alvarado, Carlos Roberto Reina Idiaguez, Jorge Bueso Arias; National Party (PNH), Alejandro Lopez Cantarero, Ricardo Zuniga Augustinus; Mario Rivera Lopez, Martin Aquero; Popular Progressive Party (PPP) (uninscribed), Gonzalo Carias Castillo; National Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), Miguel Andonie Fernandez; Honduran Christian Democratic Party (PDCH) (uninscribed), Hernan Corrales Padilla; Workers Party of Honduras (PTH) (Communist) (uninscribed), Rogue Ochoa; Communist Party of Honduras/Soviet (PCH/S) (outlawed), Dionisio Ramos Bejarano; Communist Party of Honduras/China (PCH/C) (outlawed), Agapito Robledo Castro Voting strength (1971 elections): National Party (PNH) 306,028; Liberal Party (PLH) 276,777 104 July 1979 Communists: about 650; 500 sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: National Association of Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Council of Honduran Private Enterprise (COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH) Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, GAS, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $1,704 million (1978), $480 per capita; 67% private consumption, 14% government consumption, 27% domestic investment; ?8% net foreign balance (1978); real growth rate, average 1971-75, 2.6%; real growth rate 1978, 8% Agriculture: main crops?bananas, coffee, corn, beans, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco; caloric intake, 2,200 calories per day per capita (1970) Fishing: catch 3,262 metric tons (1976); exports est. $0.8 million (1976); imports $0.8 million (1974) Major industries: agricultural processing, textiles, cloth- ing, wood products Electric power: 172,500 kW capacity (1977); 450 million kWh produced (1977), 155 kWh per capita Exports: $616 million (f.o.b., 1978); bananas, coffee, lumber, meat, petroleum products Imports: $704 million (f.o.b. 1978); manufactured prod- ucts, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, petroleum Major trade partners: exports-50% U.S., 9% CACM, 18% West Germany (1977); imports-43% U.S., 6% Venezu- ela, 12% CACM, 11% Japan, 4% West Germany (1977) Aid: economic?extensions from U.S. (FY46-76), $122 million loans, $96 million grants; from international organizations (FY46-73), $291 million; from other Western countries (1960-73), $7.0 million; military?assistance from U.S. (FY46-75), $20 million Budget (1978): expenditures, $365 million, revenues $286 million Monetary conversion rate: 2 lempiras=US$1 (official) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 574 km total; 325 km 1.067-meter gage, 249 km 0.914-meter gage Highways: 7,300 km total; 1,450 km paved, 4,150 km otherwise improved, 1,700 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,200 km navigable by small craft Ports: 3 major (Puerto Cortes, La Ceiba, Tela), 9 minor Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 133,190 GRT, 150,249 DWT; a flag of convenience registry; includes 19 cargo, 1 tanker Civil air: 16 major transport Airfields: 230 total, 226 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m aircraft SECRET ? 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified J.. Y in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 10,1, HONDURAS/HONG KONG Telecommunications: improved, but still inadequate; connection into Central American microwave net;. 19,500 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 104 AM, 12 FM, and 6 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 780,000; 464,000 fit for military service; about 37,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: equipment Western Europe Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $31.4 million; about 7.5% of central government budget (includes the armed forces and other military) procured from U.S., Israel and HONG KONG (See reference map VIII LAND 1,036 km2; 14% arable, 10% forested, 76% other (mainly grass, shrub, steep hill country) Land boundaries: 24 km SECRET Declassified WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 733 km PEOPLE Population: 4,693,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.9% (7-71 to 7-78) Nationality: adjective?Hong Kong Ethnic divisions: 98% Chinese, 2% other Religion: 10% Christian, 90% eclectic mixture religions Language: Chinese, English Literacy: 75% Labor force (1976 Census): 1.87 million; 45.3% manufac- turing, 18.6% services, 6.0% construction, mining, quarrying and utilities, 19.4% commerce, 2.6% agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and hunting, 7.3% communications, 0.7% other; underemployment is a serious problem Organized labor: 21% of 1976 labor of local 25X1 force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Hong Kong Type: U.K. crown colony Capital: None Political subdivisions: Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories Legal system: English common law Branches: Governor assisted by advisory Executive Council; he legislates with advice and consent of Legislative Council; Urban Council which alone includes elected representatives, responsible for health, recreation, and resettlement; independent judiciary Government leader: Sir C. M. MacLehose, Governor and Commander in Chief Suffrage: limited to 200,000 to 300,000 professional or skilled persons Elections: every 2 years to select- one-half of elected membership of Urban Council; other Urban Council members appointed by the Governor Political parties: Civic Association; Reform Club; Socialist Democratic Party; Hong Kong Labour Party Voting strength: (elected Urban Council members) Civic Association 4, Reform Club 3, and 1 independent Communists: an estimated 2,000 cadres affiliated with Communist Party of China Other political or pressure groups: Federation of Trade Unions (Communist controlled), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (Nationalist Chinese dominated), Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (Communist controlled), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese Manufactur- ers) Association of Hong Kong Member of: ADB 105 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 HONG KONG/HUNGARY ECONOMY GDP: $11.8 billion ( 1977, in 1977 prices), $2,620 per capita (est.); average real growth 4.8% (1970-75) Agriculture: agriculture occupies a minor position in the economy; main products?rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20% self-sufficient; food shortages?rice, wheat Major industries: textiles and clothing, tourism, plastics, electronics, light metal products, food processing Shortages: industrial raw materials, water, food Electric power: 3,350,000 kW capacity (1978); 9,000 million kWh produced (1978), 1,950 kWh per capita Exports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978), including $2.7 billion reexports; principal products clothing, plastic articles, textiles, electrical go ids, wigs, footwear, light metal manufactures Imports: $13.1 billion (c.i.f., 1977) Major trade partners: (1977) exports-38.7% U.S., 10.5% West Germany, 8.7% U.K.; imports-23.7% Japan, 16.6% China, 12.5% U.S. Budget: (77/78) $1.82 billion Monetary conversion rate: HK$4.81=US$1 (December 1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March ' COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 35 km standard gage (1.435 m); government owned Highways: 966 km total; 660 km paved, 306 km gravel and crushed stone, or earth Ports: .1 major Merchant marine: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 510,126 GRT, 751,971 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 9 cargo, 5 tanker, 11 bulk, 7 container; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the U.K. flag; an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern facilities provide domestic and international services; excellent broadcast coverage provided by Wired and radio broadcast stations; closed-cir- cuit TV and TV broadcast facilities; 1.1 million telephones; 2.5 million radio receivers; 100,000 wired-speakers; 3 FM, 2 AM stations; wired-broadcast network; 859,000 TV receiv- ers, 2 TV stations, 2 closed-circuit TV networks; radio relay link to Taiwan; 2 international communications satellite ground stations; coaxial cable link to Canton; 5 submarine cables; submarine cable to Japan and Philippines completed DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,294,000; 1,017,000 fit for military service; about 57,000 reach military age (18) annually 106 Defense is the responsibility of U.K. HUNGARY (See referents amp IV) LAND 92,981 km2; 60% arable, 14% other agricultural, 16% forested, 10% other Land boundaries: 2,245 km PEOPLE Population: 10,735,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Hungarian(s); adjective?Hungarian Ethnic divisions: 92.4% Magyar, 2.5% German, 3.3% Gypsy, 0.7% Jews, 1.1% other. Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.5% atheist and other Language: 98.2% Magyar, 1.8% other Literacy: 97% Labor force: 5,230,000 (1977); 20% agriculture, 34% industry and building, 46% other non-agriculture SECRET 1 25X1 25X1 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 HUNGARY GOVERNMENT Legal name: Hungarian People's Republic Type: Communist state Capital: Budapest Political subdivisions: 19 megyes (counties), 5 autono- mous cities in county status, 97 jaras (districts) Legal system: based on Communist legal theory, with both civil law system (civil code of 1960) and common law elements; constitution adopted 1949 amended 1972; Su- preme Court renders decisions of principle that sometimes have the effect of declaring legislative acts unconstitutional; legal education at Lorand Eotvos Tudomanyegyetem School of Law in Budapest and 2 other schools of law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Anniversary of the Liberation, 4 April Branches: executive?Presidential Council (elected by Parliament); legislative?Parliament (elected by direct suf- frage); judicial?Supreme Court (elected by Parliament) Government leaders: Pal Losonczi, President, Presiden- tial Council; Gyorgy Lazar, Chairman, Council of Ministers Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: every 5 years; national and local elections are held separately Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Socialist (Com- munist) Workers Party (sole party); Janos Kadar is First Secretary of Central Committee Voting strength (1975 election): 7,497,061 (99.6 %) for Communist-approved candidates; 30,108 (0.4%) invalid and negative votes; total eligible electorate about 7.76 million; next elections will be held in 1980 Communists: about 754,000 party members (March 1975) Member of: CEMA, Danube Commission, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $32.0 billion in 1978 (at 1978 prices), $2,998 per capita; 1977 growth rate, 2.6% Agriculture: normally self-sufficient; main crops?corn, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, wine grapes; caloric intake 3,185 calories per day per capita (1977) Major industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering indus- tries, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharma- ceuticals) Shortages: metallic ores (except bauxite), copper, high grade coal, forest products, crude oil Crude steel: 3.88 million metric tons produced (1978), 363 kg per capita Electric power: 5,900,000 kW capacity (1978); 25.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,835 kWh per capita Exports: $8,833 million (f.o.b., 1978); 27% machinery, 18% industrial consumer goods, 30% raw materials and semimanufactures, 22% food and raw materials for the food industry, energy sources 3% (distribution for 1978) SECRET SECRET Imports: $10,601 million (c.i.f., 1978); 22% machinery, 8% industrial consumer goods, 48% raw materials and semi- manufactures; 9% food and raw materials for the food industry, energy sources 13% (distribution for 1978) Major trade partners: $19,434 million (1978); 67% with Communist countries, 33% with non-Communist countries Aid: U.S.S.R.?$338 million extended (1956-66), $10 million extended in 1967, $167 million extended in 1968; to less developed non-Communist countries?$855 million (1954-78) Monetary conversion rate: 35.58 forints=US$1 (commer- cial); 20.33 forints=US$1, noncommercial (January 1979) Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 8,669 km total; 7,750 km standard gage (1.435 m), 405 km narrow gage (mostly 0.760 m), 35 km broad gage (1.524 m), 1,162 km double track, 1,303 km electrified; government owned (1977) Highways: 99,595 km total; 32,583 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 10,408 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 56,604 km earth (1977) Inland waterways: 1,688 km (1977) Pipelines: crude oil, 1,287 km; refined products, 500 km; natural gas, 2,896 km Freight carried: rail-134.8 million metric tons, 24.1 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-563.5 million metric tons, 10.4 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway? est. 14.2 million metric tons, 8.3 billion metric ton/km (incl. intl, transit traffic) in approximately 545 waterway craft with 310,000 metric ton capacity (1977) River ports: 2 principal (Budapest, Dunaujvaros); no maritime ports; outlets are Rostock, GDR; and Gdansk, Gdynia, and Szczecin in Poland; and Galati and Braila in Romania (1978) Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft (1977) Merchant marine: 23 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 78,200 GRT, 110,800 DWT Airfields: 85 total; 14 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 3,500 m or over, 15 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 28 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 41 with runways less than 1,000 m, 23 heliports Telecommunications: services meet most government and industrial requirements, but local public telephone service is inadequate; radio and TV broadcasts can be received throughout most of the country; 11 AM, 4 FM stations, more than 2.7 million receivers; 1 major and 10 relay TV stations, 2,200,000 TV receivers; 923,966 tele- phones (80.3% automatic DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,627,000; 2,114,000 fit for military service; about 65,000 reach military age (18) annually 107 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET HUNGARY/ICELAND Supply: produces small arms, ammunition, explosives, light artillery, an armored reconnaissance car, some trucks, chemical warfare defensive materiel and small quantities of agents, some types of electronic equipment; dependent upon other Warsaw Pact countries, primarily the U.S.S.R., for other military equipment including radar and missiles Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, est. 149 billion forints; about 3.6% of total budget ICELAND LAND 102,952 km2; arable negligible, 22% meadows pastures, forested negligible, 78% other and WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 4,988 km 108 July 1979 GREENLAND .0enniark Strait ICELAND Reykjavik Jan Mayen ? Island Greenland Sea Norwegian Atlantic Ocean Sea NO (See 'defence map 11,) PEOPLE Population: 225,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.8% (12-77 to 12-78) Nationality: noun?Icelander(s); adjective?Icelandic Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population Religion: 95% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 2% no affiliation Language: Icelandic Literacy: 99% Labor force: 90,000; 9.0% agriculture; 5.4% fishing;. 8.0% fish processing; 16.8% other manufacturing; 12.2% construc- tion; 18.6% commerce, finance, and services; 6.3% transpor- tation and communications; 23.7% other; unemployment 1977, 0.6% Organized labor: 60% of labor force 25X1 25X1 25X1 GOVERNMENT ? Legal name: Republic of Iceland Type: republic Capital: Reykjavik Political subdivisions: 23 rural districts, 215 parishes, 14 incorporated towns Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; constitution adopted 1944; legal education at University of Iceland; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17 June Branches: legislative authority -rests jointly with President and parliament (Althing); executive power vested in President but exercised by cabinet responsible to parliament; Supreme Court and 29 lower courts Government leaders: President Kristian Eldjarn; Prime Minister Olafur Johannesson Suffrage: universal, over age 20; not compulsory 25X1 Elections: parliamentary, last 25 June 1978, every 4 years; presidential, every 4 years SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ICELAND/INDIA Political parties and leaders: Independence (conserva- tive), Geir Hallgrimsson; Progressive, Steingrimur Her- mannsson; Social Democratic, Benedikt Grondal; People's Alliance (Communist front), Luduik Josefsson Voting strength (1978 election): 32.7% Independence, 16.9% Progressive, 22.0% Social Democratic, 22.9% People's Alliance, 5.5% other Communists: est. 2,200; a number of sympathizers, as indicated by 20,922 votes cast for People's Alliance in 1974 election Member of: Council of Europe, EC (free trade agreement pending resolution of fishing limits issue), EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, II3RD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $1,991 million (1978 est.), $8,928 per capita; 62.1% consumption, 25.9% investment, 10.3% government, 1.9% change in stocks; ?0.2% net foreign balance (1978); 1977 growth rate 4.8%, constant prices Agriculture: cattle, sheep, dairying, hay, potatoes, turnips; food shortages?grains, sugar, vegetable and other fibers; caloric intake, 2,900 calories per day per capita (1964-66) Fishing: landed 1,549,900 metric tons; exports $245.4 million (1978) Major industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, diatomite production, hydro-electricity Shortages: grain, fuel, wood, minerals, vegetable fibers Electric power: 653,000 kW capacity (1977); 2.5 billion kWh produced (1977), 11,210 kWh per capita Exports: $649.4 million (f.o.b., 1978); fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum, diatomite Imports: $679.9 million (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles Major trade partners: (1978) exports?EC 32%, U.S. 29%, U.S.S.R: 4%; imports?EC 47%, U.S.S.R. 8%, U.S. 7% Aid: economic authorizations: U.S., $10 million (FY70-76) Budget: (1978, approved) expenditures $636 million, revenues $657 million Monetary conversion rate: 271.11 kronur=US$1 (1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth Ports: 4 major (Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur), and about 50 minor Merchant marine: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,444 GRT, 102,576 DWT; includes 33 cargo, 1 bullr Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in SECRET SECRET Airfields: 125 total, 101 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 seaplane station Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio communication system; 93,700 telephones (42.4 per 100 popl.); 17 AM, 14 FM, and 80 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES 'Military manpower: males 15-49, 53,000; 52,000 fit for military service (Iceland has no conscription or compulsory military service) 25X1 INDIA Indian Ocean (See reference /770p LAND 3,136,500 km' (includes Indian part of Jammu-Kashmir, Sikkim, Goa, Damao and Diu); 50% arable, 5% permanent meadows and pastures, 20% desert, waste, or urban, 22% forested, 3% inland water Land boundaries: 12,700 km2 WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; ,additional 100 nm is fisheries conservation zone, December 1968; archipelago concept baselines); 200 rim exclusive economic zone Coastline: 7,000 km (includes offshore islands) 109 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET INDIA PEOPLE Population: 669,785,000, including Sikkim and the Indian-held part of disputed Jammu-Kashmir (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Indian(s); adjective?Indian Ethnic divisions: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other Religion: 83.5% Hindu, 10.7% Muslim, 1.8% Sikh, 2.6% Christian, 0.7% Buddhist, 0.7% other Language: 24 languages spoken by a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys -associate" status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is spoken widely throughout northern India Literacy: males 39%; females 18%; both sexes 29% (1971 census) Labor force: about 197 million; 70% agriculture, more than 10% unemployed and underemployed; shortage of skilled labor is significant and unemployment is rising Organized labor: about 2.5% of total labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of India Type: federal republic Capital: New Delhi. Political subdivisions: 22 states, 9 union territories Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted 1950; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26 January Branches: parliamentary government, national and state; relatively independent judiciary Government leader: Prime Minister Morarii Desai Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: national and state elections ordinarily held every 5 years; may be postponed in emergency and may be held more frequently if government loses confidence vote; next general election due by March 1982; next state elections staggered in 1982 and 1983 Political parties and leaders: Indian National Congress, controlled national government from independence to March 1977, and split in January 1978; larger Congress group is headed by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; the smaller -official" Congress Party is headed by Swaran Singh as provisional president; Janata Party (a merger o15 pre-1977 election parties) led by Prime Minister Desai and party president, Chandra Shekar; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara Rao, general secretary; Communist 110 July 197-9 Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. Namboodiripad, general secretary; Communist Party of India/Marxist- Leninist (CPI/ML); Satyanarayan Singh, general secretary; All-India-Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK), a regional party in Tamil Nadu led by M. G. Ramachandran; Akali Dal representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab Voting strength (1977 election): 43.17% Janata and CFD, 34.54% Congress, 4.30% CPI/M, 2.82% CPI, 15.17% regional parties and others Communists: 150,000 active members of CPI (est.), 100,000 active members of CPI/M (est.); Communist extremist groups, 5,000 or less members Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking reorganization of states; numerous -senas" or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Shiv Sena in Bombay, the Anand Marg, and the Rashtriya Swayamserak Sangh Member of: ADB, AIOEC, Colombo Plan, Common- wealth, FAO, G-77 GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $91.1 billion (FY78 at current prices), $141 per capita; real growth 7.2% in FY78 Agriculture: main crops?rice, other cereals, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, tea, and coffee Fishing: catch 2.5 million metric tons (FY78); exports $145 million (FY75), imports $3.3 million (1974) Major industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machin- ery, transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures Crude steel: 9.83 million metric tons of ingots (CY77) Electric power: 26,084,000 kW capacity (1978); 104.3 billion kWh produced (1978), 155 kWh per capita Exports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., FY78 est.); engineering goods, textiles and clothing, tea Imports: $6.3 billion (c.i.f., FY78 est.); machinery and transport equipment, petroleum, edible oils, fertilizers Major trade partners: U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., Japan Aid: economic?FY78 disbursements, $1.5 billion; (1970- 77) commitments: U.S.S.R., $670 million; Eastern Europe, $105 million; OPEC bilateral, $1.6 billicu; U.S., $1,918 million; military?(1970-77) commitments: U.S.S.R., $1,886 million; U.S., $0.8 million 25X1 Budget: (FY79) central government receipts, $21.4 billion; expenditures, $24.0 billion Monetary conversion rate: 8.212 rupees=US$1 (January 1979) Fiscal year: fiscal year ends 31 March of stated year SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 INDIA/INDONESIA COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 61,313 km total (1977); 25,550 km meter gage (1.00 m), 30,041 km broad gage (1.676 m), 4,476 km narrow gage (0.762 m and 0.610 m), government owned; 46 km meter gage (1.00 m), 855 km broad gage (1.676 m), 345 km narrow gage (0.762 m and 0.610 m), privately owned; 12,304 km double track; 4,719 km electrified Highways: 1,327,450 km total; 415,250 km paved, 190,600 km gravel or crushed stone, 304,900 km improved earth, 416,700 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 14,300 km; 2,575 km navigable by river steamers Pipelines: crude oil, 1,767 km; refined products, 2,020 km; natural gas, 574 km Ports: 9 major, 80 minor Merchant marine: 366 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,617,461 GRT, 9,178,300 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 231 cargo, 28 tanker, 86 bulk, 18 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized carrier, 1 barge carrier Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft Airfields: 356 total, 339 usable; 190 with permanent- surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 54 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 120 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair domestic telephone service where available, good internal microwave links; telegraph facilities widespread; AM broadcast adequate; international radio communications adequate; 2.1 million telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); about 163 AM stations at 80 locations, 9 TV stations, 6 earth satellite stations; submarine cables extend to Sri Lanka; 7 satellite stations under construction DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 163,997,000; 96,778,000 fit for military service; about 7,744,000 reach military age (17) annually Supply: increasingly self-sufficient including manu- facture/assembly of own small arms, artillery, ammunition, SECRET SECRET variety of aircraft, military electronics, and medium tanks; frigates, craft and landing craft being built domestically; U.S. and U.K. were principal foreign suppliers until 1965, since then the U.S.S.R. has become the principal foreign source,' medium tanks obtained from Czechoslovakia and Poland, 4 medium landing ships from Poland, armored personnel carriers and tank transports from Czechoslovakia and the U.S.S.R.; small amounts of other army materiel from Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; small arms, towed artillery, armor, armor components, military electronics, and self-propelled artillery from U.K.; licensed radar production with France and to a lesser extent, Switzerland; produces MiG-21's under license from U.S.S.R?majority of components domestically produced; licensed production French helicopters; Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1979, $3.7 billion; 16.6% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 z ox1 25X1 INDONESIA LAND 1,906,240 km2; 12% small holdings and estates, 64% forests, 24% inland water, waste, urban, and other Land boundaries: 2,736 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): under an archi- pelago theory, claim is 12 nm, measured seaward from straight baselines connecting the outermost islands Coastline: 54,716 km PEOPLE Population: 148,085,000, including East Timor and Irian Jaya (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.1% (current) 25X1 25X1 111 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 INDONESIA PHILIPPINES Jakarta er=z, -1,,NDONESIA Indian Ocean (See reference map VII) Nationality: noun?Indonesian(s); adjective?Indonesian Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45% Javanese, 14% Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26% other Religion: 90% Muslim, 5% Christian, 3% Hindu, 2% other Language: Indonesian (modified form of Malay) official; English, and Dutch leading foreign languages Literacy: 60% (est.); 72% in 6-16 age group Labor force: 55 million; 64% agriculture, 12% trade, 7% industry, 17% other Organized labor: 10% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Indonesia Type: republic Capital: Jakarta Political subdivisions: 27 first-level administrative subdi- visions or provinces which are further subdivided into 282 second-level areas Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; constitution of 1945 is legal basis of government; legal education at University of Indonesia, Jakarta; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August Branches: executive headed by President who is chief of state and head of cabinet; cabinet selected by President; unicameral legislature (DPR, or parliament), of 460 mem- bers (100 appointed, 360 elected); second and larger body (MPR, or congress) of 920 members includes the legislature and 460 other members (chosen by several processes, but not directly elected) elects President and Vice President, and theoretically determines national policy; judicial, Supreme Court is highest court Government leader: President, Gen. Suharto (reelected by Congress, March 1978) Suffrage: universal over age 17 and married persons regardless of age 112 Political parties and leaders: Golkar (quasi-official -party" based on functional groups), Amir Moertono; Indonesia Democracy Party (federation of former Nation- alist and Christian parties), Sanusi Hardjadinata; Unity Development Party (federation of former Islamic parties), Idham Chalid Voting strength (1977 election): Golkar 232 seats, Indonesia Democracy 29, Unity Development 99 Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966; current strength est. at 1,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized activity; pre-October 1965 hard-core membership has been estimated at 1.5 million Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $34 billion (1978), about $250 per capita; real average annual growth (1973-78), 6.9% Agriculture: subsistence food production, and smallholder and plantation production for export; main crops?rice, rubber, copra, other tropical products; food shortage?rice, wheat Fishing: catch 1.6 million tons (1977); exports $150 million (1977), imports $8 million (1977) Major industries: petroleum, agricultural processing, textiles, mining Electric power: 4,423,000 kW capacity (1978); 11.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 85 kWh per capita Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); petroleum ($6.9 billion; 508.million bbls), timber, rubber, coffee, tin", palm oil, tea, copper Imports: $7.1 billion (c.i.f., 1978); rice, wheat, textiles, chemicals, iron and steel products, machinery, transport equipment, consumer durables Major trade partners: exports (1978)-39% Japan, 26% U.S., 10% Singapore; imports-30% Japan, 13% U.S., 9% West Germany Aid: economic assistance commitments (1970-77); Com- munist, $100 million; U.S., $1,811 million; other Western, $4,562 million; military assistance (1970-77): Communist, $1 million; U.S., $234 million Budget: (1979-80) expenditures, $11.1 billion; receipts, $8.7 billion domestic, $2.4 billion foreign Monetary conversion rate: 625 rupiah=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 7,843 km total (1977); 7,246 km 1.067-meter gage, 505 km 0.750-meter gage, 92 km 0.600-meter gage; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; government owned Highways: 93,053 km total; 26,573 km paved, 41,521 km gravel or crushed stone, 24,959 km improved or unimproved earth SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET INDONESIA/IRAN Inland waterways: 21,579 km; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Borneo 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, and Irian Jaya 4,587 km Pipelines: crude oil, 2,591 km; refined products, 310 km; natural gas, 518 km Ports: 10 major, 6 minor Merchant marine: 229 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 916,301 GRT, 1,247,000 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 182 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 tanker, 22 bulk, 2 specialized carriers; in addition 1 naval tanker and 5 troop transports, sometimes used commercially; only a small part of the fleet is in international trade; in the domestic fleet, as many as half of the ships are inoperable because of chronic lack of spare parts and trained personnel, although a newly- begun fleet modernization program should gradually change this. Civil air: approximately 130 major transport aircraft Airfields: 388 total, 377 usable; 78 with permanent- surface runways; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 67 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net; domestic service poor, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage good; 314,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 291 AM, 1 FM, and 13 TV stations; 1 international ground satellite station (1 Indian Ocean antenna and 1 Pacific Ocean antenna), and 50 domestic ground satellite stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 33,405,000; 19,093,000 fit for military service; about 1,617,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: small Quantities of ammunition and small arms produced as well as 1 light utility aircraft; from 1957-65, Indonesia purchased most military equipment from Com- munist countries, the majority after 1960 from the U.S.S.R.; naval ships and equipment from a large variety of Communist and non-Communist sources; surface-to-surface naval missiles, air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface, and surface- to-air from U.S.S.R.; antitank missiles from Switzerland and France; recent purchases generally for cash; both purchases SECRET and grant-aid from non-Communist sources; most recent naval purchases include 4 missile boats from South Korea, 3 corvettes from the Netherlands and 3 submarines from Germany; F-5 fighters have been purchased from the U.S. and air defense radar from France Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1980, $1.48 billion; about 13.0% of central government budget IRAN (See reference map VI LAND 1,647,240 km2; 14% agricultural, 11% forested, 16% cultivable with adequate irrigation, 51% desert, waste, or urban, 8% migratory grazing and other Land boundaries: 5,318 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing, 50 nm) Coastline: 3,180 km, including islands, 676 km 113 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 IR AN PEOPLE Population: 37,582,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Iranian(s); adjective?Iranian Ethnic divisions: 63% ethnic Persians, 3% Kurds, 13% other Iranian, 18% Turkic, 3% Arab and other Semitic, 1% other Religion: 93% Shia Muslim; 5% Sunni Muslim; 2% Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians and Baha'is Language: Persian (Farsi), Turkish dialects, Kurdish, Arabic Literacy: about 37% of those 7 years of age and older (1976 est.) Labor force: 10.1 million est. 1976; 36% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor substantial GOVERNMENT Legal name: Islamic Republic of Iran Type: republic Capital: Tehran Political subdivisions: 23 provinces, subdivided into districts, sub-districts, counties, and villages Legal system: based largely on French law, with elements drawn from other continental systems; personal law based on Islamic practice generally with residual traces of Roman law; a new constitution is being prepared which will codify Islamic principles of government National holiday: not yet announced Branches: Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolu- tion, provides general guidance for the provisional govern- ment; some courts from the old -regime- remain in operation; legislature not yet constituted Government leaders: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini; Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan Suffrage: undetermined Elections: elections to endorse new constitution and select new parliament are scheduled for the second half of 1979 Political parties and leaders: Islamic Republican Party, Mohammad Beheshti; National Front, Karim Sanjabi; National Democratic Front, Hedayatollah Matin-Daftari; Tudeh Party, Nur-ed-Din Kianuri Voting strength: not yet tested Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hard-core, est.; 15,000 to 20,000 est. sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: People's Strugglers and People's Fedayeen are armed political groups Member of: Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, I110, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, OPEC, RCD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $88.2 billion (1978), $2,450 per capita; 1978 real GNP growth, 1.1% 114 Agriculture: wheat, barley, rice, sugar beets, cotton, dates, raisins, tea, tobacco, sheep, and goats Major industries: crude oil production (1,898 million bbls in 1978) and refining, textiles, cement and other building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper) Electric power: 6,300,000 kW capacity (1978); 20 billion kWh produced (1978), 560 kWh per capita Exports: $21.7 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 97% petroleum; also carpets, raw cotton, fruits, and nuts, hide and leather items, ores Imports: $17.7 billion (f.o.b., 1978); machinery, iron and steel products, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electrical equip- ment, agricultural products Major trade partners: exports?Japan, U.S., West Ger- many, Netherlands, Italy, U.K., Spain, France; imports? U.S., West Germany, Japan, U.K., Italy Aid: economic?(1970-76) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $863.05 million; U.S., $1,019.9 million; Communist coun- tries, $517.6 million; military?Communist $1,182.0 million; U.S., $18.7 million Budget: (FY78-79) $59.3 billion Monetary conversion rate: 70.5 rials=US$1 Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March countries, COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km standard gage (1.435 m), 92 km 1.676-meter gage Highways: 81,800 km total; 36,000 km gravel and crushed stone, 15,000 km improved earth Inland waterways: 904 km, excluding the Caspian Sea, 104 km on the Shatt al Arab Pipelines: crude oil, 3,072 km; refined products, 3,766 km; natural gas, 2,317 km Ports: 7 major, 6 minor Merchant marine: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043,797 GRT, 1,720,224 DWT; includes 43 cargo, 11 tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 1 beach landing cargo ship (converted U.S. LCT) Civil air: 62 major transport aircraft, including 6 leased in and 3 leased out Airfields: 182 total, 161 usable; 68 with permanent- surface runways; 13 with runways over 3,660 m, 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 68 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: advanced system with good service for civil and military uses; system may be expected to degrade as a result of political upheaval; Tehran principal center and hub of critical links; 800,000 telephones (2.0 per 100 popl.); about 35 AM, 2 FM, and 65 TV stations; Atlantic and Indian Asadabad Ocean satellite service from 1 station at SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 L i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 IRAN /IRA() DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 8,077,000; 4,806,000 fit for military service; about 361,000 reach military age (21) an ? Supply: produces small arms, 20mm cannons, rockets, explosives, and various calibers of ammunition; bulk of equipment from U.S., some antitank missiles from France, some surface-to-air missiles and naval craft from U.K. and West Germany, helicopters from Italy; since 1967 has received significant quantities of armored vehicles, artillery (including self-propelled AA guns), and transport vehicles from the U.S.S.R.; has procured AA guns and associated radar from Switzerland, tanks from U.K., and significant quantities of other materiel from FRG France Italy Canada, and Israel; Military budget: for fiscal year ending 20 March 1979, $11.6 billion; 20% of central government budget IRAQ LAND ? 445,480 km'; 18% cultivated, 68% desert, waste, or urban, . 10% seasonal and other grazing land, 4% forest and woodland Land boundaries: 3,668 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 58 km PEOPLE ? Population: 12,907,000 (July 1979), average growth rate 3.4% (current) SECRET annual SECRET (See reference map VI Nationality: noun?Iraqi(s); adjective?Iraqi Ethnic divisions: 70.9% Arabs, 18.3% Kurds, 0.7% Assyrians, 2.4% Turkomans, 7.7% other Religion: 90% Muslim (50% Shia Muslim, 40% Sunni Muslim), 8% Christian, 2% other Language: Arabic, Kurdish minority speaks Kurdish Literacy: 20% to 40% Labor force: 2.4 million; 70% agriculture, 6.5% industry, 6.7% government, 16.8% other; rural underemployment high, but not serious because low subsistence levels make it easy to care for unemployed; severe shortage of technically trained personnel Organized labor: 11% of labor force GOVERNMENT 25X1 Legal name: Republic of Iraq 25X1 Type: republic; National Front Government consisting of Ba'th Party (13P1), Iraq Communist Party (CPI), and pro- 25X1 administration Kurds formed in July 1973; Communists play nominal role in government Capital: Baghdad Political subdivisions: 18 provinces under centrally appointed officials ? Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; provisional constitution adopted in 1968; judicial review was suspended; legal education at University of Baghdad; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 14 July Branches: Ba'th Party of Iraq has been in power since 1968 coup Government leaders: President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr; Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council Saddam Husayn 'Abd-al-Majid al-Tikriti Suffrage: no elective bodies exist Elections: no national elections since overthrow of monarchy in 1958 25X1 25X1 115 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET IRAO/IRELAND Communists: Communist Party allowed token representa- tion in cabinet; est. 2,000 hard-core members Political or pressure groups: political parties banned, possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected members of the regime and army officers Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WF'TU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $21.4 billion (1978 est.), $1,701 per capita Agriculture: dates, wheat, barley, rice, livestock Major industry: crude petroleum (third largest producer in Middle East); 2.4 million b/d (1977); petroleum revenues for 1978, $10.8 billion Electric power: 2,600,000 kW capacity (1978); 7.1 billion kWh produced (1978), 560 kWh per capita Exports: $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978 est.); net receipts from oil, $10.8 billion; non-oil, $300 million est. Imports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b., 1978 est.); 26% from Communist countries (1973) Major trade partners: exports?France, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Turkey, U.K., U.S.S.R., other Communist countries; imports?West Germany, Japan, France, U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R. and other Communist countries (1977) Aid: economic?(1970-76) Communist countries, $719.9 million; U.S., $3.3 million; military?Communist countries, $3,453.0 million Budget: $15.8 billion (FY78), estimated Monetary conversion rate: 1 Iraqi dinar=US$3.39 (end of December 1977) Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,700 km total; 1,123 km standard gage (1.435 m), 577 km meter gage (1.00 m); 16 km meter gage double track Highways: 20,791 km total; 6,490 km paved, 4,645 km improved earth, 9,656 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab navigable by maritime traffic for about 104 km; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamers Ports: 3 major (Basra, Umm Qasr, Al Faw) Pipelines: crude oil, 3,821 km; 585 km refined products; 1,360 km natural gas Merchant marine: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,201,845 GRT, 2,271,162 DWT; 13 cargo, 1 container, 21 tanker, 1 cargo training Civil air: 24 major transport aircraft Airfields: 78 total, 69 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 116 July 1979 Telecommunications: network consists of coaxial cables, radio-relay links, and radiocommunication stations; 320,000 telephones (2.8 per 100 pop!.); 9 AM, no FM and 10 TV stations; 1 satellite station with Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean antennas; system expansion in process DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,881,000; 1,604,000 fit for military service; about 140,000 reach military age (18) annually 25X1, 25X1 Supply: produces some ammunition; dependent mainly on U.S.S.R. and East European Communist countries for combat materiel; some transport and electronic equipmen125X1 from Western Europe as well as COBRA antitank missiles from West Germany and a patrol boat from the U.K.; armored cars from France Military budget: est. for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $1.7 billion; 11% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 IRELAND LAND 68,894 km2; 17% arable, 51% meadows and pastures, 3% forested, 2% inland water, 27% waste and urban Land boundaries: 360 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 1,448 km PEOPLE Population: 3,267,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (current) SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 IRELAND (See reference map IV) Nationality: noun?Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective?Irish Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous Celts Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Anglican, c2% other Language: English and Gaelic official; English is gen- erally spoken Literacy: 98%-99% Labor force: about 1,128,000 (1978); 26% agriculture, forestry, fishing; 19% manufacturing; 15% commerce; 7% construction; 5% transportation; 4% government; 24% other; 9;0% unemployment (February 1979) Organized labor: 36% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Ireland, Eire (Gaelic) Type: republic Capital: Dublin Political subdivisions: 26 Counties Legal system: based on English common law, gubstan- tially modified by indigenous concepts; constitution adopted 1937; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: St. Patrick's Day, 17 March Branches: elected President; bicameral parliament re- flecting proportional and vocational representation; judici- ary appointed by President on advice of government Government leaders: President Patrick Hillery; Prime Minister (Taoiseach) John M. Lynch; Deputy Prime Minister (Tanaiste) George Colley Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: Dad (lower house) elected every 5 years?last election June 1977; President elected for 7-year term?last election November 1976 Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, John (Jack) Lynch; Labor Party, Frank Cluskey; Fine Gael, Garret Fitzgerald; Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'Riordan SECRET SECRET Voting strength: (1977 election) Fianna Fail (84 seats), Fine Gael (43 seats), Labor Party (17 seats), Independents hold 4 seats Communists: approximately 600 Member of: Council of Europe, EC, EEC, ESRO (observer), EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICES, IDA, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, . WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $12.0 billion (1978 est.), $3,717 per capita; 65.2% consumption, 26.4% investment, 18.2% government, ?0.3% inventories and net factor income; ?9.5% net foreign demand Agriculture: 70% of agricultural area used for permanent hay and pasture; main products?livestock and dairy products, turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; 85% self-sufficient; food shortages?grains, fruits, vegetables; caloric intake 3,510 calories per day per capita (1970) Fishing: catch 94,319 metric tons (1976); exports of fish and fish products $37.3 million (1976), imports of fish and fish products $15.7 million (1976) Major industries: food products, brewing, textiles and clothing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, machinery and transportation equipment Shortages: coal, petroleum, timber and woodpulp, steel and nonferrous metals, fertilizers, cereals and animal feeds, textile fibers and textiles Crude steel: 85,000 metrie tons produced in 1975, 30 kg per capita Electric power: 2,400,000 kW capacity (1978); 10 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,085 kWh per capita Exports: $6,381 million (f.o.b., 1977); live animals, meat, dairy products, textiles, clothing, chemicals, machinery Imports: $7,530 million (c.i.f., .1977); petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, chemicals, cereals, textiles Major trade partners: 73.1% EC (48.3% U.K.); 7.4% U.S. (January-September 1978) Aid: economic?EC Common Borrowing Facility, $300 million (1976) Budget: (1979 projected) 2,675 million pounds expendi- tures, 2,467 million pounds revenues, 208 million pounds deficit, public sector borrowing requirement 779 million pounds Monetary conversion rate: 1 Irish pound =US$1.9190 (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year. COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,009 km 1.600-meter gage; 1,894 km govern- ment-owned; 115 km privately-owned Highways: 88,302 km total; 78,616 km surfaced, 9,686 km earth 117 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET IRELAND/ISRAEL Inland waterways: approximately 1,000 km Ports: 6 major, 38 minor Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 183,154 GRT, 247,317 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 11 container, 1 tanker, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 bulk, 4 cargo, 4 specialized carrier Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft, including 8 leased out Airfields: 38 total, 38 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: small, modern system; all cities interconnected for telephone and telegraph service; 480,000 telephones (15.1 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 7 FM, and 28 TV stations; 4 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 749,000; 586,000 fit for military service; about 32,000 reach military age (17) annually Supply: formerly from the U.K. primarily, but since 1961 from other European countries; two naval service fishing protection ships produced domestically, another two are under construction; produces APC's Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $234 million; about 3.0% of the central government budget ISRAEL NOTE: The Arab territories occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the data below unless so indicated. LAND. 20,720 km' (excluding about 56,183 km' of occupied territory in Jordan, Egypt, and Syria as of June 1979); 20% cultivated, 40% pastureland and meadows, 4% forested, 4% desert, waste, or urban, 3% inland water, 29% unsurveyed (mostly desert) Land boundaries: 1,036 km (prior to 1967 war); including occupied areas, approximately 1,050 km (1977) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm Coastline: 273 km (prior to 1967 war); including occupied areas, approximately 848 km (1977) 118 SAUDI ARABIA (See reference map VI PEOPLE Population: 3,663,000, excluding East Jerusalem and the other occupied territories (July 1979), average annual growth ;ate 2.1% (7-77 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?Israeli(s); adjective?Israel Ethnic divisions: 85% Jews, 15% non-Jews (mostly Arabs) Religion: 85% Judaism, 11% Islam, 4% Christian and other ? Language: Hebrew official; Arabic used officially for 25X1 Arab minority; English most commonly used foreign language Literacy: 88% Jews, 48% .Arabs Labor force: 1,252,000; 6.1% agriculture, forestry and fishing; 23.8% industry, mining, and manufacturing; 1.1% electricity and water; 6.6% construction and public works; 11.9% commerce; 6.9% transport, storage, and communica- tions; 7.3% finance and business; 29.7% public services; 6.6% 25X1 personal and other services (1978) Organized labor: 90% of labor force GOVERNMENT . Legal name: State of Israel Type: republic Capital: Jerusalem; not recognized by U.S. ? which maintains Embassy in Tel Aviv Political subdivisions: 6 administrative districts Legal system: mixture of English common law and, in personal area, Jewish, Christian and Muslim legal systems; commercial matters, regulated substantially by codes adopted since 1948; no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic laws of the Knesset (legislature) relating to the Knesset, Israeli lands, the president, the government and the Israel citizenship law; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Hebrew University in Jerusalem; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 11 May 25X1 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ISRAEL Branches: President Yitzhak Navon has largely ceremo- nial functions; executive power vested in cabinet; unicam- eral parliament (Knesset) of 120 members elected under a system of proportional representation; legislation provides fundamental laws in absence of a written constitution; 2 distinct court systems (secular and religious) Government leader: Prime Minister Menachem Begin Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: held every 4 years unless required by dissolution of Knesset; last election held in May 1977 Principal political parties and leaders: Herut, Prime Minister Menachem Begin, Defense Minister Ezer Weizman; Liberal Party, Finance Minister Simcha Ehrlich; La'am, Yigal Hurvitz; (Likud is a coalition formed of Hcrut, Liberals and La'am); National Religious Party, Joseph Burg, Zevulun Hammer; Democratic Movement, Yigal Yadin, Shmttel Tamir; Israel Labor Party, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Yigal AlIon; SHELL', Arieh Eliav Voting strength: Likud 45 seats; National Religious Party 12 seats; Orthodox Augudat parties 5 seats; Samuel Flatto- Sharon 1 seat; Moshe Dayan 1 seat; Labor Party-MAPAM- Arab List Alignment 32 seats; Democratic Movement 7 seats; Shai 7 seats; Ya'ad 1 seat (recently organized by Assaf Yaguri as a one-man Knesset faction); Independent Liberal Party I seat; Citizens Rights Movement I seat; RAKAH 5 seats; SHELL' 2 seats Communists: RAKAH (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership) has some 1,500 members; the Jewish Communist Party, MAKI, is now part of Moked, which is a far-left Zionist party Other political or pressure groups: right-wing Jewish Defense League led by Rabbi Meir Kahane; Black Panthers, a loosely organized youth group seeking more benefits for oriental Jews; Gush Emunim, Jewish religious zealots pushing for freedom for Jews to settle anywhere on the West Bank Member of: FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ITU, IWC? International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $12.7 billion (1978, in 1978 prices), $3,430 per capita; 1978 growth of real GNP 5.2% Agriculture: main products?citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef and dairy products, poultry products Major industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles and clothing, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, rubber and plastic products, potash mining Electric power: 2,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 13.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,700 kWh per capita Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978); major items?polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed foods, fertilizer and chemical products; tourism is leading foreign exchange earner SECRET SECRET Imports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); major items?military equipment, rough diamonds, chemicals, machinery, iron and steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, and aircraft Major trade partners: exports?EC, U.S., U.K., Japan, Hong Kong, Switzerland; imports?EC, U.S., U.K., Switzer- land, Japan Budget: FY beginning 1 April 1979?$13 billion (con- verted at 22 Israeli pounds=US$1) Monetary conversion rate: the Israeli pound was allowed to float on 31 October 1977 and as of mid-April 1979 it was roughly 22.0 Israeli pounds=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 767 km standard gage (1.435 m) Highways: 4,459 km paved, 7 km gravel/crushed stone, remainder unknown Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined products, 290 km; natural gas, 89 km Ports: 3 major (Haifa, Ashdod, Elat), 5 minor Airfields: 56 total, 46 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Telecommunications: most highly developed in the Middle East though not the largest; good system of coaxial cable and radio relay; 870,000 telephones (24.0 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 10 FM stations, 15 TV stations and 30 repeater stations; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: Jewish males 15-49, 750,000; 648,000 fit for military service; average number of Jews reaching military age (18) annually-28,000 males, 27,000 females; both sexes liable for military service 119 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ISRAEL/ITALY ITALY gee telerenre mop IV) LAND 301,217 km2; 50% cultivated, 17% meadow and pasture, 21% forest, 3% unused but potentially productive, 9% waste or urban Land boundaries: 1,702 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 4,996 km PEOPLE Population: 56,924,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Italian(s); adjective?Italian July 1979 Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but population in- cludes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Ital- ians in the north and of Albanian-Italians in the south Religion: almost 100% nominally Roman Catholic (de facto state religion) Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige Region (e.g., Bolzano) are predominantly German speaking; signifi- cant French-speaking minority in Valle &Aosta Region; Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area Literacy: 5%-7% of population illiterate (1972); illiteracy varies widely by region Labor force: 20,125,000 (July 1978); 15.0% agriculture, 42.9% industry, 39.0% other (1975); 7.1% unemployment (1978); 1.5 million Italians employed in other Western European countries Organized labor: 50-55% (est.) of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Italian Republic Type: republic Capital: Rome Political subdivisions: constitution provides for establish- ment of 20 regions; 5 (Sicilia, Sardegna, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and Valle d'Aosta) have been functioning for some time and the remaining 15 regions were instituted on 1 April 1972; 94 provinces Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiasti- cal law influence; constitution came into effect 1 January 1948; judicial review under certain conditions in ?Constitu- tional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June Branches: executive?President empowered to dissolve Parliament and call national election; he is also Commander of the Armed Forces and presides over the Supreme Defense Council; otherwise, authority to govern invested in Council of Ministers; legislative power invested in bicameral, popularly elected Parliament; Italy has an independent judicial establishment Government leaders: President Alessandro Pertini; Pre- mier Giulio Andreotti Suffrage: universal over age 18 (except in Senatorial elections where minimum age of voter is 25) Elections: national elections for Parliament held every 5 years (most recent, 'June 1976); provincial and municipal elections held every 5 years with some out of phase; regional elections every 5 years (held June 1975) Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DC), Benign? Zaccagnini (secretary general); Communist Party (PCI), Enrico Berlinguer (secretary general), Luigi Longo (party president); Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino Craxi (secretary general), Pietro Nenni (party president); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Pietro Longo (secretary general); Liberal Party (PLR Valerio Zanone (party secretary); Italian Social Movement (MSI), Giorgio Almirante; Republican Party (PRI), Oddo Biasini (party secretary) 120 SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ITALY Voting strength (1976 election): 38.7% DC, 34.4% PCI, 9.6% PSI, 6.1% MSI, 3.4% PSDI, 3.1% PRI, 1.3% PLI, 3.4% other Communists: 1,814,740 members (February 1978) Other political or pressure groups: the Vatican; three major trade union confederations (CGIL?Communist dominated, CISL?Christian Democratic, and UIL?Social Democratic, Socialist, and Republican); Italian manufactur- ers association (Confindustria); organized farm groups Member of: ADB, ASSIMER, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECOWAS, ECSC, EEC, EIB, ELDO, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, W MO, WSG ECONOMY GDP: $260 billion (1978), $4,580 per capita; 63.3% private consumption, 18.7% gross fixed investment, 16.5% government, 0.8% inventory change, net foreign balance 0.7%; 1978 growth rate 2.6% (1970 constant prices) Agriculture: important producer of fruits and vegetables; main crops?cereals, potatoes, olives; 95% self-sufficient; food shortages?fats,, meat, fish, and eggs; daily caloric intake, 3,282 calories per capita (1976) Fishing: catch 337,994 metric tons (1977); exports $43 million (1977), imports $386 million (1977) Major industries: machinery and transportation equip- ment, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles Shortages: coal, fuels, minerals Crude steel: 24.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 410 kg per . capita Electric power: 46,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 175 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,080 kWh per capita Exports: $55.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal items? machinery and transport equipment, textiles, foodstuffs, chemicals, footwear Imports: $56.3 billion (c.i.f., 1978); principal items? machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs, ferrous and nonferrous metals, wool, cotton, petroleum Major trade partners: (1977) 48.5% EC-nine (20% West Germany, 16% France, 5% U.K., 4% Netherlands, 3% Belgium-Luxembourg); 7% U.S.; 3% U.S.S.R. and 2% other Communist countries of Eastern Europe Aid: donor?bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $5,245 million (1970-77) Monetary conversion rate: Smithsonian rate as of December 1973, 650.4 lire=US$1; average of Friday closing rates in 1978-849 lire=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 20,690 km total; 15,970 km government- owned standard gage (1.435 m), 7,850 km electrified; 4,720 SECRET SECRET km non-government owned, 2,507 km standard gage (1.435 m), 1,270 km electrified; 2,213 km narrow gage (0.950 m), 517 km electrified Highways: 287,400 km total; autostrade 5,800 km, state highways 41,200 km, provincial highways 91,200 km, communal highways 149,200 km; 254,400 km concrete, bituminous, or stone block, 24,800 km gravel and crushed stone, 7,200 km earth Inland waterways: 2,500 km navigable routes Pipelines: crude oil, 1,770 km; refined products, 2,179 km; natural gas, 13,079 km Ports: 16 major, 22 -significant minor Merchant marine: 679 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,148,298 GRT, 18,814,534 DWT; includes 62 passenger, 179 cargo, 12 container, 36 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 172 tanker, 26 liquefied gas, 122 bulk, 31 combination ore/oil, 39 specialized carrier Civil air: 115 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 147 total, 146 usable; 82 with permanent- surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 42 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: well engineered, well constructed, and efficiently operated; 15.2 million telephones (27.1 per 100 popl.); 135 AM, 1,650 FM, and 1,200 TV stations; 15 coaxial submarine cables; 2 communication satellite ground stations with 2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antennas DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 13,782,000; 11,583,000 fit for military service; 445,000 reach military age (18) annually 121 25X1 5X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ITALY/IVORY COAST Supply: produces infantry weapons, armored vehicles, electronics, and optical equipment, artillery up to 127-mm, ammunition up to 203-mm, air-to-air, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface missiles; collaborating with France in development and production of air-to-surface and ship-to- ship missiles; guided missile destroyers, frigates, submarines, and patrol craft (midget submarines, guided missile frigates, patrol craft and missile attack boats produced for export); jet fighter, trainer, transport and utility aircraft, as well as helicopters; small amounts of CW/BW defensive materiel; some material, chiefly heavy equipment, imported from U.S Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $6,058 million; about 5.5% of proposed central government budget IVORY COAST GUINEA LIBERIA Gulf of Guinea At/antic Ocean (See reference map VI LAND 323,750 km2; 40% forest and woodland, 8% cultivated, 52% grazing, fallow, and waste; 322 km of lagoons and 122 July 1979 connecting canals extend east-west along eastern part of the coast Land boundaries: 3,227 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 515 km PEOPLE Population: 7,465,000, resident African population only, (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Ivorian(s); adjective?Ivorian Ethnic divisions: 7 major indigenous ethnic groups; no single tribe more than 20% of population; most important are Agni, Baoule, Krou, Senoufou, Mandingo; approximately 2 million foreign Africans, mostly Upper .Voltans; about 75,000 to 90,000 non-Africans (50,000 to 60,000 French and 25,000 to 30,000 Lebanese) Religion: 66% animist, 22% Muslim, 12% Christian Language: French official, over 60 native dialects, Dioula most widely spoken Literacy: about 65% at primary school level Labor force: over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in agriculture, remainder in government, industry, commerce, and professions Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of the Ivory Coast Type: republic, one-party presidential regime established 1960 Capital: Abidjan Political subdivisions: 24 departments subdivided into 127 subprefectures Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1960; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; legal education at Abidjan School of Law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 7 December Branches: President has sweeping powers, unicameral legislature, separate judiciary Government leader: President Felix Houphouet-Boigny Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: uncontested Presidential and legislative elec- tions held in November 1975 for 5-year term Political parties and leaders: Parti Democratique de la Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), (only party); official party leader is Secretary General Philippe Yace, but Houphouet-Boigny is in control Communists: no Communist party; possibly some sympathizers SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 IVORY COAST/JAMAICA Member of: A FD13, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate), Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, INICO, IMF, IPU, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $7.3 billion (1978 est.), $986 capita; average annual growth rate in constant prices, 7.5% (1975-78) Agriculture: commercial?coffee, cocOa, wood, bananas, pineapples, palm oil; food crops?corn, millet, yams, rice; other commodities?cotton, rubber, tobacco, fish; self- sufficient in most foodstuffs, but rice, sugar, and meat imported Fishing: catch 76,995 metric tons (1976); exports $12.8 million (1975), imports $33.6 million (1975) Major industries: food and lumber processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly plant, textiles, soap, flour mill, matches, three small shipyards, fertilizer plant, and battery factory Electric power: 525,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.2 billion kWh produced (1977), 170 kWh per capita Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1978 est.); cocoa (80%), coffee, tropical woods, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978 est.); manufactured goods and semi-finished products (50%), consumer goods (40%), raw materials and fuels (10%) Major trade partners: France and other EC countries about 65%, U.S. 13%, Communist countries about 1% Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.), $1,025 million; U.S., $99 million; Communist countries, $0.2 million; military?U.S., $0.1 million Budget: 1978, proposed?revenues $1.7 billion, current expenditures $1.1 billion, investment expenditures $931 million Monetary conversion rate: about 225.64 Communaute Financiere Africaine francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 657 km of the 1,173 km Abidjan to Ouagadou- gou, Upper Volta line, all single track meter gage (1.00 m); only diesel locomotives in use Highways: 46,775 km total; 2,388 km bituminous and bituminous-surface treatment; 33,097 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite, and improved earth; 11,190 km unimproved Inland waterways: 740 km navigable rivers and numer- ous coastal lagoons Ports: 2 major (Abidjan, San Pedro), 3 minor Merchant marine: 15 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 143,200 GRT, 183,300 DWT Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft Airfields: 50 total, 48 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m SECRET SECRET Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of open-wire lines and radio relay links; Abidjan is only center; 58,700 telephones (0.9 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 4 FM, and 6 TV stations; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable; telephone expansion in progress DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,693,000; 873,000 fit for military service; 74,000 males reach military age (18) annually Supply: principally dependent on France; has purchased transport aircraft from Netherlands 25X1 25X1 25X1 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 Dece 1978, 8181,461,904; about 7.5% of total operating budgrer?I 25X1 JAMAICA XICO BE ot CUBA a Atlantic Ocean cP DOMINICAN REPUBLIC HAITI, JAMAICACIingston NICARAGUA Caribbean Sea COLOMBIA (See reference map II) LAND 11,922 kin'; 21% arable, 23% meadows and pastures, 19% forested, 37% waste, urban, or other 123 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET JAMAICA WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 1,022 km PEOPLE Population: 2,233,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Jamaican(s); adjective?Jamaican Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%, East Indian and Afro-East Indian 3.4%, white 3.2%, other 0.9% Religion: predominantly Protestant, some Roman Catho- lic, some spiritualist cults Language: English Literacy: government claims 82%, but probably only about one-half of that number are functionally literate Labor force: 672,000 (1975); 29% in agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, 12% manufacturing/mining, 8% public administration, 5% construction, 10% commerce, 3% trans- portation and utilities, 33% services; 25% unemployed; shortage of technical and managerial personnel Organized labor: about 25% of labor force (1966) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Jamaica Type: independent state within Commonwealth since August 1962, recognizing Elizabeth II as head of state Capital: Kingston Political subdivisions: 12 parishes and the Kingston-St. Andrew corporate area Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 7 August Branches: cabinet headed by Prime Minister 60-member elected House of Representatives; 21-member Senate (13 nominated by the Prime Minister, 8 by opposition leader); judiciary follows British tradition under a Chief Justice Government leader: Prime Minister Michael N. Manley; Governor General Florizel Glasspole Suffrage: universal, age 18 and over Elections: at discretion of Governor-General upon advice of Prime Minister but within 5 years; latest held 15 December 1976 Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP), Michael Manley; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward Seaga Voting strength: (1976 general elections) 56.8% PNP, 43.2% JLP Communists: Communist Party of Jamaica (1975) and Worker's Party of Jamaica (1978) probably have combined membership of only several hundred Other political or pressure groups: New World Group (Caribbean regionalists, nationalists, and leftist intellectual 124 July 1979 fraternity); Rastafarians (Negro religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists); New Creation International Peacemakers Tabernacle (leftist group); Workers Liberation League (a Marxist coalition of students/labor) Member of: CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB, IFC; ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, Pan American Health Organization, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $3.4 billion (1977), $1,610 per capita; real growth rate 1977, ?4.0% Agriculture: main crops?sugarcane, citrus fruits, ba- nanas, pimento, coconuts, coffee, cocoa Major industries: bauxite mining, textiles, food process- ing, light manufactures, tourism Electric power: 850,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,310 kWh hr. per capita Exports: $745 million (f.o.b., 1977); alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, citrus fruits and fruit products, rum, cocoa Imports: $863 million (c.i.f., 1977); fuels, machinery, transportation and electrical equipment, food, fertilizer Major trade partners: exports?U.S. 44%, U.K. 20%, Norway 11%, Canada 8%; imports?U.S. 36%, U.K. 10%, Canada 6% (1977) Budget: (1978/79)?revenue $803 million, expenditure $1,119 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Jamaican dollar=US$0.645 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 330 km, all standard gage (1.435 m), single track Highways: 11,250 km total; 7,600 km paved, 2,150 km gravel, 1,500 km improved earth Pipelines: refined products, 10 km Ports: 3 major (Kingston, Montego Bay, Montego Free- port), 10 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship 1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,800 GRT, 5,100 DWT Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 42 total, 22 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network with 109,000 telephones (5.4 per 100 popl.); 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 8 AM, 11 FM, and 9 TV stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET JAMAICA/JAPAN DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 465,000; 332,000 fit for military service; no conscription; average number currently reaching minimum volunteer age (18) 28,000 JAPAN Philippine Sea okyo Pacific Ocean (See reference map WV LAND 370,370 km2; 16% arable and cultivated-, 3% grassland, 12% urban and waste, 69% forested WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 12,075 km Japan; 1,610 km Ryukyus PEOPLE Population: 116,051,000, including Ryukyus (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective? Japanese SECRET Ethnic divisions: 99.2% Japanese, 0.8% other (mostly Korean) Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites; about 16% belong to other faiths, including 0.8% Christian Language: Japanese Literacy: 97.8% of those 15 years old and above (1960 data) Labor force (1978): 55.3 million; 11% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 34% manufacturing, mining, and construction; 48% trade and services; 5% government; 2.0% unemployed Organized labor: 33% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Japan Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Tokyo Political subdivisions: 47 prefectures (Ryukyus became 47th prefecture on 15 May 1972) Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence; constitution promulgated in 1946; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Birthday .of. the Emperor, 29 April Branches: Emperor is merely symbol of state; executive power is vested in cabinet dominated by the Prime Minister, chosen by the Lower House of the bicameral, elective legislature (Diet); judiciary is independent Government leader: Emperor Hirohito; Prime Minister Masayoshi Ohira Suffrage: universal over age 20 Elections: general elections held every 4 years or upon dissolution of Lower House, triennially for one-half of Upper House Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), M. Ohira, President; Japan Socialist Party (JSP), I. Asukata, Chairman; Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), R. Sasaki, Chairman; Japan Communist Party (JCP), K. Miyamoto, Presidium Chairman; Komeito (CGP), Y. Takeiri, Chairman; New Liberal Club (NLC), Y. Kono; Social Democratic Federation (SDF), H. Den Voting strength (1977 election): 37.6% LDP, 21.6% JSP, 10.2% CGP, 9.6% JCP, 5.6% DSP, 4.8% NLC, minor parties, 6.1% independents Communists: 375,000 registered Communist Party members Member of: ADB, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, LEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 125 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET JAPAN ECONOMY GNP: $980 billion (1978, at 210.4 yen=US$1); $8,500 per capita (1978); 53% personal consumption, 33% investment, 7% government current expenditure; real growth rate 5.6% (1978); average annual growth rate (1976-78), 5.8% Agriculture: land intensively cultivated?rice, sugar, vegetables, fruits; 72% self-sufficient in food (1974); food shortages?meat, wheat, feed grains, edible oil and fats; caloric intake, 2,502 calories per day per capita (1974) Fishing: catch 10.6 million metric tons (1976) Major industries: metallurgical and engineering indus- tries, electrical and electronic industries, textiles, chemicals Shortages: fossil fuels, most industrial raw materials Crude steel: 102 million metric tons produced (1977) Electric power: 130,562,000 kW capacity (1978); 574.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,975 kWh per capita Exports: $95.6 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 64% machinery and equipment, 12% iron and steel, 5% chemicals Imports: $70.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 40% fossil fuels, 14% foodstuffs, 8% machinery and equipment Major trade partners: exports-26% U.S., 7% Communist countries, 15% Western Europse; imports-19% U.S., 10% Western Europe, 5% Communist countries Aid: Japanese official foreign economic aid disbursements 1978, $2.2 billion Budget: revenues $108 billion, expenditures $179 billion, deficit $71 billion (general account for fiscal year ending March 1980) Monetary conversion rate: 215 yen=US$1 (mid-April 1979), floating since February 1973 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 28,912 km total (1976); 1,077 km standard gage (1.435 m), 27,835 km predominantly narrow gage (1.067 m), 6,195 km double track, 7,376 km or 26% of total route length electrified; 73% government-owned Highways: 1,067,643 km total (1976); 338,343 km paved, most of remainder gravel or crushed stone Inland waterways: approx. 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal -inland seas" Pipelines: crude oil, 109 km; natural gas, 1,847 km Ports: 53 major, over 2,000 minor Merchant marine: 1,890 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 33,312,000 GRT, 55,870,555 DWT; includes 80 passenger, 634 cargo, 59 container, 19 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 404 tanker, 48 gas carrier, 342 bulk, 44 combination ore/oil, 260 specialized carrier Civil air: 253 major transport aircraft Airfields: 189 total, 179 usable; 122 with permanent- surface runways; 2 with runways over 3.,660 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 126 July 1979 Telecommunications: excellent domestic and internation- al systems; 48.4 million telephones (42.6 per 100 popl); 383 AM stations (185 major-1 kw or greater) in 221 cities, 47 FM stations plus 400 relay stations in 29 cities, 4,245 TV stations (190 major-1 kw or greater), and 2 ground satellite stations; 3 submarine cables with known operational status, 26 of unknown status, others being planned; troposcatter to South Korea DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 30,441,000; 25,522,000 fit for military service; about 815,000 reach military age (18) annually 25X1 Supply: defense industry potential is large, with capability of producing the most sophisticated equipment; manufac- tured equipment includes small arms artillery, armored vehicles, and other types of ground forces materiel, aircraft (jet and prop), naval vessels (submarines, guided missile and other destroyers, patrol craft, mine warfare ships, and other minor craft including amphibious, auxiliaries, service craft, and small support ships), small amounts of all types of army materiel Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 March 1980, $10.5 billion; about 5.4% of total budget 1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 JORDAN SAUDI ARABIA (See reference map VI . JORDAN NOTE: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in control of West Jordan. Although approximately 930,000 persons resided in this area prior to the start of the war, fewer than 750,000 of them remain there under the Israeli occupation, the remainder having fled to East Jordan. Over 14,000 of those who fled were repatriated in August 1967, but their return has been more than offset by other Arabs who have crossed and are continuing to cross from West to East Jordan. These and certain other effects of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war are not included in the data below. LAND 96,089 km' (including about 5,439 km' occupied by Israel); 11% agricultural, 88% desert, waste, or urban, 1% forested Land boundaries: 1,770 km (1967, 1,668 km excluding occupied areas) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 26 km PEOPLE Population: 3,055,000, including West Bank and East Jerusalem (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.2% (7- 70 to 7-76); East Bank, 2,249,000, average annual growth rate 3.5% (7-71 to 7-76); West Bank, including East Jerusalem, 806,000, average annual growth rate 2.0% (1-71 to 1-77) Nationality: noun?Jordanian(s); adjective?Jordanian Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% Circassian, 1% Armenian Religion: 90%-92% Sunni Muslim, 8%-10% Christian Language: Arabic official, English widely understood among upper and middle classes Literacy: about 50%-55% in East Jordan; somewhat less than 60% in West Jordan Labor force: .638,000; less than 5% unemployed Organized labor: 9.8% of labor force SECRET SECRET GOVERNMENT Legal name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: 'Amman Political subdivisions: 8 governorates (3 are under Israeli occupation) under centrally appointed officials Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; constitution adopted 1952; judicial review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May Branches: King holds balance of power; Prime Minister exercises executive authority in name of King; Cabinet appointed by King and responsible to parliament; bicameral parliament with House of Representatives last chosen by national elections in April 1967, and dissolved by King in February 1976; Senate last appointed by King in November 1974; met briefly in February 1976 to amend constitution allowing King to postpone elections; present parliament subservient to executive; secular court system based on differing legal systems of the former Transjordan and Palestine; law Western in concept and structure; Sharia (religious) courts for Muslims, and religious community council courts for non-Muslim communities; desert police carry out quasi-judicial functions in desert areas Government leader: King Hussein ? Suffrage: all citizens over age 20 Political parties and leaders: political party activity illegal since 1957; Palestine Liberation Organization and various smaller fedayeen groups clandestinely active on West Bank; Muslim Brotherhood Communists: party actively repressed, membership esti- mated at less than 500 Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $1.9 billion (East Bank only, 1977), $870 per capita; real growth rate (1977), 10% Agriculture: main crops?fruits, vegetables, olive oil, wheat; not self-sufficient in many foodstuffs Major industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, and cement production, light manufacturing Electric power: 280,000 kW capacity (1978); 750 million kWh produced (1978), 250 kWh per capita, East Bank only Exports: $249 million (f.o.b., 1977); fruits and vegetables, phosphate rock; Communist share 7% of total (1977) Imports: $1,376 million (c.i.f., 1977); petroleum products, textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles, foodstuffs; Communist share 9% of total (1977) Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $1,143.1 mil- lion; U.S. (1970-76), $486.3 m'illion; Communist countries 127 ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET JORDAN/KAMPUCHEA (1970-76), $26.5 million; Western countries (1970-76), $213.4 million; military?U.S. (1970-76), $459.6 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Jordanian dinar= US$3.04, freely convertible (1977 average); 1 Jordanian dinar= US$3.36 (February 1979) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 817 km 1.050-meter gage, single track Highways: 6,332 total; 4,837 paved, 1,495 gravel and crushed stone Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km Ports: 1 major (Aqaba) Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 1,600 CRT, 2,900 DWT Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft Airfields: 26 total, 17 usable; 15 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,660 m, 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, wire, and radio; 44,000 telephones (1.6 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, no FM and 6 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 700,000; 495,000 fit for military service; average number currently reaching military age (18) annually 33,000 Supply: dependent on outside sources; U.S. and U.K. principal suppliers of military equipment Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $380 million; 22% of central government budget 128 July 1979 KAMPUCHEA (See reference map VII) LAND 181,300 km2; 16% cultivated, 74% forested, 10% built-on area, wasteland, and other Land boundaries: 2,438 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 rim (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: about 443 km PEOPLE Population: 7,957,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Kampuchean(s); adjective?Kampu- chean Ethnic divisions: 90% Khmer -(Kainpuchean), 5% Chi- nese, 5% other minorities ? Religion: 95% Theravada Buddhism, 5% various other Language: Cambodian GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Kampuchea (functions in the countryside); People's Republic of Kampuchea (pro-Viet- namese, in Phnom Penh) Type: both are Communist states Capital: Phnom Penh Political subdivisions: 19 or 20 provinces under Demo- cratic Kampuchea; 19 provinces in People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) Legal system: Judicial Committee chosen by People's Representative Assembly in Democratic Kampuchea; no information for PRK National holiday: 17 April for both regimes SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 KAMPUCHEA/KENYA Branches: State Presidium, composed of chairman and two vice chairmen; cabinet, totally Communist; 250-mem- ber People's Representative Assembly elected 20 March 1976 for 5-year term; ten-member Assembly Standing Committee in Democratic Kampuchea; Peoples Revolution- ary Council, composed of 8 members, and a -National Congress" held in early 1979 in PRK Government leaders: Presidium Chairman, Khieu Sam- phan; Prime Minister, Pol Pot; Deputy Prime Ministers, Ieng Sary, Vorn Vet, Son Sen; Assembly Standing Committee Chairman, Nuon Chea in Democratic Kampuchea; People's Revolutionary Council President Heng Samrin, Vice Presi- dent Pen Sovan, and Ministers Hun Sen and Chea Sim in PRK Suffrage: universal over age 18 Political parties and leaders: political life dominated by Khmer Communist Party in Democratic Kampuchea; Kampuchean National United Front for National Salvation (KNUFNS) and separate Kampuchean Communist Party in PRK Member of: Colombo Plan, G-77, IMF, Mekong Commit- tee (inactive), NAM, U.N., WTO for Democratic Kampu- chea; none for PRK ECONOMY GNP: less than $500 million (1971), probably less than $50 per capita (1978) Agriculture: mainly subsistence except for rubber planta- tions; main crops?rice, rubber, corn; food shortages?rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour Major industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products Shortages: fossil fuels Electric power: 120,000 kW capacity (1978); 150 million kWh produced (1978), 20 kWh per capita Exports: probably less than $1 million est. (1978); natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood Imports: probably less than $20 million (1978); food, fuel, machinery Trade partners: (1978) exports?China; imports?China, North Korea Aid: economic (1970-77)?U.S., $652 million; other Western, $108 million; Eastern Europe, $17 million; U.S.S.R., $25 million; China, $90 million; military (1970- 77)? U.S., $1,260 million; Communist not available Budget: no budget data available since Communists took over government Monetary conversion rate (1978): no currency in use Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 612 km meter gage (1.00 m); govern- ment-owned SECRET SECRET Highways: 13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous, 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth; and 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters Ports: 2 major, 5 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 1,400 GRT, 2,600 DWT; the present status of this vessel is unknown Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft Airfields: 54 total, 25 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: service barely adequate for govern- ment requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public; international service limited to PRC and few' adjacent countries; radiobroadcasts limited to 1 station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,823,000; 1,016,000 fit for military service; 88,000 reach military age (18) annually KENYA LAND 582,750 km2; about 21% forest and woodland, 13% suitable for agriculture, 66% mainly grassland adequate for grazing (1971) Land boundaries: 3,368 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 536 km PEOPLE Population: 15,364,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.6% (current) 129 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET Indian Ocean (See reference map VI) KENYA Nationality: noun?Kenyan(s); adjective?Kenyan Ethnic divisions: 97% native African (including Bantu, Nilotic, Hamitic and Nilo-Hamitic); 2% Asian; 1% Euro- pean, Arab, and others Religion:. 56% Christian, 36% animist, 7% Muslim, 1% Hindu Language: English and Swahili official; each tribe has own language Literacy: 27% Labor force: 2.5 million; about 977,000, (39%) in monetary economy (1967) Organized labor: about 215,000 GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Kenya Type: republic within Commonwealth since December 1963 Capital: Nairobi Political subdivisions: 7 provinces plus Nairobi Area Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law and Islamic law; constitution enacted 1963; judicial review in Supreme Court; legal education at University Kenya School of Law in Nairobi; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- tion, with reservations National holiday: 12 December Branches: President and Cabinet responsible to unicam- eral legislature (National Assembly) of 170 seats, 158 directly elected by constituencies and 12 appointed by the President; Assembly must be reelected at least every 5 years; High Court; with Chief Justice and at least 11 justices, has unlimited original jurisdiction to hear and determine any civil or criminal proceeding; provision for systems of courts of appeal Government leader: President Daniel T. arap Moi Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: general election (October 1974) elected present National Assembly; next elections due 1979 130 July 1979 Political party and leaders: Kenya Africa National Union (KANU), president, Daniel arap Moi Voting strength: KANU holds all seats in the National Assembly Communists: may be a few Communists and sym- pathizers Other political or pressure groups: labor unions Member of: AFDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC? International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNEP, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $3,905 million at current prices (est. 1977), $270 per capita; real average annual growth rate, 4.8% (1970-77) Agriculture: main cash crops?coffee, sisal, tea, pyre- thrum, cotton, livestock; food crops--:corn, wheat, sugar- cane, rice, cassava; largely self-sufficient in food Fishing: 40,883 metric tons (1976) Major industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, agricultural processing, cigarettes, flour), oil refining, cement Electric power: 420,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.3 billion kWh produced (1977), 90 kWh per capita Exports: $1,361 million (f.o.b., 1977); coffee ($524 million), tea, livestock products, pyrethrum, soda ash, wattle-bark tanning extract Imports: $1,290 million (c.i.f., 1977); machinery, trans- port equipment, crude oil, paper and paper products, iron and steel products, and textiles Major trade partners: EC, Japan, Iran, U.S., Zambia, Uganda Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $1,095 million; U.S. (1970-77), $1,281 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $21.2 million; military?U.S. (1970-77), $41.2 million Budget: (FY77/78) current revenues $1,046 million; current expenditures $918 million; development expendi- tures $440 million Monetary conversion rate: 7.73 Kenya shillings= US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,040 km meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 50,840 km total; 4,300 km paved, 12,160 km gravel and/or earth; 26,880 km improved earth and 7,500 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria and Lake Rudolph systems are within boundaries of Kenya Pipelines: refined products, 483 km Ports: 1 major (Mombasa) Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,639 GRT, 32,500 DWT; includes 4 cargo, 1 tanker Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 KENY AIKOREA,NORTH Airfields: 226 total, 209 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 36 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of radio-relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocom- munication stations; principal center Nairobi, secondary centers Mombasa and Nakuru; 132,000 telephones (1.0 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 2 FM, and 5 TV stations; Atlantic and Indian Ocean satellite service from 1 station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,321,000; 2,034,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: mostly from U.K., but also from France and West Germany Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1978, $201,600,000; about 13.4% of central government budget KOREA, NORTH (See reference mop VIII LAND 121,730 km2; 17% arable and cultivated, 74% in forest, scrub, and brush; remainder wasteland and urban Land boundaries: 1,675 km SECRET SECRET WATER ? Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic 200 nm, military 50 nm) Coastline: 2,495 km PEOPLE Population: 18,717,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Korean(s); adjective?Korean Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now almost nonexistent Language: Korean Literacy: 90% (est.) Labor force: 6.1 million; 48% agriculture, 52% non-agri- cultural; shortage of skilled and unskilled labor GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea Type: Communist state; one-man rule Capital: P'yongyang Political subdivisions: 9 provinces, 3 special cities (PYOngyang, Kaesong, and Chongjin) Legal system: based on German civil law system. with Japanese influences and Communist legal theory; constitu- tion adopted 1948 and revised 1972; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 9 September Branches: Supreme Peoples Assembly theoretically super- vises Legislative and Judicial function; State Administration Council (cabinet) oversees ministerial operations Government and party leaders: Kim Il-sOng, President DPRK, and General Secretary of the Korean Workers Party; Yi Chong-6k, Premier Suffrage: universal at age 17 Elections: election to SPA every 4 years, but this constitutional provision not necessarily followed?last elec- tion November 1977 Political party: Korean Workers (Communist) Party; claimed membership of about 2 million, or about 11% of population Member of: FAO, IAEA, ICAO, IPU, IRCS, ITU, U.N. (observer status only), UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $10.4 billion (1978 in 1975 dollars), $570 per capita Agriculture: main crops?corn, rice, vegetables; food shortages?meat, cooking oils; production of foodstuffs adequate for domestic needs at low levels of consumption Major industries: machine building, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, foOd processing Shortages: complex machinery and equipment, coking coal, petroleum 131 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 KOREA, NORTH/KOREA, SOUTH Crude steel: 3.4 million metric tons produced (1978), 186 kg per capita Electric power: 4,850,000 kW capacity (1978); 30.8 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,680 kWh per capita Exports: $967 million (1978); minerals, chemical and metallurgical products Imports: $902 million (1978); machinery and equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, coking coal Major trade partners: total trade turnover $1.9 billion (1978); 36% with nonLCommunist countries, 64% with Communist countries Aid: economic and military aid from the U.S.S.R. and China Monetary conversion rate: 1.79 won=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,535 km total operating in 1976; 3,870 km standard gage (1.435 m), 665 km narrow gage (0.762 m); 259 km double tracked; about 1,140 km electrified; govern- ment-owned Highways: about 20,280 km (1976); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only Freight carried: rail-29 billion metric ton/km, 124 million metric tons (1977); highway-765 million metric ton/km, 116 million metric tons (1969); waterway-540 million metric ton/km, 7.7 million metric tons (1969); coastal-170 million metric ton/km, 0.4 million metric tons (1969) Ports: 6 major, 26 minor Merchant marine: 22 ships (1,000 GRT and cover) totaling 128,297 GRT, 181,482 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 4 tanker, 1 combination passenger-cargo, 1 passenger, 1 bulk; North Korea beneficially owns two cargo ships of 11,700 GRT and 17,800 DWT, operated by a Polish shipping company under the Polish flag, and 2 cargo ships of 4,900 GRT and 8,500 DWT, operated under the Japanese flag Airfields: 61 (24 with permanent-surface runways); 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 22 with runways 1,828-2,439 m; 19 with runways less than 1,828 m Telecommunications: domestic and international services are adequate for needs, and oriented to political, military, and industrial use; extensive upgrading in progress; good coverage by radio, TV, and wire broadcasts; about 130,000 telephones; 300,000 radios; 21,000 est. TV receivers; 21 AM radiobroadcast stations; 3 TV stations and unknown number of TV repeaters; color TV available DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,178,000; 2,558,000 fit for military service; 204,000 reach military age (18) annually 132 25X1 Military budget: estimate for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $2.9 billion; about 15.2% of total govern- 25X1 merit budget KOREA, SOUTH LAND 98,913 km2; 23% arable (22% cultivated), 10% urban and other, 67% forested Land boundaries: 241 km WATER Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm Coastline: 2,413 km SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET KOREA, SOUTH U.S.S.R CHINA NORTH KOREA Seoul* \ SO11;141 Yellow KOREA Sea of Japan Sea JAPAN fast- China Sea (See (eference map VIII PEOPLE Population: 39,544,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Koreati(s); adjective?Korean Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chinese minority (approx. 20,000) Religion: strong Confucian tradition; pervasive folk religion (Shamanism); vigorous Christian minority (16.6% Christian population); Buddhism (including estimated 20,000 members of Soka Gakkai); Chondokyo (religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion with nationalist over- tones founded in 19th century, claims about 1.5 million adherents ? Language: Korean Literacy: about 90% Labor force: about 13.9 million (1978); 42% agriculture, fishing, forestry; 22% mining and manufacturing; 36% services and ?other; average unemployment 3.2% (1978) Organized labor: about 13% of nonagricultural labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Korea Type: republic; power centralized in a strong executive Capital: Seoul Political subdivisions: 9 provinces, 2 special cities; heads centrally appointed Legal system: combines elements of continental Europe- an civil law systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; constitution approved 1972; has not accepted compulsory ICJ ' jurisdiction National holiday: 15 August Branches: executive, legislative (unicameral), judiciary, National Conference of Unification Government leaders: President Pak ChOng-hiii; Prime Minister Choe Kyu-ha Suffrage: universal over age 20 SECRET Elections: presidential every 6 years indirectly by the National Conference of Unification, last election May 1978; two-thirds of the 231-member National Assembly is elected directly for the same period within six months of the presidential election, remaining third nominated by the President and elected by the National Conference for a three-year term; last National Assembly election December 1978, Revitalization Group-77 seats, Democratic Republi- can Party-83 seats, New Democratic Party-68 seats, Democratic Unification Party-3 seats Political parties and leaders: pro-government?Revital- ization Group (appointed) (Chairman, Tige Wan-son) and Democratic Republican Party (Acting Chairman, Yi Pak Chun-Kyu); New Democratic Party (Chairman, Yi Chol- sung); Democratic Unification (Chairman, Yang Il-tong) Voting strength: (1978 election) popular vote 14,912,443; DRP 31.7%, NDP 32.8%, DUP 7.4%, Independent 27.1%; 1.0% invalid Communists: Communist activity banned by govern- ment; an estimated 37,000-50,000 former members and supporters Other political or pressure groups: Federation of Korean' Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Korean Nation- al Christian Council; large potentially volatile student population concentrated in Seoul Member of: AALCC (Afro Asian League Consultative Committee), ADB, Asian Parliamentary Union, APACL? Asian People's Anti-Communist League, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, Geneva Conventions of 1949 for the protection of war victims, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, IMCO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTER- POL, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, U.N. Special Fund, UPU, WACL?World Anti? Communist League, WHO, WMO, WTO; .official observer at U.N., does not hold U.N. membership - ECONOMY GNP: $46.0 billion (1978, in 1978 prices), $1,242 per capita; real growth 12.5% (1978); real growth 11.0% (1973-78 average) Agriculture: 34% of the population live on the land, but agriculture, forestry and fishery constitute 21% of GNP; main crops?rice, barley; food shortages?wheat, dairy products, corn Fishing: catch 2,444,000 metric tons (1978) Major industries: textiles and clothing, food processing, chemical fertilizers, chemicals, plywood, steel, electronics Shortages: base metals, petroleum, lumber and certain food grains Electric power: 6,934,000 kW capacity (1978); 31.4 billion kWh produced (1978), 805 kWh per capita Exports: $12.7 billion (f.o.b., 1978); textiles and clothing, electrical machinery, plywood, footwear, steel, ships 133 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET KOREA, SOUTH/KUWAIT Imports: $15.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); oil, ships, steel, wood, wheat, organic chemicals, machinery Major trade partners: exports-32% U.S., 21% Japan; imports-40% Japan, 20% U.S. (1978) Aid: economic?U.S. (FY46-77), $5.8 billion committed; Japan (1965-75), $1.8 billion extended; military?U.S. (FY 46-77) $7.0 billion committed Budget: $9.4 billion (1979) Monetary conversion rate: rate fixed at 484 won=US$1 since December 1974 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,144 km total (1976); 3,096 km standard gage (1.435 m), 48 km narrow gage (0.610 m); 901 km double track; 282 km electrified; government-owned Highways: 46,823 km total (1976); 7,821 km paved, 32,251 km gravel, 3,243 km improved earth, 3,508 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft Freight carried: rail (1976) 9.2 billion metric ton/km, 43.6 million metric tons; highway 21.8 million metric tons; air (1959) 361,184 kg carried Pipelines: 515 km refined products Ports: 10 major, 18 minor Merchant marine: 347 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,252,874 GRT, 5,455,337 DWT; includes 185 cargo, 25 container, 39 tanker, 74 bulk, 18 specialized carrier, 2 combination ore/oil, 3 liquefied gas carrier, 1 passenger Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft Airfields: 120 total, 113 usable; 55 with permanent- surface runways; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: domestic and international services satisfy country requirements; 1,014,016 telephones; 3,100,000 radio and 1,182,000 TV receivers; 82 (ROK), 15 (U.S. Armed Forces) AM stations; 4 (ROK), 6 (U.S. Armed Forces) FM stations; 22 (ROK), 9 (U.S. Armed Forces) TV stations; 1 submarine cable (not in operation); 2 troposcatter links to Japan; International Satellite station in operation July 1979 DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,459,000; 6,781,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually 486,000 134 Supply: assembles APC's; retrofits tanks, produces rifles, mortars, howitzers, other crew-served weapons, small arms and artillery ammunition, explosives, some engineer equip- ment and quartermaster-type equipment, helicopters, some small naval craft, including motor gunboats, missile boats,25xi landing craft, and small auxiliary craft; most other materiel 25X1 25X1 obtained from U.S. Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $3.1 billion; about 33% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 25X1 I 25X1 KUWAIT LAND 16,058 km2 (excluding neutral zone but including islands); insignificant amount forested; nearly all desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 459 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 499 km 25X1 25X1 PEOPLE Population: 1,278,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 5.9% (current) SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 KUWAIT July 1979 (See reference map 19 Nationality: noun?Kuwaiti(s); adjective?Kuwaiti Ethnic divisions: 83% Arabs, 15% Iranians, Indians, and Pakistani; native Kuwaitis are a minority Religion: 99% Muslim, 1% Christian, Hindu, Parsi, other Language: Arabic; English commonly used foreign language Literacy: about 40% Labor force: 360,000 (1978 est.); 74% services, 11% industry, 11% construction; 70% of labor force is non-Kuwaiti Organized labor: labor unions, first authorized in 1964, formed in oil industry and among government personnel GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Kuwait Type: nominal constitutional monarchy Capital: Kuwait Political subdivisions: 3 governorates, 10 voting constituencies Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal matters; constitution took effect 1963; key provisions regarding election of National Assembly suspended in August 1976; judicial review of legislative acts not yet determined; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction , National holiday: 25 February Branches: Council of Ministers Government leader: Amir Jabir al-Ahmad al-Sabah Suffrage: native born and naturalized males age 21 or over; law requires 20 years residency after naturalization Elections: National Assembly dissolved by Emir's decree in August 1976 Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited, some small clandestine groups are active Communists: insignificant Other political or pressure groups: none SECRET SECRET Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, OAPEC, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $12.8 billion (1977), $10,666 per capita est. Agriculture: virtually none, dependent on imports for food; approx. 75% of potable water must be distilled or imported Major industries: crude petroleum production average for 1977, 1.92 million b/d; government revenues from taxes and royalties on production, refining, and consumption, $9.0 billion, preliminary est. for 1976; refinery production 132 million bbls (1977), average b/d refinery capacity equaled 645,000 bbls at end of 1976; other major industries include processing of fertilizers, chemicals; building materials; flour Electric power: 2,200,000 kW capacity (1978); 7 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,640 kWh per capita Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1977), of which petroleum accounted for about 90%; nonpetroleum exports are mostly reexports, $800 million (1977 est.) Imports: $4.8 billion (c.i.f., 1977 est.); major suppliers? U.S., Japan, U.K., West Germany Budget: (1977) $7.9 billion revenues; expenditures $5.3 billion; capital $1.2 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Kuwaiti dinar=US$3.63 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 2,545 km total; 2,255 km bituminous; 290 km earth, sand, light gravel Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas, 121 km Ports: ?3 major (Ash Shuwaikh, Ash Shuaybah, Mina al Ahmadi), 4 minor Merchant marine: 102 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 2,370,000 GRT, 3,949,700 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 76 cargo, 14 tanker, 6 specialized carrier, 3 liquefied gas carrier, 1 container Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft, including 4 leased in Airfields: 11 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent international and ade- quate domestic telecommunication facilities; 140,000 tele- phones (13.0 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 1 FM and 3 TV stations; 1 satellite station with Indian and Atlantic Ocean antennas 135 25X1 25X1 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET KUWAIT/LAOS DEFENSE FORCES. Military manpower: Males 15-49, about 314,000; about 184,000 fit for military service Supply: dependent mainly on U.K., but also on Belgium, France, and FRG and on Singapore for patrol boats; field artillery, rocket launchers and rockets obtained from U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1980, $330 million; 4% of central government budget LAOS (gee reference map VIII LAND 236,804 km2; 8% agricultural, 60% forests, 32% urban, waste, and other; except in very limited areas, soil is very poor; most of forested area is not exploitable Land boundaries: 5,053 km 136 July 1979 PEOPLE Population: 3,630,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current); this estimate does not take into account emigration from Laos during the past few years Nationality: noun?Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjec- tive?Lao or Laotian Ethnic divisions: 48% Lao; 14% Tribal Tai; 25% Phoutheung (Kha); 13% Meo, Yao, and other Religion: 50% Buddhist, 50% animist and other Language: Lao official, French predominant foreign language Literacy: about 12% Labor force: about 1-1.5 million; 80%.-90% agriculture Organized labor: only labor organization is subordinate to the Communist Party GOVERNMENT Legal name: Lao People's Democratic Republic Type: Communist state Capital: Vientiane Political subdivisions: 13 provinces subdivided into districts, cantons, and villages Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 2 December Branches: President; 45-member Supreme People's Coun- cil; cabinet; cabinet is totally Communist but council contains a few nominal neutralists and non-Communists; National Congress of People's Representatives established the current government structure in December 1975 Government leaders: President, Souphanouvong; Prime Minister, Kaysone Phomvihan; Deputy Prime Ministers, Nouhak Phoumsavan, Phoumi Vongvichit, Phoun Sipaseut, and Khamtai Siphandon Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: elections for National Assembly, originally scheduled for April 1, 1976, have not yet been held Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party (Communist) includes Lao Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic Neutralist Forces; other parties are moribund Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups are moribund; most leaders have fled the country Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, Mekong Commit- tee, NAM, SEAMES, U.N., UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $290 million, $90 per capita (1977 est.) SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 LAOS/LEBANON Agriculture: main crops?rice (overwhelmingly domi- nant), corn, vegetables; formerly self-sufficient; food short- ages (due in part to distribution deficiencies), including rice Major industries: tin mining, timber, tobacco, textiles, electric power Shortages: capital equipment, petroleum, transportation system, trained personnel Electric power: 141,000 kW capacity (1978); 340 million kWh produced (1978), 95 kWh per capita Exports: $11 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); electric power, forest products, tin concentrates; coffee, undeclared exports of opium .and tobacco Imports: $75 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, machinery, transportation equipment Major trade partners: imports. from Thailand, U.S.S.R., Japan, France, China, Vietnam; exports to Thailand and Malaysia; trade with Communist countries insignificant; Laos was once a major transit point in world gold trade, value of 1973 gold reexports $55 million Aid: economic?Communist: Eastern Europe, $4.0 mil- lion (1974-75); U.S.S.R., $66 million committed (1975-76), China, $42 million committed (1975-76); OPEC, $1.0 million (1975); Western: $151.4 million. (1970-76); U.S., ' economic, $272.3 million (1970-75), military, $1,119.5 million (1970-75) Budget: (1973-74) receipts, 13.3 billion kip; expenditures, 36.0 billion kip; deficit 22.7 billion kip (provisional totals); 45% military, 55% civilian; no data available since Communists fully took over government in 1975 Monetary conversion rate: US$1=400 KL (since June 1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Highways: about 18,000 km total; 1,300 km bituminous or bituminous treated, 5,900 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 10,800 km unimproved earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897 additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m Ports (river): 5 major,. 4 minor Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft Airfields: 87 total, 78 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 12 x)vith runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: service to general public consid- ered poor; radio network provides generally erratic service to government users; poor international service via radio relay link to Thailand; approx. 8 AM stations; over 2,000 est. telephones; 100,000 (est.) radio receivers DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 776,000; 453,000 fit for SECRET Declassified SECRET military service; average number currently reaching usual military age (18) annually, 37,000; no conscription age specified Laci People's Liberation Army (LPLA): the LPLA consists of an army with naval, aviation, and militia elements Supply: dependent on U.S.S.R., and China Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $4.4 million; about 44% of total budget government LEBANON CYPF1,17 LEBANON Beirut Mediterranean Sea (See reference map VI LAND 10,360 km2; 27% agricultural land, 64% desert, waste, or urban, 9% forested Land boundaries: 531 km 137 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET LEBANON WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): no specific claims (fishing, 6 nm) Coastline: 225 km PEOPLE Population: 2,943,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current); this estimate does not take into account any demographic consequences of the 1975-76 civil war Nationality: noun?Lebanese (sing. and pl.); adjective? Lebanese Ethnic divisions: 93% Arab, 6% Armenian, 1% other Religion: 55% Christian, 44% Muslim and Druze, 1% other (official estimates); Muslims, in fact, constitute a majority Language: Arabic (official); French is widely spoken Literacy: 86% Labor force: about 1 million economically active; 49% agriculture, 11% industry, 14% commerce, 26% other; moderate unemployment Organized labor: about 65,000 GOVERNMENT NOTE: Between early 1975 and late 1976, Lebanon was torn by civil war between its Christians?then aided by Syrian troops?and its Muslims and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October 1976 between the domestic political groups has generally held, despite occasional fighting, although the country is still under the occupation of Arab peacekeeping forces, almost entirely Syrian. In March 1978 southern Lebanon was invaded by Israeli troops. When the Israelis withdrew in June, they turned much of the south over to a United Nations interim force, but left Christian militias in control of zones along the border. The country's own army is gradually being re- established but is still too fragile to give the central government effective power. Israel's support of the Chris- tians and Syria's recent support of the Palestinians have brought the two sides into rough equilibrium, but no progress has been made on national reconciliation or political reforms?the original cause of the war. The following description is based on the present constitutional and customary practices of the Lebanese system. Legal name: Republic of Lebanon 'Type: republic Capital: Beirut Political subdivisions: 5 provinces Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, and civil law system; constitution mandated in 1920; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at University of Lebanon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November Branches: power lies with President elected by parlia- ment (Chamber of Deputies); cabinet appointed by Presi- dent, approved by parliament; independent secular courts 138 July 1979 on French pattern; religious courts for matters of marriage, divorce, inheritance, etc.; by custom, President is a Maronite Christian, Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim, and president of parliament a Shia Muslim; each of 9 religious communities represented in parliament in proportion to national numeri- cal strength Government leader: President Ilyas Sarkis Suffrage: compulsory for all males over 21; authorized for women over 21 with elementary education Elections: Chamber of Deputies held every 4 years or within 3 months of dissolution of Chamber; latest April 1972 Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized along sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations; all parties have well-armed militias which are still involved in occasional clashes Communists: only legal Communist party in Middle East; legalized in 1970; members and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000 Other political or pressure groups: Palestinian guerrilla organizations Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC? International Wheat Council, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $3.5 billion (1977), $1,400 per capita Agriculture: fruits, wheat, corn, barley, potatoes, tobacco, olives, onions; not self-sufficient in food Major industries: service industries, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals, some metal fabricat- ing, tourism Electric power: 540,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 470 kWh per capita Exports: $632 million (1977) Imports: $1.5 billion (1977) Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $638.7 million; U.S. (1970-77), $138.5 million; other Western (1970-77), $50.0 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $9.2 million; military?U.S. (1970-77), $51.5 million; Communist coun- tries (1970-76), $11.0 million Budget: (1977) expenditures $539 million, revenues $332 million Monetary conversion rate: 2.95 Lebanese pounds= US$1 as of August 1978 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km standard gage (1.435 m), 82 km 1.050-meter gage; all single track Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone, 650 km improved earth Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km SECRET 25X1i 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 LEBANON/LESOTHO Ports: 3 major (Beirut, Tripoli, Sayda), 5 minor Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 223,500 GRT, 302,500 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 58 cargo, I bulk, 6 specialized carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo; a flag of convenience registry Civil air: 36 major transport aircraft, including 6 leased out Airfields: 8 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; in- ternational facilities restored, domestic being rebuilt; fair system of microwave, cable; approx 125,000 telephones (5.0 per 100 popl.); 2 FM, 7 AM, 7 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; 3 submarine cables. liEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 575,000; 352,000 fit for military service; average of about 29,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: nearly all supplies purchased abroad, principally from U.S., France, and U.K.; minor amounts from U.S.S.R., and Yugoslavia Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $234 million; 26% of central government budge LESOTHO LAND 30,303 km2; 15% cultivable; largely mountainous Land boundaries: 805 km PEOPLE Population:?1,306,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) SECRET SECRET (See reference mop VI) Nationality: noun?Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.); adjec- tive?Basotho Ethnic divisions: 99.7% Sotho, 1,600 Europeans, 800 Asians Religion: 70% or more Christian, rest animist Language: all Africans speak Sesotho vernacular; English is second language for literates Literacy: 49% Labor force: 87.4% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; 150,000 to 250,000 spend 6 months to many years as wage earners in South Africa Organized labor: negligible GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Lesotho Type: constitutional monarchy under King Moshoeshoe II; independent member of commonwealth since 1966 Capital: Maseru Political subdivisions: 9 administrative districts Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; constitution came into effect 1966; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; legal education at National University of Lesotho; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 4 October Branches: executive, divided between a largely ceremo- nial King and a Prime Minister who leads cabinet of at least 7 members; Prime Minister dismissed bicameral legislature in early 1970 and subsequently ruled by decree until 1973 ' when he appointed Interim National Assembly to act as legislative branch; judicial-63 Lesotho courts administer customary law for Africans, High Court and subordinate courts have criminal jurisdiction over all residents, Court of Appeal at Maseru has appellate jurisdiction Government leader: King Moshoeshoe II; Prime Minister Chief Leabua Jonathan Suffrage: universal for adults 139 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET .LESOTHO/LIBERIA Elections: elections held in January 1970; nullified allegedly because of election irregularities; subsequent elections promised at unspecified date Political parties and leaders: National Party (BNP), Chief Leabua Jonathan; Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu Mokhehle Voting strength: in 1965 elections for National Assembly, BNP won 32 seats; BCP, 22 seats; minor parties, 4 seats Communists: negligible, Communist Party of Lesotho banned in early 1970 Member of: Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO ECONOMY GNP: $289.5 million (FY77/78), $289.5 per capita; average growth rate, 4.9% (FY77/78) Agriculture: exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley Major industries: none Electric power: approximately 20 million kWh imported from South Africa (1977) Exports: labor to South Africa (remittances $113 million est. in 1976); $14.0 million (est. f.o.b., 1977), wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, diamonds, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins Imports: $194.6 million (est. c.i.f., 1977); mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, POL Major trade partner: South Africa Aid: 'economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $130 million; U.S. (1970-77), $31.7 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $22 million Budget: (FY76) revenues, $89.0 million; current expendi- tures, $60.8 million; development budget, $76.3 million Monetary conversion rate: Lesotho uses the South African rand; 1 SA rand=US$1.15 (as of March 1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-al March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics of the Republic of South Africa Highways: approx. 3,916 km total; 218 km paved; 993 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 1,046 km improved, 1,659 km unimproved earth Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 21 total, 21 usable; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m, 1 with permanent surface runway Telecommunications: system a modest one consisting of a few landlineS, a small radio-relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations; Maseru is the center; 3,725 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV station planned DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 299,000; fit for military service 159,000 140 July 1979 LIBERIA GUINEA LIBERI Monrovia Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VI) LAND 111,370 km2; 20% agricultural, 30% jungle and swamps, 40% forested, 10% unclassified Land boundaries: 1,336 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 22 nm Coastline: 579 km PEOPLE Population: 1,789,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Liberian(s); adjective?Liberian Ethnic divisions: 5% descendants of immigrant Negroes; 95% indigenous Negroid African tribes including Kpelle, Bassa, Kru, Grebo, Cola, Kissi, Krahn, and Mandingo Religion: probably more Muslims than Christians; 70%-80% animist Language: English official; 28 tribal languages or dialects, pidgin English used by about 20% Literacy: about 24% over age 5 Labor force: 600,000, of which 120,000 are in monetary economy; about 2,000 non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top level management and engineering jobs Organized labor: 2% of labor force SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ??? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 LIBERIA GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Liberia Type: republic in form; strong executive dominates, with few constraints Capital: Monrovia Political subdivisions: country divided into 9 counties; President appoints all officials of significance Legal system: based on U.S. constitutional theory; recent codes drawn up by Cornell University; constitution adopted 1847; amended 1907, 1926, 1934, 1955, and 1975; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law, University of Liberia; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July Branches: President, elected by popular vote, limited to a single eight-year term, controls through appointive powers, authority over national expenditures, and a variety of informal sanctions; 2-house legislature elected by popular vote; judiciary consisting of Supreme Court and variety of lower courts Government leader: President William R. Tolbert, Jr. Suffrage: universal 18 years and over Elections: members of House of Representatives elected for 4-year terms, most recently in October 1975; Senate members elected for 6-year terms, one-half elected in May 1973; President Tolbert, constitutional successor to President Tubman who died in July 1971, completed the four year term to which Tubman was elected and was then elected in October 1975 for an eight-year term beginning in January 1976 Political parties and leaders: True Whig Party, in power since 1878, only political party; President Tolbert is leader Voting strength: 1975 elections uncontested; True Whig Party won all but a handful of votes Communists: no Communist Party and only a few sympathizers Member of: AFDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO ECONOMY GDP: $823 million (1977), $457 per capita; 9.2% current annual growth rate (1977) Agriculture: rubber, rice, oil palm, cassava, coffee, cocoa; imports of rice, wheat, and live cattle and beef are necessary for basic diet Fishing: catch 23,000 metric tons Industry: rubber processing, food processing, construction materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds), 10,000 b/d oil refinery Electric power: 327,000 kW capacity (1977); 980 million kWh produced (1977), 620 kWh per capita SECRET SECRET Exports: $430 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); iron ore, rubber, diamonds, lumber and logs, coffee, cocoa Imports: $482.0 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, manufac- tured goods, foodstuffs Major trade partners: U.S., West Germany, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium Aid: economic?(1970-77), Western (non-U.S.), $245.0 million; U.S., $134.2 million; Communist, $23.0 million; military?U.S., $8.2 million Budget: (FY77) revenues $192.6 million, expenditures $265.8 million; development budget $41.6 million Monetary conversion rate: Liberia uses U.S. currency Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 499 km total; 354 km standard gage (1.435 m), 145 km narrow gage (1.067 m); all lines single track; rail systems owned and operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian Government Highways: 7,952 km total; 603 km bituminous treated; 2,055 km gravel, and 4,731 km improved and 563 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 370 km Ports: 3 major (Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville-Sino Harbor), 4 minor Merchant marine: 2,369 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 80,122,163 GRT, 154,745,300 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 514 cargo, 41 container, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 739 tanker, 41 liquefied gas, 766 bulk, 146 combination ore/oil, 5 barge carriers, 99 specialized carrier; although this registry ranks first in tonnage in the world, all but 2 ships are entirely foreign owned and operated Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (including 1 leased in) Airfields: 81 total, 79 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph limited; main center is Monrovia; 3,400 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, 2 FM, and 3 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 399,000; 213,000 fit for military service; no conscription 141 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET LIBERIA/LYBIA Supply: dependent mainly on U.S., has received small arms and ammunition from Israel, armored cars from Switzerland and trucks from Japan Military budget: for year ending 30 June million; 2.5% of central government budget 1979, $8.5 LIBYA (See felerence map VI) LAND 1,758,610 km2; 6% agricultural, 1% forested, 93% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 4,345 km WATER ? Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (except for Gulf of Sidra where sovereignty is claimed and northern limit of jurisdiction fixed at 32?30'N. and the unilaterally proclaimed 100 nm zone around Tripoli) Coastline: 1,770 km PEOPLE Population: 2,873,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 4.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Libyan(s); adjective?Libyan Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab with some Negro stock; some Greeks, Maltese, Jews, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians Religion: 97% Muslim Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities Literacy: 35% 142 July 1979 Labor force: 900,000 of which about 350,000 are resident foreigners (est. 1977) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Type: republic; major overhaul of the constitution and government structure in March 1977 established a system of 25X11 popular congresses which theoretically controls the ruling General Secretariat; nominally confederated with Egypt and Syria in Confederation of Arab Republics (CAR) on 1 September 1971 Capital: Tripoli Political subdivisions: 10 administrative provinces closely controlled by central government Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Law School, at University of Libya at Benghazi; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September Branches: paramount political power and authority rests with the Secretariat of the General People's Congress which theoretically functions as a parliament with a cabinet called the General People's Committee Government leaders: Col. Mu'ammar Qadhafi; Prime Minister, 'Abd al-'Ati 'Ubaydi Suffrage: universal Elections: resentatives to the General People's Congress are drawn from popularly elected municipal committees Political parties and leaders: Libyan Arab Socialist Union, Ahmad Shahati, Secretary General; Mu'ammar Qadhafi, President Communists: no organized party, negligible membership Other political or pressure groups: various .Arab nation- alist movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection (Bath) party with small, almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely Member of: AFDB, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG 25X1 25X1 1 ECONOMY GDP: $19.3 billion (1977 at current prices), $6,875 per capita Agriculture: main crops?wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; approaching self-sufficiency in food Major industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts Electric power: 1,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.3 billion kWh produced (1978), 820 kWh per capita Exports: $11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1977); over 99% petroleum Imports: $5.8 billion (c.i.f., 1977) SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ! Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET LIBYA Major trade partners: imports?Italy, West Germany, U.S.; exports?Italy, West Germany, U.K., U.S., France Aid: economic?(1970-77), Western (non-U.S.), $60 mil- lion; U.S., $0.4 million; military?(1970-77), Communist countries, $3,429 million; U.S., $0.5 million Budget: (1977) revenue $11.4 billion; expenditure $10.8 billion; capital $2.1 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Libyan pound=US$3.38 Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December (beginning 1974) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 16,250 km total; 7,750 km bituminous and bitumi-nous treated, 8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth Pipelines: crude oil 3,251 km; natural gas 282 km; refined products 443 km (includes 217 km liquid petroleum gas) Ports: 3 major (Tobruk, Tripoli, Benghazi), 4 minor, and 5 petroleum terminals Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 871,800 GRT, 1,563,200 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 13 tanker, 1 specialized carrier, 3 passenger Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft (including 8 leased in) Airfields: 93 total, 81 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways, 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system is in top one-third of African systems; consists of radio-relay and tropo- spheric-scatter links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunica- tion stations; principal centers are Tripoli and Benghazi; 49,800 telephones (1.8 per 100 popl.); 15 AM, 1 FM, and 12 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 669,000; 395,000 fit for military service; about 33,000 reach military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented SECRET Supply: dependent mainly on U.K. and U.S. in the past; U.K. provided a Vosper Mk. 7 frigate in 1973; current contracts for 10 French missile attack boats and 4 Italian patrol guided missile combatants; 25X1 ocX1 25X1 25X1 Soviet military aid began in 1970 and accelerated in 25x1 1974-76 with substantial deliveries of tanks, armed personnel carriers, artillery, transport vehicles, 6 missile attack boats, 3 submarines, bomber and fighter aircraft, SCUD surface-to surface missiles and surface-to-air missile systems; additional missile boats and submarines are to be received; Czechoslo- vakia and Poland also have provided armored personnel carriers and tanks and 1 medium landing ship; Italy has provided artillery, APC's, and 1 vehicle cargo ship Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $439 million; 5% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 143 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET LIECHTENSTEIN FRANCE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY Vaduz SWITZ. AUSTRIA I. CHTE STEIN =^ITALY (See reference map LAND 168 km' Land boundaries: 76 km LIECHTENSTEIN PEOPLE Population: 25,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.6% (7-7'5 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Liechtensteiner(s); adjective? Liechtenstein Ethnic divisions: 95% Germanic, 5% Italian and other Religion: 92% Roman Catholic Language: German (dialect) Literacy: 98% Labor force: 7,000, 3,500 foreign workers (mostly from Austria and Italy); 59% industry, 20% trade and commerce, 13% professional and other, 8% agriculture GOVERNMENT Legal name: Principality of Liechtenstein Type: hereditary Constitutional monarchy Capital: Vaduz Political subdivisions: 11 districts Legal system: based on Swiss law; constitution adopted 1921; judicial review of legislative acts in a special Constitutional Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Branches: unicameral Parliament, hereditary Prince, independent judiciary Government leaders: Head of State, Prince Franz Josef II; Head of Government, Hans Brunhart Suffrage: males age 20 and over Elections: every 4 years; next elections 1982 Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union Party (VU), Dr. Alfred Hilbe; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Gerard Batliner Voting strength (1978 election): VU over 50% 144 July 1979 Communists: none Member of: IAEA, ITU, UPU, considering U.N. member- ship; desires affiliation with The Council of Europe; under a 1923 treaty, Switzerland handles Liechtenstein's post and telegraph systems, customs, and foreign relations, WIPO ECONOMY Liechtenstein has a prosperous economy based primarily on small-scale light industry and some farming. Textiles, ceramics, precision instruments, pharmaceuticals, and canned foods are the principal manufactures, intended almost entirely for export. Industry accounts for 95 percent of total employment. Livestock raising and dairying are the main sources of income in the small farm sector. A major source of income to the government is the sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors, estimated at $6 million annually. In addition, low business taxes and easy incorpo- rated rules have induced between 20,000 and 30,000 holding companies, so-called letter box companies, to establish nominal offices in the principality. The average tax paid by one of these companies is about $400 a year. The Liechtenstein economy is tied closely to that of Switzerland in a customs union. No national accounts data are available. GNP: $291 million (1977 provisional) Major trade partners: exports (1975)?$202 million; 50.6% EFTA, 41.4% Switzerland, 26.7% EEC; exports (1977)?$273 million Electric power: 23,000 kW capacity (1978); 57 million kWh produced (1978), 2,590 kWh per capita; power is exchanged with Switzerland, but net exports average 35 million kWh yearly Budget: (1978 est.) revenues $104.1 million, expenditures $75.2 million, surplus $28.9 million COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 16.00 km, standard gage (1.435 m), electrified; owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways Highways: no information on total kilometers Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft registered and operated in Switzerland Airfields: none Telecommunications: automatic telephone system serv- ing about 16,200 telephones (67.7 per 100 popl.); no broadcast facilities DEFENSE FORCES Defense is responsibility of Switzerland SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 LUXEMBOURG ed FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY EMBOURG Luxembourg FRANCE (See reference map IV) LUXEMBOURG LAND 2,590 km2; 25% arable, 27% meadows and pasture, 15% waste or urban, 33% forested, negligible amount of inland water Land boundaries: 356 km PEOPLE Population: 357,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Luxembourger(s); adjective?Luxem- bourg Ethnic divisions: 83% Luxembourger, including an estimated 5% of Italian descent; remainder French, German, Belgian, etc. Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, remaining 3% Protestant and Jewish Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; most edu- cated Luxembourgers also speak English Literacy: 98% Labor force: (1977) 147,300; one-third of labor force is foreign, comprised mostly of workers from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and West Germany (1977); unemployment 0.2% (1977) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Luxembourg Political subdivisions: unitary state, but for administra- tive purposes has 3 districts (Luxembourg, Diekirch, Grevenmacher) and 12 cantons Legal system: based on civil law system; constitution adopted 1868; judicial review of legislative acts in the Cassation Court only; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 23 June SECRET SECRET Branches: parliamentary democracy; seven ministers comprise Council of Government headed by President, which constitutes the executive; it is responsible to the unicameral legislature, the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State, appointed for indefinite term, exercises some powers of an upper house; judicial power exercised by independent courts Government leaders: Grand Duke Jean, Head of State; Gaston Thorn, Prime Minister Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: every 5 years for entire Chamber of Deputies; latest elections May 1974 Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party, Pierre Werner (Parliamentary President) and Jacques Santer (Party President); Socialist, Lydie Schmit (Party President); Social Democrat, Henry Cravatte (Party President); Demo- cratic, Gaston Thorn (Party President and Prime Minister); Communist, Dominique Urbany Voting strength in Chamber of Deputies (1974): Christian Socialist, 18; Socialist Workers, 17; Democrats, 14; Social Democrats, 5; Communists, 5 Communists: 500 party members (1974) Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions, Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation Member of: Benelux, BLEU, Council of Europe, EC, ECSC, EEC, EIB, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NATO, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GNP: $2.5 billion, $6,900 per capita (1977); 58.1% private consumption, 14.5% government consumption, 28.3% invest- ment, 2.8% change in stocks; ?3.7% net foreign balance Agriculture: mixed farming; main crops?grains, pota- toes, fodder beets; food shortages?sugar, bread grains, fats Major industries: iron and steel (25% of GNP), food processing, chemicals, metal products and engineering, tires Crude steel: 4.79 million metric tons produced (1978), 12 metric tons per capita Electric power: 1,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 1,400 million kWh produced (1978), 3,910 kWh? per capita Exports, Imports, Major trade partners: Luxembourg has a customs union with Belgium under which foreign trade is recorded jointly for the two countries; Luxembourg's principal exports are iron and steel products, principal imports are coal and consumer goods; most of its foreign trade is with Germany, Belgium, France, and other EC countries (for totals, see Belgium) Budget: (1977) expenditures $1,056 million, revenues $1,066 million, surplus $10. million 145 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 LUXEMBOURG/MACAO Monetary conversion rate: LF31.41=US$1, 1978 aver- age; under the BLEU agreement, the Luxembourg franc is equal in value to the Belgian franc which circulates freely in Luxembourg Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 270 km standard gage (1.435 m); 160 km double track; 136 km electrified Highways: 5,054 km total; 4,912 paved, 79 km gravel; 63 km earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway completed or under construction Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River Pipelines: refined products, 48 km Port: (river) Mertert Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system; 158,000 telephones (44.2 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 89,000; 75,000 fit for military service; about 3,000 reach military age (19) annually Supply: completely dependent on other NATO countries, primarily the U.S. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $32 million, 3% of the central government budget MACAO LAND 15.5 km2; 10% agricultural, 90% urban Land boundaries: 201 m WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm; fishing, nm Coastline: 40 km 12 PEOPLE Population: 272,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Macaon(s); adjective?Macaon 146 CHINA VIETNAM Ethnic divisions: Religion: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Catholics, about one-half are Chinese Language: 98% Chinese, 2% Portuguese Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese and Macanese; no data on Chinese population Labor force: 5% agriculture, 30% manufacturing, 3% construction, 1% utilities, 27% commerce, 8% transportation and communications, 26% services (1960 data) HONG KONG MACAO South China Sea 99% Chinese, PHILIPPINES (See reference map VIII 1% Portuguese GOVERNMENT Legal name: Province of Macao Type: overseas province of Portugal Capital: Lisbon (Portugal) Political subdivisions: municipality of Macao, and 2 islands Legal system: Portuguese civil law system Branches: 17-member Legislative Assembly, with Gover- nor and 5 appointed, 1 specially nominated, and 10 elected representatives Government leader: Gen. Melo Egidio Suffrage: Portuguese, Chinese and foreign residents over 18 Elections: conducted every 4 years; last held 1976 Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of Macao; Macao Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of Macao; Macao Independent Group Communists: numbers unknown Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese representing local interests, wealthy pro-Com- munist merchants representing China's interests; in January 1967 Macao Government acceded to Chinese demands which gave Chinese veto power over administration of the enclave SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ( July 1979 MACAO/MADAGASCAR ECONOMY Agriculture: main crops?rice, vegetables; food short- ages?rice, vegetables, meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements Major industries: textiles, fireworks Electric power: 116,000 kW capacity (1978); 250 million kWh produced (1978), 880 kWh per capita Exports: $185 million (f.o.b., 1976); textiles and clothing, foodstuffs Imports: $160 million (c.i.f., 1976) Major trade partners: exports-23% West Germany, 17% France, 10% U.K.;- imports-68% Hong Kong, 24% China (1976) Monetary conversion rate: 5.4 patacas=US$1 (December 1975); pataca has been pegged to Hong Kong dollar starting in 1977 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 42 km paved Ports: 1 major Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: none; 1 seaplane station Telecommunications: fairly modern communication fa- cilities provide adequate services for domestic and interna- tional requirements; broadcasting coverage is provided by AM and FM radio facilities and a wired broadcast network; 11,765 telephones; 75,000 radio receivers; 2 AM, 2 FM and no TV stations; no submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 80,000; 46,000 fit for military service Defense is responsibility of Portugal MADAGASCAR LAND 595,700 km2; 5% cultivated, 58% pastureland, 21% forested, 8% wasteland, 2% rivers and lakes, 6% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm Coastline: 4,828 km PEOPLE Population: 8,358,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective? Malagasy SECRET SECRET SOUTH AFRICA 0 TANZANIA MOZ BIOUE COMOROS An ananarivo MADAGASCAR a Indian Ocean (See reference map VI) Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly Malayo-Indonesian origin, consisting of Mer- ina (1,643,000) and related. Betsileo (760,000), on the one hand, and coastal tribes?collectively termed the Cotiers? with mixed Negroid, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry on the other; coastal tribes include Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, Sakalava 375,000, Antaisaka 415,000; there are also 10-12,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 5,000 Creoles Religion: more than half animist; about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim Language: French and Malagasy official Literacy: 45% of population age 10 and over Labor force: about 3.4 million, of which 90% are nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agricul- ture; of 175,000 wage and salary earners, 26% agriculture, 17% domestic service, 15% industrY, 14% commerce, 11% construction, 9% services, 6% transportation, 2% miscel- laneous Organized labor: 4% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar Type: republic; real authority in hands of military- dominated Supreme Revolutionary Council Capital: Antananarivo Political subdivisions: 6 provinces Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; constitution of 1959 modified in October 1972 by law establishing provisional government institutions; new constitution accepted by referendum in December 1975; legal education at National School of Law, University of Madagascar; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June Branches: executive?a 21-member Supreme Revolution- ary Council (made up of military and political leaders); 147 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MADAGASCAR assisted by cabinet called Council of Ministers; People's National Assembly; Military Committee for Development; regular courts are patterned after French system, and a High Council of Institutions reviews all legislation to determine its constitutional validity Government leader: Cdr. Didier Ratsiraka, President Suffrage: universal for adults (18 and above) Elections: referendum held in December 1975 gave overwhelming approval to government and new constitu- tion; elections for People's National Assembly held in June 1977; only one political grouping allowed to take part in the election, -The Front for the Defense of Malagasy Socialist Revolution,- which presented a single list of candidates Political parties and leaders: 6 parties are now allowed political activity under the National Front and are represented on the Supreme Revolutionary Council; the 6 parties are: AREMA (President Ratsiraka's Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution); AKFM (Pastor Richard Andriamanjato's pro-Soviet Congress Party for Malagasy Independence); VONJY (Dr. Pazanabahiny Marojama's Movement for National Unity); UDECMA (Norbert Andria- morasata's Malagasy Christian Democratic Union); MFM (Manandafy Rakotonirina's Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime); MONIMA (Mouvement Nationale pour L'Independence de Madagascar) party apparently split over issue of joining National Front, leader of faction supporting Front unknown, Monja Jaona leads other faction Voting strength: number of registered voters (1977)-3.5 million; in 1977 local elections, President Ratsiraka's AREMA captured approximately 89.5% of the 73,000 available positions on 11,400 local Executive Committees; AKFM won about 7.3% of the seats, MONIMA 1.7%, and VONJY 1.4%; UDECMA won only about 45 seats Communists: Communist party of virtually no impor- tance; small and vocal group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of AKFM, the rank and file of which is non-Communist Member of: EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICO,IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2.4 billion (1978), about $408 per capita; current growth less than 9% (1978) Agriculture: cash ci-ops?coffee, vanilla, cloves, sugar, tobacco, sisal, rice, raphia; food crops?rice, cassava, cereals, potatoes, corn, beans, bananas, coconuts, and peanuts; animal husbandry widespread; imports some rice, milk, and cereal Fishing: catch 54,950 metric tons (1976); exports $16.5 million (1974) Major industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, brewery, tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement plant, auto assembly plant, paper mill, oil refinery 148 July 1979 Electric power: 95,000 kW capacity (1977); 465 million kWh produced (1977), 60 kWh per capita Exports: $392.0 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); 30% coffee, 8% vanilla, 7% sugar, 6% cloves; agricultural and livestock products account for about 85% of export earnings ? Imports: $359.0 million (f.o.b., 1978); about 19% consum- er goods, 21% foodstuffs, 41% primary products (crude oil, fertilizers, metal products), 19% capital goods (1974) Major trade partners: France (in 1974 accounted for 37% of exports and 48% of imports), U.S., EC; trade with Communist countries remains a minute part of total trade Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $375 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $103.8 mil- lion; U.S. (1970-77), $4.4 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $16.3 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $14 million Budget: (1978) revenues $350 Million, expenditures $323 million Monetary conversion rate: 248 Malagasy francs=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 884 km of meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 27,500 km total; 4,525 km paved, 228 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; remainder improved and unimproved earth (est.) Inland waterways: of local importance only, Lake Alaotra, isolated streams and portions of Canal des Pangalanes Ports: 4 major (Tamatave, Diego Suarez, Majunga, Tulear) Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 64,900 GRT, 91,900 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 tanker, 1 specialized carrier, 1 liquefied gas carrier Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 202 total, 128 usable; 29 with permanent-sur- face runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 45 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system above African average; includes open-wire lines, some radio-relay and coaxial links and 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; 28,000 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 10 AM, no FM, and 4 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,812,000; 1,077,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually about 78,000 SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MADAGASCAR/MALAWI Supply: nearly all from France in the past, now mostly from West and East European countries; also PRC and North Korea Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $101.9 million; about 12.9% of central government budget MALAWI (See reference map VII LAND 95,053 km2; about 31% of land area arable (of which less than half is cultivated), nearly 25% forested, 6% meadow and pasture, 38% other Land boundaries: 2,881 km PEOPLE Population: 5,861,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (8-66 to 10-77) Nationality: noun?Malawian(s); adjective?Malawian Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African, less than 1% European and Asian Religion: majority animist; rest Christian and Muslim Language: English and Chichewa official; Lomwe is second African language Literacy: 15% of population Labor force: 225,000 wage earners employed in Malawi (1974); 30% agriculture, 11% construction, 10% commerce, 13% manufacturing, 10% administration, 26% miscellaneous services; 6,000 Europeans permanently employed SECRET SECRET Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Malawi Type: republic since July 1966; independent member of Commonwealth since July 1964 Capital: Lilongwe Political subdivisions: 3 administrative regions and 24 districts Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; constitution adopted 1964; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Republic Day, 6 July Branches: strong presidential system with cabinet ap- pointed by President; unicameral National Assembly of 87 elected and up to 15 nominated members; High Court with Chief Justice and at least 2 justices Government leader: Life President Dr. H. Kamuzu Banda Suffrage: universal adult (21 years) Elections: parliamentary elections June 1978 Political parties and leaders: Malawi Congress 'Party (MCP), Secretary General E. Bakili Muluzi, Deputy Secretary Robson W. Chirwa Communists: no Communist Party; Malawi maintains no foreign relations with Communist governments Member of: AFDB, EEC (associate member), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $1,630 million (1978), $178 per capita; real average annual growth rate (1975-78) 6.4%, growth rate (1978) 7.2% Agriculture: cash crops?tobacco, tea, sugar, peanuts, cotton, tung, maize; subsistence crops?corn, sorghum, millet, pulses, root crops, fruit, vegetables, rice Electric power: 105,000 kW capacity (1977); 315 million kWh produced (1977), 60 kWh per capita Major industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer goods Exports: $196 million (f.o.b., 1978); tobacco, tea, sugar, peanuts, cotton Imports: $268 billion (f.o.b., 1978); manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, building and construc- tion materials, fuel, fertilizer Major trade partners: exports?U.K., U.S., South Africa, Netherlands; imports?South Africa, U.K., Japan, U.S., FRG, Netherlands Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $325 million; U.S., $7.9 million Budget: FY77/78 revenues $146.3 million; expenditures $138.7 million; capital $134.7 million 149 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MALAWI/MALAYSIA Monetary conversion rate: 1 Malawi kwacha =US$0.9029 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 678 km 1.067-meter gage Highways: 14,913 km total; 1,385 km paved; 631 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 8,714 km improved earth, 4,183 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: Lake Malawi, 1,290 km and Shire River, 144 km, 3 lake ports Ports: no maritime ports Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft Airfields: 47 total, 47 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio-relay links, and radiocommunication stations; princi- pal centers are Blantyre, Zomba, Lilongwe, and Muzuzu; 19,800 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 4 FM and no TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,196,000; about 603,000 fit for military service Supply: mainly from U.K., but also from several other Western and Third World countries Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1979, $20.6 million; 6.8% of recurrent central government budget MALAYSIA NOTE: Malaysia, which came into being on 16 September 1963, consists of Peninsular Malaysia, which includes 11 150 July 1979 states of the former Federation of Malaya, plus East Malaysia, which includes the 2 former colonies of North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak LAND Peninsular Malaysia: 131,313 km2; 20% cultivated, 26% forest reserves, 54% other Sabah: 76,146 km2; 13% cultivated, 34% forest reserves, 53% other Sarawak: 125,097 km2; 21% cultivated, 24% forest reserves, 55% other Land boundaries: 509 km Peninsular Malaysia, 1,786 km East Malaysia WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia, 2,607 km East Malaysia PEOPLE Population: 13,280,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) Peninsular Malaysia: 11,068,000, average annual growth. rate 2.6% (8-70 to 1-77) Sabah: 990,000, average annual growth rate 4.8% (8-70 to 1-77) Sarawak: 1,222,000, average annual growth rate 2.6% (8-70 to 1-75) Nationality: noun?Malaysian(s); adjective?Malaysian Ethnic divisions: Malaysia: 50% Malay, 35% Chinese, 10% Indian Peninsular Malaysia: 53% Malay, 35% Chinese, 11% Indian and Pakistani, 1% other Sabah: 21% Chinese, 69% indigenous tribes, 10% other Sarawak: 30% Chinese, 50% indigenous tribes, 19% Malay, 1% other Religion: Peninsular Malaysia: Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu Sabah: 38% Muslim, 17% Christian, 45% other Sarawak: 23% Muslim, 24% Buddhist and Confucianist, 16% Christian, 35% tribal religion, 2% other Language: Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official); English, Chinese dialects, Tamil Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages Literacy: Peninsular Malaysia: about 48% Sabah and Sarawak: 23% SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MALAYSIA Labor force: Malaysia: 4.5 million (1977) Peninsular Malaysia: 3.6 million; 46.2% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 10.9% manufacturing and construction, 31.9% trade, transport, and services (1975) Sabah: 213,000 (1967); 80% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 6% manufacturing and construction, 13% trade and transportation, 1% other Sarawak: 341,000 (1967); 80% agriculture, forestry,,.and fishing, 6% manufacturing and construction, 13% trade, transportation, and services, 1% other Organized labor: 500,000 (1975 est.), about 15% of total labor force; unemployment about 7% of total labor force, but higher in urban areas GOVERNMENT Legal name: Malaysia Type: Malaysia: constitutional monarchy nominally headed by Paramount Ruler (King); a bicameral Parliament consisting of a 58-member Senate and a 154-member House of Representatives Peninsular Malaysian states: hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Malacca where Governors appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state governments limited by federal constitution Sabah: self-governing state within Malaysia in which it holds 16 seats in House of Representatives; foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government Sarawak: self-governing state within Malaysia in which it holds 24 seats in House of Representatives; foreign affairs, defense, and internal security, and other powers are delegated to federal government Capital: Peninsular Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur Sabah: Kota Kinabalu Sarawak: Kuching Political subdivisions: 13 states (including Sabah and Sarawak) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution came into force 1963; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of Supreme Head of the Federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 31 August Branches: 9 state rulers alternate as Paramount Ruler for 5-year terms; locus of executive power vested in Prime Minister and cabinet, who are responsible to bicameral parliament; following communal rioting in May 1969, government imposed state of emergency and suspended constitutional rights of all parliamentary bodies; parliamen- tary democracy resumed in February 1971 SECRET SECRET Peninsular Malaysia: executive branches of 11 states vary in detail but are similar in design; a Chief Minister, appointed by hereditary ruler or Governor, heads an executive council (cabinet) which is responsible to an elected, unicameral legislature Sarawak and Sabah: executive branch headed by Governor appointed by central government, largely ceremo- nial role; executive power exercised by Chief Minister who heads parliamentary cabinet responsible to unicameral legislature; judiciary part of Malaysian judicial system Government leader: Prime Minister Hussein bin Onn Suffrage: universal over age 20 Elections: minimum of every 5 years, last elections July 1978 Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 11 political parties dominated by United Malays National Organization (UMNO), Hussein Onn; opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Islamic Party (PAS) Sabah: Berjaya Party, Datuk Harris Salleh; United Sabah National Organization (USNO), Tan Sri Haji Mohd Said Keruak; Sabah Chinese Association (SCA), Khoo Siak Chiew Sarawak: coalition Sarawak Alliance composed of the Pesaka/Bumipatra Party, Rahman Yaacub, the United People's Party (SUPP), Ong Kee Hui, and Sarawak Chinese Association; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Stephen Ningkan; Sarawak Native Peoples Party (PAJAR), Alli Kawi Voting strength: Peninsular Malaysia: (1978 election) National Front, 131 of 154 seats in lower house of parliament; Democratic Action Party, 16 seats; Islamic Party, 5 seats; Sarawak People's Organization 1 seat; 1 independent seat Sabah: (April 1976 Assembly Elections) Berjaya Party controls 35 of 54 seats in State Assembly, USNO controls 19 remaining seats Sarawak: (1974 elections) National Front controls all 48 State Assembly seats Communists: Peninsular Malaysia: approximately 3,000 armed insurgents on Thailand side of Thai/Malaysia border; approximately 300 full-time inside Peninsular Malaysia Sarawak: 125 armed insurgents in Sarawak Sabah: insignificant Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC,? ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: Malaysia: $15.7 billion (1978), $1,137 per capita; average annual real growth 7.8% (1970-76); 7.2% (1978) 151 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, oil palm, 10%45% of rice requirements imported Sabah: mainly subsistence; main crops?rubber, ber, coconut, rice; food deficit?rice Sarawak: main crops?rubber, timber, pepper; deficit?rice Fishing: catch 516,903 metric tons (1976) Major industries: Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, elec- tronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber Sabah: logging, petroleum production Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging Electric power: Peninsular Malaysia: 1,718,000 kW capacity (1978); 7.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 690 kWh per capita Sabah: 131,000 kW capacity (1978); 355 million kWh produced (1978), 370 kWh per capita Sarawak: 102,180 kW capacity (1978); 280 million kWh produced (1978), 235 kWh per capita Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum Imports: $5.9 billion (c.i.f.,- 1978) Major trade partners: exports-19% Singapore, 18% U.S., 20% Japan; imports-21% Japan, 11% U.K., 12% U.S., 9% Singapore Aid: U.S. economic 1970-76, $23.1 million; military $64.7 million; Western (except U.S.), $562.6 million; OPEC, 1974- 76, $186.5 million Budget: 1978 revenues $3.4 billion; expenditures $4.6 billion; deficit $1.2 billion; 20% military, 80% civilian Monetary conversion rate: 2.20 ringgits=US$1 (March 1979) Fiscal year: calendar year MALAYSIA ' rice; tim- food COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: Peninsular Malaysia: 1,665 km 1.04-meter gage; 13 km double track; government-owned East Malaysia: 156 km meter gage (1.00 m) in Sabah Highways: Peninsular. Malaysia: 19,778 km total; 15,925 km hard surfaced (mostly bituminous surface treatment), 2,970 km crushed stone/gravel, 883 km improved or unimproved earth East Malaysia: about 5,426 km total (1,644 km in Sarawak, 3,782 km in Sabah); 819 km hard surfaced (mostly bituminous surface treatment), 2,936 km gravel or crushed stone, 1,671 km earth 152 July 1979 Inland waterways: Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km East Malaysia: 4,087 km (1,569 km in Sabah, 2,518 km in Sarawak) Ports: Peninsular Malaysia: 3 major, 14 minor East Malaysia: 3 major, 12 minor (2 major, 3 minor in Sabah; 1 major, 9 minor in Sarawak) Merchant marine: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 524,900 GRT, 791,000 DWT; includes 39 cargo, 3 tanker, 8 bulk, 1 combination ore/oil, 6 container, 1 specialized carrier Civil air: approximately 26 major transport aircraft Pipelines: crude oil, 69 km; refined products, 56 km Airfields: Peninsular Malaysia: 62 total, 62 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Sabah: 34 total, 34 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Sarawak: 45 total, 45 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: Peninsular Malaysia: good intercity service provided mainly by microwave relay; international service good; good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 278,000 telephones (2.7 per 100 popl.); 26 AM, 1 FM, and 16 TV stations; submarine cables extend to Singapore; connected to SEACOM submarine cable terminal at Singapore by microwave relay; 1 ground satellite station Sabah: adequate intercity radio-relay network extends to Sarawak via Brunei; 23,068 telephones (2.7 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, 1 FM, 5 TV stations; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; 1 ground satellite station Sarawak: adequate intercity radio-relay network ex- tends to Sabah via Brunei; 28,000 telephones (2.4 per 100 popl.); 4 AM stations, no FM, and 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: Peninsular Malaysia: males 15-49, 2,590,000; 1,649,000 fit for military service; 119,000 reach military age (21) annually Sabah: males 15-49, 220,000; 131,000 fit for military service; 11,000 reach military age (21) annually Sarawak: males 15-49, 274,000; 163,000 fit for military service; 12,000 reach military age (21) annually External defense dependent on loose Five Power Defense Agreement (FPDA) which replaced Anglo-Malayan Defense Agreement of 1957 as amended in 1963 SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET MALAYSIA/MALDIVES Supply: fast patrol boats domestically produced; naval ships and equipment from New Zealand, Singapore, France and the U.S.; 4 missile attack boats under construction in Sweden; some air force equipment from Canada, France, U.S., and Australia; armored vehicles from U.S. and U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $1,060 million; about 19.9% of central government budget MALDIVES (,) SRI Laccadive LANKA Sea MALDIVES'.-male (See reference map VW LAND 298 km2; 2,000 islands grouped into 12 atolls, about 220 islands inhabited WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): the land and sea between latitudes 7?9'N. and 0?45'S. and between longi- tudes 72?30'E. and 73?48'E; these coordinates form a rectangle of approximately 37,000 nm2; territorial sea ranges from 2.75 to 55 nm; fishing, approximately 100 rim Coastline: 644 km (approx.) SECRET PEOPLE Population: 144,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Maldivian(s); adjective?Maldivian Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and Negro Religion: official Sunni Muslim Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala) Literacy: largely illiterate Labor force: fishing industry employs most of the male population GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Maldives Type: republic Capital: Male Political subdivisions: 19 administrative districts corre- sponding to atolls Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 29 March Branches: popularly elected unicameral national legisla- ture (Majlis) (members elected for 5-year terms); elected President, chief executive; appointed Chief Justice responsi- ble for administration of Islamic law Government leader: President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom Suffrage: universal over age 21 Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries Communists: negligible number Member of: Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77 GATT (de facto), IBRD, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UPU, WHO ECONOMY GNP: $17.4 million (1974), $135 per capita Agriculture: crops?coconut and millet; shortages?rice, sugar, flour Fishing: catch 26,700 metric tons (1977) Major industries: fishing; some coconut processing Electric power: 4,000 kW capacity (1977); 6 million kWh produced (1977), 40 kWh per capita Exports: $3.5 million (1977); fish Imports: $9.1 million (1977) Major trade partners: Sri Lanka, Japan Aid: U.K. (1960-65), $1.4 million drawn; Sri Lanka (1967), $1 million committed; OPEC bilateral (1974-77), $10 million; Japan and India (amounts not known) Monetary conversion rate: 3.93 Maldivian rupees=US$1, official rate; 9.2 rupees=US$1, market rate (June 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year 153 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 MALDIVES/MALI COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: none Ports: 2 minor Merchant marine: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 80,560 CRT, 99,900 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 1 container Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: minimal domestic and internation- al telecommunication facilities; 480 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 1 AM station; 1 Indian Ocean sattelite station DEFENSE FORCES No formal defense structure and no regular armed forces; MALI Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VI) LAND 1,204,350 km'; only about a fourth of area arable, forests. negligible, rest sparse pasture or desert 'Land boundaries: 7,459 km PEOPLE Population: 6,350,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Malian(s); adjective?Malian Ethnic divisions: 99% native African including tribes of both I3erber and Negro descent Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% animist, 1% Christian Language: French official; several African languages, of which Mande group most widespread 154 Literacy: under 5% Labor force: approximately 100,000 salaried, 50,000 of whom are employed by the government; most of population engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry Organized labor: Union National des Travailleurs Maliens (UNTM) is umbrella organization over thirteen national unions GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Mali Type: republic; under military regime since November 1968 Capital: Bamako Political subdivisions: 6 administrative regions; 42 administrative districts (cercles), arrondissements, villages; all subordinate to central government Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1974, comes into full effect in 1979; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September Branches: executive authority exercised by Military Committee of National Liberation (MCNL) composed of 11 army officers; under MCNL functional cabinet composed of civilians and .army officers; judiciary Government leaders: Brig. Gen. Moussa Traore, President of MCNL, Chief of State, and head of government Suffrage: universal over age 21 Political parties and leaders: political activity proscribed by military government but government has formed a new single party called the Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM), which will become the sole party under civilian leadership, scheduled for 1979 Elections: constitutionally designated for '1979 Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers Member of: AFDB, APC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: estimated about $645 million (1977), $110 per capita; annual real growth rate 5.8% (1973-76) Agriculture: main crops?millet, sorghum, rice, corn, peanuts; cash crops?peanuts, cotton, and livestock Fishing: catch 7,500 tons (1977) Major industries: small local consumer goods and processing Electric power: 42,000 kW capacity (1977); 105 million kWh produced (1977), 20 kWh per capita Exports: eStiniated $125 million (f.o.b., 1977); livestock, Peanuts, dried fish, cotton, and skins SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET MALI/MALTA Imports: estimated $170 million (c.i.f., 1977); textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, and sugar Major trade partners: mostly with franc zone and Western Europe; also with U.S.S.R., China Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77) $410 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $120.9 million; U.S., (1970-77), $119.4 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $37.2 million; military?Communist (1970-77), $98 million; U.S. (1970-77), $0.5 million Budget: (1976) expenditures $102 million; revenues $82 million Monetary conversion rate: 491.34 Mali francs=US$1, 1977 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 642 km meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: approximately 15,699 km total; 1,669 km bituminous, 3,670 km gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 42 total, 37 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: domestic system poor and provides only minimal service; open-wire and radiocommunication used for long distance telecommunications; 7,800 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, and no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,434,000; 810,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: dependent primarily on foreign countries, mainly the U.S.S.R.; also ha ? received equipment from Czechoslo- vakia, PRC, and FRG Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $29,058,304; about 21.7% of central government budget SECRET MALTA GRE CE ? MALTA Mediterranean Sea LIBYA (See reference map IV) LAND 313 km2; 45% agricultural, negligible amount forested, remainder urban, waste, or other (1965) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 20 nm) Coastline: 140 km PEOPLE Population: 343,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.0% (7-72 to 7-78) Nationality: noun Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjec- tive Maltese Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, British Religion: 98% Roman Catholic Language: English and Maltese Literacy: about 83%; compulsory education introduced in 1946 Labor force: 119,554 (November 1977); 32% services (except government), 18% government (except job corps), 5% job corps, 26% manufacturing, 6% agriculture, 3% construction, 5% utilities and drydocks; 3.3% registered unemployed Organized labor: approximately 40% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Malta Type: parliamentary democracy, independent republic within the Commonwealth since December 1974 Capital: Valletta Political subdivisions: 2 main populated islands, Malta and Gozo, divided into 13 electoral districts (divisions) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted 1961, came into force 1964; has accepted compul- sory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 155 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MALTA/MARTINIQUE Branches: executive, consisting of Prime Minister and cabinet; legislative, comprising 65-member House of Repre- sentatives; independent judiciary National holiday: Republic Day, 13 December Government leader: Prime Minister Dominic Mintoff Suffrage: universal over age 18; registration required Elections: at the discretion of the Prime Minister, but must be held before the expiration of a 5-year electoral mandate; last election September 1976 Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party, Edward Fenech Adami; Malta Labor Party, Dom Mintoff Voting strength (1976 election): Labor, 34 seats (51.54%); Nationalist, 31 seats (48.43%) Communists: less than 100 (est.) Member of: Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G- 77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO ECONOMY GNP: $764 million (1978), $2,344 per capita; 68% private consumption, 22% gross investment; 16% government consumption, ? 6% net foreign sector; in 1978 real GNP growth was 11% (1978 prelim.); 12.5% (1971-76 average) Agriculture: overall, 20% self-sufficient; adequate sup- plies of vegetables, poultry, milk and pork products; shortages in beef, grain, animal fodder, and fruits at various seasons; main products?potatoes, cauliflowers, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; 2,680 calories per day per capita Major industries: ship repair yard, clothing, building industry, food manufacturing, textiles, tourism Shortages: most consumer and industrial needs (fuels and raw materials) must be imported Electric power: 120,000 kW capacity (1978); 450 million kWh produced (1978), 1,380 kWh per capita Exports: $345 million (f.o.b., 1978); clothing, textiles, ships, printed matter Imports: $668 million (c.i.f., 1978) Major trade partners: 70% EC-nine (24% U.K., 20% West Germany, 13% Italy); 6% est. U.S. (1978) Budget: (1978/79) projects $283 million in expenditures, $220 million in revenues Monetary conversion rate: 1 Maltese pound=US$2.60 (average 1977) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 1,271 km total; 1,159 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth 156 July 1979 Ports: 1 major (Valletta), 2 minor Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 CRT or over) totaling 90,100 GRT, 126,800 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll- off cargo, 4 bulk, 1 specialized carrier, 1 tanker, 1 passenger, 1 liquefied gas carrier Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft (including 5 leased in) Airfields: 4 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern automatic telephone sys- tem centered in Valletta; 62,200 telephones (19.6 per 100 popl.); 1 TV, 5 AM, and 4 FM stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 79,000 65,000 fit for military service Supply: has received 2 patrol boats, small arms, and mortars from Libya; vehicles and engineer equipment from Italy Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1979, $9,417,460 (includes funds for Pioneer Corps and the Arms of Malta, totaling about $5.1 million); about 3.5% of central government budget MARTINIQUE LAND 1,100 km2; 31% cropland, 16% pasture, 29% forest, 24% wasteland, built on WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 290 km PEOPLE Population: 315,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate ?0.1% (10-67 to 1-78) Nationality: noun Martiniquais (sing. and pl.); adjective Martiniquais Ethnic divisions: 90% African and African-Caucasian- Indian mixture, less than 5% East Indian Lebanese, Chinese, 5% Caucasian SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MARTINIQUE AM OOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO RICO Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean ? MARTINIQUE% 0 (See reference map III Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African Language: French, Creole patois Literacy: over 70% Labor force: 100,000; 23% agriculture, 20% public services, 11% construction and public works, 10% commerce and banking, 10% services, 9% industry, 17% other Organized labor: 11% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Department of Martinique Type: overseas department of France; represented by 3 deputies in the French National Assembly and 2 Senators in the Senate; incumbent deputies Aime Cesaire, Camille Petit, and Victor Sable reelected to National Assembly, 12 March 1978 'Capital: Fort-de-France Political subdivisions: 2 arrondissements; 34 communes, each with a locally elected municipal council Legal system: French legal system; highest court is a court of appeal based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique Branches: executive, Prefect appointed by Paris; legisla- tive, popularly elected council of 36 members and a Regional Council including all members of the local general council and the locally elected deputies and senators to the French parliament; judicial, under jurisdiction of French judicial system ? Government leader: Prefect Raymond Heim left post 14 April 1979; no replacement named as of end-May 1979 Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: General Council elections normally are held every five years; last General Council election took place in March 1978 Political parties and ,leaders: Rassemblement Pour la Republique (RPR), Emile Maurice; Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM), Aime Cesaire; Communist Party of SECRET SECRET Martinique (PCM),. Armand Nicolas; Democratic Union of Martinique (UDM), Leon-Laurent Valere; Socialist Party, leader unknown; Federation of the Left, leader unknown Voting strength: RPR, 2 seats in French National Assembly; PPM, 1 seat (1973 election) Communists: 1,000 estimated Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP), Socialist Revolution Group (CRS) ECONOMY GNP: $1,169 million (1977 at current prices), $3,600 per capita Agricultuie: bananas, sugarcane, and pineapples Major industries: agricultural processing, particularly sugar milling and rum distillation; cement, oil refining and tourism Electric power: 95,500 kW capacity (1977); 150 million kWh produced (1977), 430 kWh per capita Exports: $128.1 million (f.o.b., 1977); bananas, refined petroleum products, rum, sugar, pineapples Imports: $426.5 million (c.i.f., 1977); foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer goods, raw materials and supplies, and petroleum Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76) from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $1.4 billion; no military aid Major trading partners: exports-82% France, 9% Italy, 9% other; imports-70% France, 6% United States, 3% Netherlands Antilles, 3% Netherlands, 18% other (1968) Monetary conversion rate: 4.75 French francs=US$1 (1976) Fiscal year: Calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 1,606 km total; 1,200 km paved, 400 km gravel and earth Ports: 1 major (Fort-de-France), 5 minor Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft (leased in) Airfields: 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway 2:440-3,659 m Telecommunications: domestic facilities inadequate; 34,700 telephones (10.2 per 100 popl.); inter-island VHF and UHF radio links; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 1 AM, 1 FM, and 5 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, Defense is responsibility of France; included in France 157 25X1 2bAl Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MARTINIQUE/MAURITANIA MAURITANIA (See reference reap VI) LAND 1,085,210 km2; less than 1% suitable for crops, 10% pasture, 90% desert Land boundaries: 5,118 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 30 nm (fishing, 36 nm) Coastline: 754 km PEOPLE Population: 1,558,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Mauritanian(s); adjective? Mauri- tanian Ethnic divisions: nearly one third Moor, at least one third Black, one third mix Moor/Black Religion: nearly 100% Muslim Language: Arabic is the national language, French is the working language for government and commerce Literacy: about 10% Labor force: about 95,000 wage earners (1979); remain- der of population in farming and herding; considerable unemployment Organized labor: 30,000 union members claimed by single union, Mauritanian Workers' Union GOVERNMENT ' Legal name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania Type: republic; military seized power in bloodless coup 10 July 1978 158 July 1979 Capital: Nouakchott Political subdivisions: 12 regions and a capital district NOTE: Mauritania has acquired administrative control of the southern third of Western (formerly Spanish) Sahara under an agreement with Morocco, but the legal question of sovereignty over the area has yet to be determined. Spain's role as co-administrator of the disputed territory ended February 1976. The newly acquired region, which lies below the 24th parallel, becomes the district of Tins el Gbarbia?a territorial division of the state. The district's headquarters is Dakhla, formerly Villa Cisneros. Tins el Gharbia is subdivided into three departments?Dakhla, Ausert, and Aargub. Legal system: based on French and Islamic law; constitution suspended National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November Branches: executive, Military Committee for National Welfare rules by decree; National Assembly and judiciary suspended pending restoration of civilian rule Government leaders: President, Lt. Col. Mohamed Mahmoud OuId Louly Ahmed; Prime Minister and head of government, Lt. Col. Mohamed OuId. Khouna Heydala Suffrage: universal for adults Elections: in abeyance; last election October 1975 Political parties and leaders: suspended Communists: no Communist Party, but there is a scattering of Maoist sympathizers Member of: AFD13, AIOEC, Arab League, CEAO, CIPEC (associate), EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OMVS (Organization for the Develop- ment of the Senegal River Valley), U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: about $328 million (1978 prov.), $240 per capita, average annual increase in current prices about 2% (1971-78) Agriculture: most Mauritanians are nomads or subsistence farmers; main products?livestock, 'small grains, dates; cash crops?gum arabic; livestock Fishing: catch, 34,170 metric tons; exports, 29,891 metric tons (1975) Major industries: mining of iron ore and copper, fishing Electric power: 70,000 kW capacity (1977); 100 million kWh produced (1977), 70 kWh per capita ? Exports: $136 million (f.o.b., 1978 prov.); iron ore, fish, copper Imports: $314 million (f.o.b., 1978 prov.); foodstuffs, capital goods Major trade partners: (trade figures not complete because Mauritania has a form of customs union with Senegal and much local trade unreported) France and other EC members, U.K., and U.S. are main overseas partners SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MAURITAINA/MAURITIUS Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $433.4 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $150.0 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $96.6 million; military? U.S. (1970-77), $31.4 million; Communist countries (1970- 76), $4.0 million Budget: 1978 prov. $267 million expenditures, $44 million grants, $138 million revenue Monetary conversion rate: 45.68 Ouguiyas=US$1 as of November 1977 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 650 km standard gage (1.435 m), single track, Privately owned Highways: 6,090 km total; 558 km paved; 607 km gravel, crushed stone, or otherwise improved; 4,925 km unimproved Inland waterways: 800 km Ports: 1 major (Nouadhibou), 2 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 1,500 GRT, 1,700 DWT Civil air:- 6 major transport aircraft Airfields: 30 total, 30 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: poor system of fragmentary cable and open-wire lines, a minor radio-relay link, and radiocom- munications stations; 2,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, no FM or TV station' s . DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 365,000; 176,000 fit for military service; conscription law not implemented Supply: primarily dependent on France; has also received material from Algeria, Morocco, U.K., and Spain Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1976 (revised), $29 million; 22% of central government budget MAURITIUS LAND 1,856 km' (excluding dependencies); 50% agricultural, intensely cultivated; 39% forests, woodlands, mountains, river, and natural reserves; 3% built-up areas; 5% water bodies, 2% roads and tracks, 1% permanent wastelands SECRET SECRET (See teference map VII WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 177 km PEOPLE Population: 933,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.3% (7-71 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Mauritian(s); adjective?Mauritian Ethnic divisions: 67% Indians, 29% Creoles, 3.5% Chinese, 0.5% English and French Religion: 51% Hindu, 33% Christian (mostly Catholic with a few Anglican Protestants), 16% Muslim Language: English official language; Hindi, Chinese, French Creole Literacy: estimated 60% for those over 21, and 90% for those of school age Labor force: 175,000; 50% agriculture, 6% industry; 20% government services; 14% are unemployed, underemployed, or self-employed, 10% other Organized labor: about 35% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Mauritius Type: independent state since 1968, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: Port Louis Political subdivisions: 5 organized municipalities and various island dependencies Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English common law in certain areas; constitu- tion adopted 6 March 1968 National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March Branches: executive power exercised by Prime Minister and 21-man Council of Ministers; unicameral legislature (National Assembly) with 62 members elected by direct suffrage, 8 specially elected Government leader: Prime Minister Dr. Seewoosagur Ramgoolam 159 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MAURITIUS/MEXICO Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: legislative elections held in December 1976; municipal elections held in 1977 Political parties and leaders: a government coalition consisting of Labor Party (S. Ramgoolam) and Parti Mauricien Social Demoorate (G. Duval); opposition parties? Mauritius Democratic Union (M. Lesage), Mouvement Militant Mauritian (P. Berenger), Mouvement Militant Mauritian Socialiste Progressist (D. Virahsawmy) Voting strength: the Mauritius Labor Party and the Parti Mauricien Social Democrate have a coalition in the National Assembly of 38 seats; the Movement Militant Mauritian has 32 seats Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Com- munist organizations; Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women's Committee, Mauritius Communist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive Party, Mauritius Young Communist League, Mauritius Liberation Front, Chinese Middle School Friendly Association, Mauri- tius/USSR Friendship Society Other political or pressure groups: Tamil United Party, Mauritius Workers Party Member of: Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $570 million (1977), $640 per capita; real growth (1970-76), 6% Agriculture: sugar crop is major economic asset; about 40% of land area is planted to sugar; most food imported? rice is the staple food?and since cultivation is already intense and expansion of cultivable areas is unlikely, heavy reliance on food imports except sugar and tea will continue Shortage: land Industries: mainly confined to processing sugarcane, tea; some small-scale, simple manufactures; tobacco fiber; some fishing; tourism, diamond cutting, weaving and textiles, electronics Electric power: 81,000 kW capacity (1977); 312 million kWh produced (1977), 340 kWh per capita Exports: $312 million (f.o.b., 1977); $268 million sugar, $4 million tea, $5 million molasses Imports: $358 million (f.o.b., 1977); foodstuffs 30%, manufactured goods about 25% Major trade partners: all EC-nine countries and U.S. have preferential treatment, U.K. buys over 50% of Mauritius' sugar export at heavily subsidized prices; small amount of sugar exported to Canada, U.S., and Italy; imports from U.K. and EC primarily, also from South Africa, Australia, and Burma; some minor trade with China Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $105.0 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $40.2 million; U.S. (1970-77), $14.9 million 160 July 1979 Budget: revenues $174 million, current expenditures $201 million (1977) Monetary conversion rate: 6.6 Mauritian rupees=US$1 1977 (floating with pound sterling) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 1,786 km total; 1,636 km paved, 150 km earth Civil air: no major transport aircraft Ports: 1 major (Port Louis) Merchant marine: 7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,600 GRT, 49,500 DWT Airfields: 6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent surface runway; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: radio telegraph service with Re- union, Malagasy Republic, Seychelles, Zanzibar, and other places in Africa; 1 AM, no FM, and 4 TV stations; 26,500 telephones (2.9 per 100 popl.); 1 Indian Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 245,000; 127,000 fit for military service Mutual defense and assistance Agreement with the U.K.; Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $13,467,287; 3.7% of central government budget MEXICO LAND 1,978,800 km2; 12% cropland, 40% pasture, 22% forested, 26% other (including waste, urban areas and public lands) Land boundaries: 4,220 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm), 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 9,330 km PEOPLE Population: 66,114,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) Nationality: noun?Mexican(s); adjective?Mexican Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo, 30% Indian or predomi- nantly Indian, 9% white or predominantly white, 1% other SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MEXICO UNITED STATES Gulf of Mexico MEXICOCUBA Mexico BE Pacific Ocean GUATEMALA (See reference map Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 3% other Language: Spanish Literacy: 65% estimated; 84% claimed officially Labor force: 18.0 million (1978) (defined as those 12 years of age and older); 33.0% agriculture, 16.0% manufacturing, 16.6% services, 16.8% construction, utilities, commerce, and . transport, 3% government, 5.4% unspecified activities; 10% unemployed, 40% underemployed Organized labor: 20% of total labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Mexican States Type: federal republic operating in fact under a centralized government Capital: Mexico Political subdivisions: 31 states, Federal District Legal system: mixture of U.S. constitutional theory and civil law system; constitution established in 1917; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- tion, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September Branches: dominant executive, bicameral legislature, Supreme Court Government leader: President Jos?OPEZ PORTILLO y Pacheco Suffrage: universal over age 18; compulsory but unenforced Elections: congressional elections July 1979 Political parties and leaders: Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Gustavo Carvajal Moreno; National Action Party (PAN), Abel Vincencio Tovar; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Jorge Cruickshank Garcia; Authentic Party of the Revolution (PARM), Pedro Gonzalez Azcuaga Note: under the 1977 political reform program, political parties will have to obtain 1.5% of the National vote in the 1979 election to receive -definite registration- and become a member of the legal oppostion; under the new guidelines SECRET SECRET several parties, including the Mexican Communist Party, the Socialist Workers Party, and the Mexican Democratic Party have qualified for participation in the elections Voting strength: 1976 presidential election: 98.7% PRI ?(unopposed), 1.3% other; 1976 congressional election: 80.2% PRI; 8.5% PAN; 5.8% other opposition (votes cast for PPS, PARM, and unregistered candidates), 5.4% annulled Communists: Mexican Communist Party (estimated 25,000 claimed, but probably much lower) and other minor far-left parties Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), Con- federation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confed- eration of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCA- NACO), National Cofederation of Campesinos (CNC), National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP), Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC) Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC? International Whaling Commission, LAFTA, NAMUCAR (Carribean Multinational Shipping Line?Naviera Multina- cional del Caribe), OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $92.4 billion (1978 prelim.), $1,418-per capita; 68% private consumption, 12% public consumption, 12% private investment, 8% public investment (1977); net foreign balance ?0%; real growth rate 1978, 6.6% Agriculture: main crops?corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, sorghum, oilseeds, pulses, and vegetables; general self-sufficiency with minor exceptions in meat and dairy products; caloric intake, 2,700 calories per day per capita (1975) Fishing: catch 562,106 metric tons (1977); exports valued at $151.3 million, imports at $17.8 million (1975) Major industries: processing of food, beverages, and tobacco; chemicals, basic metals and metal products, petroleum products, mining, textiles and clothing, and transport equipment Crude steel: 9.0 million metric tons capacity (1977); 5.5 million metric tons produced (1977) Electric power: 13,900,000 kW capacity (1977); 54.8 billion kWh produced (1978), 830 kWh per capita Exports: $6,545 million (f.o.b., 1978); cotton, coffee, nonferrous minerals (including lead and zinc), sugar, shrimp, petroleum, sulfur, salt, Cattle and meat, fresh fruit, tomatoes, machinery and equipment Imports: $8,051 million (c.i.f., 1978); machinery, equip- ment, industrial vehicles, and intermediate goods Major trade partners: exports-63% U.S., 5% EC, 2% Japan (1977); imports-6495 U.S., 15% EC, 5% Japan 161 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MEXICO/MONACO Aid: economic?(including Ex-Imp Credits) extensions (1970-76), from U.S. $804 million; from Communist countries, $12 million; from other Western (non-U.S.) countries, $1,106.5 million Budget: 1978 federal, revenues $434 billion pesos, expenditures $634 billion pesos Monetary conversion rate: floating; 22.7670 pesos=US$1 (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 19,680 km total; 18,576 km standard gage (1.435 m); 1,104 km narrow gage (0.914 m); 102 km electrified; 19,573 km government-owned, 107 km privately-owned Highways: 200,000 km total; 62,000 km paved, 88,300 km otherwise improved, 49,700 km unimproved Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals Pipelines: crude oil, 3,910 km; refined products, 3,490 km; natural gas, 5,710 km Ports: 9 major, 20 minor Merchant marine: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 701,800 GRT, 1,041,800 DWT; includes 6 passenger, 18 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 tanker, 1 speCialized carrier, 3 bulk, 2 liquefied gas carrier Civil air: 101 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 2,150 total, 2,084 usable; 150 with permanent- surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 286 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed telecom system with extensive radio-relay links; connection into Central American microwave net; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite ground station; 3.31 million telephones (5.2 per 1:00 popl.); 574 AM, 109 FM, and 163 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,015,000; 11,420,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually, 765,000 162 July 1979 Supply: produces small arms, mortars, ammunition and quartermaster equipment; imports other materiel including most naval ships from U.S., Western Europe, Israel, and Japan Military budget: for year ending 31 December 1978, $699.1 million MONACO (See reference man IV) LAND 1.5 krn2 Land. boundaries: 3.7 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 4.1 km SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July *1979 SECRET MONACO/MONGOLIA PEOPLE Population: 25,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1976) Nationality: noun?Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjec- tive?Monacan or Monegasque Ethnic divisions: Rhaetian stock Religion: Roman Catholicism is official state religion Language: French Literacy: almost complete GOVERNMENT Legal name: Principality of Monaco Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Monaco Political subdivisions: 4 sections Legal system: based on French law; new constitution adopted 1962; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 19 November Branches: National Council (18 members); Communal Council (15 members, headed -by a mayor) Government leader: Prince Rainier III Suffrage: universal Elections: National Council every 5 years; most recent 1978 Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Entente, Democratic Union Movement, Monegasque Action- ist (1973) Voting strength: figures for 1978: National Democratic Entente, 18 seats Member of: IAEA, IHO, IPU, ITU, U.N. (permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO ECONOMY GNP: 55% tourism; 25%-30% industry (small and primar- ily tourist oriented); 10%-15% registration fees and sales of postage stamps; about 4% traceable to the Monte Carlo casino Major industries: chemicals, food processing, precision instruments, glassmaking, printing Electric power: 8,000 (standby) kW capacity (1978); 100 million kWh supplied by France (1978) Trade: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monacan trade duties Monetary conversion rate: 1 franc=US$0.2216 (1978 average) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1.6 km of 1.435 m gage Highways: none; city streets - Ports: 1 minor Merchant marine: 3 tankers totaling 31,400 GRT, 20,400 DWT Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: none SECRET Telecommunications: served by the French communica- tions system; automatic telephone system with about 23,700 telephones (96.5 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 4 FM, and 3 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES France responsible for defense MONGOLIA (See referent., mop VII) LAND 1,564,619 km2; almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert wasteland, varying in usefulness, less than 1% arable, 10% forested Land boundaries: 8,000 km PEOPLE Population: 1,639,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Mongolian(s); adjective?Mongolian Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited religious activity because of Communist regime Languages: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese Literacy: about 80% Labor force: primarily agricultural, over half the population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of Mongolian women; shortage of skilled labor (no reliable information available) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Mongolian People's Republic Type: Communist state Capital: Ulaanbaatar 163 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MONGOLIA/MOROCCO Political subdivisions: 18 provinces and 2 autonomous municipalities (Ulaanbaatar and Darhan) Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; new constitution adopted 1960; no constitu- tional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Ulaanbaatar State University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July Branches: constitution provides for a People's Great Hural (national assembly) and a highly centralized administration Party and government leaders: Yumiaagiyn Tsedenbal, First Secretary of the MPRP and Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Hural; Jambyn Batmonh, Chairman of the Council of Ministers Suffrage: universal; age 18 and over Elections: national assembly elections held every 4 years; last election held June 1977 Political party: Mongolian People's Revolutionary (Com- munist) Party (MPRP); estimated membership, 67,000 (1976) Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, IAEA, ILO, IPU, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY Agriculture: livestock raising predominates; main crops- -wheat, oats, barley Industries: processing of animal products; building materials; mining Electric power: 356,000 kW capacity (1978); 1,215 million kWh produced (1978), 755 kWh per capita Exports: beef for slaughter meat products, wool, fluorspar, other minerals Imports: machinery and equipment, petroleum, clothing, building materials, sugar, and tea Major trade partners: nearly all trade with Communist countries (approx. 85% with U.S.S.R.); total turnover about $1.0 billion (1977) Aid: heavily dependent on U.S.S.R. Monetary conversion rate: 3.11 tugriks=US$1 (June 1978); arbitrarily established Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,516 km; all broad gage (1.524 m) (1976) Highways: 83,280 km total; 400 km concrete, asphalt; 9,920 km crushed stone, gravel; 72,960 km earth (1978) Inland waterways: 616 km of principal routes (1975) Freight carried: rail-8.1 million metric tons, 2,718 million metric ton/km (1976); highway-15.2 million metric tons, 1,060 million metric ton/km (1976); waterway-0.05 million metric tons, 0.04 billion metric ton/km (1975) Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft (1976) 164 July 1979 Airfields: 30 total; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 16 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 10 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 4 with runways less than 1,000 m Telecommunications: domestic and international facili- ties are being modernized and provide fairly good service; 25,805 telephones (96% automatic); about 93 telephone exchanges and 25 telegraph offices; 2 main AM radiobroad- cast stations supplemented by about 294 wired broadcast distribution stations; 111,000 radio and 67,000 wired broadcast receivers; 3 TV stations; 20,000 TV receivers (est.) DEFENSE .FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 361,000; 235,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually, about 17,000 Supply: military equipment supplied by U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, 405 million tugriks, 12% of total budget MOROCCO PORTUG L Atlantic Ocean WESTERN SA NARA (See reference map VI) LAND 409,200 km2; about 32% arable and grazing land, 17% forest and esparto, 51% desert, waste, and urban Land boundaries: 1,996 km 9Soviet ground forces troops in Mongolia as of 1 January 1978, 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 30,000 and 6,500 Soviet air force personnel ? 25X1 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 MOROCCO WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) Coastline: 1,835 km PEOPLE Population: 19,751,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Moroccan(s); adjective?Moroccan Ethnic divisions: 99.1% Arab-Berber, 0.2% Jewish, 0.7% non-Moroccan Religion: 98.7% Muslim, 1.1% Christian, 0.2% Jewish Language: Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is language of much business, government, diplo- macy, and postprimary education Literacy: 20% Labor force: 5 million (1977 est.); 50% agriculture, 15% industry, 26% services, 9% other; at least 20% of urban labor unemployed Organized labor: about 5% of the labor force, mainly in the Union of Moroccan Workers (UMT), but new Democrat- - ic Confederation of Labor expanding rapidly GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Morocco Type: constitutional monarchy (constitution adopted 1972) Capital: Rabat Political subdivisions: 31 provinces and 2 prefectures NOTE: Morocco has acquired administrative control over the northern two-thirds of the former Spanish Sahara under an agreement with Mauritania, but the legal question of sovereignty over the area has yet to be determined. Spain's role as co-administrator of the disputed territory ended in February 1976. Rabat has established three additional provinces in its area of control, with headquarters at El Aaiun, Semara, and Cabo Bojador. Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court; modern legal education at branches of Mohamed V University in Rabat and Casablanca and Karaouine University in Fes; has not accepted 'compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November Branches: constitution provides for Prime Minister and ministers named by and responsible to King; King has paramount executive powers; unicameral legislature two- thirds directly elected, one-third indirectly; judiciary inde- pendent of other branches Government leaders: King Hassan II; Prime Minister Maati Bouabid Suffrage: universal over age 20 SECRET SECRET Elections: local elections held 12 November 1976; provincial elections held 25 January 1977; elections for new National Assembly provided for in Constitution adopted 15 March 1972 were held June 1977 Political parties and leaders: Istiqlal Party, M'hamed Boucetta; Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Abderrahim Bouabid; Popular Movement (MP), Mahjoubi Aherdan; Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement (MPCD), Dr. Abdelkrim Khatib; National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP), Abdallah Ibrahim and Mahjoub Ben Seddik; National Assembly of Independents (RNI) formed in October 1978 is pro-government grouping of previously unaffiliated deputies in parliament, Ahmed Osman; Demo- cratic Constitutional Party (PDC), Mohamed Hassan Ouaz- zani; Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS), legalized in August 1974, is front for Moroccan Communist Party (MCP), which was proscribed in 1959, Ali Yata Voting strength: pro-government independents hold absolute majority in new Chamber of Representatives; with palace-oriented Popular Movement deputies, the King controls over two-thirds of the seats Communists: 300 est. Member of: AFDB, Arab League, EC (association until 1974), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, 'ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $9.7 billion (1977), about $746 per capita; average annual real growth 6-7% during 1973-77, 1.3% in 1977, 4.0% in 1978 Agriculture: cereal farming and livestock raising predomi- nate; main products?wheat, barley, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; some fishing Fishing: catch 281,434 metric tons. (1976); exports $64.5 million (1975) Major sectors: mining and mineral processing (phos- phates, smaller quantities of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and other minerals), food processing, textiles, construction and tourism Electric power: 1,300,000 kW capacity (1978); 3.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 185 kWh per capita Exports: $1,302 million (1977); 33% phosphates, 77% other Imports: $3.0 billion (1977); 34.0% capital goods, 13.5% foodstuffs, 11.0% petroleum products Major trade partners: France, West Germany, Italy Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $1,125 million; U.S. (1970-77), $414.8 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $702.1 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $104.4 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $93.8 million 165 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET MOROCCO/MOZAMBIQUE Budget: (1978) revenue $2.7 billion, expenditure $2.6 billion Monetary conversion rate: 4.5 dirhams=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,756 km standard gage (1.435 m), 161 km double track; 708 km electrified Highways: 55,970 km total; 24,700 km bituminous treated, 4,000 km gravel, crushed stone, and improved earth, 27,270 km unimproved earth Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (abandoned) refined products; 241 km natural gas Ports: 8 major (including Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla), 10 minor Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 327,300 GRT, 536,400 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 21 cargo, 3 container, 5 tanker, 3 bulk, 11 specialized carrier, 1 liquefied gas carrier Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft Airfields: 78 total, 77 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 29 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system composed of open-wire lines, cables and radio-relay links; principal centers Casab- lanca and Rabat, secondary centers Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Sebaa Aioun, Tangier and Tetouan; 199,000 telephones (1.1 per 100 popl.); 25 AM, 4 FM, 27 TV stations; 4 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,129,000; 2,463,000 fit for military service; about 230,000 reach military age (18) annually; limited conscription Supply: dependent entirely pally France and U.S. Military 1979, $915 166 on foreign supplies, princi- budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December million; 19% of central government budget July 1979 MOZAMBIQUE (See -reference map VI) Land 786,762 km2; 30% arable, of which 1% cultivated, 56% woodland and forest, 14% wasteland and inland water Land boundaries: 4,627 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (200 nm exclusive economic zone) Coastline: 2,470 km PEOPLE Population: 10,108,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Mozambican(s); adjective?Mozam- bican Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African, less than 1% European and Asian SECRET 5X1 25X1' 1 25X1: 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET MOZAMBIQUE/NAMBIA Religion: 65.6% animist, 21.5% Christian, 10.5% Muslim, 2.4% other Language: Portuguese (official); many tribal dialects Literacy: 15% (1974 est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Mozambique Type: peoples republic; achieved independence from Portugal in June 1975 Capital: Maputo Political subdivisions: 10 provinces subdivided into about 94 districts; administrators are appointed by central government Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June Branches: none established Government leader: President Samora Moises Machel Suffrage: not yet established Elections: information not available on future election schedule Political parties and leaders: the Mozambique Liber- ation Front (FRELIMO), led by Samora Machel, is only legal party Communists: none known Member of: G-77, ILO, NAM, OAU, U.N. ECONOMY GNP: $1.7 billion (1978 est.), about $170 per capita; average annual growth probably negative in 1975-77 Agriculture: cash crops?raw cotton, cashew nuts, sugar, tea, copra, sisal; other crops?corn, wheat, peanuts, potatoes, beans, sorghum, and cassava; self-sufficient in food except for wheat which must be imported Major industries: food processing (chiefly sugar, tea, wheat, flour, cashew kernels); chemicals (vegetable oil, oilcakes, soap, paints); petroleum products; beverages; textiles; nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbes- tos, cement products); tobacco Electric power: 1,664,000 kW capacity (1977); 4.6 billion kWh produced (1977), 490 kWh per capita Exports: $155 million (1977 est.); cashew nuts, cotton, sugar, mineral products, timber products, tea, copra Imports: $420 million (1977 est.); machinery and electri- cal equipment, cotton textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, wine, iron and steel Major trade partners: Portugal, South Africa, U.S., U K, West Germany Aid: (1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $480.0 million; Communist countries, $156.8 million; U.S., $24.5 million; OPEC .(ODA) (1973-77), $47.6 million; military? (1975-77) Communist countries, $121.0 million Budget: (FY76) expenditures, $310 million, revenues, $237 million Monetary conversion rate: 40.643 escudos=US$1 as of November 1977 SECRET Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,161 km total; 3,020 km 1.067-meter gage; 141 km narrow gage (0.750 m) Highways: 26,477 km total; 4,322 km paved; 607 km improved earth; 21,548 km unimproved earth, unconnected Inland waterways: approx. 3,750 km of navigable routes Pipelines: crude oil, 306 km (not operating) Ports: 3 major (Maputo, Beira, Nacala), 2 significant minor Merchant marine: 7 ships totaling 18,800 GRT, 28,000 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 1 tanker Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 323 total, 299 usable; 29 with permanent-sur- face runways; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 34 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open- wire lines, and radiocommunications; principal centers Maputo, Beira, and Nampula; 52,200 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 2 FM, no TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,248,000; 1,158,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly from the USSR and PRC, and to a lesser extent from other Communist countries and Portugal Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $82.6 million; 21.7% of central government budget NAMIBIA (South-West Africa) LAND 823,620 km2; mostly desert except for interior plateau and area along northern border Land boundaries: 3,798 km 167 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NAMBIA NAMIBIA Windhoek, SOUTH AFRICA (WALVIS BAY) (See reference map VI) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 1,489 km PEOPLE Population: 992,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Namibian(s); adjective?Namibian Ethnic divisions: 12% white, 6% mulatto, 82% African; over half the Africans belong to Ovambo tribe Religion: whites predominantly Christian, nonwhites either animist or Christian Language: Afrikaans principal language of about 70% of white population, German of 22% and English of 8%; several African languages Literacy: high for white population; low for nonwhite Labor force: 203,300 (total of economically active, 1970); 68% agriculture, 15% railroads, 13% mining, 4% fishing Organized labor: no trade unions, although some white wage earners belong to South African unions GOVERNMENT Legal name: Namibia Type: former German colony of South-West Africa mandated to South Africa by League of Nations in 1920; U.N. formally ended South Africa's mandate on October 27, 1966, but South Africa has retained administrative control Capital: Windhoek Political subdivisions: 10 tribal homelands, mostly in northern sector, and zone open to white settlement with administrative subdivisions similar to a province of South Africa Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law Branches: since September 1977 an administrator-gen- eral, appointed by South African government, has exercised coordinative functions over zone of white settlement, where 168 July 1979 white-elected Legislative Assembly handles some local matters, and tribal homelands, where traditional chiefs and representative bodies exercise limited autonomy; Namibian Constituent Assembly, elected December 1978, has advisory functions Government leader: Martinus T. Steyn, Administrator- general Suffrage: franchise for Legislative Assembly limited to white adults; several tribal homelands have adult franchise for homeland legislatures; all ethnic groups were eligible to vote in 1979 election for Constituent Assembly Elections: last general election, Legislative Assembly, 1974; election of Constituent Assembly, December 1978 Political parties and leaders: white parties?Action Front for the Preservation of the Turnhalle Principles (AKTUR), Abraham H. du Plessis; Federal Party, Bryan O'Linn; Republican Party, Dirk Mudge; most of the nonwhite parties belong to one of two muli-ethnic alli- ances?the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), the traditional tribal leaders and the white Republican Party, or the Namibian National Front (NNF), the white Federal Party and nonwhite groups that oppose the bantustan system; South-West Africa People's Organization Democrats (SWAPO-D), a predominantly Ovambo party led by Andreas Shipanga, broke away from Nujoma's SWAPO and is loosely affiliated with NNF Voting strength: (1978 election) DTA won 41 seats in Constituent Assembly; AKTUR, 6 seats; 3 miniscule parties, 1 seat each; NNF, SWAPO, and SWAPO-D boycotted elections Communists: no Communist Party, SWAPO guerrilla force is supported by U.S.S.R., Cuba, and other Communist states as well as OAU Other political or pressure groups: South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), led by Sam Nujoma, maintains a foreign-based guerrilla movement; is predomi- nantly Ovambo but has some influence among other tribes; is the only Namibian group recognized by the U.N. General Assembly and the Organization of African Unity ECONOMY GDP: approximately $1 billion (est. 1976), $1,090 per capita; growth rate about 5% since 1970 Agriculture: livestock raising (cattle and sheep) predomi- nates, subsistence crops (millet, sorghum, corn, and some wheat) are raised but most food must be imported Fishing: catch 86,650 metric tons (1975) (processed mostly in South African enclave of Walvis Bay) Major industries: meatpacking, fish processing, copper, lead, diamond, and uranium mining, dairy products Electric power: 297,400 kW capacity (1977); 1,110 million kWh produced (1977), 1,110 kWh per capita Exports: $335 million (f.o.b., 1970); diamonds, uranium, base metals (blister copper, lead-copper-zinc concentrates, refined lead), 'cattle and karakul pelts, fish products (pilchard products, rock lobster, white fish) SECRET 25X1, 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NAMBIA/NAURU Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1969); grain and other food products, steel, fertilizer, cement, textiles, and capital goods Major trade partners: Republic of South Africa supplies about 90% of country's imports; most of the rest of Namibia's trade is with the U.K. and West Germany Aid: South Africa is only donor Monetary conversion rate: 1 South African Rand= US$1.15 (as of March 1978); 0.87 SA Rand=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,340 km 1.067-meter gage, single track Highways: 33,800 km; 3,800 km paved, remainder gravel, remainder earth roads and tracks Ports: 2 major (Walvis Bay and Luderitz) Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft (registered in South Africa) Airfields: 115 total, 85 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 36 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural services; open wire and radio relay connect a few towns; Windhoek only major center; 48,000 telephones (5.0 per 100 popl.); 11 FM, no AM and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, about 234,000; about 133,000 fit for military service Defense is responsibility of Republic of South Africa NAURU LAND 21.2 km2; insignificant arable land, no urban areas, extensive phosphate mines WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 24 km PEOPLE Population: 7,000 (preliminary total from the census of 22 January 1977) SECRET SECRET NAURU* 1\ NEWTGIJI EA t7,,?Pacific Ocean Coral Sea (See reference map 111111 Nationality: noun?Nauruan(s); adjective?Nauruan Ethnic divisions: 48% Nauruans, 19% Chinese, 7% Europeans, 26% other Pacific Islanders Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Catholic) Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island tongue; English, the language of school instruction, spoken and understood by nearly all Literacy: nearly universal GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Nauru Type: republic; independent since January 1968 Capital: no capital city per se; government offices in Yaren District Political subdivisions: 14 districts Branches: President elected from and by Parliament for an unfixed term; popularly elected 18-member unicameral legislature, the Parliament; Cabinet to assist the President, four members, appointed by President from Parliament members Government leader: President Hammer DeRoburt Suffrage: universal adult Elections: last held in November 1977 Political parties and leaders: governing faction, Presi- dent DeRoburt; opposition Nauru Party, Lagumot Harris Member of: no present plans to join U.N.; enjoys -special membership- in Commonwealth; South Pacific Commission, ESCAP, INTERPOL, ITU, UPU ECONOMY GNP: over $120 million (1975), $17,140 per capita (est.) Agriculture: negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for food, water Major industries: mining of phosphates, about 2 million tons per year Electric power: 9,000 kW capacity (1977); 26 million kWh produced (1977), 3,710 kWh per capita 169 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NAURU/NEPAL Exports: $120 million (f.o.b., 1975 est.); consisting entirely of phosphates Imports: $5 million (c.i.f., FY70) Major trade partners: exports-7 5% Australia and New Zealand; imports?Australia, U.K., New Zealand, Japan Monetary conversion rate: 1 Australian dollar= US$1.1532 (September 1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth Inland waterways: none Ports: 1 minor Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,900 GRT, 73,800 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 bulk Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on order Airfields: 1, coral-surfaced, over 1,220 m Telecommunications: adequate intraisland and interna- tional radiocommunications provided via Australian facili- ties; 700 telephones; 3,600 radio receivers, 1 AM, no FM and no TV stations; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: ,males 15-49, about 2,000; fit for military service, about 1,000; average number reaching military age (18) annually, 1978-82, less than 100 No formal defense structure and no regular armed forces NEPAL (See reference rnep VIII LAND 141,400 km2; 16% agricultural area, 14% permanent meadows and pastures, 38% alpine land (unarable), waste, or urban; 32% forested Land boundaries: 2,800 km 179 July 1979 PEOPLE Population: 14,028,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Nepalese (sing. and pl.); adjective? Nepalese Ethnic divisions: two main categories, Indo-Nepalese (about 80%) and Tibeto-Nepalese (about 20%), representing considerable intermixture of Indo-Aryan and Mongolian racial strains; country divided among many quasi-tribal communities Religion: only official Hindu Kingdom in world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups; small groups of Muslims and Christians Language: 20 mutually unintelligible languages divided into numerous dialects; Nepali official language and lingua franca for much of the country; same script as Hindi Literacy: about 12% Labor force: 4.1 million; 95% agriculture, 5% industry; great lack of skilled labor GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Nepal Type: constitutional monarchy; King Birendra exercises autocratic control over multitiered panchayat system of government Capital: Kathmandu Political subdivisions: 75 districts, 14 zones Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; legal education at Nepal Law College in Kathmandu; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Birthday of the King, 28 December Branches: Council of Ministers appointed by the King; indirectly elected National Panchayat (Assembly) Government leaders: King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev; Prime Minister Kirti Bista Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: village and town councils (panchayats) elected by universal suffrage; district, zonal, and National Pan- chayaf members indirectly elected, most for 6-year terms; 15 National Panchayat members elected from five class and professional organizations (women, workers, peasants, youth, and ex-servicemen), four directly elected by all voters possessing a B.A. or its equivalent, and 16 are appointed by the King Political parties and leaders: all political parties outlawed Communists: the combined membership of the two wings of the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) about 6,500, the majority (perhaps 5,000) in the pro-Chinese wing; the CPN continues to operate more or less openly, but internal dissension ?has greatly hindered its effectiveness Other political or pressure groups: proscribed Nepali Congress Party led by B. P. Koirala SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , , , , , , , C 1 _,, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NEPAL/NETHERLANDS Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $1.57 billion (FY78, at current prices), $122 per capita; 2% real growth in FY78 Agriculture: over 90% of population engaged in agricul- ture; main crops?rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, oilseeds Major industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; match, cigarette, and brick factories Electric power: 72,600 kW capacity (1978); 162 million kWh produced (1978), 10 kWh per capita Exports: $89 million est. (FY78); rice and other food products, jute, timber Imports: $210 million est. (FY78); manufactured con- sumer goods, fuel, construction materials, food products Major trade partner: over 80% India Aid: economic commitments 1970-77: U.S.S.R., $8.1 million; China, $118 million; OPEC bilateral, $48.4 million; U.S., $80 million; $78 million disbursements FY78 (S/NF) Budget: (FY78 prelim.) domestic revenues $129 million, expenditures $214 million Monetary conversion rate: 12 Nepalese rupees=US$1 Fiscal year: 15 July-14 July COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 63 km (1977), all narrow gage (0.762 m); all in Terai close to Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Biranj is government owned Highways: 4,136 km total; 1,751 km paved, 556 km gravel or crushed stone, 1,829 km improved and ? unim- proved earth; additionally 322 km of seasonally motorable tracks Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft Airfields: 53 total, 52 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: poor telephone and telegraph service; good radiocommunication and broadcast service; international radiocommunication service is poor; 14,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, no FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,215,000; 1,673,000 fit for military service; 152,000 reach military age (17) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: produces some small arms ammunition; plans for limited small arms production; bulk of military supplies obtained from India; lesser amounts from the U.K., France, the U.S., PRC and West Germany Military budget: for fiscal year ending 14 July 1979, $16.4 million; 5.2% of central government budget NETHERLANDS c. UNITED KINGDOM North DENMARK Sea NETHERL, DS Amsterdam ; FEDERALL`'. REPUBLIC OF GERMANY (See reference map LAND 33,929 km2; 70% cultivated, 5% waste, 8% forested; 8% inland water, 9% other Land boundaries: 1,022 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing, 12 nm) Coastline: 451 km PEOPLE Population: 14,015,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Netherlander(s); adjective?Nether- lands Ethnic divisions: 99% Dutch, 1% Indonesian and other Religion: 31% Protestant, 40% Roman Catholic, 24% unaffiliated Language: Dutch Literacy: 98% 171 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NETHERLANDS Labor force: 4.8 million (1978); 30% manufacturing, 24% services, 16% commerce, 10% agriculture, 9% construction, 7% transportation and communications, 4% other; 5% unemployment, April 1979 Organized labor: 33% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of the Netherlands Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Amsterdam, but government resides at The Hague Political subdivisions: 11 provinces governed by centrally appointed commissioners of Queen Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution of 1815 frequently amended, reissued 1947; judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order than Acts of Parliament; legal education at six law schools; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 30 April Branches: executive (Queen and Cabinet of Ministers), which is responsible to bicameral States General (parlia- ment); independent judiciary Government leaders: Head of State, Queen Juliana; Prime Minister, Andreas A. M. van Agt Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: must be held at least every 4 years for lower house (most recent held May 1977), and every 3 years for half of upper house (most recent July 1977) Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Chairman, Piet Steenkamp, a coalition of KVP, ARP, and CHU formed prior to 1977 elections; Catholic People's Party (KVP), W. J . Vergeer; Antirevolu- tionary (ARP), H. A. de Boer; Labor (PydA), Mrs. C. (fen) van den Heuvel; Liberal (VVD), F. Korthals Altes; Christian Historical Union (CHU), Otto W. A. Baron van Verschuer; Democrats '66 (D-66), J. F. Glastra van Loon; Communist (CPN), Henk Hoekstra; Pacifist Socialist (PSP), Lamber Meertens; Political Reformed (SGP), H. G. Abma; Reformed Political Union (GVP), G. Veurink; Radical Party (PPR), Herman Verbeek; Democratic Socialist '70 (DS-70), H. Staneke; Farmers' Party (BP), Hendrik Koekoek Voting strength (1977 election): 33.81% PvdA, 31.91% CDA, 17.95% VVD, 5.43% D'66, 2.13% SGP, 1.73% CPN, 1.69% PPR, 0.96% GPV, 0.94% PSP, 0.84% BP, 0.72% DS'70 Communists: 13,000 est. members Other political or pressure groups: great multinational firms; Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protes- tant Employers Associations; the non-denominational Feder- ation of Netherlands Enterprises 172 July 1979 Member of: ADB, Benelux, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE, EEC, EIB, ELDO, EMA, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council (with respect to interests of the Netherlands Antilles and Surinam), NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $129.9 billion (1978 est.), $9,320 per capita; 60.3% consumption, 22.7% investment, 18.5% government, 1.4% stock building, ?2.8% net foreign balance Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates; main crops?horticultural crops, grains, potatoes, sugar beets; food shortages?grains, fats, oils; calorie intake, 3,186 calories per day per capita (1970-71) Fishing: catch 302,000 metric tons (1977); exports of fish and fish products $251.2 million (1977), imports $125.8 million (1977) Major industries: food processing, metal and engineering products, electrical and electronic machinery and equip- ment, chemicals, petroleum products, and natural gas Shortages: crude petroleum, raw cotton, base metals and ores, pulp, pulpwood, lumber, feedgrains, and oilseeds Crude steel: 7.7 million metric ton capacity; 5.6 million metric tons produced (1978), 400 kg per capita Electric power: 16,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 62 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,435 kWh per capita Exports: $53.7 billion (f.o.b., 1977); foodstuffs, machinery, chemicals, petroleum products, natural gas, textiles Imports: $50.0 billion (c.i.f., 1977); machinery, transpor- tation equipment, crude petroleum, foodstuffs, chemicals, raw cotton, base metals and ores, pulp Major trade partners: (January-November 1978) 63.9% EC, 28.2% West Germany, 13.5% Belgium-Luxembourg, 9.0% France, 6.1% U.S. Aid: donor: bilateral economic aid authorized, $3,644 million (1970-76) Budget: (1979 est.) revenues $44.45 billion, expenditures $52.55 billion, at exchange rate of 2 guilders=$1 Monetary conversion rate: 2.1634 guilders=US$1, aver- age 1978 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,016 km standard gage (1.435 m); 2,850 km government-owned (NS), 1,731 km electrified, 1,556 km double track; 166 km privately-owned Highways: 104,480 km total; 86,354 km paved (including 1,839 km of limited access, divided highways); 18,126 km gravel, crushed stone Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 900 metric ton capacity or larger SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NETHERLANDS/NETHERLANDS Pipelines: 418 km crude oil; 965 km refined products; 4,489 km natural gas Ports: 8 major, 5 minor Merchant marine: 381 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,990,300 GRT, 4,428,000 DWT; includes 5 passenger, 274 cargo, 19 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 24 tanker, 35 bulk, 1 barge/lighter carrier, 13 specialized carrier Civil air: 100 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in and 14 leased out Airfields: 29 total, 28 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed, well maintained, and integrated; extensive system of multiconductor cables,. supplemented by radio-relay links; 5.41 million telephones (39.2 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 19 FM, and 16 TV stations; 12 coaxial submarine cables; 1 satellite station with 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean antenna DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,606,000; 3,232,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually 120,000 Supply: naval ships produced domestically include guided missile frigates, submarines and mine warfare types; currently building light frigates for export, two transport- type aircraft, moderate quantities of ammunition, some CW/BW defense materiel, and military telecom and electronics equipment; most supplies from other NATO countries; naval surface-to-air missiles from the United Kingdom, air-to-surface missiles from France Military budget: for fiscal year ending .31 December 1979, $4,854 million; about 10% of central government budget SECRET SECRET ANTILLES NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean 0 ? NETHERLANDS ANTILLES ,41 ? COLOMBIA (See felerenee map II) LAND 1,020 km2; 5% arable, 95% waste, urban, or other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 364 km PEOPLE ? Population: 241,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Netherlands Antillean(s); adjective? Netherlands Antillean Ethnic divisions: racial mixture with African, Caribbean Indian, European, Latin, and oriental influences; negroid characteristics are dominant on Curacao, Indian on Aruba Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; sizable Protes- tant, smaller Jewish minorities Language: officially Dutch; Papiamento, a Spanish- Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates; English widely spoken Literacy: 95% Labor force: 76,000 (1972); 2% agriculture, 20% industry, 10% construction, 65% government and services, 3% other Organized labor: 60%270% of labor force 173 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NETHERLANDS ANTILLES GOVERNMENT Legal name: Netherlands Antilles Type: territory within Kingdom of the Netherlands, enjoying complete domestic autonomy Capital: Willemstad, Curacao Political subdivisions: 4 island territories?Aruba, Bon- aire, Curacao, and the Windward Islands?St. Eustatius, southern part of St. Martin (northern part is French), Saba Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence; Constitution adopted 1954 Branches: federal executive power rests nominally with Governor (appointed by the Crown), actual power exercised by 8-member Council of Ministers or cabinet presided over by Minister-President; legislative power rests with 22-mem- ber Legislative Council; independent court system under control of Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Justice (administrative functions under Minister of Justice); each island territory has island council headed by Lieutenant Governor Government leader: Donald Martina - (leader of Move- ment for a New Antilles) won election of 6 July 1979, and is expectd to form a new coalition government Suffrage: universal age 18 and over Elections: Federal elections mandatorily held every 4 years, last held 17 June 1977, early elections were held 6 July 1979; Island council elections every 4 years, last held 25 April 1979 Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to each island: Curacao: Democratic Party (DP), S. G. M. Rozendal; National People's Party-United (NVP-U) Edsel Jenerun; Frente Obrero de Liberation' 30 di Mayo (FOL), Wilson -Papa- Godett; Social Democratic Party (PSD), R. J. Isa Aruba: People's Electoral Movement (MEP), G. F. -Betico- Croes; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), L. 0. Chance; Aruban People's Party (AVP), D. G. Croes Bonaire: Labor Party (POB); Democratic Party Bonaire (UPB); New Democratic Action (ADEN) Windward Islands: Windward Islands Democratic Party (DPWI); United Federation of Antillean Workers (UFA); Windward Islands Political Movement (WIPM); and others Voting strength: (1977 federal election) 6 seats DP, 5 seats MEP, 3 seats FOL, 3 seats NVP, 3 seats PPA, 1 seat DPWI, 1 seat UPB Communists: no Communist Party Member of: EC (associate), WHO ECONOMY GNP: $652 million (1976), $2,680 per capita; real growth rate, ?1% (est.) Agriculture: little production Major industries: petroleum refining on Curacao and Aruba; petroleum transshipment facilities on Curacao, Aruba, and Bonaire; tourism on Curacao, Aruba, and St. Martin; light manufacturing on Curacao and Aruba 174 July 1979 Electric power: 300,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.7 billion kWh produced (1977), 6,880 kWh per capita Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1977); 96% petroleum products, phosphate Imports: $3.1 billion (c.i.f., 1977); 64% crude petroleum, food, manufactures Major trade partners: exports-46% U.S., 2% Canada, 1% Netherlands; imports-35% Venezuela, 11% U.S., 4% Neth- erlands (1977) Aid: bilateral commitments (1970-76), economic?West- ern (non-U.S.) countries $203.6 million Budget: (1977) public sector current revenues, $278 million; public sector expenditures, $306 million Monetary conversion rate: 1.8 Netherlands Antillean florins (NAF)=US$1, official Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 700 km total; 500 km paved, 200 km gravel and earth Ports: 3 major (Willemstad, Oranjestad, Caracasbaai, Bullennbaai); 6 minor Merchant marine: 74 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,900,300 GRT, 4,428,000 DWT; includes 4 passenger, 28 cargo, 3 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 2 specialized carrier; all but a few are Dutch-owned Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 7 total, all usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: generally adequate telecom facili- ties; extensive interisland radio-relay links; 48,000 telephones (19.9 per 100 popl.); 11 AM, 1 FM and 5 TV stations; 2 submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 59,000; 34,000 fit for military service; about 3,000 reach military age (20) annually Defense is responsibility of the Netherlands SECRET 25X1 4 4 25X1 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET NEW CALEDONIA NEW CALEDONIA ?e PAPUA N EA % ? Coral Sea AUSTRALIA NEW CALEDONIA Tasman Sea oa Pacific Ocean NEW ZEALAND (See reference mep VIII) LAND 22,015 km2; 6% cultivable, 22% pasture land, 15% forests, 57% waste or other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing, 3 nm) Coastline: 2,254 km PEOPLE Population: 141,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.6% (current) Nationality: noun?New Caledonian(s); adjective?New Caledonian Ethnic'divisions: Melanesian 42%; French 40%; remain- der Vietnamese, Indonesian, Chinese, Polynesian Religion: natives 90% Christian Language: Melanesian-Polynesian dialects Literacy: unknown Labor force: size unknown; Javanese and Tonkinese laborers were imported for plantations and mines in pre-World War II period; immigrant labor now coming from Wallis Islands, New Hebrides, and French Polynesia Organized labor: unorganized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies Type: French overseas territory; represented in French parliament by one deputy and one Senator Capital: Noumea Political subdivisions: 4 islands or island group depend- encies?Isle.of Pines, Loyalty Islands, Huon Islands, Island of New Caledonia Legal system: French law Branches: administered by a High Commissioner, respon- sible to French Ministry for Overseas France and Governing Council; Assemblee Territoriale SECRET Government leader: Claude Charbonniaud, French High Commissioner Suffrage: universal Elections: Assembly elections every 5 years, last in September 1977 Political parties: Rassemblement Pour La Caledonie? Conservative; Union Caledonienne?eventual independ- ence; Union Multiraciale and Palika?independence parties Voting strength (1977 election): Rassemblement Pour La Caledonie, 12 seats; Union Caledonienne, 9 seats; Palika, 2 seats;. 8 other parties divide up remaining 12 seats Communists: number unknown; Union Caledonienne strongly leftist; some politically active Communists were deported during 1950's; small number of North Vietnamese Other political parties and pressure groups: several lesser parties Member of: EIB (associate) ECONOMY GNP: $193 million, $1,800 per capita (1971 est.) Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; major products?coffee and vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef; must import grains and vegetables Industry: mining of nickel Electric power: 320,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.7 billion kWh produced (1978), 12,140 kWh per capita Exports: $289 million (f.o.b., 1975); 99% nickel Imports: $348 million (c.i.f., 1975); machinery, transport equipment, food Major trade partners: (1972) exports-55% France, 24% Japan, 11% U.S.; imports-52% France, 13% Australia, 12% rest of EC Monetary conversion rate: 86 CFP francs=US$1 (1972) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 5,448 km total (1977); 558 km paved, 2,251 km improved earth, 2,639 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: none Ports: 1 major (Noumea), 21 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 31 total, 30 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 airfield over 2,440 m Telecommunications: 20,600 telephones (14.9 per 100 pop!.); 5 AM, no FM, and 7 TV stations; 1 earth satellite station DEFENSE FORCES France provides for defense. 25X1 zoA1 175 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NEW CALEDONIA/NEW HEBRIDES/NEW ZEALAND NEW HEBRIDES SOLOMON ISLANDS a t c7b4, ? Coral Sea Pacific Ocean NEW ?I HEBRIDES', ? NEW. CALEDONIA (See reference map VIII) LAND ? About 14,763 km' WATER Limits of territorial waters: 3 nm Coastline: about 2,528 km PEOPLE Population: 104,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (7-74 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?New Hebridean(s); adjective?New Hebrides Ethnic divisions: 92% indigenous Melanesian, 3% Euro- pean, remainder Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders Religion: most at least nominally Christian Literacy: probably 10%-20% GOVERNMENT Legal name: New Hebrides Condominium Type: Anglo-French condominium Capital: Vila Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts Legal system: 3 sets of courts; one each for French and British subjects, one for New Hebrides native affairs 176 July 1979 Branches: Representative Assembly of 42 members, elected November 1977; election boycotted by major party Government leaders: two resident commissioners, one French; one British Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanuaaku Pati), chairman Walter Lini; NA Griamel Party, leader Jimmy Stevens; Mouvement d'Action des Nouvelles Hebri- des (MANH) ECONOMY Agriculture: export crops of copra, cocoa, coffee, some livestock and fish production; subsistence crops of copra, taro, yams Electric power: 4,000 kW capacity (1978); 13 -million kWh produced (1978), 130 kWh per capita Exports: $27 million (1974); 24% copra, 59% frozen fish Imports: $44 million (1974) Monetary conversion rate: 1 pound=US$2.37 (official currency), 0.74 Australian $=US$1, 86 Colonial Franc Pacifique (CFP)=US$1 (1972) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads Inland waterways: none Ports: 2 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 29 total, 28 usable; 2 runways 1,220-2,439 m, 2 with permanent-surface runways Telecommunications: 3 AM broadcast stations; 2,300 telephones (2.3) per 100 popl.); 1 ground satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Personnel: no military forces maintained; however, the French and British maintain constabularies of about 100 men each NEW ZEALAND LAND 268,276 km2; 3% cultivated, 50% pasture; 10% parks and reserves; 20% waste, water, etc., 1% urban, 16% forested; '4 principal islands, 2 minor inhabited islands, several minor uninhabited islands WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: about 15,134 km PEOPLE Population: 3,119,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.4% (7-75 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?New Zealander(s), adjective?New Zealand SECRET 25X1 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 / Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NEW ZEALAND (See reference map VIII) Ethnic divisions: 87% European, 9% Maori, 2% Pacific Islanders, 2% other Religion: 81% Christian, 1% Hindu, Confucian, and other, 18% none or unspecified Literacy: 98% Labor force: 1,207,700; 11% agriculture, 34% manufac- turing, mining, and construction, 9% transportation and communications, 22% commerce and finance, 24% adminis- trative and professional; unemployment 2.4% (1978) Organized labor: 46% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: New Zealand Type: independent state within Commonwealth, recogniz- ing Elizabeth II as head of state Capital: Wellington Political subdivisions: 239 territorial units (boroughs, counties, town and district councils); 657 special-purpose bodies Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; constitution consists of various documents, including certain acts of the U.K. and New Zealand Parliaments; legal education at Victoria, Auckland, Canterbury, and Otago Universities; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February Branches: unicameral legislature (House of Representa- tives, commonly called Parliament); Cabinet responsible to Parliament; 3-level court system (Magistrates, Courts, Supreme Court, and Court of Appeal) Government leader: Prime Minister Robert D. Muldoon Suffrage: universal age 18 and over Elections: held at 3-year intervals or sooner if parliament is dissolved by Prime Minister; last election November 1978 Political parties and leaders: National Party (Govern- ment), Robert D. Muldoon; Labour Party (Opposition), Wallace E. Rowling; Social Credit Political League, Bruce SECRET SECRET Beetham; Communist Party of New Zealand (Marxist- Leninist) (pro-Tirana), Richard C. Wolfe; Socialist Unity Party (pro-Soviet), G. H. (Bill) Andersen Voting strength (1978 election): National Party 50 seats, Labour Party 41 seats, Social Credit 1 seat Communists: CPNZ about 300, SUP about 100 Member of: ADB, ANZUS, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth of Nations, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $14 billion (1977), $4,600 per capita; real average annual growth (1976-78), 1.4% Agriculture: fodder and silage crops about one-half of area planted in field crops; main products?wool, meat, dairy products; New Zealand is food surplus country; caloric intake, 3,500 calories per day per capita (1964) Fishing: (1977) exports 26,000 metric tons valued at $50.3 million; domestic 58,000 metric tons; catch by foreign fishing vessels operating within 200-mile exclusive economic zone (established 1978), 384,000 metric tons Major industries: food processing, textile production, machinery, transport equipment; wood and paper products Electric power: 5,534,000 kW capacity (1978); 25.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 8,040 kWh per capita Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal products (trade year 1977)-23% meat, 14% dairy products, 20% wool Imports: $3.1 billion (c.i.f., 1978); 29% machinery, 23% manufactured goods, 13% chemicals (trade year 1977) Major trade partners: (trade year 1978) exports-18% U.K., 13% Japan, 13% Australia, 14% U.S.; imports-22% Australia, 18% U.K., 13% Japan, 14% U.S. Aid: bilateral and multilateral aid to developing countries (1975/76), $56.9 million Budget: expenditures, NZ$4,225 million; receipts, NZ$4,228 million year ended 31 March 1977 Monetary conversion rate: NZ$1=U5$1.94, March 1979 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March NOTE: trade data are for year ending 30 June; trade year and fiscal year do not correspond COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,716 km total (1977); all 1.067-meter gage; 274 km double track; 113 km electrified; over 99% government owned Highways: 92,617 km total (1977); 46,716 km paved, 45,901 km gravel or crushed stone Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation Pipelines: natural gas, 785 km Ports: 3 major 177 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NEW ZEALAND/NICARAGUA Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft Airfields: 193 total, 183 usable; 23 with permanent-sur- face runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent international and domes- tic systems; 1,570,000 telephones (52 per 100 popl.); 60 AM stations in 31 cities, no FM, 11 TV stations, and 129 repeaters; submarine cables extend to Australia and Fiji Islands; 1 ground satellite station NICARAGUA LAND 147,900 km2; 7% arable, 7% prairie and pasture, 50% forest, 36% urban, waste, or other Land boundaries: 1,220 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing, 200 nm; continental shelf, including sovereignty over superjacent waters) Coastline: 910 km 178 July 1979 (See reference map II) PEOPLE Population: 2,485,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Nicaraguan(s); adjective?Nicara- guan Ethnic divisions: 69% mestizo, 17% white, 9% Negro, 5% Indian Religion: 95% Roman Catholic Language: Spanish (official); English speaking minority on Atlantic coast Literacy: 52% of population 10 years of age and over Labor force: 728,419 (1977 est.); 43% agriculture, 15% manufacturing, 13% commerce, 29% other; shortage of skilled labor, but underemployment of unskilled labor except during harvest Organized labor: about 5% of labor force; Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS), a national, democratic confed- eration with approximately 8,000 members; Nicaraguan Worker's Central (CTN), a major leftist confederation with a Social Christian orientation, its 3,000-4,000 members are mostly in the hospital sector; Independent General Confed- eration of Workers (CGT-I); a Moscow-line Communist- dominated confederation, its membership is estimated at 12,000-15,000, making it the largest labor group; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), 10,000 members strong, its leadership is controlled by the CON GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Nicaragua Type: republic Capital: Managua Political subdivisions: 1 national district and 16 departments Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; constitution adopted in 1974; legal education at Universidad Nacional de Nicaragua and Universidad Centroamericana; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September SECRET 25X1 25X11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 It It It Declassified July 1979 NICARAGUA Branches: President (traditionally dominant), bicameral legislature, judiciary elected by legislature, and Supreme Electoral Tribunal (4th branch) Government leader: President Anastasio SOMOZA Debayle Suffrage: universal over age 21; married persons age 18 or over; all persons possessing the bachillerato regardless of age Elections: every 6 years; municipal elections every 3 years Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN), Anastasio Somoza; Nicaraguan Conservative Party (PCN), Rene Sandino Voting strength (1974 elections): PLN, 95% of votes; PCN, 5% of votes; PCN occupies 40% of legislative seats by constitutional provision Communists: Communist movement split into hard-line Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) illegal, 60 members; soft-line Nicaraguan Communist Party (PCN) illegal, 40 members, and small anti-Somoza guerrilla organization Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN) 2,000 members and larger number of sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Union of Liberation (UDEL), an opposition front lacking legal status of a political party, composed of anti-Somoza political movements and labor groups with orientations ranging from conservative to Christian Democrat to Communist, leader- ship includes Rafael Cordova Rivas, Ramiro Sacasa, Ignacio Zelaya, Domingo Sanchez; Nicaraguan Development Insti- tute (INDE), a private sector pressure group with two operative arms: FUNDE and EDUCREDITO which, respectively, promote cooperatives and disburse educational loans; group of 12, an FSLN associated opposition group of prominent professional men; Nicaraguan Democratic Move- ment (MDN), a private sector anti-Somoza organization led by Alfonso Robelo; Democratic Conservative Party (PCD); an opposition group lacking legal recognition, which represents Conservatives who have split from the legally- recognized PCN; Broad Opposition Front (FAO), an umbrella group encompassing a spectrum of political and labor groups, ideologically spread from Communist to Conservative groups; United People's Movement (MPU), an umbrella group controlled by the FSLN and the PSN; Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), a clandestine guerrilla group reflecting at least four tendencies heavily dominated by Marxists; National Patriotic Front (FLPN), a new coalition group heavily influenced by the FSLN, but including some non-Marxist elements Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAMUCAR (Caribbean Multinational Shipping Line?Naviera nacional del Caribe), OAS, ODECA, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2,186 million (1978 prelim.), $907 per capita; 70% private consumption, 8% government consumption, 27% SECRET SECRET domestic investment, ?5% net foreign balance (1977); real growth rate 1978, ?2.72% Agriculture: main crops?cotton, coffee, sugarcane, rice, corn, beans, cattle; caloric intake, 2,300 calories per day per capita (1966) Fishing: catch 15,200 metric tons (1977); exports valued at $22.7 million (1977) Major industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles and clothing Electric power: 358,000 kW capacity (1977); 1.2 billion kWh produced (1977), 520 kWh per capita Exports: $621 million (f.o.b., 1978); cotton, coffee, chemical products, meat, sugar Imports: $546 million (c.i.f., 1978); food and non-food agricultural products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, trans- portation equipment, machinery, construction materials, clothing, petroleum Major trade partners: exports-19% U.S., 22% CACM, 28% EC, 31% other; imports-22% U.S., 26% CACM, 14% EC, 37% other (1976) Aid and Ex-Im Credits: economic?extensions (1970-76) from U.S., $145.3 million; other Western countries, $26.8 million; military?(1970-76) from U.S., $17 million Budget: 1978 expenditures $480 million, revenues. $300 million Monetary conversion rate: 9.0 cordobas=US$1 (buying rate); 10.0 cordobas=US$1 (selling) (official) April 1979 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 318 km 1.067-meter gage, government owned Highways: 18,150 km total; 1,550 km paved, 7,200 km otherwise improved, 9,400 km unimproved Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km Ports: 4 major (Corinto, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Somoza, San Juan del Sur), 6 minor Merchant marine: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,900 GRT, 28,600 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll- off cargo Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft Airfields: 428 total, 413 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: low-capacity wire and radio-relay network; connection into Central American microwave net; Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 55,300 telephones (2.5 per 100 popl.); 85 AM, 30 FM, and 7 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 531,000; 328,000 fit for military service; 28,000 reach military age (18) annually 179 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 NICARAGUA/NIGER Supply: dependent primarily upon U.S.; and West Europe has purchased aircraft and patrol boats from Israel Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $53.6 million for the Ministry of Defense, including civil functions (e.g., police and civil air); 11% of central government budget NIGER ALGERIA LIBYA MALI UPPER VOLTA 1111 BENIN CHAD" NIGERIA Gulf of Guinea (See reference TV VI) LAND 1,266,510 km2; about 3% cultivated, perhaps 20% some- what arable, remainder desert Land boundaries: 5,745 km PEOPLE Population: 5,133,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (7-77 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?Nigerien (sing. and pl.); adjective? Niger Ethnic divisions: main Negroid groups 75% (of which, Hausa 50%, Dierma and Songhai 21%); Caucasian elements include Tuareg, Toubous, and Tamacheks; mixed group includes Fulani 180 Religion: 80% Muslim, remainder largely animists and a very few Christians Language: French official, many African languages; Hausa used for trade Literacy: about 6% Labor force: 26,000 wage earners; bulk of population engaged in subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry Organized labor: negligible GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Niger Type: republic; military regime in power since April 1974 Capital: Niamey Political subdivisions: 7 departments, 32 arrondissements Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; constitution adopted 1960, suspended 1974; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 18 December Branches: executive authority exercised by Supreme Military Council (SMC) composed of army officers; cabinet includes civilians Government leader: Lt. Col. Seyni Kountche, President of Supreme Military Council and Chief of State Suffrage: suspended Elections: political activity banned Political parties and leaders: political parties banned Communists: no Communist party; some sympathizers in outlawed Sawaba party Member of: AFDB, APC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $1.5 billion (1978 est.), $297 per capita, annual growth 32.4% 1978 est. Agriculture: commercial?peanuts, cotton, livestock; main food crops?millet, sorghum, niebe beans, vegetables Major industries: cement plant, brick factory, rice mill, small cotton gins, oil presses, slaughterhouse, and a few other small light industries.; uranium production began in 1971 Electric power: 20,000 kW capacity (1977); 70 million kWh produced (1977), 10 kWh per capita Exports: $261.7 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); about 65% uranium, rest peanuts and related products, livestock, hides, skins; exports understated because much regional trade not recorded Imports: $270.4 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); fuels, machin- ery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, consumer goods SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NIGER/NIGERIA Major trade partners: France (over 50%), other EC countries, Nigeria, UDEAC countries, U.S.; preferential tariff to EC and franc zone countries Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $470 million; U.S. (1970-77), $115.8 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $54.4 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $24.5 million Budget: (1978 est.) revenue $231 million, expenditure $231 million, capital $85 million Monetary conversion rate: about 245.67 Communaute Financiere Africaine =US$1 Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 7,582 km total; 1,759 km bituminous, 2,791 km gravel, 3,032 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: Niger River navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 66 total, 62 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: sparse system of open-wire lines, radio-relay links, and small radiocommunications stations; principal telecommunication center Niamey; 8,000 tele- phones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 10 AM stations, no FM, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,133,000; 608,000 fit for military service; about 52,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: dependent on France exclusively until 1964; since then has obtained ground force materiel from other non-Communist countries including Belgium, Israel, and West Germany Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 September 1979, $23.4 million; about 8.9% of central government budget SECRET NIGERIA SECRET (See reference map VII LAND 924,630 km2; 24% arable (13% of total land area under cultivation), 35% forested, 41% desert, waste, urban, or other Land boundaries: 4,034 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 30 nm Coastline: 853 km PEOPLE Population: 74,604,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Nigerian(s); adjective?Nigerian Ethnic divisions: of the more than 250 tribal groups, the Hausa and Fulani of the north, the Yoruba of the south, and the Ibos of the east comprise 60% of the population; about 27,000 non-Africans ? Religion: 47% Muslim, 34% Christian, 19% other Literacy: est. 25% Language: English official; Hausa, Yoruba, and Ibo also widely used Labor force: approx. 22.5 million; about 41% of total population; roughly 1.3 million wage earners, of whom 560,000 work in modern enterprises Organized labor: between 800,000 and 1 million wage earners, approx. 2.4% of total labor force, belong to some 70 25X1 unions GOVERNMENT Legal name: Federal Republic of Nigeria Type: federal republic since 1963; transition from military to civilian rule scheduled for October 1979 Capital: Lagos Political subdivisions: 19 states, headed by governors Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; new constitution has been promulgated for restoration of civilian rule in October 1979; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations 181 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NIGERIA National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October Branches: Federal Military Government; decrees issued by Supreme Military Council, advised by largely civilian Federal Executive Council; civilian government will have a strong executive presidency, a bicameral legislature, and separate judiciary Government leader: Lt. Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo, Head of Federal Military Government and Commander in Chief of Nigerian Armed Forces Suffrage: universal adult suffrage Elections: national elections are scheduled for July- August 1979 to elect a federal president, federal Senate, federal House of Representatives, State governors, and State legislatures Political parties and leaders: political activity was legalized in September 1978, after a 12-year ban, to permit the organization of parties in preparation for election in 1979 Communists: the pro-Communist underground comprises a fraction of the small Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in the country's central labor organization but have little influence on government Member of: AFDB, APC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $35 billion (1978 current prices), $510 per capita; 7.0% growth rate (1970-78) Agriculture: main crops?peanuts, cotton, cocoa, rubber, yams, cassava, sorghum, palm kernels, millet, corn, rice; livestock; almost self-sufficient Fishing: catch 494,767 metric tons (1976); imports $14.5 million (1974) Major industries: mining?crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, columbite, processing industries?oil palm, peanut, cotton, rubber, petroleum, wood, hides, skins; manufacturing industries?textiles, cement, building materials, food prod- ucts, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics Electric power: 1,367,000 kW capacity (1977); 4 billion kWh produced (1977), 60 kWh per capita Exports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1978); oil (95%), cocoa, palm products, rubber, timber, tin Imports: $13 billion (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and trans- port equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals Major trade partners: U.K., EC, U.S. Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $420 million; U.S. (1970-76), $168.1 million; Communist 182 July 1979 countries (1970-76), $35.4 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $85 million Budget: FY79-80 proposed?current revenue $13.8 bil- lion, current expenditures, $8.5 billion; capital expenditures, $10.4 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Naira=US$1.5745 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gage Highways: 89,318 km total 15,300 km paved (mostly bituminous surface treatment); remainder laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks; additionally, Kainji Lake has several hundred miles of navigable lake routes Pipelines: 1,312 km crude oil; 97 km natural gas; 5 km refined products Ports: 2 major (Lagos/Apapa, Port Harcourt), 10 minor Merchant marine: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 299,555 GRT, 483,562 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 tanker Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in Airfields: 82 total, 79 usable; 17 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: above average system composed of radio-relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations; principal center Lagos, secondary centers Ibadan and Kaduna; 121,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 25 AM, 6 FM, and 9 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean satellite station and 19 domestic stations; 1 submarine cable; expansion in progress DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,946,000; 9,120,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually 725,000 SECRET 25X1 1 25X1 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 NIGERIA/NORWAY Supply: produced some small arms and ammunition in the past; army materiel obtained from several countries; other materiel imported primarily from Algeria, U.K., U.S.S.R., and West Germany; dependent for ships primarily on U.K. but also West Germany and France; received aircraft from Czechoslovakia, Sudan, Egypt, and the U.S.S.R. in the past; U.K. and France more recently Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1980, $1.7 billion; about 11.9% of central government budget NORWAY (See reference map 119 LAND Continental Norway, 323,750 km2; Svalbard, 62,160 km2; Jan Mayen, 373 km2; 3% arable, 2% meadows and pastures, 21% forested, 74% other Land boundaries: 2,579 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: mainland 3,419 km; islands 2,413 km (excludes long fjords and numerous small islands and minor indenta- tions which total as much as 16,093 km overall) PEOPLE Population: 4,077,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.4% (1-77 to 1-78) Nationality: noun?Norwegian(s); adjective?Norwegian SECRET SECRET Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population, small Lappish minority Religion: 96% Evangelical Lutheran, 4% other Protestant and Roman Catholic, 1% other Language: Norwegian, small Lapp and Finnish-speaking minorities Literacy: 100% Labor force: 1.8 million; 11.4% agriculture, forestry, fishing, 25.3% mining and manufacturing, 8.1% construc- tion, 16.3% commerce, 9.9% transportion and communica- tion, 28.5% services; 2.3% unemployed (third quarter 1978) Organized labor: 60% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Norway Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Oslo Political subdivisions: 19 counties, ?2 territories, 404 communes, 47 towns Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; constitution adopted 1814, modified 1884; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; legal education at University of Oslo; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May Branches: legislative authority rests jointly with Crown and parliament (Storting); executive power vested in Crown but exercised by cabinet responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, 5 superior courts, 104 lower courts Government leaders: King Olav V; Prime Minister Odvar Nordli Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 20 Elections: held every 4 years (next in September 1981) Political parties and leaders: Labor, Reiulf Steen; Conservative, Erling Norvik; Center, Gunnar Stalsett; Christian People's, Lars Kosvald; Liberal, Hans Hammond Rossbach; New People's Party, Magne Lerheim; Socialist Left, Berge Furre; Norwegian Communist, Martin Gunnar Knutsen; Progressive, Arve Loennum Voting strength (1977 election): Labor, 42.5%; Conserva- tive, 24.6%; Christian People's, 12.1%; Center, 8.6%; New People's Party (anti-tax), 1.7%; Socialist Left (Socialist Electoral Alliance) (formerly anti-tax), 4.1%; liberal, 3.2% Progressive, 1.9%; Norwegian Communist, 0.4%; Red Elec- tion Alliance, 0.6%, latter two are communist parties Communists: 2,500 est.; a number of sympathizers as indicated by the 22,500 Communist votes cast in the 1969 election (in the 1973 election the Communist Party vote total was submerged in the 241,851 votes won by the Socialist Electorial Alliance which included the Norwegian Commu- nist Party and two other parties) 183 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 NORWAY/OMAN Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC , EC (Free Trade Agreement), EFTA, ESRO (observer), FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA (associate member), IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $39.6 billion in 1978, $9,767 per capita; 54% private consumption; 24% investment; 15% government; net foreign balance + 7.0%; 1978 growth rate 3.5%, in constant Prices; 4.8% average (1970-76) Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates; main crops?feed grains, potatoes, fruits, vegetables; 40% self-suf- ficient; food shortages?food grains, sugar; caloric intake, 2,940 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Fishing: catch 3.4 million metric tons (1976); value $476 million (1976); exports $467 million (1976) Major industries: oil and gas, food processing, shipbuild- ing, wood pulp, paper products, metals, chemicals Shortages: most raw materials with the exception of timber, petroleum, iron, copper, and ilmenite ore, dairy products and fish Crude steel: 732,779 metric tons produced (1977), 180 kg per capita Electric power: 18,100,000 kW capacity (1978); 81 billion kWh produced (1978), 19,915 kWh per capita Exports: $9,142 million (f.o.b., 1977); principal items? metals, pulp and paper, fish products, ships, chemicals, oil Imports: $13,227 million (c.i.f., 1977); principal items? foodstuff, ships, fuels, motor vehicles, iron and steel, chemical compounds, textiles Major trade partners: 49% EC (19% U.K., 12% West Germany, 6% Denmark); 16% Sweden; 5% U.S.; 3% East Bloc countries (1977) Aid: donor, bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $503 million (1970-76) Budget: (1977) revenues $8.8 billion, expenditures $9.3 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 kroner=US$0.190 (1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 4,257 km standard gage (1.435 m); Norwegian State Railways (NSB) operates 4,241 km (2,440 km electrified and 91 km double track); 16 km privately-owned and electrified Highways: 78,116 km total; 17,699 km concrete and bitumen; 19,277 km bituminous treated; 41,140 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth Inland waterways: 1,577 km; 1.5-2.4 m draft vessels maximum Pipelines: refined products, 53 km 184 Ports: 9 major, 69 minor Merchant marine: 673 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,211,900 GRT, 39,934,000 DWT; includes 38 passenger, 147 cargo, 3 container, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 149 tanker, 48 liquefied gas, 142 bulk, 43 combination ore/oil, 80 specialized carrier Civil air: 50 major transport aircraft Airfields: 101 total, 101 usable; 52 with permanent- surface runways; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: high-quality domestic and interna- tional telephone, telegraph, and telex service; 1.48 million telephones (36.6 per 100 popl.); 40 AM, 357 FM, and 740 TV stations; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 domestic satellite stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 944,000; 768,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (20) annually, 32,000 Supply: ammunition, some light armaments, electronic equipment, CW defensive materials, aircraft, avionics, engine parts, and naval ships (except submarines) produced domestically; currently exporting missile attack boats; producing small naval missile, Penguin; most equipment from other NATO countries, Sweden and U.S. Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $1.4 billion; about 9.3% of proposed central government budget OMAN LAND About 212,380 km2; negligible amount forested, remain- der desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 1,384 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 50 nm) Coastline: 2,092 km SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 1 25X11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 OMAN (See edema map V) PEOPLE Population: 565,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Omani(s); adjective?Omani Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Arab with small groups of Iranians, Baluchis, and Indians Religion: Muslim Language: Arabic Literacy: 10% GOVERNMENT Legal name: Sultanate of Oman Type: absolute monarchy; independent, with strong residual U.K. influence Capital: Muscat Political subdivisions: 1 province (Dhofar), 9 regions, and numerous districts (wilayats) Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; no constitution; ultimate appeal to the Sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 18 November Government leader: Sultan Qabus ibn Sa'id Al Bu Sa'id Other political or pressure groups: Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in South Yemen Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO ECONOMY GNP: $2.6 billion (1977), $4,880 per capita est. Agriculture: based on subsistence farming (fruits, dates, cereals, cattle, camels), fishing, and trade Major industries: petroleum discovery in 1964; produc- tion began in 1967; production 1977, 340,000 b/d; pipeline capacity, 400,000 b/d; revenue for 1977 est. at $1.4 billion Electric power: 240,000 kW capacity (1978); 380 million kWh produced (1978), 680 kWh per capita Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1977) mostly petroleum; non-oil exports (mostly agricultural) SECRET SECRET Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1977) Major trade partners: U.K., U.S., other European, Gulf states, India, Australia, China, Japan Budget: (1977) revenues $1.1 billion, expenditures $1.5 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Riyal Omani=US$2.93 (1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 2,816 km total; 5 km bituminous surface, 2,811 km motorable track Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; natural gas 200 km Ports: 1 major (Qaboos), 3 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,400 GRT, 2,900 DWT Civil air: 24 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in and 1 leased out Airfields: 165 total, 129 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 1 runway over 3,660 m, 5. with runways 2,440-3,659 in, 46 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire, radio-re- lay and radiocommunications stations; 2 satellite ground stations; 7,300 telephones (1.3 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, no FM, 2 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 128,000; 74,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly from U.K.; some ground equipment and aircraft also from Belgium, Italy, Iran, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia 185 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PAKISTAN (Su (*rem, mu VII) PAKISTAN LAND 803,000 km= (includes Pakistani part of Jammu-Kashmir); 40% arable, including 24% cultivated; 23% unsuitable for cultivation; 34% unreported, probably mostly waste; 3% forested Land boundaries: -5,900 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; plus right to establish 100 nm conservation zones beyond territorial sea); 200 nin exclusive economic zone Coastline: 1,046 km PEOPLE Population: 80,171,000, excluding Junagadh, Manavadar, Gilgit, 13altistan, and the disputed area of Jammu-Kashmir, (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Pakistani(s); adjective?Pakistani Religion: 97% Muslim, 3% other Language: official, Urdu; total spoken languages-7% Urdu, 64% Punjabi, 12% Sindhi, 8% Pushtu, 9% other; English is lingua franca Literacy: about 17% Labor force: 22 million (1978 est.); 60% agriculture, 16% industry, 7% commerce, 15% service, 2% unemployed Organized labor: 5% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan Type: parliamentary, federal republic; military seized power 5 July 1977 and temporarily suspended some constitutional provisions Capital: Islamabad Political subdivisions: 4 provinces?Punjab, Sind, Balu- chistan, and North-West Frontier?with the capital territory of Islamabad and certain tribal areas centrally administered; Pakistan claims that Azad Kashmir is independent pending a settlement of the dispute with India, but it is in fact under Pakistani control 186 July 1979 Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; president Zia's government has established Islamic Sliaria courts paralleling the secular courts and has introduced Koranic punishments for criminal offenses National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March Government leader: President and Chief Martial Law Administrator Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq Suffrage: universal from age 18 Elections: opposition agitation against rigging of elections in March 1977 eventually led to military coup; military promised to hold new national and provincial assembly elections in October 1977 but later postponed them; now promised for 17 November 1979 Political parties and leaders: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), pro-Bhutto wing, Mrs. Z. A. Bhutto, moderate wing, Maulana Kauser Niazi; Tehrik-i-Istiqlal, Asghar Khan; National Democratic Party (NDP), Sherbaz Mazari (formed in 1975 by members of outlawed National Awami Party (NAP) of Abdul Wali Khan, who is de facto NDP leader); Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Pakistan (JUP), Maulana Shah Ahmed Noorani; Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), a coalition of six parties including Pakistan Muslim League (PML)?Pir of Pagaro group; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Tofail Mohammed; Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Mufti Mahmud Communists: party membership very small; sympathizers estimated at several thousand Other political or pressure groups: military remains strong political force Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, GATT, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, RCD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $15.0 billion (FY78 est.), $200 per capita; average annual real growth, 4.0% (1970-78) Agriculture: extensive irrigation; main crops?wheat, rice, and cotton; foodgrain shortage, 2.3 million tons imported in FY79 Fishing: catch 197,550 metric tons (1978 est.) Major industries: cotton textiles, food processing, tobacco, engineering, chemicals, natural gas Electric power: 3,495,000 kW capacity (1978); 15.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 205 kWh per capita Exports: $1,342 million (f.o.b., 1978); cotton (raw and manufactured), rice Imports: $2,738 million (c.i.f., 1978); foodgrains, edible oil, crude oil,machinery, transport equipment, chemicals Major trade partners: U.S., U.K., Japan, West Germany Aid (including Bangladesh prior to 1972): economic? U.S. (FY70-77), $1.5 billion committed (excluding what is now Bangladesh); U.S.S.R. (1970-77), $495.8 million; China (1970-77), $418.3 million; Eastern Europe (1970-77), $72.8 SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 PAKISTAN/PANAMA million; military?U.S. (FY70-77), $2.0 million; U.S.S.R. (1970-77), $7.0 million; China (1970-77), $352.0 million; Eastern Europe (1970-77), $19.0 million; OPEC economic assistance (1974-78), $1.6 billion committed (S/NF) Budget: expenditures, FY78?current expenditures, $2,048.7 million; capital expenditures, $1,717.2 million Monetary conversion rate: 9.9 rupees=US$1 (since February 1973) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 8,816 km total (1979); 446 km meter gage (1.000 m), 7,758 km broad gage (1.676 m), 612 km narrow gage (0.762 m); 1,022 km double track; 286 km electrified; government-owned Highways: 87,472 km total (1978); 26,855 km paved, 19,500 km gravel, 3,100 km improved earth, 38,017 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,850 km Pipelines: 230 km crude oil; 1,931 km natural gas Ports: 1 major, 5 minor Merchant marine: 49 ships (1,000 CRT or over) totaling 435,400 GRT, 599,200 DWT; includes 47 cargo, 1 bulk, 1 tanker Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft Airfields: 108 total, 101 usable; 63 with permanent-sur- face runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 25 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 47 with runways 1,200-2,439 m Telecommunications: good international radiocommuni- cation service over microwave and intelsat satellite; domestic radiocommunications poor; broadcast service very good; 300,000 (est.) telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 27 AM, no FM, 16 TV stations, and 4 repeaters; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE Military manpower: males 15-49, 17,814,000; 10,591,000 fit for military service; 924,000 reach military age (17) annually SECRET SECRET PANAMA Caribbean Sea PANAMA -??? ANAL ZONE COLOMBIA Pacific Ocean (See 'almanac map II) LAND 75,650 km2 (excluding Canal Zone, 1,430 km2); 24% agricultural land (9% fallow, 4% cropland, 11% pasture), 20% exploitable forest, 56% other forests, urban, and waste Land boundaries: 630 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (continen- tal shelf including sovereignty over superjacent waters) Coastline: 2,490 km PEOPLE Population: 1,862,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) 187 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PANAMA Nationality: noun?Panamanian(s); adjective?Pana- manian Ethnic divisions: 70% mestizo, 14% Negro, 9% white, 7% Indian and other Religion: over 90% Roman Catholic, remainder mainly Protestant Language: Spanish; about 14% speak English as native tongue; many Panamanians bilingual Literacy: 82% of population 10 years of age and over Labor force: 515,000 (1977); 39.5% commerce, finance and services; 33.9% agriculture, hunting and fishing; 9.7% manufacturing and mining; 6.8% construction; 5% Canal Zone; 3.9% transportation and communications; 1.2% utili- ties; active and inactive unemployed estimated at 12-16% (1976-77); shortage of skilled labor but an oversupply of unskilled labor Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force (1978 est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Panama Type: republic Capital: Panama Political subdivisions: 9 provinces. 1 intendancy Legal system: based on civil law system; constitution adopted in 1972; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of Panama; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November Branches: President (subordinate to National Guard Commandant, Gen. Omar Torrijos) and Vice President, elected by National Assembly; popularly elected unicameral legislature, National Assembly of Community (Corregi- miento) Representatives; legislative powers currently exer- cised in the main by executive branch appointees, but constitutional amendments, approved in October 1978, give somewhat greater legislative role to National Assembly; presidentially appointed Supreme Court subject to Corregi- miento review under new constitutional amendment Government leaders: Aristides Royo is Constitutional President and Chief of State, but subordinate to Brig. Gen. Omar Torrijos, the National Guard Commandant Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: elections for National Assembly in August 1978, Assembly chose - President and Vice President in October 1978; constitutional reforms allow Assembly to elect from its own membership representatives to constitute a new legislative organ, the National Council on Legislation; additional representatives to the council will be chosen in direct, popular elections in 1980; direct popular elections for president and vice president, and corregimiento will be held in 1984 Political parties and leaders: legislation providing for legalization of political parties, which were suspended for the last nine years, approved October 1978; Communist 188 July 1979 Party, although illegal, has been allowed to operate; beginning in September 1977, activity by other political parties was also tolerated; political party registration opened in early 1979 Voting strength: no parties participated in the 1978 elections Communists: 500 active and several hundred inactive members People's Party (PdP); 500-600 members of rival Fraccion movement which split from PdP in 1974; 2,500 sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP); Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE) Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, IWC?Internation- al Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Coun- cil, NAM, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $2,482 million (1978), $1,360 per capita; 66% private consumption, 17% government consumption, 24% gross fixed investment, ? 7% net foreign balance (1977); real growth (1978), 2.5% Agriculture: main crops?bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; self-sufficient in most basic foods; 2,450 calories per day per capita (1969 ) Fishing: catch 228,016 metric tons (1977); exports $27.7 million (1977) Major industries: food processing, metal products, construction materials, petroleum products, clothing, furni- ture Electric power: 460,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,370 kWh per capita Exports: $292 million (f.o.b., 1978); bananas, petroleum products, shrimp, sugar, coffee Imports: $889 million (c.i.f., 1978); manufactures, trans- portation equipment, crude petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs Major trade partners: exports-45% U.S., 12% Canal Zone, 9% West Germany, 7% Italy, 6% Netherlands; imports-31% U.S., 18% Ecuador, 8% Venezuela, 8% Colon Free Zone, 5% Japan, 4% Saudi Arabia, 3% Trinidad and Tobago (1976) Aid: economic?(FY70-76) U.S., $284 million; other Western countries, $266 million; military?U.S., $7 million Budget: (1979) $453 million in revenues, $848 million in expenditures Monetary conversion rate: 1 balboa =US$1 (official) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 249 km total; 77 km 1.524-meter gage, 172 km 0.914-meter gage SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 PANAMA/PAPUA Highways: 7,700 km total; 2,500 km paved, 2,600 km gravel or crushed stone, 2,600 km improved and unim- proved earth; Panama Canal Zone 240 km; 230 km paved, 10 km gravel Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal Pipelines: refined products, 96 km Ports: 2 major (Cristobal/Colon/Coco Solo, Balboa/ Panama City), 10 minor Merchant marine: 2,203 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,546,100 GRT, 33,656,300 DWT; includes 35 passenger, 1,453 cargo, 38 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 194 tanker, 27 liquefied gas, 332 bulk, 12 combination ore/oil, 88 specialized carriers; all foreign owned and operated; 114 ships are owned by China and 15 are owned by Vietnam, 8 by Yugoslavia, and 8 by Cuba Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft Airfields: (including Canal Zone) 152 total, 152 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: domestic and international telecom facilities well developed; connection into Central American microwave net; Atlantic Ocean satellite ground station; 155,200 telephones.(9.0 per 100 popl.); 90 AM, 30 FM, and 13 TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 435,000; 301,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: principally dependent on U.S. but has acquired infantry weapons and ammunition from Western Europe and 2 motor gunboats from the U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $30.1 million; about 4.6% of central government budget SECRET NEW GUINEA PAPUA NEW GUINEA SECRET Port Moresby AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean 0 SOLOMON ?. ? N,ISLANDS Coral Sea (See reference map VIII) LAND 475,369 km' Land boundaries: 966 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: about 5,152 km PEOPLE Population: 3,064,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (7-73 to 7-77) Nationality: noun?Papua New Guinean(s); adjective? Papua New Guinean Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian and Papuan, some Negrito, Micronesian, and Polynesian types Religion: .over one-half of population nominally Christian (490,000 Catholic, 320,000 Lutheran, other Protestant sects); remainder animist Language: 700 indigenous languages; pidgin English and 2 or 3 native languages are linguae francae for over one-half of population; English spoken by 1% to 2% of population Literacy: 15%; in English, 0.1% Labor force: no available figures; mostly subsistence farmers GOVERNMENT Legal name: Papua New Guinea Type: independent state within Commonwealth recogniz- ing Elizabeth II as head of state Capital: Port Moresby Political subdivisions: 18 administrative districts (12 in New Guinea, 6 in Papua) Legal system: based on English common law National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September 189 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PAPUA NEW GUINEA/PARAGUAY Branches: executive?Executive Council; legislature? House of Assembly (109 members); judiciary?court system consists of Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea and various inferior courts (District Courts, Local Courts, Children's Courts, Wardens' Courts) Government leaders: Governor General, Sir Tore Loko- loko; Prime Minister, Michael Thomas Somare Suffrage: universal adult suffrage Elections: preferential-type elections for 109-member House of Assembly every 4 years, last held in June 1977 Political parties: Pangu Party, People's Progress Party, United Party, Papua Besena Communists: no significant strength Member of: ADB, CIPEC (associate), Commonwealth, ESCAP (associate), G-77, IBRD, ILO, IMF, U.N., WHO (associate) ECONOMY GNP: $1.7 billion (FY78 est.); real average annual growth rate (1977-78) 2% est. Agriculture: main crops?coconuts, coffee, cocoa, tea Major industries: sawmilling and timber processing, copper mining (Bougainville) Electric power: 284,000 kW capacity (1978); 700 million kWh produced (1978), 230 kWh per capita Exports: $636 million (f.o.b., FY77); principal products? copper, coconut products, coffee beans, cocoa, copra, timber Imports: $484 million (f.o.b., FY77) Major trade partners: Australia, U.K., Japan Aid: economic?Australia, $1,158 million committed (1976-81); World Bank group (1968-September 1969), $7.5 million committed; U.S. (FY70-74), $32.5 million extended Budget: (75-76) receipts 400 million Australian dollars, expenditures 408 million Australian dollars Monetary conversion rate: Kina $1 = US$1.45 (September 1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 10,940 km Ports: 5 principal, 8 minor Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft Airfields: 532 total, 421 usable; 18 with permanent-sur- face runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 41 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: Papua New Guinea telecom serv- ices are adequate and are being improved; principal telecom centers include Goroka, Lae, Madang, Mount Hagen, and Wewak in New Guinea; and Darti, Port Moresby and 190 July 1979 Samarai in Papua; facilities provide radiobroadcast. radio- telephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautica. radio and international radiocommunication services; numerous privately owned radio facilities exist; submarine cables extend from Madang to Australia and Guam; 37,500 telephones (1.3 per 100 pop!.); 31 AM, no FM and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 740,000; about 409,000 fit for military service 25X1 Supp y: epen ent on Austra ia Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $28.2 million; 3.7% of central government budget PARAGUAY LAND 406,630 km2; 2% under crops, 24% meadow and pasture, 52% forested, 22% urban, waste, and other Land boundaries: 3,444 km PEOPLE Population: 3,160,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Paraguayan(s); adjective?Para- guayan SECRET 1 25X11 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 PARAGUAY (See reference map III) Ethnic divisions: 95% mestizo, 5% white and Indian Religion: 97% Roman Catholic Language: Spanish and Guarani Literacy: officially estimated at 74% above age 10, but probably much lower (40%) Labor force: 800,000 (1971 est.); 52.6% agriculture, forestry, fishing; 28.2% services; 19.2% manufacturing and mining (1970) Organized labor: about 5% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Paraguay Type: republic; under authoritarian rule Capital: Asunci6n Political subdivisions: 16 departments and the national capital, 154 municipalities Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; constitution promulgated 1967; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; legal education at National University of Asuncion and Catholic University of Our Lady of the Assumption; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May Branches: President heads executive; bicameral legisla- ture; judiciary headed by Supreme Court Government leader: President Gen. Alfredo Stroessner Suffrage: universal; compulsory between ages of 18-60 Elections: President and Congress elected together every 5 years; last election held in February 1978 Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Juan Ramon Chavez; Liberal Party (Levi-Liberal Party), Carlos Levi Ruffinelli; Febrerista Party, Roque Gaona; Radical Liberal Party and United Liberal Party (provisional unification of Liberal and Radical Liberal parties), Miguel Angel Martinez Yaryes; Christian Democratic Party, Anibal Recalde Sosa SECRET SECRET Voting strength (February 1978 general election): 90% Colorado Party, 5% Radical Liberal Party, 3% Liberal Party, Febrerista Party boycotted elections Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and Miguel Angel Soler faction (both illegal); est. 3,000 to 4,000 party members and sympathizers in Paraguay, very few are hard core; party in exile is small and deeply divided Other political or pressure groups: Popular Colorado Movement (MoPoCo) led by Epifanio Mendez Fleitas, in exile Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GDP: $2.5 billion (1978, at current prices), $810 per capita; 7.0% public consumption; 74.8% private consump- tion, 29.4% gross domestic investment, ? 11.2% net foreign balance (1977); real growth rate 1978, 10.5% Agriculture: main crops?oilseeds, cotton, wheat, manioc, sweet 'potatoes, tobacco, corn, rice, sugarcane; self-sufficient in most foods; caloric intake, 2,714 calories per day per capita (1974); protein intake, 81 grams per day per capita Major industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing, textiles, light consumer goods, cement Electric power: 230,000 kW capacity (1977); 550 million kWh produced (1977), 200 kWh per capita Exports: $324 million (f.o.b., 1977); cotton, oilseeds, meat products, tobacco, timber, coffee, essential oils,. tung oil Imports: $360 million (f.o.b., 1977); fuels and lubricants, machinery and motors, motor vehicles, beverages and tobacco, foodstuffs Major trade partners: exports-15% Netherlands, 14% United States, 13% Argentina, 10% West Germany; im- ports-21% Brazil, 16% Argentina, 12% U.S., 9% West Germany (1977) Aid: (1970-76) economic bilateral commitments, U.S. $54 million, other Western countries $69 million; military commitments, U.S. $17 million Budget: (1977) $335 million current revenues, $332 million total expenditures Monetary conversion rate: 126 guaranies=US$1 (official rate, December 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,043 km total; 437 km standard gage (1.435 m), 136 km meter gage (1.00 m), 470 km various narrow gage (privately owned) Highways: 8,800 km total; 1,100 km paved, 7,700 km earth Inland waterways: 3,100 km Ports: 1 major (Asuncion), 9 minor (all river) 191 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PARAGUAY/PERU Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,400 GRT, 15,900 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 2 tanker, 1 specialized carrier; domestic ships are operated mostly in river traffic; most international seaborne trade is carried by foreign-flag ships Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft Airfields: 961 total, 822 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: local telecom facilities in Asuncion good, intercity microwave net; 41,600 telephones (1.5 per 100 popl.); 25 AM, 9 FM stations, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 701,000; 530,000 fit for military service; average number currently reaching military age (17) annually, 37 000 Supply: dependent on foreign sources (U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and Belgium) for all materials Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $50.0 million; about 15.1% of central government budget PERU LAND 1,284,640 km' (other estimates range as low as 1,248,380 km"); 2% cropland, 14% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 29% urban, waste, other Land boundaries: 6,131 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 2,414 km 192 July 1979 (See reference map 1111 PEOPLE Population: 17,287,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) Nationality: noun?Peruvian; adjective?Peruvian Ethnic divisions: 46% Indian; 38% mestizo (white- Indian); 15% white; 1% Negro, Japanese, Chinese Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara Literacy: 45% to 50% Labor force: 5.0 million (1975); 42.1% agriculture, 17% services, 14% manufacturing, 9% trade, 4% construction, 4% transportation, 2% mining, 4% other Organized labor: 37.1% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Peru Type: republic; under military regime since October 1968 Capital: Lima Political subdivisions: 23 departments with limited autonomy plus constitutional Province of Callao Legal system: based on civil law system; military government rules by decree and functions under Revolution- ary Statute which supersedes 1933 constitution; legal education at the National Universities in Lima, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cuzco; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July Branches: executive; judicial; Congress disbanded after 3 October 1968 ouster of President Fernando Belaunde Terry but Constituent Assembly has been in session since July 1978 Government leader: President, Div. Gen. Francisco MORALES BERMUDEZ Cerrutti Suffrage: obligatory for literate citizens (defined as adult men and women and married persons over age 18) until age 60 Elections: June of 1978 a constituent assembly was elected to draw up a new constitution; issuance of the new charter to be followed by presidential and parliamentary elections in 1980 SECRET ( 25X1 25X1, 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET PERU Political parties and leaders: Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando Belaunde Terry; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Victor Raul Haya de la Torre; and Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis Bedoya Reyes; Popular Student, Peasant and Workers Front (FOCEP), Genaro Ledesma Voting strength (1978 election): 37% APRA, 25% PPC, 12% FOCEP, 26% other (mostly leftist groups) Communists: pro-Soviet (PCP/S) 2,000; pro-Chinese (2 factions) 1,200 Member of: AIOEC, ASSIMER, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADI3, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, LAFTA and Andean Pact, NAM, OAS, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $10.3 billion (1978, in current prices), $609 per capita; 73.0% private consumption, 12.9% public consump- tion, 14.4% gross investment; ?0.3% net foreign balance (1978); real growth rate (1978), ?? 1.8% Agriculture: main crops?wheat, potatoes, beans, rice, barley, coffee, cotton, sugarcane; imports?wheat, meat, lard and oils, rice, corn; caloric intake, 2,359 calories per day per capita (1974); protein intake 53 grams per day per capita Fishing: catch 2.0 million metric tons (1978); exports $238 million (1978) Major industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles and clothing, food processing, cement, auto assem- bly, steel, ship-building, metal fabrication Electric power: 2,542,300 kW capacity (1977); 8.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 480 kWh per capita Exports: $1,941 million (f.o.b., 1977); copper, fish and fish products, copper, silver, iron, cotton, sugar, lead, zinc, petroleum, coffee Imports: $1,601 million (f.o.b., 1978); foodstuffs, machin- ery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals Major trade partners: exports-30% U.S., 16% Latin America, 20% EC, 12% Japan, 1% U.S.S.R. (1977); imports- 29% U.S., 19% EC, 30% Latin America, 7% Japan (1977) Aid: economic?(1970-76) bilateral economic commit- ments, U.S. $433 million, other Western countries $655 million, Communist countries $276 million; military?U.S. $61 million Communist $545 million Budget: (1978) $1.7 billion current revenues, $2.6 billion total expenditures including debt amortization Monetary conversion rate: 215.67 soles=US$1 (30 April 1979); floats against U.S. dollar Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,148 km total; 1,776 km standard gage (1.435 m), 46 km 0.60-meter gage, 326 km 0.914-meter gage; 14 km double track SECRET Highways: 52,400 km total; 5,400 km paved, 9,900 km gravel, 14,400 km improved earth, 22,700 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon River system and 208 km Lake Titicaca Pipelines: crude oil, 730 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids, 64 km Ports: 7 major, 20 minor Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 386,800 GRT, 594,200 DWT; includes 22 cargo, 2 tanker, 9 bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 combination ore-oil; additionally 5 naval tankers are sometimes used commercially Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 302 total, 304 usable; 24 with permanent-sur- face runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most require- ments; new nationwide radio-relay system; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 295,000 telephones (1.9 per 100 popl.); 200 AM, 7 FM, and 31 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,988,000; 2,701,000 fit for military service; average number currently reaching military age (20) annually, 177,000 Supply: produces some small arms ammunition and is producing two guided missile frigates with Italian assistance; army materiel is supplied by Belgium, France, and the U.S.; U.S.S.R. has supplied tanks and helicopters since 1973 and engineer equipment, military trucks, and artillery since 1975; aircraft and ships from France and U.K. represent three fourths of the total value of non-U.S. imports since 1953; ships also furnished by U.S., Netherlands, Italy, and West Germany Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $284.9 million; about 10% of central government budget 193 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PERU/PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES (See reference map VW LAND 300,440 km2; 53% forested, 30% arable land, 5% permanent pasture, 12% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 0-300 nm (under an archipelago theory, waters within straight lines joining appropriate points of outermost islands are considered internal waters; waters between these baselines and the limits described in the Treaty of Paris, December 10, 1898, the U.S.-Spain Treaty of November 7, 1900, and the U.S.-U.K. Treaty of January 2, 1930 are considered to be the territorial sea) Coastline: about 22,540 km PEOPLE Population: 46,893,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Filipino(s); adjective?Philippine Ethnic divisions: 91.5% Christian Malay, 4% Muslim Malay, 1.5% Chinese, 3% other Religion: 83% Roman Catholic, 10% Protestant, 4% Muslim, 3% Buddhist and other Language: Tagalog (renamed Pilipino) is the national language of the Philippine Republic; English is the language of school instruction and government business 194 July 1979 Literacy: about 83% Labor force: 15.4 million (1976); 60% agriculture, forestry, fishing, 12% manufacturing, 10.5% commerce, 10.5% government and services (business, recreation, domes- tic, personal), 3.5% transport, storage, communication, 3% construction; 0.5% other GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of the Philippines Type: republic Capital: Manila Political subdivisions: 72 provinces Legal system: based on Spanish, Islamic, and Anglo- American law; parliamentary constitution passed 1973; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, and 71 other law schools; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; currently being ruled under martial law National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June Branches: new constitution (currently suspended) pro- vides for unicameral National Assembly, and a strong executive branch under a Prime Minister; judicial branch headed by Supreme Court with descending authority in a Court of Appeals, courts of First Instance in various provinces, municipal courts in chartered cities, and justices of the peace in towns and municipalities; these justices have considerably more authority than do justices of the peace in the U.S. Government leader: President Ferdinand Marcos Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: elections held for an interim National Assem- bly to meet in June Political parties and leaders: political parties currently in limbo because of martial law Communists: about 2,100-2,400 armed insurgents Member of: ADB, ASEAN, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $23.2 billion (1978), $500 per capita; 5.8% real growth, 1978 Agriculture: main crops?rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane, bananas, abaca, tobacco Fishing: catch 1.4 million metric tons (1976) Major industries: mining, agricultural processing, textiles, chemicals and chemical products Electric power: 4,546,000 kW capacity (1978); 16.4 billion kWh produced (1978), 355 kWh per capita Exports: $3.3 million (f.o.b., 1978); coconut products, sugar, logs and lumber, copper concentrates, bananas, garments, nickel, abaca SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 PHILIPPINES !POLAND Imports: $4.7 million (f.o.b., 1978); petroleum, industrial equipment, wheat Major trade partners: (1977) exports-35% U.S., 23% Japan; imports-25% Japan, 20% U.S. Aid: commitments 1970-76: U.S. economic, $467.3 mil- lion, military, $204.8 million; Western (except U.S.), $996.3 million; Eastern Europe, $35.5 million; OPEC, $61.0 million Budget: (CY78) revenues $3.8 billion, expenditures $4.6 billion, deficit $0.8 billion; 11% military, 89% . civilian Monetary conversion rate: 7.38 pesos=US$1, February 1979 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,510 km total (1977); 2 common-carrier systems 1.067-meter gage totaling about 1,177 km; 19 industrial systems with 4 different gages totaling 2,333 km; 34% government owned Highways: 119,218 km total (1977); 20,483 km paved; 51,643 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface; 47,092 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m) vessels Pipelines: refined products, 251 km Ports: 11 major, numerous minor Merchant marine: 195 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,172,800 GRT, 1,771,000 DWT; includes 13 passenger, 129 cargo, 32 tanker, 15 bulk, 3 cOmbination ore/oil, 1 gas carrier, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 specialized carrier Civil air: approximately 60 major transport aircraft Airfields: 332 total, 303 usable; 59 with permanent- surface runways; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 36 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent international radio and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service just adequate; 541,681 telephones; 1,850,000 radio sets; 500,000 est. TV sets; 273 AM stations, including 6 U.S.; and 6 FM stations; 24 TV stations, including 4 U.S.; submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, and Japan; tropo- spheric-scatter link to Republic of China; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,756,000; 7,540,000 fit for, military service; about 460,000 reach military age (20) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: limited small arms and small arms ammunition, small patrol craft production; licensed assembly of transport aircraft; most other materiel obtained from U.S.; naval ships and equipment from Australia, Japan, Singapore, U.S., and Italy; aircraft and helicopters from West Germany and U.S. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $764.3 million; about 15% of central government budget POLAND (See reference map NI LAND 312,354 km2; 49% arable, 14% other agricultural, 27% forested, 10% other Land boundaries: 3,090 km 195 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET POLAND WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (3 nm contiguous zone claimed in addition to the territorial sea) (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 491 km PEOPLE Population: 35,391,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Pole(s); adjective?Polish Ethnic divisions: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrainians, 0.5% Belorussians, less than 0.05% Jews, 0.2% other Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% practicing), 5% Uniate, Greek Orthodox, Protestant, and other Language: Polish, no significant dialects Literacy: about 98% Labor force: 18.8 million; 32% agriculture, 25% industry, 43% other non-agricultural (1977) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Polish People's Republic (PRL) Type: Communist state Capital: Warsaw Political subdivisions: 49 provinces Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist legal theory; constitution adopted 1952; court system parallels administrative divisions with Supreme Court, composed of 104 justices, at apex; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at 7 law schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July Branches: legislative, executive, judicial system domi- nated by parallel Communist party apparatus Government leaders: Piotr Jaroszewicz, Premier; Henryk Jablonski, Chairman of Council of State (President) Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: parliamentary and local government every 4 years Dominant political party and leader: Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) (Communist), Edward Gierek, First Secretary Voting strength (1975 election): 99% voted for Commu- nist-approved single slate Communists: 2,758,000 party members (March 1978) Other political or pressure groups: National Unity Front (FJN), including United Peasant Party (ZSL), Democratic Party (SD), progovernment pseudo-Catholic Pax Association and Christian Social Association, Catholic independent Znak group; powerful Roman Catholic Church, Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski, Primate Member of: CEMA, GATT, ICAO, ICES, IHO, Indochina Truce Commission, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IPU, ISO, ITC, Korea Truce Commission, U.N. and all specialized agencies except IMF and IBRD, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WTO 196 July 1979 ECONOMY GNP: $108.3 billion in 1978, at 1978 prices, $3,094 per capita; 1978 growth rate, 2.7% Agriculture: self-sufficient for minimum requirements; main crops?grain, sugar beets, oilseeds, potatoes, exporter of livestock products and sugar; importer of grains; 3,200 calories per day per capita (1970) Fishing: catch 537,300 metric tons (1978) Major industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, and food processing Crude steel: 19:3 million metric tons produced (1978), about 550 kg. per capita Electric power: 23,650,000 kW capacity (1978); 115.6 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,280 kWh per capita Exports: $13,471 million (f.o.b., 1978); 47% machinery and equipment, 34% fuels, raw materials, and semimanufac- tures, 9% agricultural and food products, 10% light industrial products Imports: $15,337 million (f.o.b., 1978); 41% machinery and equipment; 42% fuels, raw materials, and semimanufac- tures; 13% agricultural and food products; 4% light industrial products Major trade partners: $28,808 million (1978); 57% with ? Communist countries, 43% with West Aid: Western countries est. $16 billion (short, medium, and long term debt, end of 1978 ? Polish credits to LDC's, $1,220 million (1954-78) Monetary conversion rate: z otys= S$1 (commer- cial); 31.60 zlotys=US$1 (noncommercial), 31 December 1978 Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data are reported for calendar years except for caloric intake which is reported for the consumption year, 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 26,695 km total; 23,816 km standard gage (1.435 m), 2,879 km other gage; 7,474 km double track; 6,496 km electrified; government owned (1978) Highways: 305,863 km total; 65,000 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 98,000 km crushed stone, gravel; 142,863 km earth (1977) Inland waterways: 3,759 km navigable rivers and canals (1979) Pipelines: 3,540 km for natural gas; 1,515 km for crude oil; 322 km for refined products Freight carried: rail-489.3 million metric tons (1978), 135.4 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-2,039 million metric tons, 40.3 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway- 22.4 million metric tons, 2.7 million metric ton/km; approximately 1,842 waterway craft with 654,600 metric ton capacity (1978) Ports: 4 major (Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujicie), 6 minor (1979); principal inland waterway ports are Gliwice, WrocVaw, and Warsaw (1979) SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 POLAND/PORTUGAL Merchant marine: 301 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,088,100 GRT, 4,664,700 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 202 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 tanker, 73 bulk, 4 specialized carrier, 3 cargo training Civil air: 45 major transport aircraft (1978) Airfields: 144 total; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 3,500 m or over; 31 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 96 with runways 1,000-2,499 m; 15 with runways less than 1,000 m; 3 heliports Telecommunications: adequate for government needs but only limited service is available to the public; international facilities are adequate; modern radio and TV network is used effectively to educate and entertain the public; 28 AM and 25 FM broadcast stations, 5,794,673 receivers; 32 TV stations and 61 TV transmitters; 6,142,999 TV receivers; 2,337,603 telephones (86.1% automatic) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,294,000; 7,364,000 fit for military service; 300,000 reach military age (19) annually Personnel: 297,000 (estimated) ground forces,'? includes 9,000 Internal Defense Forces (WOW), 55,000 Territorial Defense Forces (OT); 8,000 specialized construction troops, 22,000 naval forces; 43,100 air forces; 46,475 national air defense forces; 21,500 paramilitary forces (S) Supply: produces infantry weapons, A PC's, tanks, ammu- nition, electronic equipment including radar, trucks, chemi- cal and biological defensive materiel and small quantities of 1? Soviet forces (NCF) in Poland as of 1 January 1978, 50,000 (37,000 ground; 13,000 air). SECRET CW agents; Poland builds small combatants and naval auxiliary ships for the Polish Navy ari4 coast guard, as vvell as amphibious warfare ships and naval auxiliaries for U.S.S.R., and medium-sized landing ships and auxiliaries for other countries; Poland also produces helicopters, jet trainers, small transport utility aircraft and air-to-air missiles; other equipment primarily from U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, est. 65.3 billion zlotys; about 6.1% of total budget PORTUGAL Atlantic Ocean o PORTUGAL Eisbo ALGERIA (See reference map IV) LAND Metropolitan Portugal: 94,276 km', including the Azores and Madeira Islands; 48% arable, 6% meadow and pasture, 31% forested, 15% waste and urban, inland water, and other Land boundaries: 1,207 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 12 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 860 km (excludes Azores (708 km) and Madeira (225, km)) PEOPLE Population: metropolitan Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira Islands), 9,866,000 (July 1979), average annual ?growth rate 0.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Portuguese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Portuguese 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 SECRET 197 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET PORTUGAL Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000 Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant sects, 2% other Language: Portuguese Literacy: 70% Labor force: (1978) 4.1 million; 33% agriculture, 33% industry, 34% services; unemployment?now more than 13%?is largely due to influx of refugees from former colonies, returning migrant workers, military cutbacks, and government efforts to slow economic growth in the short run Organized labor: the Communist-dominated General Confederation of Portuguese Workers?National Intersindi- cal (CTP-IN) claims to represent 77% of the labor force; the Socialists and Social Democrats have gained ground over the last year because of the formation of the General Union of Workers (UGT) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Portuguese Republic Type: republic, first government under new constitution formed July 1976; major political parties and officers of all-military Revolutionary Council signed document in December 1975 agreeing to multiparty parliamentary democracy with military oversight for period of 4 years following presidential elections in June 1976 Capital: Lisbon Political subdivisions: 18 districts in mainland Portugal; Portugal's two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira Islands, have 4 districts (3 of them in the Azores); Macao, Portugal's remaining overseas territory, was granted broad executive and legislative autonomy in February 1976; Portugal has not officially recognized the unilateral annex- ation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia Legal system: civil law system; new constitution adopted April 1976; for next four years, legislative assembly acts to be reviewed for constitutionality by Revolutionary Council; vetoes of laws by the Council, through the agency of the presidency, may be appealed to a Constitutional Commis- sion as a court of last resort; legal education at Universities of Lisbon and Coimbra; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: 25 April Branches: executive with President and Prime Minister, with 18-member Revolutionary Council as advisory body to the President; popularly elected Assembly of the Republic; independent judiciary Government leaders: President, Gen. Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes; Prime Minister, Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto 198 July 1979 Suffrage: universal over age 18, except for those barred by law for participation in -undemocratic" institutions prior to April 25, 1974 Elections: national elections for Assembly of the Republic to be held every 4 years, first Assembly under new constitution elected April 1976, will sit until October 14, 1980 unless earlier dissolved by the President; national election for president to be held every 5 years, term of first constitutional president?elected in June 1976?will end with 4 year transitional period; local elections to be held every 3 years, last elections in December 1976 Political parties and leaders: the Portuguese Socialist Party (PS) is led by Mario Soares, the Social Democratic Party (PSD), formerly the Popular Democratic Party (PPD), by Francisco Sa Carneiro, the Social Democratic Center (CDS) by Diogo Freitas do Amaral, and the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) by Alvaro Cunhal Voting strength: (1976 parliamentary election) the Socialists polled 35% of the vote; the PSD received 24%, the CDS 16%, and the Communists 15%; (1976 local elections) PS 33%, PSD 24%, PCP 18%, CDS 17% Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims mem- bership of 142,512 (March 1978) Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO (restricted membership), ICES, ICO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IO0C, ISO, ITU, IWC? International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $19.5 billion est. (1978); 13% government consump- tion, 68% private consumption; 22% gross fixed investment; ?11% net exports; 8% net factor income from abroad; average annual real GNP growth 1970-74, 8%; the change in real GNP was ?4.3% in 1975, and 6.9% in 1976, 6.1% in 1977, and was estimated at 2.7% in 1978 Agriculture: generally underdeveloped; main crops? grains, potatoes, olives, grapes for wine; deficit foods?sugar, grain, meat, fish, oil seeds; caloric intake Fishing: landed 339,191 metric tons (1976) Major industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine Crude steel: 365,000 tons produced (1978), 50 kg per capita Electric power: 4,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 16 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,630 kWh per capita Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b. 1978); principal items?cotton textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber products, resin Imports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal items? petroleum, cotton, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 PORTUGAL/QATAR Major trade partners: 46% EC (13% U.K., 12% West Germany, 8% France, 5% Italy); 10% EFTA, 9% U.S., 4% Spain, 3% Iraq, 2% Saudi Arabia, 3% Japan, (1977) Aid: economic authorizations: U.S., $526 million (FY70-77); other Western (ODA and 00F), $84 million (1977); military authorizations?U.S., $34 million (FY77) Budget: 1977?receipts, $2.5 billion; expenditures, $3.1 billion; deficit, $650 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 escudo=US$0.0229 (average 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,593 km total: state-owned Portuguese Rail- road Co. (CP) operates 2,807 km 1.665-meter gage (406 km electrified and 426 km double track), 760 km meter-gage (1.000 m); 26 km 1.665-meter gage double track, electrified, privately-owned Highways: 29,773 km total; 17,703 km bituminous, bituminous treatment, concrete and stoneblock; 11,587 km gravel and crushed stone; 483 km improved earth; plus an additional 16,898 km of unimproved earth roads (motorable tracks) Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimpor- tant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 297 metric ton cargo capacity Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km Ports: 6 major, 34 minor Merchant marine: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,083,600 GRT, 1,779,300 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 52 cargo, 2 container, 19 tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 5 bulk, 1 specialized carrier Civil air: 29 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields (including Azores and Madeira Islands): 50 total, 48 usable; 31 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 1.19 million telephones (12.9 per 100 popl.); 39 AM, 34 FM, and 42 TV stations; 3 submarine coaxial cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,198,000; 1,788,000 fit for military service; average number reaching age (20) annually, about 85,000 SECRET SECRET Supply: produces transport vehicles, wheeled APC's, small arms, ammunition, aerial bombs, military telecom and electronics equipment, and incendiary, smoke, and tear agent munitions; also produces naval ships up to frigate size; other military equipment imported from other NATO countries; navy ships, weapons, and equipment from U.S., West Germany, U.K., Canada, Italy, France, Brazil, Austria, South Africa, Spain Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $575.8 million; about 10% of proposed central government budget QATAR LAND About 10,360 km2; negligible amount forested; mostly desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 56 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 563 km PEOPLE Population: 167,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Qatari(s); adjective?Qatari Ethnic divisions: 38% Arab; 15% Iranian; 29% Pakistani; 18% other; native Qataris are a minority Religion: Muslim Language: Arabic, English is commonly used second language 199 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET BAHRAIN QATAR Doha SAUDI ARABIA IRAN (See reference men 19 Literacy: 25% Labor force: primarily foreign QATAR GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Qatar Type: traditional monarchy; independence declared in 1971 Capital: Doha Legal system: discretionary System of law controlled by the ruler, _although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in personal matters; a constitution was promulgated in 1970 National holiday: 3 September Government leader: Amir, Khalifa ibn Hamad Al Thani Suffrage: no specific provisions for suffrage laid down Elections: constitution calls for elections for part of State Advisory Council, a consultative body, but none have been held Political parties and pressure groups: none; a few small clandestine organizations are active Branches: Council of Ministers; appointive 30-member Advisory Council Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, NAM, OAPEC, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO ECONOMY GNP: $4.5 billion (1977), $20,000 plus per capita Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale; commer- cial fishing increasing in importance; most food imported; rice and dates staple diet Major industries: oil production and refining; crude oil production from onshore and offshore averaged 435,141 b/d (1977); 100% takeover was announced in October 1976 of the Qatar Petroleum Company, still negotiating with Qatar Shell about offshore fields; oil revenues accrued $1.8 billion 200 July 1979 in 1977, representing 91% of government/royal family income; major development projects include $7 million harbor at Ad Dawhah, fertilizer plant, 2 desalting plants, refrigerated storage for fishing, and a cement plant Electric power: capacity 600,000 kW (1978); 2 billion kWh produced (1978), 12,121 kWh per capita Exports: crude oil dominates; exports $2.4 billion (1977) of which petroleum is $2.1 billion Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1977) Budget: (1977) revenue $2.0 billion, expenditure $1.83 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Qatar-Dubai riyal =US$0.26 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 805 km total; 442 km bituminous; 362 km gravel; undetermined mileage of earth tracks Pipelines: crude oil, 169 km; natural gas, 97 km Ports: 1 major (Ad Dawhah), 1 minor Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 81,862 GRT, 146,300 DWT; includes 1 tanker, 1 specialized carrier, 1 cargo Airfields: 2 total, 1 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway over 3,660 m Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft registered in the U.K. Telecommunications: good urban facilities; 24,000 tele- phones (14.8 per 100 popl.); international service through an Indian Ocean satellite station and a troposcatter link to Bahrainu; 2 AM, 1 FM, and 2 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, about 40,000; about 22,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly from U.K., recently from France Military budget: for fiscal year ending 24 January 1974, $53,680,900; 18% of central government budget SECRET II 25X1 25X1, 25X1 25X1 25X11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 REUNION REUNION (See reference map VI) LAND 2,512 km2; two-thirds of island extremely rugged, consisting of volcanic mountains; 48,600 hectares (less than one-fifth of the land) under cultivation WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 201 km .PEOPLE Population: 503,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.4% (7-77 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?Reunionese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Reunionese Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of thoroughly intermixed ancestry of French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and Indian origin Religion: 94% Roman Catholic Language: French (official), Creole widely used Literacy: over 80% among younger generation Labor force: primarily agricultural workers; high seasonal unemployment GOVERNMENT Legal name: Department of Reunion Type: overseas department of France; represented in French Parliament by three Deputies and two Senators Capital: Saint-Denis Legal system: French law Branches: Reunion is administered by a Prefect ap- pointed by the French Minister of Interior, assisted by a Secretary-General and an elected 36-man General Council Government leader: Prefect Paul Cousseran Suffrage: universal adult Elections: last municipal and general council elections in 1976; Parliamentary election March 1978 SECRET SECRET Political parties and leaders: Reunion Communist Party (RCP) led by Paul Verges and the Communist Marxist- Leninist Organization of Reunion (OCMLR) led by Georges Sinamaie; other political candidates affiliated with metro- politan French parties, which do not maintain permanent organizations on Reunion Voting strength (Parliamentary election 1978): Rally for the Republic (formerly Union of Democrats for the Republic) elected one deputy; Giscardian alliance elected one Republican deputy and one Centrist deputy Communists: Communist Party small, but has support among sugarcane cutters, the miniscule OCMLR, and in Le Port district Member of: EC, WFTU ECONOMY Agriculture: cash crops?almost entirely sugarcane, small amounts of vanilla and perfume plants; food crops?tropical fruit and vegetables, manioc, bananas, corn, market garden produce, also some tea, tobacco, and ?coffee; food crop inadequate, most food needs imported Major industries: 12 sugar processing mills, rum distilling plants, cigarette factory, 2 tea plants, fruit juice plant, canning factory, a slaughterhouse, and a number of small shops producing handicraft items Electric power: 75,000 kW capacity (1977); 185 million kWh produced (1977), 370 kWh per capita Exports: $62 million (f.o.b., 1975); 90% sugar, 4% perfume essences, 5% rum and molasses, 1% vanilla and tea (1974) Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1975); manufactured goods, food, beverages, and tobacco, machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials and petroleum products Major trade partners: France (in 1970 supplied 62% of Reunions imports, purchased 76% of its exports); Mauritius (supplied 12% of imports) Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $2,600 million Monetary conversion rate: 4.705 French francs=US$1 Fiscal year: probably calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 1,983 km total; 1,683 km paved, 300 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized earth Ports: 1 major (Port des Galets) Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 7 total, 7 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate system for needs; fairly modern open-wire lines and radiocommunication stations; principal center Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to Co- moros Islands, France, Madagascar, and Mauritius; 32,000 telephones (6.5 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 8 FM, and I TV stations with 13 relay transmitters; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station. 201 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET REUNION/ROMANIA DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: military age males included with France ROMANIA LAND 237,503 km2; 44% arable, 19% forested, 10% other Land boundary: 2,969 km (See migrant. map NI other agriculture, 27% WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 225 km PEOPLE Population: 22,057,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.8% (current) Nationality: noun?Romanian(s); adjective?Romanian Ethnic divisions: 87% Romanian, 8% Hungarian, 2% German, 3% other Religion: 14 million Romanian Orthodox, 1 million Roman Catholic, 1 million Protestants, 60,000 Jews, 30,000 Muslims " Increase in French presence results from relocation of Indian Ocean Naval Command Headquarters from Madagascar. 202 July 1979 Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German Literacy: 98%-99% of total population Labor force: 12.0 million (1977); 40% agriculture, 25% industry, 35% other nonagricultural GOVERNMENT Legal name: Socialist Republic of Romania Type: Communist state Capital: Bucharest Political subdivisions: 40 counties including city of Bucharest, that has administrative status equal to a county, and 46 municipalities, Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory which increasingly reflects Romanian traditions; constitution adopted 1965; legal education at University of Bucharest and two other law schools; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 August Branches: Presidency; Council of Ministers; the Grand National Assembly, under which is Office of Prosecutor General and Supreme Court; Council of State Government leaders: Nicolae Ceausescu, President of the Socialist Republic, head of state; Ilie Verdet, Prime Minister Suffrage: universal over age 18, compulsory Elections: elections held every 5 years for Grand National Assembly deputies and local people's councils Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Romania only functioning party, Nicolae Ceausescu, Secre- tary General Voting strength (1975 election): overall participation reached 99.96%; of those registered to vote (14,900,032), 98.8% voted for party candidates Communists: 2,842,000 (end of 1978) Member of: CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $67.5 billion (1978, in 1978 prices), $3,100 per capita; 1978 real growth rate, 4.2% Agriculture: net exporter; main crops?corn, wheat, oilseed; livestock?cattle, hogs, sheep; caloric intake, 118% of requirements Fish catch: 127,197 metric tons (1976) Major industries: machinery, metals, fuels, chemicals, textiles, food processing, timber processing Shortages: iron ore, coking coal, metallurgical coke, cotton fibers, natural rubber Crude steel: 11.8 million metric tons produced (1978), 538 kg per capita Electric power: 14,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 64.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,925 kWh per capita Exports: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 27% machinery and equipment; 25% raw materials (food and non-food) and foodstuffs; 16% manufactured consumer goods; 21% fuels, metals, materials; 11% other (1977) SECRET 25X1 25X1r 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ROMANIA/RWANDA Imports: $8.9 billion (mixture f.o.b. and c.i.f., 1978); 37% machinery and equipment; 37% fuels, metals, raw materials; 14% raw materials (food and non-food) and foodstuffs; 12% other (1977) Major trade partners: $17.1 billion in 1978; 53% non-Communist countries, 47% Communist countries (1978) Aid: economic credits extended by U.S.S.R. (1956)?$123 million; Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, and Hun- gary (1951-61)?more than $128 million; Western coun- tries?estimated indebtedness at end of 1978, $4.5 billion; Romania has extended credits totaling $2.17 billion to less developed countries (1954-78) Monetary conversion rate: 4.47 lei =US$1 (commercial), 12 lei=US$1 (tourist) Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year, 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 11,127 km total; 10,515 km standard gage (1.435 m), 567 km narrow gage, 45 km broad gage; 1,922 km electrified, 2,040 km double track; government owned (1977) Highways: 73,361 km total; 13,741 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 15,880 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 49,886 km earth (1977) Inland waterways: 1,660 km (1979) Pipelines: 2,735 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 5,149 km natural gas Freight carried: rail-247.8 million metric tons, 70.0 billion metric ton/km (1977); highway-458.1 million metric tons, 10.1 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway- 7.9 million metric tons, 2.1 billion metric ton/km in approximately 1,270 waterway craft, with 707,000 metric ton capacity (1978) Ports: 5 major (Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia, Tulcea), 2 minor; principal inland waterway ports are Giurgiu, Turnu Severin, and Orsova (1979) Merchant marine: 149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,411,000 GRT, 2,177,500 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 102 cargo, 8 tanker, 37 bulk, 1 cargo training Civil air: 26 major transport aircraft (1978)_________ Airfields: 171 total; 26 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 3,500 m or over; 13 with runways 2,500-3,499 m; 29 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 127 with runways less than 1,000 m; 1 heliport Telecommunications: systems are used primarily for government and military purposes; only a few facilities are available to public; wired-broadcast network offers broad coverage; 15 AM, 5 FM stations, 3,105,000 receivers; 13 major and 20 relay TV stations, 1.9 million 886,166 (est.) telephones (84.3% automatic) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,462,000; 4,575,000 fit for military service; 162,000 reach military age (20) annually receivers; SECRET SECRET Supply: produces small arms, rocket launchers, artillery, APC's, ammunition, medium trucks and jeeps, chemical warfare defensive materiel, and several types of coastal patrol-river/roadstead craft?some of Chinese design? aircraft and helicopters under license from the U.K. and France; attempting to produce tanks; dependent on imports from other Communist countries, primarily the U.S.S.R., for other military equipment Military budget (announced): for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, 12.0 billion lei; about 3.5% of total budget RWANDA LAND 25,900 km2; almost all the arable land, about 1/3 under cultivation, about 1/3 pastureland Land boundaries: 877 km 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 2bAl 25X1 PEOPLE Population: 4,573,000 (July 1979), average annual growth 25X1 rate 2.9% (current) Nationality: noun Rwandan(s); adjective?Rwandan Ethnic divisions: 90% Hutu, 9% Tutsi, 1% Twa (Pygmoid) 203 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 IDeclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 RWANDA Indian Ocean (See reference Imp VI) Religion: 45% Catholic, 9% Protestant, 1% Muslim, rest animist Language: Kinya,rwanda and French official; Kiswahili used in commercial centers Literacy: 25% in French and Kinyarwanda Labor force: approximately 5% in cash economy GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Rwanda Type: republic, presidential system in which military leaders hold key offices; new constitution adopted 17 December 1978 Capital: Kigali Political subdivisions: 10 prefectures, subdivided into 143 communes Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July Branches: executive (President, 16-member Cabinet); legislative (National Development Council); judiciary (4 senior courts, magistrates) Government leader: Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana, President and Head of State Suffrage: universal Elections: last legislative election September 1969; none allowed by present government; elections of Communal Counsellors held November 1974; national elections includ- ing constitutional referndum and presidential plebiscite held December 1978 Political parties and leaders: National Revolutionary Movement for Development, General Habyarimana (offi- cially not a party?a -development movement- only) Communists:. no Communist party Member of: AFDB, EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO 204 ECONOMY GDP: $830 million (1978), $184 per capita; real average annual growth rate (1970-77), 5.5% Agriculture: cash crops?mainly coffee, tea, some pyre- thrum; main food crops?bananas, cassava; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs Major industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore), wolfram (tungsten ore), agricultural processing, and light consumer goods Electric power: 35,000 kW capacity (1977); 142 million kWh produced (1977), 30 kWh per capita Exports: $114 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); mainly coffee, tea, cassiterite, wolfram, pyrethrum Imports: $116 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); textiles, foodstuffs, machines, equipment Major trade partners: U.S., Belgium, West Germany, Kenya Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-76), $216.2 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $23.5 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $23.2 million; U.S. (1970- 76), $7.6 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $1.0 million Budget: revenues $82.3 million; expenditures $82.3 million (1976 provisional) Monetary conversion rate: 92.84 Rwanda francs=US$1 (official) since January 1974 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 9,020 km total; 320 km paved, 2,700 km gravel and/or improved earth, 6,000 km unimproved Inland waterways: Lake Kivu navigable by barges and native craft Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft Airfields: 8 total, 8 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m, 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: poor system with low-capacity radio-relay system centered on Kigali; 3,600 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV stations; Symphonie satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 931,000; 472,000 fit for military service; no conscription; 45,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 RWANDA/ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS-ANGUILLA Supply: dependent primarily on Belgium; has received equipment from France, U.K., and West Germany Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December , 1977, $12,436,450; 15.5% of central government budget ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS-ANGUILLA Atlantic Ocean N- A CURIA ' P ST. CHRISTOPHER '10 * NEVIS Caribbean Sea ? a 9 gee reference map II) LAND 389 km2; 40% arable, 10% pasture, 17% forest, 33% wasteland and built-on WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 193 km PEOPLE Population: 58,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (7-76 to 7-77) Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro descent Nationality: noun?Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s), Anguillan(s); adjective?Kittsian, Nevisian, Anguillan Religion: Church of England, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic Language: English Literacy: about 80% Labor force: 19,616 (1960 est.) Organized labor: 6,700 SECRET E Declassified SECRET GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla Type: dependent territory with full internal autonomy as a British -Associated State"; Anguilla formally seceded in May 1967 but has not been recognized as an independent state by any government; in July 1968 a legislative council headed by Ronald Webster was elected to govern Anguilla; in March 1969 the U.K. sent troops to Anguilla, placing the island again under colonial rule; in 1971, Anguilla reverted to its former colonial relationship with the U.K. although nominally remaining part of the Associated state of St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla; Webster became leader of Anguillan Council after constitutionally held elections (1972); in February 1976, the U.K. granted a new constitution to Anguilla which gave it a greater degree of autonomy in domestic affairs; in February 1977 Emile Gumbs replaced Webster as Chief Minister Capital: Basseterre Political subdivisions: 10 districts Legal system: based on English common law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial organ is Court of Appeal of Leeward and Windward Islands Branches: legislative, 10-member popularly elected House of Assembly; executive, cabinet headed by Premier Government leaders: Premier, Lee Moore; U.K. Gover- nor, Probyn Inniss Suffrage: universal adult suffrage Elections: at least every 5 years; most recent December 1975 Political parties and leaders: St. Chirstopher-Nevis-An- guilla Labor Party, C. A. P. Southwell; People's Action Movement (PAM), William Herbert; Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), Ivor Stevens Voting strength (December 1975 election): St. Christo- pher-Nevis-Anguilla Labor Party won 7 seats in the House of Assembly, NRP won 2, and 1 seat remains open for Anguilla which did not participate in the election Communists: none known Member of: CARICOM, ISO ECONOMY GDP: $30.4 million (at market prices, 1976), $540 per capita Agriculture: main crops?sugar on St. Christopher, cotton on Nevis Major industries: sugar processing, salt extraction Electric power: 15,000 kW capacity (1977); 32 million kWh produced (1977), 460 kWh per capita Exports: $17.8 million (f.o.b., 1975); sugar, molasses, cotton, salt, copra Imports: $19.5 million (c.i.f., 1975); foodstuffs, fuel, manufactures Major trade partners: exports-50% U.S., 35% U.K.; imports-21% U.K., 17% Japan, 11% U.S. (1973) 205 25X1 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET ST. CHRISTOPHER-NEVIS-ANGUILLA/ST. LUCIA Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76) from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $64.6 million; no military aid Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dol- lars=US$1 (July 1976) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 57 km, narrow gage (0.760 m) on St. Kitts for sugar cane Highways: 300 km total; 100 km paved, 150 km otherwise improved, 50 km unimproved earth Ports: 3 minor (1 on each island) Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good interisland VHF/UHF radio connections and international link via Antigua; about 2,500 telephones (4.4 per 100 popl.); 3 AM and 5 TV stations ST. LUCIA At/antic Ocean Caribbean Sea (See (derma men III LAND 616 km2; 50% arable, 3% pasture, 19% forest, 5% unused but potentially productive, 23% wasteland and built-on 206 July 1979 WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 158 km PEOPLE Population: 121,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.7% (current) Nationality: noun?St. Lucian(s); adjective?St. Lucian Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro descent Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic Language: English, French patois Literacy: about 80% Labor force: 38,000 (1969); 50% agriculture; 30%-35% unemployment (1975) Organized labor: 20% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: St. Lucia Type: independent state within Commonwealth as of 22 February 1979, recognizing Elizabeth II as Chief of State Capital: Castries Political subdivisions: 16 parishes Legal system: based on English common law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial body is Court of Appeal of Leeward and Windward Islands Branches: legislative, bicameral; executive, Cabinet head- ed by Prime Minister Government leaders: Prime Minister Allan Louisy Suffrage: universal adult suffrage Elections: every 5 years; most recent 2 July 1979 Political parties and leaders: United Worker's Party (UWP), John Compton; St. Lucia Labour Party (SLP), Allan Louisy Voting strength (1974 election): UWP (53%) won 10 of the 17 elected seats in House of Assembly; SLP (45%) won 7 seats; independents (2%) no seats Communists: negligible Member of: CARICOM ECONOMY GNP: $57 million capita Agriculture: main spices Major industries: (in market prices, 1976); $480 per crops?bananas, copra, sugar, cocoa, tourism, lime processing Shortages: food, machinery, capital goods Electric power: 14,000 kW capacity (1977); 40 million kWh produced (1977), 365 kWh per capita Exports: $17 million (f.o.b., 1976); sugar, bananas, cocoa Imports: $47 million (c.i.f., 1976); foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, petroleum products Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $16.7 million; no military aid SECRET 1 25X1 25X1 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET ST. LUCIA/ST. VINCENT Major trade partners: 51% U.K., 9% Canada, 17% U.S. (1970) Monetary conversion rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dol- lars=US$1 (July 1976) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 750 km total; 450 km paved; 300 km otherwise improved Ports: 1 major (Castries), 1 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fully automatic telephone system with 6,600 telephones (5.8 per 100 popl.); direct radio-relay link with Martinique; interisland tropospheric links to Barbados and Antigua; 3 AM stations, 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Local security forces: 320 Royal St. Lucia Police Force; 30 St. Lucia (police) Auxiliary Constabulary; 1 port security boat ST. VINCENT DOM. REP. c71T,Z, Caribbean Sea Adana Ocean !ST. VINCENT (See 'defence map LAND 389 km' (including northern Grenadines); 50% arable, 3% pasture, 44% forest, 3% wasteland and built-on SECRET WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 84 km PEOPLE Population: 113,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.8% (4-60 to 1-76) Nationality: noun?St. Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s); adjectives?St. Vincentian or Vincentian Ethnic divisions: mainly of African Negro descent; remainder mixed with some white and East Indian and Carib Indian Religion: Church of England, Methodist, Roman Catholic Language: English, some French patois Literacy: about 80% Labor force: 50,000 (1972 est.); about 60% unemployed Organized labor: 10% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of St. Vincent Type: dependent territory with full internal autonomy as a British -Associated State" Capital: Kingstown Legal system: based on English common law; constitution of 1960; highest judicial body is Court of Appeal of Leeward and Windward Islands Government leaders: Premier R. Milton -Cato; Governor General (U.K.) Sir Rupert G. John Suffrage: universal adult suffrage (18 years old and over) Elections: every 5 years; most recent December 9, 1974 Political parties and leaders: People's Political Party (PPP), Ebenezer Joshua; St. Vincent Labor Party (LP), R. Milton Cato; Democratic Freedom Movement, Parnell Campbell and Kenneth John; Youlou United Liberal Organization (YULIMO), Ralph Gonsalves Voting strength (1975 election): LP 10 seats, PPP 2 seats, independent 1 seat in the Legislature Member of: CARICOM ECONOMY GNP: $33.5 million (at market prices, 1976); $305 per capita Agriculture: main crops?bananas, arrowroot, coconut Major industries: food processing Electric power: 6,500 kW capacity (1977); 18 million kWh produced (1977), 190 kWh per capita Exports: $9.3 million (f.o.b., 1976); bananas, arrowroot, copra Imports: $23.7 million (c.i.f., 1976); fertilizer, flour, transportation equipment, lumber, textiles Major trade partners: exports-61% U.K., 30% CARI- COM, 9% U.S.; imports-29% CARICOM, 28% U.K., '9% Canada, 9% U.S. (1972) 207 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 3 SECRET ST. VINCENT/SAN MARINO Aid: economic?bilateral economic commitments includ- ing Ex-Im (FY 70-76), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $46.2 million; no military aid Monetary conversion lars=US$1 (July 1976) rate: 2.70 East Caribbean dol- COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 600 km total; 300 km paved; 150 km otherwise improved; 150 km unimproved earth Ports: I major, 1 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 5 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: islandwide fully automatic tele- phone system with 4,900 sets (4.8 per 100 popl.); VHF/UHF interisland links to Barbados and the Grenadines; 2 AM stations DEFENSE FORCES Local security forces: 366 Royal St. Vincent Police Force; 100 St. Vincent Auxiliary Police Force; 1 port security boat (police) SAN MARINO Mediterranean Sea (See reference map IV) LAND 62 km2; 74% cultivated, 22% meadows and pastures, 4% built-on Land boundaries: 34 km 208 July 1979 PEOPLE Population: 20,000 (official estimate for 30 June 1977) Nationality: noun?Sanmarinese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Sanmarinese Religion: Roman Catholic Language: Italian Literacy: illiteracy relatively insignificant Labor force: approx. 4,300 Organized labor: General Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated Camera del Lavoro, about 1,000 members GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of San Marino Type: republic (dates from 4th century A.D.); in 1862 the Kingdom of Italy concluded a treaty guaranteeing the independence of San Marino; although legally sovereign, San Marino is vulnerable to pressure from the Italian Government Capital: 'San Marino Political subdivisions: San Marino is divided into 9 castelli: Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Dog- manano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holidays: 1 April, 1 October Branches: the Grand and General Council is the legislative body elected by popular vote; its 60 members serve 5-year terms; Council in turn elects two Captains-Re- gent who exercise executive power for term of 6 months, the Council of State whose members head government adminis- trative departments and the Council of Twelve, the supreme judicial body; actual executive power is wielded by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of State for Internal Affairs Government leaders: since 17 July 1978 Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs and for Information, Giordano Bruno Reffi (Socialist); Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Justice, Alvaro Selva (Communist); Secretary of State for Budget, Finance, and Planning, Emilio Baldo (Unitary Socialist) Suffrage: universal (since 1960) Elections: elections to the Grand and General Council required at least every 5 years; an election was held 28 May 1978 Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic party (DCS), Gian Luigi Berti; Social Democratic Party (PSDSM), Alvaro Casali; Socialist Party (PSS), Remy Giacomini; Communist Party (PCS), Umberto Barulli; People's Demo- cratic Party (PDP), leader unknown; Committee for the Defense of the Republic (CDR), leader unknown SECRET 25X1 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SAN MARINO/SAO TOME AND Voting strength (1974 election): 39.6% DCS, 23.7% PCS, 15.4% PSDIS, 13.9% PSS, 1.9% PDP, 2.9% CDR Communists: approx. 300 members (number of sympa- thizers cannot be determined); PSS, in government with Christian Democrats since March 1973, formed a govern- ment with the PCS from the end of World War II to 1957 Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties influenced by policies of their counterparts in Italy, the two Socialist parties are not united Member of: ICJ, International Institute for Unification of Private Law, International Relief Union, IRC, UPU, WTO ECONOMY Principal economic activities of San Marino are farming, livestock raising, light manufacturing, and tourism; the largest share of government revenue is derived from the sale of postage stamps throughout the world and from payments by the Italian government in exchange for Italy's monopoly in retailing tobacco, gasoline, and a few other goods; main problem is finding additional funds to finance badly needed water and electric power systems expansions Agriculture: principal crops are wheat (average annual output about 4,400 metric tons/year) and grapes (average annual output about 700 metric tons/year); other grains, fruits, vegetables, and animal feedstuffs are also grown; livestock population numbers roughly 6,000 cows, oxen, and sheep; cheese and hides are most important livestock products Electric power: imported from Italy Manufacturing: consists mainly of cotton textile produc- tion at Serravalle, brick and tile production at Dogane, cement production at Acquaviva, Dogane, and Fiorentino, and pottery production at Borg? Maggiore; some tanned hides, paper, candy, baked goods, Moscato wine, and gold and silver souvenirs are also produced Foreign transactions: dominated by tourism; in summer months 20,000 to 30,000 foreigners visit San Marino every day; a number of hotels and restaurants have been built in recent years to accommodate them; remittances from Sanmarinese abroad also represent an important net foreign inflow; commodity trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer manufactures COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: about 104 km Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: none Telecommunications: automatic telephone system serv- ing 5,700 telephones (28.1 per 100 popl.); no radiobroadcast- ing or television facilities SECRET SECRET PRINCIPE SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE 1 NIGERIA CAMEROON SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE S5o Tome UATOR IA I. GUINEA Atlantic Ocean GABON CONGO (See reference map VI LAND 964 km' (Sao Tome, 855 km2 and Principe, including small islets of Pedras Tinhosas) 109 km2; WATER Limits of territorial waters: 6 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: estimated 209 km PEOPLE Population: 82,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Sao Tomean(s): adjective?Sao Tomean Ethnic divisions: native Sao Tomeans, migrant Cape Verdians, Portuguese Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh Day Adventist Language: Portuguese official Literacy: estimated at 5%-10% Labor force: most of population engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing; nearly half the island's work force, about 10,000 people, are unemployed, the other half work on cocoa plantations GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe Type: republic established when independence received from Portugal in July 1975; constitution adopted December 1975 Capital: Sao Tome 209 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 1`).." SECRET July 1979 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE/SAUDI ARABIA Legal system: based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July Branches: Da Costa heads the government assisted by a cabinet ?of ministers Government leader:' President Manuel Pinto da Costa Suffrage: universal for age 18 and over Elections: elections were held July 1975 for the President Political parties and leaders: Movement for the Liber- ation of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Secretary-General Manuel Pinto Da Costa Communists: no Communist party, probably a few Communist sympathizers Member of: G-77, NAM, OAU, U.N. ECONOMY GNP: $20 million (1975 estimate); per, capita income $250 (1975 est.) Agriculture: cash crops?cocoa, copra, coconut, coffee, palm oil, bananas Major industries: food processing on small scale, timber Electric power: 3,000 kW capacity (1977); 5 million kWh produced (1977), 70 kWh per capita Exports: $8.5 million (f.o.b., 1976); mainly cocoa (90%), copra (7%), coffee, palm oil Imports: $10 million (c.i.f., 1976); communications equipment, light and heavy vehicles, food products, beverages, fuels and lubricants Major trade partners: main partner, Portugal; followed by Netherlands, West Germany, African neighbors ?Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-US.) countries, $577 million; U.S., $0.3 million Budget: balanced at an estimated $6.6 million (1975) Monetary conversion rate: 40.64 escudos= US$1 (Novem- ber 1977) Fiscal year: probably calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Ports: 1 major (Sao Tome) Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: minimal system; 750 telephones (1.0 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations DEFENSE FORCES A company of 150 local troops has been formed into a fledgling army; Sao Tome also has several small boats for patrolling territorial waters between Sao Tome and Principe that normally have crews of armed military personnel; 210 SAUDI ARABIA (See reference map VI LAND Estimated at about 2,331,000 km2 (boundaries undefined and disputed); 1% agricultural, 1% forested, 98% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 4,537 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm "necessary supervision zone") Coastline: 2,510 km PEOPLE Population: 8,103,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Saudi(s); adjective?Saudi Arabian or Saudi Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Asian (est.) Religion: 100% Muslim Language: Arabic Literacy: 15% (est.) Labor force: about 33% (one-half foreign) of population; 44% commerce, services, and government; 28% agriculture, 21% construction, 4% industry, 3% oil and mining GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Type: monarchy Capital: Riyadh; foreign ministry and foreign diplomatic representatives located in Jiddah Political subdivisions: 18 amirates Legal system: largely based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 23 September Branches: King Khalid (Al Sa'ud, Khalid ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz) rules in consultation with royal family (especially Crown Prince Fahd), and Council of Ministers SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SAUDI ARABIA/SENEGAL Government leader: King Khalid ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz Al Sa'ud Communists: negligible Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $64 billion (1978 est.), $9,800 per capita; annual growth in real non-oil GNP approx. 15% (1973/77 average, non-oil) Agriculture: dates, grains, livestock; not self-sufficient in food Major industries: petroleum production 9.2 million b/d (1978); payments to Saudi Arabian Government, $36 billion (1977); cement production and small steel-rolling mill and oil refinery; several other light industries, including factories producing detergents, plastic products, furniture, etc.; PETROMIN, a semipublic agency associated with the Ministry of Petroleum, has recently completed a major fertilizer plant Electric power: 4,700,000 kW capacity (1978); 8.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,065 kWh per capita Exports: $40 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 99% petroleum and petroleum products Imports: $24 billion (c.i.f., 1978); manufactured goods, transportation equipment, construction materials, and proc- essed food products Major trade partners: exports?U.S., Western Europe, Japan; imports?U.S., Japan, West Germany Aid: large aid donor; military and economic aid in 1977 amounted to $4 billion Budget: (FY78) expenditure $32.8 billion, of which development funding was $22 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 Saudi riya1=US$29.4 (1978) (linked to SDR, freely convertible) Fiscal year: follows Islamic year; the 1978-79 Saudi fiscal year covers the period 6 June 1978 through 25 May 1979 COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 575 km standard gage (1.435 m) Highways: 30,100 km total; 16,500 km paved, 13,600 km improved earth Pipelines: 2,430 km crude oil; 386 km refined products; 98 km natural gas Ports: 3 major (Jidda, Ad Damman, Has Tanura), 6 minor Civil air: 87 major transport aircraft, including 9 leased in Airfields: 123 total, 90 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways; 18 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m, 4 with runways over 3,660 m SECRET SECRET Telecommunications: fair system exists, major expansion program underway with microwave, coaxial cable, satellite systems; 200,000 telephones (2.5 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 1 FM, 11 TV stations, 1 submarine cable; 1 Atlantic and 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; 15 domestic satellite stations SENEGAL LAND 196,840 km2; 13% forested, 40% agricultural (12% cultivated), 47% built-up areas, waste, etc. Land boundaries: 2,680 km 211 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET Dakar THE GAMBIA GUINEA BISSAU At/antic 'Ocean (See relevance map VII SENEGAL WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 150 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 531 km PEOPLE Population: 5,519,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Senegalese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Senegalese .Ethnic divisions: 36% Wolof, 17.5 Fulani, 16.5 Serer, 9% Tukulor, 9% Dyola, 6.5% Malinke, 4.5% other African, 1% Europeans and Lebanese Religion: 80% Muslim, 15% animist, 5% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) Language: French official, but regular use limited to literate minority; most Senegalese speak own tribal language; use of Wolof vernacular spreading?now spoken to some degree by nearly half the population Literacy: 5%-10% (est.) in 14 plus age group Labor force: 1,732,000; about 80% subsistence agricul- tural workers; about 170,000 wage earners Organized labor: majority of wage-labor force repre- sented by unions; however, dues-paying membership very limited, three labor central unions, major central is CNTS, an affiliate of governing party GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Senegal Type: republic Capital: Dakar Political subdivisions: 8 regions, departments, 95 arrondissements Legal system: based on French civil law system; constitution adopted 1960, revised 1963 and 1970; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court (which also audits the government's accounting office); legal education at University of Dakar; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction subdivided into 27 212 July 1979 National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April Branches: government dominated by President who is assisted by Prime Minister, appointed by President and subject to dismissal by President or censure by National Assembly; 100-member National Assembly, elected for 5 years (effective 1978); President elected for 5-year term (effective 1978) by universal suffrage; judiciary headed by Supreme Court, with members appointed by President Government leaders: Leopold Sklar Senghor, President; Abdou Diouf, Prime Minister Suffrage: universal adult Elections: presidential and legislative elections held February 1978 for 5-year term Political parties and leaders: legal parties are Parti Socialiste (PS), ruling party led by President Leopold Senghor; Parti Democratique Senegalaise (PDS), -liberal democratic- party founded July 1974, and -Marxist-Lenin- ist" African Independence Party (PAI), legalized in August 1976; Conservative Senegalese Republican Movement (MRS); unauthorized parties include clandestine PAI splinter group, leftist Rassemblement Nationale Democratique, and Parti Comrnuniste Senegalais (PCS) Communists: small number of Communists and sympa- thizers associated with PAI and PCS Other political or pressure groups: students and teachers occasionally strike Member of: AFDB, APC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $2.2 billion (1978), $403 per capita; real growth ?2.3% in 1976; nominal growth 1.0% in 1978 Agriculture: main crops?peanuts, millet, sorghum, man- ioc, rice; peanuts primary cash crop; production of food crops increasing but still insufficient for domestic re- quirements Fishing: catch 361,673 metric tons (1975); exports $30.9 million (1974) Major industries: fishing, agricultural processing plants, light manufacturing, ? mining Electric power: 183,850 kW capacity (1977); 603 million kWh produced (1977), 120 kWh per capita ? Exports: $411 million (f.o.b., 1976/77); peanuts and peanut products; phosphate rock; canned fish Imports: $605 million (c.i.f., 1976/77); food, consumer goods, machinery, transport equipment Major trade partners: France, EC (other than France), and franc zone SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SENEGAL/SEYCHELLES Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $640 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $87.7 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-76), $81.0 million; U.S. (1970-77), $59.8 million; military?(1977) U.S., $8.0 million Budget: 1978 revised estimate $378 million Monetary conversion rate: francs; about 242.69 Corn- munaute Financiere Africaine francs=US$1 as of November 1977, floating Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,033 km meter gage (1.00 m); 64 km double track Highways: 13,589 km total; 2,547 km paved, 11,042 km other Inland waterways: .1,505 km Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 8,700 GRT, 12,900 DWT; includes 3 cargo, 1 specialized carrier, 1 bulk carrier Ports: 1 major (Dakar), 2 minor Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased out Airfields: 27 total, 27 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: above average urban system; 39,000 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 8 AM, no FM, and 1 TV station; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,239,000; 640,000 fit for military service; 55,000 reach military age (18) annually Supply: primarily dependent on France; beginning to diversify sources of supply Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $62,062,000; about 7.9% of central government budget SECRET SEYCHELLES Indian Ocean SEYCHELLES 4., ? Victoria MADAGASCAR (See reference map VI) SECRET LAND 404 km2; 54% arable land, nearly all of it is under cultivation, 17% wood and forest land, 29% other (mainly reefs and other surfaces unsuited for agriculture); 49 granitic and 43 coral islands WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 491 km (Mahe Island 93 km) PEOPLE Population: 65,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Seychellois (sing. & pl.); adjective? Seychelles Ethnic divisions: Seychellois '(admixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans) Religion: 90% Roman Catholic Language: English official; Creole most widely spoken Literacy: limited; 90% of school-age population is attending school Labor force: 15,000 in monetized sector (excluding self- employed, domestic servants, and workers on small farms); 33% public sector employment, 20% private sector employ- ment in agricuture, 20% private sector employment in construction and catering services Organized labor: 3 major trade unions GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Seychelles Type: republic; member of the Commonwealth Capital: Victoria, Mahe Island Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law system, and customary law National holiday: 29 June Branches: President, Council of Ministers 213 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SEYCHELLES/SIERRA LEONE Government leader: President, France Albert Ren? Suffrage: universal adult Elections: April 1974, new government has promised election by June 1979 Political parties and leaders: Ren?who heads the Seychelles People's United Party, came to power by a military coup in June 1977, until then he had been Prime Minister in an uneasy coalition with then President James Mancham, who headed the Seychelles Democratic Party. Rene banned the Seychelles Democratic Party in mid- March, 1978, and announced a new constitution in March 1979 that turns the country into a one-party state. Rene dissolved the National Assembly, and plans to rule by presidential decree until elections are held. Ren?brogated the old constitution without qualification upon taking power. Subsequently the government decided to retain some provisions, but presidential decree enables the President and specified subordinates to violate constitutional safeguards in interests of state security Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: trade unions which are appendages of political parties Member of: G-77, NAM, OAU, U.N. ECONOMY GDP: $43.1 Million (1976); $710 per capita; 4.6% growth rate (1974) Agriculture: islands depend largely on coconut production and export of copra; cinnamon, vanilla, and patchouli (used for perfumes) are other cash crops; food crops?small quantities of sweet potatoes, cassava, sugarcane, and bananas; islands not self-sufficient in foodstuffs and the bulk of the supply must be imported; fish is an important food source Major industries: processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, small-scale manufacture of consumer goods, coir rope factory, tea factory, tourism Electric power: 11,000 kW capacity (1977); 25 million kWh produced (1977), 410 kWh per capita Exports: $8.7 million (fob., 1977); cinnamon (bark and oil) and vanilla account for almost 50% of the total, copra accounts for about 40%, the remainder consisting of patchouli, fish, and guano Imports: $37.1 million (c.i.f., 1977); food, tobacco, and beverages account for about 40% of imports, manufactured goods about 25%, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, textiles Major trade parterns: exports?India, U.S.; imports? U.K., 'Kenya, South Africa, Burma, India, Australia Aid: economic?(1970-77) Western (non-U.S.) countries, $95 million; U.S., $0.7 million; OPEC (ODA) (1977), $0.1 million Budget: (1978) revenue $24 million, expenditure $15 million 214 July 1979 Monetary conversion rate: 6.45 Seychelles rupees=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 215 km total; 145 km bituminous, 70 km crushed stone or earth Ports: 1 small port (Victoria) Merchant marine: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or totaling 13,313 GRT, 17,900 DWT Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 7 total, 7 usable (on Praslin Island, Astove Island, Bird Island, Mahe Island); with 1 permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 Telecommunications: direct radiocommunications with adjacent island and African costal countries; 3,90() tele- phones (6.4 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, and no TV stations; Indian Ocean satellite station over) DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,000; 7,000 fit for military service Supply: infantry-type weapons and ammunition from Tanzania SIERRA LEONE GUINEA BISSAU Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VO LAND 72,261 km2; 65% arable (6% of total land area under cultivation), 27% pasture, 4% swampland, 4% forested Land boundaries: 933 km SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET SIERRA LEONE WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 402 km PEOPLE Population: 3,351,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Sierra Leonean, adjective?Sierra Leonean Ethnic divisions: over 99% native African, rest European and Asian; 13 tribes Religion: 70% animist, 25% Muslim, 5% Christian Language: English official, but regular use limited to literate minority; principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north; -Krio,- the language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown area, is used as a lingua franca Literacy: about 10% Labor force: about 1.5 million; most of population engages in subsistence agriculture; only small minority, some 70,000, earn wages Organized labor: 35% of wage earners GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Sierra Leone Type: republic under presidential regime since April 1971 Capital: Freetown Political subdivisions: 3 provinces; divided into 12 districts with 146 chiefdoms, where paramount chief and council of elders constitute basic unit of government; plus western area, which comprises Freetown and other coastal areas of the former colony Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; constitution adopted April 1971; highest court of appeal is the Sierra Leone Court of Appeals; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Day, 19 April Branches: executive authority exercised by President; parliament consists of 100 authorized seats, 85 of which are filled by elected representatives of constituencies and 12 by Paramount Chiefs elected by fellow Paramount Chiefs in each district; President authorized to appoint four members, of which two, currently, are filled by the heads of the Army and the Police; independent judiciary Government leader: Siaka P. Stevens, President, heads APC government composed of members of his political party Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: the Constitution of Sierra Leone Act, 1971, has been replaced by the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1978, which provides for one-party rule; Dr. Siaka Stevens was named as the first Executive President under the one-party constitution; the President's tenure has been extended from 5 to 7 years; next presidential election 1983 SECRET Political parties and leaders: All People's Congress (APC), headed by Stevens Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a slightly larger number of sympathizers Member of: AFDB, AIOEC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $657 million (mid 1977), $230 per capita; growth rate 1.8% (mid-1971 to mid-1975) Agriculture: main crops?palm kernels, coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, millet, ginger, cassava; much of cultivated land devoted to subsistence farming; food crops insufficient for domestic consumption Fishing: catch 67,797 metric tons (1975); imports $2.7 million (1974) Major industries: mining?diamonds, iron ore, bauxite, rutile; manufacturing?beverages, textiles, cigarettes, con- struction goods; 1 oil refinery Electric power: 85,000 kW capacity (1977); 264 million kWh produced (1977), 90 kWh per capita Exports: $118 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); diamonds, iron ore, palm kernels, cocoa, coffee Imports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); machinery and transportation equipment, manufactared goods, foodstuffs, petroleum products Major trade partners: U.K., EC, U.S., Japan, Communist countries Aid: economic?(1970-77), Western (non-U.S.) countries, $75 million; U.S., $43 million; Communist countries, $41.2 million; military?Communist countries, $3.0 million (S) Budget: (FY77 est.) current revenues $138 million, total expenditures $182 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 leone=US$0.95 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: about 84 km narrow gage (1.067 m) privately owned mineral line operated by the Sierra Leone Develop- ment Company Highways: 7,111 km total; 1,230 km bituminous, 507 km laterite (some gravel), and 5,374 km improved earth Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year-round Ports: 1 major (Freetown), 2 minor Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,900 GRT, 2,000 DWT Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 16 total, 16 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph are inade- quate; 15,000 telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 2 AM stations, no FM, and 1 TV station 215 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SIERRA LEONE/SINGAPORE DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 754,000; 364,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: most army materiel from U.K.; some small arms, ammunition, and patrol boats from China and armored cars from Switzerland Military budget: for year ending 30 June 1978, $11,379,310 (excluding procurement funds); 8.5% of central government budget SINGAPORE (See reference map VIII LAND 583 km2; 31% built up area, roads, railroads, and airfields, 22% agricultural, 47% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm Coastline: 193 km PEOPLE Population: 2,361,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.1% (7-77 to 7-78) 216 July 1979 Nationality: noun?Singaporean(s), adjective?Singapore Ethnic divisions: 76.2% Chinese, 15% Malay, 7% Indians and Pakistani, 1.8% other Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all Muslim; minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists, Confucianists Language: national language is Malay; Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English are official languages Literacy: 70% (1970) Labor force: 919,000; 2.2% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 0.2% mining and quarrying, 27.2% manufacturing, 30.5% services, 4.6% construction, 23.5% commerce, 11.7% transport, storage, and communications Organized labor: 24% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Singapore Type: republic within Commonwealth since separation from Malaysia in August 1965 Capital: Singapore Legal system: based on English common law; constitution based on preindependence State of Singapore constitution; legal education at University of Singapore; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 9 August Branches: ceremonial President; executive power exer- cised by Prime Minister and cabinet responsible to unitary legislature Government leaders: President, Dr. Benjamin Henry Sheares; Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew Suffrage: universal over age 20; voting compulsory Elections: normally every 5 years Political parties and leaders: government?People's Action Party (PAP), Lee Kuan Yew; opposition?Barisan Sosialis Party (BSP), Dr. Lee Siew Choh; Workers' Party, J. B. Jeyaretnam; Communist Party illegal Voting strength (1976 election): PAP won all 69 seats in Parliament and received 72.4% of vote; remaining 27.6% to four opposition parties Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis Party infiltrated by Communists Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Colombo Plan, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $7.67 billion (1978 est.), $3,285 per capita; 10.2% average annual real growth (1966-78), 8.6% (1978) Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy, self-sufficient in pork, poultry, and eggs, must import much of its other food requirements; major crops? rubber, copra, fruit and vegetables Fishing: catch 14,350 metric tons (1977), imports-69,729 metric tons (1977) SECRET 25X1 25X1 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SINGAPORE/SOLOMON ISLANDS Major industries: petroleum refining, oil drilling equip- ment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, electronics, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services Electric power: 1,390,000 kW capacity (1978); 5.8 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,505 kWh per capita Exports: $10.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 42% reexports; petroleum products, rubber, manufactured goods Imports: $13.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); 23% goods reexported; major retained imports?capital equipment, manufactured goods, petroleum Major trade partners: exports?Malaysia, U.S., Japan, Hong Kong, U.K., Indonesia; imports?Japan, Malaysia, U.S., Saudi Arabia Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $182 million committed; U.S. (1970-77), $147.7 million committed; military?U.S. (1970-77), $2.0 million committed Budget: (FY77/78) revenues $1.6 billion, expenditures $2.5 billion, deficit $900 million; 16.6% military, 83.4% civilian Monetary conversion rate: 2.17 Singapore doIlars=US$1 (February 1979) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 38 km of meter gage Highways: 2,218 km total (1977); 1,806 km paved, 412 km crushed stone or improved earth Ports: 3 major, 2 minor Merchant marine: 656 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,686,700 GRT, 12,584,400 DWT; includes 4 passenger, 369 cargo, 51 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 105 tanker, 92 bulk, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 beach landing, 2 liquefied gas, 20 specialized carrier; most foreign owned Civil air: approximately 30 major transport aircraft Airfields: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 374,000 telephones (16.3 per 100 popl.); 13 AM, 4 FM, and 2 TV stations; SEACOM submarine cable extends to Hong Kong via Sabah, Malaysia; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 660,000; 481,000 fit for military service External defense provided by loose Five Power Defense Arrangement (FPDA) which replaced Anglo-Malayan De- fense Agreement of 1957; FPDA, effective as of 1 November 1971 SECRET SECRET Supply: produces some small arms and mortar ammuni- tion, rifles, and quartermaster-type individual equipment; some small patrol craft and missile gunboats built; all other materiel imported, mainly from U.K. and U.S., 2 missile gun boats from West Germany, ship-to-ship missiles from Israel Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 March 1980, $462.2 million; about 1.7% of central government budget SOLOMON ISLANDS PArUA W GUINCP-N, zla41v AUSTRALIA %, SOLOMON 'ha ISLANDS Honiaratt: Coral Sea Pacific Ocean (See reference map VIII) NOTE: This newly independent (as of 7 July 1978) archipelagec nation includes southern. Solomon Islands, primarily Guadalcanal, Malaita, San Cristobal, Santa Isabel, Choiseul. Northern Solomon Islands constitue part of Papua New Guinea. LAND About 29,785 km' 217 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25A1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SOLOMON ISLANDS/SOMALIA WATER Limits of territorial waters: 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: about 5,313 km PEOPLE Population: 219,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Solomon Islander(s); adjective?Solo- mon Islander Ethnic divisions: 93.0% Melanesians, 4.0% Polynesians, 1.5% Micronesians, 0.3% Chinese, 0.8% Europeans, 0.4% others Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Methodist churches dominant Literacy: 60% GOVERNMENT Legal name: Solomon Islands Type: independent state within commonwealth Capital: Honiara on the island of Guadalcanal Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts Legal system: a High Court plus Magistrates Courts, also a system of native courts throughout the islands Branches: executive authority in Governor General; a legislative assembly of 38 members Government leaders: Governor General Baddeley Devesi, Prime Minister Peter Kenilorea Suffrage: universal age 21 and over Elections: every 4 years, latest June 1976 Political parties and leaders: no real political parties, groupings of independents Member of: ADB ECONOMY GDP: $64.1 million (1976) Agriculture: largely dominated by coconut production with subsistence crops of yams, taro, bananas; self-sufficient in rice Electric power: 10,000 kW capacity (1978); 22 million kWh produced (1978), 105 kWh per capita Exports: $15.5 million (1975); 39% copra, 27% timber, 23% fish Imports: $29.2 million (1975) Major trade partners: exports?EEC excluding U.K. 42%, Japan 29%; imports?Australia 34%, U.K. 14%, Japan 13% (1975) Budget: (1971) revenues $9.8 million, expenditures $9.9 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Australian dol- lar =US$1.1532 (September 1978) COMMUNICATIONS Railroad: none Highways: 834 km total; 241 km sealed or all-weather Inland waterways: none 218 July 1979 Ports: 5 minor Civil. air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 24 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 3 AM broadcast, no FM, and no TV stations; 10,000 radio receivers, 1,726 telephones, no TV sets; international connections with London, England, via high frequency radio DEFENSE FORCES Personnel: no military forces maintained, however, the British maintain a well trained Police Force of about 300 for peacekeeping and security purposes SOMALIA Red Sea DJIBOU ETHIOPIA YEMEN (SI t11? ?..>" SOMALIA Mogadiscio Indian Ocean 'See referenci map VII LAND 637,140 km2; 13% arable (0.3% cultivated), 32% grazing, 14% scrub and forest, 41% mainly desert, urban, or other Land boundaries: 2,263 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm Coastline: 3,025 km PEOPLE Population: 3,464,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun?Somali(s); adjective?Somali Ethnic divisions: 85% Hamitic, rest mainly Bantu; 30,000 Arabs, 3,000 Europeans, 800 Asians Religion: almost entirely Muslim Language: Somali (written form instituted by government in 1972); Arabic, Italian, English Literacy: 5-10% Labor force: 965,000 (1968 est.); very few are skilled laborers; 70% pastoral nomads, 30% agriculturists, govern- ment employees, traders, fishermen, handicraftsmen, other SECRET 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 J I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SOMALIA/SOUTH AFRICA Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions, a government-controlled organization, established in 1977 GOVERNMENT Legal name: Somali Democratic Republic Type: republic Capital: Mogadishu National holiday: 21 October Political subdivisions: 16 regions, 60 districts Organization: the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, created on July 1, 1976, has become the new executive body in the country; party has 74-man central committee and 5-man politburo headed by President Siad Government leader: President, Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government hierarchy Member of: AFDB, ARAB LEAGUE, EAMA, FAO, G- 77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $340 million (1975 est.), $110 per capita Agriculture: mainly a pastoral country, raising livestock; crops?bananas, sugarcane, cotton, cereals Major industries: a few small industries, including a sugar refinery, tuna and beef canneries, textiles, iron rod plant, and petroleum refining Electric power: 18,000 kW capacity (1977); 45 million kWh produced (1977), 10 kWh per capita Exports: $84 million (f.o.b., 1977); livestock, hides, skins, and bananas Imports: $201 million (f.o.b., 1977); textiles, cereals, transport equipment, machinery, construction materials and equipment, petroleum products; also military materiel in 1977 Major trade partners: Arab countries and Italy; $21.4 million imports from Communist countries (1975 est.) Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $812 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $217.1 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $130 million; U.S. (1970-77), $11.6 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $289.0 million Budget: (1977) total revenue $203 million, expenditure $302 million, capital expenditure $177 million Monetary conversion rate: 6.295 Somali shillings=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 13,540 km total; 1,900 km paved, 770 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil, 10,870 km improved or unimproved earth (est.) SECRET SECRET Pipelines: 15 km crude oil Ports: 3 major (Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimaio) Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,100 GRT, 13,700 DWT Airfields: 56 total, 50 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: telephone poor, telegraph fair; 6,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 788,000; 439,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: dependent on outside sources; ground materiel predominantly from the U.S.S.R. and since mid-1977 from a number of European and Middle Eastern countries; naval ships from the U.S.S.R.; aircraft from the U.S.S.R., Italy, Egypt; SS-N-2 and SA-2's from the U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $95,702,000; 27.8% of central government budget SOUTH AFRICA LAND 1,222,480 km' (includes enclave of Walvis Bay, 1,124 km2; Transkei, 44,000 km', and Bophuthatswana, 38,000 km2); 12% cultivable, 2% forested, 86% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 2,044 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 2,881 km, including Transkei 219 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET NAMIBIA BOTSWANA MOZAMBIQUE Pretoria SWAZILA SOUTH 119e Indian Ocean AFRICA (See tolerance map VII SOUTH AFRICA PEOPLE Population: 28,094,000, including Bophuthatswana and Transkei (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.5% (7-75 to 7-76); Bophuthatswana 1,135,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current); Transkei 2,238,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?South African(s); adjective?South African Ethnic divisions: 17.8% white, 69.9% African, 9.4% Colored, 2.9% Asian Religion: most whites and coloreds and roughly 60% of Africans are Christian; toughly 60% of Asians are Hindu, 20% are Muslim Language: Afrikaans and English official, Africans have many vernacular languages Literacy: almost all white population literate; government estimates 50% of Africans literate Labor force: 8.7 million (total of economically active, 1970); 53% agriculture, 8% manufacturing, 7% mining, 5% commerce, 27% miscellaneous services Organized labor: about 7% of total labor force is unionized (mostly white workers); relatively small African unions have no bargaining power GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of South Africa Type: republic Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town; judicial, Bloemfontein Political subdivisions: 4 provinces, each headed by centrally appointed administrator; provincial councils, elect- ed by white electorate, retain limited powers Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; constitution enacted 1961, changing the Union of South Africa into a Republic; possibility of judicial review of Acts of Parliament concerning dual official languages; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May 220 July 1979 Branches: President as formal chief of state; Prime Minister as head of government; Cabinet responsible to bicameral legislature; lower house elected directly by white electorate; upper house indirectly elected and appointed; judiciary maintains substantial independence of government influence Government leaders: Prime Minister Pieter W. Botha; President Balthazar Johannes Vorster Suffrage: general suffrage limited to whites over 18 (17 in Natal Province) Elections: must be held at least every 5 years; last elections 30 November 1977 Political parties and leaders: National Party, P. W. Botha, Dr. A. Truernicht, 11. F. Botha; Progessive Federal Party, Colin Eglin, Ray Swart, Helen Suzman; New Republic Party, Radclyffe Cadman; South Africa Party, Myburgh Streicher; Herstigte Nasionale Party, J. Marais Voting strength: (1977 general elections) parliamentary seats: 134 National Party, 17 Progressive Federal Party, 10 New Republic Party, 3 South Africa Party Communists: small Communist Party illegal since 1950; party in exile maintains headquarters in London; Dr. Yasuf Dadoo, Moses Kotane, Joe Slovo Other political groups: (insurgent groups in exile) African National Congress (ANC), Oliver Tambo; Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), leadership in dispute Member of: GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?Interna- tional Wheat Council, U.N., UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GDP: $46.0 billion (1978 est.), about $1,450 per capita; real growth rate 2.5% (1978 est.) Agriculture: main crops?corn, wool, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, citrus fruits; dairy products; self-sufficient in foodstuffs Fishing: catch 638,035 metric tons (1976) Major industries: mining, automobile assembly, metal- working, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemical, fertilizer, fishing Electric power: 15,272,800 kW capacity (1977); 87 billion kWh produced (1977), 3,240 kWh per capita Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978, excluding gold); wool, diamonds, corn, uranium, sugar, fruit, hides, skins, metals, metallic ores, asbestos, fish products; gold output $4.4 billion (1978 est.) Imports: $10.2 billion (c.i.f., 1978 est.); motor vehicles, machinery, metals, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals Major trade partners: U.S., West Germany, Japan, U.K. Aid: no military or economic aid Budget: FY80?revenue $9.9 billion, expenditures $13.2 billion SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 54. July 1979 SOUTH AFRICA/SPAIN Monetary conversion rate: 1 SA Rand=US$1.19, 0.84 SA Rand =US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 25,560 km total (includes Namibia); 24,854 km 1.067-meter gage of which 5,292 km are multiple track; over 5,000 km electrified; 706 km 0.610-meter gage single track Highways: 202,922 km total; 57,435 km paved, 145,487 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth Pipelines: 836 km crude oil; 1,048 km refined products; 322 km natural gas Ports: 8 major Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 597,900 GRT, 770,000 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 8 container, 2 tanker, 5 bulk, 2 specialized carrier Civil air: 94 major transport aircraft Airfields: 635 total, 500 usable; 71 with permanent-sur- face runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 125 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern, and highest capacity in Africa and consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio-relay links, and radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; 2.2 million telephones (8.3 per 100 popl.); 13 AM, 84 FM, and 34 TV stations; 1 submarine cable; 1 satellite station with Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean antennas DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,614,000; 3,340,000 fit for military service; obligation for service in Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for service in permanent force must be 17; national service obligation is two years SECRET SECRET Atlantic Ocean PORTU SPAIN CANARY ISLANDS I (See reference map IV) LAND 505,050 km', including Canary (7,511 km2) and Balearic Islands (5,025 km2); 41% arable and land under permanent crops, 27% meadow and pasture, 22% forest, 10% urban or other Land boundaries: 1,899 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 4,964 km (includes Balearic Islands, 677 km, and Canary Islands, 1,158 km) PEOPLE Population: 37,551,000, including the Balearic and Canary Islands; also including Alhucemas, Ceuta, Chafar- inas, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Spaniard(s); adjective?Spanish Ethnic divisions: homogeneous composite of Mediterra- nean and Nordic types Religion: 99% Roman Catholic, 1% other sects 221 25X1 25X1 25X1 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SPAIN Language: Castilian Spanish spoken by great majority; but 17% speak Catalan, 7% Galician, and 2% Basque Literacy: about 97% Labor force (1979): 13.2 million; 19% agriculture, 27% industry, 10% construction 41% services; unemployment now estimated at nearly 8% of labor force Organized labor: labor unions legalized April 1977 experiencing surge in membership; probably represent 30- 35% of the labor force (1979) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Spanish State Type: parliamentary monarchy defined by new constitu- tion of December 1978, that completed transition from authoritarian regime of the late Generalissimo Franco and confirmed Juan Carlos I as monarch, but without the exceptional powers inherited from Franco on being pro- claimed King 22 November 1975 Capital: Madrid Political subdivisions: metropolitan Spain, including the Canaries and Balearics, divided into 50 provinces which are to be allowed to form autonomous regions?probably numbering 13?assuming numerous powers previously exercised by the central government; also 5 places of sovereignty (presidios) on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco; transferred administration of Spanish Sahara to Morocco and Mauritania on February 26, 1976 Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; new constitution provides for rule of law, established jury system as well as independent constitutional court to rule on unconstitutionality of laws and to serve as court of last resort in protecting liberties and rights granted in constitution; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 24 June Branches: executive, with King's acts subject to counter- signature, Prime Minister (presidente) and his ministers responsible to lower house; legislative with bicameral Cortes consisting of more powerful Congress of Deputies (350 members) and providing future Cortes with Congress of between 300 to 400 members and Senate with 4 members from each province with addition of 1 to 6 members from each new autonomous region; judicial, independent Government leaders: King Juan Carlos I?Chief of State, and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces; and Prime Minister (Presidente) Adolfo SUAREZ Gonzalez Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: parliamentary election 1 March 1979 for 4- year term; local elections likely to be delayed for municipal councils on 3 April 1979 Political parties and leaders: principal parties in the 1979 elections from right to left: the conservative Democrat- ic Coalition (CD) led by former ministers Fraga, Areilza, 222 July 1979 and Osorio, the major rightist group?made a poor showing; the Union of the Democratic Center (UCD)?the centrist party of Prime Minister Suarez who is party president and Secretary General Rafael Arias-Salgado; the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), the major party of the democratic left is led by Secretary General Felipe Gonzales and includes Enrique Tierno Galvan who merged his Popular Socialist Party with the PSOE in May 1978; the Spanish Communist Party (PCE), led by Santiago Carrillo, and its several regional branches espouse Eurocommunism; there are also several Basque and Catalan regional parties of mixed orientation which supports regional autonomy Voting strength: (1979 parliamentary election in lower house) UCD polled 35% of votes and received 168 seats (48%), 8 seats short of a majority; the PSOE polled 29% and received 121 seats (34%); the PCE polled 10.7% and received 23 seats (6.5%); the CD polled 5% and received 9 seats; the various Basque and Catalan regional parties received 21 seats; Andalusian Socialist Party 5 seats; minor parties received 3 seats Communists: PCE claims to have over 200,000 members, but this figure is difficult to verify; the PCE's greatest strength is in labor where it dominates the country's strongest trade union, the Workers Commissions, which now claims a membership of around 1 million. Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA), the First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO), and the Anti-Fascist and Patriotic Revolutionary Front (FRAP) use terrorism to oppose the government; on the extreme right, the Guerrillas of Christ the King and the Anticommunist Apostolic Alliance (AAA) carry out vigilante attacks on ETA members and other leftists; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated Workers Commissions; the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT), and the independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic Church; business and land owning interests; Opus Dei; Catholic Action; university students Member of: ASSIMER, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; applied for full membership in the EC 28 July 1977; joined Council of Europe 18 October 1977 ECONOMY GNP: $116 billion (1977), $3,190 per capita; 69.0% private consumption, 10.3% public consumption, 22.7% gross fixed investment; ?2.0% foreign balance (1976); real growth rate 2.6% (1977) Agriculture: main crops?grains, vegetables, fruits; virtu- ally self-sufficient in good crop years SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SPAIN Fishing: landed 1.47 million metric tons valued at $1,152 million in 1976 Major industries: textiles and apparel (including foot- wear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles Crude steel: 11.1 million metric tons produced (1977), 300 kg per capita Electric power: 33,000,000 kW capacity (1978); 100 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,650 kWh per capita Exports: $13,033 million (f.o.b., 1978); principal items? iron and steel products, machinery, automobiles, fruits and vegetables, textiles, footwear Imports: $18,711 million (c.i.f., 1978); principal items? fuels (25-30%), machinery, chemicals, iron and steeel, vegetables, automobiles Major trade partners: (1978) exports-9.4% U.S., 16.7% France, 10.7% West Germany, 6.5% U.K., 46.6% EC, 66.9% OECD, 12.8% OPEC, 5.9% non-OPEC Latin America; imports-13.3% U.S., 9.1% France, 10.0% West Germany, 5.4% U.K., 34.7% EC, 57.5% OECD, 26.0% OPEC, 6.7% non-OPEC Latin America Aid: economic authorizations?U.S., $1,437 million au- thorized aid (FY70-77); other Western bilateral (ODA and 00F), $486 million (1970-77); military authorizations? U.S., $512 million (FY70-77) Budget: (1978 central government)?budgeted revenues $18,079 billion, budgeted expenditures $18,692 billion, deficit $613 million Monetary conversion rate: US$1.00=76.663 ,pesetas (1978 average) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 16,006 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates 13,540 km 1.668-meter gage, 4,783 km electrified and 2,162 km double track; FEVE (government- owned narrow gage railways) operates 1,676 km, of predominantly meter gage (1.000 m) and 310 km electrified; privately-owned railways operate 790 km, of predominantly meter gage (1.000 m), 245 km electrified and 56 km double track Highways: 139,350 km total; 78,585 national-6,810 km bituminous, concrete, stone block; 56,650 bituminous treated; 15,125 km crushed stone; the remaining 60,765 km are classified as provincial or local roads Inland waterways: 1,045 km; of minor importance as transport arteries and contribute little to economy Pipelines: 386 km crude oil; 1,030 km refined products; 98 km natural gas Ports: 23 major, 150 minor Merchant marine: 538 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,571,500 GRT, 13,312,100 DWT; includes 26 passenger, 266 cargo, 29 container, 11 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 103 tanker, SECRET SECRET 13 liquefied gas, 60 bulk, 4 combination ore/oil, 26 specialized carrier Civil air: 177 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in and 1 leased out Airfields (including Balearic and Canary Islands): 98 total, 89 usable; 52 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,660 m, 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 32 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facili- ties; 8.6 million telephones (23.9 per 100 popl.); 180 AM, 250 FM, and 791 TV stations; 14 coaxial submarine cables; 2 satellite stations with 2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean satellites DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 8,860,000; 6,835,000 fit for military service; 316,000 reach military age (20) annually Supply: produces naval ships to frigate size, small arms, mortars, some artillery, ammunition, armored and transport vehicles; military telecom and electronic equipment; trans- port aircraft; assembles French medium tank; all other equipment primarily from U.S. including ships, and secondarily from Western European countries Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $4,214 million; about 23.8% of the proposed central government budget 223 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 'Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SRI LANKA (formerly Ceylon) (See reference map VII SRI LANKA LAND 65,500 km2; 25% cultivated; 44% forested; 31% waste, urban, and other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm, plus pearling in the Gulf of Mannar); 200 nm exclusive economic zone Coastline: 1,340 km PEOPLE Population: 14,502,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Sri Lankan(s); adjective?Sri Lankan Ethnic divisions: 71% Sinhalese, 21% Tamil, 6% Moor, 2% other Religion: 64% Buddhist, 20% Hindu, 9% Christian, 6% Muslim, 1% other Language: Sinhala official, Sinhala and Tamil listed as national languages, Sinhala spoken by about 70% of population; Tamil spoken by about 22%; English commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of the population Literacy: 82% (1970 est.) Labor force: 4 million; 17% unemployed; employed persons-53.4% agriculture, 14.8% mining and manufactur- ing, 12.4% trade and transport, 19.4% services and other; extensive underemployment Organized labor: 43% of labor force, over 50% of which employed on tea, rubber, and coconut estates GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Type: independent state since 1948 Capital: Colombo 224 July 1979 Political subdivisions: 9 provinces, 22 administrative districts, and four categories of semiautonomous elected local governments Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim and customary law; new constitution 7 September 1978 reinstituted a strong, independent judiciary; legal education at Sri Lanka Law College and University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 22 May Branches: the 1978 constitution established a strong presidential form of government under J. R. Jayewardene, who became Prime Minister following his party's election victory in July 1977; Jayewardene will remain president until 1983, regardless of whether parliament is dissolved and subsequent parliamentary elections are held; when his term in office expires, a new president will be chosen by a direct national election for a six year term. Government leader: President J. R. Jayewardene Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: national elections, ordinarily held every 6 years; must be held more frequently if government loses confidence vote; last election held July 1977 Political parties and leaders: Sri Lanka Freedom Party, Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, President; Lanka Sama Samaja Party (Trotskyite), N. M. Perera, President; Tamil United Liberation Front, A. Amirthalingam leader; United National Party, J. R. Jayewardene; Communist Party/Moscow, Pieter Keuneman, General Secretary; Com- munist Party/Peking, N. Shanmugathasan, General Secre- tary; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front), M. B. Ratnayaka, President Voting strength (1977 election): 30% Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 51% United National Party, 3.9% Lanka Sama Samaja Party, 1.8% Communist Party/Moscow, 6.5% TULF minor parties and independents accounted for remainder Communists: approximately 107,000 voted for the Communist Party in the July 1977 general election; Communist Party/Moscow approximately 5,000 members (1975), Communist Party/Peking 1,000 members (1970 est.) Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; far-left violent revolutionary groups; labor unions Member of: ADB, ANRPC, Colombo Plan, Common- wealth, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $3.5 billion in 1977 (1977 prices), $253 per capita; real growth rate 6.0% (1978), 4.4% (1977), 3.0% (1976) Agriculture: agriculture accounts for about 39% of GNP; main crops?rice, rubber, tea, coconuts; 60% self-sufficient in food; food shortages?rice, wheat, sugar SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SRI LANKA/SUDAN Fishing: catch 138,528 metric tons (1977) Major industries: processing of rubber, tea, and other agricultural commodities; consumer goods manufacture Electric power: 430,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.4 billion kWh produced (1978), 100 kWh per capita Exports: $817 million (1978 est.); tea, rubber, coconut products Imports: $1,075 million (1978 est.); food, petroleum, fertilizer Major trade partners: (1977) exports-8% Pakistan, 8% U.K.; imports-12.4% Saudi Arabia, 9.8% Iran Budget: (1978 revised estimate) revenue $689 million, expenditure $1,016 million Monetary conversion rate: 15.52 rupees=US$1 (January 1979) Fiscal year: 1 January-31 December (starting 1973) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,636 kni total (1978); all broad gage (1.435m); 102 km double track; no electrification; government owned Highways: 66,176 km total (1977); 24,300 km paved (mostly bituminous treated), 28,916 km crushed stone or gravel, 12,960 km improved earth or unimproved earth; in addition several thousand km of tracks, mostly unmotorable Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft Pipelines: 53 km crude oil; 96 km refined products Ports: 3 major, 9 minor Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 81,400 GRT, 119,000 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 tanker Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 leased) Airfields: 14 total, 12 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good international service; 75,000 (est.) telephones (0.5 per 100 popl.); 530,000 radio sets, 500 TV sets; 14 AM stations, 2 FM stations, and 1 TV station; submarine cables extend to India; 1 ground satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,702,000; 2,896,000 fit for military service; 164,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: dependent on imports for all categories of military materiel; small arms from Australia, India, PRC, and the U.K., light artillery from the PRC and Yugoslavia, wheeled armored vehicles from the U.K., and APC's from the U.S.S.R.; naval ships have been acquired mainly from the U.K. but with Italy, Israel, and Singapore each supplying some craft; 5 Shanghai-II-class patrol boats provided by PRC; 1 coastal patrol boat provided by U.S.S.R.; jet aircraft and helicopters have been purchased from U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $41.4 million, 6% of central government current budget SUDAN (See reference map VII LAND 2,504,530 km2; 37% arable (3% cultivated), 15% grazing, 33% desert, waste, or urban, 15% forest Land boundaries: 7,805 -km 225 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SUDAN WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm necessary supervision ?zone-) Coastline: 853 km PEOPLE Population: 20,941,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Sudanese (sing. and pl.); adjective? Sudanese Ethnic divisions: 39% Arab, 6% Beja, 52% Negro, 2% foreigners, 1% other Religion: 73% Sunni Muslims in north, 23% pagan, 4% Christian (mostly in south) Language: Arabic, Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of Arabization in process Literacy: 5% to 10% Labor force: 8.2 million (1978); 85% agriculture, 15% industry, commerce, services, etc.; labor shortages exist for almost all categories of employment GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Republic of the Sudan Type: republic under military control since coup in May 1969 Capital: Khartoum Political subdivisions: 18 provinces, provincial and local administrations controlled by central government; limited regional autonomy in 6 southern provinces Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; some separate religious courts; permanent constitution promulgated April 1973; legal education at University of Khartoum and Khartoum extension of Cairo University at Khartoum; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January Branches: President and cabinet; 304 member People's Assembly; the quasi-autonomous Southern Provinces have their own Regional Cabinet and Regional Assembly Government leader: President, Gen. Jalar Muhammad Numayri Suffrage: universal adult Elections: elections for National People's Assembly and Southern Regional People's Assembly held in February 1978; most recent Presidential election held April 1977 with Numayri as sole candidate Political parties and leaders: all parliamentary political parties outlawed since May 1969; the ban on the Sudan Communist Party was not enforced until after abortive coup in July 1971; the government's mass political organization, the Sudan Socialist Union, was formed in January 1972 226 July 1979 Communists: party decimated following July 1971 coup and counter-coup, several top leaders executed; actual hard-core membership down to lowest point in years; party control over labor unions, professional groups and university student groups still exists; Communists purged from government; party is being reorganized underground under leadership of Secretary-General Muhammad Nujud, 3,500 CP members Other political or pressure groups: Muslim Brotherhood; Ansar Muslim sect, at odds with the military regime since the May coup, are being reintegrated into national political life; members of opposition National Front, composed of former political party elements and other disgruntled conservative interests, agreed to disband and join national reconciliation efforts in April 1978 Member of: AFDB, APC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $6.0 billion at current prices (1977), $335 per capita at current prices Agriculture: main crops?sorghum, millet, wheat, sesame, peanuts, beans, barley; not self-sufficient in food production; main cash crops?cotton, gum arabic, peanuts, sesame Major industries: cotton ginning, textiles, brewery, cement, edible oils, soap, distilling, shoes, pharmaceuticals Electric power: 231,800 kW capacity (1977); 672 million kWh produced (1977), 40 kWh per capita Exports: $660 million (f.o.b., 1977); cotton (51%), gum arabic, peanuts, sesame; $57.5 million exports to Communist countries (FY76) Imports: $1.058 billion (c.i.f., 1977); textiles, petroleum products, vehicles, tea, wheat; $75 million imports from Communist countries (FY76) Major trade partners: U.K., West Germany, Italy, India, China, France, Japan Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $800.1 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $505.0 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $228.9; U.S. (1970-77), $84.5 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $17 million; U.S. (1977), $0.1 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Sudanese pound=US$2.50 (official); 0.348 Sudanese pound=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 5,470 km total; 4,754 km 1.067-meter gage, 716 km 1.6096-meter gage plantation line Highways: 10,550 km total; 600 km bituminous-treated, 800 km crushed stone or gravel, and 9,150 km improved and unimproved earth roads; in addition, there are an undeter- mined number of tracks SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SUDANISURINAME Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable Pipelines: refined products, 800 km Ports: 1 major (Port Sudan) Merchant marine: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,400 GRT, 54,500 DWT Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in Airfields: 80 total, 74 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 31 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: large system by African standards, but barely adequate; consists of radio relay, cables, radiocommunications, and troposcatter; domestic satellite system with 14 stations under construction; centers are Khartoum, Al Fashir, Port Sudan; 56,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, and 2 TV stations; 1 submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,063,000; 3,486,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (18) annually, 189,000 Supply: produces some small arms ammunition; all other materiel imported, formerly the USSR and Czechoslovakia were primary sources, but in 1972 China began supplying a variety of materiel, including tanks and fighter aircraft; materiel also received from West Germany, U.K., Egypt, Algeria, the Netherlands, Yugoslavia, U.S., and Saudi Arabia Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $244 million; 11% of central government budget SURINAME LAND 142,709 km2; negligible amount of arable land, meadows and pastures, 76% forest, 8% unused but potentially productive, 16% built-on area, wasteland, and other Land boundaries: 1,561 km SECRET Caribbean Sea Atlantic Ocean Paramaribo FRENCH UIANA .BRAZIL (See &mere map SECRET WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 386 km 25X1 PEOPLE Population: 398,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.3% (1-59 to 1-77) Nationality: noun?Surinamer(s); adjective?Surinamese Ethnic divisions: 31% Creole (Negro and mixed), 37% Hindustani (East Indian), 15.3% Javanese, _10.3% Bush Negro, 2.6% Amerindian, 1.7% Chinese, 1.0% Europeans, 1.7% other and unknown Religion: Hindu, Muslim, Roman Catholic, Moravian, other Language: Dutch official; English widely spoken; Sranan 25X1 Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population, and is lingua franca among others; Hindi; Javanese Literacy: 80% Labor force: 118,000 Organized labor: approx. 33% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Suriname Type: Parliamentary Democracy Capital: Paramaribo 25X1 Political subdivisions: 9 districts, each headed by District Commissioner responsible to Minister of District government and Decentralization except for Paramaribo, whose commis- sioner is responsible to Minister of Home Affairs Legal system: Dutch civil law system; constitution, adopted November 1975 National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November Branches: President (Chief of State) elected by Parlia- ment for five-year term; Council of Ministers headed by a Prime Minister constitutes the Cabinet; 39-member Parlia- ment popularly elected for 4-year term; court system administered by Attorney-General under Minister of Justice and Police 25X1 25X1 227 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SURINAME/SWAZILAND Government leaders: President, Johan H. E. Ferrier; Prime Minister, Henck Arron Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: every 4 years or earlier upon request of Prime Minister; latest held October 1977 won by National Party Combination (NPK), a creole-based election coalition in which the National Party of Suriname (NPS) is the largest party Political parties and leaders: National Party of Suriname (NPS), Henck Arron; Nationalist Republic Party (PNR), Edward Bruma (principal leftist party); Progressive Reform Party (VHP), J. Lachmon; Pendawa Lima, S. Somohardjo; Javanese Farmers' Party (KTPI), Willy Soemita; Progressive Suriname People's Party (PSV), Emile Wiintuin; Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Pannalal Parmessar Voting strength (1977): NPK 22 seats, Opposition United Democratic Parties Combination (VDP) 17 seats Communists: (all small groups) Democratic Peoples Front, Communist Party of Suriname (KPS) Member of: EC (associate), ECLA, IBA, ILO, ITU, OAS, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WIPO, WMO ECONOMY GDP: $675 million (1977 est.); $1,534 per capita; real growth rate 1977, 6.3% Agriculture: main crops?rice, sugarcane, bananas; self- sufficient in major staple (rice) Major industries: bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production, lumbering, food processing Electric power: 189,000 kW capacity (1977); 1 billion kWh produced (1977), 2,350 kWh per capita Exports: $348 million (f.o.b., 1977 est.); bauxite, alumina, aluminum, wood and wood products, rice Imports: $388 million (c.i.f., 1977 est.); capital equip- ment, petroleum, iron and steel, cotton, flour, meat, dairy products Major trade partners: exports-35% U.S., 34% EC, 18% other European countries; imports-34% U.S., 38% EC, 13% Caribbean countries, 18% Europe (1975) Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-76) from U.S., $1.9 million, from other Western countries, $423.9 million; no military aid Budget: revenue, $352 million; expenditure, $367 million (1978 est.) Monetary conversion rate: 1 Suriname guilder (S. fl.)=US$0.560 (average 1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 166 km total; 86 km meter gage (1.00 m) (government-owned) and 80 km narrow gage (industrial lines); all single track Highways: 2,500 km total; 500 km paved, 200 km gravel, 600 km improved earth, 1,200 km unimproved earth 228 July 1979 Inland waterways: 4,500 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with drafts ranging from 4.2 m to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways while native canoes navigate upper reaches Ports: 1 major (Paramaribo), 6 minor Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,800 GRT, 9,500 DWT; includes 3 cargo and 1 container Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft, leased in Airfields: 30 total, 29 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: international facilities good; do- mestic radio-relay system; 18,600 telephones (4.9 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, 1 FM, and 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 78,000; 45,000 fit for military service SWAZILAND (See reference map VII LAND 17,364 km2; most of area suitable for crops or pastureland Land boundaries: 435 km PEOPLE Population: 535,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (5-66 to 8-76) SECRET 25X1 25X1' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SWAZILAND/SWEDEN Nationality: noun?Swazi(s); adjective?Swazi Ethnic divisions: 96% African, 3% European, 1% mulatto Religion: 43% animist, 57% Christian Language: English and siSwati are official languages; government business conducted in English Literacy: about 25% Labor force: 120,000; about 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; 55,000-60,000 wage earners, many only inter- mittently, with 31% agriculture, 11% government, 11% manufacturing, 12% mining and forestry, 35% other (1968 est.); 22,000 employed in South African mines (1976) Organized labor: about 15% of wage earners are unionized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Swaziland Type: monarchy, under King Sobhuza II; independent member of Commonwealth since September 1968 Capital: Mbabane (administrative) Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; legal education at University of Botswana and Swaziland; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September Branches: constitution was repealed and Parliament dissolved by King in April 1973; new bicameral Parliament formally opened in January 1979; 80-member electoral college chose 40 members of lower house and 10 members of upper house; additional 10 members for each house chosen by King; executive authority vested in King whose assent is required before parliamentary acts become law; King's authority exercised through Prime Minister and Cabinet who must be members of Parliament; judiciary is part of Ministry of Justice but otherwise independent of executive and legislative branches; cases from subordinate courts can be appealed to the High Court and the Court of Appeal. Government leaders: Head of State King Sobhuza H; Prime Minister Maj. Gen. Maphevu Dlamini Suffrage: universal for adults Communists: no Communist Party Member of: AFDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UPU, WHO ECONOMY GDP: approximately $224 million (FY74), about $470 per capita; growth rate in current prices as much as 11% (FY71-74) Agriculture: main crops?maize, cotton, rice, sugar, and citrus fruits Major industry: mining Electric power: 75,000 kW capacity (1977); 130 million kWh produced (1977), 250 kWh per capita SECRET SECRET Exports: $207 million (f.o.b., 1976); sugar, iron ore, asbestos, wood and forest products, citrus, meat products, cotton Imports: $270 million (f.o.b., 1976); motor vehicles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, and clothing Major trade partners: South Africa, U.K., U.S. Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $125 million; U.S. (1970-77), $11.6 million Budget: 1977/78?revenue $104 million, recurrent ex- penditure $173 million, development expenditure $97.6 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Lilangeni =US$1.15 (as of March 1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 222 km 1.067-meter gage, single track Highways: 2,653 km total; 224 km paved, 1,114 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil, and 1,315 km improved earth Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 28 total, 22 usable; 1 with runway 1,220- 2,439 m Telecommunications: system consists of a few open- wire lines and low-powered radiocommunication stations; Mbabane is the center; 8,200 telephones (1.6 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 114,000; 66,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly from U.K.; the army is attempting to get military assistance from other Western and African sources SWEDEN LAND 448,070 km2; 8% arable, 1% meadows and pastures, 55% forested, 36% other Land boundaries: 2,196 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 4 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 3,218 km 229 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SWEDEN (See reference map IV) PEOPLE Population: 8,300,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (7-77 to 7-78) Nationality: noun?Swede(s); adjective?Swedish Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority Religion: 92% Evangelical Lutherari, 7% other Protestant, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, 1% other Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities Literacy: 99% Labor force: 5.9 million; 5.8% agriculture, forestry, fishing; 26.1% mining and manufacturing; 7.1% construc- tion; 14.9% commerce; 6.8% communications; 33.3% services including government; 6.0% banking; 2.3% unemployed (March 1978) Organized labor: 80% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Sweden Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Stockholm Political subdivisions: 24 provinces, 624 communes, 224 towns Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; Acts of 1809, 1810, 1866, and 1949 serve as constitution; legal education at Universities of Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reser- vations National holiday: Birthday of the King, 30 April Branches: legislative authority rests with parliament (Riksdag); executive power vested in cabinet, responsible to parliament; Supreme Court, 6 superior courts, 108 lower courts Government leaders: King Carl XVI Gustaf; Prime Minister Ola Ullsten Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 20 230 July 1979 Elections: every 3 years (next in September 1979) Political parties and leaders: Moderate Coalition (con- servative), Costa Bohman; Center, Thorbjorn Falldin; Liberal, Ola Ullsten; Social Democratic, Olof Palme; Left Party Communist, Lars Werner; Swedish Communist Party, Roland Petersson; Swedish Workers' Party, Rolf Hagel; Communist League of Marxist Leninists-Revolutionary (KFML-R), Frank Baude Voting strength (1976 election): 15.6% Moderate Coali- tion, 24.1% Center, 11.0% Liberal, 42.9% Social Democratic, 4.7% Communist, 1.7% other Communists: 17,000; a number of sympathizers as indicated by the 257,967 Communist votes cast in 1973 elections; an additional 17,274 votes cast for Maoist KFML Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EC (Free Trade Agreement), EFTA, ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GDP: $87.1 billion, $10,528 per capita (1977); 52.6% consumption, 19.4% investment, 27.2% government; ?2.1% inventory change; 2.9% net imports of goods and services; 1978 growth rate + 2.3% in constant prices Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates with milk and dairy products accounting for 40% of farm income; main crops?grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 80% self-suffi- cient; food shortages?oils and fats, tropical products; caloric intake, 2,903 calories per day per capita (1975) Fishing: catch 153,700 metric tons (1978), exports $61 million, imports $200 million Major industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), shipbuild- ing, wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, textiles, chemicals Shortages: coal, petroleum, textile fibers, potash, salt Crude steel: 4.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 520 kg per capita Electric power: 26,700,000 kW capacity (1978); 92 billion kWh produced (1978), 11,105 kWh per capita Exports: $21,751 million (f.o.b., 1978); machinery, motor vehicles and ships, wood pulp, paper products, iron and steel products, metal ores and scrap, chemicals Imports: $20,473 million (c.i.f., 1978); machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and petroleum products, textile yarn and fabrics, iron and steel, chemicals, food, and live animals Major trade partners: (1978) 15% West Germany, 11% U.K., 6% U.S., 9% Norway, 8% Denmark; 49% EC-9; 6% U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe Aid: donor: economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $2,674 million (1970-77) SECRET I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SWEDEN/SWITZERLAND Budget: (1977/78) revenues $24.2 billion, expenditures $27.9 billion Monetary conversion rate: 4.5185 kroner=US$1 average exchange rate 1978 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 12,220 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)- 11,179 km standard gage (1.435 m), 6,959 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km 0.891-meter gage; 159 km rail ferry service; privately-owned railways-511 km stand- ard gage (1.435 m), 332 km electrified; 189 km 0.891-meter gage electrified Highways: 97,400 km total; 51,899 km bitumen, concrete; 20,659 km bituminous treated, gravel, improved earth; 24,842 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges Ports: 17 major, and 30 minor Merchant marine: 266 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,284,100 GRT, 8,830,800 DWT; includes 24 passenger, 69 cargo, 9 container, 44 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 45 tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 35 bulk, 5 combination ore/oil, 33 specialized carrier Civil air: 57 major transports Airfields: 240 total, 234 usable; 131 with permanent-sur- face runways; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 85 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent domestic and interna- tional facilities; 5.67 million telephones (68.9 per 100 popl.); 9 AM, 91 FM, and 240 TV stations; 10 submarine coaxial cables, 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,964,000; 1,750,000 fit for military service; 57,000 reach military age (19) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: produces vehicles, infantry weapons, ammuni- tion, artillery, tanks, aircraft, chemical and biological warfare defensive materiel, some missiles, and ammunition; imports considerable quantities from NATO countries; most naval ships produced domestically, including submarines Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $2.99 billion; about 9.2% of central government budget SWITZERLAND (See reference map IV) LAND 41,440 kW; 10% arable, 43% meadows and pastures, 20% waste or urban, 24% forested, 3% inland water Land boundaries: 1,884 km PEOPLE Population: 6,284,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate ?0.1% (1-77 to 1-78) Nationality: noun?Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective?Swiss Ethnic divisions: total population-69% German, 19% French, 10% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other; Swiss nationals-74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other Religion: 53% Protestant, 46% Roman Catholic Language: Swiss nationals-74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other; total population-69% German, 19% French, 10% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other Literacy: 98% 231 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 SWITZERLAND Labor force: 2.6 million, about one-tenth foreign workers, mostly Italian; 16% agriculture and forestry, 47% industry and crafts, 20% trade and transportation, 5% professions, 2% in public service, 10% domestic and other; approximately 0.3% unemployed in July 1978 Organized labor: 20% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Swiss Confederation Type: federal republic Capital: Bern Political subdivisions: 22 cantons (3 divided into half cantons); a national referendum in September 1978 ap- proved the establishment of the 23rd canton in the northern Jura region, which will become part of the confederation next year after elections for local government and parliament Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; constitution adopted 1874, amended since; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to Federal decrees of general obligatory character; legal education at Universities of Bern, Geneva and Lausanne, and four other university schools of law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdic- tion, with reservations National holiday: 1 August Branches: bicameral parliament has legislative authority; federal council (Bundesrat) has executive authority; justice left chiefly to cantons Government leaders: Hans Htirlimann, President Suffrage: universal over age 20 Elections: held every 4 years; next elections 1978 Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (SPS), Arthur Schmid, president; Radical Democratic Party (FDP), Henri Schmitt, president; Christian Conservative People's Party (CVP), Franz Josef Kurmann, president; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans Conzett, president; Communist Party (PdA), Jean Vincent, leading Secretariat member; National Action Party (N.A.), James Schwarzenbach Voting strength (1975 election): 22.2% FDP, 20.6% CVP, 25.4% SPS, 10.2% BGB, 2.2% PdA, 2.5% N.A., 3.0% Rep, 6.2% LdU, 2.3% Lidus, 2.0% EvP, 1.3% POSH, 2.2% other Communists: less than 60,000 votes in 1975 election Other parties: Landesring (LdU); Republican Movement (Rep); Liberal Democratic Union (Lidus); Evangelical Party (EP); Maoist Party (POSH/PSA) Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ELDO (observer), ESRO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IEA, ILO, IMCO, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, OECD, U.N. (permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $88.3 billion (1978), $14,091 per capita; 60.2% consumption, 20.2% investment, 12.4% government, 7.1% foreign trade; 1970-76 average growth rate 1.3%, constant prices 232 Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient; food shortages?fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat; caloriC intake, 3,190 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Major industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments Shortages: practically all important raw materials except hydroelectric energy Electric power: 12,400,000 kW capacity (1978); 43 billion kWh produced (1978), 6,840 kWh per capita Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); principal items? machinery and equipment, chemicals, precision instruments, metal products, textiles, foodstuffs Imports: $23.7 billion (c.i.f., 1978); principal items? machinery and transportation equipment, metals and metal products, foodstuffs, chemicals, textile fibers and yarns Major trade partners: 56% EC (22% West Germany, 11% France, 9% Italy, 7% U.K.); 9% EFTA (5% Austria); 7% U.S.; 5% Communist countries (1977) Aid: donor: bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $470 million (1970-77) Budget: receipts, $8,365 million, expenditures, $9,043 million, deficit, $678 million (1978) Monetary conversion rate: 1.788 Swiss francs=US$1 (average 1978, floating) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 5,098 km total; 2,895 km government-owned (SBB), 2,822 km standard gage (1.435 m); 73 km narrow gage (1.00 m); 1,339 km double track, 99% electrified; 2,203 km non-government owned, 710 km standard gage (1.435 m), 1,418 km meter-gage (1.00 m), 75 km 0.790-me- ter gage, 100% electrified Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 17,594 km are canton and 975 km are national highways Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,046 km natural gas Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine River-Basel to Rhein- felden, Schaffhausen to Constanz; in addition, there are 12 navigable lakes ranging in size from Lake Geneva to Hallwilersee Ports: 1 major (Basel), 2 minor Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 280,600 GRT, 435,100 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 6 bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 specialized carrier; fleet is registered in Basel, operates mainly out of Genoa, Hamburg, and Rotterdam Civil air: 86 major transport aircraft Airfields: 80 total, 73 usable; 41 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,660 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 4.02 million telephones (63.8 per 100 popl.); 8 AM, 94 FM, and 350 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET SWITZERLAND/SYRIA DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,681,000; 1,455,000 fit for military service; 48,000 reach military age (20) annually Supply: .produces moderate amounts of all types of materiel; some medium and heavy equipment is imported from U.S. and Western Europe; formerly produced jet aircraft (under license) Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $1,809 million; 19.5% of central government budget SYRIA Nee reference map VI LAND 186,480 km' (including 1,295 km2 of Israeli-occupied territory); 48% arable, 29% grazing, 2% forest, 21% desert Land boundaries: 2,196 km (1967) (excluding occupied area 2,156 km) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm "necessary supervision zone") Coastline: 193 km PEOPLE Population: 8,395,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) SECRET Nationality: noun?Syrian(s); adjective?Syrian Ethnic divisions: 90.3% Arab; 9.7% Kurds, Armenians, and other Religion: 70.5% Sunni Muslim, 16.3% Alawites, Druze, and other Muslim sects, 13.2% Christians of various sects Language: Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian; French and English widely understood Literacy: about 40% Labor force: 1.8 million; 32% agriculture, 26% industry (including construction), 42% miscellaneous services; major- ity unskilled; shortage of skilled labor Organized labor: 5% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Syrian Arab Republic Type: republic; under left-wing military regime since March 1963 Capital: Damascus Political subdivisions: 13 provinces and city of Damascus administered as separate unit Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; constitution promulgated in 1973; legal education at Damascus University and University of Aleppo; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 17 April Branches: executive powers vested in President and Council of Ministers; legislative power rests in the People's Assembly; seat of power is the Ba'th Party Regional (Syrian) Command Government leader: President Hafiz al-Assad Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: People's Assembly election August 1977; Presidential election February 1978 Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba'th) Party; the "national front" cabinet is dominated by Ba'thists, but includes independents and Members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), and Syrian Communist Party (SCP) Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000 Other political or pressure groups: non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence; Communist Party ineffective; greatest threat to Ba'thist regime lies in factionalism in Ba'th Party itself; conservative religious leaders Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $6.6 billion (1977), $793 per capita; real GDP growth rate .09%, 1977 233 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET SYRIA/TAIWAN Agriculture: main crops?cotton, wheat, barley and tobacco; sheep and goat raising; self-sufficient in most foods in years of good weather Major industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco; petroleum (180,000 b/d production (1977), 117,000 b/d refining capacity) Electric power: 1,800,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 305 kWh per capita Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1977); petroleum, textiles and textile products, tobacco, fruits and vegetables, cotton Imports: $2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1977); machinery and metal products, textiles, fuels, foodstuffs Major trade partners: exports?Italy, West Germany, U.S.S.R., Yugoslovia; imports?Switzerland, West Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $3,902 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $587.8 million; U.S. (1970- 77), $319 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $180 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $4,338 million Budget: 1978 official plan?revenues $4.6 billion (includ- ing Arab aid payments), expenditures $4.6 billion Monetary conversion rate: 3.95 Syrian pounds=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,543 km total; 1,281 km standard gage, 262 km narrow gage (1.050 m) Highways: 16,939 km total; 12,051 km paved, 2,625 km gravel or crushed stone, 2,263 km improved earth Inland waterways: 672 km; of little importance Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products Ports: 3 major (Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas), 2 minor Merchant marine: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,200 GRT, 29,800 DWT; includes 10 'cargo and 1 bulk Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft Airfields: 43 total, 37 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good international and fair domes- tic service; 177,000 telephones (2.2 per 100 popl.); 9 AM, no FM and 5 TV stations; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,852,000; 1,032,000 fit for military service; about 89,000 reach military age (19) annually 234 July 1979 Supply: capable of producing limited quantities of small-arms ammunition; otherwise dependent on outside sources, principally U.S.S.R.; some equipment from West European countries including Austria, Spain, West Ger- many, and U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $5,800 million; 40% of central government budget TAIWAN ?^t) East China Sea ? Taipei OTAIWAN 0;outh China Sea )) ?71, PHILIPPINES (See reference map VII) LAND 32,260 km2 (Taiwan and Pescadores); 24% cultivated, 6% pasture, 55% forested, 15% other (urban, industrial, de- nuded, water area) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 990 km Taiwan, 459 km offshore islands PEOPLE Population: 17,440,000, excluding the population of Quemoy and Matsu Islands and foreigners (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.8% (7-77 to 7-78) SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET TAIWAN Nationality: noun?Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective? Chinese Ethnic divisions: 84% Taiwanese, 14% mainland Chinese, 2% aborigines Religion: 93% mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism; 4.5% Christian; 2.5% other Language: Chinese Mandarin (official language), also Taiwanese and Hakka dialect Literacy: about 90% Labor force: 6.12 million (1978); 26.2% primary industry (agriculture), 39% secondary industry (including manufac- turing, mining, construction), 34.8% tertiary industry (in- cluding commerce and services) 1977; 2% unemployment ' (1976) Organized labor: about 12% of 1972 labor force (government controlled) GOVERNMENT Legal name: Taiwan Type: one-party presidential regime Capital: Taipei Political subdivisions: 16 counties, 4 cities, 1 special municipality (Taipei) Legal system: based on civil law system; constitution adopted 1947, amended 1960 to permit Chiang Kai-shek to be reelected, and amended 1972 to permit President to restructure certain government organs; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Branches: 5 independent branches (executive, legislative, judicial, plus traditional Chinese functions of examination and control), dominated by executive branch; President and Vice President elected by National Assembly Government leaders: President Chiang Ching-kuo; Pre- mier Sun Ytin-hsiian Suffrage: universal over age 20 Elections: national level?legislative yuan every 3 years but no general election held since 1948 election on mainland (partial elections for Taiwan province representatives December 1969, December 1972, and December 1975); local level?provincial assembly, county and municipal executives every 4 years; county and municipal assemblies every 4 years Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang, or National Party, led by Chairman Chiang Ching-kuo, had no real opposition; lately a loosely organized anti-Kuomintang opposition has emerged; 2 insignificant parties are Demo- cratic Socialist Party, Young China Party Voting strength (1977 provincial assembly elections): 56 seats Kuomintang, 21 seats independents Other political or pressure groups: none Member of: expelled from U.N. General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October 1971 and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated subsidiary organs; attempting to retain membership in international financial institutions; ICAC, ISO, IWC-International Wheat Council SECRET ECONOMY GNP: $24.7 billion (1978, in 1978 prices), $1,412 per capita; real growth, 12.8% (1970-76 average) Agriculture: most arable land intensely farmed-60% cultivated land under irrigation; main crops?rice, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, citrus fruits; food shortages?wheat, corn, soybeans Fishing: catch 854,784 metric tons (1977) Major industries: textiles, clothing, chemicals, plywood, electronics, sugar milling, food processing, cement, ship building Electric power: 7,100,000 kW capacity (1978); 34.9 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,000 kWh per capita Exports: $12,700 million (f.o.b., 1978); 25% textiles, 15.9% electrical machinery, 7.5% plywood and wood products, 7% machinery and metal products, 7.5% plastics, 5% sugar Imports: $11,000 million (c.i.f., 1978); 18% machinery, 9% electrical machinery, 9% basic metals, 10% crude oil, 10% chemical products Major trade partners: exports-38.8% U.S., 11.9% Japan; imports-31% Japan, 23% U.S. (1977) Aid: economic?U.S. (FY46-76), $2.2 billion committed; IBRD (1964-75), $311 million committed; Japan (1965-74), $247 million committed; ADB (1968-75), $93 million committed; military?U.S. (FY46-76), $4.3 billion com- mitted Central government budget: $3.5 billion (FY78) Monetary conversion rate: NT$38 (New Taiwan)=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: about 1,000 km common-carrier and 3,500 km industrial lines, all on Taiwan; common-carrier lines consist of West System: 825 km meter gage (1.00 m) with 325 km double track, complete line under construction for electrifi- cation; East Line: 175 km narrow gage (0.762 m) (presently under construction to convert to meter gage compatible with West System); common-carrier lines owned by government and operated by Railway Administration (TRA) under Ministry of Communications; industrial lines owned and operated by government enterprises Highways: network totals 16,900 km (construction of North-South Freeway approximately 84%-250 km?com- plete), plus 483 km on Penghu and offshore islands; 7,564 km paved, 6,276 km gravel and crushed stone, 2,736 km earth Pipelines: 615 km refined products, 97 km natural gas Ports: 5 major, 5 minor Merchant marine: 142 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,626,800 GRT, 2,655,400 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 96 cargo, 3 container, 13 tanker, 26 bulk, 3 combination ore/oil Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft Airfields: 40 total, 38 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m, 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 235 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET TAIWAN/TANZANIA Telecommunications: good international and domestic service; 2.1 million telephones; est. 3 million radio receivers; 2.9 million TV receivers; 118 AM, 13 FM broadcast stations; 3 TV systems; 2 international COMSAT ground stations; radio relay links to Hong Kong and the Philippines; new inter-island submarine cables; submarine cables planned to Okinawa, the Philippines, Guam, and Hong Kong and new tropo radio link planned to Manila DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,422,000; 3,481,000 fit for military service; about 201,000 currently reach military age (19) annually Supply: some production of infantry weapons, ammuni- tion, CBW protective masks, assembly of general purpose vehicles, quartermaster items; heavy reliance upon U.S. for other military supplies; currently producing trainer aircraft and under license U.S. F-5E fighters; will produce naval patrol boats with U.S. assistance Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1980, $2,241.5 million including personnel costs; about 41.5% of central government budget 236 July 1979 25X1 25X1 TANZANIA MOZAMBIQUE IAN Indian Ocean (See reference map VI) LAND 939,652 km' (including islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, 2,642 km2); 6% inland water, 15% cultivated, 31% grassland, 48% bush forest, woodland; on mainland, 60% arable, of which 40% cultivated on islands of Zanzibar and Pemba Land boundaries: 3,883 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm Coastline: 1,424 km (this includes 113 km Mafia Island; 177 km Pemba Island; and 212 km Zanzibar) PEOPLE Population: 17,358,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Tanzanian(s); adjective?Tanzanian Ethnic divisions: 99% native Africans consisting of well over 100 tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab Religion: Mainland-40% Animist, 30% Christian, 30% Muslim; Zanzibar?almost all Muslim Language: Swahili and English official, English primary language of commerce, administration and higher education; Swahili widely understood and generally used for communi- cation between ethnic groups; first language of most people is one of the local languages Literacy: 61% SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET TANZANIA Labor force: 456,000 in paid employment, over ,90% in agriculture Organized labor: 15% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Republic of Tanzania Type: republic; single party on the mainland and on Zanzibar Capital: Dar es Salaam Political subdivisions: 25 regions-20 on mainland, 5 on Zanzibar islands Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, customary law, and German civil law system; permanent constitution adopted 1977, replaced interim constitution adopted 1965; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; legal education at University of Dar es Salaam; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: "Union Day,- 26 April Branches: President Julius Nyerere has full executive authority on the mainland; National Assembly dominated by Nyerere and the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party); National Assembly consists of 233 members, 72 from Zanzibar, of which 10 are directly elected, 65 appointed from the mainland, plus 96 directly elected from the mainland; Vice President Aboud Jumbe (President of Zanzibar) and the Revolutionary Council still run Zanzibar except for certain specifically designated union matters Government leaders: President Julius K. Nyerere; Prime Minister Edward M. Sokoine Suffrage: universal adult Political party and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party), only political party, dominated by Nyerere and Vice President Jumbe, his top lieutenant; party was formed in 1977 as a result of the union of the Tanganyika African National Union, the sole mainland party, and the Afro-Shirazi Party, the only party in Zanzibar Voting strength (October 1975 national elections): over 5 million registered voters; Nyerere received 95% of about 4 million votes cast; general parliamentary elections scheduled for late 1980 Communists: a few Communist sympathizers, especially on Zanzibar Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY Mainland: GDP: $2.8 billion (1977), about $170 per capita; real average annual growth rate, 4.2% (1970-77) Agriculture: main crops?cotton, coffee, sisal on mainland Fishing: catch 180,746 metric tons (1975); exports valued at $638,000, imports $1.1 million (1975) Major industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products SECRET Electric power: 365,000 kW capacity (1977); 1,278 million kWh produced (1977), 80 kWh per capita Exports: $522 million (f.o.b., 1977); coffee, cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, meat, diamonds, cloves, tobacco, tea Imports: $750 million (c.i.f., 1977); manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs Major trade partners: exports?China, U.K., Hong Kong, India, U.S.; imports?U.K., China, West Germany, U.S., Japan Aid: economic--Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $1,440 million; Communist countries (1970-77), $134.8 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $134 million; U.S. (1970- 77), $132 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $373 million Budget: (1978 est.) receipts including grants, $906 million, expenditures, $685 million; recurrent and development expenditure $1,054 million Monetary conversion rate: 7.96 Tanzanian shil- lings = US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June Zanzibar: GNP: $35 million (1967) Agriculture: main crops?cloves, coconuts Industries: agricultural processing Electric power: see Tanzania (above) Exports: $504 million (f.o.b., 1977); cloves and clove products, coconut products Imports: $723 million (c.i.f., 1977); mainly foodstuffs and consumer goods Major trade partners: imports?China, Japan, and mainland Tanzania; exports?Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Pakistan Aid: U.K. principal source of aid until 1964; U.S. (FY58- 73), $86 million; China is currently major source Exchange rate: 8.00 Tanzanian shillings=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gage; 2,595 km meter gage (1.00 m), 6.4 km double track; 962 km Tan-Zam Railroad 1.067-meter gage in Tanzania Highways: total 17,010 km, 2,581 km paved; 5,529 km gravel or crushed stone; 8,900 km improved earth Pipelines: 982 km crude oil Inland waterways: 1,168 km of navigable streams; several thousand km navigable on Lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, and Malawi Ports: 3 major (Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga) Merchant marine: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 50,000 GRT, 67,100 DWT Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 99 total, 94 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 41 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 237 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 TANZANIA/THAILAND Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 68,400 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV station; 1 satellite station under construction DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,728,000; 2,184,000 fit for military service Supply: produces some ammunition; dependent on external sources, primarily China, but also U.K., U.S.S.R.; Tanzanian Peoples Defense Force (TPDF) ships supplied by East Germany, West Germany, U.K., U.S.S.R., and China; SAMs from U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1979, $148.2 million; 9.6% of central government budget THAILAND LAND 512,820 km2; 24% in farms, 56% forested, 20% other Land boundaries: 4,868 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 3,219 km PEOPLE Population: 46,350,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Thai (sing. & pl.); adjective?Thai Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 11% minorities Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% Christian Language: Thai; English secondary language of elite Literacy: 70% Labor force: 78% agriculture, 15% services, 7% industry 238 South China Sea YSIA c (See reference map VIII GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Thailand Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Bangkok Political subdivisions: 71 centrally controlled provinces Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law; legal education at Thammasat University; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Day, 5 December Branches: King is head of state with nominal powers; semi-parliamentary system reestablished 22 April 1979; judiciary relatively independent except in important politi- cal subversive cases Government leaders: King Phumiphon Adunyadet, Prime Minister Gen. Kriangsak Chamanan Elections: last held April 1979 Political parties: Social Action Party, Thai Nation Party, Thai Citizen Party, Democrat Party, Freedom and Justice Party, Nation and People Party, New Force Party; seven other small parties represented in parliament along with numerous independents Communists: strength of illegal Communist Party is about 1,200; Thai Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total an estimated 9,000 to 12,000 Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, ASPAC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITC, ITU, SEAMES, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $21.7 billion (1978), $481 per capita; 8.7% real growth in 1978 (7.0% real growth, 1973-78) Agriculture: main crops?rice, sugar, corn, rubber, tapioca Fishing: catch 1.6 million metric tons (1976); major fishery export, shrimp, 15,218 metric tons, about $66 million, total marine export, about $118 million ? (1976) SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 THAILAND/TOGO Major industries: agricultural processing, textiles, wood and wood products, cement, tin and tungsten ore mining; world's second largest tungsten producer and third largest tin producer Shortages: fuel sources, including coal, petroleum; scrap iron, and fertilizer Electric power: 3,354,000 kW capacity (1978); 13.4 billion kWh produced (1978), 310 kWh per capita Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); rice, sugar, corn, rubber, tin, tapioca, kenaf Imports: $5.4 billion (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, base metals, chemicals, and fertilizer Major trade partners: exports?Japan, U.S., Singapore, Netherlands, Hong Kong, Malaysia; imports?Japan, U.S., West Germany, U.K.; about 1% or less trade with Communist countries Aid: OPEC (1975-76), $70 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $778 million; U.S. economic (1970-77), $257 million; U.S. military (1970-77), $627 million (S/NF) Budget: (FY79) planned receipts $4,509 million; 20.6% military, 79.4% civilian Monetary conversion rate: 20.3 baht =US$1 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,830 km meter gage (1.000 m), 97 km double track Highways: 28,806 km total; 14,773 km paved, 4,731 km crushed stone or gravel, 9,302 km earth and laterite Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigale depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow- draft native craft Ports: 2 major, 16 minor Merchant marine: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 285,000 GRT, 432,400 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 14 tanker, 1 specialized carrier Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft Airfields: 158 total, 150 usable; 55 with permanent- surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: service to general public adequate; bulk of service to government activities provided by multi- channel cable and radio-relay network; satellite ground station; 333,761 telephones; over 3 million radios; and over 650,000 televisions; approx. 150 AM, 15 FM, and 10 TV transmitters in government-controlled networks DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,342,000; 6,337,000 fit for military service; about 517,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET SECRET Supply: limited local production of small arms ammuni- tion, rifles, small naval craft, and personal equipment; most other equipment from U.S.; 1 frigate purchased from U.K.; 3 missile attack boats from Singapore, 4 patrol boats ordered from Italy, and 154 tracked reconnaissance vehicles from U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 September 1979, $950 million; 20.6% of central government budget TOGO LAND 56,980 km2; nearly one-half is arable, under 15% cultivated Land boundaries: 1,646 km WATER Limits of territorial Coastline: 56 km waters (claimed): 12 nm PEOPLE ' Population: 2,528,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.8% (current) 239 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET TOGO UPPER VOLTA est Gulf of Guinea NIGERIA (See reference map VII Nationality: noun?Togolese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Togolese Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe in south and Cabrais in north; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese Religion: about 20% Christian, 5% Muslim, 75% animist Language: French, both official and language of com- merce; major African languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabie in the north Literacy: 54.9% of school age (7-14) currently in school Labor force: over 90% of population engaged in subsistence agriculture; about 30,000 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private sectors Organized labor: 1 national union, the CNTT organized in 1972 GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Togo Type: republic; under military rule since January 1967 Capital: Lome Political subdivisions: 21 circumscriptions Legal system: based on French civil law and customary practice; no constitution; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April Branches: military government, with civilian-dominated cabinet, took over on 14 April 1967, replacing provisional government created after January coup; no legislature; separate judiciary including State Security Court established 1970 Government leader: Gen. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Presi- dent, Minister of National Defense, and Armed Forces Chief of Staff Suffrage: universal adult Elections: presidential referendum of January 1972 elected Gen. Eyadema for indefinite period 240 July 1979 Political party: single party formed by President Eya- dema in September 1969, Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, structure and staffing of party closely controlled by government Communists: no Communist Party; possibly some sympathizers Member of: AFDB, CEAO (observer), EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, ENTENTE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $780 million (1978 est.), about $300 per capita; estimated real growth 1970-77, 2.2% Agriculture: main cash crops?coffee, cocoa, cotton; major food crops?yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum, fish; must import some foodstuffs Major industries: phosphate mining, agricultural process- ing, handicrafts, textiles, beverages Electric power: 30,000 kW capacity (1977); 110 million kWh produced (1977), 50 kWh per capita Exports: $239 million (f.o.b., 1978 est.); phosphates, cocoa, coffee, palm kernels, and cassava Imports: $524 million (c.i.f., 1978 est.); consumer goods, fuels, machinery, tobacco, foodstuffs Major trade partners: mostly with France and other EC countries Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $250 million; U.S. (1970-77),. $16.9 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $5.0 million; military?Communist countries (1970-76), $7.0 million; U.S. (1970-76), $2.4 million (S) Budget: (1978 proposed), revenues, $198 million; expendi- tures, $225 million Monetary conversion rate: Communaute Financiere Africaine 245.67 francs= US$1 (1977) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 442 km meter gage (1.00 m), single track Highways: 6,998 km total; 1,210 km paved, 166 km improved earth, 4,575 unimproved earth Inland waterways: section of Mono River and about 50 km of coastal lagoons and tidal creeks Ports: 1 major (Lome), 1 minor Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft Airfields: 11 total, 11 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: fair system based on skeletal network of open-wire lines supplemented by a radio relay route and radiocommunication stations; only center is Lome; 6,300 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM stations, 1 FM radio station, 3 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station SECRET I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 ? TOGO/TONGA DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 542,000; 282,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: most military materiel obtained from France Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $29,763,500; 11.9% of central government budget 'AiriL.Typ al_QI,JEWMUINEA TONGA ? ?, Fiji TONGA *Nuku'alofa CALEDONIA Pacific Ocean NEW ZEALAND' (See reference men VIM LAND 997 km2 (150 islands); 77% arable, 3% pasture, 13% forest, 3% inland water, 4% other WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 419 km (est.) PEOPLE Population: 92,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Tongan(s); adjective?Tongan Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, about 300 Europeans Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents Language: Tongan, English SECRET Declassified SECRET Literacy: 90%-95%; compulsory education for children between ages of 6-14 Labor force: agriculture 10,303; mining 599 Organized labor: unorganized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Kingdom of Tonga Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: Nuku'alofa Political subdivisions: 3 main island groups (Tongatapu, Ha'api, Vava'u) Legal system: based on English law Branches: Executive (King and Privy Council); Legisla- tive (Legislative Assembly composed of 7 nobles elected by their peers, 7 elected representatives of the people, .8 Ministers of the Crown; the King appoints one of the 7 nobles to be the speaker); Judiciary (Supreme Court, magistrate courts, Land Court) Government leaders: King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV; Pre- mier, Prince Fatafehi Tu'ipelehake (younger brother of the King) Suffrage: granted to all literate adults over 21 years of age who pay taxes Elections: held every 3 years, last in April 1978 Communists: none known Member of: ADB, Commonwealth ECONOMY GNP: $39 million (1975), $400 per capita Agriculture: largely dominated by coconut and banana production with subsistence crops of taro, yams, sweet potatoes, and bread fruit Electric power: 4,000 kW capacity (1978); 8 million kWh produced (1978), 90 kWh per capita Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1975); 65% copra, 7% coconut products, 8% bananas Imports: $28 million (c.i.f., 1975); food, machinery, and petroleum Major trade partners: (FY74) exports-25% Netherlands, 22% Australia, 20% New Zealand, 11% Norway; imports- 63% New Zealand and Australia . Budget: (FY76) revenues $6.7 million, expenditures $8.3 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Tonga dollar=US$1.40 (1976) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 249 km total (1974); 177 km rolled stone; 72 km coral base Ports: 2 minor Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,700 GRT, 22,900 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 liquefied gas 241 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET TONGA/ TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 552 telephones (2.2 per 100 popl.); 11,000 radio sets; no TV sets; 1 AM station; 1 ground satellite station TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO c, Caribbean Sea At/antic Ocean Port of ' Sam TRINIDAD .4 AND TOBAGO VENEZUELA FR summit GUIANA (See reference map II) LAND 5,128 km2; 41.9% in farms (25.7% cropped or fallow, 1.5% pasture, 10.6% forests, and 4.1% unused or built-on), 58.1% outside of farms, including grassland, forest, built-up area, and wasteland WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 362 km PEOPLE Population: 1,136,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1:1% (7-70 to 7-76) Nationality: noun?Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adiec- tive?Trinidadian Ethnic divisions: 43% Negro, 40% East Indian, 14% mixed, 1% white, 2% other Religion: 26.8% Protestant, 31:2% Roman Catholic, 23.0% Hindu, 6.0% Muslim, 13.0% unknown Language: English Literacy: 95% 242 July 1979 Labor force: 393,800 (July 1975), 13.5% agriculture, 20.0% mining, quarrying, and manufacturing, 17.4% com- merce; 15.7% construction and utilities; 7.5% transportation and communications; 23.0% services, 2.9% other Organized labor: 30% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Type: independent state since August 1962; in August 1976 country officially became a republic severing legal ties with British crown Capital: Port-of-Spain Political subdivisions: 8 counties (29 wards, Tobago is 30th) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution came into effect 1976; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 31 August Branches: legislative branch consists of 36-member elected House of Representatives and 31-member appointed Senate; executive is cabinet led by the Prime Minister; judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice and includes a Court of Appeal, High Court, and lower courts Government leaders: Prime Minister Dr. Eric E. Wil- liams, President Ellis Clarke Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: elections to be held at intervals of not more than five years; last election held 13 September 1976 Political parties and leaders: People's National Move- ment (PNM), Dr. Eric Williams; United Labor Front (ULF), Bosdeo Panday; Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Dr. Romesh Mootoo; Democratic Action Congress (DAC), Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson; West Indian National Party (WINP), Ashford Sinanani; Tapia House Movement, Lloyd Best Voting strength (1976 election): 56% of registered voters cast ballots; PNM captured 24 seats in House of Representa- tives, ULF 10, and DAC the two Tobago seats Communists: not significant Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Congress (NJAC), radical anti-government Black-identity organization; United Revolutionary Organization (URO), Marxist amalgam; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress, moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor federation Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, International Coffee Agreement, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO SECRET 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO/TUNISIA ECONOMY GDP: $3,159 million (1977), $3,040 per capita; 49% mining and petroleum, 6% manufacturing, 4% agriculture, 41% other; growth rate 1977, 7.7% est. Agriculture: main crops?sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, rice, citrus, bananas; largely dependent upon imports of food Fishing: catch 4,322 metric tons (1976); exports $1.1 million (1975), imports $4.5 million (1975) Major industries: petroleum, tourism, food processing, cement Electric power: 375,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.6 billion kWh produced (1978), 1,420 kWh per. capita Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1977); petroleum and petroleum products (91%), sugar, cocoa (2.0%) Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1977); crude petroleum (46%), machinery, fabricated metals, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food Major trade partners: imports?Saudi Arabia 24%, U.S. 21%, Indonesia 10%, U.K. 10%, Iran 9%, Japan 4%; exports? U.S. 72%, U.K. 2%, Netherlands 2% Aid: economic?bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (1970-76), U.S., $50.6 million; other Western countries, $23.8 million Budget: (1977) central government revenues $1 billion, expenditures $1 billion (current $487 million, investment $156 million, development project funds, $371 million) Monetary conversion rate: tied to US dollar in 1976; TT$2.40 = US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 7,900 km total; 3,600 km paved, 1,100 km improved earth, 3,200 km unimproved earth Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil and refined products; 832 km natural gas Ports: 3 major (Port of Spain, Chaquaramars Bay, Point Tembladora), 6 minor Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft Airfields: 8 total, 6 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 70,400 telephones (6.6 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 2 FM, and 3 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 281,000; 199,000 fit for military service SECRET SECRET Supply: mostly from U.K. Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $48.4 million; about 4.8% of central government budget TUNISIA (See reference map VI) LAND 164,206 km2; 28% arable land and tree crops, 23% range and esparto grass, 6% forest, 43% desert, waste or urban Land boundaries: 1,408 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 12 nm exclusive fisheries zone follows the 50-meter isobath for part of the coast, maximum 65 nm) Coastline: 1,143 km (includes offshore islands) PEOPLE Population: 6,412,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.7% (current) Nationality: noun?Tunisian(s); adjective?Tunisian Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish Religion: 95% Muslim, 4% Christian, 1% Jewish Language: Arabic (official), Arabic and French (commerce) Literacy: about 32% 243 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET TUNISIA Labor force: 1.4 million; 45% agriculture, 19% manufac- turing and construction, 5% trade and finance, 3% transportation, communications, and utilities, 2% mining; 10%-20% unemployed; shortage of skilled labor Organized labor: 25% of labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Destourian Socialist Party GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Tunisia Type: republic Capital: Tunis Political subdivisions: 17 governorates (provinces) Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; constitution patterned on Turkish and U.S. constitutions adopted 1959; some judicial review of legisla- tive acts in the Supreme Court in joint session; legal education at Institute of Higher Studies and Ecole Super- ieure de Droit of the University of Tunis National holiday: Independence Day, 1 June Branches: executive dominant; unicameral legislative largely advisory; judicial, patterned on French and Koranic systems Government leaders: President Habib Bourguiba; Prime Minister Hedi Nouira Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: national elections held every 5 years; last elections 2 November 1974 Political party and leader: Destourian Socialist Party, Habib Bourguiba Voting strength (1974 election): 100% Destourian Social- ist Party Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students; Tunisian Communist Party proscribed in January 1963 Member of: AFDB, Arab League, AIOEC, EC (associ- ation until 1974), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $5.7 billion (1978 est.), $930 per capita; average annual growth (1973-76), 7.2% Agriculture: cereal farming and livestock herding pre- dominate; main crops?wheat, barley, olives, fruits (espe- cially citrus), viticulture, vegetables, dates Major sectors: tourism, mining, food processing, textiles and leather, light manufacturing, construction materials, chemical fertilizers, petroleum Electric power: 540,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.7 billion kWh produced (1978), 270 kWh per capita Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 25% petroleum, 20% phosphates, 18% olive oil 244 July 1979 Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1978); 36% raw materials, 23% machinery and equipment, 14% consumer goods, 19% food and beverages, 3% energy, 5% other Major trade partners: exports?France, Italy, West Germany Tourism and foreign worker remittances: $400 million foreign exchange (1977) Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $1,165 million; U.S. (1970-77), $245.3 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $316,6 million; Communist countries (1977), $92 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $25.4 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 Tunisian dinar (TD)= US$2.32 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,089 km total; 503 km standard gage (1.435 m), 1,586 km meter gage (1.000 m) Highways: 17,140 km total; 7,940 km bituminous, 660 km gravel; 2,000 km improved earth; 6,540 km unimproved earth Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 10 km refined products; 372 km natural gas Ports: 4 major, 8 minor Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 96,900 GRT, 140,800 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 tanker, 4 bulk, 2 specialized carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo (C) Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in and 1 leased out Airfields: 29 total, 25 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 1 seaplane station Telecommunications: the system is above the African average in amount and capacity of facilities which consist of open-wire lines with multiconductor cable or radio relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 100,000 telephones (1.7 per 100 popl.); 3 AM, 3 FM, and 7 TV stations; 3 submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,369,000; 769,000 fit for military service; about 71,000 reach military age (20) annually SECRET 25X1 25X1 1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 F. ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 TUNISIA/TURKEY Supply: dependent on foreign sources; mostly U.S., with lesser amounts from France, Austria, Italy, and West Germany; two patrol boats delivered from U.K. and two motor gunboats from PRC in 1977; artillery and small arms received from the PRC in 1978 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $168 million; 5.7% of central government budget TURKEY (See reference map VI LAND 766,640 km', 35% cropland, 25% meadows and pastures, 23% forested, 17% other Land boundaries: 2,574 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm except in Black Sea where it is 12 nm (fishing 12 nm) Coastline: 7,200 km PEOPLE Population: 44,236,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Turk(s); adjective?Turkish Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other Religion: 99% Muslim (mostly Sunni), I% other (mostly Christian and Jewish) . Language: Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic Literacy: 55% Labor force: 17.2 million; 57% agriculture, 18% industry, 25% service; substantial shortage of skilled labor; ample unskilled labor (1978) Organized labor: 25% of labor force SECRET SECRET GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Turkey Type: republic Capital: Ankara Political subdivisions: 67 provinces Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; constitution adopted 1961; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court; legal education at Universities of Ankara and Istanbul; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Republic Day, 29 October Branches: President elected by parliament; Prime Minis- ter appointed by President from members of parliament; Prime Minister is effective executive; cabinet, selected by Prime Minister and approved by President, must command majority support in lower house; parliament bicameral under constitution promulgated in 1961; National Assembly has 450 members serving 4 years; Senate has 150 elected members, one-third elected every 2 years, 15 appointed by the President to 6-year terms (one-third appointed every 2 years), and 19 life members; highest court for ordinary criminal and civil cases is Court of Cassation, which hears appeals directly from criminal, commercial, basic, and peace courts Government leaders: President Fahri Koruturk; Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: National Assembly and Senate (1/3 of seats), Republican People's Party won a plurality in June 1977; Presidential (1980) . Political parties and leaders: Justice Party (JP), Suleyman Demirel; Republican People's Party (RPP), Bulent Ecevit; National Salvation Party (NSP), Necmettin Erbakan; Democratic Party (DP), Faruk Sul6n; Republican Reliance Party (RRP), Turhan Feyzioglu; Nationalist Action Party (NAP), Alpaslan Turkes; Communist Pally illegal Communists: strength and support negligible Other political or pressure groups: military forced resignation of Demirel government in March 1971 and remains an influential force in national affairs Member of: ASSIMER, Council of Europe, EC (associate member), ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, 100C, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OECD, Regional? Cooperation for Development, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $48.7 billion (1978), $1,131 per capita; 2.7% real growth 1978, 7%-8% average annual real growth 1970-76 Agriculture: main products?cotton, tobacco, cereals, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, and livestock products; self-suffi- cient in food in average. years Major industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum 245 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET TURKEY /TUVALU Crude steel: 1.9 million tons produced (1976), 45 kg per capita Electric power: 5,000,000 kW capacity (1978); 22 billion kWh produced (1978), 505 kWh per capita Exports: $2,288 million (f.o.b., 1978); cotton, tobacco, fruits, nuts, metals, livestock products, textiles and clothing Imports: $4,599 million (c.i.f., 1978); crude oil, machin- ery, transport equipment, metals, mineral fuels, fertilizers,. chemicals Major trade partners: 22.1% West Germany, 9.3% Italy, 6.9% U.S., 6.2% Switzerland, 5.4% France (1977) Budget: (FY78) revenues $13.1 billion, expenditures $14.7 billion, deficit $1.6 billion Monetary conversion rate: 25.25 Turkish liras=US$1 (July 1978) Fiscal year: 1 March-28 February COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 8,253 km standard gage (1.435 m); 143 km double track; 72 km electrified Highways: 60,000 km total; 21,000 km bituminous; 28,000 km gravel or crushed stone; 2,500 km improved earth; 8,500 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: approx. 1,689 km Pipelines: 1,288 km crude oil; 2,055 km refined products Ports: 10 major, 35 minor Merchant marine: 163 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,251,300 GRT, 1,931,400 DWT; includes 12 passenger, 96 cargo, 1 liquefied gas, 22 tanker, 22 bulk, 7 specialized carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft, including 5 leased in Airfields: 121 total, 102 usable; 58 with permanent-sur- face runways; 3 with runways over 3,660 m, 25 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 21 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: good international, fair domestic service; maintenance a continuing problem; radio relay being expanded and improved; 1.1 million telephones (2.7 per 100 popl.); 40 AM, 4 FM, and 36 TV stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,072,000; 5,951,000 fit for military service; about 444,000 reach military age (20) annually 246 July 1979 Supply: mostly dependent on foreign sources, primarily U.S., Canada, and West Germany; manufactures some small arms, trucks and adequate quantities of ammunition; builds some of its naval ships including submarines with technical and material assistance Military budget: for fiscal year ending 28 February 1979,, $2.6 billion; about 16% of proposed central government budget TUVALU (formerly Ellice Islands) Pacific Ocean GILBERT n ISLANDS %.TUVALU 0 FIJI UNITED ? STATES I> (Sea reference map NOTE: On October 1, 1975, by Constitutional Order, the Ellice Islands were formally separated from the British colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands, thus forming the new colony of Tuvalu. The remaining islands in the former Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony were renamed the Gilbert Islands. SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 TUVALU/UGANDA The new colony of Tuvalu includes the islands of Nanumanga, Nanumea, Nui, Niutao, Vaitupu, and the four islands of the Tuvalu group formerly claimed by the United States: Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulailai (Nukulaelae), and Nurakita (Niulakita) LAND 26 km' WATER Limits of territorial waters: 3 nm Coastline: about 24 km PEOPLE Population: 6,000 (preliminary total from census of 8 December 1973) Ethnic divisions: Polynesian Religion: Protestant Literacy: less than 50% GOVERNMENT Legal name: Tuvalu Type: independent state within commonwealth Capital: Funafuti House of Assembly: eight members Government leader: Prime Minister Toalipi Lauti ECONOMY See Gilbert Islands for economic data Electric power: 2,600 kW capacity (1978); 2.6 million kWh produced (1978), 430 kWh per capita COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 8 km gravel Inland waterways: none Ports: I minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: I total; I usable with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: I AM station; about 300 telephones (0.5. per 100 popl.); 4,000 radio sets DEFENSE FORCES No military forces maintained: a small police post is located at Funafuti. UGANDA LAND 235,690 km2; 21% inland water and swamp, including territorial waters of Lake Victoria, about 21% cultivated, 13% national parks, forest, and game reserves, 45% forest, woodland, and grassland Land boundaries: 2,680 km SECRET SECRET (See reference map VI) PEOPLE Population: 13,225,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.5% (current) Nationality: noun?Ugandan(s); adjective?Ugandan Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% European, Asian, Arab Religion: about 60% nominally Christian, 5%-10% Mus- lim, rest animist Language: English official; Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic languages Literacy: about 20%-40% Labor force: estimated 4.5 million, of which about 250,000 in paid labor, remaining in subsistence activities Organized labor: 125,000 union members GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Uganda Type: republic, independent since October 1962; power was transferred on II April 1979 to a provisional government when the capital fell to Tanzanian and exile troops; former regime, headed by Idi Amin, has virtually disappeared except in far northwest Capital: Kampala Political subdivisions: 10 provinces and 34 districts Legal system: provisional government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary law to reinstitute a normal judicial system; legal education at Makerere University, Kampala; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October Branches: provisional government consists of self-appoint- ed cabinet and advisory council whose members were in exile until 1979 Government leader: Yusufu K. Lule, President of provisional government Suffrage: universal adult Elections: none scheduled by provisional government but government has spoken of a return of democratic institutions after two-year transition period 247 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET UGANDA/U.S.S.R. Political parties: none at present Communists: possibly a few sympathizers among mem- bers of provisional government Member of: AFDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GDP: $886 million (1976, at constant prices), $70 per capita; 0% real growth between 1970-74 Agriculture: main cash crops?coffee, cotton; other cash crops?tobacco, tea, sugar, fish, livestock Fishing: catch 152,400 metric tons (1976) Major industries: agricultural processing (textiles, sugar, coffee, plywood, beer), cement, copper smelter, corrugated iron sheet, shoes, fertilizer Electric power: 228,500 kW capacity (1977); 1,028 million kWh produced (1977), 80 kWh per capita Exports: $339 million (f.o.b., 1976); coffee, cotton, tea, copper (1971) Imports: $249 million (c.i.f., 1976); petroleum products, machiilery, cotton piece goods, metals, transport equipment Major trade partners: U.K., U.S., Kenya Aid: OPEC (1973-77), $243.8 million; Western (non-U.S.) (1970-77), $105 million; U.S. (1970-76), $14.7 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $8.3 million; military? Communist countries (1970-77), $104 million Monetary conversion rate: 7.95 Uganda shillings=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,216 km, meter gage (1.00 m), single track Highways: 6,763 km total; 1,934 km paved; 4,829 km crushed stone, gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks (est.) Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, and Lake Edward (9,670 km); Kagera River and Victoria Nile (610 km) Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship totaling 5,500 GRT, 9,100 DWT Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft Airfields: 48 total, 46 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m, 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: fair system based on open wire lines and radio relay links; 46,000 telephones (0.4 per 100 popl.); 6 AM, no FM, 6 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station and 2 domestic stations DEFENSE FORCES NOTE: As a result of the defeat of the Idi Amin regime, 248 July 1979 the Ugandan defense forces have been disorganized; most personnel have deserted or been captured or killed; much equipment has been damaged, destroyed, stolen, or cap- tured. Military manpower: males 15-49, about 2,946,000; about 1,584,000 fit for military service Supply: dependent on external sources?U.K., France, U.S.S.R., and Czechoslovakia; a recent influx of Soviet material should improve Uganda's military capabilities Military budget: for fiscal year ending 30 June 1978, $118 billion; 18.3% of central government budget 25X1 25X1 U.S.S.R. (See reference map VII) LAND 22,274,000 km2; 9.3% cultivated, 37.1% forest and brush, 2.6% urban, industrial, and transportation, 16.8% pasture and natural hay land, 34.2% desert, swamp, or waste Land boundaries: 20,619 km SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET U.S.S.R. WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 46,670 km (incl. Sakhalin) PEOPLE Population: 263,818,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Soviet(s); adjective?Soviet Ethnic divisions: 74% Slavic, 26% among some 170 ethnic groups Language: more than 200 languages and dialects (at least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); 76% Slavic group, 8% other Indo-European, 11% Altaic, 3% Uralian, 2% Caucasian Literacy: 98.5% of population (ages 9-49) Labor force: civilian 138 million (mid-year 1978), 25% agriculture, 75% industry and other non-agricultural fields, unemployed not reported, shortage of skilled labor reported GOVERNMENT Legal name: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Type: Communist state Capital: Moscow Political subdivisions: 15 union republics, 20 autonomous republics, 6 krays, 121 oblasts, and 8 autonomous oblasts Legal system: civil law system as modified by Communist legal theory; revised constitution adopted 1977; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at 18 universities and 4 law institutes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: October Revolution Day, 7 November Branches: Council of Ministers (executive), Supreme Soviet (legislative), Supreme Court of U.S.S.R. (judicial) Government leaders: Leonid I. Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Chairman of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet; Aleksey N. Kosygin, Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers Suffrage: universal over age 18; direct, equal Elections: to Supreme Soviet every 5 years; 1,500 deputies elected in 1979; 71.7% party members Political party: Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) only party permitted Voting strength (1979 election): 174,944,173 persons over 18; allegedly 99.99% voted Communists: over 16 million party members Other political or pressure groups: Komsomol, trade unions, and other organizations which facilitate Communist control Member of: CEMA, Geneva Disarmament Conference, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC? International Whaling Commission, IWC?International Wheat Council, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO SECRET ECONOMY GNP: $1,066.5 billion (1978, in 1977 U.S. prices), $4,080 per capita; in 1978 percentage shares were-56% consump- tion, 34% investment, 10% government and other, including defense (based on 1970 GNP in rubles at adjusted factor cost); average annual growth rate of real GNP (1971-77), 3.8%, average annual growth rate (1976-78), 3.6% Agriculture: principal food crops?grain (especially wheat), potatoes; main industrial crops?sugar, cotton, sunflowers, and flax; degree of self-sufficiency depends on fluctuations in crop yields; calorie intake, 3,250 calories per day per capita in recent years Fishing: catch 9.7 million metric tons (1977); exports 403,800 metric tons (1977), imports 32,500 metric tons (1977) Major industries: diversified, highly developed capital goods industries; consumer goods industries comparatively less developed Shortages: natural rubber, bauxite and alumina, tantalum, tin, tungsten, fluorspar, and molybdenum Crude steel: 163 million metric ton capacity as of 1 January 1979; 151 million metric tons produced in 1978, 578 kg per capita Electric power: 249,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 1,202 billion kWh produced (1978), 4,580 kWh per capita Exports: $52,392.6 million (f.o.b., 1978); fuels (particu- larly petroleum and derivatives), metals, agricultural prod- ucts (timber, grain), and a wide variety of manufactured goods (primarily capital goods) Imports: $50,794.8 million (f.o.b., 1978); specialized and complex machinery and equipment, textile fibers, consumer manufactures, steel products (particularly large diameter pipe), and any significant shortages in domestic production (for example, grain imported following poor domestic harvests) Major trade partners: $103.2 billion (1978 total turnover); trade 60% with Communist countries, 28% with industrial- ized West, and 12% with less developed countries Aid: economic?total extended to less developed countries (1978), $3,707 million; total economic extensions (1954-78), $17.1 billion; military?total extended (1978), $1.8 billion Official monetary conversion rate: 0.6811 rubles=US$1: (average 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 140,504 km total; 138,671 km broad gage (1.524 m); 1,833 km narrow gage (mostly 0.750 m); 110,015 km broad gage single track; 40,941 km electrified; does not include industrial lines (1978) Highways: 1,564,000 km total; 322,000 km asphalt, concrete, stone block; 372,000 km asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 870,000 km earth (1976) Inland waterways: 146,400 km navigable, exclusive of Caspian Sea (1979) 249 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 U.S.S.R. Pipelines: 57,000 km crude oil; 13,000 km refined products; 115,000 km natural gas Ports: 52 major (most important: Leningrad, Murmansk, Odessa, Novorossiysk, Ilichevsk, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Arkhangesk, Riga, Tallinn, Kaliningrad, Liepaja, Ventspils, Nikolayev, Sevastopol); 116 selected minor; major inland ports: Rostov, Volgograd, Gorkiy, Khabarovsk, Kiev, and Moscow (1979) Freight carried: rail-3,758 million metric tons, 3,426.0 billion metric ton/km (1978); highways-22.7 billion metric tons, 380 billion metric ton/km (1977); waterway-520.0 million metric tons, 231.0 billion metric ton/km, excluding Caspian Sea in approximately 16,000 waterway craft with 8,000,000 metric tons capacity (1978) Merchant marine: 1,737 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,504,800 GRT, 18,676,400 DWT; includes 69 passenger, 1,201 cargo, 19 container, 36 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 291 tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 93 bulk, 8 combination ore/oil, 12 specialized carriers; 646 merchant ships based in Black Sea, 392 in Baltic Sea, 445 in Soviet Far East, and 244 in Barents/White Sea Civil air: 1,251 major transport aircraft (1977) Airfields: 3,535 total; 765 with permanent-surface run- ways; 55 with runways over 3,500 m; 387 with runways 2,500-3,499 m, 1,078 with runways 1,000-2,499 m, 2,015 with runways less than 1,000 m; 37 heliports Telecommunications: extensive and relatively mo ern domestic and international systems maintained primarily for official use; 19.3 million telephones; an estimated 37,000 telephone exchanges; 83,100 main and branch telegraph offices; about 135 main AM broadcast network stations; 280 FM broadcast and 40,000 wired-broadcast distribution stations; 59.8 million radio and 56 million wired broadcast receivers; 1,620 TV broadcast and rebroadcast stations; 55 million TV receivers DEFENSE FORCES ? Military manpower: males 15-49, 67,982,000; 54,220,000 fit for military service; 2,367,000 reach military registration age (17) annually on the average 250 SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 U.S.S.R./UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Supply: fully supplies own needs and produces large quantities of all types of materiel for export; Warsaw Pact countries provide the bulk of amphibious and auxiliary ship replacements as well as trainers and other light aircraft; some light armored vehicles obtained from Eastern Europe as an economic measure Military budget (announced): for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, only the figure 17.2 billion rubles was released; this figure is manipulated for political purposes and covers only a small portion of total military expenditures; the estimated dollar costs of military activities in 1978 excluding pensions, are $146.55 billion (in 1978 dollars) UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (See reference map VI LAND 82,880 km2; almost all desert, waste or urban SECRET SECRET Land boundaries: 1,094 km (does not include boundaries between adjacent U.A.E. states) WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm for all states except Sharjah (12 nm) Coastline: 1,448 km PEOPLE Population: 862,000 (official estimate for 31 December 1977) Ethnic divisions: Arabs 42%, South Asians 50% (fluctuat- ing), other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% Religion: Muslim 96%, Christian, Hindu and other 4% Language: Arabic Literacy: 25% est. (1975) Labor force: 490,000 (1978 est.); 53% services; 87% foreign workers GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Arab Emirates (composed of former Trucial States) Member states: Abu Dhabi; Ajman; Dubai; Fujairah; Ras al Khaimah; Sharjah; Umm al Qaiwain Type: federation; constitution signed December 1971, which delegated specified powers to the United Arab Emirates central government and reserved other powers to member shaykhdoms Capital: Abu Dhabi Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the U.A.E. Government and in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains very influential National holiday: 2 December Branches: Supreme Council of Rulers (7 members), from which a President and Vice President are elected; Prime Minister and. Council of Ministers; Federal National Assembly; federal Supreme Court Government leaders: Shaykh Zayid of Abu Dhabi, President; Shaykh Rashid of Dubai, Vice President and Prime Minister Suffrage: none Elections: none Political or pressure groups: none; a few small clandes- tine groups are active Member of: Arab League, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, NAM, OAPEC, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $13.3 billion est. (1977), $15,500 per capita; Agriculture: food imported, but some dates, alfalfa, vegetables, fruit, tobacco raised 251 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET UNITED ARAB EMIRATES /UNITED KINGDOM Major industries: oil production, fishing, trading (Oil production began in Abu Dhabi in 1962, and in 1978 reached 1.8 million b/d. Dubai has best port and is a commercial center; oil was discovered in commercial quantities in 1966 and production began in 1969; 1976 production 320,000 b/d. Sharjah began production in 1974. Revenues paid to U.A.E. in 1978 were $9 billion.); small fishing, some boat building, handicrafts, animal husbandry, pearling throughout area Electric power: 1,300,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.3 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,506 kWh per capita Exports: $9.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978); ($9.0 billion in oil, $0.9 billion non-oil); crude petroleum, pearls, fish Imports: $4.5 billion (c.i.f., 1977); food, consumer and capital goods Major trade partners: U.K., U.S., Japan, India, EC Budget: (1977) expenditures $6.9 billion, capital $3.45 billion Monetary conversion rate: 1 U.A.E. Dirham =US$0.25 (1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 780 km bituminous, undetermined mileage of earth tracks Pipelines: 282 km crude oil Ports: 3 major, 1 minor Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 123,600 GRT, 212,500 DWT; includes 16 cargo, 1 tanker (C) Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in Airfields: 57 total, 40 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,660 m, 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai; 70,800 telephones (10.8 per 100 popl.); 4 AM, 2 FM, and 3 TV stations; 3 satellite stations, 1 Atlantic and 2 Indian Ocean DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 151,000; 87,000 fit for military service Supply: mostly from U.K. and France, some from Italy and Jordan Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978, $773 million; 29% of central government budget 252 July 1979 UNITED KINGDOM (See 'defence map IV) LAND 243,978 km2; 30% arable, 50% meadow and pasture, 12% waste or urban, 7% forested, 1% inland water Land boundaries: 360 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 12,429 km PEOPLE Population: 55,822,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate ?0.1% (current) Nationality: noun?Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective?British Ethnic divisions: 83% English, 9% Scottish, 5% Welsh, 3% Irish Religion: 27.0 million Church of England, 5.3 million Roman Catholic, 2.0 million Presbyterians, 760,000 Method- ist, 450,000 Jews (registered) SECRET 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET UNITED KINGDOM Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland) Literacy: 98% to 99% Labor force: (1974) 25.6 million; 1.6% agriculture, 1.4% mining, 30.7% manufacturing, 6.2% government, 7.2% transportation and utilities, 5.2% construction, 10.6% dis- tributive trades, 25.3% all services, 9.7% other; 2.1% unemployed Organized labor: 40% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Type: constitutional monarchy Capital: London Political subdivisions: 635 parliamentary constituencies Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations National holiday: Celebration of Birthday of the Queen, 16 June Branches: legislative authority resides in Parliament; executive authority lies with collectively responsible cabinet led by Prime Minister; House of Lords is supreme judicial authority and highest court of appeal Government leader: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: at discretion of Prime Minister, but must be held before expiration of a 5-year electoral mandate; last election 3 May 1979 Political parties and leaders: Conservative, Margaret Thatcher; Labor, James Callaghan; Liberal, David Steel; Communist, Gordan McLennan; Scottish National, William Wolfe; Plaid Cymru, Phil Williams Voting strength (1979 election): Conservative 339 seats (43.9%); Labor 268 seats (36.9%); Liberal 11 seats (13.8%); Scottish National 2 seats (1.6%); Plaid Cymru 2 seats (0.4%); other 13 seats (2.8%) Communists: 29,000 Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers' Union Member of: ADB, CENTO, Colombo Plan, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EEC, ELDO, ESRO, EURATOM, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IO0C, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC-Interna- tional Whaling Commission, IWC-International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN., UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG ECONOMY GNP: $268 billion (1978 est.), $4,800 per capita; 59.3% consumption, 18.3% investment, 21.2% government; 0.8% inventories, 0.3% net foreign balance, real growth 3.0% (1978) SECRET Agriculture: mixed farming predominates; main prod- ucts-wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, livestock, dairy products; 53.7% self-sufficient; dependent on imports for more than half of consumption of refined sugar, butter, oils and fats, and bacon and ham; caloric intake, 2,910 calories per day per capita, 1975 Fishing: catch 916,000 metric tons (1977), valued at $440 million; 1977 exports $160 million, imports $760 million Major industries: machinery and transport equipment, metals, food processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing Crude steel: 20.3 million metric tons produced (1978), 365 kg per capita; 30.9 million metric tons capacity (1977) Electric power: 86,000,000 kW capacity (1978); 288 billion kWh produced (1978), 5,160 kWh per capita Exports: $68.0 billion (f.o.b., 1978); machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, metals, nonmetallic mineral manu- factures, foodstuffs, petroleum Imports: $70.3 billion (f.o.b., 1978); foodstuffs, petroleum, machinery, crude materials, chemicals, nonferrous metals Major trade partners: 39.2% EC, 12.9% Commonwealth, 9.7% West Germany, 7.3% France, 9.8% U.S. Aid: donor: bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and 00F), $5,792 million (1970-76) Budget (national and local government): FY79 est., $124 million revenues, $136 million expenditures; deficit includ- ing nationalized corporation, $16 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 pound sterling=US$1.92 (1978) Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: Great Britain-18,287 km total; British Rail- ways (BR) operates 18,012 km standard gage (1.435 m) (3,735 km electrified, 11,410 km double track, 2,366 km multiple track) and 19 km 0.597-meter gage; 256 km of standard gage (1.435 m) and several narrow gages are privately- owned; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 327 km 1.600-meter gage, 190 km double track Highways: approx. 335,186 km paved and 23,175 km in Northern Ireland, 22,227 km paved; 949 km gravel Inland waterways: 3,219 km publicly owned; 605 km major commercial routes Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,907 km refined products; 1,770 km natural gas Ports: 23 major, 350 minor Civil air: 560 major transport aircraft, including 12 leased in and 16 leased out Airfields: 636 total, 393 usable; 247 with permanent-sur- face runways; 1 with runway over 3,659 m, 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 151 with runways 1,220-2,439 m 253 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET UNITED KINGDOM/UPPER VOLTA Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system; 22.4 million telephones (39.4 per 100 pop!.); excellent countrywide broadcast; 97 AM, 120 FM, and 300 TV stations; 30 coaxial submarine cables; 2 earth satellite stations with 3 Atlantic Ocean antennas and 1 Indian Ocean antenna July 1979 UPPER VOLTA Atlantic Ocean (See reference map VI) LAND 274,540 km2; 50% pastureland, 21% fallow, 10% culti- vated, 9% forest and scrub, 10% waste and other uses Land boundaries: 3,307 km PEOPLE Population: 6,656,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun?Upper Voltan(s); adjective?Upper Voltan Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi (about 2.5 million); other important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani Religion: majority of population animist, about 20% Muslim, 5% Christian (mainly Catholic) Language: French official; tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 50% of the population Literacy: 5%-10% Labor force: about 95% of the economically active pooulation engaged in animal husbandry, subsistence farm- ing, and related agricultural pursuits; about 30,000 are wage earners; about 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment Organized labor: 4 principal trade union groups GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Upper Volta Type: republic; in 1978 a moderate military government, in power for 12 years, fulfilled plans to turn power over to a civilian parliamentary democracy; former head of military government retained presidency Capital: Ouagadougou Political subdivisions: 10 departments, composed of 44 cercles, headed by civilian prefects Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; a national referendum held in November 1977 approved a new constitution and country returned to civilian rule in July 1978; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction 254 SECRET 25X1 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 0,6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 UPPER VOLTA/URUGUAY National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 11 December Branches: President is an army officer; 57-man National Assembly was elected 30 ?April 1978 Government leaders: Maj. Gen. Aboubacar Sangoule Lamizana, President; Dr. Joseph Conombo, Prime Minister; Gerard Kango Ouedraogo, President of the National Assembly Suffrage: universal for adults Elections: Parliamentary elections held on 30 April 1978 and Presidential elections on 14 May; date of next election unknown Political parties and leaders: 3 parties elected to seats in the National Assembly: Voltan Democratic Union (UDV) holds the majority of seats; National Union for the Defense of Democracy (UNDD); Voltan Progressive Union (UPV) Communists: no Communist party; some sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: labor organizations are badly splintered, students and teachers occasionally strike Member of: AFDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), Entente, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WCL, ?WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $684 million (1976 est.), $110 per capita, real- growth, 5.8% (1976) Agriculture: cash crops?peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops?sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; largely self-sufficient Fishing: catch 3,500 metric tons (1975) Major industries: agricultural processing plants, brewery, bottling, and brick plants; a few other light industries Electric power: 21,500 kW capacity (1977); 57 million kWh produced (1977), 9 kWh per capita Exports: $92.8 million (1978 est.); livestock (on the hoof), peanuts, shea nut products, cotton, sesame Imports: $246 million (1978 est.); textiles, food, and other consumer goods, transport equipment, machinery, fuels Major trade partners: Ivory Coast and Ghana; overseas trade mainly with France and other EC countries; preferential tariff to EC and franc zone countries Aid: economic?Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $380 million; OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $79.2 million; Communist countries (1970-76) $53.4 million; U.S. (1970-77) $51.8 million Budget: (1978) balanced at $131 million Monetary conversion rate: about 245.67 Communaute Financiere Africaine francs=US$1 as of November 1977 Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 1,173 km, 516 km meter gage (1.00 m), single track; Ouagadougou to Abidjan, Ivory Coast line Highways: 4,717 km total; 617 km paved, 4,100 km improved SECRET SECRET Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: 55 total, 54 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: all services generally poor; 3,400 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 3 AM stations, 1 FM station, and 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,150,000; 760,000 fit for military service; no conscription Supply: mainly dependent on France Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $31,632,558; 19.1% of central government budget URUGUAY Atlantic Ocean (See reference map IV) LAND 186,998 km2; 84% agricultural land (73% pasture, 11% cropland), 16% forest, urban, waste and other Land boundaries: 1,352 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm (fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 660 km 255 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET URUGUAY PEOPLE Population: 2,910,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 0.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Uruguayan(s); adjective?Uruguayan Ethnic divisions: 85-95% white, 5% Negro, 5-10% mestizo Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly) Language: Spanish Literacy: 90.5% for those 15 years of age or older Labor force: 1,015,500 (1963 census); of those employed in important sectors-25% government; 34% industry; 10% service; 23% other; 8% agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining; no shortage of skilled labor Organized labor: about 25% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay Type: republic, government under military control Capital: Montevideo Political subdivisions: 19 departments with limited autonomy Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; new constitution implemented 1967; judicial review of legislative acts in court of justice; legal education at University of the Republic at Montevideo; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August Branches: executive, headed by President; since 1973 the military has had dominant influence in policymaking; bicameral legislature (closed indefinitely by presidential decree in June 1973), Council of State set up to act as legislature; national judiciary headed by court of justice Government leader: President Aparicio Mendez Manfredini Suffrage: universal over age 18 Elections: projected for last Sunday in November 1981 Political parties and leaders: political activities are proscribed; government has indicated two major traditional parties (Colorado and Blanco) will be permitted to resume activity in conjunction with 1981 election Voting strength (1971 elections): 40.8% Colorado, 40.1% Blanco, 18.6% Frente Amplio, 0.5% Radical Christian Union Communists: 5,000-10,000 including former youth group and sympathizers Other political or pressure groups: Communist Party (PCU), Rodney Arismendi (in exile in the U.S.S.R.); Christian Democratic Party (PDC); Socialist Party of Uruguay (PSU); Revolutionary Movement of Uruguay (MRO) pro-Cuban Communist Party; National Liberation Movement (MLN-Tupamaros) Marxist revolutionary terror- ist group Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG 256 July 1979 ECONOMY GDP: $6.9 billion (1978), $2,400 per capita; 74% private consumption, 13% public consumption, 13% gross invest- ment; real growth rate 1978, 2.5% Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing (17 million sheep, 11 million cattle); main crops? wheat, rice, corn; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs; caloric intake, 3,000 calories per day per capita, with high protein content Major industries: meat processing, wool and hides, textiles, footwear, cement, petroleum refining Crude steel: rolled products 34,841 metric tons produced, castings 263 metric tons (1976) Electric power: 700,000 kW capacity (1977); 3 billion kWh produced (1977), 1,070 kWh per capita Exports: $691 million (f.o.b., 1978); wool, hides Imports: $766 million (f.o.b., 1978); fuels, metals, machinery, transportation equipment Major trade partners: exports-34% EC, 7% U.S., 29% LAFTA; imports-29% LAFTA, 10% U.S., 20% EC (1975) Aid: (FY70-76) economic?extensions from U.S. $60 million; from other Western countries $44 million; from Communist countries $57 million; military?U.S. $39 million Budget: (1978 est.) revenue, $629 million; expenditure, $672 million Monetary conversion rate: 7.05 pesos=US$1 (December 1978) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,795 km, all standard gage (1.435 m) and government owned Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft Freight carried: highways 80% of total cargo traffic, rail 15%, waterways 5% Ports: 4 major (Montevideo, Colonia, Fray Bentos, Paysandu), 6 minor Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 74,800 GRT, 100,600 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 3 tanker; additionally 2 naval tankers are sometimes used commer- cially Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 101 total, 63 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: most modern facilities concen- trated in Montevideo; 258,000 telephones (9.0 per 100 popl.); 85 AM, 3 FM, and 27 TV stations; 2 submarine cables DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 697,000; 567,000 fit for military service; no conscription SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 URUGUAY /VATICAN CITY Supply: dependent on exceptions U.S. for current supplies, with few Military budget: proposed for fiscal year December 1977, $79.9 million; 17.3% of central government budget ending 31 VATICAN CITY Tyrthenien Sea LAND 0.438 km' Land boundaries: 3 km Meditetranean See gee reference map PEOPLE Population: 1,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1977) Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also many other nationalities Religion: Roman Catholic SECRET SECRET Language: Italian, Latin, and various modern languages Literacy: virtually complete Labor force: approx. 700; Vatican City employees divided into 3 categories?executives, off iceworkers, and salaried employees Organized labor: none GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of the Vatican City Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state Capital: Vatican City Political subdivisions: Vatican City includes St. Peter's, the Vatican Palace and Museum and neighboring buildings covering more than 13 acres; 13 buildings in Rome, although outside the boundaries, enjoy extraterritorial rights Legal system: Canon law; constitutional laws of 1929 serve some of the functions of a constitution National holiday: 30 June Branches: the Pope possesses full executive, legislative, and judicial powers; he delegates these powers to the governor of Vatican City, who is subject to pontifical appointment and recall; high Vatican offices include the Secretariat of State, the College of Cardinals (chief papal advisers), the Roman Curia (which carries on the central administration of the Roman Catholic Church), the Presi- dence of the Prefecture for the Economy, and the synod of bishops (created in 1965) Government leader: Supreme Pontiff, John Paul II (Karol Woityla, born 18 May 1920, elected Pope 16 October 1978) Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 it age Elections: Supreme Pontiff elected for life by College of Cardinals Communists: none known Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence exercised by other church officers in universal Roman Catholic Church) Member: IAEA, IWC?International Wheat Council, U.N. (permanent observer), WTO ECONOMY The Vatican City, seat of the Holy See, is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world; some income derived from sale of Vatican postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to Vatican museums, and sale of publications; industrial activity consists solely of printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms The banking and financial activities of the Vatican are worldwide; the Institute for Religious Agencies carries out fiscal operations and invests and transfers funds of Roman Catholic religious communities throughout the world; the Cardinal's Commission controls the administration of ordi- nary assets of the Holy See and a Special Administration manages the Holy See's capital assets 257 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET VATICAN CITY /VENEZUELA Electric power: obtained from Rome city grid; standby diesel powerplant with 2,100 kW capacity (1978) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: none (city streets) Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airfields: none Telecommunications: 3 AM stations and 2 FM stations; 2,000-line automatic telephone exchange DEFENSE FORCES Defense is responsibility of Italy VENEZUELA (See reference map III) LAND 911,680 km2; 4% cropland, 18% pasture, 21% forest, 57% urban, waste, and other Land boundaries: 4,181 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (economic including fishing 200 nm) Coastline: 2,800 km PEOPLE Population: 14,534,000, excluding Indian jungle popula- tion (July 1979), average annual growth rate 3.3% (current) Nationality: noun?Venezuelan(s); adjective?Vene- zuelan Ethnic divisions: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 10% Negro, 2% Indian Religion: 96% Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant Language: Spanish (official); -Indian" dialects spoken by about 200,000 aborigines in the interior Literacy: 74% (claimed, 1970 est.) 258 July 1979 Labor force: 3.7 million (1975); 24% agriculture, 6% construction, 17% manufacturing, 6% transportation, 18% commerce, 25% services, 4% petroleum, utilities, and other Organized labor: 45% of labor force GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Venezuela Type: republic Capital: Caracas Political subdivisions: 20 states, 1 federal district, 2 federal territories, and 69 island dependencies in the Caribbean Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; constitution promulgated 1961; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; dual court system, state and federal; legal education at Central University of Venezuela; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July Branches: executive (President), bicameral legislature, judiciary Government leader: President Luis Herrera Campins Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18, though rarely enforced Elections: every 5 years by secret ballot; last held December 1978; next national election for president and bicameral legislature to be held December 1983 Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Party (COPEI), Rafael Caldera; Accion Democratica (AD), Carlos Andres Perez, Romulo Betancourt; Movement to Socialism (MAS), Teodoro Petkoff, Pompey Marquez Voting strength (1978 election): 46% COPEI, 43% AD, 5% MAS, 6% others Communists: 3,000-5,000 members (est.) Other political or pressure groups: Fedecamaras (a conservative business group); PRO VENEZUELA (leftist, nationalist economic group) Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IPU, ITU, IWC?International Wheat Council, LAFTA, NAMU- CAR (Caribbean Multinational Shipping Line?Naviera Multinacional del Caribe), OAS, OPEC, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $41 billion (1978, in 1978 dollars), $2,807 per capita; 51% private consumption, 15% public consumption, 39% gross investment, ?5% foreign sector (1977), real growth rate 6.5% (1974-78) Agriculture: main crops?sugarcane, corn, coffee, rice; imports wheat (U.S.), corn (South Africa), sorghum (Argen- tina, U.S.); caloric intake 2,600 calories per day per capita (1972) Fishing: catch 145,727 metric tons (1976); exports $28.4 million (1976), imports $2.0 million (1976) SECRET I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 SECRET VENEZUELA/VIETNAM Major industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construc- tion, food processing, textiles Crude steel: 848,000 metric tons produced (1978), 65 kg per capita Electric power: 6,540,000 kW capacity (1978); 28 billion kWh produced (1978), 2,200 kWh per capita Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); petroleum $8.7 billion, iron ore, coffee Imports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1978); industrial machinery and equipment, chemicals, manufactures, wheat Major trade partners: imports-39% U.S., 11% Japan, 12% West Germany; exports-36% U.S., 13% Canada Budget: 1979?revenues $10.8 billion; expenditures, $7.9 billion, capital $2.9 billion Monetary conversion rate: 4.2925 bolivares=US$1 (Janu- ary 1979) Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 373 km standard gage (1.435 m) all single track; 171 km government owned, 202(km privately owned Highways: 58,900 km total; 21,800 km paved, 21,900 km otherwise improved and 15,200 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Orinoco River and Lake Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels Pipelines: 6,110 km crude oil; 400 km refined products; 2,495 km natural gas Ports: 6 major, 17 minor Merchant marine: 82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 789,100 GRT, 1,130,600 DWT; includes 6 passenger, 47 cargo, 18 tanker, 5 bulk, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 beach landing, 4 specialized carrier Civil air: 77 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in Airfields: 290 total, 262 usable; 109 with permanent-sur- face runways; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 81 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: modern expanding telecom system; satellite ground station; 742,000 telephones (5.9 per 100 popl.); 215 AM, 50 FM, and 43 TV stations; 2 submarine coaxial cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,380,000; 2,403,000 fit for military service; 174,000 reach military age (18) annually SECRET Supply: produces portion of small arms and ammunition, aerial bombs, and military explosives and propellants; dependent upon U.S. and Western Europe for all other materiel; 2 submarines purchased from West Germany, 6 fast patrol boats from the U.K. and 6 frigates ordered- from Italy Military budget: proposed for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $708.4 million; about 6.7% of central government budget VIETNAM LAND 329,707 km2; 14% cultivated, 50% forested, 36% urban inland water, and other Land boundaries: 4,562 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands) 259 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 VIETNAM CHINA VIETNAM * Hanoi THAILAND South China Sea PEOPLE Population: 52,558,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 2.6% (current) Nationality: noun?Vietnamese (sing. & pl.); adjective? Vietnamese Ethnic divisions: 85%-90% predominantly Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham, and mountain tribesman Religion: Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Catholicism, Animism, Islam, and Protestantism Language: Vietnamese, French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian) Labor force: approximately 15 million, not including military; about 70% agriculture and 8% industry GOVERNMENT Legal name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam Type: Communist state Capital: Hanoi Political subdivisions: 39 provinces Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system National holiday: 2 September Branches: constitution provides for a National Assembly and highly centralized executive nominally subordinate to it Party and government leaders: Ton Duc Thang, Presi- dent of SRV; Le Duan, Party Secretary General; Truong Chinh, Chairman, Standing Committee of National Assem- bly; Pham Van Dong, Premier; Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Minister of National Defense; Nguyen Duy Trinh, Minister for Foreign Affairs; Tran Quoc Hoan, Minister of Interior Suffrage: over age 18 Elections: pro forma elections held for national and local assemblies; lastest election for National Assembly held on 25 April 1976 Political parties: Vietnam Communist Party, successor to the Vietnam Workers Party and several other political organizations 260 Member of: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IMF, Mekong Committee, NAM, U.N. UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, WIPO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $7.6 billion (1978), less than $150 per capita; real growth less than 5% annually Agriculture: main crops?rice, rubber, fruits and vegeta- bles; some corn, manioc, and sugarcane; major food imports?wheat, corn, dairy products Fishing: catch 1,013,500 metric tons (1976), of which 600,000 metric tons sea Major industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires Shortages: foodgrains, petroleum, capital goods and machinery, fertilizer Electric power: 1,480,700 kW capacity (1978); 3.8 billion kWh produced (1978), 75 kWh per capita Exports: $300 million (1977); agricultural and handicraft 'products, coal, minerals, ores Imports: $900 million (1977); petroleum, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain Major trade partners: exports?U.S.S.R., East European countries, Japan, other Asian markets; imports?U.S.S.R., East Europe, China, Japan Aid: accurate data on aid since April 1975 unification unavailable; estimated annual economic aid on annual basis is?U.S.S.R., $500 million or more; East European countries, $150 million; non-Communist countries, $230 million; international institutions, $75 million; value of military aid deliveries since 1975 are not available Monetary conversion rate (official): 2.18 dong=US$l Fiscal year: calendar year COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 2,917 usable km total, consists of about 45 km standard gage (1.435 m), 2,637 km meter gage (1.00 m), and 235 km of dual gage (standard and meter) all single track, none electrified; all government owned and operated Highways: 41,190 km total; 5,471 km bituminous, 27,030 km gravel or improved earth, 8,690 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8-m draft Pipelines: refined 'products 2,414 km (including 547 km in Laos) Ports: 9 major, 23 minor Merchant marine: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 180,300 GRT, 257,900 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 7 tanker, 2 bulk, 1 passenger-car, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo; Vietnam beneficially owns 15 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 108,000 GRT, 155,000 DWT under the Panamanian flag Civil air: military controlled SECRET 25X1 25X1' 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 1 SECRET VIETNAM/ WALLIS AND FUTUNA Airfields: 172 total, 133 usable; 57 with permanent- surface runways; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: government requirements fulfilled mainly through radiocommunications and radio relay networks; radio stations provide alternate communication links; international facilities adequate from Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon); radio and wired broadcast coverage is good and most important means of mass communications; about 60,000 telephones; estimated 3 to 4 million radios and over 300,000 TV sets; approximately 18 shortwave and 5 mediumwave radio transmitters; 11 AM, 1 FM and 6 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,082,000; 7,344,000 fit for military service; average number currently reaching military age (17) annually about 642,000 Supply: dependent on the U.S.S.R., and Eastern European Communist countries, for virtually all new equipment; produces negligible quantities of infantry weapons, ammuni- tion and explosive devices (Vietnam possesses a huge inventory of U.S.-manufactured weapons and equipment captured from the RVN) Military budget: no expenditure estimates are available; military aid from the U.S.S.R. and PRC has been so extensive that actual allocation of Vietnam's domestic resources to defense has not been indicative of total military effort NOTE: VN figures preliminary SECRET WALLIS AND FUTUNA NEW CALEDONIA ? ? "? F1,11). WALLIS AND FUTUNA Pacific Ocean NEW ZEALAND (See reference mep VIII) LAND About 207 km WATER Limits of territorial waters: 12 nm Coastline: about 129 km PEOPLE Population: 9,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1977) Nationality: noun?Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islander; adjective?Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islanders Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian Religion: largely Roman Catholic GOVERNMENT Legal name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands Type: overseas territory of France Capital: Matu Utu Political subdivisions: 3 districts Branches: territorial assembly of 20 members; popular election of one deputy to National Assembly in Paris, and one Senator 261 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET July 1979 WALLIS AND FUTUNA/WESTERN SAHARA Government leader: Superior Administrator Jacques de Agostini Suffrage: universal adult Elections: every 5 years ECONOMY Agriculture: dominated by coconut production with subsistence crops of yams, taro, bananas Electric power: 1,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.2 million kWh produced (1978), 60 kWh per capita Exports: negligible Imports: $1.4 million (1972); largely foodstuffs and some equipment associated with development programs Monetary conversion rate: 70 Colonial Franc Pacifique (CFP)=US$1 COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 100 km of improved road on Uvea Island (1977) Ports: 2 minor Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 85 telephones (0.9 per 100 popl.) DEFENSE No formal defense structure; no regular Armed Forces WESTERN SAHARA (formerly Spanish Sahara) Atlantic Ocean CANARY ISLANDS , o WESTERN SAHARA SPAIN ?ROCCO ALGERIA MAURITANIA LAND 266,770 km2, nearly all desert Land boundaries: 2,086 km MALI (See reference map W WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm nm) Coastline: 1,110 km 262 PEOPLE Population: 75,000 (total from the census of November 1974) Nationality: noun?Saharan(s); adjective?Saharan Ethnic divisions: Arab, Berber, and Negro nomads Religion: Muslim Language: Hassaniya Arabic Literacy: among Moroccans, probably nearly 20%; among Saharans, perhaps 5% Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsist- ence farming, 50% other Organized labor: none GOVERNMENT Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring the Northern two-thirds including the rich phosphate reserves at Bu Craa; both countries have established political adminis- tration within their own zones of influence; the line of partition begins at a point on the coast where the Atlantic Ocean intersects the 24th parallel, and extends in a southeasterly direction to the point where the 23d parallel intersects the 13th meridian ECONOMY Agriculture: practically none; some barley is grown in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables in the few oases; food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces Major industries: phosphate mining, fishing, and handicrafts Shortages: water Electric power: 4,000 kW capacity (1975); 9 million kWh produced (1975), 80 kWh per capita Exports: in 1975, up to $75 million in phosphates, all other exports valued at under $1 million Imports: $1,443,000 (1968); fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs Major trade partners: monetary trade largely with Spain and Spanish possessions Aid: small amounts from Spain in prior years Monetary conversion rate: see Moroccan and Mauritan- ian currencies COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 6,100 km total; 500 km bituminous treated, 5,600 km unimproved earth roads and tracks Ports: 2 major (El Aaiun, Dakhla), 2 minor Civil air: no major transport aircraft (fishing 12 Airfields: 12 total, 11 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m SECRET Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 WESTERN SAHARA/WESTERN SAMOA Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph poor; 1,000 telephones (0.7 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, no FM, 5 TV stations WESTERN SAMOA ?, '1V4/0 .NEW GUINEA ' WESTERN 6* SAMOA 61. 0 Pacific Ocean NEW ZEALAND (See felerenre map VI) LAND 2,849 km2; comprised of 2 large islands of Savari and Upolu and several smaller islands, including Manono and Apolima; 65% forested, 24% cultivated, 11% industry, waste, or urban WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm Coastline: 403 km PEOPLE Population: 155,000 (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.0% (current) Nationality: noun?Western Samoan(s); adjective?West- ern Samoa Ethnic divisions: Polynesians, about 12,000 Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood), 700 Europeans Religion: 99.7% Christian (about half of population associated with the London Missionary Society) Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English Literacy: 85%-90% (education compulsory for all children from 7-15 years) Labor force: agriculture 19,148; mining and manufactur- ing 1,716 (1961) Organized labor: unorganized GOVERNMENT Legal name: Independent State of Western Samoa Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief; special treaty relationship with New Zealand Capital: Apia SECRET SECRET Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; constitution came into effect upon independence in 1962; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 1 January Branches: Head of State and Executive Council; Legisla- tive Assembly; Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, Land and Titles Court, village courts Government leaders: Head of State, Malietoa Tanumafili II; Prime Minister, Taisi Tupuola Efi Suffrage: 45 Samoan members of Legislative Assembly are elected by holders of matai (heads of family) titles (about 5,000); 2 European members are elected by universal adult suffrage Elections: held triennially, last in February 1979 Political parties and leaders: no clearly defined political party structure Communists: unknown Member of: ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, IFC, IMF, U.N., WHO. ECONOMY GNP: $70 million (1978), $451 per capita Agriculture: cocoa, bananas, copra; staple foods include coconut, bananas, taro, and yams Electric power: 9,000 kW capacity (1978); 27 million kWh produced (1978), 175 kWh per capita Exports: $15 million (f.o.b., 1977); copra 38%, cocoa 26%, timber 3% Imports: $38 million (c.i.f., 1977); food, ? manufactured goods, machinery Major trade partners: exports-37% New Zealand, 7% Netherlands, 36% West Germany, 8% U.S.; imports-28% New Zealand, 20% Australia, 15% Japan, 13% U.S. Aid: New Zealand, $7 million (est. 1972-76) Budget: 1976 est., revenues and grants $34 million, expenditures $46 million Monetary conversion rate: WS Tala =US$1.3494 (July, 1978), 0.74 WS Tala=US$1 Major industries: timber, tourism COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 784 km total; 375 km bituminous, remainder mostly gravel, crushed stone, or earth Inland waterways: none Ports: 1 principal (Apia), 1 minor Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft Airfields: 4 total, all usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: 3,300 telephones (2.2 per 100 popl.); 20,000 radio receivers; 2 AM stations 263 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 SECRET WESTERN SAMOA/YEMEN (ADEN) YEMEN (ADEN) Red Sea YEMEN (S) SAUDI ARABIA IRAN Arabian Sea Indian Ocean (See reference map VI LAND 287,490 km2; (border with Saudi Arabia undefined); only about 1% arable (of which less than 25% cultivated) Land boundaries: 1,802 km WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm -necessary supervision zone-) Coastline: 1,383 km PEOPLE Population: 1,781,000, excluding the islands of Perim and Kamaran for which no data are available (July 1979), average annual growth rate 1.9% (current) Nationality: noun?Yemeni(s); adjective?Yemeni Ethnic divisions: almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans in Aden Religion: Muslim Language: Arabic Literacy: probably no higher than 10%; Aden 35% (est.) GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Type: republic; power centered in ruling Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) Capital: Aden; Madinat ash Sha'b, administrative capital Political subdivisions: 6 provinces 264 July 1979 Legal system: based on Islamic law (for personal matters) and English common law (for commercial matters); highest judicial organ, Federal High Court, interprets constitution and determines disputes between states National holiday: 14 October Branches: Presidential Council; cabinet; Supreme Peo- ple's Council Government leaders: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council YSP Secretary General 'Abd al-Fatah Ismail; Prime Minister 'Ali Nasir Muhammad al- Hasani Suffrage: granted by constitution to all citizens 18 and over Elections: elections for legislative body, Supreme People's Council, called for in constitution; none have been held Political parties and leaders: Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), the only legal party, is coalition of National Front, Baath, and Communist parties Communists: unknown number Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO ECONOMY GNP: $550 million. (1977 est.), $310 per capita Agriculture (all outside Aden): cotton is main cash crop; cereals, dates, kat (qat), coffee, and livestock are raised and there is a growing fishing industry; large amount of food must be imported (particularly for Aden); cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish are exported Major industries: petroleum refinery (production 150,000 b/d) mid-1971; capacity 178,000 b/d .at Little Aden operates on imported crude; oil exploration activity Electric power: 150,000 kW capacity (1978); 300 million kWh produced (1978), 170 kWh per capita Exports: $29 million (1977), excluding petroleum prod- ucts but including re-exports Imports: $324 million (c.i.f., 1977) Major trade partners: Yemen, East Africa, but some cement and sugar imported from Communist countries; crude oil imported from Persian Gulf, exports mainly to U.K. and Japan Aid: economic?OPEC (ODA) (1973-77), $360.1 million; Communist countries (1970-76), $98.6 million; Western (non-U.S.) countries (1970-77), $30 million; U.S. (1970-76), $4.5 million; military?Communist countries (1970-77), $309 million Budget: (FY75-76)?revenues $40 million, expenditures $102 million Monetary conversion rate: 1 S. Yemeni dinar=US$2.90 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March SECRET 25X1 25X1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/08/29: CIA-RDP08-00534R000100020001-0 July 1979 YEMEN (ADEN)/YEMEN (SANA) COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 5,311 km total; 322 km bituminous treated, 290 km crushed stone and gravel, 4,699 km motorable track Ports: 1 major (Aden) Merchant marine: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,300 GRT, 6,600 DWT Pipelines: refined products, 32 km Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft, 1 leased in Airfields: 94 total, 54 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: small system of open-wire, tropo- scatter multiconductor cable, and radiocommunications stations; only center Aden; 9,900 telephones (0.6 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, no FM and 3 TV stations DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 420,000; 234,000 fit for military service Supply: dependent on outside sources, primarily U.S.S.R. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $56 million; about 22.4% of central government budget YEMEN (SANA) LAND 194,250 km' (parts of border with Saudi Arabia and Southern Yemen undefined); 20% agricultural, 1% forested, 79% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 1,528 km SECRET SECRET (See reference map VI WATER Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (plus 6 nm -necessary supervision zone-) Coastline: 523 km PEOPLE Population: 5,125,000 (J