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December 27, 2016
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September 26, 2012
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November 28, 1967
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I 2 1 DEP AR TMENT OF STATE 4444'r -0 JM Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 ..4.1adalLUI M/R ARA IEA REP AF FOR RM USE ONLY EUR FE Cu 1NR to F90 iAlb GR ? cgtv. /44 , FRB NT 7 r?R LAO xmi'4 TAR Z AIR RMY CIA 2 5) NAVY ,S0 us' A /47 NSA 0 041- t(ted by ECON: arances: A-202 -ONMISS-IX1111._ NO. TO Department of State FROM SUBJECT: REF ?43),, HANDLING INDICAT R / Department please pass to Amembassies URA, SANTIAGO, MEXICO CITY (for Fisheries Attach), LONDON, STOCKHOLM, COPENHAGEN, THE HAGUE, BONN, Amcongen GUAYAQUIL, PO USCINCSO, wmusNAvso ,P4.IAI4I 2 Amembassy QUITO DATE: November 281 1967 The 200 Mile Limit and Latin American Fisheries Problems QUITO 1877 r- 1. Transmitted as enclosures to this airgram are the full text, together with an unofficial English translation, of the GOEts note of November 91 1967 to those countries (Great Britain, Sweden, The Nether- lands, Denmark, West Germany) which formally notified the GOE of the reservation of their rights in the Ecuadorean-claimed 200 mile territorial sea. This text was taken from a tews report in the Guayaquil daily El Univers? of November 211 1967. Enclosures: CROWLEY 1. Unofficial translation 2. El Univers? article 'TJ Dt5S4T4ED Contents ang)as if tion Approved by: ECON:JWBille FOR PT. USE ONLY In Li Out npclassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDPO8C01297R000700080006-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 UNILLASSIFIED (UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION) Taken from El Univers?, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 21, 1967, page 1. QUITO A-202 Page 1 Enclosure 1 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs presents its compliments to the Honorable EMbassy of and has the honor to acknowledge receipt of its?note No. of in which reference was made to Decree No. 1542 (Official Register No. 158 of November 11, 1966) by means of which the Government of Ecuador has revised Article 633 of the Civil Code fixing the territorial sea at two hundred marine miles measured from the most salient points of the Ecuadorean coast and from the outermost points of the Coln Archipelago. The Government of Ecuador considers that the issuance of the aforementioned Decree, which is a Law of the Republic, constitutes the exercise of its clear rights as a free and sovereign country. The antiquated rule of the three mile territorial sea, respected when the range of a cannon shot was no greater than that distance is now to be found completely aban- doned as is recognized by the most distinguished specialists in International Law and the practice of States. Other elements have been accepted as determinants of the breadth of the territorial sea. These have been indi- cated in paragraph II of the Declaration of Santiago, signed on August 18, 1952 by ECUADOR, Peru and Chile, ratified by Ecuador in Official Register No. 1029 of January 24, 1956, which states "Owing to the geological and biological factors affecting the existence, conservation and development of the marine fauna and flora of the waters adjacent to the coasts of the declarant countries, the former extent of the territorial sea and contiguous zone is insufficient to permit of the conservation, development and use of? those resources, to which the coastal countries are entitled." These factors persuaded the three countries to establish in the Declaration of Santiago that "'The Governments of Chile, ECUADOR and Peru therefore proclaim as a principle of their international maritime policy that each of them possesses sole sovereignty and jurisdiction over the area of sea adjacent to the coast of its own country and extending not less than 200 nautical miles from the said coast. THEIR SOLE JURISDICTION AND SOVEREIGNTY over the zone thus described includes SOLE SOVEREIGNTY AND JURISDICTION over the sea flow and subsoil thereof." The action of these three countries -- which, therefore, was not a unilateral act of Ecuador -- has been supported by the resolution passed in February of 1956 by the Inter-American Council of Jurists entitled "Principles of Mexico on Juridical Regions of the Sea," a position that was reaffirmed in October of 1957 by the Third Hispano-Luso-American Congress on International Law, according to which in the present each state has the right to fix its territorial sea out to reasonable limits, taking into account geographical, geological and biological factors as well as the economic, security and defense requirements of its population. The United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea which took place in Geneva in 1958 and UNCIASSIFIED npriassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 UNCLASSIFIED QUITO k-202 Page 2 Enclosure 1 1960 did not reach any agreement with respect to the breadth of the territorial sea. TheConventions which were approved at that time do not contain any rule with respect to that breadth and, even in the hypothetical case that they did, Ecuador is not a party to any of those instruments nor has it signed them. The proposals that were presented at the conferences, including the one which advocated the recognition of a territorial sea of six miles, plus an exclusive fishing zone of six, were not approved, whatever might have been the number of votes they obtained. The results of these conferences proved, then, that it was impossible to reach an international agreement establishing the breadth of the territorial sea. Because of this, and in the absence of such agreement, it has been recognized that this breadth can be determined by the sovereign act of the riparian state. By the exercise of this right the states have extended the breadth of their territorial seas: (1) for requirtments of defense; (2) in consideration of the extensiveness of the sea which bathes their coasts; and (3) for reasons of economic defense. Based on these antecedents the complemen? tary agreement to the declaration of sovereignty over the'inaritime zone of 200 miles, also ratified by Ecuador and thereby a Law of the Republic (Official . Register No. 376 of November 18, 1964), states: "Chile, ECUADOR`rand Peru will proceed in common accord in the juridical defense of thelwinaple' of sovereignty over the maritime zone out to a minimum distance of 200 nautical miles, including the respective ocean flow and the subsoil thereof . . ." Therefore, the Govern? ment of Ecuador considers that, in issuing Decree No. 15-43 (sic), it was acting within its solemnly contracted international commitments and following the modern practices recognized by States. Finally, it is necessary to point out that the Political Constitution of Ecuador now in effect, published in Official Register No. 133 of May 25, 1967, sets forth in its Article 6 that the territory of the State is inalienable and irreducible and includes, among other areas, the Ecuadorean territorial sea, whose measurement is determined by the aforesaid legal dispositions and agree? ments and guaranteed by this constitutional provision. Because of this, it (the territorial sea) is inviolable and irreducible and is subject exclusively to the sovereignty and jurisdiction of Ecuador. As a consequence the Government of Ecuador CANNOT in any case or under any circumstances accept any reservation with respect to the extent of its territorial sea. The Ministry of Foreign Relations avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Honorable Embassy of the assurances of its highest and most distinguished consideration. Quito, November 9, 1967 UNCLASSIFIED , Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 UNCLASSIFTED g. Univers?, Guayaquil, Ecuador, 21 de noviembre de 1967. QUITO A-202 Page 1 Enclosure 2 El? Ministerio de Relaciones EXteriores saluda atentamente a la Honorable &bajada de y tiene a honra avisarle recibo de la nota verbal ndmero de , en la cual se ha servido referirse al Decreto 1542 (Registro Oficial No. 158, del 11 de Noviembre de 1.966), en virtud del cual el Gobierno del Ecuador ha reformado el articulo 633 del Wig? Civil, fijIndose el mar territorial en doscientas minas marftimas, medidas desde los puntos ms salientes de las costas ecuatorianas y desde los extremos ms salientes de las islas ads extremas del Archipidlago de Coln. El Gobierno del Ecuador considera que la expedicidn de dicho Decreto, que es Ley de la Repdblica, constituye el ejercicio de sus plenas facultades como pais libre y soberano. La anticuada regla de las tres mills de mar territorial respetada, cuando el alcance de un tiro decaridn no llegaba mAs a114 .de esa distancia, se encuentra actualmente en completo abandon?, como lo i'econocen los mAs destacados tratadistas de Derecho Internacional y la prActica de los Estados. Se han aceptado elementos como determinantes de la anchura del mar territorial. Ellos se hallan indicados en el p4rrafo II de la Declaracidn de Santiago, suscrita el 18 de Agosto de 1.952 por ECUADOR, Peril y Chile, ratificada por Ecuador en el Registro Oficial No. 1029 del 24 de Enero de 1.956, que dice: uLos factores geoldgicos y bioldgicos que condicionan la existencia, conservacidn y desarrollo de la fauna y flora marftima, en las aguas que bafian las costas de paises declarantes, hacen que la antigua extensidn del mar terri- torial y de la zona contingua sean insuficientes para la conservacidn, desarrollo y aprovechamiento de esas riquezas, a que tienen derecho los paises costeros". Estos elementos llevaron a los Gobiernos de los tres paises indicados a establecer en la Declaracidn de Santiago: "como consecuencia de estoa.hechos; los Gobiernos de Chile, ECUADOR y.Perd, proclaman como norma de su politi6a.internacional marftima la soberanda y jurisdiccidn exclusivas que a cida uno de ellos corres- ponde sobre el mar que baa las costas de sus respectivos pafses hasta una distancia minima de 200 millas marinas desde las referidas costas. LA JURISDIC- CION Y SOBERANIA EXOLUSIVAS sobre la zona marftima indicada incluye tambidn la' SOBERANIA Y JURISDICCION ExaUSIVAS sobre el suelo y subsuelo que a ella corres- ponde. "La actitud de estos tres 'Daises que no fue por tanto acto unilateral del Ecuador -- encontr6 su fundamento en la resolucidn adoptada en Febrero de 1.956, por el Consejo Interamericano de Jurisconsultos, intitulada uPrincipios de Mdxico sobre Regiones Jurfdicas del Mart', posicidn que en Octubre de 1.957 fue reafirmada por el Tercer Congreso Hispano-Luso-Americano de Derecho Internacional, segdn la cual hoy en dia cada Estado tiene competencia para fijar su mar terri- torial has ta lfmites razonables, atendidndo a factores geogrAficos, geoldgicos y bioldgicos, asf como a las necesidades econdmicas de su poblacidn y a su seguri- dad y defense. Las Conferencias de las Naciones Unidas sobre el derecho del mar, realizadas en Ginebra en 1.958 y 1.960, no llegaron a ningdn acuerdo respecto de la anchura del mar territorial. Las Convenciones que fueron aprobadas en dicha oportunidad no contienen norma alguna que establezca dicha anchura y, adn UNCLASSIFIED nri Annroved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3 UNCLASSIFIED QUITO A?'202 Page 2 Enclosure 2 en el hipotdtico caso de que la contuvieren, el Ecuador no es parte de ninguno de esos instrumentos, que ni siquiera los ha suscrito. Las propuestas que se presentaron en las conferencias, inclusive la que propugnaba el reconocimiento de un mar territorial de seis mulles, mAs 61a zona exklusiva de pesca de seis, no jueron aprobadas, cualquiera que haya siio el hdmero de votos que ellas hubieren merecido. Los resultados de esas Conferencias probaron, pues, que fue imposible llegar a un acuerdo internacional que estableciese la anchura del mar territorial. Por lo tanto, en ausencia de tal acuerdo se ha reconocido que esa extensidn puede ser determinada por actos soberanos del Estado riberefio. En tal virtud, los Estados han ampliado la anchura del mar territorial; (1) por necesidades defensives; (2) en consideracidn a la extensidn del mar que bafia sus costes, y (3) por rezones de defensa econdmica. Sobre la base de estos antecedentes, el Convenio complementario a la declaracidn de soberanfa sobre la zona maritime de 200 mulles, tambidn ratificado por el Ecuador y por tanto Ley de la Repdblica (Registro Oficial No. 376 del 18 de Noviembre de 1.964) expresa: "Chile, ECUADOR, y Perd procederAn de comdn acuerdo en la defense jurfdica del principio de la soberanta sobre la zone maritime, hasta una distancia mfnima, de 200 millas marinas, incluydndose el suelo y subsuelo respectivos . . ." En consecuencia, el Gobierno del Ecuador considera que, al expedir el Decreto ndmero 15-43, se mantuvo dentro de los compromisos internacionales solemnemente contraidos, y siguid la moderna prActica admitida por los Estados. Finalmente es necesario sefialar que la vigente Constitucidn Politica del Ecuador, publicada en el Registro Oficial ndmero 133, del 25 de Mayo de 1.967,, establece en su artfculo 6 que el territorio del Estado es inalienable e irreduc? tible y comprende, entre otros elementos, el mar territorial ecuatoriano, cuya extensidn est,( determinada por las disposiciones legales y convencionales precitadas, esti amparado por el mencionado artfculo constitucional. Por tanto es inviolable e irreductible y estg sujeto a la soberanfa y jurisdiccidn exclu? sives del Ecuador. En consecuencia el Gobierno del Ecuador NO PUEDE aceptar en ningAn caso y bajo ninguna circunstancia, reserve cualquiera relative a la extensidn de su mar territorial. El Ministerio de RR. EE. aprovecha la opor? tunidad pare renovar a la honorable EMbajada de las seguridades de su mAs alta y distinguida consideracidn. Quito, a 9 de Noviembre de 1.967. UNCLASSIFIED Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/12/12 : CIA-RDP08C01297R000700080006-3