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December 22, 2016
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October 10, 2012
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July 20, 1970
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/10/10: CIA-RDP080012-9-7R000700060025-4 ? NEW YORK TIMES 20 July 1970 ..OLD ISSUE FUMES IN LATIN AMERICA Caracus and Bogota Seek to Cool Immigration Dispute By H. J. MAIDENBERG srAc.isi totThei New York Time* ' l'BOGOTA, Colombia, July 19 ?The governments of Colom- bia and Venezuela are strug- gling to prevent a long- sim- mering dispute over illegal im- migration from breaking? into serious violence. The situation has reached a point where President Rafael Caldera of Venezula and Presi- dent Carlos 'Loeras Restrepo of' Colombia have taken to the airwaves to denounce irres- ponsible news reports about alleged atrocities perpetrated on their respective peoples along their borders and to em- phasize the common heritage and traditional friendship o their peoples. ? I,lut the emotions caused by the dispute over the 500,000 COlornbians estimated to be in Venezuela illegally,are such tlfat even educated Vnezuelans tend to automatically blame the Colombian immigrants for all manner of crimes. Fair-minded Venezirelans at- tribute the deteriorating situa- tion to the fact that many of The New York Times July 20, 1970 the immigrants tire now mov- ing. from the farmland along the border to towns and cities; where they are beginning to compete with Venezuelans for j ohs Officials in Venezuela con- cerle; tnat these Colombians are east targets for tarm owners 'an(( other employers .who ex- ploit them. The illegal immi- grants, lacking papers, are ac- cwitomed to being badly treated by-the authorities as well. Ikecently. many thousands of indocumentados, as the illegal immigrants are termed, have been deported. Many of the , deportees were born or have b>in Venezuela for ee n (i\ 'mg many years, and their accounts Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/10/10: CIA-RDP08001297R000700060025-4 of had treatment have received ? wide circulation in Colombia. , Basically, the problem grows " out of the vast differences in living standards in the two countries. Venezuela, which is rich in oil, has a population of mire than 10 million and the highest standard of living in Latin America. A factory work- er here receives about $200 a month, or roughly four times more than a Colombian who is lucky enough to have a similar job. Colcimbia's population is more than twice that of Vene- zuela and is growing at a faster rate. President Caldera suggested last week that Venezuelans be encouraged to settle along the border as a means of halting the" influx of Colombians. One qf -.his ?? Cabinet ministers said privately that the situation was so critical that he had suggested giving the illegal im- migrants the option of becom- ing Venezuelan citizens, with those declining being subject to : deportation in a "humane manner:" View From Bogota. The view among Colombian officials is that rapid industrial- ization has caused Venezuelans to ?frown upon farm work and that Venezuelan land owners have encouraged Colombians to cross the border to replace the Venezuelans moving to urban centers. Once in .Venezuela without documents, the Coluni- bians assert, these workers are reduced almost to serfdom. "And now that the second generation is moving to the cities," one Colombian offi- cial said bitterly the other day, "our people have become the object of persecution. Of course, when one is forced to live on the fringe of society without an rights, the tendancy toward crime increases." ? The only difference between the illegal Colombians and the Venezuelans?who are almost indistinguishable ethnically ? is identity cards and working papers. Only Colombian pro- fessional .workers and the wealthy can afford to "buy" them, it was noted. Military Leaders Blamed As with many people who cut their ties and migrate, the Colombians prove to be aggres- sive and clannish in contrast to the easygoing Venezuelans. This increases the animosity against the immigrants. Some observers in both lands attribute the critical situation to the Venezuelan military and its, supporters. With the dis- appearance of Venezuelan ter- rorist groups in the last year, many military men here are citing the Colombians as justi- fication for new arms. pur-? chases and a greater role in their country's affairs. ? The same observers hint that Colombia has encouraged her growing farm population to move across the border to pre- vent a potentially ? dangerous unemptoyment problem, from explco ins& NEW YORK TIMES 17 July 1970 ARGENTINE RULED SAFE FROM ARMY Dual Citizen's Induction Is Canceled by Appeals Court Special to The New Toot Times WASHINGTON, July 16?An appeals court reversed today a lower court judgment that or- dered the induction of a 21- year-old Los Angeles man with dual United States and Argen- tine citizenship. The effect of the ruling, by the United States Court of Ap- peals for the District of Colum- bia, is to exempt the appellant, Hector Leandro Vazquez, from military service in the United States. He had received a "de- pendency deferment" from Ar- gentine military service. The case involves a series of legal complexities. Among them are Mr. Vazquez'sc dual citizen- ship and a 117-year-old treaty between the United States and ,the Argentine Republic con- cerning the conscription status of mutual resident aliens. Exempted from Service The treaty with Argentina holds that Argentine citizens living in the United States shall be exempted from all compul- sory military service. The court's decision may have a widespread impact since there are similar treaties with eight other countries. They are China, Costa Rica, Ireland, Italy, Paraguay, Spain, Thailand and Yugoslavia. Most of the treaties are pre- date World War II, and the Government has noted that "the Department of State does not intend to include such pro- visions in future treaties." Normally, aliens living in the United States are subject to conscription, as are those who hold full citizenship. Hundreds are drafted each year. Originally, Mr. Vazquez was exempted from the draft here. His exemption was cancelled, however, after it was learned that his parents ?had become citizens in 1962, when the ap- pellant was 12 years old. Under the law, this made the child a citizen. When he became 18, Mr. Vazquez registered for military service with the armed forces of Argentina, although he was later granted a deferment. In addition, Mr. Vazquez was a registered alien, while the State Department held that he was, in effect, a dual citizen. But the Government argued that such an individual was 37 WASHINGTON POST 20 July 1970 Martial Law Is Decreed In Colombia BOGOTA, July 19 (UPI)?: President Carlos Lleras-Res- trepo declared martial law throughout Colombia tonight, following inflamatory state- ments by former dictator Gus- tavo Rojas -Pinilla and his daughter. The national broadcasting system of Colombia announced that Lleras-Restrepo had insti- tuted a state of emergency. The decree prohibits gather- ings by more than four per- sons, closes bars, imposes a curfew and turns over viola- tors to a military court. The measure came after members of Rojas-Pinilla's Na- tional Popular Alliance Party heard a message in congress from the former dictator say- ing there would be no peace in Colombia unless he is de- clared the winner of the coun- try's general election last April 19. not an Argentine citizen for purposes of the treaty exemp- tion from military service. A trial court agreed. - The unanimous decision of the three-man court, written by Judge Carl McGowan, noted that "our holding on this record is a narrow one" reference to the fact that the treaty pro- vision is predominant over the United States naturalization law for purposes of vulner- ability to conscription in this particular case. It was not clear whether the ruling would also apply to all resident aliens or dual citizens from the nine countries with which the United States has treaties on military conscrip- tion. The other two judges who concurred in the decision were Judge Harold Leventhal and Judge Roger Robb. Mr. Vaz- quez was represented by David Carliner, and the Government was represented by four As- sistant United States Attorneys ?Edwin K. Hall, Thomas A. Flannery, John A. Terry and Gil Zimmerman. Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/10/10: CIA-RDP08001297R000700060025-4 WASHINGTON 1-031 20 July 1970 Candidate Alessandll , By Lewis H. Diuguid WashIngton Post Foreign Service SANTIAGO, July 19 ? For- mer President Jorge Alessan- dri, at 74 an austere father fig- ure on the right of Chile's left-tilted politics, described last week what he sees as his destiny to save the nation from demagogues. Alessandri Is campaigning, but only reluctantly, for votes in the presidential election Sept. 4. He rather believes that the people are campaign- ing for him. Many are, and they may turn out to be enough to elect him. The son of a famous presi- dent, Alessandri stands op- posed to all the characteristics usually associated with Chi- lean politics: He talks little, is unaffiliated, and is disdainful of ideology. He encourages comparisons to France's Charles de Gaulle, and Ales- sandri's view of his role is sim- ilar. In a rare interview, Alessan- dri summed up the changes he plans for the free-swinging de- mocracy: "A child who knows his father is strict has fewer bad habits." He would reverse what he sees as an irresponsible shift leftward in this lonely civil state among South America's military regimes. Ile would be 80 at the end of another six NEW YORK TIMES 20 July 1970 hile 's Father Figure year term, and over half the 10 million people here are ; under 30. He senses a call for! return to paternal discipline. I "The government party is stimulating these (leftist) ideas with a tolerance that creates fantasies among the people concerning the true, possibilities of the country."I he said. 1 "The Christian Democrats: and the Marxist parties are in a competition in demogogy."- Competing with Alessandri for the presidency are Radom- iro Tomic, candidate of the ruling Christian Democrats, and Salvador Allende, of the Marxist-dominated Popular Unity Front Both are on the left in Chile's political lineup. Although Alessandri is an independent, as he was during his presidency from 1958 to 1964, the conservative Na- tional Party is devoted to his cause. While he concedes a role for parties, he feels it should be limited, along with the role of the congress. "The tasks of the parliament are to legislate and to oversee, but not to inter- vene in public administra- tion." The Chilean system pro- vides great power for the pres- ident, but the congress inter- venes wherever it can. Ales? - sandri said one of his first acts would be to legislate thel 1right to dismiss any legislator who overstepped the lawmak- ing function. In the likely event that the present congress failed to co- operate with him?the con- servatives have the smallest bloc representation?Alessan- dri said that on being elected he would Use a new law allow- ing a plebiscite. He would ask the people to vote out the present congress, and if they did not he would resign- While polls and speculators give Alessandri a good chance of winning the largest plural- ity, few expect him to win a majority. If no one wins a ma- jority the present congress will choose between the two front-runners. The politicians that clog the halls of Santiago are at a loss to explain Alessandres popu- larity. Despite his age, he has toured the country through most of its interminable length. "I had a formidable success in the north, which they say is leftist," he com- mented. Asked to explain what ap- pears to be a basic leftward movement here, he said: "I cannot say if the country has changed or not because it lives in such great disorder ... the government such organizations, as popular participation and agrarian re- form for political proselytiz- ing." On the other hand, he said, many of the changes made under what current President Eduardo Frei has called the "revolution in liberty" were begun in the previous Alessan- d ? administration. "The spectrum in Chile is completely different (f r o m that) in the United States," he said. "I would be on the ex- treme left in ? the United States. I am in favor of social legislation and of private en- terprise under the control of' the state." His cOmpetitors see I no role for private enterprise.' Business interests and land: owners and the influential Mercurio newspaper chain are supporting Alessandri. Even among these groups one en- counters dismay with his per- formance in the early '60s, when inflation was even more rampant than at present. The present inflation, he said, is caused by "the tremen- dous state spending and wage increases." He said. he would cut wage' increases and simul- taneously end production-cut- ting strikes, a task that no Chilean president has carried out yet. His prescription: pa- ternal strictness, as quoted above. ;Bolivian Regime, Pressed by Army, Weakens Its Leftist By MALCOLM W. BROWNE sped.' to The New York Time, LA PAZ, Bolivia, July 18? Under intense pressure from 'conservative army and busi- 'ness elements, Bolivia's mili- tary Government has moved Significantly away from the militantly,leftist stance it adopted afer seizing-power 10 months ago. Leftist officials remaining in the Government hope that policies they advocate will be pursued, but they concede that their official position has been weakened and that they may be ejected from the Govern- ment. On July 6, the leftists suf- fered a heavy blow when President Alfredo Ovando Can- dia removed Gen. Juan Jos? Torres froth his post as com- mander of the armed forces. General Torres, while 'hostile to Marxist ideas, is highly re- garded by most 'of the Bolivian left. He worked to establish ties between the armed forces and Bolivia's political parties in promoting the Government's programs. He was also known as the principal buffer between the conservative armed forces leaders and the political left. Foreign Investers Frightened There were fears until last week that a coup d'etat was imminent. The army comander, Gen. Rogelio Miranda, is known as a strong conservative with sufficient military backing to bring pressure on President Ovando. He has denied any in- terest in leading a coup, but he is an avowed enemy of leftists in Government. ; But General Ovando, the dominant force in politics ? and Oil Company. Proclaiming a policy of leftist nationalism, shuffle Cabinets on Aug. 6, President Ovando said his Gov- when independence is celebrat- ernment would follow many of ed. It is expected that President Ovando may follow the tradi- tion, partly as a pretext Thr re- moving Mr. Bailey from office. Peru's growing militancy to- Foreign investors and local ward private business and in- businessmen are evidently creasing friendship with the wary of bringinganew. money Communist bloc have been a into the country. Many say they are watching to see what happens Aug. 6. Leftist officials remain in the criticized strongly for having ministries of Labor, Foreign Af- included two extreme leftist fairs, Health and Housing, and politicians in his original Cab- there appears to be no immed- inet One, ,Marcelo Quiroga iate move to oust them. Santa Cruz, was the. principal Despite pressures on him, force in the nationalization of President Ovando appears to Gulf while Minister of Energy remain securely in power, and the army since 1964, evidently and Hydrocarbons. He left the leftists are by no means unit pacified his . commanders by Government in 'May and has formly dissatisfied. He reiter- dismissing General Torres. The since warned that a right-wing ated support for leftist na:- President assumed direct corn- coup is in preparation. tionalism several ' days ago, mand of the armed forces. The other, Alberto Bailey, has and his domestic and foreign Earlier,' the Ovando Govern- has exterted his strongly leftist policies have, not changed markedly. For the first time in Bolivian history, tin was shipped last week to the Soviet Union. The tame' the policies established earlier by the Peruvian military Gov- ernment. major concern in Washington for the last two years. General. Ovando has been merit had badly frightened for- influence as Minister of Infor- eign investors by nationalizing mation and Tourism. By tra- the local assets or the Guifidition, Presidents frequently 38 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/10/10: CIA-RDP08001297R000700060025-4