NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT AND PROLIFERATION CHERNOBYL

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Collection: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9
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RIFPUB
Original Classification: 
U
Document Page Count: 
493
Document Creation Date: 
December 23, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 15, 2013
Sequence Number: 
1
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
June 5, 1986
Content Type: 
REPORT
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PDF icon CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9.pdf33.14 MB
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS-TND-86-004-L 5 JUNE ,1986 FBIS Worldwide Report NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT AND PROLIFERATION CHERNOBYL FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets [] are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS-TND-86-004-L 5 JUNE 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT. AND PROLIFERATION CHERNOBYL CONTENTS [The following are materials on the construction of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and on nuclear power plant safety that were selected from the Soviet media and previously translated and published in various FBIS publications.] Work Continues on Construction of Chernobylskaya AES (V.S. Konviz; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 4, Apr 81) 1 Particulars of Startup, Adjustment on Third Generating Unit of Chernobyl AES (Ye.M. Levin, M.G. Kremen; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 6, Jun 83) 8 Chernobylskaya AES Third Phase Construction Begins (V.S. Konviz, L.V. Golubkov; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 1, Jan 84) 19 Emergency Localization System at Third Unit of Chernobyl AES (Ye.P. Markov, et al.; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 1, Jan 84) 26 Interview With Chief Construction Engineer at Chernobyl AES (Vladimir Timofeyevich Gora; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 2, Feb 84) 32 Fourth Chernobylskaya -AES Unit (EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 12, Mar'84) 40 - a - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Chernobylskaya AES Experiment-in Testing 'RBMK-1000- Reactor Operator's Kibitzer",, Program (I.Ya. Yemelyanov, et a.; ATOMNYYE ELEKTRICHESKIYE STANTSII 1984,01984) 40 Chernobyl AES Power Generation (SWB, 9 Nov 84) 40 :Construction Parameters" for Chernobylskaya AESiGiven (V .M. Chernyshenko; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 11, Nov 84) 41 Testing Improved Steam Separators in Third Energy Block of Chernobyl AES (0.Yu. Novoselskiy, et al..; ATQMNAYAENERGIYA4', Vol 574 No 6, Dec 84) ' 51 ChernobylskaY4 AES' 4th.:POwer Block-Construction,Discussed- ,(V .P. Tokarenko;:ENERGETICHESKOYE-STROITELSTVO., No 12, Dec 84) 59 Progress Report: Chernobylskaya AES' 4th Power Block (A.M. Usik, et al.; ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO, No 12, Dec 84) 64 Chernobylskaya AES Status (Zh. Tkachenko; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 26 Feb 85) .. . .. ......... .. . . . .. ... .... 74 Chernobyl AES Replaces Boiler (Zh. Tkachenko; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 3 Apr 85) 74 Fire Prevention Shortcomings at Electric Power Stations (R. Nurseitov; KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA, 1 Apr 82) 75 Effects of Nuclear Power Plants on Waters of Rivers, Seas (A.M. Petrosyants; TEPLOENERGETIKA, No 12, Dec 83) 78 Radiation Safety Measures for AES Examined (Alejandro Bilbao Alfonso, Wilhelm Stregober; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 3, Mar 84) 83 Book: Examination of AES Safety Regulations (SOBRANIYE POSTANOVLENIY PRAVITELSTVA SSSR, No 20, 1986.... 89 Nuclear Station Safety (SWB, 15 Feb 85).. Aloe .. ? .. . e.eloofbersoor so*" ............... 98 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE, ONLY Safety Procedures Outlined for GorkiyliST (V. Khrustov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 6 Aug 85) 99 Book on AES Radiation Safety To Be Published (TEPLOENERGETIKA, No 12, Dec 85) 101 (The following articles are reports from various sources after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant incident of April 26, 19861 USSR Soviets Link Chernobyl'Accident to Arms Control (Yuriy Solton;-,Moscow World Service, 29 Apr 86) 102 Moscow CritiCizes US. Reports. of Chernobyl Incident (Moscow World Service, 30 Apr'86) 103 Dubinin: No Need for Foreign Assistance at Chernobyl (TASS International Service, 1 May 86) 104 Dubinin Informs UN Delegates Perez de Cuellar Informed Ukrainian Envoy Updates UN Developments on Chernobyl Accident Reported (Various sources, May 86) 106 European Envoys Briefed Departing Travelers Checked Kvitsinskiy Comments on Accident Update on Aftermath Report of 50 Killed Aid Requested for Victims Denial on Request for Aid IAEA Receives Report Analysis of Satellite Pictures Rumors Abound in Kiev Kiev Festivities Reported TV Report on Celebrations Comparisons of Soviet Update Western Reaction to Chernobyl Accident Considered (Various sources, 3-4 May 86) TASS Denounces 'Apocalyptic Pictures' Washington Encourages 'Hysteria' Western Media Reports .'Unscrupulous,' by Igor Charikov? 111 - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Yeltsin Addresses Eighth Congress of German Communist Party (Various sciUrCes,:2, 5 May 86) 115 Assails Media on Chernobyl Hamburg TV Interview, by Boris Yeltsin AFP Interview Further Developments On Chernobyl Accident Reported (Various sources, 2, 4 May 86). 119 Arbatov Comments', by Georgiy Arbatov ?Ryzhkov, Ligachev Visit Area Decontamination Under Way TV Shows Extent of Damage Matveyev-Hits West's .Stance on Arms Talks, Chernobyl (V. Matyeyevl IZVESTIYA, 6 May 86) " 131 Yeltsin Gives FRG TV FUrther Details on Chernobyl (ZDF-TeleVision Network, 5 May 86) 132 , French Paper Cited on Anti-Sovietism Over Chernobyl (PRAVDA, 4 May 86) 133 Further Reportage on Chernobyl Accident (Various sources, various dates) 133 PRAVDA Reports Details, by V. Gubarev, M. Odinets Council of Ministers Statement IAEA Director Arrives in Moscow Kovalev Meets With IAEA Director U.S. Radiology Expert Arrives Cleanup Work Continuing TV Interviews Kievans, by Mikhail Krutov Kiev Student Gives Assurances, by A. Guretskiy Tourists Complain at Evacuation Foreigners Bemoan Departure Muscovites View Western Reaction, by G. Sedov Kiev Radiation Level 'Low' Petrosyants: 'Severe Blow' Kiev Paper Outlines Construction Problems at Chernobyl (Lyubov Kovalevska; LITERATURNA UKRAINA, 27 May 86) 144 Foreign Ministry Holds Press conference on Chernobyl . (Various sources,' 6--7 May.86) 147 Officials Comment Further Remarks'. Kovalev on Danger of Nuclear Energy , Media Reutioato-Conference Noted, by Oleg,Brinov , d - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY., PRAVDA's Zhukov on 111, .,.,Reactipn ,to Chernobyl (Yuriy Zhukov; PRAVDA, 6 May 86) 154 Zholkver: U.S. Publicity Distracts, From Disarmament_.:. (AleksandrZhplkver,;, Moscow. Domestic. Service,-,6 May 86)... 155 West Said To Make False Reports, Hide Own Incidents (Farid Seyful-Mulyukov; Moscow Television Service,'? 5 May, 86). OOOOOO ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? OO ? OOO O ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 156 UK Reaction to Chernobyl Termed 'Sensationalism' (Viktor Orlik; LITERATURNAYA GAZETA, 7 May 56) 157 'Political Expedience' Behind West's Reaction (Vladimir Pozner; Moscow in English to North America, 5 May 86)....... O . OOO . OO . O . .... . . . .. . . .... 157 Chernobyl 'Cloud of Lies Over U.S., W. Europe (Aleksandr. Putko; Moscow ,World Service, 6 May 86)...... .... 158 IZVESTIYA Reports on Chernobyl Area Evacuation (IZVESTIYA, 7 May 86; TASS, 6 May 86) 159 Situation 'Under Control,' by A. Illesh TASS Updates Status of Cleanup, Life 'Normal'_ in Kiev Chernobyl Staff. Preparing To Return to Work (Vladimir Sokolov; Moscow. Domestic Service, May 86) Third Person Dies From Disaster; Others Treated (TANJUG Domestic Service, 8 May 86) Council of Ministers Reports on Work at ,Chernobyl:. (KRASNAYA ZVEZDA; May-.86 TAS?S International, Service, 7 May ...... ............ 'Work Continues' TASS Details Actions 162 163 163 Kiev Hosts Scientific-Economic Conference (S4 Luzgarq SELSKAYA-ZHIZN, 6_May ..... 165 IAEA Director General Blix Meets Officials (Moscow Television Service, 7 May 86)................ ...... 165 Kiev Party Chief, Evacuees Interviewed (Various sources, 7-8 May 86) 166 Evacuees Describe Hardships, by Vladimir 'Zhukovskiy, et al. 7 FOR .OFFICIAL USE ,O,NLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY More on Settling of Evacuees, by N. Dolgopolov, P. Polozhevets Officials on Pripet Evacuees PRAVDA Cites Academician Velikhov on Accident (V. Gubarev, M. Odinets; PRAVDA, 8 May 86) 170 Life Reported 'Normal' in Ukraine Areas (Various sources, various dates) 172 Assistance in Evacuation Kiev Water Said 'Pure' Physicians on Kiev Radiation, by Aleksandr Krutov Foreign Students: Life 'Normal' Tourists on 'Contemptible' Propaganda, by A. Nazarov Journal on Plant Problems, Poor Work Vilnius Reports No Danger From Radioactivity (Vilnius in Lithuanian to North America, 18 May 86) 175 Comment on Western Reaction to Chernobyl Information (Various sources, various dates) 175 Inadequate Information Discounted, by Yevgeniy Grigoryev 'Propaganda' Approaching 'Absurdity,' by V. Bolshakov Donald Regan Criticized for Remarks, by T. Vasilyev U.S. 'Fabrications' Said 'Nasty,' by A. Palladin U.S. 'Inventions' Reach 'New Apogee' West Covering Up N-Weapons Issue, by Tomas Kolesnichenko Kiev Radio Attacks West's Reports Poland's Urban Condemns 'Inventions' French Reaction Assessed, by Oleg Maksimenko Moscow Party Chief Yeltsin Interviewed on Accident (Boris Yeltsin; STERN, 7 May 86) 180 Blix, Rosen Continue Visit, Hold Press Conference (Various sources, 8-9 May 86) 182 Visit Chernobyl Area More on Visit to Area Blix Comments on Tour of Site Sees Reactor From 800 Meters Away Rosen Says Levels 'Stabilizing' Says 204 'Affected by Radiation' Rosen: 'Temperatures Remain High' 'Very Frank, Open' Talks Cited Blix Asked About Causes of Chernobyl Blix on Smoke, Major Work at Reactor - f - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Blix Emphasizes Objective Reporting Rosen Confirms Reactor Shutdown Visit Concludes 9 May Communique Issued on Visit ORF: Government Admits Inhabitants Fleeing Kiev (ORF Teletext, 8 May 86) 188 Announcement: USSR Goods Pose No Radiation Hazards (KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 9 May 86) 188 Ukrainian Official 9 May: AES Fire 'Continuing' (AFP, 9 May 86) 188 Ukrainian Premier: Reactor 'No Longer Burning' (AFP, 8 May 86; TASS, 8 May 86) 189 'Radiation Levels Dropping' More on Premier's Comments AFP Cites IZVESTIYA: Fire Still Smouldering (AFP, 8 May 86) 190 Health Minister: Radiation No Danger to Health (Anatoliy Yefimovich Romanenko; Kiev Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 191 Health Official Reviews Consequences (Viktor Knizhnikov; Bratislava Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 192 Army Air Missions Continue Over Chernobyl (TASS, 8 May 86) 192 TASS Cites Foreign Reactions to Chernobyl Aftermath (TASS, 8 May 86) 193 Further Reportage on Life in Surrounding Areas (Various sources, 8-9 May 86) 194 Resettlement Proceeding Smoothly, by A. Zhuk Agricultural Work Continuing Work at Kiev Monitoring Center Makarov Rayon Activities Reported, by V. Lyaskalo Medics Working Non-Stop, by Vladimir Zhukovskiy, et al. Radiation Levels Decreasing Officials on Evacuation, by V. Gubarev, M. Odinets Army Paper Gives Update, by Vladimir Itkin, Lev Chernenko IZVESTIYA Correspondent Reports From Kiev Oblast (A. Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 9 May 86) 200 - g - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Grigoryev: Man Cannot Renounce Atomic Energy- (TASS International Service, 8-May-86):' 202 Arbatov Comments on Chernobyl Incident (G: Arbatov;'PRAVDA, '9 May 86) 203 Residual Anti-Spviet 'Radiation' Lingers (Vladimir' Bolshakov;Igoscow Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 205 U.S. 'Hypocrisy' Over Accident Assailed (A. Lyutyy; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 8 May 86) 206 Scare Stories Reportedly Ordered by Washington (Aleksandr Zholkver; Moscow Domestic Service, 8 May 86).... 207 Proidganda, Contrasted With ,1CoMpetent'''Vi'ews (Vladimir BeloShapko; Moscow Domestic AFP Cites Government onl4orting'J&Dedth (AFP, 9, 11 May 86) 208 -First RadiatiOn Victim APN's Falin Reports 4th Death Service, 9 , May 86)... 208 PRAVDA Details Chernobyl Party Reorganization (V. Gubarev, M. Odintsev; PRAVDA, 12 May 86) 209 Council of Ministers Issues Communiques on Cleanup (TASS, 9, 11 May 86; PRAVDA, 12 May 86) 211 9'May Statemerity. 10 May Statement 11 May Statement , Silayev, Velikhov Say Chernobyl Danger Past (Various sources, 11 May 86)' Silayev Conducts Work Sessions, by Aleksandr Krutov Velikhov: 11 May 'Turning Point' 'Possibility of Catastrophe' Existed Kiev Radio Cites Silayev, Velikhov Embassies in Moscow Warn of Possible ,Food Dangers (Milan Dragovic; AFP, 12 May 86) 212 215 TV Carries Blix, Rosen 9 May News Conference (Hans Blix, Morris Rosen; Moscow Television. Service, 9 May 86) 216 Blix Interviewed on Cleanup, Nuclear Future (Moscow in English to North America, 9 May 86) 218 FOR 'OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IAEA Expresses Gratitude for Soviet Cooperation (TASS, 8 May 86) r 219 PRAVDA Cites News Conference With Ukraine Premier ? (V, Gubarev, M. Odinets; PRAVDA, 10 MaT86) 220 Medical Care for Radiation Victims Described ? (N. Dolgopolov, P. Polozhevets; KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA, 8 May 86) 221 'Strength of Character' Shown in Aftermath Itkin, Lev Chernenko; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 7 May 86) 222 Newspaper Readers Offer Help to Victims (KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA, 8 May 86; IZVESTIYA, 8 May 86) 223 Money Sent to Fund, by L. Kurin Offers of Foreign Assistance Noted TASS Cites IZVESTIYA on Regional Situation (TASS InternatiOnal Service, 8 May 86) 224 Moscow TV Carries Report From Pripyat Sanatorium (Moscow Television, 9 May 86) 225 U.S. Uses Chernobyl in 'Anti-Soviet Campaign' (TASS, 11 May 86) 226 IZVESTIYA Cited on Lessons for Nuclear Arms Race (TASS International Service, 8 May 86) 227 Council of Ministers: 6 Dead From Burns, Radiation (Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May 86) ? 227 Top Scientist: Reactor To Be Encased in Concrete (AFP, 13 May 86) 228 Helicopter Flights Continue Over Chernobyl (Aleksandr Krutov; Moscow Television 'Service, 12 May 86) 228 Red Lead Brought to Chernobyl for ABS Work (Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May 86)' ? 229 More Than 90,000 Reportedly Evacuated From Area (Budapest Domestic Service, 10 May 86) 229 ? - - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Environmental Effects of Accident Reported (KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 13 May 86; TASS International Service, 12 May 86) Izrael Interviewed, by V. Zhukovskiy, et al. Legasov Comments 230 DER SPIEGEL Interviews NOVOSTI's Falin on Accident (Valentin Falin; DER SPIEGEL, 12 May 86) 231 Kalyagin Conducts 'Telebridge' on Chernobyl (Boris Kalyagin; Moscow Television Service, 10 May 86) 236 PRAVDA Reports IAEA Officials' Press Conference (PRAVDA, 11 May 86) 237 RSFSR Paper Describes Evacuation of Area (Vladimir Zhukovskiy, et..:al..1 SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 9 May 86) 238 Chernobyl Fire Chief Interviewed in Hospital. (G. Alimov; IZVESTIYA, 10 May 86) 239 PRAVDA Reports Nationwide Support for Chernobyl (B. Gubarev,'M. Odinets; PRAVDA,'. 13 May 86) 241 Lomeyko Condemns West's Restrictions on Food Imports (TASS International Service, 12 May 86; AFP, 12 May 86) 242 'Discriminatory Measures' More on Lomeyko Criticism Kondrashov on Anti-Soviet Treatment of Chernobyl (Stanislav Kondrashov; IZVESTIYA, 9 May 86) 244 IZVESTIYA on Work To Seal Stricken Reactor Site (A. Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 14 May 86) 245 Moscow Describes Events Immediately. After Accident (Vladimir Zhukovskiy; Moscow Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 246 IZVESTIYA Cites Silayev; 'Disaster' Danger Now Past (Andrey Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 12 May 86) 248 IZVESTIYA Cites Official on Cleanup Techniques (IZVESTIYA, 13 May 86) 250 SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA Reports on Chernobyl Cleanup (V. Zhukovskiy, et al.; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 14 May 86) 250 - j - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Academician Interviewed on Chernobyl Area Tasks (A. Krutov, Ye. Shmatrikov; Moscow Television Service, 13 May 86) 251 Scherbina Briefs W. Europe, U.S. Envoys on Chernobyl (TASS, 13 May 86) 252 Civil Aviation Ministry Coordinates Cleanup (Vladimir Mikhaylenko; Moscow Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 253 Press Told Chernobyl Industries 'Working Normally' 254 (Kiev Domestic Service, 12 May 86) Medics at Chernobyl 'Operating as Though in Combat' (V. Zhukovskiy, et al.; TRUD, 9 May 86) 254 Ukrainian Officials Brief Newsmen at ?8 May Session , (Andrey Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 10 May 86) 255 Medical Official SaysH'Sltuation-Stabilized' . (Leonid AndreyeVich ilyln;,14Oscow Television Service, 10 May 86) 256 Moscow on Conditions at Mirgorod Health Resort (Vitally Pidchenko; Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May. 86) 257 IZVESTIYA Describes Facilities for Chernobyl Evacuees (Andrey Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 11 May 86) 257 Placement of Chernobyl WorkersElseWhere in Progress (Moscow Television Service, 13 May 86) 258 Party's, Military's Aid to Evacuees Praised , (A. Polyakov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 11 May 86) 259 Area Children Receive Holiday Health Care (Moscow Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 259 Activities at Ukrainian Sanatorium Reported Moscow Television Service, 10 May 86) 260 IAEA Thanks USSR for 'Readiness To Cooperate' (PRAVDA, 10 May 86) 260 Blix to Swedish Paper: 'Satisfaction' With Visit (TASS, 12 May 86) 261 PRAVDA Carries Communique on IAEA Officials' Visit (PRAVDA, 12 May 86) . 261 - k - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TASS: Blix Criticizes Western Reporting on Chernobyl (TASS, 14 Mp.y 86) 262 Reportage, Analysis of Western Chernobyl Coverage (Various sources, various dates) 262 'Malicious' Campaign Abating, by Farid Seyful-Mulyukov U.S. Exaggerates Incident, by A. Shalnev 'Pack of Lies,' by Genrikh Borovik Paper on U.S. 'Malicious Reaction,' by V. Soldatov 'Cacophonous Pandemonium,' by Vsevolod Ovchinnikov 'Red Menace' Stereotype Behind Propaganda, by Vladimir Tsvetov FRG Media Sow Panic Over Chernobyl (Yu. Yakhontov; PRAVDA, 12 May 86) 266 Western TV 'Led Up Garden Path' by Yugoslav Videotape (TASS International Service, 14 May 86) 267 Embassy in FRG States USSR Safe for Tourists (TASS, 13 May 86) 267 Lithuanian Farmers Use Lasers To Level Fields (Semen Astakhov; Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May 86) 268 Text of 14 May Gorbachev Television Address (M.S. Gorbachev; PRAVDA, 15 May 86) 268 TASS Reports Gale, Armand Hammer Press Conference (TASS, 15 May 86; AFP, 15 May 86) 272 'Soviet Specialists Lauded AFP: More Deaths Expected PRAVDA Cites Blix Criticism of West's Reporting (PRAVDA, 15 May 86) 273 Loginov Briefs SFRY, PRC Envoys on Chernobyl (TASS International Service, 14 May 86) 273 Moscow TV Shows Chernobyl 'Forgery' Videotape (Boris Kalyagin; Moscow Television Service, 14 May 86) 274 USSR Journalists Visit AES for First Time 15 May (TASS, 15 May 86) 274 Chernobyl Firemen, Workers Leave Kiev Hospital (TASS International Service, 13 May 86) 275 Kiev Oblast Children Begin Pioneer Camp Vacations (Moscow Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 275 -1 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Workers Donate Pay to Red Cross, Red Crescent (Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May 86) 275 SELSKAYA ZHIZN on Rural Life Near Chernobyl (S. Luzgan; SELSKAYA ZHIZN, 13 May 86) 276 Komsomol Official Describes Work in Kiev (Anatoliy Plevachuk; Moscow Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 277 IZVESTIYA interviews Officials, Students in Kiev (A. ?Illesh; IZVESTIYA, 13 May 86) 278 Kiev Daily Describes Initial Chernobyl 'Hell' (V. Zhukovskiy, et al.; RADYANSKA UKRAINA, 8 May 86) 279 Militia's Heroic Feats at Chernobyl Described (A. Polyakov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 9 May 86) 281 Travelers From Kiev Say Food Shortages Worsening (AFP, 11 May 86) 282 West's Arms Posturing 'Main Lesson' of Chernobyl (Aleksey Grigoryev; TASS, 13 May 86) 282 W. Europe said Victim of Own Propaganda on Radiation (Aleksey Grigoryev; TASS, 13 May 86) 283 Zholkver: U.S. 'Crisis of Trust' Countered by SALT II (Aleksandr Zholkver; Moscow Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 284 Ponomarev: West Exploits Accident To Provoke Enmity (Leonid Ponomarev; TASS, 13 May 86) 284 Columnist Excoriates Senator Dole's 'Mudslinging' (Melo Sturua; IZVESTIYA, 14 May 86) 285 Chernobyl 'Pretext' for Banning Farm Imports (V. Bolshakov; PRAVDA, 13 May 86) 286 Shlenov on EEC Commission's Ban on Foodstuffs '(Viktor Shlenov; Moscow in Portuguese to Portugal, 12 May 86) 286 'U.S. ?Nuclear Plants Safer' Claims Discounted (Igor Fesunenko; Moscow Television Service, 12 May 86) 287 Radio Criticizes Western Propaganda on Chernobyl (Boris Andriyanov; Moscow Domestic Service, 12 May 86)..... 288 _ m _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ALBANIA Literary Paper Cited on U.S. 'Hysterical' Press (TASS, 13 May 86) 288 'Anti-Soviet Hue and Cry' Continues Over Chernobyl (Moscow World Service, 14 May 86) 289 'New Generation' Meeting Test of Accident 'Trial' (Moscow Domestic Service, 9 May 86) 289 EAST EUROPE 'Absence of Information' From USSR Noted (ZERI I POPULLIT, 1, 3 May 86) 290 Radiation Levels Near Normal, Restrictions Lifted (ATA, 15 May 86) 290 BULGARIA Fatherland Front Official Comments on Accident (BTA, 6 May 86) 291 Radiation Said Posing No Threat to Public Health (BTA, 7 May 86) 291 Foreign Ministry Rejects Western 'Disinformation' (BTA, 9 May 86) 292 Agrarian Journal Carries Arbatov Interview (Georgiy Arbatov; ZEMEDELSKO ZNAME, 9 May 86) 292 EEC Food Imports Ban From E. Europe Faulted (Sofia Domestic Service, 13 May 86; BTA, 13 May 86) 293 Termed 'Discriminatory' Further Criticism Sofia Paper: Radiation Level 'Back to Normal' (BTA, 14 May 86) 294 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Charter 77 Protests Lack of Information (Otto Hoermann;'Vienna Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 295 Health Official Assures No Danger From Radiation (Dana Zuskova; Prague Television Service, 6 May 86) 296 - n - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Hygienist Speaks on Increased Radiation Levels (CTK, 6 May 86) 296 Prague TV Describes Scenes Near Chernobyl, Kiev (Prague Television Service, 8 May 86) 297 Soviet Health Minister on Measures at Chernobyl (Prague Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 297 Prague Contrasts Shultz Remarks, 'Evidence' (Prague International Service, 6 May 86) 298 Chernobyl 'Hysteria' Further Divides East, West (Julius P. Loerincz; PRAVDA, 5 May 86) 298 RUDE PRAVO Denounces 'Hysterical Campaign' (Zdenek Horeni; RUDE PRAVO, 4 May 86) 300 Underground 'Antiatom' Protest Reported Developing (KURIER, 9 May 86) 301 Radioactivity Levels in Air Found Dropping (RUDE PRAVO, 6 May 86) 301 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC HUNGARY Safety Office Reports No Radioactivity Danger (ADN International Service, 7 May 86) 302 Chernobyl Rumors Used To Mask Real Threat (Hans-Guenter Moerike; Voice of GDR Domestic Service, 5 May 86) 302 Radioactive Levels Down; Food Warnings in Effect (Budapest in Hungarian to Australia and New Zealand, 6 May 86) 304 Radioactivity Remains Low; Food, Milk Safe (MTI, 7 May 86) 304 'More Than Enough' Iodine Tablets, Yet No Need (Budapest Television Service, 6 May 86) 305 Szuros Speaks at National Peace Council Session (Budapest Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 305 NEPSZABADSAG Cited on Chernobyl 'Manipulations' (1A1I, 7 May 86) 306 -o - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY POLAND Grazing Halted in Some Areas; Food Uncontaminated (Budapest Domestic Service, 10 May 86) 307 Weekly Sums Up Chernobyl Accident Chronology (Tams Oltvanyi; MAGYARORSZAG, No 19, 11 May 86) 307 Air Radioactivity Levels 'Practically' Normal (MTI, 12 May 86) 308 Nationwide Radiation Levels Return to Normal (MTI, 13 May 86) 308 Budapest Paper Questions EEC Sanctions on Fallout (MTI, 14 May 86) 308 Radioactivity Data Exchanged With FRG (NEPSZABADSAG, 7 May 86) 309 Radiation Differs Slightly From Normal Levels (MTI, 14 May 86) 309 Spokesman Urban Discusses Radiation Situation (Waldemar Janiec, Miroslaw Luniewski; PAP, 6 May 86) 310 Commission Reports Latest Radiological Readings (PAP, 7 May 86) 314 Messner Refutes Rumors About Radioactivity (Zbigniew Messner; Warsaw Television Service, 7 May 86) 315 Messner Attends Commission Meeting on Chernobyl (Warsaw Television Service, 7 May 86) 316 Urban Criticizes Western Reporting of Radiation (PAP, 6 May 86) 316 Urban: EEC Ban on Polish Food Imports Political (Warsaw International Service, 7 May 86) 316 Urban Announces Travel Constraint on U.S. Diplomats (Marek Kassa; Warsaw Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 317 IAEA Approves Polish 'Prophylactic Measures' (Warsaw Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 318 Warsaw Water Said Safe; Hoarding Discouraged (Warsaw Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 318 IAEA Publishes Polish Radiation Levels (NEUE AZ, 7 May 86) 318 -p- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Warsaw Reports on USSR Press Conference on Chernobyl (Warsaw Domestic Service, 8 May.86) 319 Soviet Minister Says Five Victims in Serious Danger (Warsaw Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 319 Tourism Continues Despite Heightened Radioactivity (PAP, 8 May 86) 320 Urban Says EEC Meat Import Ban Not Justified (Warsaw Domestic Service, 9-10 May 86; PAP, 10 May 86) 320 Termed 'Discriminatory' Ban 'Insult' to Scientific Authorities Ban Said 'Political' Radiation Situation Seen Returning to Normal (Warsaw Domestic Service, 9 May 86) 322 Urban Says Food Export Ban To Cost $45-50 Million (PAP, 13 May 86) 323 Urban on U.S. Milk Aid, EEC Ban on Food (Stanislaw Filipczak, Janusz Zaleski; PAP, 13 May 86) 323 Measures To Protect Poles From Radiation Outlined (PAP, 13 May 86) 324 Air, Water 'Almost Returned' to Normal Conditions (Warsaw Television Service, 14 May 86) 325 ROMANIA Radioactivity Lower in Some, Higher in Other Areas (AGERPRES, 5 May 86) 326 Radiation Drops; Above Normal in 'Certain Zones' (AGERPRES, 12 May 86) 326 Radiation Decreases, Presents 'No Health Hazards' (AGERPRES, 14 May 86) 327 YUGOSLAVIA TANJUG on Tokyo Declaration, Terrorism, Chernobyl (TANJUG, 7 May 86) 328 Radiation Levels in Vojvodina Stabilize (TANJUG Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 328 High Radiation Levels Found in Kragujevac Milk (TANJUG Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 329 _q _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Reduced Radiation Permits Resumed Sowing in Bosnia (TANJUG Domestic Service, 7 May. 86) 329 Radioactivity 'Continues To Fall' in Serbia (TANJUG Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 329 Lower Radiation Recorded in Macedonian Areas (TANJUG Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 329 Radiation 'Bounced Off' Mountains, Bypassed Adriatic (TANJUG, 7 May 86) 330 Radiation Decreasing 'Throughout Country' (Zagreb Domestic Service, May,86; TANJUG Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 330 No Health Hazard Levels Continue To Fall in Slovenia LCY Presidium's Vidic on Chernobyl Accident (Dobrivoje Vidic; POLITIKA, 5 May 86) 331 'Belated' Information Causes 'Mistrust' in Poland (N. Burzan; BORBA, 6 May 86) 332 POLITIKA Discusses 'Lessons of Chernobyl' (Bosko Jaksic; POLITIKA, 4 May 86) 332 Nuclear Power Plant Not Mentioned in Croatian Plan (TANJUG, 6 May 86; AFP, 7 May 86) 333 Nuclear Waste Storage Omitted Further on Station Postponement Radiation Levels Continue To Fall in Belgrade (TANJUG Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 334 Radiation Decreasing Throughout Nation (Zagreb Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 334 Soviet Officials Update Situation Around Chernobyl (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 334 Nation Suffers Heavy Losses Due to Chernobyl (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 335 Workers in USSR Given Medical Examinations (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 335 Zagreb Institute Demands Ban on New Nuclear Plants (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 336 - r FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Government Not Yet Considering Damage Claim (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 336 USSR Agrees 'in Principle' to Chernobyl Monitoring (TANJUG, 8 May 86) 336 Slovenes Protest Chernobyl, Nuclear Station Plans (TANJUG, 10 May 86) 337 Reportage of EC Efforts To Ban SFRY Food Exports (TANJUG Domestic Service, 9 May 86; TANJUG, 10-11 May 86) 337 No Need for Restrictions' No Grounds for EEC Ban TANJUG Reports 'One-Sided' Ban No EC Accord Yet TANJUG on Consequences of Ban Nation's Press Lauded for Chernobyl Reporting (Moscow Domestic Service, 10 May 86) 339 Military Commentator on Effects of Chernobyl (Dimitrije Seserinac; BORBA, 6 May 86) 340 U.S. Corn More Dangerous Than Chernobyl Fallout (TASS, 11 May 86) 340 Milk Consumption 'Rapidly Increased' Last Week (TANJUG, 12 May 86) 341 Satisfactory Physicals for Workers Near Chernobyl (TANJUG, 12 May 86) 341 Radiation Levels Fall; Preventive Measures Lifted (TANJUG, 12 May 86) 341 Loncar Explains SFRY Protest to EEC in Assembly (Belgrade Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 342 SFRY Correspondent Reports on Visit to Region (Belgrade Domestic Service, 9 May 86) 343 Call for Emergency EEC Meeting on Food Ban Issued (AFP, 14 May 86) 343 Radiation Preventive Measures No Longer Necessary (TANJUG Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 343 - s - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY WEST EUROPE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Failure To Agree on Ban of E. European Food Imports (AFP, 7 May 86) 344 EEC Suspends Meat, Livestock Imports From E. Europe (AFP, 8 May 86) 344 Decision on Soviet Food Ban Postponed (AFP, 10 May 86) 345 Travel Discouraged to Affected Areas (AFP, 12 May 86) 345 Farm Products 'Seriously Hit' by Consumer Concern (AFP, 11 May 86) 346 Provisional Ban of Some E. Europe Foods Imposed (AFP, 12 May 86) 346 AUSTRIA Gratz on Possible Damages Demands to USSR (Leopold Gratz; Vienna Television Service, 7 May 86) 347 Measures Taken Against Radioactive Contamination (ORF Teletext, 6 May 86) 348 Ban Declared on East Bloc Food Imports (ORF Teletext, 4,-6 May 86). .. 348 Cattle Feeding Prohibitions Further Restrictions IAEA Says USSR Authorities 'Very Cooperative' (AFP, 7 May 86) USSR Asks for Tunnel Construction Experts (NEUE KRONEN-ZEITUNG, 10 May 86) 349 350 Traces of Plutonium Found in Vienna's Air (Peter Strasser, Christian Hauenstein; NEUE KRONEN-ZEITUNG, 13 May 86) 350 Health Ministry Projects Long-Term Chernobyl Impact (Christian Nusser; NEUE AZ, 13 May 86) 351 Expert Study Analyzes Radioactivity in Austria (Gisela Hopfmueller; Veinna Domestic Service, 14 May 86) - t - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 351 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BELGIUM Prime Minister Reports on Anticontamination Action (Brussels Domestic Service, 9 May 86) 353 TASS: Martens Says Country at No Risk (TASS, 9 May 86) 353 -CYPRUS Slight Increase in Radiation Level in Some Areas (CYPRUS MAIL, 7 May 86) 354 DENMARK Parliament Seeks Closing of Swedish Nuclear Center (AFP, 7 May 86) 355 Editorials on Lack of Information From USSR (AKTUELT, 2 May, 30 Apr 86) 355 Gorbachev 'Squandered' Prestige Abroad Secrecy Over Incident Castigated WHO Urges Coordinated Response to Nuclear Accidents (AFP, 7 May 86) 356 FINLAND Danish Paper Cites APN Correspondent. on Chernobyl: -(Vladimir Kolinko; BERLINGSKE TIDENDE., 7 May 86) 357 Daily Criticizes USSR Secrecy Over Chernobyl I. (Editorial; BERLINGSKE SONDAG, 11 May 86) 357 Contamination Rising; No Restrictions Necessary (Helsinki Domestic Service, 5 May 86) 358 Radiation Levels Continue To Slowly Decline. (Helsinki Domestic Service, 7 May 86).-?- .. .. .. 358 . Experts Evaluate Long-Term Radiation Effects (AFP, 6 May 86) 359 Radiation 'Up to Five Times' Higher Than Normal (AFP, 7 May 86) 359 Foreign Ministry Denies Information Delay on Accident (Helsinki Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 360 Statement at UN Confirms No Radiation Risk (TASS, 8 May 86) -u - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 360 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FRANCE Trade, Industry Minister on Nuclear Energy Bill (Helsinki Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 361 Ministry Sets 26 May for Safe Cattle Grazing (Helsinki Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 361 Atmosphere 'Largely Free' of Chernobyl Radiation (Helsinki Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 361 Radioactive Traces Diminish to Pre-Chernobyl Level (Paris Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 362 Radiation Expert To Arrive at Moscow Embassy (Paris Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 362 French 'Antiradiation Paint' Sent to USSR (Paris Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 362 Setback to Gorbachev 'Openness' Campaign Seen (Editorial; LE MONDE, 2 May 86) 363 Radioactivity Over Nation Normal for Last 2 Days (Paris Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 363 Nuclear Specialist Meets With Officials in Moscow (Paris Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 364 OECD Nuclear Safety Experts Meet 9 May in Paris (AFP, 9 May 86) 364 France Unilaterally Bans Bloc Food Imports (AFP, 9 May 86) 364 Greens Accuse Government of Withholding Information (AFP, 9 May 86; Paris Domestic Service, 10 May 86) 365 Officials' Resignation Demanded Authorities Criticized Government Criticized for Radioactivity Silence (AFP, 12 May 86) 366 Produce Sales Fall; Radioactivity Decreasing (Paris Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 367 Ministry Bans Consumption of Spinach From Alsace (AFP, 13 May 86) 367 Radioactivity in Nation Found Insignificant (Paris Domestic Service, 15 May 86) 367 -v - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY FRG Summons USSR Envoy Over 'Secrecy' on Damage (DPA, 5 May 86) Soviet Embassy Seeks Advice on Reactor Aftermath (DPA, 6 May 86) Chancellor Kohl Remarks on Incident (DPA, 6 May 86) Radiation Readings Show 3 Areas Remain Above Normal (DPA, 7 May 86) Latest Atmospheric Radioactivity Levels Reported (DPA, 6 May 86) Interior Minister Evaluates FRG Response (DPA, 7 May 86) USSR Spokesman Zagladin Says 'Still Worrying' (AFP, 7 May 86) Chancellor Kohl on Chernobyl, Tokyo Summit (ZDF Television Network, 6 May 86; DPA, 9 May 86) Discusses Nuclear Security, by Helmut Kohl Criticizes 'Limited' USSR Information 368 368 369 369 369 370 370 371 Government To Send Two Decontamination Vehicles (DPA, 6 May 86) 373 Bundestag Interior Committee To Discuss Incident (ZDF Television Network, 5 May 86) 373 Zagladin Says Radiation Leak 'Practically Stopped' (DPA, 7 May 86) 374 Bundestag President Jenninger Meets Yeltsin (ZDF Television Network, 7 May 86; DPA, 7 May 86) 374 Chernobyl Incident Discussed Yeltsin on More Nuclear Cooperation Greens Criticize Yeltsin USSR Embassy Attacks 'Campaigns' on Chernobyl (DPA, 6 May 86) _ w _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved Fot:. Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 375 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY., Radioactivity Readings Increase in Marburg Area (DPA, 5 May 86) Border Controls Restrict Meat, Vegetable Imports (DPA, 5 May 86) DPA Reports Vegetables Polluted in Saarland (DPA, 6 May 86) 375 376 376 Berlin Conference Criticizes USSR Information Policy (DPA, 2 May 86) 376 Press Views Tokyo Reaction to Chernobyl (Deutschlandfunk Network, 6 May 86). . 377 Demonstrators Protest 'Concealment' of Effects (DPA, 10 May 86) 377 Chernobyl Elicits Criticism of Bonn Policy (Various sources, 5-6 May 86) 378 Kohl To Write Gorbachev Over Chernobyl Data (DPA, 9 May 86) 378 East Europe Vehicles Checked at Border for Radiation, (DPA, 9 May 86) 379 Firm Sells Remote-Controlled Devices to USSR (DPA, 11 May 86) 379 Rejection of EEC Radiation Levels Explained (DPA, 10 May 86) 379 Hesse Finds 'Astronomically High' Meat Radiation (DPA, 9-10 May 86; AFP, 10 May 86) 380 Contamination Reported . Radiation Limits Introduced for Meat Community VOte on Food Imports Blocked Government 'Regrets' Lack of EC Sanctions Decision (DPA, 11 May 86) ,.. . . ? ?,.. ? ? ? ? ?_.., ? ?-? ? ?,? ?,? OO 381 Government Declares Entire Country 'All-Clear' (DPA, 12 May 86) .... . ................... ,.. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? o-._, ..... 381 Chancellor Kohl Views Consequences of Chernobyl (ZDF Television Network, 9 May 86) 381 Kohl Writes to Gorbachev About Nuclear Safety (WELT AM SONNTAG, 11 May 86) 382 - x - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 GREECE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Genscher Calls for Cooperation in Wake of Chernobyl (DPA, 11 May 86) 382 Bonn Counters USSR Embassy on 'Safe' Travel Areas (DPA, 13 May 86) FDP Group Denies Western Anticommunist Campaign '(DPA, 12 May 86) 383 383 Bangemann Says Farmers To Lose DM1 Billion (DPA, 13 May 86) 383 XINHUA: Soviet Compensation Surely' Sought (XINHUA, 14 May 86) 384 SPD Demands Reappraisal of Nuclear Energy Program (DFA, 13 May 86) 384 Nobel Expert Warns of 'Thousands' of Cancer Deaths (AFP, 14 May 86) 385 FRG Press: Chernobyl Will Affect Elections (Deutschlandfunk Network, 14 May 86) 385 FRG Lawyer Sues USSR for Damages After Chernobyl (AFP, 14 May 86) 386 Papandreou on Proposals for Worldwide Nuclear Safety (Andreas Papandreou; Athens Domestic Service, 6 May 86).? 387 Spokesman on Soviet Disclosure of Nuclear Data (Athens Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 387 Public Advised on Consumption of Milk, Vegetables (Athens Domestic Service, 5 May 86) 388 Imports of Unchecked Foods Prohibited (Athens Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 388 Protest Lodged for Tourists Forced on Kiev Visit (AFP, 8 May 86) 388 RIZOSPASTIS Interviews Arbatov on Chernobyl (Georgiy Arbatov; RIZOSPASTIS, 11 May 86) 389 'Anarchists' Hold Antinuclear Demonstrations (Athens Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 390 - y - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Film Showing Chernobyl Fire Said To Be 'Fraud' (ANSA, 14 May 86) 391 Caorso Nuclear Plant To Close 10 Days for Repairs (ANSA, 14 May 86) 391 IBERIAN PENINSULA -ITALY NORWAY Newspapers Carry Wide-Ranging Editorial Comment (Various sources, various dates) 392 Iodine, Caesium Traces Found; No Danger (Lisbon Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 392 Radioactive Iodine Found in Urine Samples (AFP, 8 May 86) 393 Craxi Received Gorbachev Message on Incident (Rome International Service, 7 May 86) 394 Radioactive 'Cloud' Expected To Leave Late 7 May (ANSA, 7 May 86) 394 Agricultural Losses Costly; Protest March Planned (ANSA, 8 May 86) 395 Craxi: Situation Will 'Return to Normal' Soon (ANSA, 10 May 86) 395 Further on Gorbachev Message to Craxi on Chernobyl (ANSA, 8 May 86) 396 Soviet Freighter Isolated Due to Radioactivity (AFP, 9-10 May 86) 396 Second Ship Checked Third Freighter Held EEC Ban on Food Imports Rejected as 'Too Stringent' (AFP, 11 May 86) 397 Norwegian Envoy Protests Chernobyl Handling (AFTENPOSTEN, 30 Apr 86) 398 USSR Envoy Briefs Willoch on Chernobyl Incident (Arne Halvorsen; ARBEIDERBLADET, 2 May 86) 398 - z - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 SPAIN SWEDEN FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Antinuclear Protests Increase After Chernobyl (Madrid Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 399 Madrid Reports Radiation Levels in Catalonia (Madrid Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 399 Politicians React to Chernobyl Incident (Willy Silberstein; SVENSKA DAGBLADET, 30 Apr 86) 400 Ban on Food From E. Europe Temporarily Lifted (Stockholm Domestic Service, 5 May 86) 401 Energy Minister, USSR Envoy Cited on Chernobyl (Willy Silberstein; SVENSKA DAGBLADET, 2 May 86) 401 Concern Expressed Over 2d Chernobyl AES Reactor (Stockholm Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 402 Editorial on Uncertainty, Danger of Nuclear Power (DAGENS NYHETER, 2 May 86) 402 Birgitta Dahl on Chernobyl, Domestic Nuclear Program (SVENSKA DAGBLADET, 30 Apr 86) 403 Chernobyl-Type Reactor Operating in Lithuania (Stockholm Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 404 Finland Reportedly Maintains Silence Over Chernobyl (Stockholm Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 404 National Radiation Levels Continue Falling (Stockholm International Service, 8 May 86) 405 Plutonium Traced in Radioactivity Over Sweden (Stockholm Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 405 Gotland Tests Show High Radioactive Iodine in People (Stockholm Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 405 Radioactive Values on Food Lowered to EEC Levels (Stockholm Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 406 Austria's Gratz on Nuclear Power Agreements (Reinhard Krause; Stockholm Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 406 - aa - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 SWITZERLAND TURKEY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Zurich Paper Reports on 'Strongest' Pollution (NEUE ZUERCHER ZEITUNG, 7 May 86) 407 Atomic Agency Says No Danger of Radioactivity (Ankara Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 408 Ministry Reports Radioactivity-Free Produce (Ankara Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 408 UNITED KINGDOM MP's Debate Ban on E. Europe Food Imports (PRESS ASSOCIATION, 8 May 86) 409 Howe Warns Against Using Chernobyl as Propaganda (PRESS ASSOCIATION, 4 May 86) 410 Labour Leader Asks Gorbachev for Details (PRESS ASSOCIATION, 1 May 86) 411 Radiation Levels Around Nation Summarized (Don Philpott; PRESS ASSOCIATION, 8 May 86) 411 British Groups Note Many Nuclear Plants 'Unsafe' (TASS, 7 May 86) 412 Ballet Troupe Cancels Moscow-Leningrad Tour (TASS, 9 May 86) 413 OTHER COUNTRIES AFGHANISTAN BAKHTAR Criticizes Western 'Hullaballoo' (BAKHTAR, 7 May 86) 414 ARGENTINA Nuclear Experts Stress Security in Plants (DYN, 7 May 86) Passengers Tested for Radioactivity on Arrival (BUENOS AIRES HERALD, 7 May 86) Atomic Commission Chief Says Nuclear Plants Safe (TELAM, 8 May 86) bb - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 415 415 416 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 BAHRAIN BRAZIL FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Official Cites Area Countries on 'Natural' Radiation (WAKH, 8 May 86) 417 Professor Reports 'Normal Radiation Levels' (GULF DAILY NEWS, 11 May 86) 417 Incoming Airplanes Checked for Radioactivity (Rio de Janeiro Radio Globo Network, 6 May 86) 418 Experts Say Radioactive Cloud Approaching (EFE, 8 May 86) 418 Professor Calls for Changes in Nuclear Program (Sao Paulo Radio Bandeirantes, 8 May 86) 419 'No Risk' Radioactive Cloud Awaited in '10 to 30 Days' (Brasilia Radio Nacional da Amazonia Network, 13 May 86) 419 PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA USSR Rejects West's Criticism on Chernobyl (XINHUA, 7 May 86) 420 XINHUA Roundup on Chernobyl Incident (XINHUA Domestic Service, I May 86) 420 Chernobyl Mishap Will Not Affect Nuclear Plans (XINHUA, 9 May 86) 421 Military Scientist on Nuclear Power Development (Kung Shuangyin; TA KUNG PAO, 10 May 86) 422 COSTA RICA EGYPT GHANA USSR's Ryuytel on 'Exaggerated' Reports (Danilo Antunez, Nery Artiaga; Tegucigalpa Cadena Audio Video, 7 May 86) 423 Country Reportedly Free of Radiation Contamination (MENA, 7 May 86) 424 Daily Criticizes U.S. Gloating Over Chernobyl (Accra Domestic Service, 9 May 86) 425 - cc - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 HONG KONG ISRAEL JAPAN JORDAN FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Slight Increase in Radiation Levels Detected (Hong Kong Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 426 Health Ministry Withholds Radiation Statistics (Jerusalem Domestic Service, 7 May 86) 427 USSR Delegation Arrives, Comments on Chernobyl (Jerusalem Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 427 Radiation Tests To Be Halted Due to Low Levels (Jerusalem Domestic Service, 8 May 86) 428 Tokyo Summit Urges More Information on Chernobyl (KYODO, 6 May 86) 429 'Mild Radioactivity' Found in Milk in West 1 (AFP, 6 May 86) 430 Prefectures Report 'Unharmful' Radiation in Food (KYODO, 7 May 86) 430 Radioactivity Found on Returning Kiev Tourists (KYODO, 5 May 86) 431 Visiting Kovalenko Denounces U.S. 'Propaganda' (KYODO, 8 May 86) 431 Agency To Check East European Food for Radiation (KYODO, 9 May 86) 432 Computer System To Evaluate Chernobyl Accident (ASAHI EVENING NEWS, 12 May 86) 432 Milk Contaminated With Iodine 131 in Nagasaki (KYODO, 15 May 86) 433 Soviet Tourist Office Stresses USSR Travel Safe (KYODO, 15 May 86) 433 Minister on Steps To Ensure Radiation-Free Imports (PETRA-JNA, 10 May 86) Imported Meat Tested; Free of Radiation (PETRA-JNA, 11 May 86) - dd - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 434 434 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 REPUBLIC OF KOREA KUWAIT LEBANON FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Radioactive Dust Detected in Rainwater (AFP, 6 May 86) 435 Precise Security Checks Due on Five Nuclear Reactors (YONHAP, 7 May 86) 435 Chernobyl Poses No 'Serious Dangers' for Area (KUNA, 6 May 86) 437 Ambassador Says Students in Kiev Safe, Happy (KUNA, 6 May 86) 437 Health Officials Say No Radiation Contamination (Voice of Lebanon, 7 May 86) 438 Food Imports From 7 East European Countries Banned (Voice of Lebanon, 10 May 86) 438 MALAYSIA Nuclear Unit Monitoring Chernobyl Effects (Kuala Lumpur Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 439 MONGOLIAN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC Condolences Sent to USSR on Chernobyl Accident (MONTSAME, 5 May 86) 440 NEW ZEALAND Columnist Sees Chernobyl Supporting Labor Government (Tony Garnier; THE EVENING POST, 6 May 86) 441 NIGERIA Government Sends Condolences to USSR on Explosion (Lagos Domestic Service, 6 May 86) 443 Guarantee on Safety of Citizens Requested (AFP, 6 May 86) 443 Radio Examines Chernobyl Accident, Nuclear Reactors (Lagos Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 444 - ee - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PAKISTAN PANAMA Editorial Views Lessons Involved in Nuclear Energy (DAWN, 1 May..86),?.?, ,, ? o ? e. oo vi 000 ; 00000 ? e.; 0000 445 ? , Physicist Comments on Western Lies About Chernobyl PHILIPPINES QATAR (TASS, 6 May 86) 0000 446 Group Formed To Monitor Radiation Levels (DZFM Radio, 5.M4T8,6) 447 Chernobyl RadioactiveJ'allout Reaches Nation (AFP, 8 May 86) 447 Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout Level 'Minimal' (BUSINESS DAY, 9 May 86) 448 Commission Says Chernobyl Fallout Not Health Hazard (PNA, 13 May 86) 448 Official Says Nation 'Not Affected by Radiation' (WAKH, 7 May 86) 449 University Studies Show No 'Abnormal' Radiation (WAKH, 12 May 86) 449 SAUDI ARABIA Incident Said To Pose No Danger to Kingdom TAIWAN (SPA, 7 May 86) 450 Ministry Bans Food Imports From West Europe (SPA, 12 May 86) 450 Royal Approval for Ban on Food Imports (Riyadh Domestic Service, 14 May 86) 450 Nuclear Plants Under Strict Safety Control (CNA, 5 May 86) Measures Ordered Against Chernobyl-Type Accident (CNA, 8 May 86) - ff - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 451 451 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Premier Yu Seeks Chernobyl Report, Safety Assurance (CHINA POST, 9 May 86) 452 ? No Radioactive Contamination in Imported Food' (CNA, 14 May 86) 452 TRINIDAD-TOBAGO. GUARDIAN Criticizes USSR on Lack of Information (CANA, 6 May 86) 453 VIETNAM Han9,1 Says U.S. 'Exploiting' Chernobyl Accident (Hanoi International Service, 6 May 86) 454 WESTERN PACIFIC' AFP Sums Up Asian Reaction.to Chernobyl Accident .(Peter Mackler; AFP, 13 May 86) 455 'ZAIRE First State Commissioner Receives Soviet Ambassador (Kinshasa Domestic Service, 13 May 86) 457 /6091 _ gg - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ...ex a R.?arta.. t..hor.... 1/1111. WORK CONTINUES ON CONSTRUCTION OF CHERNOBYL'SKAYA AES Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No 4, Apr 81 pp 2-6 [Article by candidate of technical sciences V. S. Konviz: "The Second Phase of the Chernobyl'skaya AES"] [Text] At the present time, work is being conducted at the site of the Chernobyl'skaya AES on installations of the second phase of construction, while the third phase has already been begun. The second phase will have the same output as the first, which was basically completed in 1978 and which has two generating sets with 1,000-MW RBMK [high-output, channel-type] reactors. With the commission- ing of this second phase, the electric station's output will reach 6 million kW. Since matters regarding the design and construction of the first phase of the Chernobyl'skaya have been systematically covered [1-4], we will note only the high operational characteristics of this electric power station. No more than six months are required to bring power units with RBMK-1000 reactors up to rated power. As early as a year after the reactors were brought up to rated power, the utilization factor of their rated capacity reached 75 percent, while the operational readiness factor exceeded 90 percent. The basic production equipment utilized in the first power units is being installed in the second phase of the AES. In the design of the second phase, however, the speed of response and the perform- ance of the reactor's emergency cooling systems have been considerably improved. For complete condensation of steam leaking from the circuit during possible emer- gencies associated with a rupture of the largest pipes in the loop used for circu- lation of the heat-transfer medium, provisions have been made for a bubbler basin located directly under the rigid leakproof chambers of the heat-transfer medium circulation loop. Steam can be taken up into this basin in case the main safety valves on the steam lines are actuated. Such a solution excluded the necessity of installing bubblers in the machine room with its complicated assembly of medium- pressure pipelines. The reliability of the electric circuits and the power supply systems for internal AES needs has been improved. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: -61A--RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 The performance of the central heating installation has been increased almost two- fold (to 1,470 GJ/h) which will make it possible to provide heat to population cen- ters located in the immediate vicinity of the AES, to hothouses, etc. In the design, a great deal of attention has been devoted to questions of protecting the environment. We-will note in particular that the efficiency of the purifying equipment has been increased as well as that of the systems for suppressing the radioactivity of aerosol wastes and for special water purification. The capacity of sewage decontamination equipment has been doubled and provisions have been made for final purification of sewage in sand filters. Atomic electric power stations in general and those with RBMK reactors in particular belong to the most labor-intensive installations in power-plant construction. In connection with this, designers and builders devote a great deal of attention to the problem of i'echiCing the labor expended during the installation of construction and installation operations. At atomic electric power stations with RBMK reactors, the most labor-intensive oper- ation is the construction of massive concrete safety structures. Since these elec- tric stations are single-circuit, such structures are characteristic not only of the reactor chamber and special buildings at the construction site, but also of the machine room where the turbine unit, condenser-purifier, condenser-supply cir- cuit and deaerator are enclosed by massive concrete shielding. During the construction of the first phase of the Chernobyliskaya AES, the protec- tive structures were made from cast-in-situ reinforced concrete. The complexity of erecting these structures increased because it was impossible to use large- diameter sheathing and difficult to insure a good-quality facing surface due to the large number of engineering shafts and embedded structural elements. Associated with this, about 200,000 m2 of concrete surface on each power unit had to be plas- tered before the special protective covering was applied. A considerable portion of the partitions and walls were made from brick and these were also plastered. In order to reduce the amount of labor expended and the length of time needed to erect such structures, it was necessary during the second phase of the construction of the AES to make maximum utilization of precast and prefabricated cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural members as well as to reduce the number of individu- ally standing buildings at the construction site and the number of operational lines between them and the main building. However, the complex configuration of the framework of the AES buildings and the lack of standardization in structural dimen- sions have hindered the application of precast and prefabricated cast-in-situ struc- tural elements. The ordering of three-dimensional layout solutions for the main building was complicated by the fact that the selection of the basic production equipment and the arrangement of the nuclear steam-generating installation in the second phase of construction had to be retained without changes, that is, the same as in the previous stage. It was particularly. difficult to do this in the reactor section, since the reactor units, the special water-purification unit separating them and the repair unit had different three-dimensional layouts and were constructed from different structural elements. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 The overall width of the reactor unit (72 m) and ,the width of its central room (24 m) were used as the determining dimensions in the designs Of the reactor . sections. The reactor units (retaining the layout of the nuclear assembly and the transportation equipment) were turned to face one another. The remaining systems of the reactor section were located between them with all dimensions in the plan reduced to the dimensions of the construction grid by Sfactor of 3 m. At the same time, the equipment for special water purification and the gas systems were located in the lower portion of the building. The-repair shops for "dirty" equipment in the middle section and the exhaust ventilating system with compartments for filters and the unit for suppressing the radioactivity of aeroSol,wastes.(UPAK), previously located in a separate building, were located.in'the upper portion. Immediately over the exhaust fan station on the roof of the building was installed a ventilation stack: Such a solution eliminated the necessity of constructing cum- bersome ventilation boxes on the bridge between the main building, the ventilation stack and the UPAK. A transport-engineering corridor was made along the outer perimeter of the reactor section at a height of 12.5 m. Large-scale equipment can be brought in along this corridor into the repair area and up to the rail approaches. As we already know, the bedplate for the reactor section in the first phase of the AES was lowered to a depth of 8m, while large areaways were situated even lower, to a depth of 13.5 m. Only after installing these areaways, which took more than six months, were we able to get on with erecting the reactor unit proper. Consider- able difficulties arose during the waterproofing of the building's underground con- tour, upon which great demands are made. In the design for the main building in the second phase of the AES, the flat bed- plate of the reactor compartment was put on the same level as the areaways. The entire building was raised over the level of the ground water, in connection with which the height of ?the building's above-ground portion was increased. The new layout of the main building provides for locating immediately alongside its rear facade the reservoirs for collecting the drain water, tanks for clean and contaminated condensate, a number of auxiliary systems which previously had been located on the production platform as well as newly created quick-response emergency cooling systems for the reactors. Out of the special structures on the production platform, only the storage facility for radioactive wastes with its bitumenizing apparatus, connected to the main build- ing by a transport and engineering bridge, is located separately. As a-result, the so-called "dirty" zone with its several small free-standing buildings and struc- tures has been eliminatedJrom the general layout of the production platform. As was already noted, in the new layout for the reactor compartment we have managed to regulate considerably the dimensions of the individual compartments and the floor plan of the building as a whole. The vertical, dimensions of the majority of com- partments, however, were not changed due, to the necessity of retaining, the arrange- ment of the reactor unit,while.they, as a rule, do not correspond ,to the dimensions of a standard construction. grid. In connection with this, we were not able to use 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 14012 1114,1(1AI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 standard Glavenergostroyprom structural elements for the framework of the building, the walls and partitions. The three-dimensional layout of the machine room and the deaerator stacks have not undergone any serious changes. In order to increase the fire-resistance of and decrease the amount of metal used in the frame of the deaerator stacks, the frame is made of precast reinforced concrete and not of metal, as was done in the first phase. All the elements in the frameworks of the main buildings and a great many of the walls, partitions and sheathing to a depth of 500 mm, which had previously been made from cast-in-situ reinforced concrete or brick, were also designed from precast ieinforced concrete. Massive structural elements for the walls and sheathing of more than 500 mm thickness are envisaged as being made from prefabricated cast- in-situ reinforced concrete In such structures with ribbed reinforced form panels. At the same time, engineering and cable shafts as well as embedded parts in such structures were standardized and adapted for factory manufacture. Below are shown the volumes of the reinforced concrete structural elements (in thousands of m3) for the main buildings of the first and second phases (in the numerator and denominator, respectively) of the Chernobyliskaya AES: Precast concrete and reinforced concrete 44/102 Cast-in-situ concrete 87/132 Cast-in-situ reinforced concrete: bedplates 46/46 walls and sheathing 110/28 It can be seen from the data cited that we have managed to reduce the volume of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete in the main building in the second phase by a fac- tor of 2.2, retaining it primarily in the building's foundation. At the same time, more than 85 percent of the precast reinforced concrete was used for the necessary special shielding and finishing of the concrete surfaces which, when the structural elements had been made from cast-in-situ reinforced concrete, required preliminary preparation (plastering, float-work, etc.). As was already noted, we were unable in the design of the second AES phase to re- strict the use of mass-produced and standardized reinforced-concrete structural elements from USSR Minenergo catalogues. Out of the total volume of precast concrete and reinforced concrete, 27,500 m3 (26 percent) were used for standard structural elements and 16,800 m3 (16 percent) for standardized reinforced form panels, while the rest went for nonstandard elements. In order to make it possible to produce these elements, we had to modify the exist- ing equipment and construct some new. The total number of such elements exceeded 26,000; about 200 types of forms were required for their manufacture. Such a number of standard sizes creates considerable difficulties in the production of structural elements from precast reinforced concrete and in making structures with them. Thus, during the development of a standardized design for power units with RBMK reactors, it was necessary to find a possible way of making the build- 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 CUID fICCIC"I A I I 1CV flATI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ings correlate more exactly with the standard construction grid, even if it meant altering the layout of the technological equipment or slightly increasing the dimensions of the main building. The use of nonstandard elements of precast reinforced concrete, however, made it possible to reduce noticeably the labor expended directly on the construction site and to increase the speed with which the buildings were erected. The utilization of massive prefabricated cast-in-situ structural elements made with the use of standardized reinforced form panels proved to be most effective. Thus, during the construction of the first two phases of the power units at the Chernobyl'skaya and Kurskaya AES's, the unit labor expenditures for the erection of the wall structural elements of almost 1,000-mm thickness from cast-in-situ rein- forced concrete reached 2-12.5 ban-days/kW. When using the same structural elements made from prefabricated cast-in-situ reinforced concrete, the unit labor expenditure amounted to only 1 man-day/kW (0.4 man-days/kW just for installation and about 0.6 man-days/kW for manufacturing under plant conditions and for assembly of the rein- forced form blocks and mounting of the embedded parts at the construction site). The use of prefabricated cast-in-situ structural elements has also made it possible to reduce two-fold the expenditure of machine time on the installation of the blocks, reinforcing rods, forms and the delivery of concrete to the structure. All of this has made it possible to increase considerably the speed with which the wall structures are erected. For example, the average monthly rate for erection of these structural elements in the reactor units of the first phase amounted to 1.5 to 2 m and only reached 4 m in certain months. During the installation of the third reactor unit the rate was 3.2 m, while in the first six months of 1980 it rose to 7 m. In the final analysis, the increase in the speed with which the wall structural elements in the reactor compartments were erected provided a reduction in the total duration of AES construction, since the construction work in building these compart- ments is on the critical path of the combined construction network schedule. Comparative data (in percentages) regarding the duration and labor expenditure of these construction operations in the reactor compartment of the third (denominator) and first (numerator) power units are presented below. Duration of construction, months (percent) Overall labor expenditure for construction operations from the labor expended on the construction of the third power unit Including: for erecting basic structures for operating and servicing the construction machinery and mechanisms in ancillary manufacture, service and other facilities 5(240)/21(100) 180/100 134/100 171/100 228/100 We must agree that the reduction in the duration of construction within the period indicated was obtained not only as a result of the application of new technological 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OF FICIA I I ICP_niii v Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 solutions,., ,A comparative analysis of the erection schedules for the first and sec- ond power unitsof the first phase shows that even with the old design solutions the duration of this stage Of the work was reduced by a factor of, 1.3 to 1.5 due to an improvement in the organization of construction, accumulated experience and stabilization of the collective. Upon analysis of the labor, expenditures, it must be taken into consideration that the number of cranes .and machines in the main building and on the platforms for assembly of the structural elements was increased during the construction of the third power unit, whereas the total labor expenditure for servicing the construction machines was reduced considerably due to the sharp reduction in the duration of the construction. That the reduction in the duration of construction, was particularly effective can be seen in the reduction ;of Labor expenditures in ancillary manufacture, services and other facilities (by,a factor of 2.3). The experience acquired by this time in the construction of AES's shows the practi- cability of further improvement of prefabricated cast-in-situ structural elements and the method of manufacturing and installing reinforced form panels and blocks made from them.. In, particular, it has become possible to 4o away with pool welding of the working fittings and thus eliminate seams between the panels in such lightly reinforced, 'structural elements as the turbine boxes and condenser-purifiers as well as in certain wall structural elements, in the deaerator stack,, the reactor compart- ment and the liquid waste reservoir., Figure 3 shows a prefabricated cast.-in-situ reinforced, concrete wall structural element made using reinforced form panels without battens. It is expected that the labor expended in erecting such structural elements will decrease by another 20 to 25 percent in comparison with the method already mastered. Of the intrinsic shortcomings in the design of the main building of AES's with RMBK- type reactors, we must note the considerable overall dimensions of the building and the difficulty in creating such a building with even the most powerful cranes with long boom extensions, such as the BK-1000 and SKR-2200. In the standardized designator AES's with RBMK-1500 reactors in which plans have been made to divide the reactor compartments into several blocks with a common machine room, it is necessary that we work together with the builders to develop the placement and optimal selection of cranes. It is also necessary to envision the feasibility of fitting out the construction site with a sufficient number of concrete pumps with controlled concrete-directing manipulators in order to free the .cranes from delivering conCrete mix to the struc- tures. . It is difficult to provide a reliable evaluation of the reduction in labor expended on the installation operations before construction is completed on the third power unit of the Chernobyl'skaya AES. According to preliminary data, it will be lower than the figure for the construction of the first power unit by approximately 30 percent. In connection with this, we must mention first of all the constant work 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ?Ve.421, Askemmt. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 being done by specialists of the Yuzhteploenergomontazh trust On improving the technique of assembling and installing the reactor as well as.on increasing the amount of assembly of pipeline systems outside the structure.1 There is considerable potential for reducing the labor expenditures in the ventila- tion systems and air ducts. In the new designs, over 80 percent of the air ducts are of circular section, which makes it possible to make them with spiral seams, using high-output equipment. We have not yet managed-, however, to solve the prob- lem of obtaining high-output ventilation equipment Assembled into units and cham- bers for AES's currently under construction.: In addition to this, it must be noted that at the present time in the USSR Minenergo system special enterprises are being built which will manufacture venti- lation system elements as well as outfit and assemble the ventilation equipment. In connection with the increased reliability of electric power supply systems for domestic consumers, the redundancy of cable communications and the growth in the level of automation of production processes, new AES designs provide for a consid- erable increase in the amount of electric wiring. Since up to now it has not been uncommon for panelboard hardware to arrive at the construction site with a low de- gree of factory preparation and for this hardware to be finished during installa- tion as a result of changes in the design, it is necessary to direct particular attention in new AES designs to the improvement of design decisions and a reduction in the labor expended during electric wiring operations. At the same time, we must increase our demands on the electrical equipment industry in part to reduce the overall dimensions of the equipment, to improve its reliability, completeness and the degree of factory preparation. 1. For more details see the article by A. M. Usik, A. G. Lyubenko, Yu. Lozovskiy and V. D. Deygraf: "Installation of the Steam-Generating Unit of the Third Power Unit at the Chernobyl'skaya AES", published in this issue. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Konviz, V. S., "Design and Construction of the Kurskaya ancLChernobyl'skaya AES 's," ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO,No 8, 1974. 2. Braude, V. M., Skhodkin, P. K., Konviz, V. S., and Kirillov, A. P., "Basic Directions for Increasing the Efficiency of Construction," .ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVQ, No 8, 1974. 3. Konviz, V. S., and Semenov, V. P., "Reduction of Labor Expenditures and the Duration of Construction During the Design of Atomic Electric Power Stations with RBMK Reactors," ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITECSTVO, $6.11, 1977. 4. Lukov, I. P., "Organization of Construction at the ChernobYl'skaya AES," ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 11, 1977. COPYRIGHT: Energoizdat, "Energeticheskoye stroitel'stvo", 1981 9512 CSO: 1822/147 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Upc_62,1411.22.002:51;00,1.42 PARTICULARS OF STARTUP, ADJUSTMENT ON THIRD GENERATING UNIT OF CHERNOBYL AES Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No. 6, Jun 83 pp 50-54 [Article by Ye. M. Levin and M. G. Kremer'', engineers] [Text] In contrast to the first phase of Chernobyl AES, a number of new sys- tems have been incorporated in the design of the second phase. For example, a bubbler pool has been included for steam condensation with a break in the lines of the multiple forced circulation loop, and also for dump- ing steam after the main safety valves. All components of the multiple forced circulation,loop with the exception of the bubbler separators, steam-waterlines and:fh&lipper part of the downcomer lines are accommodated in a gas-ftght. box (Fig!: 1), The lower water lines are accommodated in a box under the reactor. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of gas-tight box: 1, 8--gas-tight box (emergency and non-emergency halves respectively); 2--downcomer lines; 3--collectors of main circulating pumps; 4--distributing group collectors; 5--lower water line compartment; 6--reactor; 7--safety valve; 9--main circulating pump; 10--main circulating pump lines; 11--bypass valve; 12--check valve panel; 13--lower water line check valve; 14--overflow tube; 15--surface type heat exchangers; 16--steam dump lines following main safety valves; 17--bubbler tank 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A sprinkler-cooling system consisting of three independent subsystems (two work- ing and one reserve) is, provided for cooling the air of the gas-tight box en- closures during normal operation, and for carrying off heat after an accident. Each of the subsystems includes a Pump and a heat exchanger. The pump collects water from the bubbler pool through a.heat exchanger, and feeds it to the collec- tors of the sprinkler-cooling system, and also to the ventilator ejectors of the gas-tight box. A systen. is ,also provided for drawing off hydrogen from the upper part of the bubbler pool; steam-distribution corridor, lower Tdater line box, gas-tight box and the vapor-gas barrier. Another distinguishing feature is the reactor aftercooling system that feeds water into the reactor core when there is a break in lines of the multiple forced circulation loop. 11 TT Fig. 2. _Schematic diagram of reactor aftercooling system: 1--separator drum; 2--main circulating pump; 3--process valve; 4--distributing group collector; 5--deaerator; 6-- electric feeder pump; 7--water tank; 8--bubbler pool; 9--pumps for cooling emergency half of reactor; 10-- clean .condensate tank; 11--pumps for cooling non-emergency half of reactor The reactor aftercooling system (Fig. 2) consists of two tank subsystems and a pumping section. The tank subsystems in combination with the subsystem for water supply by electric feeder pumps make up the main part of the reactor aftercooling system, and supply the necessary amount of water to the emergency half of the reactor during the initial period -- until the diesel generator system is activated. The latter keeps the systems operating, supplying the necessary amount of cooling water to the emergency and non-emergency halves of the reactor. -Each tank subsystem consists of six tanks with volume of 25 cu.. m each; filled with water (14 cu. m) and nitrogen -(11 cu. m) under pressure of 10 MPa. 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The pump section of the reactor aftercooling system includes three groups of PE-250-75 high-pressure pumps (two pumps and one heat exchanger in each group). The pumps collect water from the bubbler pool through the heat exchanger and feed it to the distributing groub collectors of the emergency half of the reac- tor. Waw is supplied to the non-emergency half by three PE-250-75 pumps. These cool the channels of this half through the distributing group collectors with water from clean condensate tanks. The second phase of the Chernobyl AES uses a structural member cooling system. This system is made up of two D-320-70 pumps,. main pipelines and cooling`water -pipe shields that keep the concrete surface at the required temperature. A device is provided that removes air from the shields during initial filling? with water, and simultaneously provides temperature compensation for water vol- umes. An altered packing supply system has been used in connection with use of the TsVN-8 as the main circulating pump with end packing and low flowrates of seal- ing water. On the first generating, unit, the water source for flushing and water testing was used as this system. Considerable configurational changes have been made in the system for collect- ing, treating and returning water, which is located in the main building, con- siderably reducing the volume of flushing lines in the tank section as compared with the first generating unit. The system of emergency steam dumping following the main safety valves has been combined with the accident-localization system, considerably reducing the volume of lines on the deaerator staging. As a result of analysis of the design and experience in utilizing the_first generating units, installation of flow-control diaphragms on the main steam lines preceding the turbine has been eliminated. This in turn has eliminated the necessity of water flushing. Calculations done in the course of developing several versions of purging steam lines with 600 mm diameter have shown that the steam flowrate through the purged steam line should be 800 metric tons per hour for effective purging at a pressure of 2 MPa in the separators. In the process'of calculating line- by-line purging, specialists considered the possibility of misalignment of the separators of one group due to tbe pressure difference in them caused by sepa- rate line-by-line release of steam from each separator. According to calcu- lations, a pressure differential of 0.005 MPa causes the reactor protection ' to operate. The collective of the startup and adjustment brigade suggested purging the steam lines with compressed air at pressure up to 3 MPa in the following manner. -.Compressed air at high pressure (pr=200 MPa) is pumped from a compressor into the. steam lines together with the separators half-filled with water, after which the main steam gates are opened in the proper order, and the lines are purged through a temporary line open to the atmosphere. 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Air purging' in combination with turbine startup in an arrangement of dumping the Main condensate in'a burial ground shortens:the duration of startup and adjustment work On the concluding stage. -(Since such purging is, done up to physical startup of the reactor), and alsoreduces, water:losses before starting the turbine, :and thereby improves water conditions thanks to an increase in the duration of startup for dumping. However, for a number of reasons (rela- tively complicated routing of these steam lines, lack of experience in air pur- ging of steam lines and lack of criteria for quality evaluation, complexity of ensuring: air=tightness of multiple farced'circulation loop and steam lines, positive experience with steam purging, feasibility of bringing the reactor tip t0'25% of the rated power for parallel purging of two steam lines), it was decided to:purge-the live steam lines With steam of the reactor itself. It should be noted that air-purging and steam-purging arrangements are almost the same. Considering a possible shortage of chemically desalinated water, as well as the fact that no provision was made for increasing productivity of chemical water purification in expanding Chernobyl AES, a clean condensate tank and a liquid waste storage tank with total volume of 8000 cu. m were connected to the third generating unit during startup and adjustment. In operation of the system for makeup of clean condensate tank No 2 of the sec- ond phase from the first, there remains the possibility of makeup from the chemical water purification unit to clean condensate tank No 1 of the first phase. The productivity of makeup from clean condensate tank No 1 may reach 250 cu. m per hour (according to hydraulic calculations) instead of 100 cu. m per hour from the chemical water purification unit. There was also a change in the design routing of the chemically desalinated water line (over external trestles with heated satellites). As in the first generating units, this line was run inside the main building. The 1.3 MPa steam line for startup and adjustment work was connected to a jumper line between' the reduced steam line of the fast-action reducer of the third and fourth generating units (the steam line from the reserve startup boiler room was run differently from the plan, i. e. not over heat-line tres- tles of the second phase, which are not part of the starting complex, but over a technological trestle with consideration of the 1.3 MPa steam lines of the first phase on this trestle). Thus, a solution was found for the problem of supplying,steam for the needs of the fourth generating unit as well. As a result of plan elaboration, technology was developed for startup and ad- justment work on the third generating unit. The proposed duration for startup and adjustment on this unit was longer than on the first two, which can be at- tributed to the complexity of the systems being flushed and the configuration. For example, inspection of large-diameter pipelines_of the multiple forced cir- culation loOp_after flushing requires opening the suction and pressure gates of the main circulating pump with diameter of 800 mm, and penetrating through them into blind sections, whereas on the first pbase the inspection was done from the collectors of these lines. According to rough calculations, it takes 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 100 hours to open the gates, which involves hydraulic testing and sealing. The duration of flushing the lines of the multiple forced circulation loop with high-Speed flushing of Process valves is increased because of the branched reactor aftercooling system with updated tank system. Since some of the lines of the multiple forced circulation loop are accommodated in the gas-tight box, it was decided to do away with installing temporary pipelines for dumping the multiple forced circulation loop rinse water, and to do the dumping right into the bubbler pool. The water for high-speed rinsing ofthe process valves Was fed into the distributing group Collector through lines for purging the dead-end Zone by the pumps for cooling the non-emergency half of the reactor connected in a tem- porary arrangement. The same pumps are used for preliminary hydraulic tests. For hydraulic testing of lines for a pressure of more than 10 MPa, the regular hydraulic testing unit in the reactor department is used, which has a heat ex- changer for heating the water. During startup and adjustment work in the reactor department, the gas-tight box was pressurized before warming up the reactor. This is Mainly associated with adjustment of the main safety valves. To verify work on arranging pas- sages in the gas-tight box, maps of the location Of passages Were made on each wall with schedules of completion of remaining construction and:' erection Work. The following job sequence on the gas-tight box was determined: visual inspection of all walls as construction and erection-jobs were done., as well'as checking with the use of vacuum pumps; petting up a vacuum in the gas-tight box to a pressure of 100 mm water gage by temporary connection of existing ventilation systems, and using a flame tester to check for leaks from inside; pumping air into the gas-tight box from a compressor station with elimination of the flaws detected in this way, and with subsequent check on the pressure drop in the box; a temporary line is connected through the system of water sup- ply to the bubbler pool to feed air from the compressor station to the gas- tight box. It should be noted that inclusion of the bubbler pool in the technological ar- rangement of the third generating unit extends the time for completing startup and adjustment as compared with duration on the first generating unit. With consideration of these changes, systems were set up for flushing and purging lines and equipment. After development of standardized flushing sys- tems for the Chernobyl, Smolensk and Kursk AEStsby the adjustment organizations of Tsentroenergomontazh and Yuzhteploenergomontazh trusts, specialists of Gidroproyekt Institute drew up a working plan for temporary pipelines based .on the rough plans of the gas-tight box. It Should be pointed out that development of such plans Is possible only in line with the basic technology for startup Of the generating unit. 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i5.9k ?;5 '40.4 Fig. 3. System for pumping water out of lower compartments: 1--water-jet ejector; 2--pit for drainage tank box; 3--drain pit of machine room basement; 4--waste line; 5--line for filling the facility; 6--4k-90/55 pump; 7--air vent; 8-- tank with volume of 1 cu. m To catty out work in the lower compartments of the generating unit, imprOve tents were Made'in the system for pumping water from the floors (Fig. 3). A distihttive feature of the system is the capability of working without an out- side source of water power for the jet pumps 1. The plan of the facility pro- vides for a tank connected to the fire-flow water system. Water is fed to the jet pumps from the tank by 4k-90/55 pumps, and from there the working ahd,eject- ing water is pressurized into the tank. The excess water is discharged through the overflow line into the storm sewer. Ejectors of the ball'-oleaning system are used as the jet pumps. In the Machine room, there was no alteration of the main equipment for doing startup and adjustment work. Some changes were made in the water-acid flushing technology: hydrogen peroxide was used as the passivator instead of sodium nitrite. In contrast tonitrite passivation, the use of peroxide does not re- quire rinsing the condensate feed channel, and thanks to this there is a re- duction in the consumption of chemically desalinated water on the concluding stage of startup and adjustment. It was proposed that the condensate feed channel be rinsed with industrial water discharged by the condensate pumps of the first stage. Flow-control diaphragms are not installed in the feed water lines during rinsing, and are installed before acid rinsing preceding hydraulic inspection tests. Considerable experience has been accumulated in heat engineering on the use of regular equipment for acid rinsing of the condensate feed channel. On the AES installation, recommendations of appropriate organizations are needed on the use of regular equipment for acid rinsing of this channel. The use of the condensate pumps of the second stage instead of acid rinse pumps will reduce the volume of utilization of temporary lines and cut the cost of the work. Changes were also made in the reagent service. 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY For example, the regular equipment of one of the special chemical water puri- fication systems was used to prepare citric acid and Trilon B. Tanks and pumps of the reagent service of the first phase of the AES are used for storage and transfer of hydrogen peroxide add ammonia. All deaerators of turbine units No 5 and No 6 are connected into the system for acid rinsing the condensate feed channel along with the main condensate channel following the condensate pumps of the second stage. Connection of pipelines and equipment of turbine unit No 6 into the acid rinsing system makes it possible to simplify the last stage of startup and adjustment. The reception facilities for dirty discharged water during the period of startup of the generating unit are the burial ground and, as a reserve, the trap water tanks. These changes that were made in systems and equipment were confirmed by the working plan for temporary pipelines, including supplementary sketches. Startup and adjustment work on the third' generating unit was done in two inde- pendent directions: in the machine room and in the reactor department. The combination of jobs was dictated by joint hydraulic testing of the multiple forced circulation loop and steam lines up to the main steam gates in the ma- chine room, and rinsing of the drum separator feed lines by backflow using an arrangement of water discharge during flushing of the machine room feed lines. By the time of starting the first hydraulic tests in the ractor room, the bubbler pool has been prepared for water reception, the facility for pumping water from the floors on the -6 m level has been connected in the unit of auxiliary reactor department systems, and the intermediate trap water tank with regular pump has been put into operation. The pressure lines from the trap water pump were connected through a temporary line to the industrial storm sewer. The nipples for reception of trap water were capped off in compart- ments that had not been turned over for operative use. To save on chemically desalinated water in rinsing the lines of the reactor aftercooling system, pro- cess channels, steam-water lines and downcomer lines, water being discharged was fed to the bubbler pool or an intermediate trap water tank, and from there to the facility for purifying the bubbler pool water, which was charged with resin in accordance with the technical specifications of the plant. Connection of the intermediate trap water tank to the facility for purification of bubbler pool water was ineffective, as the discharge waters coming into this tank were mixed with waters of the reactor room penetrating into the traps and containing oil, salt and dirt, leading to disconnection of this facility. Following this facility, the water followed the regular circuit into two water reserve tanks for preventive maintenance with volume of 750 cu. m apiece, and three trap water tanks of the same volume, the tanks for planned preventive maintenance and trap water were interconnected by a temporary line. The water accumulating in these tanks was used for rinsing to discharge. No makeup water was fed to the "clean" systems because of the inadequate quality of water purification. Thanks to the use of a system for cleaning discharged rinse water, work in the reactor department was done without interruption. Rinsing of lines of the reactor aftercooling system was done with consideration of the program for testing the system. The temporary line for dumping water from the collectors 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the reactor aftercooling system was actually dismantled during fuel charging, which prolonged the time for completing hydraulic testing of the multiple forced circulation loop. The main steam lines of the generating unit underwent hy- draulic tests jointly with the multiple forced circulation loop. This pre- cluded work on installing and removing high-pressure caps 600 mm in diameter between the steam lines and the multiple forced circulation loop. Hydraulic tests of the multiple forced circulation loop and auxiliary systems were done by using regular equipment. The productivity of the pump station for hydraulic testing of the third generating unit was increased by connection of two pumps of the fourth generating unit. Heating of the main circulating pumps was done by the pumps themselves rather than by an outside source of heat in connection with the fact that its electrical part was prepared for hydraulic testing. To reduce the volume of work involved in hydraulic testing and resto- ration of circuits, all cavitating inserts are installed before rinsing. The rinsing arrangement was put together on the basis of calculation of the setting of cavitating diaphrgams for ensuring the capability of two-way flushing: In the process of rinsing and adjustment of the structural member cooling system some cases of pump stoppage were observed. This was caused by air getting into them due to inefficiency of the system for removing air from the shields. In this connection, a change was made in the arrangement for feeding the water following the shields into the suction collector of the pumps through the tank, allowing removal of air from this system. During installation of the shields of the structural member cooling system they were checked for tightness by compressed air, after which the makeup water was removed, and insulation with facing was then installed on the shields. We must note the necessity of ensuring tightness of the shield system, as it is kept under continuous pressure. Starting and adjustment work is especially complicated on the accident locali- zation system. A combined schedule was used for checking the tightness of the gas-tight box. This schedule was started after finishing the rinsing of the multiple forced circulation loop and before fuel charging. It should be noted that checking the tightness of the bubbler pool before beginning startup and adjustment work on the multiple forced circulation loop is conducive to con- siderable shortening of the startup and adjustment work on the generating unit. Experience has shown that adjustment of the accident localization system must be treated as a major technological operation with completion of startup and adjustment work by the time of hot-rinsing the multiple forced circulation loop. In connection with difficulties that come up in emptying and drying the bubbler pool because of the lack of a drainage system for its compartments, a system of ejector facilities was developed and introduced for removing water from the bottom of the pool. As practice shows, emptying and inspection of the bubbler pool requires a water receiving vessel with volume of up to 5000 cu. m that can also be used as a tank for receiving low-salinity waters and operational effluents from the machine room that have high iron content. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A standardized arrangement using MKS-1000-350 pumps was developed for acid rins- ing of the condensate feed channels. Experience shows that acid rinsing of condensate feed channels shouldibe done no later than one month preceding start- up of the generating unit. The use of nonstandard equipment for acid rinsing of the condensate feed channel and temporary lines, necessitates for its connection subsequent restitution of the' condensate feed channel, trial running of feed pumps., completion Of con- struction_work in the Compartments where the condensate, feed channel' circuits ate-being restored, and' turning them over fox. :operational use. However, it' was not possible to' take the, condensate' or feed pump in the standardized'ar- rangement as the pump for acid rinsing, which would have considerably simpli- fied.the system, because of lack Of recommendations on using the given pumps for:theSe purposes. .Therefore an arrangement was worked out and used On the' third generating unit of circulating hot water-(up to 90?C) through the con- densate feed channel, calling for the use of condensate' pumps of the second stage (TsN-1500-240), and connection Of temporary lines to the suction lines of the electric feeder pumps (Fig. .4), 1 .ff 3 -6 5-- Fig. 4. Schematic ,diagram for rinsing the condensate feed channel with hot water: 1, 2--deaerators for turbine units No 6 and 5 respectively; 3--suction collector of electric feeder pump; 4, 5--second-lift condensate lines of turbine unit No 6 and 5 respectively; 6--condensate pump of turbine unit No 6; 7--feed lines: I--water from clean condensate tank; II--input of reagents; III--discharge to burial ground; IV--inlet of ammonia; V--industrial water for dis- placement of solution; ----temporary lines Circulation through the loop was continued for 12 hours at a water temperature of 75-80?C. The loop was charged with 500 kg of saponifying agent (0P-7). The iron content in the loop before displacement of the solution was 7.1 mg per liter, and after displacement was 5.7 mg/liter. In connection with the fact that the machine room was ready for startup of the generating unit four months before completion of work in the reactor department, it was decided to restore the condensate feed channel circuit'and carry out,, operational acid rinsing (Fig. 5). In accordance with recommendations of par- :ticipants in a conference held at Chernobyl AES, studies were done on the con- struction materials of the electric feeder pump (SNE-1650-75) to determine the feasibility of using these pumps for acid rinsing with a 1% solution of citric acid and.Trilon B. The results of the experiments showed that the structural Materials of the electric feeder pumps have high chemical resistance. 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ? Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of acid rinsing of third gener- ating unit: 1--drum separator feed units; 2, 3--deaerators of turbine units 6 and 5 respectively; 4--feed pumps No 1-5; 5--gate open; 6--gate closed; 7, 8--low-pressure heaters for turbine, units No 6 and 5 respectively; 9, 10--condensate pumps of first stage for turbine units 6 and 5 respectively; 11, 12--condensate cleaner for turbine units No 6 and 5 re- spectively; 13, 14--second-stage condensate pumps for tur- bine units No 6 and 5 respectively; I--1.3 MPa steam for heating; II--inlet of reagents; III--discharge to water cir- culation line; IV--discharge of solution to burial ground; V--discharge of condensate to planned preventive maintenance tank; ----temporary lines In the course of the studies, a technique was worked out for passivating the condensate feed channel with a1% solution of hydrogen peroxide. Such passiva- tion ensures formation of a stable oxide film under operating conditions, obvi- ating the need for rinsing passivation products out of the condensate feed channel before startup of the generating unit, and allows carrying out startup operations with passivating solution in the condensate feed channel. This pas- sivation technique had been accepted. However, in the course of further ex- periments it was learned that the stable protective film in passivation with hydrogen peroxide forms at pH?-9, i. e., ammonia must be added, which means that further rinsing of passivating solution out of the condensate feed channel is required before startup of the generating unit. On the whole, the use of this passivation technique showed that a stable protective film is formed on the metal surface. The second-stage condensate pumps used for hot rinsing, and the-electric.feeder pumps used for acid passivation operated in a stable manner. Spotchecking ? showed no changes associated with acid action on thetal. ? 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE. ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY It should be noted that merely by using regular equipment in acid rinsing, we can reduce the volume of utilization of temporary lines by nearly 15% in startup and adjustment work in the machine room. However, in the case where acid rins- ing is eliminated, the reduction in the mass of temporary lines as a consequence of absence of the temporary arrangement for feeding reagents amounts fo 5% of their total mass. It is preferable to do acid rinsing on odd generating units of AES with RBMK reactors, since they take longer to build than the even units. In all cases, the content of iron oxide on the inside surface of the condensate feed channel lines must be determined during installation and before startup of the gener- ating unit. Experience in startup and adjustment work at Chernobyl AES shows the advisability of acid rinsing of the condensate feed channel by regular equipment, since this permits rinsing of the channel immediately before startup of the generating unit. The main steam lines were purged line by line with initial pressure of 2.5 MPa in the separator drums. No misalignments of the separators were observed, which shows that they had been properly reconfigured. The generating unit was started up with the condensate feed channel in a closed configuration. The condensate was discharged into the burial ground through the condensate purifier bypass. Discharge into trap water tanks was provided as a reserve. AES plans should provide for a vessel to receive operational effluents with high iron content, since not all electric power plants with RBMK reactors have burial grounds. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that engineering preparation before doing startup and adjustment work at Chernobyl AES enabled solution of nearly all problems involved in the technological sequence of carrying out the final erec- tion and construction work, and performance of this work at an accelerated pace. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel stvp, 083. 6610 CSO: 1822/331 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.311.25:621.39 CHERNOBYLvSKAYA.AES THIRD PEASE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian,No I, Jan 84 pp 19-23 [Article by Candidate of Technical Sciences V. S. Konviz and engineer L. V. Golubkoy] ' [Text] Construction of the third unit, which includes two energy assemblies with RBMK-1000 reactors, has begun on the site of the Chernobyl AES. The main- constructions included in this unit (the main building, liquid and solid fuel-waste chimp, diesel power station, nitrogen-oxygen station and so on) are from a standardized design, which is also being realized in construction'ofthe second unit of the Smolensk and of the third. unit -of- the Kursk AES. The industrial site ul the third unit of the Chernobyl AES is located along- sidesthd-industrial sites of the two previous Units on the bank of existing tooling pond. Two cooling towers with productivity of 100,000 m3/hr each, which will operate in parallel with the cooling pond, are being constructed in connection with an increase of the overall capacity of the AES. The electric power of the energy assemblies of the third unit will be gener- ated on a voltage of 750 kV, for which expansion of the ORU [open distributor] of 750 kV of the second unit of the power plant is envisioned,. The existing, but somewhat expanded construction base is being used for con- struction of the new energy assemblies. Since problems of design and construction of the Chernobyl and other AES with RBMK-1000 reactors have been systematically illuminated in the literature [1-4], main attention is being devoted in this article to the new engineering solutions worked out in the standardized design of this type of third-genera- tion AES. The list of the main production equipment, volumetric-configuration and other engineering solutions, developed during design and construction of the second units of the Chernobyl and Kursk AES and of the first unit of the Smolensk AES, was retained as a whole in the new standardized design. 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ,(.t, (..;1 (vu 6') Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ..71 14 ?( i'n,11111;11 1:4, I Layout of Main Building of Third Unit of Chernobyl AES 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 VINO ISI1 1VIDHdO 1103 A- A 71,50 +150,00 37,90 32,70 5 33 3 r t,7/4//.7W?.'% ' 230011 ENCIFANNer 24,00 ,30 P(7) 4 30 0,00 2 SS + 43,00 KINO asa 1VIDI330 110,1 .-5 Figure 2. Cross-Section of Main Building of Third Unit of Chernobyl AES: [Caption continued on following page] 40,7.3 0 -o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Caption continued from preceding page]: 1--graphite stacking of reactor; 2-7--assembled steel sections for reactor; 8--separator drum; 9--main circulating pump; 107-electric motor of main circulating pump; 11--main shutoff valve2 and,13-7, intake and delivery collectors; 14--group delivery tollector;, 15-- lower water suply lines; 16--steam-water supply lines; '17--riser.' pipes; 18--loading-unloading machine; 19, 20?travelling cranes of central room and spaces for main circulating pump; 21, 22-7-forcing _ and exhaust blowers; 23, 24--tank and heat exchanger for organized_ leaks; 25--scheduled repair and preventive maintenance tanks; 26-- check valves of delivery and intake collector Spaces;27--bypass valve of accident localization system; 28, 29?air and water-epaces- of bubbling pond; 30--turbounit; 31--steam superheater-separator;- 32?low-pressure heater; 33--first-rise Condensate pumps; 34--travel- ling crane of machine room; 35--micromodule stacks At the same time, the results of scientific research, developmentand design work carried out during the past few years and the almost 10 years experience in operation of energy assemblies with RBMK-1000 reactors are taken into ac- count in this design. The equipment and engineering systems of the two energy assemblies are located In the combined main building. The reactor blocks (blocks A and B) are insu- lated and block C is located between them (in which the auxiliary production systems, repair shops and exhaust blowers with an installation for suppressing the activity Of gas-aerosol discharges are located); the'machine room aod _micromodule stack are common for the two energy assemblies (Figures 1 and 2). -However, all the production systems, electrical engineering devitee:and con- trol systems for each energy assembly are autonomous.. . The volume of the micromodule stack in the third unit has:been'increased some- what (compared to the second unit of the AES): the electrical engineering de- vices, reserve control panels, centralized monitoring systems, cable spaces, automatic water fire extinguishing units and blowers Are arranged in it. The accident localization systems have been significantly modified-dwthenew design. It became possible to simplify the design of the bubbling pond. as a result of investigations of these systems, now completed, on largel-scele stands of VTI [All-Union Twice Order of Labor Red Banner Heat Engineering Institute] imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy and of full-scale research' conducted: --during startup of the third energy assembly of the Chernobyl' AES and of the first energy assembly of the Smolensk AES. -'The design of the metal seals has been altered with regard to. the possibility of more reliable checking of the tightness of the installation-Weid-seams during construction and operation. The emergency steam relief system from the main safety valves and the ..canfig- uration of its pipelines have been optimized. 'More improved devices using minicomputers have beet used for functional-group 'control of the production systems. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A new automation radiation monitoring system based on the AKRB-06 apparatus was introduced in the energy assemblies of the second unit of the Chernobyl AES. This system is convenient to operate and it is planned to expand its functions in designs of new energy assemblies to increase the degree of auto- mation and online data processing in the production radiation monitoring systems, including the coolant activity monitoring system. Automation of data processing and analysis in the radiation monitoring system of aerosol discharges from the blower pipe is provided. New devices for integrated technological shielding are used in the reactor section and machine room systems. The layout of the internal energy supply has been changed. Some block users of the second group of reliability (the centralized monitoring system, firefighting pumps, some blower units of the reactor section and so on) were connected to the reserve diesel generators in the previously introduced energy assemblies, besides the safety system. Two autonomous diesels with rating of 1,000 kW each are used in the new design to supply energy to these users, which made it possible to simplify considerably the electric supply layout of the safety systems and to increase its reliabil- ity. A logical continuation of this idea is the structural separation of the cable runs for the safety systems and the general block power supply systems. A branched fire extinguishing system, which includes the following, has been developed for AES with channel-type reactors: outside fire extinguishers at the facilities of the industrial site; internal fire extinguishers in the main building with cooling system for the trusses and roof of the machine room; automatic water-spray fire extinguishing in the cable rooms and trans- former rooms. The automatic fire extinguishing system for the cable rooms of the safety sys- tems is related to the support safety systems. The active elements of this system (pumps and starting valves) operate in three independent subsystems, which are connected to three reliable power supply sources (diesel generators). The water supply sources for each subystem are three tanks with capacity of 150 m3 each, filled with water from the general plant firefighting system as needed. The blower systems of the main building, which are very branched and cumber- some at AES with RBMK-1000 reactors, were considerably modified in the new design. The type of these systems is selected as a function of the zone in which the room is located, of the necessary degree of air purification, of the category of reliability and so on. To reduce the total loading of the blower systems, a cooling station has been developed which will deliver cooled water td) the flow-through blower centers, which makes it possible to deliver air with temperature not above 17?C to the main building during hotter months. 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY :-Moreover, it is planned to introduce in the turbine boxes a recirculating air :cooling circuit, which will contribute both to a 4ignifidant decrease of air discharges through the exhaust blowers and to more extensive pUrifidatidn of it. Ait7conditioner sections with VDN.hiih-delivery blowers have been. usedas the main blower equipment of the flow-through ventilation Centers. These sections are produced serially by the Kharkov All-Union Association Konditsioner. SpeciaLattention was. devoted,intlevelopment of the new Standardized design to improvement of structural.members,j The scientific research and caLcUlation-, theoreticalwork, performed Up to the present, made it possible to develop more progressive methods of calculating the complicated volumetric designs, Of the reactor blocks for different types of power and temperature effects - and to reduce appreciably the saturation of the concrete structures with reinforcement. Hinged joints were used in the more stressed frame structures of the main building, which made it possible to reduce significantly the number of compli- cated structural subassemblies without increasing the weight of the frame columns. Thdlistof-precast concrete articles has been reduced due to the use of standardized ribbed reinforced panels as load-bearing elements of heavy pre- cast-monolithic roof slabs. The possibility of extensive use ,of reinforced molded panels wichoutweided joints of the working reinforcement and accordingly without cover Plates has been determined, which should provide a further reduction of the laboriousness of manufacture and installation of these panels. Some ordering of the volumetric-scheduling decisions made it possible to reduce; the list of precast concrete elements in the stairwell-elevator blocks and to use more extensively standard structures of Stair flights and shafts, produced by plants of USSR Minenergo [Ministry of Power and Electrification]. Improvement of design solutions and also realization of a number of organiza- tional and technical measures by construction.and installation organizations during the past few years made it possible to achieve a significant reduction of the laboriousness of construction and installation work in construction of the second unit of the Chernobyl AES. The specific labor expenditures (man-days/kW) in construction of the first and second units of this electric power plant are presented below (in the numera- tor and denominator, respectively): In industrial construction (main production) 2.9/3.1 Including: development of the territory, erection of the construc- tion base, external supply lines and so on 0.48/0.2 erection of the main structures (those used to erect the main building) 2.18(1.62)/1.7(1.2) 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY construction of the circulating water supply system In auxiliary production and service facilities 0.24/0.2 1.1/0.8 The rates of erection of the main structures were increased considerably. Thus, whereas the average rate of construction of the first reactor block (block A) in height was 1.7 m/month, it increased to 3.2 m/month in construc- tion of the third energy unit. A reduction of the length of construction of the main structures led to an appreciable decrease.of the total labor exkenditures in auxiliary.production- and service facilities. As can be seen from the data given above, the spe- cific labor expenditures of this category were reduced by almost 30 percent in construction of'the'second unit (compared to the first unit). It should be expected that implementation of the new engineering decisions adopted in the standardized design of third-generation AES with RBMK-1000 reactors will provide a further reduction of the laboriousness of construc- tion and installation work. BIBLIOGRAPHY . Konviz, V. S., "Design arid Construction.of the Kursk and Chernobyl' AES," ENERGETICHESKOYE ,STROITEL'STVO, No 8,.1974. 2. Konviz, V. S. and. V. P. Semenov, "Reduction of Laboriousness and Length of Construction in Design of Plants with RBMK Reactors," ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 11, 1977. ? 3. Lukov, I. P., "Organization of Construction of the Chernobyl AES," ENER- GETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 11, 1977. 4. Konviz, V. S.,."The Second Unit of the Chernobyl AES," ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 4, 1981. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitelistvo, 1984 6521 CSO: 8144/0297, 25 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 821.311.22.-002,51-57 EMERGENCY LOCALIZATION SYSTEM AT THIRD UNIT OF CHERNOBYL AES ?Mosolow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No.1-, Jan 84 pp 61-63 [Article by engineer Ye. P. Markov, engineer A. N. Yavorskiy,,candidate of technical sciences B. V. Dyadyakin and engineer I. P..Aleksandrov] [Text] The main functional designation of the emergency localization system (SLA) at AES with RBMK-1000 reactors (see figure) is localization of the con- sequences of rupture of pipelines of the multiple forced circulating circuit (KMPTs): Besides this, the equipment and rooms of the emergency localization system are used for reception and condensation of steam ejected into .the bub- bling pond .(BB) through the main safety valves (GPK).upon an increase of pressure in the.separator drums. Based on the functional designation of the emergency localization system, the adjustors had the following goals: to provide and check the design hermetic- ity of the emergency localization rooms, to check the efficiency and to adjust the production subsystems and equipment of the emergency localization and also to check the efficiency of the steam relief system (ASP) after the main safety valves. The collective of the PO [Production Association] Soyuztekhenergo, together with personnel of reactor shop No 2 and adjusting shop of the Chernobyl AES, under the scientific supervision and with the direct participation of special- ists of VTI [All-Union Twice Order of Labor Red Banner Heat Engineering Insti- tute] imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy, conducted the starting-adjusting operations. It should be noted that the main energy assembly of the second-generation AES was the first assembly of the Smolensk AES. However, the third assembly at the Chernobyl AES was started earlier than the first assembly at the Smolensk AES, with regard to which the starting-adjusting operations had to be worked out and additional monitoring and measuring devices had to be installed. It was suggested that the emergency localization system be tested according to the program methods compiled by VTI for the first energy assembly of the Smolensk AES. However, these program mecnods were considerably revised and refined in further development of the operating test programs. Moreover, it became necessary in performing the starting adjusting operations .to make on- line decisions of a number of problems, since there was no experience at that time in startup of these systems. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Besides the described operations, the starting-adjusting operations included acceptance tests of the safety valves of the leak-proof box (PPB) and the check valves of the lower water supply line (NKV) rooms. Tests of the production subsystems and equipment of the emergency localization system. The main task in tests of the safety valves of the leakproof box and of the check valves of the lower water supply line rooms was to determine the response pressure of the MPU-300-4.5 and MPU-600-0.2 membrane safety devices and to compare the results to design requirements. The response pressure for MPU-300-4.5 comprised 0.45 + 0.015 MPa after tests and adjustment, which meets the requirements; it was equal to 0.017 + 0.001 MPa for the MPU-600-0.2, which was regarded as satisfactory upon agreement with the main developer of the valves (SKB [Special Design Office] of VTI imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy) and the Gidroproyekt Institute [All-Union Order of Lenin Design Research and Scientific Research Institute imeni S. Ya. Zhukj. The results of tests of nine MPU-600-0.2 showed that the response pressure of these types of devices depends on the quality of manufacture of the shearing elements; therefore, the remaining devices were installed without tests, but with obligatory reduction of the dimensions of the indicated elements accord- ing to the dimensions in the detail plans. Uniform heat removal by distribution of the circulating cooling water flow rate to each group of surface-type condensors (KPT) was provided according to the design when testing and adjusting the KPT. Moreover, the following prob- lems were solved: determination of the maximum capacity of the circulating water condensors, estimation of the hydraulic pressure of the pipelines and of the groups of surface type. condensors between the delivery and drain circulat- ing water collectors 1,200 mm in diameter, distribution of the circulating water flow rate through groups of condensors and equalization of it according to design requirements. The test results showed that the disbalance of the ?flow rates through groups of surface type condensors comprises + 50 percent with completely open valves in the circulating water system and the flow rate corresponds to the design rate in the first of them. The circulating water distribution system is eas- ily regulated for nine groups (from the second through the tenth groups) by using the delivery valves (this regulation of flow rates through these groups is quite permissible, since there are no surface type condensors in the cir- culating water supply system in the normal operating mode of the energy unit. The hydraulic resistance of the channel between the circulating water delivery and drain collectors was determined during the tests only for the tenth group of surface type condensors; it comprised 0.155 MPa, which is close to the cal- culated value of 0.148 MPa. The hydraulic characteristics of the sprinkler-cooling system, the character- istics of the 'ejection coolers (EO), including discharge of drop moisture in the air boxes of the ejection coolers, the cooling time of the bubbling pond using the heat exchangers of the sprinkler cooling system and the efficiency ?of the ejection coolers during operation of thie energy unit were determined during the tests. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 cone,' zoPa. ,r,muveczosi Oudot (1) 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY RA,1C: Ioro ^.7tne rig 9 "I:P.7 (3) ,,:pe f 7R -7 5 (4) Ho -0-ee- :2 roan, Cy," 10 (5) 800600rn0viz. uzzporOd JOdbi Janoomemia ? 2-zo 'roma kip ) Nue 2-zo aro (7) onoco.NeNue 1-Z0 Jrawa( 8) Ord; o y ?11 1.3" C 0 C ' (10) CAOP (11) Diagram of Rooms of Emergency Localization System: 1, 10?leak-proof boxes; 2--ejection coolers; 3--safety valves of leak-proof boxes; 4, 9--rooms of lower water supply lines; 5?check valve panels; 6--check valves of lower water supply line rooms; 7--steam distributing channel; 8--surface type condensors; 11--hot water discharge pipelines fiom steam distributing channel; 12--heat exchangers of sprinkler cooling system; 13--bubbling pond sprinklers; l'--overflow *pipes 800 mm in diameter; 15?pumps of sprinkler cooling system; 16, 18?air and water tanks of bubbling pond; 17--water suction ejector from collectors 800 mm in diameter; 19--bubbling pond; 20, 21--Steam distributing pipes 280 and 400 mm in diameter, respectively; 22--bypass valves (9) Key: 1. Circulating water collectors 2. Steam discharge after main safety valves 3. Steam discharge after main safety valves 4. To condensors of water level recorders 5. Return of purified water 6. Filling of second floor 7. Emptying of second floor 8. Emptying of first floor 9. Discharge for purification 10. Sprinkler cooling system 11. SAOR Tests of the sprinkler cooling system were conducted in three phases; the first--determination of the hydraulic characteristics of the sprink- ler cooling system, checking both the efficiency of the sprinkler nozzles of the bubbling pond and the nozzles of the cooler and the non-heating of the 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY drain pipelines of the ejection coolers and the absence of suction of air into them, determination of the flow rates and volume of removal of drop moisture by the air flow from the ejection cooler. Tests were conducted in the given phase by using cold water and air with heated multiple forced circulation circuit; second (during tests of the steam discharge system after the main safety valves)--determination of the cooling time of the bubbling pond by using the heat exchangers of the sprinkler cooling system; third--a check of the efficiency of the ejection cooler during operation of the energy unit. It was decided during starting-adjusting operations to replace the choke washers by regulating valves 150 mm in diameter so that the hydraulic charac- teristics of the subsystem of the sprinkler cooling system, which operates from the first and third pumps, could be changed. This modification made it possible to provide the design distribution of water flow rate of the sprink- ler cooling system to the nozzles of the bubbling pond and ejection cooler for the indicated subsystem. It was also also decided during startup operations to install choke plates 52 mm in diameter in front Of the distributing collectors to reduce the water flow rate of the sprinkler cooling system to the ejection cooler and to locate slide valves at the air intake into each ejection cooler to change the ejec- tion coefficient. As measurement results showed, the discharge of drop moisture in all the in- vestigated operating modes of the sprinkler cooling system was not more than 2 percent of the absolute moisture in the safety leak-proof box valves. At the same time, the flow rate of the sprinkler pumps was reduced sharply due to installation. of the choke plates. Therefore, the given design cannot be recognized as feasible. Even more so since investigations of the ejection cooler on stands performed by VTI in February-March 1982 established the value of the maximum discharge of droplet water over the entire range of water and air flow rates no higher than 0.45 g/m3; this value comprises 3.5 percent of the absolute moisture content in the safety leak-proof box valves during test- ing of the sprinkler cooling system. The cooling time of the bubbling pond, using the heat exchangers of the sprinkler cooling system, was determined during the final stage of tests of the steam discharge system after the main safety valves. The bubbling pond was heated with steam, which was discharged into the pond through the main safety valve, opened for 4 minutes. Two pumps of the sprinkler cooling sys- tem with total flow rate of 1,230 m3/hr were in operation during heating and subsequent cooling. The bubbling pond was cooled to mean water temperature, corresponding to its initial average temperature prior to heating. The cool- ing time was 2 hours. The main purpose of testing the steam discharge system after the main safety valves was to check the efficiency of this system and of the storage capacity 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the bubbling pond and also the efficiency and effectiveness of ,the vacuum interrupt ejectors and water suction ejectors from the 'collectors 800 mm in diameter. In preparing the indicated System for testing, it was necessary to *prevent formation of a vacuum in its pipelines after closing the Main safety valves and to prevent the related suction of bubbling pond water into the pipelines and collectors through the steam discharge nozzles submerged in?the water:" This capability was .taken into account in design:of:the system, therefore, four steam-air ejectors, the.woricingmediuM:of.which is .live steam, We0,pro- vided to prevent formation of a deep vacuUm.. A utilization factor of the bubbling pond--the ratio of the amount of steam required to heat the water of the bubbling Pond from .the mean initial .to the mean final temperature, to the,amountof steam that provides heating of the bubbling pond water from the mean initial to the.maximumtemperatnre,-measured during heating of the bubbling pond was used as the index of nonuniform dis- tribution of steam through the bubbling pond during checking Of its storage capacity. The results of calculations showed that the:utilization factor of the bubbling pond is still not high enough The rooms of the emergency localization system were tested for tightness in three phases. The metal. lining elements of the, sealing circuit were. tested during the first phase for local hermeticity according to the require- ments of the design and instructions of IK-GS-10 and also the program worked out for these tests. Leaks in the sealing circuit were determined during the second phase by the method of evacuation of the rooms of the emergency local- ization system. Integrated tests of hermeticity were conducted during the third phase by the method of blowing air to the rooms of the emergency local- ization system. The actual leakage was determined in this case. The rooms of the emergency localization system were injected with air twice. The air in the room of the safety leak-proof box valves and the main water supply lines was delivered from a standard compressor station. Five compres- sors with maximum productivity of 1,200 m3/hr each were in operation. The bubbling pond was filled with water on both floors to the nominal level during the air injection. The leakage from the main leak-proof box valves was calculated during the in- jections of air by the pressure drop in it after delivery of air was stopped. One can make the following main conclusions on the basis of analysis of the design and the results of starting-adjusting tests. 1. The results of testing and adjusting the emergency localization system of the third energy unit of the Chernobyl AES indicate its efficiency and con- formity to design requirements. 2. Acceptance trials of the safety valves of the leakproof boxes and the check valves of the rooms of the lower water supply lines showed that the level of the response pressure of the valves is equal to the design level. 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 3. The circulating water supply system of the surface type condensors per- formed according to the design. 4. The results of testing the sprinkler cooling system indicate that it co- responds to the requirements provided in the design on the whole. Modifica- tions made during starting-adjusting operations made it possible to provide design distribution of flow rates according to users of the sprinkler cooling system. However, it should be noted that installation of choke plates 52 mm in diameter on the delivery lines of sprinkler water to the ejection cooler led to an increase of the resistance of the network for the pumps of the sprinkler cooling system. 5. Tests of the ejection coolers showed their rather high efficiency: even with a sharp decrease of water and air flow rates through the ejection cooler ? (due to installation of choke plates and slide valves), the ejection coolers provide the temperature-moisture conditions in the leak-proof boxes, given by the design, during operation of the two pumps of the sprinkler cooling system. 6. It was determined during tests of the steam discharge system after the main safety valves.,that its hydraulic characteristics correspond to design requirements. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel'stvo, 1984 6521 CSO: 8144/0298 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 'INTERVIEW WITH CHIEF CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER AT CHERNOBYL AES; Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No 2 Feb 3k. pp 2-4,. Linterview with Vladimir TimofeyeviCh Cora, chief engineer of the Chernobyl AES construction administration by engineer G. N. Krashinu.date anclplace not. specifieg ffexI7 Vladimir Timofeyevich Gore, Chief engineer of AES construction administration, answers the questions of our editorial staff. A'uestiog The documents of the 26th CPSU* Congress states"...TO.PUt into operation the cape-Cities...at the Chernobyl AES..."-Scrin.answering.the party's decisions the fourth "million-capacity" powerblock.was put into op- eration in December of last year by the Chernobylatomiapower.station builders. Thus Vladimir Timofeyevidh, the construction' of the second .phase of the AES has teen successfully completed at theeleCtric- power station--anothertwo-po- wer blocks with RBMK-1000?reactors. The ? total capacity of the _Chernobyl AES is now 4000 megawatts, i.e., it is one of the most powerful atomic electric power stations today. We have informed our readers in detail in 4 number of issues aboutthe construction of the first phasevof:the,Chernobyl AES.- What basically distingtishes the structure of the" latest, the fourth. power block, from the preceding ones? giaswei7 Well, of course, first' there is the experiencethebhas. been gained. Thus, a careful analysis of the third power block has. allowed us to avoid many mistakes and troubles in constructing the last power block of the second phase-. It is well known, for example, that one of the, main problems salved during the construction of the AES has been the timely-supply of structures and. equipmentfor installation. The lessons of the first phase weretaken into accounts during the construction of the fourth power block welled five railroad and six motor vehicle access ? routes. The specific difficulties in constructing this power block were caused by ,the more' compressed time periods: as is well known, the standard time period for constructing the fourth power block is 24 months; we have handled this job almost a Month sooner, "Materialy XXVI S'yezda KPSS" gaterials on the 26th CPSU Congres27, Moscow, Politizdat, 1981t p 223. 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Additionally, in connection with the establishment of GosatomnadzorLitate atomic power inspectoratg, requirements for turning over AES power blocks with absolutely no incompleted work left have grown sharply. I will cite as evidence the opinion of the deputy Chairman of the commission for the power start-up of the fourth power block, V. P. Kevrolev, which he stated in our newspaper TRIBUNA ENERGET1KAt "systems which would not be finished by in- stallation time are practically nonexistent. The basic indicator here is high work quality at a high work tempo." Finally, there is another factor which has distinguished (and complicated) work on the fourth power block--thin is the concluding block of the second phase of the AES. That is there was also a requirement to fulfill in those same compressed time periods all of the additional work for the second phase: widening the chemical agent and diesel fuel storehouses, the construction with helium cylinder, etc. guestiog.Aren'ttherealso'probably differences in the engineering solu- tions characterizing the construction of the fourth power block and the en- tire fecond phase of the AES? Deputy minister A. N. Semenov in his inter- view, if you recall, said that the switch to precast solid structures proved to be very effective.in,constructing thesecond stage of the Chernobyl AES... 5nswei7 Really, the basic construction decision in the first stage of build- ing the main AES housing was the use of reinforced concrete poured in situ and partially--precast concrete (mainly wall slabs). Many structural elements made of poured in situ concrete were re-engineered to precast ones at the suggestion of the builders while the construction was already in progress. The plan for the second: phase of the AES called for constructing the main AES housing in precast poUred in situ. wall and ceiling structures With a very slight inclusion of pored in situ sections. Those parts of the housing where the building lay-out.was.executed in a skeletal arrangement were made of pre- cast reinforced concrete elements, whose greatest weight matched the maximum hoisting capacity of the construction =lanes. This planning decision made it possible todecrease labor expenditures to almost two-thirds of that of the first phase guestice Evidently, Vladimir Timofeyevich, this isn't the only effective engineering solution realized at the construction site. gnswee Of course. As yet another feature of the work on the main housing of the second phase it is necessary to mention the wide use of cast concretes and their transportation by concrete pumps which decreased labor expenditures for 1981-1983 by more than 1100 man days. Polyethylene film waterproofing, which covered an area of about 9500 square meters, was successfully introduced on the main housing. This made it possible to cut labor expenditures in half compared with using cold asphalt mastic and it also improved the working *ENERGETICHESKOYE STROTTEL'STVO, No 5, 1980, pp 2-4. 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY conditions of the laborers. The use of polymer coatings on industrial pipe stacks, instead of coating them with stainless steel,, has permitted a savings of about 60 tons of valuable metal and has realized an economic impact of more than 75,000 rubles. The use of combined wall and ceiling assembly blocks (reinforced concrete together with thermal insulation and metallic Coating) of the hot bays has made it possible to shorten the work periods by 30 days. The block assembly of the hip roof metal structures, .with the help of a 10-640B crane, has per- ' Mitted a decrease by 1k days in turning over the reactor compartment central room with graphite brickWork.. 'There is yet another very interesting engineering solution-mounting a BK-1000 crane on the deaerator stack framework, 38 m high, to protect the work on erecting the reactor compartment. Our assemblers have also introduced a number of effective innovations on the fourth power block. Thus, a four-flow method for building up the PVKgype of 'steam turbin27 uprights was used successfully, permitting a decrease in the "critical journey" by 32 days. The' high-speed installation of steam separator drums by using an intermediate girder mounted directly on the gantry of a 12-64O crane, has been accomplished. The Use of this method has made it poss- ible to begin the installation of about 50 walls endwise 28 days ahead of sche- dule., There has also been success in bringing about preliminary trsnsporta- tion into the installation zone and in putting together in pre-installation' condition the plans for the reactor and drum separators which has permitted a speed-up in the reactor installation by 14 days. guestiog But doesn't it seem to you that, in listing all of these numerous differences of the second phase, we have not mentioned its main feature--the obvious progress in the area of managing construction and organizing work on the projects? jilswee You probably have in mind the Complexes and sub-complexes which we created. You are absolutely right. Although it May be that we here have al- ready managed to become accustomed to this. Thus, three construction installa- tion complexes were organized aimed at the more efficient management of con- struction production in our administration. The first complex, including the erection of the main housing, was in turn divided into two sub-complexestone for the construction of the machine room and deaerator stack and the other for the preparation of work on the reactor compartment and the VSR05Xpansion un- knowg. The Second complex (auxiliary projects and hydraulic structures) also consists of two sub-complexes 'with a sharp division of Projects under con- struction. And, finally, the third complex is for the construction of housing and social, cultural and service projects. Each complex is headed by its own chief and each sub-complex by 6. chief technologist. Such a reorganization in managing SMRgonstrUction and installation worg has permitted a clearer allo- cation of the duties of managers' andthe -establishment of a strict personal responsibility for each assigned work sector. 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The basic direction in the work of the US5onstruction administratiog of the Chernobyl AES is the fulfillment of guidelines and the submission of a work front to the sub-contracior organizations. It must be said that repeatedly, even sometimes to the detriment of fulfilling the plan by our own forces, we have stretched the guidelines to make it possible to develop work by special- ized organizations. There was not one ease at our construction site where the main sub-contractor organizations did not _fulfill the yearly PIA plans. We see in this the guarantee of success. Besides the reorganization mentioned, there was yet another one that was carr- ied outs in 1982-1983, construction and installation administrations earlier belonging to the sub-contractor trusts Mosspetsatomenergomontazhgloscow Spec- ialized Power Installation Trusg and Yuzhenergomontazhgouthern Power Install- ation Trusg which installed building structures at our project, were trans- ferred into the forces of the Chernobyl AES US. guestiog What did this transfer give to the construction project? gnswei7 First of all, it made it possible to better coordinate our efforts for the successful fulfillment of a full complex of operations on erecting the main AES housing in precast, poured in situ structures. This, in turn, can yield, in the long run, a significant economic impact. Thus, our calcu- lations have, shown that only because of the more efficient use of work time and the increase in the effectiveness of hoisting and welding equipment, it has been possible to decrease labor expenditures by 4000 man days a year and realize a yearly electric, power savings of 150,000 kilowatt hours with a sim- ultaneous improvement in construction quality. - gUestiog By the way, Vladimir Timofeyevich, we said earlier that today's fourth power block-has demonstrated the high quality of construction work. Nevertheless you just spoke about further improving quality. Isn't there a contradiction here? ffilswsg No, we are constantly working to increase SMR quality, especially mindful of the specific nature of such critical structures as atomic electric power stations. Unfortunately the reserves which are not being used by us are still great. guestiog I would like to dwell on this in more detail. Tell us about the quality control structure at the construction site. 5nswei.7 Certainly. A technical inspectorate, the construction laboratory of the Chernobyl AES USA. jointly with a designer's inspection group of the, institute GidroproyektLA11-Union Planning, Surveying and Scientific Research Instituteiieni S. Ya. Mug and the capital construction division of the electric power station carry out quality control on the Chernobyl ABS con- struction. Three groups make up the construction laboratory: a laboratory control group which tests building materials and concrete; a concrete inspec- tion group which controls the quality of laying and maintaining concrete; and a group which performs entry quality control of building materials and struc- tures. A technical inspection group conducts a technical examination and in- spects the blocks before concreting. The technical inspectorate pays special 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY attention to organizing work on inspecting the block structures being concreted. An acceptance commission, which includes representatives of the technical in- spectorate, management, the designer's inspectorate, and the construction sec- tor, conducts the final inspection of the blocks being concreted. The accept- ance commission in its work is guided by the "Statute on Acceptance Commiss- ions," specially developed for construction, which was coordinated with the AES management and the planning organization. This statute regulated the staff and work procedures of acceptance commissions and the responsibility of con- struction sectors when handing over Work and confirms the schedule of necessary executive documentation. The geotechnical laboratory post carries out the quality control of soil found- ations, dams, emtankments, the installation of filtering material and subse- quently formally accepts foundations for further work. Additionally, the construction administration has developed a number of regu- lations for the production and control of concrete, fitting, waterproofing, roofing, and finishing work including the specific features of the technology of the Chernobyl AES construction. An over-all quality inspection is conducted by the commission with the partici- pation of representatives of the customer, general designer, and general con- tractor. However, as the over-all 2 inspections and uality checks by higher organizations (the association Sozuzatomenergostroy A7 ll-Union Association of Atomic Power Station Constructioni, USSR )tinenergo Ministry of Power and Elec- trificaticg, and USSR Gosstroy demonstrate, during construction and installa- tion work production there are violations, deviations, and defects leading to a decrease in SMR quality and requiring additional labor expenditures for fin- ishing the work, alterations, etc., i.e., that entire collection of means to improve quality which I spoke about earlier, unfortunately, is still not work- ing or is working with insufficient effectiveness. We have to work even more in this area. rquestiog What, in your view, are the main reasons for the slow improvement In construction work quality? gnswei7 One of these reasons is the insufficiently high quality of the plan. All kinds of Changes and additions to the plans have simply overcome us, the builders: time and again we receive additional plans for drilling, burning, making openings, additional foundations, and insertions. And, of course, the eternal disease of designers--the untimely presentation of technical document- ation. This greatly restrains construction and installation work. Perhaps you can tell me: how can one talk about the quality engineering preparation of a project after this? Luestiog And, in spite of this, your construction project has succeeded, as is well known, in being among the leaders in the USSR Minenergo system in the very plan of managing production engineering preparation. This is a very im- portant question in today's power construction on the whole and atomic con- struction in particular. How have you solved this during the AES construction? 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Linswei7 It must be said that great attention has been paid to production en- gineering preparation since its very start. I would divide- this work into two stages; the first is the preparation of work on the first power block which was conducted blindly, because there was no MEL-engineering and technical per- sonneg on the construction site at that time who had experience in construct- ing an AES and, therefore, work management decisions had to be made is the course of operations, i.e., while already in the process of constructing the block; in the second stage?beginning with the second power block, the engin- eering preparation is carried out single-mindedly up to the start of construc- tion,--plans for locating hoisting devices, access motor vehicle and railroad roads are developed and the priority isdetermined for laying engineering underground communications, constructing base projects for construction and in- stallation organizations, etc. I believe that a serious approach to solving engineering preparation problems has also favorably affected the smoothness .in introducing the power capacities at the Chernobyl AES: the first power block was introduced in 1977, the second in 1979, the third in 1981, and the fourth in 1983. I am thoroughly convinced that engineering preparation ought to begin by deter- mining the subject tasks and analyzing the provision of planning estimates for these tasks. The lack of planning estimates for the planned year is the most serious obstacle in organizing proper engineering preparation for the work in the upcoming period. This circumstance does not make it possible to determine with required accuracy work volumes both as to their cost and size which makes it impossible to assign work volumes to those who will do the work and to com- petently draw up a plan for the material and technical supply of construction. Lauestiog The reasons you have listed which hinder engineering preparation and, in the final analysis, the achievement of required work quality--these are basically external factors which do not depend directly on the builders. What is the construction administration itself doing to improve SHR quality? gnsw47 We are already introducing measures influencing work quality. The first phase of the combination of special building structures has been turned over for operation, reinforced concrete form wallboards and corrugated floor slabs are being produced and, in turn, the partition and insertion parts shop, which will significantly increase the quality of the facing surfaces of con- crete articles, has also been turned over. Provisions have been made to build at our facility PTUfrocational and technical school7 training areas with classes which offer practical instruction aimed at increasing worker skills. SHE quality is the essential evaluation in the socialist obligations of the builders when summing up results. ffiuestiog Evidently the brigade form of labor organization, which has been widely disseminated at your construction site, plays a large role in the struggle to increase the quality of work and shorten its time periods. Linswes7 Naturally. The labor of construction production pieceworkers is inconcievable without the brigade form of organizing it. In the Chernobyl AES US, 98.8 percent of the basic production pieceworkers are involved in a bri- gade contract. Some 141 brigades have been organized of which 99 are all-round 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY teams and 42 are specialized. In 1983, 51 teams used the brigade method and they handled 11.5 million rubles of construction and installation work, or 45 percent of the total work volume carried out by their organizations. Moreover, a lowering of the calculated production cost by 50,000 'rubles has been achieved. The. output of one worker in the contract collectives amounted to 13,714 rubles (with 11-i088 rublea for the construction administration as a whole), which is 114.5 percent of the plan. In the future we will also extend .this progressive form of labor during the construction of the-third phase of the AES.? iCluestiog What problems, Vladimir TiMofeyevich, will you have to solve dur- ing the construction of the third phase Of the AES? What is the situation today with the construction of the fifth and sixth power blocks? What is hindering the pace? 5nswer7 I will start at once with the lait question. The answer will be simple: unfortunately, the very same thing is hindering us again?the ill- timed and incomplete delivery of technical documentation. Effectively, this is the only thing. And since there is no full set of documentation--there is no construction engineering preparation. As a result, we cannot, in a timely fashion, order structures for the producer plants which in turn disturbs the engineering and the schedule for fulfilling the construction work. For ex- ample, the reactor compartment has already been built to the 12 meter mark but, because of the absence of documentation on the ladder and elevator blocks, we cannot assemble the flights of stairs which significantly compli- cates builder access to the work areas. Or take this situation--the almost finished deaerator stack is standing but.. .without floor slabs--up to now there is no planning documentation on them. At the present time the building cranes are being shifted from the main hous- ing of the fourth power block to the site of the third phase, work has started on erecting the reaCtor compartment and machine room and on constructing the hydraulic structures and circulating water lines. Preparatory work has been done for constructing the cooling tower. Of course, the main anticipated element for ensuring the normal work of the construction subunits is a cir- cular concrete road with approaches to the projects being constructed, the installation of a railroad track and a transport dock is being completed. Lcluestion7 Finally, Vladimir Timofeyevich, tell us something about the main moving force of the construction project--about the moire of builders. What is being done to build a stable construction collective? What kind of mood is there on the project? Linswei7 During the existence of our construction administration, a quite qualified and harmonious collective of Chernobyl AES builders has been formed. Without such a collective it would be impossible to build and turn over for operation four "million capacity" power blocks in 12.5 years, and shorten the time period for erecting two phases of the AES by six months. How are we succeeding in stabilizing the collective? We are approaching this by various paths. We are teaching construction professions to the workers while continu- ing production, we are making it possible for our personnel to grow and 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY increase their _skill, we are advancing the most gifted to leadership posi- tions. For example, Yu. N. Matyeyev developed from construction superin, tendant to chief of a complex at our construction site, and. now he is chief construction engineer at the Rovenskaya AES. A. P. Selikhov passed through all stages from foreman to chief technologist on the construction of the main housing. Many other examples of such advancement can be cited. A working atmosphere is being established at the construction site in which the best business-like qualities are demonstrated both by the managers and the ITR and by the worker builders and inStallers. We are concerned about improv- ing living conditions with the aim of better strengthening the labor force. In 13 years the beautiful and comfortable city of the atomic power station builders?Pripyat?has arisen on the site of a wasteland. The administration is constantly working on speeding up the pace of housing Construction.. Thus, since the start of the AES construction, more than 540,000 square meters of living space have been turned over to us and, in 1983, this figure was almost 67,000 square meters compared with a plan of 52,000, i.e., 128 percent, in- cluding the construction of two apartment buildings for the construction ad- ministration workers. In 1983, a 320-place kindergarten and nursery school was handed over for use. The city has a beautiful "Energetik" Palace Of Culture, a swimming pool, and an enclosed sports Complex for the builders. Four eneral education schools with 5,700 students, a GPT0Lias and steam tur- bine power plang, trade enterprises, the "Prometey" motion picture theater, and a modern hospital complex have been built. In short, everything possible is being done s?hat the atomic workers will live and work in a pleasant en- vironment. They, of course, respond with conscientious work. From this proceeds the fine, business-like mood of the Chernobyl people toward the successful ful- fillment of party and government decisions on constructing the projects of the next and third phase of the Chernobyl AES within the designated time per- iods and at a high level of quality. This is just as it was with the two preceding ones. COPYRIGHT' Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel'stvo, 1984 8524 CSO: 1822/250 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOURTH CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES UNIT Moscow EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA in Russian No 12, Mar 84 p 3 [Text] The CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers have con- gratulated the builders, installers, operations workers, designers, machine- builders, and all participants in erection of the fourth power unit of the Chernobylskaya Nuclear Electric-Power Station imeni V.I. Lenin. The Chernobylskaya AES is today one of the Soviet Union's largest nuclear power stations. Since the moment that its first power unit started up, it has gen- erated more than 82 billion kWh of electricity. UDC 621.039.517 CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES EXPERIMENT IN TESTING 'RBMK-1000 REACTOR OPERATOR'S KIBITZER' PROGRAM [Synopsis of article from Moscow ATOMNYYE ELEKTRICHESKIYE STANTSII 1984 in Russian 1984 (signed to press 18 May 84) by I.Ya. Yemel'yanov, M.M. Borodyanskiy, A.I. Gorelov, 1.1. Desyatnikov, A.A. Kokorin, M.A. Lyutov, V.V. Postnikov, and V.G. Nazaryan, pp 83-89] [Text] The article presents a brief survey of existing methods and programs used for optimizing energy release distribution in power reactor cores. An algorithm, developed by the authors for ?selecting the movements of the control rods is presented, which takes into consideration the various technological limitations which apply to RBMK-1000 reactors. The algorithm was realized in an SOPR [not further expanded] program, introduced at the Chernobylskaya AES. Test results of the program are presented. The article shows the effective- ness of using this program to efficiently regulate energy release distribution in the RBMK-1000 reactor. CHERNOBYL AES POWER GENERATION London SWB in English 9 Nov 84 p 6 [Text] This station has generated 100,000 million kWh since its inception. (Kiev in Ukrainian for abroad 1700 GMT 22 Aug 84) COPYRIGHT: British Broadcasting Corporation 1984 40 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.311.25:621.039:69.0 CONSTRUCTION PARAMETERS FOR CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES GIVEN Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO in Russian No 11, Nov 84 pp 2-6 [Article by V.M. Chernyshenko, engineer: "Basic Results of Construction on the Chernobylskaya AES"] [Note from Editorial Board] The selection published below is one of a number of articles which throw light on the experi- ence of constructing the second phase of the Chernobylskaya AES, the basic structures of which were built according to a standardized design. [Text] In December of 1983, the fourth 1000-MW power block of the Chernobyl- skaya AES was put into operation, and construction was completed on two phases with an overall capacity of 4000 MW. Construction of the Chernobylskaya AES was begun in the 1970's. Over 30 construction and installation subcontracting organizations took part in the construction of this facility. They were headed by the Chernobylskaya AES Construction Administration, which acted as general contractor, numbering some 18 specialized construction and installation sec- tions in its ranks, which worked only on the industrial construction. While the power station was being built, the construction workers put more than 573,400 m2 of housing, 11 children's institutions, amounting to 3,660 places, three schools, amounting to 4,052 places, seven canteens, amounting to 1,160 places?a 420-seat motion picture theater, an 800-seat club, and a num- ber of other facilities designed for social, cultural and domestic purposes into operation. In this connection, R669,000,000 of construction and instal- lation work were completed, which includes R633,000,000 for theAES. The overall labor outlays amounted to 13,800,000 man-days. Basic volumes for con- struction work are shown in Table 1. As has already been mentioned, there are.four power blocks in -.the makeup of the first two phases-of:the Chernobylskaya AES. Each of the power blocks has a capacity of 1000 MV. Each power block includes an RB-1000 [high-power pres- sure tube] boiling thermal neutron reactor, and two K-300-65/3000 turbines with T717-500-2UZ generators, which operate on saturated steam. The power sta- tion has a single-loop heat circuit. Slightly enriched uranium dioxide is used as fuel. - 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 0. Table 1. rood cyroNyeAbome Years of cons tr...:c t Type of Opeiation- 1771 I 1 m-r3 19.N I 1975 I 1976 1977 1978 1 1979 I 980 I 1981 iss: nvuomme. me. 446 ' mm Noma' 816.0..INI mime 4 Plasm w000Come ...., . Num= 14 3WJARKM rifacosienniukcmommani cnocecom eeTeNS 323 201 123 76 127 10.4 6.3 4.1 -. -- i72 .- -- -- .. 7337 7337 3815 3522 .- 101 .45 56 17 115 3 6 55 53 12 3.3 7287 2304 1609 1295 4443 134 38 96 13 72 363 5.9 -- -- 126 9 5996 2320 1733 1037 3176 205.2 54.4 150.8 13.8 81.8 299.6 9.6 -- ,- 167.2 44.9 4611 2301 1508 793 2390 161.1 .47.1 114.8 15.2 113.7 352.9 sat -- -- 170.3 76.6 , 5.5 3365.3 2947.5 1741 1206.3 409 128.4 49.6 78:8 25.3 285.9 496.3 7.9 -- -- 94.2 32.4 5 2938.3 1294.3 806.8 486 1642 131.4 31.2 100.2 19.2 330.2 592.2 7.6 3.2 22.4 38 3,4 6.6 5204.1: 1214,7 741.8 472.9 3713.4 108.1 63.7 114,3 18.6 260.4 592:4 9.5 4.7 52 41.9 6.1 7.7 9254.7 1201.1 778.5 422.6 80.53.6 214 . 86.4 127.6 16.7 247.1 692.3. 7.9 3.15 29.9 97.4 40.4 6.6 8229.9 1846.5 046.3 898.2 6383.4 . 259 100.7 158.3 13.9 247.7 619 12.5 12.1 "'" 21.4 91.3 59.9 7.3 .3338.6 2342.6 .. 1421.5 921.1 1196 209.8 ? 107 102.5 ? 16.1 497.4 525,4 8:1 9 27 -- 69.2 132.6 1.4 4453. 3210 1836. 1372. i243, 215. ...83. 152. :6. ' 386. 705. '10, S. -- -- 211.: 6.: kAlitati il ne.:C36./C.1'011a, ire. N4 Trloe anT.3e: e dopmoro - , t VONOnnTmOVO ..rntwmal Nisaama. nit Mg :rysarypn wt. Tire. 0 h szipppm, rut mg288 errant memnzosommorund. TW- T Nia.Axa 44eAertoa000mittmx nyTti nop. 42.34404 MUMmil. IM ONAurmoosamme A000r N nnorsamm rtec. m4 maaaAeNne samemsmas naCTocom. Tor- m4 t-tolesso 4344.mrpos mi 4086664.66 (646- 6E1164 TUC. m4 unrial apasatypag. T Wie... T Key: a--Excavation and earth moving, m3 b--Including by dry method: bl--excavation b2--filling and backfilling c--Concrete and ferroconcrete poured, 1000's m3 d--Including e--Precast f--Poured in situ g--Bricklaying, 1000's m3 h--Plastering, 1000's m2 i--Painting, 1000's.m2 j--Steelwork installation, 1000's tons k--Laying of standard guage rail lines, km 1--Asphalt roads and areas, 1000's m2 m--Completed rock filling, 1000's m3 n--Construction of rubble filters and drains, 1000's m3 o--Installation of fittings, 1000's tons The second phase of the,Chernobylskaya AES differs considerably from the first in its design solutions. The second phase belongs to the second :generation of AES's equipped with 'SEMI:- 1000 reactors, which are more operationally reliable and safe, and, which are also characterized by a higher level of industrialization in their construc- tion and installation operations. All the basic structures of the second phase are built according to a standard- ized plan, in accordance with which two power blocks are installed in a single main building. Here, all the power station's rooms are subdivided according to their structural and technological features into reactor departments, a 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY machine roam, a deaerator frame [etazherka] and a VSRO [reactor department system auxiliary structures] block. . The dump for,liquid and solichwastes, the diesel generator station, the nitro- gen and pxygan station etc., were all built on a standardized plan. The AES has a. circulating process water supply with a man-made cooling pond. The layout plan,for the AES's industrial area is shown in the Figure: Figure 1: Chernobylskaya AES Industrial Area Key: 1--The municipal-type settlement of Pripyat 2--Rail line 3--Main buildings of the first and second phases 4--Feeder canal 5--Cooling pond A--Third phase main building 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE' ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7--Offtake canal 8--Dismountable section of cooling pond dam 9-11--Outdoor switch gears for the AES's first, respectively 12--Railroad station Length of time (in days) taken for ing for the different power blocks second the basic stages of work is shown in Table 2. and third phases, on the main build- Operation Number of Power Block 14 3.4 34 4-4 lets.iinthoe Yerrairrio ttoromernol mairritaz- Crpoineataum: 3 458 (V.71 /V111.72 r.) 121 (VIII.72/XII.72 r.) 458 (V.71/V1II.72 r.) 578 (11.73/1X.74 r.) 823 (V.76/3/111.78 r.: 64 (V.78/3/111.78 r.) 323 ,V.75iVII: 53 IV.73IVIII.78 : 669 (X11 72/X.74 r.) 321 (XII 76/X1.77 r.) 159 r.) 276 r a so eraser= 12.5 pa b .20 comer= 30.0 le 213 iX.74/V.75 r.) 85 (X1.77/11.78.) 148 (111.79/V.79 r.) Mi .5211.33 c AO wasps ctetapanitokore 790 (V.75/3/1I.77 r.) 152 (1/.73/VII.75 r.) 94 (X.79/111.80 r.) 113 i.1.X.5;11 53 ro 311.38, MORTON*. :4 garrp. uerrrommatore 3aRa 91 1X11.76/111. 77 r.) (11.731111.75 r.) 26 (VI.80/VII.50 r.) 14 .11.33:711.83 r. x0scrPrtwitt acusetunual 334 (X.76/1X.7? r.) 156 (111.77//1X.73 r.) 231 ,X11.79/X.30 r.) 234 XX. VI 1 . S3 : ,Certcruen?rms a CAese peaKTOOR 76 (X.75iXII.76 r.) . 19 (111.71/1V.76 r.) 24 (X:1.79/VIII.S0 r.) 25 ,II:.33/IV.33 r. nyCX0INASOLONION *mann: 6 _ 243 a11.76/3/11.7 44 (13,V111.77/27.1X.77 r.) 54 (IX.73/XII.79 r.) 34 (17.X11.73/21.XII.78 r.) 125 tX.79/V1.30 r.) 152 (3.V1.30/4.X11.30 r.) x. s3 5.X.33 3/teprorsycs / V. 1X.77 21 .X1!.7$ M.X11.th 8 non rein e. 13 arseSsaz NICAOTT.AO foLLONSO SNO.A0 pato; II 311111NRITeae?OKORNIRIN. Table 2. Key: 1--Above ground 2--Poured-in-situ slab construction 3--Construction a--Up to the 12.5-meter mark b--Up to the 30-meter mark c--To the roof of the central room 4--Installation: a--of the central room roof b--of the compartment structures c--of the ventilation centers d--of the reactor circuit 5--Start-up and trouble-shooting 6--Physical start-up 7--Power start-up 8--Note: Within the parentheses, numerator=start of operation, denom- inator=completion of operation. As Table 2 shows, the total length of time for construction of the first phase of the AES, with a capacity of 2000 MV,amounted to 91 months from the start of ground work, and 77 months from when the first Cubic meter of con- crete was poured for the main building, and in this connection, the time- gap between the time the 1st and 2nd power blocks were put into operation was 13 months. The total construction time for the 2nd phase (the 3rd and 4th power blocks), from the pouring of the first cubic meter of concrete amounted to 68 months, 24 months having passed between the start-up of the power blocks of this phase. 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The relative labor outlays (in man-days/kV) in the construction of the first two phases (in the numerator and denominator, respectively) are shown below: In the industrial construction (basic production)* 2.9/2.1 Including for: development of the land, building construction center, outside service lines, etc 0.48/0.2 construction of basic structures 2.18/1.7 construction of process water supply system 0.24/0.2 In secondary, auxiliary production and maintenance facilities 1.1/0.8 *V.S. Konviz and L.V. Golubkov, "Treeya Ochered' Chernobylskoy AES" [The Third Phase of the Chernobylskaya AES], ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELSTVO; No 1, 1984, pp 19-22. Actual labor outlays for construction work during construction of the 3rd power block amounted to 1,925,744 man-days, with proportionate labor outlays for the indicated operations amounting to 1.92 against 4.85 man-days/kV on the 1st power block. In addition, the construction and installation operations for the facilities of the second phase were completed more intensively than for those of the first, and with a considerable reduction in-relative labor outlays of const- ruction workers. This is explained not only by the fact that the construc- tion and installation workers were more experienced, and by the Stability of the collective, but also by the use of a combination of planning decisions directed at lowering the labor-intensiveness of construction and installation operation, and raising the level of their industrialization, and also by the realization of a number of organizational and technical measures by :he const- ruction organizations. In particular, in the design of the main building of the AES's second phase, provision was made primarily for precast and precast-cast-in-situ structures, and standardized columns, collar beams, roof slabs and exterior enclosure walls were used. Walls thicker than 700 mm were made by the precast-cast-in- Situ method from reinforced-form panels. The roof, the thickness Of which was determined by the requirements for biological protection, was also made by the precast-cast-in-situ method. It should be noted that similar solutions allowed a considerable reduction in the labor intensiveness not only of the concreting, but of the finishing operations. Widespread use of ferroconcrete structures was possible during construction of the second phase thanks to their prefabricated slab installation methods, and permitted an improvement in the plan for mechanization of the work on the main building. It also permit- ted wide introduction of specialization, and new, progressive methods of wage payment methods etc. 45 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Work volumes (in 1000's m3) for the 1st and 2nd phases are shown below (in the numerator and denominator, respectively)-: Installation of precast concrete and ferroconcrete structures 44%102 Cast in situ concrete pouring 87/1_ Cast in situ ferroconcrete pouring 159/73. Including: in the foundation slabs 49/4 in the,walls and roofs 110/27. It should be-moted,_that even though positive results were obtained .from the solutions which were aimed at increasing the level of industrialization in ch- installation of the structures for the builders, the labOr7intansiveness-icir work like this is till high, and that is why the Planners need to -.solve the problems associated with the reduction in 'quality of standard-sized structureE and with the introduction of batten-free reinforced blocks. They also need cc bring the need to punch and drill holes in places around the ferroconcrete structures down to the minimum. Thus, the precast ferroconcrete elements used in the staircase-elevator blocks are very labor-intensive to install, and they also have an extensive parts list. It was for this very reason that these blocks were installed very far behind schedule during the construction of the reactor sections of the AES's Second phase. The schedules for fulfillment of the plan for construction and installation operations, according to years and phases of construction, are given in Fig- ure 2. During cOnstruction of the AES's first phase, the construction work was car- ried out in the two power blocks practically concurrently, and by start-up time for the first, work on the second power block was well under way. This allowed the second power block to be put into operation 13 months after the first was started up. However, following the time when the 2nd power block was put into operation, the workload for the collectives of the primary sub- contracting organizations, those of the Yuzhteploenergomontazh [possibly Southern Thermal Electric Power Plant Installation], the Yuzhenergomontazh [possibly Southern Power Plant Installation], the Mbsspetsatomenergomontazh [possibly Moscow Special Nuclear Power Plant Installation] Trusts and for other of USSR Minenergo's specialized subdivisions was reduced, which led to the necessity of drastically cutting back on the number of workers in their collectives (Figure 3). 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , 78 75 72 69 66 53 60 57 51 48 w1465 42 39 .36 ss (Ai0 27 14 If 18 15 12 6 .1 XII-1077 /111 II-83 A11-81 400 375 .150 545 3.10 .515 100 285 XII -78 2 II 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 255, 68 240 632 ( B ) 64 225! 60 2101 f1:56 195 3 52 180 e' Q7 48 z 185* .1* ( C )" 154 40 135 36 120 32 105 28 90 24 75 20 60 16 4.5 12 30 a 1970 Ion 1974 1976 1978 1980 a) 4 1970 1972 1974 1976 b) 1978 1980 1982 root., Figure 2. Fulfillment of the plan for construction and installation work by phase (a) and year (b) of construction: Key: 1-3 and 1'-3'--planned and actual indicators for the first and second phases of construction, respectively; 4--indicators for . housing construction; 5, 6, 5' and 6'--planned and actual indicators 4ccording to general contractor and industrial construction. (A)--Construction and installation work, in millions of rubles. (B)--Operable living space, in 1000.'s m2. (C)--Construction and installation work, in millions of rubles. 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 39 66 61 60 57 S- 4,54 43 A2 gay 4sJso 2 uso 24 21 : IS fY 12 3 1979 1972 1074 3. 0 0 6, 3' 1976 ? 1978 1980 1062 Years figure 3 Fulfillment of work plan by subcontracting organizations. Key: 1-5--Planned work completion, respectively: altogether, by the following trusts: Spetsatomenergomontazh, Yuzhenergomontazh, and by the Pripyat and Chernobyl Installation Administrations; 1'-5'--Work actually completed by the above. The cause of the situation which has come about lies in the untimely start of work in building the second phase of the AES. The development of SMR [con- struction and installation operations] for this ,phase is characterized by the following data, given in thousands of rubles (percent): 1976 4,000/2,649 (66.2) 1977 10,000/5,947 (59.5) 1978 . 17,100/8,397 (49.1) 1979 .'. . ? . . . . . . . . . ... 41,500/26,824 (64.6) 48 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1980 78,080/62/114 (79.6) 1981 59,400/61,840 (104.1) 1982 44,750/38,223 (85.0 1983 40,970/53,784 (131.3) Note:Planned indicators are given in the numerator, and actual indicators in the denominator. From these data, it follows that construction and installation work on the second phase (main building) should have been started in mid-1974 rather than in 1976. This would have allowed the 3rd and 4th power blocks to be put into operation 18 months ahead of the-deadline, and with no reduction in :he pro.t- uction rates for construction and installation work. It needs to be mentioned here, that the construction workers had arranged their material and labor re- sources for the fulfillment of thii task. The main reason for the delay in construction of the 2nd:phase was the practically total re-working of the de- sign for the first phase, the result of tfiich was the development of a stand- ardized second-generation AES design. The delays in the development of technical documentation for the 2nd phase led to a reduction in the intensity with which the construction and installation operations were carried out during the period from 1977 to 1979. In this ecn- ttction, the proportion of labor outlays for construction of the second phase showed an average increase of.,0.1yman-days per 1 kV.d.f installed capacity. During the.erection of the main building of the 4th power block, structural changes were made in the US [Construction Administration]. In particular, operations which had previously been carried out by Yuzhenergomontazh and Spetsatomenergomantazh, were handed over, for a number of reasons, to a gen- eral contractor, which was to complete the work with its own personnel (Fiz- 'Lire 4). The sharp increase in actual SMR plan fulfillment by the in-house work forces of the US in 1982-1983 is explained, not only by the structural changes with- in the US, but also, and this is the main reason, by the fact that maximum use was made of existing mechanization equipment, by liquidation of the depart- mental separateness which had hitherto exited, and by mobilization of all reserves to achieve a unified goal. At present, the average erection speed for reactor compartments A and .B of the 2nd phase (from the foundation slab to the mark for the beginning of reactor circuit installation) has amounted, respectively, to 2.96 and 4.73 metersper month, i.e., has increased 1.6-fold in comparison with the erection rate for the reactor compartments of the 1st phase. 49 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY .4000 $800 1500 (A) $400 e 3200 ? 7. sox th. 2800 E 2500 2400 31200 2000. #800 #800 1 1400 1200 Ii 000 500 4011 440 r 200 0 1070 1972 f074 075 1978 -25,8 4 2 1 1080 raw o Figure 4 Fulfillment of SMR plan by in-house workers of the US, and the schedule for moving the work-force, by year: 1 and 1'--Planned and actual number of workers; 2--Actual amount of SMR completed. In conclusion, it should be mentioned that the increased effectiveness of methods for erecting accident-localization shafts is brought about by the considerable unused reserve stemming from the reduced duration :andiabor intensiveness of AES construction. The realization of solutions, developed by Atomenergostroyproyekt, for installing builders' .structures (stroitel'nyye konstruktsii] for accident-localization shafts, by the large block method, and with high installation readiness, in construction of the 2ndpower block Of the Smolenskaya AES, provides the justification for confirming that the -1.enzth of time for completing similar jobs, (which has hitherto been completed in 276 da?), can be reduced 2-fold. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel 'sty?, 1934 12659 CSO: 1822/122 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.039.57 TESTING IMPROVED STEAM SEPARATORS IN THIRD ENERGY BLOCK OF CHERNOBYL AES Moscow ATOMNAYA ENERGIYA in Russian Vol 57, No 6, Dec 84 (manuscript received 26 Mar 84) pp 382-385 [Article by 0.Yu. Novosel'skiy, V.B. Karasev, Ye.V. Sakovich, M.A. Lyutov, and V.I. Anikov] [Text] Improved separator drums (Figure 1), which differ from those installed at the Leningrad AES and in the first units of the Kursk and Chernobyl AES [1] by larger internal diameter (2,600 instead of 2,300 mm) and design of the intravessel devices (VKU), were checked for the first time at the Chernobyl AES with RBMK-1000 reactor. The characteristic features of the new design of the intravessel devices include drain diffusers 1 at the base of the boxes 2, sloping perforated plates 3 and "breathing" tubes 4 for bleeding of steam from the interbox space 5 into the steam space 6. Moreover, the distance between the submerged perforated plate 7 and the ceiling perforated panel 8 was increased to improve the separator characteristics. An increase of the sepa- rator drum diameter led to a decrease of the mean flow rate on the evaporation surface by rki7.5 percent. The presence of drain diffusers makes it possible to use water in the boxes in emergency and transition modes. The sloping perfo- rated plate with cross-section of 12.5 percent equalizes the flow-rate field on the drain from the boxes to the interbox space, which contributes to an increase of the water reserve in the separator drum. The positive experience of renovating the intravessel devices of the drum separator 2;300 mm in diameter was taken into account in designing the drain channel assembly of the submerged perforated plate (assembly A, Figure 1) [2], the flange'9 is 170 mm high and the drain slit is not more than 55 mm high. Stiffening ribs 10 with height of 100 mm and "live" cross-section of 18 per- cent, supplied with openings, are located on the surface of the plate. The submerged perforated plate of the improved separator is supplied with end flanges 11, 485 mm high. The brackets 12 of the boxes have windows which con- tribute to flow of the steam-water mixture along the separator drum and, accordingly, to equalization of the load along its length. These solutions were embedded in the design, when the separator drum 2,300 mm in diameter was represented by a bottleneck in the circuit of the multiple forced circulation of the RBMK-1000 reactor. The improved separator drum has four-row arrange- ment of the pipe unions of the steam-water supply lines 13, the diameter of which was increased to 100 mm. 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Figure 1. Transverse Section of Separator Drum of Third Energy Block of Chernobyl AES A new configuration of the main equipment was used in the third power block of the Chernobyl AES. Specifically, the separated drums are rotated by 900 and are installed parallel to the machiner room (Figure 2). Separation of the steam lines was also changed with regard to the new configuration. Two col- lectors 400 mm in diameter from adjacent separator drums to a single steam line 600 mm in diameter, which goes to the turbine, are combined in the new separation. Steam is bled from the collectors from the center of the separa- tor drum, which contributes to more uniform distribution of the steam flow rate through the steam-discharge pipe unions. A new system for measuring the water level is also used. All the equalizing vessels are installed in the serviced ("cold") room and vessels with partially heated central chamber, developed by VTI imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy [All-Union Heat Engineering Institute imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy], were used. The water level above the submerged perforated plate is measured in each separator drum in three cross- sections along the length--vessels with base of 630 mm and the total level at the end is measured--vessels with base of 1,600 mm. The level measuring system, which was included in the check of the correctness of manufacturing installation of the compensating vessels, the correctness of installation of the connecting and pulsed lines, air ducts and check of the readings of the level meters for pressure drop of AP = 0, were adjusted and checked during installation and development of rated capacity of the block. The readings of the level meters upon variation of the level in the separator drum in the range from -350 to +400 mm was checked by starting the power block at water temperature of 20?C. During development of rated capacity, the scale of the secondary instruments from -100 to +315 mm of the level meters with base ?of 630 mm was replaced by a scale from -200 to +315 mm. Level "0" by the 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 11 0 6 0 0 00 6171 Figure 2. Diagram of Arrangement of Separator Drums, Steam Lines, Compensation Vessels and Steam Sampling Points: 1--steam lines for delivery of steam to machine room; 2--steam collectors; 3--steam-discharge pipe unions of separator drum; 4--level meters with base of compen- sating vessels of 630 mm, which measure water level above submerged perforated plate; 5--end level meters with base of compensating vessels of 1,600 mm; 6--steam sampling lines from steam-discharge pipe unions; 7--steam-sampling from steam line 600 mm in diameter; a, b and c--outer and central steam-discharge pipe unions, respectively Key: 1. Separator drum 2. Reactor secondary instrument of these level meters corresponds to the mass level of 150 mm on the submerged perforated plate. Steam samples from the steam lines and steam pipe unions were provided by the diagram shown in Figure 2 to test the separators. The water samples were taken from the housing of the separator drum and steam was taken from the central pipe unions of each separator drum and also from the two outer pipe 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY unions in separator drum BS 11. There are steam samples in the machine room in front of the turbines by which one can determine its averaged moisture content. However, the cooling system provided in the design of the block did not provide an isokinetic sample before the turbine with thermal power greater than 80 percent of rated value. The samples were taken after the turbine condensor to determine the averaged moisture content of the steam at the out- put from all the separator drums at power greater than 80 percent. The mois- ture content was determined as the ratio of 24Na concentration in the con- densate and water of the circuit by the method presented in [3]. Tests were conducted at a pressure of 7 MPa and at thermal power of 65, 83, 93 and 100 percent of rated value. Their goal was to determine the dependence of the moisture content at the output from the separator drum on the mass level at constant thermal power (steam productivity) of the block. .The tests were begun from the nominal level, which was then raised in steps of 50 mm, until the moisture content of the steam at the output did not exceed 0.1 percent or until the top pressure takeoff of level meters with scale.of -200 to +315 mm was flooded. The maximum height of the mass water level above its zeromark, at which flooding of the top pressure takeoff of the level meter with scale of -200 to +315 mm by the swollen layer begins, was determined by calculation from the relations of [3] and it comprised 285 mm for rated power of the block. Tests were also conducted at the -100 mm level by instruments with scale of -200 to +315 mm, i.e., +50 mm above the submerged perforated plate. , - After reaching operating conditions (constant power, level in Separator drum, pressure and flow rate), the isokinetic flow rates of the steam samples were established, which were calculated by the measured steam flow rate in the steam lines. The operating conditions were maintained for 30 min and the main ? parameters that characterize the operation of the separator drums were 'recorded during this time. The level in both pairs of separator drums was increased simultaneously so that the averaged moisture content after-ali.four could be. measured. The level was maintained by a level meter, installed in the center of separator drum 11, in the pair of separator drums. 11. and 1.2, .while the level was maintained by a level meter installed in the end of,separ- ator drum 21, remote from the steam lines, in the other pair 21 and 22. Dur- ing adjustment of the level measuring system, the readings of these level meters were taken as the most reliable. It follows from comparison of the readings (Figure 3) that they were in good agreement (remained in the grade of :fit) both before and after adjustment of the sets of level meters in August 1982. Straight lines 1 and 2 in Figure 3 determine the boundaries Within ^ which the set of level meters with base of 630 mm remain in grade. -,Deviations . of the level meter readings with base of compensating vessels of 636 and 1,600 mm at different reactor power did not exceed the absolute error deter- ? mined by the grade of fit. It follows from Figure 4 that the moisture content of the steam in the cen- tral pipe unions of all the separator drums up to level of 200 maiabovethe rated level will not exceed 0.02 percent. It increases sharply at i,ievel of 250-270 mm. An exception is separator drum 12 (see curve 4 in Figure 4), Which is apparently related to overestimation of the readings of the central level meter of this separator drum. Similar results were found at power of 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 4200 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 4100 -100 - 200 7200 100. ii 'In Hun, mm Figure 3. Comparison of Readings of Level Meters that Measure Mass Water Level Above Submerged Perforated Plate at Different Thermal Power of Reactor (MW): 0--2,100; 0-2,660; A.--2,960; 0 --3,200; ?3,350; 46-3,200 " the. block Of 83 and 93 percent of rated value. However, a sharp increase of moisture Content begins at higher values of the level in the separator drums as power decreases. The moisture content of the steam before the turbines was measured at thermal power of approximately 65 percent of rated value. The ? ? measurement results are in agreement with measurements of the moisture con- tent in the central pipe unions of the separator drums. Data about the moisture content of steam at rated power, found`by measuring the activity of 2'lla in samples taken after the turbine condensors (K5 and K6); are presented in Figure 5 from readings of the central level meter of Separator drum 11. The moisture content comprises less than 0.02 percent in .the range of variation of the mass level above the submerged perforated plate .from -100 to +200 mm. The averaged moisture content of the steam begins to . 'increase with an increase of the mass level above +200 mm and reaches 0.1 per- cent at +255 mm. It is easy to conclude from comparison of Figures 4 and 5 that the maximum level that corresponds to moisture content of 0.1 percent from measurements in the central pipe unions was higher than that for determination of the averaged moisture content. An explanation of this disagreement may be the data of rasa-, suring the moisture content in three pipe unions of separator drum 11, which is the moisture distribution along its length (Figure 6). The moisture con- tent of the steam in both the central and outer pipe unions\does not exceed 0.02-0.03 percent for level below 200 mm, although there is'a tendency toward an increase of moisture content in pipe union a. The moisture content of the steam in the outer pipe unions is higher at level above +200 mm than in the central pipe union, and this difference reaches two orders of magnitude at level of +250 to +260 mm. The cause of the increased moisture content of steam along the edges of the separator drum at water level above +200 mm 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Figure 4. Dependence of Steam Moisture Content (1 - x) in Central Steam-Discharge Pipe Unions of Separator Drums on Mass Water Level Above Submerged Perforated Plate (according to middle level meter) at Rated Thermal Power: 1-0 (BS 11); 2--V (BS 21); 3-0 (BS 22); 4-- (BS12); -.--central level meter off scale; 4. --moisture content less than 0.01 percent Figure 5. Dependence of Averaged Moisture Content of Steam After Separator Drums on Mass Water Level Above Submerged Perforated Plate (from readings of middle level meter BS 11) from results of sampling in turbine condensors in rated thermal power of reactor: 0 and 0--condensor K5 and K6, respectively should not be related to the effect of nonuniform steam and water load along its length, since its maximum occurs in the central part of the drum. The moisture content of the steam near its edges does not exceed 0.02 percent at operating value of mass water level in the separator drum and, accordingly, does not make an appreciable contribution to the average moisture content of 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the steam before the turbine. The averaged moisture content at the output equal to 0.1 percent, is reached at lower level than the moisture content in the central pipe union, because of the increased moisturel content along the edges of the separator drum at level greater than +200 mm from instruments with scale from -200-to +315 mm. Key: 410 go .40 46 .0.4 0,2 gy goe 0,08 0,04 a01 1 Iflutia .5171 Figure 6. Distribution of Steam Moisture Content in Steam- Discharge Pipe Unions Along Length of Separator Drum U. at Different Thermal Power Nt, MW, and at Mass Water Level N', mm, above submerged perforated plate (by middle level meier): = 0, N .=2,9b0; 0--10 and 3,350; 7--140 and 3,200; 0-200 and 4200;---250 and 3,200;C7-260 and 3,200; i--moisture content less than 0.01 percent; 1, 2 and 3-- cross-sections of separator drum 11 through steam-dis- charge pipe unions a, b and c, respectively 1. Length of BS 11 According to test results, the rated mass level in the separator drum increased by.100 mm (to mark +100 mm by level meters Of H200 to +315 mica),.. which increased the water reserve by 7 m3 at steam moisture, content less than 0.1 percent. Thus, separator drums 2,600 mm in diameter have a reserve for maximum 'permis- sible moisture content. Maintenance of the level above the submerged per- forated plate by 100 mm above the planned level permits an increase of the water reserve in the multiple forced circulation circuit by 28 m3 and does not hinder an increase of the steam productivity of the block. 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Karasev, V. M. Nikitin, O. Yu. Novosellskiy and Ye. V. Sakovich, "Operating Efficiency of Steam Separators in Power Blocks with-RBMK - Reactors?" ATMONAYA ENERGIYA, Vol 53, No 2, 1982. 2. Novosel'skiy, 0 Y12-V B. Karasev, Ye. V. Sakovich et al.? "Experience of Operation and Renovation of Separator Drums of First Block of Kursk AES," in ATOMNYYE ELEKTRICHESKIYE STANTSII, No 3, Moscow, Izdatel'stvo "Energiya", 1980. 3. Ageyev, A. G., V. B. Karasev, I. T. Serov and V. F. Titov, "Separatsion- nyye ustroystva AES" [Separation Devices of Nuclear Power Plants], Moscow, Energoizdat, 1982. COPYRIGHT: Energoatamizdat, Atomnaya energiya, 1984 6521 CSO: 1861/144 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.31.002.51.002.72,658.5 CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES' 4TH POWER BLOCK,CONSTRUCTION DISCUSSED Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No 12, Dec 84 pp 6-7 [Article by engineer V. P. Tokarenko: -Organizing and Carrying Out Installation Operations on the 4th Power Block of the Chernobylskaya AES*", under the rubric "To Make the Economy Economical"] [Text] In December 1983, the 4th power block, equipped with an RBMK-1000 [high- power pressure-tube] reactor, was put into operation at the Chernobylskaya AES, thus increasing the power station's capacity to 4000 mw. The 3rd and 4th power blocks are part of the AES's second phase. In contrast to the reactor rooms of the first phase power blocks, the second phase has had an SLA [emergency localization system] with a bubble-pond [basseyn-barbo- ter], a hydrogen removal system, a gas activity suppression system, and other auxiliary systems provided for its reactor rooms. The presence of these sys- tems has required changes in the organization of the reactor plant installa- tion operations. It should be mentioned that the layout of the AES's first phase has permitted assembled equipment to be delivered to the reactor room along three indepen- dent rail lines. When the second phase was being constructed, equipmentcould only be delivered along the transportation corridor's single rail line, thereby requiring sequential delivery. Construction of transfer roads from the assem- bly shop to the reactor room of the 3rd and then the 4th power blocks was re- quired for delivery of the assembled reactor structures, (their mass having reached spo tons). A special trestle was built on the 3rd power block for this purpose. A modernized KP-640BM crane was used to install the reactor for the 4th power block. This crane will also be used to install reactors, during the construction of the 3rd and successive phases of the Chernobylskaya AES At the 4th power block, 39,310 tons of equipment, piping, facings, reactor room metalwork, equipment for the deaerator frame, the 7th and 8th turbo- *Final article in a series on the construction of the 2nd phase of the Chernobylskaya AES. For the beginning, see ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITELISTVO, No 11, 1984, pp 2-15. 59 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY units, the three diesel generators at the diesel power plant and the separate helium and electrolyzer units' outbuildings were installed by subdivisions of the Yuzhteploenergomontazh [possibly Southern Thermal Electric Power Sta- tion Installation] Trust. The overall cost of the construction and installa- tion work done by the trust's organizations came to R26,600, and labor outlays amounted to 695,000 man-days. About 60 percent of the heat systems installation work was done during the 1983 start-up period, so, to make up for the shortage of workers in the trust's Chernobyl and Pripyat installation administrations, part of the work was given to some of its other subdivisions. During the peak period (from March to Oct- ober), the maximum number of heating systems installers reached 1,750 persons. The following documentation was developed as a result of the engineering and technical preparation carried out by the trust's workers and installation subdivisions: a time-table-for the fundamental stages of installation, and work schedules based on it (these were subsequently corrected, depending on the degree of readiness of the construction unit); an itemized list of work volumes assigned to each subdivision, within which were labor outlays, the number of workers, deadlines for beginning and completing operations, and the measures taken to accomplish them; a time-table for carrying out start-up and adjustment operations; a schedule for accomplishing work on setting in flow-metering devices, pipe connections, and nipples for impulse Iines and KIP's [control and test points]; a time-table for installing armature power lines; a time-table, coordinated with allied organizations, for turning over buildings to equipment installers and post-installation finishing workers; a calculation table for joints, and their yearly welding rate; a table from all centers and documents of the turnover of technical speci- cifications; a time-table for the delivery of equipment and piping for carrying out chemical protection and thermal insulation work in accordance with the Soyuzenergozashchita [possibly All-Unj.on Power Plant Protection Equipment Installation] VO [All-Union Association]. A staff comprised of workers from the trust's various departments was organized to see that the indicated time-tables were met, that the technical specifica- tions were turned over, and also to gather information on the state of the work done by the trust management. Twice a week the staff holds a meeting 60 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY with the participation of supervisors from all the installation subdivisions. Weak points in the thermal systems installation work are examined daily. Twice a day since August 1983, a check has been made on the completion of the operations which guarantee the carrying out of start-up and adjustment work. All the "peak" situations caused by worker shortages have been eliminated by juggling available personnel. Thus., during August-October, work on instal- lation of the 8th turbo-unit was held back while brigades of turbine instal- lers and pipefitters from the machine department were transferred to work on installing the diesel generator plant, and to eliminate the weak points in the reactor room, which were determining the readiness of the KMPTs [not further identified] and the GTsN [main circulation pump]. In November, bri- gades from the reactor room were sent to the machine room. The during which installation and start-up and adjustment operations on the 4th power block of the Chernobylskaya ABS were being carried out are shown in the Table: Chateau= Operation Hmm94714Pro6amm, Power Block Number 14 I , 24 34 4-4 1 Monroe urraanoroNcrepoted exer pealmopl ) CAatia C.Xtbl no* mousey cep rt : 3aChlfticll cxem cepnewrinereor I Commie Nem* 30111i AIM rpaearroeoil NUMMI ! MONTS= 060076oNa3Iat peen. Topton> npor75ancT44 N rP11114' rwo4 maims - Marra* eentoNonsgeaasx Ns- ila.Noe (TX) ; Moseram erp5ortpoeculos Napo- seitauidx Nommypunrawd (MX) 1 Temese41 Neerepue ammo- cri me,ranaccoNceptiandl I pe- arrapporo neorreaurree l .11poorr11eexa? TIC ] flpoweima crud,. C.A0P it so- goonyclataix TPAIMPOSPAOS )(woman c6ourrea I'LLH L reAponcrearrasee icmnu a Topmast Wiesen rua einem 22/IV-41V11 1975 r. 6/VII 1975 r. 8/V111-25/XI 1975 r. 25/XI 1975 r. 2?/XI?.25/XII 1975 r. 6/111-28/V 1976 r. 219/V-17/X11 1975 r. 17/XII 1976 r.-21/II 1977 r. 30/111-9/IV 1977 r. 9/1V-19/VI 1977r. 27/V-18/V/ 1977 r. 19/V1--4/V II 1977 r. 4-14/VII 1977 r. 14/VII-1/VIII 1977 r. 9/UC 1977 e. 16 2 23-30/IX 1977 r. 26 1 31/X-4/XI 1977 r. 25/IX 1977 r. 25/111-40/IV 1978 r. (10/IV 1978 r. 10-27/IV 1978 r. 19/V 1978 r. 20/V-15/VI 1978 r. 15/V1-15/VIII 1978 r. 18/V1-15/V111 1978 r. 15/VIII-5/IX 19771 r. 23-27/1X 1978 r. 27/IX-6/X 1978 r. 20-28/X 1978 r. 25/X-1/XI 1978 r. 1-4/X1 1978 r. 17/XI--4/XII 1978 r. 18-17/XII 1973 r. 7* 3-19-21/XII 1978 r. Ns 4-7-10/1 1979 r. ? 21/XU 1975 r. 10/V11-4/V111 1980 r. 4/VIII 19110 r. 7-22/VIII 1950 r. 5/IX 1980 r. 5/1X-5/X 1980 r. 12/X-14/XI 1980 r. 22/X--31/XII 1980 r. 21/1-23/11 1981 r. 23-25/111 1961 r. 29/111-23(IV 1991 r. 18-24/IV 1981 r. 10/1V-15/V 1951 r. 19-27/V 1981 r. 1-3/V1 1381 r. 5-6/XI 1981 r. 7* 5-3/XII 1951 r. /A 8-10/X 1 1961 r 15/XII 1981 r. 7-24/111 1983 r. 1/13/ 1983 r. 4-26/1V 1983 r. 23/V 1983 r. 23/V-8/VII 1983 r 17/V11--30/V111 1983 25/V1!-14/IX 1983 r. 20/IX-4/X 1993 r. 6-8/X 1983 r. 9-16/X 1983 r. 22/X-5/XI 133.3 r. 22/X-7/XI 1383 r. 7-13/X1 1983 r. 25-26/X1 1983 r. 19-20/XII 1383 r. Ns 7-21/X11 1983 r /it 8 25-29/XII 1983 LI/XII 1953 r. 1 3arpma TOMINSI N emasnyaea ) Peewees ;lemma 4 (6011.74- KM naponeoeme ) Handling= Typoorpeneres SS XOACICTOSI XOJZI 1 ateprortype (astern* )amp- ............? --.. Key: a--Installation of reactor circuit metal-work; b--Turnover of circuits for serpentinite filling; c--Filling of circuits with serpentinite; d--Creat- ing clean zone for graphite stacking; e--Installation of reactor space and graphite stacking equipment; f--Installation of fuel channels; g--Instal- lation of piping for steam water supply lines; h--Helium monitoring of density of metal-work and reactor space; i--Blowing out of fuel channels; j--Back- washing of SPiR [possibly Purge and Reactor Systems] and SAOR [emergency reactor cooldown system] and water-lowering [vodoopusknyy] piping; k--"Cold" GTsN [Main Circulating Pump] breaking-in run; 1--KMPTs hydraulic test; 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY m--"Hot" main circulating pump run; n--Fuel charging, and beginning of physical start-up; o--Reactor warm-up and blow-through of steam pipes;, p--Test of turbo-units under no-load conditions; q--Power startup (taking [vzyatiye] from the electric load). As is evident from the.Table, because of the lack of experience on the part of the construction and installation workers, completion times for the indi- vidual operations on the first power block. were greatly protracted and, under- standably, could not be used as an indicator during the erection of successive power blocks. However, painstaking analysis of these time periods will elimin- ate the causes for the lost time from here on. The second power block Was constructed within a short period, and the length of time expended on the individual operations On this power block have up to now not been successfully reduced, either at the Chernobylskaya AES, or at other AES's equipped With RBMK-1000 reactors. At the third power block, construction time for the reactor shaft and the central room was Increased because of changes in the layout, and defects in the transport and hoisting equipment diagram. When the 4th power block was being constructed, the experience in doing installation work on, the previous power block was taken into consideration, however, in .connection with the poor quality of the construction work done at the 35,0-meter mark, the preparation of the reactor circuits for serpentinite filling, the filling operation itself, the turning over of the central room for installation of the equipment for the reactor space, and completion of the graphite stacking were all held up. The air blow-through operation of the main steam conduit deserves special attention. Thanks to the fact that it was done prior to the initiation of the physical start-up, during the "hottest" time, five days were saved. Labor outlays on the heat systems installation work on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th power blocks amounted, respectively, to 1,200,000, 680,000, 1,000,000 and 695,000 man-days. In our opinion, in order to further reduce labor outlays and time spent in heat systems installation work on subsequent power blocks, it is necessary to: cancel the installation allowances in KMPTs piping of 800- and 300-mm diameters; come to the point at which, in the manufacture of high-pressure piping, plant tolerances for wall thickness variations, out-of-roundness etc., corres- pond to the tolerances set forth in TU-34-42-388-78 for stainless steel pipe, and in TU-34-42-387-78 for carbon steel pipe; bring the size of batches of pipe from the plant up to the maximum capable of being transported; 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY deliver piping of less than 100-mm diameter in blocks; assembled suspension members and supports for all piping, no matter what their size, should be delivered in tied-down and spring-secured blocks, and plant batches of pipe, hangers and supports should be delivered with a rustproof covering, leaving the ends of the joint uncovered for 250 mm on the erection joint end; produce blocks of grouped NVK [not further expanded] distribution headers in the plants, with shut-off and safety fittings and plugs; draw up designs for permanent power blocks, taking their volume into account, as well as the possibility of their being used during construction and installation operations, without having to be dismantled afterwards, which will increase the efficiency with which the buildings are turned over for fin- ishing work. Moreover, the plant assignments for pipe batches have to be coordinated with the installation workers. Resolution of a number of organizational problems will, no doubt, also promote increased labor productivity during the construction of successive power blocks. In particular, the greatest possible number of temporary freight and passenger elevators and refuse chutes, for the disposal of refuse and scrap metal, need to be installed, the number of temporary ventilation passages need to be in- creased while work is being done in the cental room and in the reactor and turbine room cells, and construction, installation and special-purpose work should not be carried out concurrently in the reactor room buildings or in the turbine cells. The experience of constructing the 3rd and 4th power blocks has shown that erection of the reactor shaft is impossible without completing the construction and technological section of the bubbler pond. Presentation of the planning documents for these systems needs to be speeded up, which will make it possible to order the piping and get to work sooner on construction of the reactor shaft and the central room. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel'stvo, 1984 12659 CSO: 1822/123 63 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 621.31.002.51.002.72.621.039.5 PROGRESS REPORT: CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES' 4TH POWER BLOCK Moscow ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO in Russian No 12, Dec 84 pp 8-11 [Article by engineers A. M. Usik, A. G. Lyubenko and V. D. Deygraf: "Installa- tion of the Reactor Section Equipment") [Text] A comparative analysis of the basic indicators for installation work (equipment mass, and the labor-intensiveness and time spent in installation) on the 2nd and 4th power blocks (see Table) shows that the introduction of a number of new and complicated systemainto,the layout on the reactor section has led to increased labor intensiveneti-ln,i* operations on the 4th power block, and mainly in the reactor section.' ii . .. 6 B Awes 000py. Aossaus. r Tiry rm. mea.-amell. us siossTant ?odarfilosassas ( D ) 1 6.1 au *2 14 421 dog 0 t :01 4.-a: 124 A . i o Lo124 42 ao: co? t:1 ?Xpummel* , 2. ?wormy= PelrePs iiimuga 1 wmmusta 24 44 34530 30310 13 710 11 440 600 410 US MIT 25/111 r. WI I 1063 r. I MTh 21/XU12212 r. 21/X11. 120 r. Key: (A) Power block number; (B) Equipment mass, tons; (B1) Power block; (B2) Reactor section; (C) labor outlays for equipment installation; 1000's of man-hours; (Cl) Power block; (C2) Reactor section;_ :(D) Date; (D1) Reactor installation begun; (D2) Power start-up of reactor In erecting the main building, only 3,925 tons of equipment, 1,476 tons. of piping and 722 tons of industrial metal7work? have been installed, which by the beginning of the 1983 start-up period amounted respectively to 35, 40. and 45 percent of the overall work volume. In addition, the central room ? of the reactor section was behind schedule in being-readied for installation of the reactor. All this has engendered a search, for-methods by which to reduce the amount of time spent on installation work: 64 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY A number of progressive resolutions have been developed by specialists from the Energomontazhproyekt [possibly All-Union State Power Plant Planning and Installation] Institute and the Yuzhteploenergomontazh [possibly Southern Thermal Electric Power Plant Installation] Trust, to insure that reactor sec- tion equipment is ready in time for the start-up of the power block. Some of these resolutions include: use of an existing shop (which was built for const- ruction of the first phase), which is now being used for consolidated assembly of the reactor's metalwork, organization of transport of the reactor's metal- work and the steam separators to the 4th power block on the four BK-1000 crane trolleys, and the pre-installation set-up of these metal structures in the power block area etc. The enumerated resolutions, along with several others, are examined below. A 1(m) ?4 A A-A 7 -.7t9 amalgam 0,5". reefirtni 4=ige. Jaelmodatog , 10 Figure 1. Plan for consolidated assembly of reactor metalwork: 1--Separators; 2--KP-640BM gantry crane; 3--Trolley of BK-1000 tower crane; 4--Consolidated assembly shop; 5--KP-640 gantry crane; 6--Biolo- gical protection tank (Plan L); 7--Box girder; 8--Temporary biological protection;- 9--Fourth power block; 10--Third power block USING EXISTING SHOP FOR CONSOLIDATED ASSEMBLY OF REACTOR METALWORK (Figure 1). Realization of this resolution has been made possible by means of transporting the oversized equipment beneath the overhead trestle for the technological piping. This:technical resolution was developed by Energomontazhproyekt and Gidroproyekt [possibly All-Union Order of Lenin Planning and Survey, and Scientific Research Institute of Hydrotechnical Construction imeni S. Ya. Zhuk]. In order to construct a transport passage within the trestle, the Gidroproyekt planners moved its supports and rerouted the technological piping on the trestle. The special box-girder for supporting the piping and the temporary biological protection system slabs was designed in the Energomontazh- proyekt Institute. Implementation of the resolution here described made possi- ble the consolidated assembly of the metalwork of the 4th power block reactor to be done in an existing shop using the available KP-640 crane, and using procedures which had been approved during construction of the previous power blocks [1]. 65 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ORGANIZING TRANSPORT OF REACTOR METALWORK AND STEAM SEPARATORS An analysis of various methods for delivering the indicated equipment from the consolidated assembly shop (the steam separators were temporarily stored in the KP-640 crane work area) to the operational area of the new, modernized KP-640BM crane, which was installed by the 4th power block, showed that the ,best method would be to move the equipment on the four BK-1000 crane carriages, since using rails for transport is the least labor intensive, and takes the shortest route. The positive experience gained in solving a similar transport problem-On-the 3rd power block [21 played no small role in selecting this method. In order to make up for any potential non-productive losses of work time, (such as had occurred when similar equipment was being moved in the 3rd power block), work was done to determine the actual dimensions of the transport- ation corridor along the entire equipment delivery route. While calculating the passageway of the most oversized metalwork (plan L) through the transport opening in the trestle, there was determined to be as great a hazard of damag- ing the metalwork as the temporary biological protection slabs which were hooked up to the trestle. In connection with this, it was decided to reduce the size of the equipment which was to be transported, prior to its being loaded onto the BK-1000 crane carriages. To take care of this in the equipment's support assemblies, the two hydraulic jacks,which had been provided in the transport plan for the automatic equalization of the loads acting on the four BK-1000 crane trolleys, were removed. This decision made it possible not to have to disconnect the technological piping from the trestle, or to remove the .biological protection slab. PREINSTALLATION ASSEMBLY OF THE REACTOR METALWORK AND THE STEAM SEPARATORS In order to.rulesnit.probable work-time losses and toprevent_OlenvIrom-effec- ting the length of time spent in installing the power block, a determination was made of the operation of the operations which must be removed from the critical route of the reactor's supply diagram, and which must be carried out during the preparatory period. These are such operations as the del- ivery of blocks of the reactor's metalwork and the steam separators from the consolidated assembly shop to the main building of the 4th power block and their preinstallation assembly into a temporary position in the operating zone of the K12640EIM crane (Figure 2--picture not shown). The indicated equipment was delivered in a sequence strictly complying with the technological sequence of its installation. To test the tracks beneath the trolleys and gantry of the KP-640BM crane at the calculated load, the first thing delivered was the lower tank of the biological protection system (plan L). Tests of the 21020/32-S1J-21-U1 travelling crane were conducted earlier on the gantry of the KP-640BM crane by separately loading each trolley, the load-carrying capacity of which is 320 tons, with a pre-measured load. Then, all four steam separators, the cruciform support (plan C), the housing (plan KZh) and the upper tank of the reactor's biological protection were brought over. The lower plate.(plan OR) was brought over next to last, and last, the reactor's upper plate (plan Ye.). 66 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The preinstallation assembly of the enumerated oversized and extremely heavy equipment was accomplished in unfavorable conditions. The piece of ground designated for the intermediate assembly of the equipment was located within the operational area of the 2X320/32-SU-21-U1 travelling crane, which was reduced in size as a result of the KP-640BM crane cantilever having been dis- mantled. Moreover, important underground lines had been laid underneath this section of ground, and considerable loads--over 1,600 kN [kilonewtons]--were being transmitted from the heavy-weight equipment onto the ground directly at each of the four of the equipment's points of rest. The loads from the assembled equipment were transmitted through NSP-3 ferro- concrete slabs, 3.5 X 1.5 meters in size. The number of these slabs was deter- mined based on allowable pressure on the ground (0.3 MPa). Plans L and S, and D and KZh, and all four steam separators were set up on four slabs. Plan OR rested on the slabs which had been laid down beneath the tracks on the route, of the crane trolleys through the intermediate supports placed there for the transport trolleys. Plan G elements were used as braces. Plan Ye was left on the BK-1000's four transport carriages, outside the operational area of the KP-640BM crane. In connection with the substantial amount of time taken up by the preinstal- lation work, the following measures were provided forth the plan for trans- porting the reactor's metalwork. They are designed to protect the interior surfaces of the permanent equipment from snow, rain, dust, sand etc.: place- ment of plasticized covers on the circuits which are welded into the reactor's metalwork, aid placement of tight seals on all the steam separator's branch pipes; and application of adhesive tape to the welded compensator edges which are welded onto plans L, KZh and Ye. In addition, special-purpose planking is to be installed to protect plans OR and I, which are located within the operating area of the construction tower cranes ,,from having construction parts accidently fall on them. As a result Of the efforts which have been made, 100 percent readiness for Installation has been achieved. PREINSTALLATION PREPARATION OF PRIMARY CIRCUIT PIPING On the 4th power block, as on those previously completed, there was an increase in the amount of work done during the preparatory period in the TsPR [pre- installation operations shop], and in the consolidated assembly areas, part- icularly work on trimming extraneous materials left over from installation, and treating ,the welded edges on the piping of the primary circulation loop, i.e., the circulation and water-level-lowering piping of the KMPTs [multiple forced circulation circuit], the diameters of which are, respectively, 800- and 300-mm, and overall of which are 520 and 355 tons; on the piping of the NVK [lower water lines] and the PVK [steam-water lines], which have overall masses of 295 and 392 tons. 67 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY During the consolidated assembly of blocks of 800-mm diameter piping, of the 114 joints in the area, 18 were welded and checked, and of the 34 untrimmed, parts left over from installation, 24 were trimmed off and the welded edges treated. Much more preinstallation work was done during consolidation of the 300-mm diameter water-level-lowering piping: 432 of the 896 joints were welded and checked on the site and all 420 untrimmed installation ends were trimmed (and the welded edges treated). During consolidated assembly of the lower water-supply lines and the steam- water lines in the preinstallation operations shop, welding and checking were done, respectively, on 3,322 (out of 8,305) and 7,090 (of 12,073) joints, and 1,661 and 715 installation tag ends were trimmed off. During installation of the enumerated piping, from which the installation tips had been trimmed, there arose no complications, and the quality of the piping's installation remained high. MODERNIZATION OF THE KP -640BM GANTRY CRANE Installation of the reactor steelwork and the steam separators of the 4th power block was done using a new, modernized KP-640BM crane. This is in con- trast to the 3rd power block, where a stationary two-pole trestle was used to carry out the installation work [2]. Initially, this crane was slated for use on construction of the third phase of the Chernobylskaya AES, but then its manufacture was speeded up so it could be used to install the equipment for the 4th power block. While the modernizing design for the crane was being drawn up, the experience from installing the reactor steelwork and the steam separators of the 3rd power block of the Chernobylskaya AES, and other AES's equipped with RBMK-1000 [high-power pressure-tube reactor] reactors was taken into account. The modernization consisted of raising the height of the crane's gantry by 1.5 meters (compared to the height of similar cranes used at the Kurskaya and Smolenskaya AES's), installing a single travelling crane with a load-lifting capacity of 640 tons on the gantry, instead of two cranes with 320-ton capacities, and fitting the gantry with additional structural elements (supports, girders etc). Increasing the height of the gantry permitted the completion of a substantial amount of construction work in the central room (up to the 35.5-meter mark of the overhead span), prior to starting installation of the reactor steelwork. Installing a single travelling crane instead of two reduced the quantity of metal used.in the KP-640BM crane by a great deal. Subsecuently, when the reactor steelwork and the steam separators were being transported to the main building, since the load from the 640-ton capacity travelling crane was not transmitted to the gantry cantilevers, the latter's braces were replaced with cable hangers, which permitted an increase in the volume of construction work on erecting the enclosing parts of the reactor room's structure [3]. In addition to the reactor steelwork, and the steam separators, the modernized KP-640BM crane was also used to install some other equipment, and was used 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY to install the structural elements of the hip roof over the central room. On the whole, in a period of 36 days, this crane was used to install equipment and structural elements with respective masses of 4,040 and 160 tons. USE OF THE KP-640BM GANTRY CRANE TO ERECT THE ROOF OF THE CENTRAL ROOM This crane was used for the large-block assembly of structural elements of the roof at the suggestion of specialists from Energomontazhproyekt. The oversized roof blocks were put into planned position by the 2X320/32-SU-21-U1 travelling crane, which was set on the KP-640BM gantry. Consolidated assembly of the unwieldy roof blocks, which were-20X24X6 meters in size, was done in the construction area, which was located near the main building of the power block under construction. In all, four of these blocks were brought together (the mass of a single one of which was 50 tons). Each of these massive blocks was delivered by two BK-1000 tower cranes to the intermediate gantry, which had been installed on the indicated travelling crane. The height of this was mach that a roof block set on it was 100 mm higher than its design position. Four jacks were used to lower the block. The four roof blocks were installed in as many days. After that, the roof-covering slabs and the wall panels were installed in 10 days. As this construction work was being done, the same crane was being used for some critical functions: to bring the lower water-supply lines to the reactor shaft, and to install the steam separators. Thanks to the use of the KP-640BM crane, the raising of the structural members of the central room roof for the 4th power block took 14 days in all, just as 27 days were required for this on the 2nd power block, and 35 on the third. INSTALLATION OF THE LOWER WATER-SUPPLY LINE (NVKI PIPING The procedure for installing the NVK piping in the 4th power block differed considerably from that used in the 3rd power block, where it was brought into position with a BK-1000 tower crane through the reactor shaft during the time when there was no roof on the central room [2]. The most glaring fault in the piping delivery plan used in the 3rd power block consisted in the combining of construction and installation operations, which required the installation of protective decking, and the taking of additional measures to protect the piping. When the 4th power block equipment was being installed prior to the delivery of the NVK piping to its assigned NVK position in the reactor shaft via BK-1000 crane, the grouped headers were installed. Stacks of the piping were delivered to the indicated shaft by a KP-640BM crane which was attached to the main building. The piping stacks were delivered to a point beneath the crane via motor vehicle transport. The piping stacks were brought to the NVK positions by a 5-ton-capacity erecting crane-jib which had been installed in the reactor shaft on the plan L foundations, and by a double-chain hoist, each chain of which had 5 tons' of load-hoisting capacity, and which had been placed by 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the passages in the NVK positions. While the NVK piping was being installed, the plan :S metalwork and the gas and drain pipes Were being assembled in the reactor shaft. Following this, the plan OR and L metalwork was installed, and in thia.connection,.in order to insure that the plan OR circuits were emplaced between the rows of NVK pipe, guide pins [loviter] were installed. It should be mentioned that,, along With the advantages of the above plan for installing NVK-piping (the potential for mechanizing the delivery of stacks of piping to points near those in the design, the reduction in the volumes of manual labor, and the reduction of time spent in block-and-tackle hoist- work), there are also shortcomings: construction work in the main building has to be shut down, since when the KP-640BM crane is being attached to the main building the two BK-1000 tower cranes have to be moved away; when the roof covering slabs and the wall covering panels for the central room are being installed, there is a good chance that the NVK piping will be damaged; the work on delivering the NVK piping and the grouped headers turns out to take place on the main route of the reactor installation network. It also needs to be mentioned that welding the OR plan's lower compensator and installing the piping onto the permanent supports and hangers is also made more difficult. INSTALLATION OF THE STEAM SEPARATORS The procedure for installing these units in the 4th power block differs sub- stantially from that used in the previous three power blocks, and at the power blocks of the Kurskaya and Smolenskaya AES's [4]. The separators were installed with the help of a KP-640BM crane and two installation trusses [montazhnaya ferma]: an intermediate truss, positioned in the open space of the crane, and a connecting truss, positioned in the opening between the crane and the separator room. The intermediate truss was installed onto the horizontal struts of the gantry with a 2X320/32-SU-21-U1 gantry crane, and an attempt was made here to get them as close to the gantry columns as possible, so that the gantry crane, as it was being attached to the separator room, did not hinder the erection of the stair-elevator block of the main building (Figure 3). The connecting truss was installed with the aid of a BK-1000 tower crane, and was then attached to the gantry crane with an intermediate truss, and to the separator room with "installation girders. At the same time, a KP-640BM crane brought two separators to the main building. One of them was installed onto the intermediate truss, and the other was attached with a sling to a hook with a load-hoisting capacity of 320 tons. The first separator was moved along both trusses to the separator compartment, and then the second separator was installed onto the intermediate truss, and in like fashion brought to the separator compartment. This having been done, 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the intermediate truss was dismantled. Installation of the separators in the second ronm was done in the same manner. The duration of the cycle for bring- ing the two separators into their space, beginning with the approach of the KP-640BM crane to the separator room, and ending with the dismantling of the connecting truss, amounted to 38 hours. Figure 3. Steam separator installation plan: Key: 1--Separator rooms; 2--Support; 3--Intermediate truss; 4--Sep- arators; 5--KP-640BM gantry crane; 6--Connecting truss The described procedure for installing separators, in comparison with that used earlier, reduces their delivery time, makes the installation operations safer, and requires no re-attachment of hoist slings to the separators as they are brought to the separator room. After the steam separators were installed, the basic metalwork was installed in the reactor shaft. INSTALLATION OF RP (REACTOR ROOM] EQUIPMENT The graphite stacking of the 4th power block reactor was installed using a technique which was tried out on previous power blocks. However, a new instal- lation technique was used to lay the 13th and 14th layers of graphite, and it has turned out to be so efficient, that the entire plan for mechanizing operations in the reactor room will evidently have to be reconsidered for successive power blocks. Thanks to the use of this method, the work of assem- bling the shield slabs and adapters is removed from the critical main network route used for installing the reactor, and is carried out beforehand in the TsPR [possibly central work area]. 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In order to guarantee standardized coaxial alignment of the axes of the con- necting pieces and Orifices in the shield slabs, the blocks are assembled by using caliper-gauges. The assembled blocks are transported to the Central room, lowered into the reactor room and are moved along on tracks to the instal- lation\aite. After this is done, using.the simplest traction devices [prost- eyshiye tyagi], and proceeding across the circuits of the upper: reactor slabs, these blocks were first set above their design position, then the shield plates were lowered into their design positions and the openings calibrated. If 40 percent of the overall time spent ,to install the reactor. room equipment at the previous power' blocks was used to lay in the upper graphite layers, the shield plates and adapters, this time was reduced 2-fold at the 4th power block. FOUR-LINE FLOW-TYPE INSTALLATION OF PVK [STEAM-WATER LINES] UPPER CIRCUITS AND PIPING The four-line flow-type procedure for installing the upper circuits, realized at the 3rd power block [2], was perfected at the 4th power block. As was also done at the preceding power block, the upper PVK circuits and piping, which include all the circuits of the entire semi-series [poluryad] (24 circuits), were installed in blocks, by using existing block and tackle equipment. The outstanding feature of the improved procedure is the development and imple- mentation of organizational measures (an efficient cyclic schedule for carry- ing out installation operations on each of the four production lines, socialist competition between departments etc), which permitted strict observation of production discipline and checking of completed work volumes. Installation was carried out by two shops of the Chernobyl Installation Admin- istration of the Yuzhteploenergomontazh Trust--the reactor and the pipeline shops. Two brigades worked simultaneously as part of each shop, one brigade per production line. Work was done during three shifts. The collective from the pipeline shop began to install the circuits of the 17th series, and the collective from the reactor shop worked on the 34th. Work was carried out in two directions from each of these series--toward the center of the reactor, and toward its periphery. Both production lines worked toward the center of the reactor at the same time. The length of time taken in the installation of the PVK's upper circuits and piping was done in a record short time--50 working days. In conclusion, it should be mentioned, that, thanks to the introduction of progressive resolutions, the installation of the technological equipment of the 4th power block took 9.5 months in all. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Usik, A. M., Lyubenko, A. G., Berezanskiy, K. S., Tokarenko, V. P., Koren- skiy, V. S., Mikitayev, V. G., Brik, A. P. and Zhil'chenko, N. I., "The Installation of Steam-Generating Units at the First Power Block of the Chernobylskaya AES", ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 2, 1978, p 3. 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . Usik, A. M., Lyubenko, A. G., Lozovski, Yu. K., et al., "The Installation of Steam-Generating Units at the Third Power Block of the Chernobylskaya AES", ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 4, 1981, pp 10-15. 3. Yefimenko, V. T., "Use of 'Reserves", ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No-2, 1983, pp 9-12 4. Preobrazhenskaya,'M. G., Sozdanskiy, I. V. and Rubinshteyn; Yu. M., "Installation of Steam Separators at the Smolenskaya and KuiskaYa AES' With a KP-640 Gantry Crane%:ENERGETICHESKOYE STROITEL'STVO, No 9, 1982, pp 8=9. . COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Energeticheskoye stroitel'stvo, 1984 12659 CSO: 1822/123 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHERNOBYLSKAYA AES STATUS Moscow SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA in Russian 26 Feb 85 p 1 [Article by Zh. Tkachenko] [Text] Kiev--The personnel at the Chernobylskaya AES exploit modern tech- nology with confidence. Four 1 million kilowatt power units are exceeding design indicators, which in no small way was helped by the high proficiency of the engineers who operate the equipment. The personnel's high proficiency has allowed them to produce more than 80 million kilowatt-hours above their plan since the first of the year. They have been able to exploit even the freezing weather. Since the air and water temperature in these months was lower than normal, the specialists decided to decrease the volume of liquid which cools the reactor. In this way they decreased the energy demand for driving the powerful pumps and other internal needs. Such a savings during the severe winter was no small thing. 9016 CSO: 1822/223 CHERNOBYL AES REPLACES BOILER Moscow SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA in Russian 3 Apr 85 p 2 [Article by our own correspondent Zh. Tkachenko] ? [Text] Kiev--Over 50,000 tons of equivalent fuel have been saved last year in the Pripyat city of power workers due to the foresight of the collective at the Chernobyl AES. ? As soon as the plant reached design capacity, the boiler was closed down in the city. Heat and hot water are supplied regularly to the apartments. The new engineer idea was included in the plans and for this reason the heating utilities were laid during the construction period. Such a plan was economic and farsighted. The heat which the AES can produce will be enough to provide the city's comfort, considering its development up to the year 1990. ? 10272 CSO: 1822/223 ? 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FIRE PREVENTION SHORTCOMINGS AT ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS Alma-Ata KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 1 Apr 82 p 4 [Article by R. Nurseitov, chief of the department ?of the State Fire Inspection Administration of the Kazakh SSR Ministry of Internal Affairs: "Order--A Bar- rier to Fire: Problems of Fire Prevention at Power Industry Facilities"] [Text] At electric power stations, which are the heart of industry's supply of electricity, the development of power units that are safe from a fire point of view and protective means and measures, which prevent fires from happening, are of utmost importance. In connection with this, new standards have been created and the existing standards are being reexamined. A great deal of attention is being given to the problem of safety equipment for fighting fires at these key facilities. There are several ways to reduce the threat of fire. This includes the selec- tion and rating of electrical shielding, the appropriate execution and place- ment of the power units themselves, the use of fireproof coverings, and the adoption of effective alarm systems and firefighting methods. It is necessary to discuss this because fire prevention requirements are still being violated during the designing, installation and operation of power units. For example, a great deal of the designing work in the Kazakh SSR for the con- struction of new and the modernization and expansion of existing electric power stations is done by the Central Asian Department of the VNIPIenergoprom Institute [All-Union Scientific-Research and Design Institute of the Power Industry]. In the designs that they do there are frequent digressions from the existing fire prevention requirements. There are serious violations of norms in the designs for the construction of the Ekibastuzskaya GRES, which were done by the Novosibirsk branch of the Teploelektroproyekt VGPI [thermal electric power station designing branch of the All-Union State Design Institute]; there are also serious problems in the design for the construction of the Southern Kazakhstanskaya GRES, which was done by the same organization. In several cases the designers stipulate the use of construction materials that are inexpensive, but which from a fire point of view are more dangerous. Errors are committed in the estimates for the distance of evacuation routes 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and in determining the amount of water required for extinguishing a fire. Provision is not always made for the installation of automatic units for detecting and extinguishing fires. This is essentially the consequence of the poor organization of technical training of specialists and delays in informing them of changes and additions to the existing norms. Of course, there are also instances of an irresponsi- ble attitude of the specialists toward the work that they are doing and of poor management over the quality of designs. Of considerable importance is how the fire prevention regime is observed at the facilities. In this regard the Dzhambulskaya GRES can serve as an example. But sometimes one can see facilities where the surrounding terri- tory and facilities are cluttered with trash, where the equipment has mal- functioned, and where labor discipline is poor. It is easy to understand that it is at such facilities where most often fires occur. There have been quite a few violations of fire prevention practices at the construction site of the Ekibastuzskaya GRES (the general contractor is the Ekibastuzenergostroy Trust [Ekibastuz electric power station construction trust]). It is no accident that in 1981 alone there were several fires at these power stations; one of the fires cost the state 60,000 rubles. All the same the needed regime is being maintained at a low level. Frequently there are a large number of omissions and unfinished work on fire prevention features at power facilities that have been submitted for handover to the customer. Often this can be explained by the fact that the builders, in beginning to erect a facility according to an incomplete design, do not have an opportunity to order the needed materials and equipment on a timely basis. Thus even at the moment of construction a significant flaw is built into the facility, which forces them at a later time to take additional measures on the fire prevention aspects. It is these kinds of shortcomings that are evident in the Tentekskaya TETs in Karagandinskaya Oblast, where several facilities and the fuel oil storage site were not equipped with automatic fire extinguishing systems. Of course, the problem here was not just in the omissions of the designers and builders, but in the fact that the TETs administration was not duly concerned about fire prevention and accepted serious shortcomings. Fire prevention consists of several elements. Importance is attached to the creation of the most favorable conditions for the workers of this crucial service. However, the necessary concern is not always shown for the people and their working conditions. For example, the administration of the Karagandinskaya GRES-2 and TETs-3 is not meeting the contract obligations to provide the fire department with technical means and spare parts for the fire fighting trucks, equipment, furniture and other inventory for the buildings of the fire stations. The administration is not providing the workers with housing, space in the children's institutions, and other benefits on a level equal to those available to the workers at the power stations. 76 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At other power facilities problems having to do with the repair and mainte- nance of automatic fire extinguishing systems and alarm systems have not been resolved. In some cases the enterprises do not have direct telephone communi- cations with their fire fighting subelements. In improving all of these concerns an important role is played by the fire- technical commissions, which are called upon to conduct regular inspections of the shops, sectors and facilities on the whole, to compile plans for the implementation of their recommendations, and to ensure that they are carried out. However, it must be admitted that at many facilities such commissions exist only on paper and are engaged in this type of work very little. The same can be said of the volunteer fire fighting organizations. At some power enterprises the volunteers are forgotten and no provisions are made to involve them in the regular training programs designed to raise ?the level of ?their readiness. In protecting socialist property the fire fighting service plays a central role. But it will not be able to carry out its role to the fullest extent if the managers of the enterprises and construction and design organizations fail to attach equal importance to the condition of the fire prevention safety programs. Without this joint responsibility it is difficult to achieve good results. 8927 CSO: 1822/155 77 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ON WATERS OF RIVERS, SEAS Moscow TEPLOENERGETIKA in Russian No 12, Dec 83 pp 2-3 [Article by A. M. Petros'yants, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy: "On Effects of AES on the Waters of Rivers and Seas"] [Text] Protection of the environment requires establishing strict and con- stant control of coastal waters near the locations ofAES4S. That is why the CEMA Permanent Commission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy (PK SEV Atomenergo) has included in the work plan of observations, the inspection and organization of systematic control over concentration of radionuclides in the aqueous medi- um. Thus, the thematically classified work plan of the CEMA Permanent Com- mission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy includes systematic study and analysis of radioactivity of the waters of the Baltic Sea and the rivers flowing into it and also of the Danube River. The USSR is collaborating in this manner on a multilateral basis with the Polish People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the People's Repub- lic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania and on a bilateral basis with Finland. In 1978, within the framework of the CEMA Permanent Commission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and with participation of all interested countries, a special international scientific expedition was organized to inspect the radioactivity of Danube's waters and its bottom deposits on the entire length. Over a period of several months, it has conducted a thorough study and all necessary analyses. As a result of this expedition's work, a report was prepared on the basis of materials of the study which was examined at a spe- cial seminar of CEMA member-countries, and was later submitted for consider- ation and confirmation at a regular meeting of the CEMA Permanent Commission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The materials of the report have shown that on Danube's entire length (a dis- stance of 1,869 km from its mouth) no sectors were found where the permissible content of radionuclides of fragmentational or activational origin was ex- ceeded; the levels of radioactive contamination of Danube's waters are low. 78 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The further one gets from the mouth, one notices a certain increase of natural radionuclides: potassium-40, lead-214 and bismuth-214, which is explained by the features of the mineralogical and chemical content of the coastal soil. The beta-radioactivity, obtained by evaporation of 1 to 3 1 of water, amounted to an average of 2.75.10-12 and 4.93.10-12 curie/1, i.e. it was extremely low. By 1978. the CEMA member-countries, which are adjacent to the Danube River, had AES 's in operation only in Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria (two water-cooled power reactors [VVER]-440 each). Therefore, the CEMA Permanent Commission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy decided to repeat the inspection of Danube during the 1985 navigation season, since by that time five units of the Kozloduy AES (Bulgaria) would presumably be in operation as well as four nnits-of the (Bogunitse) ABS and three units of the (Dukovany) AES (Czechoslovakia) and three units of the Paksh ABS (Hungary). The study of radioactivity Of waters in the Baltic Sea area is also of special significance for CEMA member-countries, since the Bruno Leichner AES (GDR) is located in the coastal area of the Baltic and the Leningrad ABS (USSR) and the Loviisa ABS (Finland) in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. In connection with the great capacity of theAES.'s, these studies are of special importance for the unconditional ensurance of radioactive safety of the population who live in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. The studies of the content of radionuclides by the CEMA Permanent Commission for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy were conducted not only. in the waters of gulfs but in the mouths of rivers fl6wing into the Baltic Seas and in the waters of the Baltic Sea itself. Of no lesser importance are the studies of distribution of radionuclides in bottom deposits and the appraisal of radionuclides entering them from the water phase for determining their distribution ratio. Studies of the content of radionuclides in hydrobionts [gidrobionity],'with the compilation of the balance Of radionuclides-in the Baltid Sea are also necessary. The following organizations are actively participating in conducting this interesting and important scientific research work: from the USSR--the Radium Institute of the State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy [GKAE] (Leningrad City), the Biophysics Institute of the USSR Ministry of Health [MZ], the Experimental Meteorology Institute of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology and other scientific centers; from the GDR--the State Administration for Atomic Safety and Protection from Radiation (GUABZI,.Berlin) and the scientific physics centers enlisted by it; from the Polish People's Republic [PNR]--the Central Laboratory of Radiation Protection and the Institute of Meteorology and Water Economy (the maritime department); and from the Republic of Finland--the Institute of Radiation Safety (Helsinki City) and the the Loviisa ABS. Moreover, the USSR State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy and Finland's Ministry of Trade and Industry have concluded a special bilateral agreement and have confirmed a plan for scientific and 79 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY technical cooperation in conducting systematic joint studies on the content of strontium-90, cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the waters of the Baltic Sea,proper, its gulfs and in the waters of rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea from.the territory of the Soviet Union as well as from the territory of Finland. An analysis of the radiation situation in the Baltic is very important not only in itself, i.e. in determining the effects of operation of AES's located along 'the coast of the Baltic Sea, but also in forecasting the consequences of further development of atomic energy in the Baltic Sea zone. To do this it is necessary to study the accumulation and the influence of radiactive admix- tures in the Baltic Sea as in a unified water system. Conducting such work in the water area of the open Baltic Sea and along the coastal zones', i.e. the territorial waters of the Baltic, requires direct participation and combined efforts of partner-countries in the given geographic region, i.e. the USSR, the GDR, the Polish People's Republic and Finland. The work conducted jointly by participating countries is also of significance for the methodical ensurance of studies of the radioactive situation in the water systems within a country, which is under the influence of fuel cycle enterprises. In 1979 and 1980, scientific organizations of the Soviet Union and the Repub- lic of Finland conducted studies of radioactivity of surface waters of the Baltic Sea proper. In conducting this work, precise distribution of stages, purposes, the time and places of work were defined, i.e. precise places for selecting samples for analysis. The values of concentration of radioactive substances in surface waters of the Baltic Sea are given in Table 1. From the table it is evident that during the year, since the previous year when samples were selected, the values of con- centration of strontium-9,0 and cesium-137 have practically no increased. Table 1. Concentration of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in the Surface Waters of the Baltic Sea Proper in 1979-80 (1) Hessmaireas 1979 r. 1900r. ? (2) (3) Ram cntopa aped (4) Kosuerirpsarts. 6041 NISr (5) mc$ Ana gAb)pa (7) (8) Kostuarrpaarta. 5a/144 (9) sac, PSI. PH HPfi PH PH 14Pfi HPfi PH PH PH HP5 nPror 18/ VII 21/V11 191 VII 23/ VU mfVfl 25/ VII 271V11 19.0t4.0 M.00:0 19.0t4.0 22.0t4.0 ? MAt4.0 19.0t4.0 22.0t4.0 .13.0t2.0 M.010.0 11.00.0 M.0t2.0 .? MX*2.0 M.0t2.0 M412.0 PH Parmesan IDICTICUT (CC:P); ? HOCTIITyt Pa AH1110101411011 28/VI 29! VI 6/VIII 29/VI 9/ Vii 9/VII 25/V11 1/V11 2/V11 2/VII 14/ VIII 6030fISCHOCTI14 (0MHARIUM). ( 10 ) M.0t4.0 22.00.0 26 M.Ot4.0 20.0t4.0 M ? 23.0t4.0 29.00.0 M.010.0 V 11.0t2.0 14.0t2.0 20 ? 13,0?2.0 14.0?2.0 ? 17 21 14,00.0 14.0?2.0 17.00.0 12 Key: . Executor . Sample. selection date 3. Concentration, Bk/m3 4. Strontium-90 [Key continued on following page] 80 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. Cesium-137 8. StrOntiUm-90 6. Sample selection date 9. Cesium-137 7. Concentration, Bk/m3 10. Footnote: PM -Radium Institute (USSR); R Pg -Radiation Safety Institute (Finland) Table 2 gives data on the concentration of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in the waters of rivers which flow into the Baltic Sea from the Soviet Union (Neva, Luga, Narva, Pirita, Daugava, Venta, Barta, Dane, Neman and Pregol, i.e. the rivers flowing into the Gulf of Finland from Leningrad Oblast, Estonia and Latvia) and the Republic of Finland (the rivers Kumiyoki, Kokemaenyoki, Ouluyoki, Kemiyoki and Tornioneyoki). From Table 2 it is also quite evident that during the 1970,-80 period no notice- able changes were observed in the values of concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137. The small reduction in concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 based on the 1980 data can be explained only by the reduction in the global fallout from the atmosphere. Table 2. Concentration of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in the Waters of Rivers Flowing Into the Baltic Sea From the Territories of Finland and the USSR Key: (1) Pekii (2) nepuoa. or6tva apa6bi (3) KainemPausa. 1979 r. 1980 r. 16)"Sr '"Cs(7) (47s, k 57c. (8) (10.) K10311arlaka -"CPeAllail KommilemMorm Orsykms Kmiliolui ? TopturataitoKit (9) c re9PwroPIIN 3a Map'. marl. aarye7 muM5p. To rate (11) ? ? ? 0 ? ? 4,04ARHARM 28 16 10 11 4.5 1.8 5.6 5.2 ' 8.2 28 21 17 II II 4.3 2.7 5.7 5.6 4.5 (13) Hem (14) Ara Haiwa nnvm Anram Bettra Sapra Astir Hehlat4 naKFCML (12) C Teppirroptni H10/1b -aarycr ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CCCP 27.0j5.0 27.0?4.0 24.0?5.0 12.0?3.0 24,0+5,0 13.0?3.0 I0.0?2.0 I0.0?2.0 I2.0?3.0 16.0?4,0 2.0141.0 2.0?1.0 2.0?I.0 2.0?I.0 2.0?1.0 1.0?0.5 1.0?0.5 1.0?0.5 1.0?0.5 20.0?4.0 I3.0?4.0 21,0?4.0 11.0?3.0 20.0?4.0 15.0?3.0 7.0?2.0 7.0?2.0 10.0?2,0 II.0?3.0 1,5?1.0 1.5?1.0 I.5?1.0 I.5?1,0 1.5?1.0 0.5?0.5 0.5?0.5 0.5?0.5 0.5?0.5 0.50,5 1. Rivers 2. Sample selection period 3. Concentration, Bk/m3 4. Strontium-90 5. Cesium-137 6. Strontium-90 7. Cesium-137 8. Kumiyoki, Kokemaenyoki, Ouluyoki, Kemiyoki, Tornioneyoki 9. From Finland's:territory 10. Average for March, May, August and October 11. Ditto 12. From USSR's territory . 113. Neva, Luga, Narva, Pirita, Daugava, Venta, Barta, Dane, Neman, Pregol- 14. July-August 81 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY From Table 3 it is very well evident that the values of concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in the deep waters of the open Baltic Sea prac- tically do not change. Table 3. Concentration of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in the Deep Waters of the Open Baltic Sea During the 1979-80 Period (i) RwroupoloPa 1979 r. (3) C"63Pa IMO r. 2fointeffrpatuot, 5K/WIAaTa 4)Konuetrrpatuoi. acists t5) "r (6)arCs 7) ?ssr 23/VII 22.0?4.0 15.0?2.0 9/VII 20.04?I.0 14.0j2.0 23/VII I9.0?4.0 I3.0?3.0 9/VII 19,0?4,0 I7.0?3.0 27/VII 22.0?4.0 15.0?2.0 2/VII 21.0?4.0 I7.0?3.0 27/V11 19.0?4.0 15.0+2.0 27/VII 22,0?4.0 I3.0?2.0 2/VII 21.0?4,0 18.0?3.0 2/VII 22.0?4.0 14.0?2.0 2/VII 22.0?4.0 18.0?3.0 I/VII 23.0*4,0 14.0?2.0 1/VII I9.0?4.0 18.0?3.0 Key: 1.. Sample selection date 5. Strontium-90 2. Concentration, Bk/m3 6. Cesium-137 3. Sample selectiOn date 7. Strontium-90 4. Concentration, Bk/m3 8. Cesium-137 As already noted, the work on studying and observing the condition of the aqueous medium in the Danube River and in the water area of the open Baltic Sea as well as in rivers which flow into it will be continued systematically and regularly. The development of atomic energy requires extensive and systematic collection of statistical data for the unequivocal determination of the extent of risk and correspondingly of the degree of safety for the population and the environment from the effects of operating atomic electric power stations. COPYRIGHT: Energoatomizdat, Teploenergetika , 1983 ?9817 CSO: 1822/112 82 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY RADIATION SAFETY MEASURES FOR AES EXAMINED Moscow EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV in Russian No 3, Mar 84 pp 47-49 [Article by Alejandro Bilbao Alfonso and Wilhelm Stregober, members of the CEMA Secretariat: "Insuring the Radiation Safety of AES"] [Text] An increasingly significant position is being given to nuclear power in satisfying the fuel andpower needs of the CEMA.member nations. Contributing to this is the successful resolution of those problems set forth by the Com- prehensive Program for the creation of the scientific-technical, production and organizational prerequisites for the accelerated growth and effective in- troduction of nuclear power into the economy on an industrial scale through the efforts of the fraternal nations. As a result of the activity within the framework of the Permanent CEMA Commis- sion for' Cooperation ,in the Area of the Utilization of Nuclear Power for Peace- ful Goals and the Permanent CEMA Commission for Cooperation in the Area of Elec- tric-Power with regard to the questions of scientific-technical cooperation as well as those questions associated with design and construction and instal- lation work and the operation of nuclear power plants, conditions have been created for the integrated development of nuclear power programs. They are based on a coordinated determination of the scale of AES construction, on the standardization of reactor units and on specialization and cooperation in the production of equipment for AES's in the CEMA member nations. Plans have been made to bring their total output up to approximately 100,000 MW in the next decade. Attention is being devoted to the utilization of nuclear power for heat-supply, the requirements of these nations for nuclear sources of heat are being determined and an evaluation of individual outputs is being made. Many years of experience in the operation of nuclear power installations, pri- marily AES's, have confirmed their high reliability and safety for the environ- ment and demonstrated their economic and ecological advantages in comparison with thermal fossil-fuel electric power plants. In the development of the nuclear power industry in the CEMA member nations, an important place is occupied by cooperation in the area of insuring radiation safety. This is being accomplished according to the Overall Expanded Program for Cooperation Among the CEMA member nations for 1981-1985 in the Area of the Protection and Improvement of the Environment and the Associated Efficient Use 83 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of Natural Resources. The chief goals in this are the development of stan- dardization and methods documentation for use in the CEMA member nations, the efficient utilization and mutual exchange of the results of studies and the development of unified approaches in the drafting of standardization documen- tation with respect to insuring radiation safety. Cooperation makes it pos- sible to efficiently utilize the scientific-technical potential available in these countries. It also has a positive influence on equalizing the levels of knowledge and improving the quality of the work being done. In insuring the radiation safety of nuclear power plants, primary attention is being devoted to engineering and technical measures for preventing emer- gency situations. This is the chief factor precluding the possibility of a worsening of the radiation situation at an AES and in the environment. More- over, monitoring measures, including technological and dosimetric monitoring at AES's and the monitoring of the popula0on and the environment, are also important. Based on the increasing significance of the protection of the environment and the further development of joint studies on insuring radiation safety on a mul- tilateral basis, the Permanent CEMA Commission for Cooperation in the Area of the Utilization of Nuclear Power for Peaceful Goals established the following directions for further cooperation at its 43rd session (December 1982). 1. The Development of Standardized Technical Documentation Regarding Safety Measures at AES's In connection with the growth in the number of AES's and the rise in their unit outputs as well as the increasing closeness of nuclear power plants to regions of high population density, the question arises regarding a further reduction in the levels of radiation through increasingly stringent standards and re- quirements directed at improving the level of safety at operational and plan- ned nuclear power plants. Serving this goal are the Health Regulations for the Design and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants which have been approved in the USSR and which contain requirements with regard to all aspects of safety for AES personnel and the population. These regulations can be made to be the basis for the development of domestic standards in the CEMA member nations that take into consideration the national characteristics of each of these countries. The regulations give a dosage quota for AES's which is equal to 5 percent of the maximum dose for an individual on the boundary of the health and safety zone and thus determine the maximum allowable emission of radioactive aerosols and gases that give radiation doses comparable to radiation doses from natural sources of radiation. Experience gained in the operation of commercially pro- duced AES's with VVER-440 reactors in Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, the USSR and the CSSR that had generated more than 100 reactor-years of electric power by 1983 testifies to the safe radiation situation within these AES's and to the reliable guarantee of radiation safety for the service personnel. For ex- ample, in summing up the data on the levels of radiation received by the per- sonnel in these AES's, it is shown that the individual average annual doses do not exceed 0.1 to 1.5 reins per year. The individual dose of external radi- ation received by the overwhelming majority of personnel does not exceed 20 percent of the maximum allowable yearly dose (5 rems). Studies confirm the 84 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY fact that personnel receive individual radiation doses mainly during the load- ing and unloading of nuclear fuel and during the accompanying maintenance oper- ations ln the main equipment in the first circuit of the AES. According to operational data, from 60 to 85 percent of the annual dosage is attributable to the reloading of fuel and the maintenance operations. Based upon the re- quirement to reduce the personnel's radiation to the minimum level possible within the framework of multilateral cooperation, tasks have been established regarding the development of requirements and measures for further reducing the dosage of those personnel who are engaged in reloading and maintenance op- erations. This pertains first of all to the improvement of lay-out and assem- bly designs for the production areas of the reactor installation with its di- vision into "free" and "restricted" zones that will localize radioactive con- tamination within the limits of the restricted zones. It will also be neces- sary to divide the complex of work areas for the efficient pre-maintenance sde- contamination and repair of equipment, to apply protective and technical meas- ures and devices and to improve the personnel's qualifications. 2. Improving the Organization and Methods of Dosimetric and Radiometric Monitor- ing at AES's and in the Environment An important position in this cooperation is devoted to modern methods of ra- diation monitoring at AES's. Coordinated programs for this monitoring and re- quirements for the systems for carrying it out have been developed. A great deal of attention is being given to the creation and application of systems for monitoring the environment of the AES through the utilization of automated devices, remote measuring equipment and computers. The application of remote measuring equipment insures continuous observation of radiation parameters in the atmosphere surrounding the AES. In the event of the uncontrolled release of radiation, remote measurements make it possible to take urgent measures among the population living in the vicinity of the AES. When connected to automated monitoring systems, a computer serves to store and gradually process data in its normal operating mode as well as to quickly con- vert this information into a form that is immediately suitable for implementing measures to protect the population. The systems of radiation monitoring along with the information functions should in the future encompass all possible fac- tors involving the effects of radiation and should have control functions. The development of computer technology and the appearance of inexpensive micropro- cessors and microcomputers make it possible to solve the problem of radiation monitoring at AES's in a new fashion and to take the next qualitative step in the creation and improvement of these systems. 3. The Study of the Radiation Consequences of Possible Emergency Situations at AES's A nuclear power station is a technically complex installation where, despite the high demands for reliability placed upon the equipment, individual mal- functions and failures of the equipment are possible which could lead to emer- gencies with radiation consequences. For this reason, an important direction in this multilateral cooperation is the timely study of such emergency situa- tions, primarily the analysis of the initial events and the paths by which the consequences of emergencies develop, particularly within the AES. In connec- 85 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tion with this, the CEMA member nations have adopted the Classification of Emer- gency Situations at AES's, on the basis of which joint studies have been con- ducted on assessing the limits of propagation and the effects of radioactive substances for various classifications of accidents. The calculations show that in the case of the maximum calculated accident, the doses of radiation received by the population at the boundary of the health and safety zone at a radius of 2 to 3 km will not exceed the maximum allowable values established .by the standards. Only in the case of a hypothetical accident could the ne- cessity of implementing measures to protect the population arise. Since the guarantee of radiation safety should be preventive in nature, this cooperation in the future will also be directed toward the organization of a defense for the environment in the event of an accident at an AES. In this case, it has been taken into consideration that for an effective defense it is necessary to have coordinated and detailed preliminary planning of all protective meas- ures, constant readiness to implement them, the corresponding outfitting of territorial agencies and AES personnel, the guarantee of communications and the means to interpret the radiation situation and an accounting of the mete- ? orological conditions. In an effort to accomplish this, general principles have been developed for preparing and implementing measures to protect the population in emergency situations at AES's in the CEMA member nations.. 4. Summarizing the Experience Gained in the Utilization of Individual Protec- tive Equipment for AES Personnel In the overall system of measures for insuring the radiation safety of AES per- sonnel, an important role is played by the utilization of individual protective equipment (SIZ) when carrying out all operations associated with the probabili- ty of radionuclides making their way to the surface of the skin or being ab- sorbed into the body. In connection with the fact that the development and standardization of individual protective gear are included among the important areas for cooperation, health and hygiene requirements for such gear have been drawn up and agreed to for utilization among the CEMA member nations. As early as the design and construction stages of an AES, attention should be devoted to an efficient solution to questions regarding the individual protection of personnel during maintenance operations. It must be taken into consideration that a great many additional personnel are enlisted in maintenance operations. In this case, the individual protective gear, namely sealed suits, equipment to protect the respiratory system, special clothing and footgear, gear for pro- tecting the hands, eyes and head and combination individual protective gear, should insure working conditions that would not lead to the appearance of un- favorable changes in the bodies of the personnel. Considering the fact that nuclear power is finding greater and greater application in the CEMA member nations, the task of developing requirements for further improvement in the standardization and optimizing of the individual protective gear for personnel at AES's under various operating conditions lies within the framework of mul- tilateral cooperation. Such requirements will insure the proper approach to the development, assessment and application of individual protective gear in an effort to improve its reliability and to insure safe working conditions for AES personnel and those who work with radioactive substances in other sectors of industry. 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. The Study of the Radiation Situation in Areas Where AES's Are Located Experience in the operation of AES's with VVER-440 reactors in the CEMA member nations testifies to the reliable guarantee of radiation safety for the popu- lation and the environment.. The radiation output from radioactive gas emission at such AES's amounts to approximately 3-5 Ci/day (less than 1 percent of the maximum allowable emission) for each power unit. This points to the fact of the sufficiently high hermetic nature of the technological equipment in the first coolant circuit and of the good operation of the filters used to trap the radioactive gases. With such a low level of emission of radionuclides into the environment, the impact of these AES's on the environment is practically nonexistent and the density of radioactive fallout, the concentration of radio- active aerosols and their radionuclide components in the area where the AES is situated correspond to global levels. Experience in the operation of AES's also shows that the annual radioactive liquid wastes with unbalanced water from AES's are negligible. They do not exceed the maximum allowable design values and have practically no effect upon the environment. The continuation of the study of the radiation situation in areas where AES's are situated and the ex- change of experience among the CEMA member nations will make it possible to refine the methods used to calculate the radiation dosages, the methods for determining low concentrations of radionuclides and their distribution for es- tablishing technically based standards for the values of emissions and wastes from AES's. 6. The Investigation of the Radioactivity of Water Systems [Baltic Sea, Danube River] Which Are of International Significance Over the course of several years, the CEMA member nations have been studying the radiation situation for the above-named international water systems. It must be mentioned that one of the specific natural characteristics of the Bal- tic Sea is its high biological productivity. In accordance with a program of research by the Baltic member nations of CEMA in 1976-1980, it was revealed that a hygienic assessment of the radiation situation in the areas of the Bal- tic Sea under investigation makes it possible to consider the situation safe. It has been established that the pollution of the sea is primarily the result of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere. Further research will make it pos- sible to establish the maximum allowable control concentrations for the most significant radionuclides in this water region which would determine the cri- teria of safety for both the population and the flora and fauna in the basin. A study of the radiation situation in the Danube River in 1977-1980 establish- ed the fact that the levels of radioactivity were in close accordance with the values of radioactivity inherent in flowing surface basins and were basically dictated by natural radioactive substances and partially by radionuclides of global origin. The effective equivalent dosage of internal radiation for the population when using the water and eating the fish from the Danube amounts to approximately 2 percent of the radiation quota apportioned for the effects of liquid AES wastes as established by USSR hygiene legislation. The calcu- lations of the Danube population's external level of radiation amounts to only 4 percent of the total dosage. The continuation of the study of the radiation situation on the Danube will make it possible to assess according to an agree- upon method the annual doses received by the population due to radioactive pol- lution of the water. 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7. Collation of the Methods and Instruments Used for Dosimetric and Radiometric Monitoring The methods for measuring the dosage of chronic and accidental radiation in the combined fields of neutron and gamma radiation and for measuring the dosage of beta radiation have been collated within the framework of multilateral cooper- ation. This collation has as its goal the further development of dosimetric systems and the guarantee of comparability of measurement results and the work- ing out of unified methods of dosimetric and radiation monitoring in the CEMA member nations. The studies that have been conducted have initiated coopera- tion within the CEMA framework in the area of the creation of unified standard- ization and technical documentation regarding the means and methods of radia- tion monitoring, the improvement of the methods and instruments and the genera- tion of recommendations for the application of the best of them in the frater- nal nations. The intensification and expansion of multilateral cooperation among the CEMA member nations in the area of insuring the radiation safety of AES's with re- spect to these directions is a prerequisite for the broad application of nu- clear power in our countries. COPYRIGHT: Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi Sekretariat Moskva, 1984 9512 CSO: 1822/381 88 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BOOK: EXAMINATION OF AES SAFETY REGULATIONS Moscow SOBRANIYE POSTANOVLENIY PRAVITELSTVA SSSR in Russian No 20, 1984 pp 355-364 [Authorization of decree and Article 107 from booklet: "Collection of Decrees of the USSR Government," "Examination of Safety Regulations in Nuclear Power Plants," Izdatel'stvo "Yuridicheskaya literatura," Moscow, 24 pages] [Text] Article 107--Authorization of a Decree of the USSR State Committee for Safety in the Atomic Power Industry The USSR Council of Ministers resolves: To approve the accompanying Resolution of the State Committee for Safety in the Atomic Power Industry. Chairman, USSR Council of Ministers Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tikhonov Moscow, the Kremlin, 4 May 1984, No 409 Authorized by decree of the USSR Council of Ministers as of 4 May 1984, No 409 Superintendent of Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers Mikhail Sergeyevich Smirtyukov RESOLUTION OF THE USSR STATE COMMITTEE FOR SAFETY IN THE ATOMIC POWER INDUSTRY - 1. Gosatomenergonadzor [State Committee for Safety in the Atomic Power Indus- try] is an all-union agency of governmental administration. Gosatomenergonadzor carries out its work in the national economy in supervising safety practices in nuclear power production facilities, including nuclear power plants of any designation (nuclear power plants, nuclear central heating and power plants, nuclear heat supply stations, etc.), experimental and research and development nuclear reactors, and in the area of nuclear safety, and also of nuclear power plants on ships and other floating equipment. 89 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The entirety of Gosatomenergonadzor's work regarding problems within its competence must he directed toward safeguarding the interests of the state, preventing accidents at nuclear power facilities, which accidents entail the escape of radioactive products or ionizing radiation above the standards set for normal operation. It also sees to the detection and analysis of the causes of these accidents and takes the necessary preventive measures. Finally, it sees to the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of all the nuclear power production facility equipment under its control. Gosatomenergonadzor bears the responsibility for organizing and carrying out systematic and effective official supervision of safe working practices in the nuclear power industry. 2. Gosatomenergonadzor's main tasks are: official supervision of the observance by all ministries, departments, enterprises, organizations, institutions and officials of established rules, standards and instructions for nuclear and technical safety in the planning, erection and operation of nuclear power facilities, in the designing and manu- facture of equipment for these facilities, and in the storage and transport of nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes at the indicated facilities; monitoring the development by ministries and departments, based on the recluirempnts of scientific and technical progress, of standardizing technical specifications to insure the safe operation of nuclear power facilities; to monitor the quality of equipment manufacture for all nuclear power facilities, and the carrying out, in the established sequence, of special technical receipt of basic nuclear power station equipment, including equipment manufactured cooperatively at the enterprises of member-countries of SEV (Council for Mutual Economic Aid] and the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia, for nuclear power stations erected in the USSR and abroad with the technical assistance of the Soviet Union; the monitoring, according to an established sequence, of the quality of the construction of nuclear power facilities, and of the installation of equip- ment at these facilities; monitoring the carrying out of measures for accident prevention at nuclear power facilities, and preparing enterprises for the elimination of these acci- dents; monitoring the accounting of nuclear fissionable materials at nuclear power production facilities. 3. Gosatomenergonadzor carries out its official supervisory duties directly, and through regional agencies formed by it in an established order (administra- tions of districts and inspectorates), and carries out acceptance of equipment for nuclear power stations in SEV member-nations and in the Socialist Feder- ated Republic of Yugoslavia, through specialists which it has sent abroad. 90 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Gosatomenergonadzor is comprised of Gosatomenergonadzor and its regional agen- cies. 4. Gosatomenergonadzor is guided in its endeavors by the laws of the USSR, by the other resolutions of the USSR Supreme Soviet and its Presidium, by the derrees and regulations of the USSR Council of Ministers, by this decree and other formal standardizing documents relating to its scope, and by the recommendations of interdepartmental technical councils, and it insures correct application of the operative legislation in subdepartmental organizations. G6satomenereonadzor disseminates the practice of applying the legislation of safety in the nuclear power industry and develops proposals for its improve- ment, and submits them in an established sequence for the examination of the USSR Council of Ministers. 5. In accordance with the tasks entrusted to it, Gosatomenergonadzor: a) in interaction with the USSR State Committee for Science and Tech- nology and the USSR State Committee for Atomic Energy Use, coordinates the scientific research conducted by the ministries and departments which is directed at validating the requirements for safety at nuclear power production facilities, and validating the effectiveness of designs used to insure the safety of these facilities. Here, the scientific guidance for the research Into the safety of nuclear power production facilities is provided by the Institute for Nuclear Power imeni I. V. Kurchatov; b) examines and approves the list of rules and standards for safety and the plans for their development with the appropriate ministries and depart- ments; c) with the appropriate ministries and departments, it supervises the development of safety rules and standards which are applicable during the planning, erection and operation of nuclear power production facilities, and during the design, manufacture, installation and repair of equipment under the control of these facilities, and approves them in an established order; d) supervises the development of sectoral standardizing and technical documents on nuclear power industry safety, including operating instructions for nuclear power producing facilities; e) makes decisions on plans for state and sectoral standards having to do with problems of safety in nuclear power; f) checks on the observation and analyses the effectiveness of regulations and norms for nuclear power safety: during the planning, erection, operation and taking nuclear power facilities out of operation; 91 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY during the designing, manufacture, installation and repair of equipment, instruments and products which are under Committee control; during the transportation and storage of nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes at facilities under Committee control; g) monitors the observance of planning, design specification and tech- nological documentation requirements, and of regulations, norms and instructions during construction of nuclear power facilities, and during the manufacture, storage, installation, testing, operation and repair of equipment, instruments and products for these facilities; h) monitors the carrying out of measures to eliminate design and opera- tional flaws and to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and improve the quality of the manufacture, installation and repair of equipment, instru- ments and products for these units; i) examines proposals of ministries and departments on the submission of rules for planning nuclear power facilities and designing their equipment to enterprises and organizations within their jurisdiction, adopts the approp- rate resolutions and also grants the enterprises and organizations the right to manufacture, install and repair equipment for nuclear power facilities, when the necessary conditions for completing the indicated work exist; j) registers nuclear power facilities and grants permission to operate them when positive decisions are forthcoming from other official supervisory agencies during the month following presentation of the required materials (permission is subject to reapproval after five years and following every case of accident); k) registers nuclear power facilities' pressurized equipment and piping, and gives permission for their operation and checks to see that they are cor- rectly and promptly given their technical inspections by enterprises and organ- izations; 1) examines the following, which have been submitted by the ministries and departments for approval: detail designs for reactor plants for nuclear power stations, ships and other floating equipment and experimental and research nuclear reactors; data which substantiate the selection of construction sites for nuclear power plants, experimental, and research and development nuclear reactors, also plans for the erection of nuclear power facilities, in the sphere of coordinating them with safety rules and standards; m) examines and approves the following lists, submitted by ministries and departments: lists of enterprises and organizations under the Committee's control; 92 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY lists of equipment, instruments and products which are subject to special technical acceptance; n) establishes the sequence and volume of operations for checking equipment and systems for nuclear power facilities and for the special technical accep- tance operations carried out by the Committee. 6. In order to accomplish the tasks set before it, and to fulfill the duties entrusted to it, Gosatomenergonadzor has been granted the right to: a) to conduct, at any time, checks of all facilities in its jurisdiction concerning problems included in the Committee's sphere of competence; b) to bring in, in coordination with the corresponding ministries and departments, their enterprises, organizations and specialists, to conduct checks and investigations and give their expert opinions, and to be paid out of the specialists' expense accounts, estimated by the Committee;_ c) to introduce proposals into the ministries and departments, and to present the directors of enterprises and organizations under the Committee's control with nuclear power safety regulations and norms which are obligatory for the implementation of the instructions to eliminate detected violations, and also to give the reasons and conditions leading to these violations; d) to give, to officials of enterprises and organizations controlled by the Committee, instructions for the elimination of deviations from design solutions, violations of design or technological documents, and regulations, norms and instructions during the construction and operation of these facili- ties, and during the manufacture, storage, installation, testing, operation and repair of equipment, instruments and products controlled by the Committee; e) to give, to officials of enterprises and organizations controlled by the Committee, instructions which are obligatory to put a stop to work which is conducted in violation of nu-clear power engineering safety regula- tions, norms and instructions, and to seal up said work place or equipment; f) to prohibit enterprises and organizations from shipping Committee- controlled eauipment in such cases where safety regulations and norms are not being observed, and where there are deviations from planning, design and/or technological documentation; g) to take appropriate measures, to the extent of shutting down nuclear power production facilities should safety regulations and norms go unobserved, and for deviations from specifications, or design and technological documents; h) to bring, according to an established sequence, officials to administra- tive liability for violating nuclear power engineering safety regulations, norms or instructions; 93 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i) to suggest to directors of ministries, departments, enterprises and oreanizations that, according to an established sequence, persons be relieved from their positions, or deprived, for a period of up to one year, of the right of technical leadership of operations, who: systematically violate the regulations and norms for safety in nuclear power facilities or the requirements of other standardizing documents; willingly do work, or allow equipment and facilities to be put into operation which has been shut down on the-instructions of etiencies Of tbe Committee; who have not taken training or passed an established sequence of exam- inations on nuclear power production safety regulations and norms; j) to give heed to problems which are part of the sphere of competence of the Committee, and to listen to reports and information from representatives of ministries and departments, and from directors of enterprises and organiz- ations; k) to participate in technical inquiries,which.are conducted according to an established sequence, and which look into the circumstances and causes of accidents at nuclear power production facilities and, for each problem which relates to the Committee's sphere of competency, to carry out the obli- gatory solutions based on the findings of the inquiries; 1) in the appropriate instances, to hand over materials to investigative agencies to make the guilty parties criminally responsible; m) should ministries, departments, enterprises or organizations have the need, to call for check tests of equipment and materials, check analyses of the working environment, and technical examination of equipment, instruments and products; n) to receive information from enterprises and organizations on the state of safety at nuclear power engineering facilities, on operational indicators, and on the causes of equipment breakdowns, and to receive, from directors of enterprises, organizations and facilities, and from other officials--explan- ations of problems relating to the Committee's sphere of influence, and scien- tific and technical reports and information by existing forms of reporting, technical specifications for facilities under the control of the Committee, and technical processes, all of which are necessary for purposes of familiar- ization; o) to check, within subordinate enterprises and organizations, on the observance of the established order for allowing workers to work, on their certification, and on checks of their skill-levels, and on whether they have appropriate documents; 94 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY p)., to take part in checking the knowledge level, regarding safety regula- tions and norms; of supervisors and engineering and technical workers of sub- ordinate facilities, and to make spot checks of these personnel regarding such knowledge; q) to determine, in accordance with interested ministries and departments, the necessary additional scientific research, experimental design and planning operations, which are meant to improve the safety of nuclear power facilities, and for including them in the plans of corresponding organizations according to an established order, and also to conclude agreements with scientific re- search, designing and planning organizations of the ministries and departments about carrying out these operations. The rights stipulated in the above paragraph are granted to Gosatomenergonadzor agency officials to the extent determined by the Committee Chairman. 7. Gosatomenergonadzor is headed by a chairman appointed by the USSR Supreme Soviet, and between sessions, by the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium, with subsequent presentation to the USSR Supreme Soviet for confirmation. The Gosatomenergonadzor chairman has deputies, appointed by the USSR Council of Ministers. The Gosatomenergonadzor chairman bears personal responsibility for thecarrying out of the tasks and obligations entrusted to Gosatonenergonadzor, and he establishes the degree of responsibility for the Chairman's deputies and the directors of the structural subdivisions of the Committee's central apparatus, in the leadership in the Committee's individual spheres of activity and for the work of the organizations of the Gosatomenergonadzor system. When carrying out his duties, the Gosatomenergonadzor chairman enjoys the rights of a USSR minister. 8. The Gosatomenergonadzor board is made up of the Gosatomenergonadzor chairman, who is chairman of the board, deputies to the Gosatomenergonadzor chairman, according to position, and also other leading Gosatomenergonadzor workers. The Committee's board members are approved by the USSR Council of Ministers. At its regularly Convened meetings, the Gosatomenergonadzor board looks into the problems of improving state supervision of safety in nuclear power produc- tiOn, and other fundamental topics of the Committee's activity, discusses - questions of the practical leadership of organizations within its jurisdiction, checks on .the implementation of resolutions, the selection and utilization of labor forces, plans for critical documents brought into the higher agencies, as well as the Committee's decrees, orders and instructions, and hears reports from the supervisors of the structural -subdivisions of the Committee's central apparatus and organizations within its jurisdiction; it hears out each question within the sphere of its competence, and hears reports and information from. ministerial and departmental representatives, supervisors of subordinate 95 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY enterprises, scientific research, planning and designing and other organiza- tions and plant-manufacturers of equipment used in nuclear power production facilities. 9. Gosatomenergonadzor issues orders and instructions, and produces directives which are indispensable for the performance of the duties of the subdivisions of the Committee's central apparatus, and the Gosatomenergonadzor system organ- izations. ? Within the bounds of its competence, Gosatomenergonadzor issues decrees which are indispensable in the performance of the corresponding ministries, depart- ments, enterprises and organizations. In necessary cases, Gosatomenergonadzor issues decrees conjointly or in accord with other interested miniltries and departments. 10. Gosatomenergonadzor implements measures for international cooperation in the field of safety in nuclear power production, and maintains, in established order, communications with the International Atomic Energy Agency and with State Committees for Safety in the Nuclear Power Industry of SEV [Council for Mutual Economic Assistance] member-nations and other countries, conducts negotiations, develops and presents proposals for scientific and technical exchange, and presents plans for agreements with foreign countries on questions which belong to the Committee's sphere of competence, and also sends the appropriate specialists abroad. 11. A scientific and technical council has been formed within.:Gosatomenergo- nadzor to examine questions included in the area of the Committee's compe- tence, and also gives expert advice in the examination.of.construction for:muclear power production facilities and for analysis.of the results of their operation. - The personal make-up of the indicated councils and positions on them are auth- orized by the USSR Council of Ministers. 12. The structure and number of workers comprising the central Gosatomenergo- nadzor apparatus are authorized by the USSR Council of Ministers. The regular time-table of the central Gosatomenergonadzor apparatus is author- ized by the Committee chairman. 13. Gosatomenergonadzor sets up, reorganizes and liquidates regional agencies within its set limits for numbers of workers and budgetary allocations, auth- orizes positions on these agencies, and organizes a network of non-staff inspectors, who work in positions authorized for them by the Committee. Gosatomenergonadzor works in close contact with other state supervisory agencies. 96 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 14. Gosatomenergonadzor issues an information bulletin (a free publication) which deals with problems of safety in nuclear power production, accident prevention, improving the monitoring operations of subordinate agencies, and deals also with the most important achievements of science and technology, and of leading experience in these fields. 15. The enterprises and organizations which are under Gosatomenergonadzor control, in order to create normal working conditions for Committee inspections, are obligated to provide the inspectors with: a) the necessary documents (specifications, blueprints, instructions for operation, and for storage of output, All-Union State Standards and other information materials); b) accurate monitoring and testing instruments and tools, personnel to conduct the tests and operations associated with the carrying out of super- visory functions, and the necessary data from laboratory analyses; c) the necessary special clothing, special footwear, and other personal protection equipment; d) utility rooms, clerical services, intercity telephone and telegraph communication and transport; _ e) a family-size living area from the housing facilities of the enterprise or the organization, and, in the absence of living area, this should be provided from other sources, in accordance with the executive committees of the local Councils of People's Deputies; ,all.forms of soeial welfare, cultural and medical services on a level with the corresponding-category of:workers of the enterprise or organization; .g) the necessary scientific and technical information and literature on the usual terms. 16. Gosatomenergonadzor and its regional agencies possess the seal with the image of the State Emblem and its designation. 12659 CSO: 1822/118 97. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NUCLEAR STATION SAFETY London SWB in English 15 Feb 85 p 7 [Text] There has never been a breakdown causing the danger of a radio- activity leak at Soviet nuclear stations. A modern 1,000 MW reactor is encased in special concrete 1 m thick. Each reactor is provided with virtually perfect automatic protection which takes into account a 0.00001 percent chance of a breakdown. The gas discharges are kept in special reservoirs until the, radioisotopes have completely disintegrated. Liquid and solid waste is put into well-isolated underground storage. There is constant monitoring of radioactivity within a radius of 40-50 km from nuclear stations. (Moscow in French for the Maghreb 2030 GMT 5 Feb 85) COPYRIGHT: British Broadcasting Corporation 1985] CSO: 1812/166 98 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SAFETY PROCEDURES OUTLINED FOR GORKIY AST PM071606 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 6 Aug 85 Second Edition p 4 (Article by correspondent V. Khrustov under the rubric "We Tell of Komsomol Construction Projects": "Nuclear Boiler House") [Text] We city, folk are so used to numerous municipal conveniences that we sometimes do not think about how much the hot water for a bath or the warmth from central heating radiators, for example, cost the municipal services." But these things are not cheap. For example, in order to heat a city with a population of 300,000 for a year, it is necessary to burn 500,000-600,000 metric tons of fuel oil in its boiler houses. In many cities natural gas is chiefly used for these purposes. What could replace organic fuel? Scientists and specialists are unanimous here: nuclear fuel. As is known, nuclear power is occupying an increasingly important place in the country's fuel and energy balance. Aes's are also called upon to play an important role in resolving the USSR's Energy Program. Today the peaceful atom gives us electricity and desalinates sea water. And tomorrow it will heat large cities. The first "nuclear boiler house" or, as specialists officially call it, nuclear heat supply station (AST), is being constructed near Gorkiy. I recently visited that shock Komsomol constructive project. "The warmth and work of our hearts will give people heat"--the construction site greets you with this slogan. This is a busy time there now: Basic work is being carried out on the main block--the safety housing [strakhovochnyy korpus] is being installed in the reactor hall. "This is an important component of the comprehensive system to ensure the population's safety, with the station being in the immediate vicinity of the city," Yevgeniy Nikitich Kozel, chief engineer of the Gorkiy AST, explained. "Whereas a conventional AES is located 25-40 km from the city which it will supply with electricity, this is inadmissible for AST's: The heat losses in the main heating system are too great, and their construction and servicing are costly." 99 FOR _OFFICIAL USE ONLY ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY There are a number of special features in the design of the Gorkiy AST's nuclear plant which make it possible to ensure its reliable operation and safety for the city folk (and, of course, the service personnel). The reactor vessel is housed (after the principle of the Russian matreshka doll) within a hermetic metal safety housing, which ensures reliable conservation of the core in any accident, even including the depressurization frazgermetizatsiya] of the reactor vessel. The three-circuit layout for heating the mains [setevaya] water totally rules out any possibility of a leakage of radioactive products into the heating systems, as the pressure in the second circuit is lower than in the mains circuit. In addition, the energy intensity [energonapryazhennost] of the core in an AST is several times less than in conventional reactors of the water-moderated water-cooled type used in AES's. The Gorkiy AST is being constructed 8 km from the city. The residential districts of Kuznechikha and Verkhniye Pechory--the chief housing construc- tion site in Gorkiy--are being developed precisely on that side. It is the upland part of the city, with a population of 300,000 people, that the "nuclear boiler house" will supply with heat. Its commissioning at full capacity will make it possible to close down approximately 300 low- power boiler houses burning organic fuel. This will provide a saving of the order of 700,000 metric tons of ideal fuel a year. A crucial operation--the installation of the heat exchangers of the second and third circuits and the tanks of the emergency reactor shut-down cooling system?has been entrusted to the team of communist labor headed by A. Terin. It employs 24 people, chiefly reserve servicemen. They work to one job schedule. Yuriy Sharagin recently joined the collective. The former tankman quickly mastered the specialty and is now a fourth-grade installation worker. Senior Seaman (Reserve) Petr Kuzmichei and many others are doing shock work to install the safety housing. And the operatives are learning while construction is taking place. Let this not seem strange. People with the necessary education and experience themselves learn and teach their colleagues everything that has to be tackled in the near future. There is nothing surprising in this, for the Gorkiy AST is the first "nuclear boiler house" in the country. Engineer-operator Aleksey Kudryavtsev is one of those who will keep an eye on the work of the peaceful atom and monitor the special chemical water treatment system. Despite his youth--he isonly 27--he is a quite experienced specialist: After graduating from Gorkiy Polytehnic he worked for 4 years in a planning organization. Thirty-year-old Valentin Maslennikov is also a graduate of Gorkiy Polytechnic. He is now senior engineer in charge of a unit at the Gorkiy AST. In a little while the "nuclear boiler house" will supply heat to the houses of the people of Gorkiy. This will be followed by the commissioning of the Voronezh AST. It is also planned to construct similar stations in a number of cities in the European part of the country. In the near future the peaceful atom, which today presents us with electricity, will also give our cities heat. CSO: 1822/323 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BOOR ON AES RADIATION SAFETY TO BE PUBLISHED Moscow TEPLOENERGETIRA in Russian No 12, Dec 85 p 59 [Excerpt] Energoatomizdat is offering for your attention a book to be published in 1986. "Radiation Safety and Protection for AES's: Collection of Articles," No 10; Doctor of Technical Sciences Yu. A. Yegorov, general editor; Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1986 (IV); 10 pp: illustration on cover; 50 kopeks. The bases of the physico-technical processes which occur in the process systems of AES's and which affect the formation of sources of radiation and radioactive wastes are presented. The results are discussed of analytical and experimental research on the radiation situation in and around existing domestic AES's. Much attention is given to problems of controlling the- radiation state of the "AES-environment" system and to new methodological and instrument developments. "Radiation Safety and Protection for AES's: Collection of Articles," No 11; Doctor of Technical Sciences Yu. A. Yegorov, general editor; Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1986 (IV); 10 pp: illustration on cover; 50 kopeks. The physico-chemical processes which occur in the process systems of AES's and which affect the formation of the sources of radiation and radioactive wastes are discussed. The results are given of analytical and experimental research conducted in 1983-1984 an the radiation situation at AES's. Special attention is given to new methodological and instrument developments. This book is for engineers, technicians and scientific workers specializing in AES radiation safety. COPYRIGHT: "Teploenergetika", Energoatomizdat, 1985 12595 CSO: 1822/125 101 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 AkAmi V11.1%...,1111.1.? vox. kyiNui USSR SOVIETS LINK CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT TO ARMS CONTROL LD291347 Moscow World Service in English 1310 GMT 29 Apr 86 [Yuriy Solton commentary] [Text] It has been announced in Moscow that an accident took place at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, the Ukraine. Here's what our commentator Yuriy Solton writes: One of the station's nuclear reactors was damaged and a special government commission of enquiry was set up to investigate the causes of the accident. The consequences of the accident are being dealt with and aid is being given to those who were injured. The accident is the first in more than 30 years of the operation of nuclear power plants in the USSR. This fact shows that they are highly reliable but however carefully nuclear power plants may be planned to protect the people and the environment it is impossible to foresee everything. There is always a degree of risk involved in using nuclear raw materials. According to THE NEW YORK TIMES for instance, in 1985 alone the United States Administration had to close down six nuclear power plants because they threatened the safety of the population. The consequences of a major accident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, in 1979 are still felt in the United States today. That accident was caused by the criminal neglect of the plant's owners for the basic safety, measures which resulted in a discharge of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and a great deal of damage to the health of local residents. Many of them are still suffering from exposure related diseases. Accidents and leaks of radioactive substances have also taken place id Britain and other countries, All these accidents took place at nuclear power plants using the power of the atom for peaceful purposes. One can easily imagine the amount of damage that may be caused by an accident at a military factory. Nuclear factories manufacture war- heads whose yields are hundreds of times greater than that of the Ainerican atom bomb that devastated Hiroshima in 1945. An accident involving a military nuclear factory or a nuclear missile on combat duty would have terrible consequences, and indeed there have been quite a few occasions when American missiles were on the brink of such an accident. The power of the atom can bring enormous benefits and indeed it is bringing them, but the same power put into warheads is capable of wiping out all life on earth. The only way to remove that grim prospect is to abolish all nuclear weapons once and for all. The Soviet Union is proposing that this be done by the turn of the century and that is a realistic task if a responsible approach is adopted to it. 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rkrn Mr 14,1fIla WLILJA MOSCOW CRITICIZES U.S. REPORTS OF CHERNOBYL INCIDENT LD301343 Moscow World Service in English 1310 GMT 30 Apr 86 [Text] As you heard in our broadcasts there was an accident at an atomic power station in the USSR at Chernobyl, 130 km north of Kiev. Parts of the structure of one of four units was destroyed and the reactor damaged, which caused some leakage of radioactive substances. Two persons died in the accident. The residents of the community next to the power station and another three communities in the area have been evacuated. Here is what Viktor Ilichev writes in this connection: The causes of the breakdown are being are fully investivated by a special commission of leading scientists and experts led by Deputy Prime Minister Boris Scherbina. Emergency measures have been taken to eliminate the consequences of the breakdown. The other three units of the power statipn have been stopped. They were not damaged. The radiation situation at the power station and around it has been stabilized. There have been reports in the press of a number of Eurpean countries that the level of radioactivity is returning to normal and gives no ground for concern. However, the propaganda machine in the West, in the first place the United States, has gone into high gear. The American mass media, as if on an order -- it is still more likely that there has been an order -- have started spreading rumors in connection with the break- down at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, the first such accident in the USSR in more than 30 years. There is an impression that they are interested not in truthful information about the accident -- we've repeatedly heard them claiming that they are -- but in spreading falsehoods as confirmed facts. They have still another aim, to call into question the reliability of Soviet nuclear power engineering and of Soviet science and technology in general although it has stood the test of time. This, in turn, is being .done to tone down criticism in the United States itself of lax security at a great number of nuclear power stations, where radioactive leads more than once seriously affected People and the environment. Against this background the reliable performance of nuclear power stations in the USSR serves asa strong argument in favor of building more. power stations True, exploration of the unknown is always coupled with risk, be if nuclear research or space flights -- even on board a.repeatedly tested craft. Progress Cannot be stopped but the question is what objectives does it serve? Does it serve peace and the progress of humanity or war and death? The upsurge of anti-Soviet propaganda in the United States still adds another aspect: The American media have been speaking and writing about the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station 100 times more than about the systematic nuclear explosions in Nevada. Even schoolchildren understand that the future of humanity today is jeopardized not by the development of nuclear Power engineering but by the buildup of nuclear' weapons; not by. the construction of more atomic power stations but by the production of ever more nuclear warheads. Experts say that the nuclear charges stockpiled to date can destroy life on this planet many times over. This is the reason why the Soviet Union has been calling for eliminating nuclear weapons step by step by the end of this century. 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ION in' 1CIAL USE ONLY DUBININ: NO NEED FOR FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AT CHERNOBYL Dubinin Informs UN Delegates LD011728 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1638 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] New York, I May (TASS) Yuriy Dubinin, the USSR's permanent representative at the United Nations, has expressed gratitude to the chairman of the 40th session of the General Assembly and to the delegations of the session who have expressed their sympathy to the Soviet Government and people in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Speaking at today's plenary sitting of the session, he informed delegates about the accident that occurred and about the measures for overcoming its consequences. Radioactivity on the territory of the AES [Atomic Emission Spectioscopy] and in the power station settlement has fallen by 1. 5-2 times, he announced. Measure- ments carried out by specialists using monitoring apparatus show that there is no chain fission reaction in the nuclear fuel, and that the reactor is in a smothered [zaglushennyy] state. Specialized subunits equipped with the necessary modern techno- logy and effective means have been called in to carry out work in cleaning contaminated areas in the adjacent locality, which is now under way. Assistance is still being rend- ered to the victims, who do not include foreign citizens. No appeals have come in to competent Soviet organizations from foreign citizens in the Soviet Union (in particular, specialists or tourists) in connection with the accident. The Soviet Union has enough material at its disposal, and scientific and technical capabilities [vozmozhnosti] for the work on eliminating the consequences of the accident. There is no need for the assistance of other states at the present stage. The USSR's permanent representative at the United Nations rejected the rumor being spread by some agencies in the West that allegedly thousands of people were killed in the accident. In fact: 2 people were killed, a total of 197 people were hospitalized, 49 of whom left the hospital after tests [Obsledovaniye]. The work,of enterprises, kolkhozes, sovkhozes, and establishments is proceeding as normal: Yu. Dubinin reported that today he visited the UN secretary general and informed him about the state of affairs concerning the elimination of the consequences of the acci- dent at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. [MoscowWorld Service in English at 2000 GMT on 1 May adds the following: "The condition of the air and the quality of the drinking water in Kiev and the region are not alarming. "After the meeting with the Soviet representative, the United Nations Secretary General Perez de Cuellar expressed satisfaction with the fact that the situation at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was under control."] Perez de Cuellar Informed LD011759 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1710 GMT I May 86 [Text] New York, I May (TASS) -- After a meeting with the USSR's permanent UN re- presentative, UN Secretary General J. Perez de Cuellar expressed satisfaction with the fact that the situation at the Chernobyl atomic power station is under control. 104 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY According to his official spokesman, Perez de Cuellar noted that the Soviet Government has informed a number of European states about the accident and the steps taken to eliminate its consequences so that the governments of countries that might be affected can take the necessary measures to ensure the health of the population and protection of the environment. The UN secretary general, his spokesman also pointed out, is main- taining contact with Yuriy Dubinin, the USSR's permanent UN representative, and has expressed sympathy and readiness to provide assistance, if necessary. He is also in constant touch with Hans Blix, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. ?;? Ukrainian Envoy 'updates UN LD0I1424' Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1403 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] New York, 1 May (MSS) Speaking at a plenary session of the UN General 'Assembly 40th session, which has resumed, Gennadiy UdOvenko, the permanent representa- tive of, the Ukrainian SSR At the United Nations Organization, expressed gratitude to J. Perez de Cuellar, UN secretary general, and the delegates who expressed sympathy in connection with the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. At the same time, he rejected the sensationalized reporting in the Western press, especially in the United States, of this disaster and the consequences connected with it. Thus, fOr example, the Ukrainian SSR representative stated, rumors are being circulated that, AS A result of the disaster, thousands of people had been killed. In actual fact, two people were killed during the disaster, 197 were sent to the hospital, 49 of whom - were discharged following medical tests. According to the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, the speaker stressed, the radiation situation at the Chernobyl nuclear power station and in the adjacent area is improving. The: state of the air basin in the remaining part of Kiev Oblast and the city of Kiev is-not:cauaing coneern. The quality of drinking water and of water in rivers and-reservoits:is in:keepingWith ,standards. Constant observation of the state of the environment ia'being implemented.' Enterprises, collective and state farms, and institutions are functioning normally. The representative of the Ukrainian SSR noted that the Soviet side had officially informed the IAEA about the accident and the measures that have been adopted. 105, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY DEVELOPMENTS ON CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT REPORTED European Envoys Briefed LD011130 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1112 GMT I May 86 [Text] Moscow, I May (TASS)--The ambassadors of Britain, Finland, the Nether- lands, and the charges d'affaires of France and Austria were received at the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 30 April-1 May. On behalf of the Soviet Government Anatoliy Kovalev, first deputy minister of foreign affairs, briefed them regarding the state of affairs in eliminating the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Gennadiy Yagodin, USSR minister of higher and secondary education, and Andronik Petrosyants, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy, took part in the conversations. Departing Travelers Checked LD011813 Stockholm Domestic Service in Swedish 1600 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] Diplomatic sources in Moscow have now disclosed that Soviet authorities are demanding that all foreigners who leave the country go through a health check before their departure. If they do not agree to the health check, they must confirm in writing that they will not demand any compensation from the Soviet authorities. - Kvitsinskiy Comments on Accident DW020922 Hamburg BILD in German 2 May 86 p 3 [Interview with Yuliy Kvitsinskiy, Soviet ambassador to Bonn; name of inter- viewer, date, and place not given] [Text] It was 48 hours after the catastrophe .that Moscow finally admitted,' that anything had happened.. A question to Soviet Ambassador Yuliy Kvitsinskiy: Why the dangerous delay? Kvitsinskiy: The cause of the accident must be thoroughly investigated first before information is given. BILD: What is the latest information? Kvitsinskiy: The building of one of the four reactOrs, was damaged by an explosion on 26 April. The three others have been turned off, but they are intact. In the direct vicinity, an increase in radioactivity has been recorded, somewhat above the normal level. BILD: How many victims are there? 106 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 r Mt or r itAAL, u3r_. Kvitsinskiy: Two people have died. Some 197 were brought to hospitals and 49 have been released. BILD: Is the reactor burning? Kvitsinskiy: I do not know whether there has been a fire. The situation is under control. Update on Aftermath AU011852 Paris AFP in English 1840 GMT I May 86 [Excerpts] Moscow, May 1 (AFP)? The Soviet Union Thursday said that 18 people of the 197 hospitalized following the Cher- nobyl nuclear plant disaster were in serious condition, but it claimed that the situation was under control and radiation dimin- ishing. Moscow left the official death *toll of two announced Wednesday unchanged, despite Western skepticism and renewed reports alleging at least 20 deaths. The Soviet Ambassador to the United Nations in New York, Yu riy Dubinin said the situation "appears to be under control." In Jerusalem, an Israeli radio ham said he had received informa- tion from a Soviet radio ham near the plant who said that 20 to 25 people had died and 300 were injured. The Israeli, David Ben Passat, told Agence France-Presse that the Soviet amateur radio operator, living at 60 kilometers (37 miles) from the plant, had ? reported that the area had been evacuated within a 40 kilometer (25 mile) radius. The messages, broadcast overnight Wednesday, were in very good English but the sender refused to disclose his identity, Mr. Passat said. Meanwhile, a light to moderate north-northeast wind was push- ing fallout from Chernobyl toward southern and Western Eur- ope, according to official French weather reports. Radioactivity rose in southeastern France, in northern Yugoslavia, in north- eastern Romania- and Italy, according to official reports from each of the countries. Levels were reported as above normal but not dangerous. In Poland, as in the Soviet Union, radioactive levels were not given. Polish officials said the levels were decreasing constantly Thursday, but preventive measures, including administering iodine to children under 16 and a ban on fresh milk, remained in force. In London, the Foreign Office said it was repatriating young children and pregnant women among the British diplomatic corps stationed in Moscow and Poland. At London-Heathrow airport, an Aeroflot plane which British airport officials said had probably gone through the radioactive cloud, was inspected for an hour before passengers were allowed to disembark, but the Geiger counter measured no unusual ! radioactive levels. Later Thursday, 101 Britons evacuated from Minsk and Kiev, the largest city near the plant 130 kilometers (80 miles) south of Chernobyl, were to arrive in London and would be tested for radioactivity. West Germany, which has some 250 technicians in Ukraine and its neighboring northern state, Bielorussia, has recalled its citi- zens. They began leaving Wednesday. In Moscow, where officials stressed that no foreigners were among the injured, authorities tried to reassure Western diplo- mats and press about the accident. But several embassies, notably that of Japan. Italy and Sweden, told their nationals not to consume tap water or milk, and to carefully wash vegetables. Milk gets contaminated if cows eat grass with radioactive parti- cles on it. A senior official gave an explanation of the accident that left several Western experts skeptical. He said that an electrical breakdown prevented the cooling systems from working. An accumulation of hydrogen then caused the explosion, which the technicians managed to contain in a single rod of nuclear fuel ? the part of the explanation that raised Westerners' eyebrows. Report of 50 Killed LD011216 Paris Domestic Service in French 1100 GMT I May 86 [Excerpts] Eyes were turned above all to Moscow this morning. Moscow, where the big parade proceeded normally on Red Square 6 days after the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Correspondent Ulysee Gosset reports: [Gosset] I think this parade was in a way an agreeable interlude in the middle of an unprecedented crisis for the Soviet leaders and for Mikhail Gorbachev. 107 FOR, OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ruit tJEtICIAL USE ONLY [Announcer] One further word, Ulysee Gosset: Do you have the feeling that the population, notably in Moscow, are worried after this accident? (Gosset] Well, I walked around the streets of Moscow this morning after the parade and I was able to see that there were absolutely traditional scenes being enacted for May Day. Having said that, as far as information is concerned, we have also been able to meet French students who have returned from Kiev where they were pursuing their studies, and also teachers. Their testimonies are reassuring as far as they themselves are con- cerned ? they are all well, their families may be reassured. But on the situation there, it has been learned that according to Soviet sources, there are reported to be several tens of deaths, notably the entire team that was working in the core of the reactor. That is to say, about 50 people are reported to have been killed during the meltdown of the nuclear core. As a result of this testimony we have also learned that an entire section of Kiev hospital is reported to have been transformed into a sterile zone to receive people who have reportedly been sub- jected to radiation. This is how one can sum things up at 1300 today. Aid Requested for Victims NC011031 Paris AFP in EnilisH 1025 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] Stockholm, May 1 (AFP)--The Soviet Embassy here has approached a Stockholm hospital that specialises in radiation burns, to treat victims of the Chernobyl Soviet nuclear disaster, a Swedish medical source said Thursday. The source, who requested anonymity, said the Karolinska Hospital had made it known to the Soviet Embassy, through the Swedhealth organization, that it was prepared to treat victims of Saturday's Ukrainian power plant accident. A Soviet Embassy official then made an approach to the hospital, the source added. Karolinska Hospital officials refused to comment on the reports. The hospital is Sweden's biggest and organizes the annual Nobel medicine prize. Denial on Request for Aid NC011126 Paris AFP in English 1122 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] Stockholm, May 1 (AFP)--Activity in the damaged Chernobyl reactor has fallen, and "clearance work is under way," according to Soviet Ambassador Boris Pankin quoted by the Swedish Foreign Ministry here Thursday. Radio- active emission at the site had diminished, and none of the nuclear reactors were operating, he added at the ministry Wednesday. A senior Soviet Embassy official told the ministry Thursday the Soviet Union had the necessary knowledge and techniques to control the situation, and did not need outside aid for work at the site, a spokesman added. A Swedish Ministry spokesman said Moscow had not made any official request for the admission of burn victims to a Stockholm hospital, or for other medi- cal aid. Earlier, a medical source said that the Karolinska' Hospital, which has a special radiation burns unit, had been approached by the Russians after offering to help treat people affected at Chernobyl. 108 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IAEA Receives Report AU011656 Paris AFP in English 1647 GMT 1 [Text] Vienna, May 1 (AFP)? The reactor of the Soviet Union's disabled Chernobyl nuclear plant in the Ukraine has been shut down and the chain reaction of nuclear fusion has been halted, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) here said , Thursday. Quoting a communique from the Soviet mission to the United Nations here, the IAEA also said that "the release of radioactive substances is decreasing (and the) level of radioactiv- ity has dropped" in Chernobyl. An IAEA spokesman said the report "could mean ? but not necessarily ? that the nuclear accident at Chernobyl is under control," adding that "supplementary data" wis needed to tell if this were the case. He said that the Soviet Union, which made its first report of the accident to the IAEA on Monday, had never mentioned a fire at the plant, and that the IAEA did not know what had caused the accident. The Soviet Union, although one of the 112 IAEA members, is not obliged to report its nuclear accidents to the U.N. agency. May 86 The Soviet communique also said that "specialized units contin- ued cleaning up polluted areas" around the plant, and that a Ukrainian government report noted no unusual pollution levels in the atmosphere in Kiev, the Soviet Union's third biggest city, which is 133 kilometers (83 miles) south of Chernobyl. "The quality of drinking water, of rivers and reservoirs is. within the norms," in Kiev, the communique said, adding that "factories, collective and state farms and institutions" are functioning nor- mally. The environment around the plant was "permanently monitored," the communique said. The Soviet communique also attacked what it called "rumors diffused by some Western news agencies" about the accident having caused "thousands of deaths", and reiterated the official statement that "two people died and 197 were hurt, of which 49 have already left the hospital after undergoing medical tests". Analysis of Satellite Pictures LD011754 Stockholm Domestic Service in Swedish 1600 GMT I May 86 [Text] Just a moment ago we received new information from another recent analysis of the satellite pictures. One picture before and one after the accident have been compared and the Satellitbild [Satellite Pictures] company in Kiruna has established that the two warm points that were found in the picture from yesterday were also there earlier, but they were shown consid- erably more faintly. In other words, this further confirms the information according to which there are two reactors involved in the accident. This cannot, however, be said with absolute certainty. New satellite pictures taken this morning are at the moment being analyzed at Satellitbild in Kiruna. The result of this analysis is expected to be ready in a few hours; it may give further information on the size of the nuclear accident. Rumors Abound in Kiev AU011531 Paris AFP in English 0956 GMT 1 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 1 (AFP)--Two French university lecturers, who returned here Thursday from Kiev said that they had witnessed quarrels breaking out in the city as some people tried to stop others talking about the "Chernobyl tragedy" in case they started a panic. But while the general situation there was calm, there was unease amongst foreign university students. They said public transport buses in a terminus near their lodgings had been requi- sitioned on Saturday, and there had been heavy military traffic on the outskirts of Kiev on Monday night. 109 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The two teachers from Paris, who did not want to be named, said that rumours spreading in Kiev, 130 kms (82miles) south of Chernobyl, said that according to unconfirmed reports, there had been an explosion in the nuclear plant on Friday night killing the staff of 50 on duty at the time. Other reports said there had been from 200-300 deaths in the immediate vicinity of the plant, they said. The official Soviet account is that the accident happened on Saturday, killing two people and causing the hospitalisation of under 200. The teachers said that officials of the Kiev University military faculty told students there had been an "accident" but "it was not serious." In West Germany, a daily newspaper in the western town of Bergisch Gladbach on Thursday quoted one of a party of 100 German tourists who flew from Moscow to Kiev last Saturday as saying they suddenly saw "a black cloud in a bright blue" sky from the aircraft at around 3:00 p.m. Herbert Hopf, who is retired, said that the Aeroflot plane was at a height of about 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) when he saw the cloud, "shaped like a Christmas tree, or the tip of a ragged mountain range." Hans kierdorf, also in the party, said that on arriving at the airport "it was like night, with the sky torn by lightning.?We heard several explosions." Kiev Festivities Reported LD020457 [Editorial Report] Kiev. Domestic Service in Ukrainian at 0215 GMT on 2 May broadcasts a 7-minute report on May Day celebrations in Kiev. The announcer says that May Day was marked by a festive mood in the Ukrainian SSR. The main street of Kiev, the Kreshcatik, he says was the scene of the celebrations. Party and World War II veterans, labor and cul- tural front-rankers, members of the Ukrainian SSR Supreme Soviet and the republican Council of Ministers, heads of min- istries and departments, deputies to the USSR and Ukrainian SSR Supreme Soviets, and officers of the Armed Forces attended, the announcer says, as well as consular personnel for the socialist countries. The residents and visitors to Kiev, the announcer says, greeted comrades Shcherbitskiy, Yelchenko, Kachalovskiy, Kachura, Lyashko, Mozgovoy, Sologub, Titarenko, Shevchenko, (Ivashko), Kolomiyets, (Kravtsov), Masol, Mukha, and Pogrebnyak, leaders of the Ukrainian SSR Communist Party and Government. The May Day demonstration, the announcer reports, opened at 1000 a.m. local time and was led by columns of party and labor veterans, and labor front-rankers. Students brought up the rear. The slogans carried by those marching endorsed CPSU domestic and foreign policy and stressed the USSR's love of peace. The announcer praises the wares produced by leading Kiev collectives, some of which he says were on display, and its cultural and sporting achievements. The announcer closes by saying that over 120,000 people took part in the celebrations along the Kreshchatic. 'TV Report on Celebrations LD011731 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1430 GMT 1 May 86 [From the "Vremya" newscast] [Excerpt] The winners of the pre-May Day competition--the workers of the Darnitsa,. Sovetskiy and Leningradskiy rayons of Kiev--were greeted by Comrade Shcherbitskiy, member of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo and first secre- tary of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee, and other leaders of the republic. [Screen caption identifies location as Kiev. Video shows a mass demonstra- tion by columns of workers passing through the streets of Kiev on a bright, sunny day. Shcherbitskiy and others are shown in medium shot on the review- ing platform. Shcherbitskiy is shown standing in the middle of six unidenti- fied people. Close-up shows Shcherbitskiy waving to the passing demonstra- tors. Further pictures of the procession highlight banners, flowers, and dancers in costumes.] 110 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Comparisons of Soviet Update Moscow TASS in English at 1137 on 1 May carries a report on efforts to.contain the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The TASS English version has been compared with the,TASS.International Service Russian version published in the 1 May Soviet Union DAILY REPORT, page R 1, revealing the following variation: Paragraph one, line three; reads in the TASS English version:- technical measures. ? The radioactivity on the territory of the nuclear power station and the nuclear power station's settlement dropped 1.5-2 times. (changing numbers) Moscow PRAVDA in Russian on '2 May in its First Edition on page 2 also carries a report on the efforts.to contain the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. This report, entitled "From the USSR Council of Ministers," was also compared with the TASS International Service in Russian version revealing that the TASS International Service version and the PRAVDA version are identical. WESTERN REACTION TO CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSIDERED TASS Denounces 'Apocalyptic Pictures' LD031713 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1620 GMT 3 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 3 May (TASS) TASS Political Observer Sergey Kulik writes: In other times and under different systems of ethics, gentlemen getting themselves into a situation similar to the one in which many Western political figures now find them- selves after describing "horrors" and "catastrophic consequences" of the accident at Chernobyl AES would have shot themselves inthe head in order to save their honor or avoid dishonor. In our times, one might throw oneself from the window of a skyscraper. But there have as yet been no reports from any Western capital of. suicides for the sake of preserving political honor. Evidently, those who over the past few days have been asserting that "Chernobyl has been turned into a dead ghost town," that the radiation level in the zone where the station is "is 2000 times higher than during the Hiroshima atonic bomb explosion," and that "an entire huge agricultural area in the heart of the Ukraine, its land and waters, has become a danger to man for an indeterminate lengthy period, have nothing to save. [quotation marks as received] On 2 May Nikolay Ryzhkov, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, chair- -man of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and Yegor Ligachev, member of the CPSU Cental Committee Politburo, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, visited the area of the Chernobyl atomic station. T6gether with leaders of the Central Committee of the Communist.Party of the Ukraine and of the government of the Ukranian SSR, they examined the measures being taken to eliminate the seat of the accident at the fourth power unit of the AES, and the normalization of the situation in the area. During their meeting with the people, the discussion dealt with the organization of the daily life of the 111 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rvii vrrikAAL UM vivid workers, trade, medical services, and the world of school and preschool institutions. All this is very far from the apocalyptic pictures taken by dishonest politicians from Hollywood films and transferred by them with malicious intent to the. Soviet land.... [TASS ellipses] In the West, the accident in Chernobyl has not only been turned into a sensation -- shameless anti-Soviets and anti-communists have used it for their dirty political goals. In the beginning, gullible Westerners were being persuaded that not two people, which is the true number, but a minimum of 2,000 were killed at the AES. This was done to prove that "the USSR never tells the truth." Then, on the "evidence" of a single photograph of a building with:a hole in the roof, they endeavored to prove to the aver- age American and West European that "the greatest .disaster in the history of the mas- tering of atomic energy" had happened in Chernobyl, Which allegedly proves the bakcwardness of the USSR." After this, the United States ahd England began demonstratively to recall their tour- ists who were in Kiev, 130,km away from the place of the accident, reviling Moscow for an alleged "coverup of data abouthighradioactivity" and, at the same time, making much of their own human concerned. Of:course, for those who send bombers to drop a fatal load on Libyan towns, arm the "contras" in Nicaragua and the dushmans in Afghanistan, pay hired murderers in Angola, there is nothing left to do but engage in self-advertisement when talk turns to humanism. In order to divert the world public from its own actions, which threaten the whole world; 'not to. allow the Europeans time to think about how 15,000 U.S. nuclear warheads !situated in old, overpopulated Europe, are threatening them; or about how the accident of the U.S. submarine like the one that ran aground into the cliffs of Gibraltar the other day may turn out for the Mediterranean; in Washington they have also organized an anti-Soviet pandemonium around what has happened at an, atomic power station. . The White House and its sidekicks need this rumpus to cast aspersions on the Soviet Union and its peaceful initiatives, and to place .in doubt the very possibility of hold- ing talks and reaching an agreement with the USSR. It is not for nothing that M. Thatcher intends, clearly at.Washington's directions, to attempt to insert into the text of the communique at the conference of the leaders of .the seven major capitalist countries in Tokyo a statement on "the Russians' urge to surround everything with exces- sive secrecy." As the British FINANCIAL TIMES newspaper admits, this statement gives the West an opportunity to continue to "take an attitude of mistrust. toward the Soviet Union's pledges in the field of verifying, the observance of any agreement on Arms con- trol." In demanding "some more news" and "some More facts" from Chernobyl, the politicking . politicians who have lost their sense of shame,and.conscience, await only bad news and -bad "facts," And it is doubtful if they will be sobered by reports that the situation in the area of the atomic station is getting bad( to normal. . Washington Encourages 'Hysteria' LD041446 Moscow TASS in English 1129 GMT 4 May 86 [Text] Prague May 4 TASS -- The breakdown at the Chernobyl power station immediately riveted universal attention In, the world, RUDE PRAVO writes today. Words of sympathy are being addressed to the Soviet Government. positively appraised are the energetic 112 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FUR OFFICIAL USE UNE! actions of the members of local government bodies and the courageous efforts by Soviet specialists and rescue servides to ltiaalize the radioactive contamination source which sprang up as a result of the breakdown. Underlying the extraordinary event is the misfortune that befell people. It is from this fact that a stand of the international public should have been formed. One cannot but see that immediately after the TASS announcement of the breakdown at the Chernobyl atomic power station, the event because a springboard for unworthy speculations and for the piling up of lies and accusations. High-ranking officials in Washington are-using the breakdown, the first one in the his- tory of the Soviet nuclear power industry, for a political blackmail against the USSR, and are seeking to blow it up into a political problem in international relations. In so doing they in Washington display a surprising forgetfulness to the effect that nothing of the kind had ostensibly happened in the United States. "The leading circles of some NATO countries, and first of all those of the United States and Britain, are seeking to drum up a veritable hysteria around the breakdown. The hysterical campaign is centering of anti-communism, anti-Sovietism and on endeavours to strain international relations and to accuse the USSR and the entire socialist world at any cost. We are witnessing obvious attempts at driving a wedge between the USSR and other countries, neighbouring European ones, in the first place". [quotation marks as received] This is, finally, also an obvious attempt to divert attention from the main issues of our times which the Soviet Union brings up in the international arena, including pro- posals on ending any nuclear tests, and on banning chemical weapons, not to mention the set of proposals concerning nuclear and conventional arms. The rapid progress of science and technology brings with it not only successes but also material losses as well as loss of life. Not a single sector of human endeavour is an exception in this respect. Mankind has to pay for every advance. The study of outer space does not do without victims either. One can recall the 25th, seemingly perfectly rehearsed, launch of the American spaceplane. This also applies to researchers in the field of the atomic power industry. There can be no exception in this field, although extraordinary and costly measures are taken to ensure people's safety. Man's endeavours to master all forces of nature cannot be regarded as finished. The friends of the Soviet Union are standing at these moments by its side with full understanding. They are full of indestructible belief in Soviet science which does its best to make the natural environment serve man, and to make the atom -- the source of tremendous destructive and creative power -- serve only peace. This is the main thing which stands behind the resolute efforts of the Soviet people. This is the reply to the question that is behind the hysteria launched by certain circles of the capitalist world around the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. 113 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Western Media Reports 'Unscrupulous' LD0412.59 Moscow-Domestic Service in Russian 0930 GMT 4 May.86 [Igor Charikov commentary] [Text] As for the issue of the anti-Soviet hullabaloo abroad in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES, I have in front of me a TASS dispatch from London; it cites the opinions of two of today's British newspapers on one and the same theme. THE OBSERVER newspaper reports, in particular, that on 31 March of this year -- that is just over a month ago -- a serious-incident occurred.rat_theDungeness atomic-power station. in Kent County. The technical details Of this incident are described but they are not what is important. An explosion occurred and was followed by a leak of gas. contaminated. by radioactive substances. However, the appropriate British Offices chose to surround what had happened with a thick veil of silence, and supplied some information only after persistent questions. Andther,British newspaper, THE GUARDIAN, writes today [as heard; THE GUARDIAN is not published on Sundays] that the accident at Dungeness is far from being the only one in Britain. A major disaster, which claimed 13 lives and also -maimed over 260 people, occurred just over a quarter of a century ago at the Sellafield plant. After this accident, the-scale of which, as in the first instance, the authori- ties tried to hide by all possible means, the electric power station was renamed. One would think that definite steps were taken to ensure greater safety at this station, but all the same, in the course of the first 3 months of this year alone, nuclear alarms have already sounded there four times. In reporting the information with which I have acquainted you, comrades,. the two res- pectable British newspapers put the issue of accidents at atomic power stations of the following plane: Unfortunately, such accidents do happen. Not one enterprise that processes nuclear fuel into electrical energy is 100-percent insured against them. This is the opinion of all scientists and engineers. Of course, there are accidents which are insignificant and those which lead to serious consequences. However, must one whip up sensationalism around every incident and. deliberately.exag- gerate its scale? I don't think so. - After all, one can't assist in the efficient elimination of the consequences [of nuclear accidents] with either newspaper hullabaloo or sensational radio and television reports. On the contrary, this diverts the atten- tion of the broad public from the essence of the problem. and creates an unhealthy bally- hoo which may be exploited -- and; as we see with the example of .the accident at the. Chernobyl AES, for unsightly, provocative aims. In this instance, an attempt is being made to evoke ill-disposed and, if it can be man- aged, openly hostile feelings toward the Soviet Union. By the way, in the United States itself more than 20,000 various incidents and defects have occurred at atomic electrical power stations over the last 7 years. Comrades, I am convinced you will agree with me; Far be it from us to gloat over the number of casualties in every-indi- ,vidual incident. We won't begin relating to the Americans worse or in a less benevo- lent fashion just because somewhere. -- let's say, in the State of Pennsylvania -.- a major explosion has occurred. I cannot recall a single instance where our press, tele- vision, or radio has whipped up nervousness, fear, or other similar emotions. And against this background the;diligerice of the Western mass information media in this. regard seems not only absurd but also unscrupulous. 114 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY While our program has been on the air, I have been brought a dispatch with an account of an article in the Czechoslovak newspaper RUDE PRAVO. .I .shall read some excerpts from it; quote: One cannot fail to see that immediately after the TASS announcement of the accident at the Chernobyl AES, this event became a springboard for unworthy,specu- lation and for piles of lies and accusations, unquote. This is What the newspaper RUDE PRAVO thinks. The rapid progress of science and technology, the newspaper goes on to write, brings with it not only successes, but also sacrifices; material and human'.. No area of-human activity is an exception, the article says, and it concludes: At this time, the: rienda of the Soviet Union stand at its side with full unclerstand7 - ing';:they are full.of -unshakeable faith- in Soviet. science, Which is doing all- toensure that the environment-, serves man, and that the atom - that source of vast destructive: and creative power,- serves only peace. YELTSIN ADDRESSES EIGHTH CONGRESS OF GERMAN COMMUNIST PARTY Assails Media on Chernobyl LD021830 Moscow TASS in English 1818 GMT 2 May 86 [Text] Hamburg May 2 TASS -- Boris Yeltsin, alternate'meMber'of the Political Bureau -Of the CPSU Central Committee and first secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the CPSU, who is heading a' CPSU' today addressed the 8th -congress of the German Communist-Patty.' .In describing the decisions defining the course towards the accerlated social and ieconomic development of the USSR,, advanced at the 27th CPSU Congress, Yeltsin stressed-- that peace was necessary for the implementation of the programme. ,The situation remained.tense, he said. -It was no accidentthat it Was giving rise to A3articu1atconcern-amongthe population in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two world-: .wars started on German-soil. 'It was well ,known whgre:the policy of the unrestricted armS race and sabre-rattling was .leading to,:he pointed out.: Europe should never again become an arena of wars. It was the duty of the Europeans, all and everyone, to prevent that. Profoundly Mindful'of our responsibility for the survival of mankind, and of the need - for urgent- actions, we have offered a programme of ridding the world of nuclear wedpdns by the-turn of the century," the head of the CPSU delegation said. "We stand for deep cuts in conventional armaments as Well. On behalf of the CPSU:- leaderShip, we declare here: The Soviet Union is prepared to implement this programme: wholly and -till the end, point by point." "We demonstratad'our good will to the entire world by introducing a Unilateral mora- torium on nuclear weapons testing.. But our proposals did not find a proper response from the other side." The Soviet proposals for turning Europe into a zone free from chemical weapons also were rejected, he said. The reason was clear since the United States was now working on binary weapons. 115 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 tt/It OttlUIAL USE ONLY The implementation of the U.S. programme was threatening to turn the world's densely- populated areas into a potential theatre of a deVastating chemical war. Europe's civilian population would be the chief victim. "Our ideological opponents," Yeltsin pointed out, "do not miss a single opportunity to launch yet one more campaign against the USSR. Here is the latest example. The bourgeois propaganda media are concocting many hoaxes around the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power plant. One cannot but be indignant at the brazen lie about thousands of dead in West German newspapers, for instance, in today's BILD. On the purpose of all that is to step up even more the anti-Soviet hysteria in the hope of driving a wedge in the Soviet Union's relations with other countries. I can state with responsibility that the government is doing everything to eliminate the consequences of the breakdown and, in implementing the energy programme, to con- tinue using the atom for the peaceful purposes in the interests of man." The United States wanted to.turn Western Europe into its "dual hostage" -- both nuclear and chemical, Yeltsin said. "As far as the Pershing-two and long-range cruise missiles are concerned, the United States is clearly engaged in an unfair play in a bid to divert a retaliatory strike from its own territory at the expense of the population of its allies, including the FRG. This is a direct deception of the peoples of Western Europe. You and we cannot place .the destinies of peace in the hands of American imperialism and the FRG Government .obediently following in its wake." ;Yeltsin recalled the recent proposal by Mikhail Gorbachev, general secretary of the 'CPSU Central Committee, to start reducing conventional armaments and tactical nuclear weapons over the entire territory of Europe -- from the Atlantic to the Urals -- under international verification. "The implementation of our proposals," Yeltsin said, "Presupposes the reciprocal wish of the other side to act likewise. So far, we see no wish of this kind in Washington, nor in several European capitals, including Bonn. "We regard the FRG as an important political partner. But one should understand that partnership presupposes a loyal, peace-loving policy with regard to each other. But Bonn's political course is deviating ever further from this policy. And this hinders the development of our relations which could be rather fruitful under other circumstances." The head of the CPSU delegation expressed confidence that it was possible to achieve progress and a turn in international affairs. "Wars are intrinsically alien to socialism. It is not by the force of arms, but by the force of example that socialism is proving and will prove its advantages over the society built on the exploitation of man by man." 116 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Hamburg TV Interview DW041756 Hamburg ARD Television Network in German 2030 GMT 2 May 86 [Interview with Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin, first secretary of the Moscow city party committee, by editor Barbara Friederichs in Hamburg on 2 May--recorded in Russian with superimposed German translation] [Text] [Yeltsin] The reactor was shut down immediately following the accident, as were the three neighboring reactors. The chain reaction has stopped. That is credible and reliable information. However, there still is radioactivity, because there still are products of half life in that zone. It still is a dangerous zone, and men are not allowed to go there. Measures are being taken to prevent the escape of radioactivity into the atmosphere. Bags of sand, lead, and boron are being dropped from helicopters so as to create an impervious dome over the zone of the accident. Radioactivity has substantially decreased. How- ever, it still amounts to 200 roentgen per hour. [Friederichs] Men, animals, foodstuffs, water, and the soil are in jeopardy. [Yeltsin] We immediately evacuated the people of four locations in a radius of about 30 km, as you said correctly, to prevent the people there from being exposed to radioactivity. Certain water reservoirs in Chernobyl itself natu- rally are contaminated. However, the rivers are not contaminated. The zone with enhanced radioactivity, which has been blocked off, continues to be inaccessible to human beings even though the level of radioactivity has decreased. Nonetheless, people are not admitted to the zone unprotected. AFP Interview AU050950 Paris AFP in English 0948 GMT 5 May 86 [Text] Hamburg, West Germany, May 5 (AFP)--Radioactive leaks from Chernobyl have been plugged by sacks of sand, lead and boron, thrown on the damaged plant from helicopters, a top Soviet official said Monday. Boris Yeltsin, secretary-general of the Communist Party for the Moscow region, told AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE that "an air-tight seal covers the plant and is pre- venting all radioactive leak into the air." Mr Yeltsin first revealed details of the operation in an interview with West German television Friday night. He is in Hamburg for a conference of the West German Communist Party. "Special radio-controlled vehicles are currently carrying measures and are taking photos inside" the plant, he said. "Within the plant, the fire is totally extinguished. The radioactive cloud above the plant is dissipating little by little and its level of radioactivity is now harmless to man," he said. 117 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY He said that a recent statement pointing to "human error" a the cause of the accident was "only one hypotheses among others, which should not be considered conclusive at this state." "The cause of the accident can only be known precisely when specialists enter the reactor," he said. 4-- Mr, Yeltsin also said that SOlet Prime Minister Nikolay Ryzhkov and Igor Ligachev, who is considered by Western Analysts to be an unofficial deputy leader', Were "Still , in "They are talking to the 49,000 people, form four areas, who were evacuated from the contaminated zone, in a radius of 30 kilometers (18 miles) from the-reactor, who have been housed in nearby towns and villages." 'Mf Yeltsin said he was unable to say when the evacuees could return.- "We have had experience in this type of incident, either in peacetime or wartime," he said ,He ruled out suggestions that houses in thearea would have to be destroyed and topsoil .removed. ' "The houses, like the soil, are intact, and will be especially treated withspeclal chemicals," he said. Later, ."when the situatuibn Will have returned to normal, we will tackle :the question of whether it is possible to recultivate this land," he said. "Special Army units, specially trained in decontamination, have been mobilised," and " were being helped in the clear-Up by some of the evacuees, he said Yeltsin also reiterated criticism of western -coverage of the accident,-'saying it featured "slanderous tolls" whose "aim is clear and precise." It contrasted, he said with the Soviet Government's "will to inform the West about-the accident, even when it was not obliged to, under any specific agreement:" - "There, was no delay in transmitting information," he said. "From the very first Minute, the authorities were alerted. As soon as information on the catastrophe was. collated, Western countries were immediately alerted." Moscow informed the West about the accident after Sweden announced that it had detected fallout from the stricken plant. The Chernobyl evacuees have been lodged in houses, not tents, and have running Water and heating, he said. In a reference to several precautionary measures adopted in Western countries in reaction to fallout from the plant, he said the Chernobyl evacuees "drink milk and eat vegetables, they do not walk around with umbrellas, and if. they bathe their ,children every day, it's just what they did before. "It is regrettable that certain Western parents are only doing that now, 118 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS ON CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT REPORTED Arbatov Comments BK041326 London BBC World Service in English 1110 GMT 4 May 86 [Interview With.Georgiy Arbatov, USSR Central Committee member and director of the USA and Canada Institute, on international phone-in program "Its Your World", moderated by correspondent Sue McGregor; Arbatov answers questions from "radio studio in Moscow" live] [Text] [Question by Robert Fundering from Holland] Well, last week we have seen that the Soviet Union has very reluctantly given very few facts about the accident in Chernobyl both to its own people and to the outside world; and with the rise to power of Mr Gorbachev much has been said and written in the Soviet Union about openness, the Russian word is glasnost. Now if this openness does not mean that the Soviet Union , gives information like about theaccident which happened In Chernobyl both to the Soviet people and the rest of the people in the world, then ni3i question is: What does openness mean? .[Sue McGregor] Dr Arbatov? [Arbatov] Well this was quite a speed', not simply a question. I would say that, yob know, Tam not sure what was expected from up. From the first moment, the catastrophe, which everybody must understand what it means,: For many thousand grades temperature, ,radioactivity. Really, you have to thinkabout people, to save people. 'There you do inot know the dimensions. There you do not know yet the causes and the, Americans do not 'know, because, for instance of catastrophe,...calamity,:wfth Challenger or some other things. .It is a very well-known situation. So we said what we did know and our first and major concern at this moment was not to think about, you know, how to please American Government or some other government, but how really 'to deal with this extremely dangerous situation, and we did it. And as it goes now, we give the inform,- tion we think is essential and we have it; and we have invited, as you heard today, Dr Hans Blix from (Magathe) from the international nuclear power agency from Vienna. He will be here And everything. will be available to him. I will remind you only one fact, that the United States has given report to this agency in Vienna after the Three Mile Island accident 3 months after it happened. So you see, what we really got to know, it is the extend of hate against the Soviet Union was nourished in many Western governments. This hate has grown in a hate campaign immediately. [McGregor] Dr Arbatov, if I may go back to Mr Fundering, I think what, Mr Fundering, you had in mind, .and perhaps you could confirm this, was the time gap between the accident happening and the Soviet Union admitting it had happened, is that right? [Fundering] yes. Especially because there was radiation involved and other countries isuffered as well. ![Arbatov] Other countries did not suffer. It was really bad accident and information should' be given and was given. Not maybe as qUiCk as some People wanted. Maybe there, :were some technical delays, I do not know. I tell you again that our major attention was there where the danger was the greatest and really if you have not to believe the psychological warfare type of propaganda that the radiation level has risen to tremendous, you know, levels. [sentence as heard] It was comparable to one -- maybe 119 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY less, maybe more, I do not know --to one explosion in the atmosphere of the nuclear bomb. So how come, how do you live with tens of thousands of thousands of nuclear weapons in Europe and in all over the world with NATO strategy to use them first and do not protest it. And now you had an accident, it is a bad accident and it is worst catastrophe. Yes it was. But you have really to be seen about it and look at the major things and I think what it really has shown to the world [is] how vulnerable contemporary human civilization is in technological sense. [McGregor] I think Mr Fundering is trying to get a word in there, Dr Arbatov. [Fundering] Yes, I just want to say one thing -- that this incident and the reaction direction has been depicted as a hatred to the Soviet Union. But, I mean the measures taken, like for example in Tolaud, which is a country friendly to the Soviet Union, where people are advised not to drink milk and where children have been given iodine I mean, this is no hatred. 'These are serious measures. [Arbatov] Their concerns are our concerns. Nobody knows very good about the dangers, and of course one has to be prudent and we understand it very good. We have sent, by the way, today and yesterday, to Poland and to remaining neighboring countries our specialists, very highly ranked, with all the equipment to really to learn about it. But we know that Poland and Hungary and all other countries are not under danger just as much as our people in Kiev and other regions. They were not evacuated. Only Britain suddenly recalled its students and made a big show after it was a (?masquerade) with all the things. Of course, nobody has found anything. I think Britain has to really recall maybe your tourists from Las Vegas. They are under much greater radiation from nuclear tests by America. [McGregor] We have not heard that that yet had to happen Dr Arbatov, but I will thank Mr Fundering for his question and move now to a caller inBasingstoke inHampshire here in England, James McIntosh. Mr McIntosh, your question. [McIntosh] Good day, sir. As a Scotchman, I am phoning in my question, in no hate against the Russian people, but as a father of six children, we have been hearing these reports. The question I would like to ask, though, is why has your government not produced any radiation figures in view of when the Americans and the British had their radiation overspilled, there were figures produced immediately to people. .But is seems your government whether the knowledge was (?blocked) coming though your central govern- ment or what, they don't see them for about 4 of 5 days? As a father of six children, in the future, is your government allowed to go ahead and overspill this stuff all over Europe. So there is no hate in my question. It is for humanity I am asking. Atomic energy as a fuel of the future can [word indistinct.] from the world's natural resources will be used up. I might ask my question about those radiation figures, why? All great things can be knocked dawn to how and why. [Arbatov] You know... [McGregor] All right, Mr McIntosh, your question was why have radiation figures not been published? [Arbatov] Yes, I am not sure that they were not published. I know that we have given ;bulletins to Dr Hans Blix and he made press releases and maybe you are asking for 120 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY somethings which we just don't know. I don't think our science can give the radiation figures in Scotland, or in Wales, or in northern Norway. [McGregor] But they must be able to give them in Kiev. [Arbatov] And they have it. In Kiev, in Kiev, it is normal. There is no abnormality in it. At the place of the accident it is very high and people are not allowed to go there and there are precautions taken. So I think, all of it, you have to understand that radiation -- at what point and where -- it is a highly technical subject. I am not a specialist in this, but I know for sure that our nuclear energy agency is in constant contact with international nuclear energy agency and they are coming tomorrow to Moscow, and so you will have all the information. You just, I think each government -- we cannot see, for instance, that there will be come radiation in Japan or somewhere else.. We had this radiation in our country when the Chinese had made their nuclear test in atmosphere and the British, and the Americans, etc., and even from underground testing. It is here, we cannot say how the radiation has risen in -Scotland. [McGregor] Dr Arbatov, what people of the West find difficult to understand is why people in the Soviet Union haven't been told what the radiation figures are, let alone people of the West. [Arbatov] The people in Kiev, people in othe places are being given all the information where it is really important. At the same time, if you make a sensation out of it and create panic, this [is] what I meant under hate, if you look at what was broadcast to Soviet Union, to Poland, to Romania by Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, infamous broadcasting station financed by Central Intelligence Agency of United States. It was really a psychological warfare to create panic, to create suspicion, to disrupt the whole life, to destabilize the whole normal life of the country we did not want to participate ... [McGregor] Mr McIntosh, are you satisfied with that answer? [McIntosh] It's the standard Russian answer I'm getting. As I say, the answer I was expecting was that the Russians come clean of the whole thing saying a, we made a mistake. Why couldn't they call in an international team of scientists? But they're keeping everything close to their chests and I saw it as a standard Russian government answer as far as I'm concerned. There's still a lot to be opened up in the future of when the figures will be released because the Soviet Government will do these things. and realize they make a mistake and then it takes a week or two and a month. Like the plane that was shot down by the Russians, it took about 4 to 6 weeks before they finally decided to open up. [McGregor] Thank you Mr McIntosh for your question. We will now move to Manchester, here in England, and to George Kuwalakiy, who is on the line. Mr, Kuwalskiy. [Kuwalskiy] Hello, good day to you sir. I would like to follow up on the first caller. In your opinion, would the Government of the Soviet Union contemplate compensations to the neighbors, Poland in particular, since it was most seriously affected by this nuclear disaster at Chernobyl for loss of agricultural, dairy, meat products, and exports, and also for the extra medical supplies it had to distribute to the children? 121 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Arbatov] You don't have to really to worry about that. I am sure we will compensate reports for all of the things they, they themselves, we help them anyway. [sentence as heard] [Duwalskiy] Yes. [Arbatov] They are desperate situations and it will be done here. But you also have not to believe everything you hear. It has not yet been established what happened in the harvest, what the real loss was, and many people here think. I have discussed it with a couple of 'specialists today, that exactly, it won't be of any significance, even much closer to the place of accident and Poland or Romania. [McGregor] Will you be revealing figures to Dr Blix and his colleagues from the International Atomic Energy Agency? [Arbatov] Well, they Will have 'all the relevant information. Otherwise we wouldn't invite them: [McGregor] As you know, the Soviet Union signed an agreement allowing inspection of nuclear installations by the IAEA. [Arbatov] Of course, of course, yes, yes, yes, and we were, by the way -- all the time we had h perfect record in complying with this agreement as also with other agreements; and as far as the accident, it is a very sad occasion, but we have in the world 151 accidents of power stations, including some in Britain, some in the United States and in other countries. It is (?sort of thing) I hope it will.-- now we will learn from this very sad and tragic situation some additional things which will help to make it safer everywhere in the world. [McGregor] Mr Kuwalskiy, would you like to come back? [Kuwalskiy] Yes, I would just like to ask your guest why doesn't the Soviet Union build those power stations somewhere near Moscow? Why do they have to build those power stations at the borders of other countries? [Arbatov] Do you think it is an intention to harm the other countries. Yes, I can tell you that there is a big nuclear station near Leningrad, which is second largest city in Soviet Union, and the third nuclear station was actually very close to Moscow in Obinsk. Simply, you don't have the correct information. We are not discrimi- nating anyway, we are against any sort of nuclear danger, including this. And you know, thus again I return to this. This was a lesson of how technologically vulnerable the contemporary human civilization is. This is only one of the examples. We had Bhopal, where not two, but thousands of people died and 100,000 suffered. We had acid rains, we have even air transportation and the ultimate danger of nuclear war., And this has to be thought about and I think it calls for international cooperation, which we are for, and also for diminishing the (?more risk) in it. '[McGregor] Dr Arbatov, I think what many listeners listening to you now will wish to know is: Will the openness that Mr Gorbachev's referred to lead eventually to the Soviet Union sharing with the rest of the world its findings on what exactly happened at Chernobyl? [Arbatov] Of course, it will. Of course, it will. I again remind you that it took for the United States 3 months to give the report to Vienna, to send the report on Three Mile Island calamity; and they invited, by the way, one representative, who 122 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY was American, from Vienna -- no not anybody, not any foreigner still to look for it. We invited already the chairman, the director of this agency with some other people, that we'll give them and will have the report as soon as possible and will (?direct) ? ourselves and give also to others. I think it is very important to know all these things where it is a knowledge and information which has to be shared. Of course, all of us are vulnerable to such accidents and we need to know the experience of others and we understand it in this way. And I think would there be a little bit more of goodwill and sympathy even to this really very bad accident we had, it would make us much easier to do it as quick as possible. We will do it anyway. [McGregor] I will thank Mr Kuwalskiy for his question and say to you, Dr Arbatov, you are aware of course that Sir Geoffrey Howe said today in Tokyo we mustn't turn the human tragedy of Chernobyl into a propaganda football. [Arbatov] he -- not danger of [McGregor] [Arbatov] Yes, yes, it's yery good that he had said it and he had reasons to say. So only we in Moscow --'even he felt it, your foreign minister, that there is a turning everything in an anti-Soviet propaganda campaign. Thank you. ...shouldn't be dealt in this way. [McGregor] We will now move to a questioner in Frankfurt, in West Germany. Mr John Vargedin. Hello. [Vargedin] Hell, good afternoon sir. [Arbatov] Good afternoon. [Vargedin] Sir, recent events it not possible for the Soviet energy ?resources, to turn away the plutonium you need? have highlighted the dangers of nuclear technology. Is Union, which is the richest land on earth in terms of from this technology or, pardon me, don't you have all [Arbatov] Now, you see, I think that actually I know this and I have sympathy with this ideas how to make world safer from any danger of technology. But we have -- even you know whether we developed coal as major source of technology, where the lot of accidents in coal pits and then in steam stations when the steam stations exploded etc. [sentence as heard] So, it is a very sad truth that each step forward and technological progress bears with it some risks and we understand that all other resources are finite. All others we have, maybe more of them than West Germany has, but even this will be finite. And, therefore, we feel up till now, we feel obliged, like many European ? countries, to build this nuclear station. What is the task: to make it as safe as possible. But lain not in a position either to defend it or not, I really don't feel myself to be a great specialist in energy programs. [McGregor] Mr Vargedin. [Vargedin] I would to like inform, I mean, I would like after all they are selling gas to West Europe. That is, do they have to have atom plants in their country? They Western Europe. 123 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY to tell the gentleman that they have surplus energy. Why are selling gas to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Arbatov] You know, from far away, it looks a little bit different. We have gas and this gas is 3,000 km from Moscow. You have to get it in a very difficult situation. Therefore, it cannot serve in all parts of the country. You have to build very expensive pipelines and stations which bring it to high pressure, (?transport it as) gas, etc, etc. [McGregor] But what you are saying, Dr Arbatov, is as far as you're aware, the Soviet Union is not intending to be deflected from its reliance for at least part of its energy on nuclear power. [Arbatov] I think we want that because of the accident, like you; because of many accidents and air traffic you don't stop using airplane. and to rely on air traffic. I think we won't do it, we will make, of course, and all the world will make, I think, very serious studies here, and serious conclusion, and I.think there is.a lot of room for making it safer. But I don't thinkwecan just stop in this direction developments; the day will come when all the oil reserves, even in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, will be used out and we will have to rely on fusion mainly. Of cOurse, the present technology is still very primitive, but the world will have to look for it. [McGregor] Well, thank you Mr Vargedin from Frankfurt for your question, and you mentioned the Middle East. Dr Arbatov, we now have a question which homes in on a particular area there -- from Calais in France. Mr Andrei Fusyan, is on the line. Hello Mr Fusyan. [Fusyan] Yes. [McGregor] Your question, please, to Dr Arbatov. [Fusyan] I would like to ask Mr Arbatov why does the Soviet Union support Libya when it is so much responsible for instability in the West. [Arbatov] Who is responsible? Libya or Soviet Union? [Fusyan] I mean the Soviet Union is helping Libya and the Colonel al-Qadhdhafits regime to carry on when it is responsible for so many attacks upon us in the West. [McGregor] I think he was referring to Libya, Dr Arbatov. [Arbatov] Yes, I understand. You know it is -- nobody has proven that Libya [changes thought] United States try to demonize Al-Qadhdhafi and demonize Libya and they used one target after another in doing this. But nobody has given proof; at least the proof which were given by America were drafted only by Mrs Thatcher. Nobody else. Even the president of France, Mr Fusyan, hasn't trusted it. So I think the question is wrongly put. You have to prove it first that Libya is destabilizing the world and then asking questions why are we supporting Libya. [Fusyan] Mr Arbatov, I have heard that a young policewoman in London was shot on the Libyan Embassy. It seems to me proof enough of the fact that the Libyans are involved in terrorism [words indistinct]. [Arbatov] Well, you know this is also not a proof. You know there are a lot of Americans who commit crimes here and there, and West Germans, they have got Red Brigade, and then there are fascist and neofascist organizations. You cannot, because of it, put a blame on the whole nations. I would say it would be most horrible approach to any problem. Guilt by association. 124 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [McGregor] Dr Arbatov, are you saying that there is no proof as far as you are con- cerned that Libya is connected with terrorism and that Col al-Qadhdhafi is? [Arbatov] Yes, of course not. We think we are as much against terrorism as the West is and we actually proposed cooperation in this field, specifying especially air and land and sea traffic, and there can also be other areas. But you have to look from our point of view. For instance, United States is the major villain in this sense in supporting terrorism all over the world. What are contras? In our opinion, they are terrorists over whom United States will lose any control in very short time. They are providing now Stingers to Savimbi and to contras in Afghanistan. They will be on Bazaars in Peshawar to be bought and then they will in half a year shoot down British or French or American or Soviet civilian airplanes. So who is really guilty of this thing. You have to look at real causes. I think the whole situation in Middle East is breed- ing instability, is breeding despair, is breeding terrorism. [McGregor] Dr Arbatov, you said you wish for international cooperation. [Arbatov] And traffic in armaments is also breeding this. [McGregor] _Can I ask for your comments, please, on -- you will have heard it on the BBC World Service news -- that PRAVDA today saying that it does not feel that terrorism should be top of the agenda at the Tokyo economic summit. [Arbatov] Well, you know, because it is not about terrorism. In fact it is about what President Reagan means on terrorism. He is tremendously selective about terrorism in all his sympathies and antipathies. You know for him Pinochet is not a terrorist, he is not a dictator. He is one of his pet dictators. But we look at it differently, and most of the world looks differently. So we are not what PRAVDA meant today, it was not against terrorism. Against terrorism, we are ready to participate and to discuss it. It is a problem of whole humanity. By the way, it is stressed even by this accident. Can you imagine an explosion at a nuclear power plant. What this can mean? It can become often object of terrorism. [McGregor] Thank you Mr Fusyan for your question from Calais in France. We now have a caller who is in Leningrad in the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Benedictov. Hello, Mr Benedictov. Your question please to Dr Arbatov. [Benedictov] Good afternoon Dr Arbatov. [Dr Arbatov] Good afternoon. [Benedictov] My question is if is is necessary for an ordinary Soviet citizen to lean to speak English first in order to put question to such high-ranking Soviet officials or politicians. [Arbatov] Oh yes; please phone me any day even in Russian. We can have this talk in ordinary Russian. I will give my telephone number if you need it. It is now in directories. [McGregor] For that conversation, I think the point Mr Benedictov was making was that conversation would not be heard by other Soviet citizens about us. [Arbatov] Why? I speak a lot on Soviet TV and Mr Benedictov, if he listens to it, he must know it and he must have seen me more than once. 125 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Benedictov] Dr Arbatov, please, are you certainly planning to take part in similart phone-in program of this (?type) that could be seen in the-SovietUnion.- [Arbatov] Excuse me, repeat. [Benedictov] So other Soviet citizens may take part in it. [Arbatov] Well, you ask whether there are possibly such programs in Soviet Union. But, you must -- really I do not know have you a TV at home? There were before the party congress, I think -.7. three times a week for instance, led by Dr,(Vazinyanskiy) were the ministers who sat around the roundtable, members of the cabinet;, and there were six or seven telephones here: Justeverybody has seen it:and they were just in real. time, not pretaped or something asking questions. Sometimes very difficult questions, but they answered them. [McGregor] But Dr Arbatov, as I: understand it, the questions are not, in those circum- stances put directly by members-of the public. They are read out by announcers. [Arbatov] No, they are given to the girl, the ..receiver, and she, and somebody. goes from there. There it is on TV, nota broadcast. In broadcasting, I. think wehave'also similar things, but lam not sure, about it. I tell you in TV, in TV you cannot just put in. You also sort out, excuse me, the question. It is also not, direct and.not open to all telephone calls. It would not be possible: [McGregor] But Mr Benedictov is speaking directly to you Mr Arbatov. [Arbatov] Yes, he is speaking directly to me. He can do it anyway. He could do it on many occasions in our TV programs. [McGregor] Mr Benedictov,,would you like to ask another question directly from Mr Arbatov? [Benedictov] I have never seen for all my life such high-ranking politician. as Mr Arbatov is on the. Soviet television taking part in similar program as this-one., [Arbatov] Well, I' did not take part in such programs as this on our-TV. But people much higher than I, deputy chairmen of Council of Ministers, of chairmen of Council of Ministers, vice premiers and members of cabinet, took part in them and-there were, a lot of them. [McGregor] Thank you for putting your question, Mr Benedictov in Leningrad. We will move on now to another caller and he is here in England-, in Manchester, Mr Mike-Hopkins. [Hopkins] Good afternoon, Dr Arbatov. [Arbatov] Good afternoon. [Hopkins] Mine is a simple question in a sense, yet very difficult I suspect. The question is: Why do you think successive U.S. Administrations have rejected the re- peated Soviet peace initiatives (?that have) been 'made? [Arbatov] I have great suspicion that-it is just because the-American-Administration has something else in mind. We are for arms control, for disarmament. They are just now in the midst of a massive military buildup. They do not want to stop it. They 126 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY have plans to have military superiority over us. There are also vested interests inte- grated in this process and I think this is the whole story; and the policy of the United States is just, you know, what we call neoglobalism and they call it as trying to assert their rights to be the upper judge, to be over international law, over inter- national organizations, to punish all nations like Nicaragua, Libya, or Angola, or Soviet Union, whoever you want. And this is just no way to live in a nuclear age; [McGregor] .Mr Hopkins? [Hopkins] Yes, I mean, Dr Arbatov's analyses fit my own reading of the situation. What concerns me really is (?why) the United States does seem to have thiS stance? How is the Soviet Union, through its policy, going to be able to change the U.S. policy such that they do start talking seriously about the major issues that do face us? [Arbatov] You know, Mr Hopkins, here is the really serious problem. We tried by all means which are available. First of our examples. We did not explode, for instance, nuclear weapons or any nuclear devices since August last year. But first our, you know, persuasion. And also, but we understand very good. We can do quite a bit in this in persuading American public, if not American President, American politicians, to change their policy. But here everybody has to do it. We cannot do it alone and this accident also in Chernobyl has shown, you know, that if something happens which is even not as much a one single nuclear explosion, and people from Tokyo to Sweden become concerned. And here it goes about nuclear war. So everybody has to be concerned. You can not be a passive bystander and I hope that you Mr Hopkins and everybody else will take part in trying, in this effort to try to persuade the American Government really to go in for peaceful policy. [McGregor] Dr Arbatov, as you will be aware a major stumbling block to the USSR's , peace initiatives being accepted by the Americans is that Americans feel that verifica- tion is a problem; and how can they now accept your assurances of verification after the Chernobyl accident and the long period of silence? [Arbatov] Well, this is just what we are protesting here, because we feel that this Chernobyl accident was taken as a pretext to avoid any serious talks on arms control and disarmament. And this is not right, not correct because at the arms control nego- tiations all the verification procedures are being negotiated about and they they are absolutely necessary for an agreement, and so it is a pretext for, pretext to mislead people to lead them away from really serious goal, from a goal to avoid a catastrophe which will be millions time worse than Chernobyl -- you know, from nuclear war -- and we consider it to be necessary. And we see such, you know, maneuvering around this, and this is what.makes us really very tad 'about theWhole handling of this situation :by Western governments and Western press.. I think Mr Howe was very correct on it but I do not See many other manifestations of such common sense. I hope they will come. By the way, people will also receive all the information about Chernobyl. Yow.are very quick to-make conclusions. This just shows is if some people were already ready, just looking for a Pretext, for something to happen just to discredit Soviet Union,. to dis- rupt any amount of credibility of Soviet Union and to make it a bad part, look like a bad part. [MacGregor] So you think, Dr Arbatov, that by implication the visit of Blix and his colleagues from' the International Atomic Energy Agency will be just the beginning of allowing people from 'Outside in to look at Soviet installations? 127 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Arbatov] Well, you know, you know there are some things which are not shown by Western companies, for instance, [that] are being considered as commercial secret theirs, and they have commercial reasons I don't think we have such reasons with our equipment to other countries of this kind, we build in other countries, and there are no secrets here and all of it will be, will own the relevant information which is - really relevant, will be published. [sentence as heard] I,,by the way, know for sure I have got most credible information I have that read all out information was correct-- that two people lost their lives during the accident, that around 20 peopleare'in cri- tical situation, that many more people than before me were left away from the hospital and now, I think, in the first days about 40 of them and 40 more now. ,But, of course, this is serious, but this is how it looks. Ihia is how the accident really is and not thousands or hundreds of thousands as was depicted by Western media.. [McGregor] Have you got information about when the accident happened exactly? [Arbatov], Well, it must be, I'don't know. Is there -- would I known that you are in- terested I would have brought this information. But it must be on late Saturday or Sunday. In the night between Saturday and Sunday., somewhere there,- as far as I under- stand. I promise you for our next meeting to bring you, by minutes andaeconds, cor- rect information. - [McGregor] And how many worker's were there in the plant, do you know that in word - indistinct] [Arbatov] I don't know, there were few workers in the plant; of course, you .know, it is highly automatized. Work in the -- especially in the evening shift there are only people who controlled what the readings have on different pieces of equipment [McGregor] But as we learned from Mr (Bozios), it seemed 49,0,00 people approximately have been evacuated. [Arbatov] Yes?because we were verycautioup, so we evacuated- them.frolivseveraI miles around for just in case some radioactive fallout, though there was no-explosion there,. It was a fire. There was such fire at Britain, there were. such fires in the-United States, this was worse, I think, but there was no chain reaction, no explosion.. So,-- the danger was for those in,immediate vicinity who got really serious-radiation and those who suffered radiation, and they are in hospital,: ' As far as people In different villages and small towns, maybe 10 or 12 km from this -- (?a perfect) measures of pre- caution, because there can be radioactive fallout and we don't- want to-have it make any risk with these people. But Kiev again, which is less-than 100 miles from,Chernobyl, is in full order. [McGregor] But earlier you said, Dr Arbatov, you didn't know what the. radiation levels were; now you are saying people suffered serious through radiation. [Arbatov] We had radiation, you knowagain,you:asked about it )LikeAt:Asia constant: figure. It depends on the place. The radiation figure is different. At the reac- tors-there was very high radiation, 100 M6ters from it was- very-high radiation. The km from it was a danger not Of radiation but of radioactive- fallout-of this debris, of vapor, or what has risen to high' above and then -could fall -out, Andlurther, - let us say, 100 km from it there was no danger at all. It depends also on'theAirection of the wind, of course. 128 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [McGregor] Thank you. We moved quite away from Mr Hopkins' question but I thank him for that and we move now to Greenwich here in England not far from London and to David Perkin, and he has a question for you, Dr Arbatov. [Perkins] Hello, first of all I would like to say that I do not like to indulge in some of the very one-sided questions that often gets from the West. But nevertheless there is something very close to my heart which I think the Soviet Union must face, and that is their frequently brutal treatment of artists whose only real crime is to express their own talent. Now I would like to bring in one example here -- that is of a poet, (Irina Ratistinkaya), whose paems had just been recently published in this country. And for her we had a reading here in London at the poetry study. Now she has been in prison for 3 years now in a 7-year sentence and the charge for her on which she was sentenced was merely the writing and distribution over her book. [Arbatov] No, it is impossible. It is just impossible. I know. You have very un- dependable sources. [McGregor] I wonder if I Can: interrupt because there is a story about this poet in today's OBSERVER Dr Arbatov. (Irina Ratinsinskaya), 32 years 'old, who is in a labor camp in Maldovia serving 12 years for alleged anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda. [Arbatov] - This is different. This is not distributing... [changes thought] and how many years? [McGregor] Twelve, [Arbatov] Twelve years, this must have been a very serious crime. I even do not 're- member: I think it is not given for a such crimes such high sentence. But I am not sure about this. .I will look after it. You know, what can I tell you. I hear this name for the first time. We can-speak,about human rights.' I have a lot to say about Northern Ireland, for instance. Or your ghettos, or your strikers who fought with police yesterday must' have been striken against Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch, or something else-. I think we should look after all of it. It is very important right Of every person, the fate of every person.. -But again it should.not be made a subject of.propa- ganda, unsustained by anyevidenCe,-'when. people just say 'what they have, heard and :by hearsay just to create., just. t. spoil' the atmosphere. I do-not know about this given case. I will ask about it, about (Ratinsinskaya). [McGregor] She has been taken up by Amnesty International as one of its prisoners on -conscience. [Arbatov] Well,' your Amnesty International was wrong on not absolutely irrefutable sources. [McGregor] Will her case be brought before officials in Helsinki agreement is being disaussed.again currently? many occasions and they have Bonn where of course that [Arbatov] Well, Helsinki agreement does not. provide for such cases. -She can appeal. She has her right to. appeal, just like in your country, there is court procedure herd, professional Procedure which is openi.to everybody who is accused by something and she . Will get attention in court and all organizations which provide... [McGregor, interrupting] And there, Dr Arbatov, I am, afraid time has caught up with us and I thank you, Dr Georgiy Arbatov for joining us today on "It Is Your' World." It has been the most illuminating discussion. From all of us here to all of you, good-bye. 129 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Ryzhkov, Ligachev Visit Area PM041330 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 4 May 86 First Edition p 2 [Text] On 2 May, Nikilay Ivanovich Ryzhkov, meMber of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo and chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers; and Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev, member of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo and secretary of the Central Committee, visited the Chernobyl AES area. They_acquainted-themselveSwith. the situation in the area of the nuclear power station, and with the participation of A governmental commission and, of leaders of the Ukrainian-Communist Party Central Committee and the Ukrainian. SSR Government, party and soviet bodies of Kiev oblast and.the.town of Chernobyl.. They also examined the mea- sures being adopted to eliminate the locus. of the accident ?[ochag avarii] at the fourth power-set of. the AES, to normalize-the.situation in the adjacent area, and to render assistance to the local population:. It was noted that work on overcoming the accident, and clearing its consequences is being carried out in An organized manner, using the necessary Means.. Decisions have been adopted'on'additional measures to speed up the work that is.underWay. Comrades Ryzhkov And Ligachev visited populated points where they met working people who had been tempbrarily evacuated from the AES area and interested themselves in the organization of their way of life, trade and medical service, job-placement, and the work of schools and preschool children's establishments.. Comrade Shcherbitskiy, member of. the CPSU Central Committee Politburo and, first secre- tary of the Ukrainian Communist Patty Central Commitee; Comrade Shcherbina, chairman of the government commission, and deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers; Comrade Lyashko, chairman of the Ukrainian SSR Council of Ministers; and Comrade Revenko, first secretary of the. Kiev Obkom, also took part in the trip. Decontamination Under Way LD030020 Moscow World Service in English 2100 'GMT 2 May 86 [Text] Reports from the area of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the site of the recent accident, say the level of radioactivity has, lessened considerably. There is no fission reaction and the reacter is choked up. Decontamination of the polluted areas adjoining the power plant is under way. The Chernobyl power plant is situated 130 km north Of Kiev,* the capital,of the Ukraine. All offices and economic. facilities in the city and around it are functioning normally. The condition of the atmosphere and the quality of.drinking Water give no reason for concern. . TV. Shows Extent of Damage LD041811 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1700 GMT 4 May 86 ' [From the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] Here you can See the area surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The -shots are being taken from a helicopter. [Video shows aerial panorama with buildings and trees: that'still appear to bear leaves. The buildings are too far away to see in great detail.' The pilot of the helicopter is shown not to be wearing a mask of any 130 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY kind] This is the actual station building. As you can see, there is no vast destruc- tion about which the ranks of the Western mass media have not stopped talking. Only the power set is damaged. All the ,production sites and neighboring buildings as well as the supports for electric power lines are intact. [Camera pans from left to right of station building of which -the roof on the right of shot has been blown off'. Other buildings-and,pylons.are intact and power lines can be seen-stretching between pylongs] Special units equipped with modern and.effective equipment' Ate-carrying out work to clean the polluted areas adjacent to the territory of the station. [Video shows fur- ther shots of terrain with trees and bridge. Vehicles can be seen crossing the bridge] This is the power engineers'- settlement the surrounding area. According to the latest statistics, the radioactivity on the'territory of the power station and in the settlement has,.dropped by-between one:and a half and two times. . [Video'of further aerial view of-wooded- area with road running Alongside neatest to camera.' -vehicle resembling a minibus--can be seen driving along, the--road.- Apartment blocks can be seen on the other side of the wood. The camera crosses- the wooded area to-give closer View of the housing. Single sOall vehilce can be seen driving across a square among the apartment blocks. No people' oranimals Are shown] MATVEYEVIIITB.WEST'S STANCE ON ARMS TALKS., CHERNOBYL PM051619 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 6 May 86 Morning Edition p 4 [Political Observer V,. Matveyev_article_Onder the !Notes Apropos" rubric: 'Decency Is Not Their Rule"] [Text] Official circles in Washington and London, which, are to blame for the fact that the question Of the complete cessation of nuclear weapon tests is not being resolved, are these days acting in the unseemly role of instigators of an anti-Soviet ballyhoo in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES [Atomic Power Station]. This is no mere coincidence. At the very time when, to a propaganda. fanfare, Washington was announcing the President's decision to set up a special group to "study -the incident at the Soviet AES," it became known that a device had malfunctioned during the undergrounddetonation of a p.s. nuclear weapon in Nevada on 10 April, The radiation had gotten put of control. British nuclear 'weapons are also detonated there. Our country has confirmed its readiness to return at any moment to A joint moratorium with the United States with the provision that the latter does ,not conduct nuclear tests. Even now, after an 8-month break in nuclear tests in our country, the Soviet Government is in no hurry to resume tests, despite what is happening in Nevada. Technical progress in the peaceful, civil sphere is not always smooth or even. All incidents along that path serve- as a lesson to enable them to be avoidedjn-the future. Mankind has mastered the most complex processes on this path and is undoubtedly capable of also ensuring the safe development of peaceful atomic energy for people's good. This is what, has to be worked at, and not only on the national scale but also on the broad International plane by the collective efforts of states and governments. But is thatalsbthe aim guiding the aforementioned circles An the West? 131 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rkyn vrrik.atiu Var. l/INILI "We are stepping up the pressure"... That, according to a WASHINGTON POST report on 3 May, is how a White House staffer characterized U.S. official circles' approach to what happened at the Chernobyl AES. Pressure, coercion, and strong-arm methods... People remain true to form in the centers of power across the ocean. What kind of decency or norms oi morality can there be with peoplewhohavethntheir conscience the course of "improving" an already monstrous weapon, which they continue to test contrary to the world community's demands! The "pressure" which the aforementioned White House staffer spoke of is yet another fact demonstrating the ease and cynicism with which official Washington resorts to the methods of "psychological warfare." They claim that they lack "information" even though they must be aware that it takes a certain amount of time [neobkhodimo khotya by . minimalnoye vremya] to clarify the facts of what happened. They claim that they are trying to "give assistance" but in fact they are whipping up sentiments hostile to the USSR. Nor does the conduct of the British Government, which ostentatiously recalled a group of tourists and students from the Soviet Union, look any better. If official London is really so concerned it should turn its gaze toward Nevada and to Las Vegas, which is just a few dozen kilometers from the site of the U.S. nuclear explosions! . There can be no doubt that the world public will draw the appropriate conclusions from this unseemly campaign launched by those who would like to make political gain of the most disgraceful kind, since it is a question here of aims and schemes that have nothing to do with concern for the fate of our planet. Such actions, such tactics deserve nothing more than the most resolute castigation. YELTSIN GIVES FRG TV FURTHER DETAILS ON CHERNOBYL DW051816 Mainz ZDF Television Network in German 1700 GMT 5 May 86 [Report on interview with Boris Yeltsin, candidate member of the CPSU Politburo, by unidentified correspondent; date and place not given] [Text] How tight is Chernobyl now? What about safety there? How much radio- activity continues to escape from there? Yeltsin said there is no longer any nuclear reaction. However, there is certain residue in the immediate environment of the reactor. Every hour some 100 roentgen of radioactive radiation is still emitted into the environment of the spot of the accident, he said. The radiation that normally exists in nature amounts to 10 microroentgen per hour. Yeltsin continues to state that measures are being taken to decontaminate the soil in a surrounding area of 20-30 km. Life is proceeding normally outside of that zone. The peasants are cultivating their fields; they are not taking any pills. Asked what happened to the inhabitants of the area directly surrounding Chernobyl, Yeltsin said: All people have been evacuated from that area. Special military units have begun to decontaminate the earth with special equipment. They are gradually approaching the reactor building and, very slowly, the inhabitants will be able to return to that area as well. 132 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FRENCH PAPER CITED ON ANTI-SOVIETISM OVER CHERNOBYL PM031907 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 4 May 86 First Edition p 5 [TASS report: "Article in L'HUMANITE"] [Text] The French newspaper L'HUMANITE has sharply criticized the anti-Soviet campaign stirred up by the French mass media in connection with the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station. The incident at Chernobyl has evoked irrepressible joy among anti- Soviets, the newspaper observes. For them the accident has been a real godsend. For 3 days now the press organs have been vying with each other in describing the "horrors" which are occurring in the Soviet Union. The newspapers, trying to outdo each other, are expatiating on the Soviet Union's "technical backwardness," and on the "barbarity of the system." At the same tine, objective French specialists are totally overturning these fabrications. The West is sending up a hue and cry about the "inadequacy of the information" which is forthcoming from the Soviet Union regarding the incident. However, even the most detailed information will not satisfy the press "figures." They preach not the cult of facts but are filled with fierce hatred for socialism. Thus, taking advantage of the occasion, LIBERATION has cast doubt on the whole spectrum of the Soviet Union's proposals on reducing nuclear arms. FURTHER REPORTAGE ON CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT PRAVDA Reports Details PM052051 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 6 May 86 First Edition p 6 [Special correspondents V. Gubarev and M. Odinets report: "The Station and Around It; Our Special Correspondents Report From the Region of the Chernobyl AES"] [Text] Pripyat looks strange and unusual from the helicopter. Snow-white multistory buildings, broad avenues, parks, stadiums, and playgrounds alongside kindergartens and stores... Just a few days ago 25,000 power workers, building workers, chemical industry workers, and river workers lived and worked here. But now the city is empty. There is not a single person on the streets and no lights in the windows at night. And only occasionally does a special truck appear on the streets -- the radiation monitoring service... Sometimes the quiet of the riverside settlement is broken by the noise of engines -- the next shift being taken to the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy [AES]:. Three AES reactor units need supervision, and specialists are monitoring the station's reactors, which have now been shut down [v rezhim konservatsii]. But the fourth reactor unit... An explosion blew the roof off the reactor, structures collapsed over it, and a fire broke out. This happened at night... At the alarm signal from the fourth power unit Lieutenants B. Pravik and V. Kibenok, chiefs of the AES fire crews, quickly roused their firefighters. After the explosion the roof of the machine hall had caught fire, and they focused their efforts on putting out the fire. They fought the fire at a height of 30 meters [ego sbivali na vysote v tridtsat metrov]. The firefighters' boots stuck in the bitumen melted by the high 133 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY temperature,andlit was difficult to breathe because of the smoke and heat but the courageous heroes fought bravely: Major Leonid Telyatoikoy, who efficiently organized work to put out the fire, set an:example of selflessness and of fulfillment of his official 'duty. Specialists will later note that the firefighters' feat considerably limited the scale of the damage.' Nevertheless, What happened is something that. has always been most feared by physicists: The reactor's armor-plated 'core- was exposed. Some radioactivity was released upward and then a fire began inside. Furthermore, it was particularly difficult to extinguish it because neither water nor chemical means could be used -- the high temperature would instantly vaporize them and send them into the atmosphere. A complex and unusually difficult situation had been created. Let us note 'straightaway that to the honor of the thousands of people; who work at the AES and live alongside it there was no panic, although there, were some scaremongers. However, the disaster United people so much that they quicklTestablished order them- selves. As is Well 'known, some foreign agencies and all manner of radio stations tried to instill panicby reporting the deaths of thousands_ of people, a nuclear explosion, and the general irradiation of virtually all the. European part of the country and neighboring countries-. And it is here. that those reports are being receivedwith surprise, to put it mildly.. What can be more shameful than reveling in the disaster that has occurred-1 ' In actual fact measures to ensure the population's safety and monitor events were taken Very quickly. Near the confluence of the Uzh River and the Pripyat River stands the one-story Chernobyl Meteorological Station building. Eight times a day six of its staffers check the air, analyze soil moisture, and observe cloud movements... Early that Saturday morning station chief,Z.F. Kordyk herself took down the instrument readings. One apparatus showed increased radioactivity. A sense of alarm gripped Zinaida Fedorovna: Something has gone wrong at the AES, she thought, as she sent the regular telegram with the meter readings to the republic's hydrometeorological center. But by that time the evacuation of the Chernobyl AES settlement had already begun. It was being conducted in a strict and well-organized way, under the guidance of soviet and Party organizations. Suffice it to say that it took just 4 hours to assemble the population of the power station settlement and ship them out. When they learned in Kiev about the disaster on the Pripyat, many people went to their enterprises to offer their assistance even though it was a Saturday. Dozens of drivers from Motor Vehicle Transport Station [ATP] 09124 lined up outside the enterprise before the start of work. After it was announced that work involving the transportation of the population out of the Chernobyl AES zone had to be done, it was proposed that those drivers who did not want to or could not go should take a step forward. Not one of them moved. They took 80 vehicles into the settlement and worked unceasingly. V. Brovarnyy, a Communist and holder of the Order of Labor Glory, Komsomol member B. Levanda, and driver S. Drozduyk, who has submitted his application to join the party'-- all of them drivers of Kiev motor vehicle transport organizations -- have earned the gratitude of the AES settle- ment's population. The tireless work of M. Sapiton, chief of the Pripyat ATP 31015, merits all respect. 134 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY npdassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rvn vrrik.am, t.),UINLX Tens of thousands of residents were evacuated from the area of the AES within a short space of time. They Were transported to rayons neighboring Chernobylskiy Rayon, where accommodation, dbmeetic and trade services, and medical services were arranged for them. G. Goncharuk, a secretary of Ivankovskiy Party Raykom, told us that the evacuees had met everywhere with concern and. heartfelt sympathy. In the village of Blidcha,' Anastasiya Yakovlevna Leshchenko, a pensioner with a family of 5, took in 10 people from Chernobyl. I. Kovalenko, a member of the "Radyanska Dkraina"'Kolkhoz from this same village, gave shelter to seven people. The residents of.Ivankovskiy Rayon are sharing everything with their neighbors, helping them to get- through a difficult time. The villages of Borodyanskiy Rayon accepted more than 5,000 Chernobyl evacuees. Every- where the people have been accommodated solicitously and have been provided with essen- tials. The allocation principle is thus: The collective of a Chernobylskiy Rayon farm is being housed in its entirety in a Borodyanskiy. Rayon farm. For example, the "Komsomolets Polesya" Kolkhoz has been temporarily accommodated on the "Zarya" Kolkoz in the village of ZagaltsY. The Chernobyl residents have been received compassionately by the "Maydanovka" Sovkhoz, the "Peremoga" Kolkhoz, and all the remaining farms. People are being allocated accommodation in the apartments of village soviet deputies. These latter are fixing up the children in schools; the children of the new arrivals are being taught in the first shift, while the local schoolchildren are attending the second shift. The evacuees are assisting the local residents with the farm work. sMoreover, Borodyanskiy Rayon is carrying out its corn and flax sowing without falling behind schedule; the farmstead workers have made up the slight lag that had occurred, and now the stockraisers here are ahead of schedule compared to this time last year. Kiev's doctors responded solicitously to the misfortune which has occurred in the Chernobyl region. On that last Saturday in April many of them were at their own city hospitals and polyclinics in order to offer their personal assistance to the casual- ties. Doctors at the city's Oktyabrskaya Hospital N. Putseva, L. Dubinskaya, and L. Sirotinskaya effectively and swiftly established their own section at the site of the calamity. The medical workers of the 25th hospital left Kiev regardless [v chem byli], with I will be back soon." We have been told A. Novikov, doctor's assistants, deserve Chernobyl territory... deserve to be spoken well of. Many of them time only to say: "Tell my family and friends that V. Melnik, a doctor, and V. Kiselev and the kindest words for their selfless labor on Despite all the complexity of the situation prevailing in connection with the accident at the fourth power unit in the AES settlement and the nearby villages, order prevailed throughout and continues to prevail. This has been maintained above all by the population itself and the Komsomol volunteers. Traffic movement along the roads has also proceeded and continues to proceed in a strict and organized way. V. kucherenko and A. Stelmakh, workers in the AES settlement's militia department, have been . operating efficiently and promptly in the difficult situation. The republic Ministry of Internal Affairs has rated highly the courage and bravery of ,staffers in the POlesskiy, Chernobylskiy, and Ivankovskiy Rayon militia departments. Work to neutralize [po likvidatsii] the accident is now continuing at the AES. Shifts headed by Brois Baranov, Vladimir Ignatenko, Nikolay Bekeehko, and Gennadiy Dik are working on the cooling and shutting down of reactor units one, two, and three [dlya obespecheniya paskholazhivaniya blokoV Nos 1, 2, 3 i ikh konservatsii]; and also on liquidating the consequences of the accident-at.reactor unit No four. The shift responsible for thermal and underground infrastructures [smena.teplovykh i-Oodzemnykh 135 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 tuft OFFICIAL USE ONLY kommunkatsiy] and its chief, Nikolay Primak, are working in the most difficult conditions. True courage and heroism is being shown by Vladimir Kozlikin and Vladimir Ivanchik, fitters from the fitters shop, and Nikolay Gritsenko, senior foreman in the electrical shop in charge of restoring the electrical supply circuit. It is now the second week since the accident. The situation remains complex. The main thing, however, is that the situation is being monitored [kontrolirovatsya] not only near the AES but in neighboring regions. The level of radiation has decreased. Careful monitoring [kontrol] of the environment is being carried out in Kiev, Chernigov, and other major cities and smaller settlements. Additional measures to eliminate the effects of the accident have been taken. Council of Ministers Statement LD051555 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1527 GMT 5 May 86' [Text] From the USSR Council of Ministers: A ,complex of measures for removing the consequences of the accident continued to be implemented it the Chernobyl AES on 4 May. Decontamination of the. territory around the fourth set of the AES is being carried out. The discharge of radioactive substances continues to decrease. Work has been set in motion to erect dykes along the Pripet River near the AES in order to prevent the possibility of its being polluted. The radiation situation on the territories of the Ukraine and Belorussia is-stabilizing, with a trend toward improvement. Necessary health and hygiene, and treatment and preventitive measures are being carried out in' these areas. The population that has been evacuated from a 30-km zone around the AES is being temporarily provided with work at other enterprises, construction sites, kolkhozes, and sovkhozes. IAEA Director Arrives in Moscow LD051407 Moscow TASS in English 1359 GMT 5.May 86 [Text] Moscow May 5 TASS Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Hans Blix arrived today in Moscow at the Soviet Government's invitation. He was met at the airport by Deputy Chairman of the USSR State Committee for the Utilisation of Atomic Energy B.A. Semenov, other officials. Kovalev Meets With IAEA Director LD061037 Moscow TASS in English 1019 GMT 6 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 6 TASS Kovalev, a first deputy foreign minister of the USSR, received in the Soviet Foreign Ministry today Hans Blix, director,general of the International Atomic Energy Agency-(IAEA). Taking part in the conversation, which was, of a businesslike nature, also weriL.V._ Konstantinov of the USSR, a deputy ciirector-general of the IAEA, Morris Rosen' of the United States, director of the Nuclear Safety Department of the IAEA, and V.F. Petiovskiy, a member of the Soviet Foreign Ministry's Collegium. 136 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rutt urritaAL (Mt VOILA U.S. Radiology Expert Arrives PM051409 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 6 May 86 Morning Edition p 2 [Text] In connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station, expressions of sympathy and offers of help addressed to the Soviet Government are being received, from foreign governments, various organizations, private companies, and individual citizens. . TASS is authorized to announce that the Soviet Government expresses its genuine gratitude to all who have expressed their sympathy, their due understanding of whay happened, and have offered their assistance and help. At the present time, the main demands arising in eliminating the.consequences of the accident are being satisfied by our own capabilities. Naturally, when assistance offered with good intentions may turn out to be useful,, it sill be accepted with gratitude. In particular, the famous U.S. specialist on radiology, Dr R. Gale has already arrived in the Soviet Union for consultations. The general director of the International Atomic Energy. Agency (IAEA) H. Blix is arriving in Moscow at the invitation of the Soviet Government. It must be regretted, however, that against this broad background of sympathy and understanding, certain circles are attempting to use what has happened for unseemly political purposes. Rumors and fabrications running counter to the elementary norms of morality have been put into propaganda circulation.. For example, fables are being put out about thousands killed, panic among the population, and so forth. The people .engaged in this are chiefly those who cannot accept the very spirit of trust and detente/and for,whom the whipping up of enmity between peoples is 'a customary affair. Every normal person knows that gloating at other people's misfortunes is an unseemly business. . As far as the Chernobyl accident is concerned, work is continuing at the station and in the surrounding area to put right its consequences and to give aid to those who suffered. The operational staff at the station are reliably monitoring the condition of the three other reactor.:installations, which have been shut down, and the reactor cooling systems. Cleanup Work Continuing LD051729 Moscow World Service in English 1310 GMT 5 May 86' [From the "News and Views" program] [Excerpts] We start the issue with a report about the situation in the area of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where an accident with one nuclear reactor occurred several days ago. Work continues on the site of the plant, situated 130 km north of Kiev, to eliminate the consequences of the ?accident. The Soviet national television network carried a report from the area. The sequences were shot from a helicopter. One could clearly see that the plant building was only slightly damaged. Only one of the plant's four generator units had been affected. All the production buildings and the settlements of the plant workers, along with other residents who have been evacuated, as well as the power transmission lines, are intact. Traffic continues along a nearby highway. 137 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Specialized units are clearing the polluted sites next to the plant's territory, On - 2 May a tour of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant area Was made bythe Soviet Prime Minister Nikolay Ryzhkov and a Central Committee.secretarynf the Communist.Party, ? Aegor Ligachev. It was noted that the,work to remove the consequenceanfthe accident, is well organized. A decision was taken on additional measures to:speed up the-work. According to the latest data the level:of_radiation.at the power-plant aad.near:it has dropped from one-third to one-half of what it was. The Soviet Government has been getting from abroad, from.various organizations, private companies and individuals, expressions of sympathy. and offers of help. The Soviet Government has informed a-number of neighboring European states and inter- national organizations of the:scale-of. the accident and of the work.to:remoVe its aftereffects. Specialists, including Western ones, speak positively about the actions -taken by the Soviet salvage services to localize the Source of radioactive contami, .nation. People understand that this is a misfortune, the first of its kind in the entire more than 30-year-old record of operation of nuclear power plants in the Soviet Union. Yes indeed, tales about the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are spread by those who do not accept the very spirit. of trust and easing of tension, who regard inciting enmity among the nations as something routine. TV Interviews Kievans 1D051917 [Editorial Report] Moscow Television Service in Russian at 1700 GMT on 5 May ' 1986 in its "Vremya" newscast carries a report by Mikhail Krutov and unidentified special correspondents on life during and following the Chernobyl incident. The "Vremya" anchorman begins by saying: "Our special correspondents report from areas in the Ukraine and in Belorussia situated near Chernobyl. "In the south of Gomel Oblast between the Dnepr and Pripet Rivera, basic. field work has been' completed and potato planting is now under way on the last hectares," A video re- port from a state farm on front-ranking sovkhoz shows potato planting operations, As video shows cows grazing, the announcer continues; "The task is' being set to produce great quantities of milk at this very time." K.video report follows from Vatutin Sovkhoz, 40 km north of Kiev in Uzhgorodskiy Rayon, which supplies Kiev with milk and vegetables,' "On the farm, on the plantations., and in the fields, just everywhere today- we saw, normal working, .The farm is going along in its normal labor rhythm'. The only thing unusual is perhaps the radioactivity and chemical monitoring stations. They are constantly monitoring the environment and all the produce that is being dispatched to the consumers. And so far there has been nothing in excess of the permitted norms registered,"-- says the correspondent; as video shows peOple picking what looks like spring onions, then a man with a Geiger,counter checking.boxes -of spring onions. The report continues with a video interview, of the farm director who says that everyone is working in shock fashion and diSpatching lots of vegetables to Kiev: He continues: "Everyone understands the-needto-work very,well right now in order4oi eVeryone'at his work place to show models of shock labor. 'The point is that of course we all understand that the accident that took place atChernobyl-AES has caused losses to the'state, and so our task now is to make up for these losses." - 138 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Aleksandr Krutov then begins his video report from the streets of Kiev; where people are shown comporting themselves in the usual way; "Our television crew came to Kiev this morning early. We have called during the day at many places, enterprises, and institutes. We have traveled on buses and on the Kiev subway. Those in charge of the Velogonka Mira Bicycle race invited us to look at the course. The Velogonka Mira bike race Opens tomorrow, as you know; and goes on in Kiev for 4 days. The four stages will be held here. "We have talked to many people. Well, what impression have we recieved? The mood I would say is calm and normal, What is more, let us ask the people here themselves. Excuse me. We have a question for you. We are from the "Vremya" program. How was your day at work today?" A young man says, "I had a good day at work. We just got on with our work." Krutov asks what the young man thinks about Western rumors of panic in Kiev. He replies that all is calm and "there is no panic." A woman in the background agrees that all is calm and people are at work as usual. Krutov stops another passerby saying: "Excuse me please. Can I ask you a question. -Voices in the West are going on and on interminably about panic in Kiev, in your oblast here." The man replies: "You know there is probably no panic, but we are worried about it too." 'Kutov,next stops a young couple with a young child in a stroller. The woman gays that she works lft aAtindergarten. Krutov Asks her: "Tell me please, What sort of mood are you in?" . The woman "Awonderful mood, We like* Kiev very much, We are not from around here actually. We are having a walk around and looking at the squares. We are just passing through and we really like Kiev." Krutov goes onto interview a group of bus drivers on the street: .[Krutov] I am from the "Vremya" program. How was your first day back atwork after the holiday? .[Bus -driver] ?Well, we all had to work over the holiday to -evacuate people from the area around :Pripet and. Chernobyl. We worked on transporting people out, on evacuating them. . In particular .we drove people to the BoTodyarkWy.itayon. The organization of the transport was, you could .gay, well Organized. It has to be said that the general management of our transport was not even disrupted. [Krutov] You are a bus driver? [Bus driver] Yes I am. I am chief of a (?bus convoy). And yes'indeed, everything was well organized in our area.. The drivers showed great patriotism with regard to the local,population. What was it like on site? Well there was no panic. All was very .well organized, -[Krutov] The Western mass media say there were thoudands killed there. 139 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rim Vt.FILIAL USE ONLY [Another bus driver] No, that is completely not so. Utterly wrong. As a driver I took part literally from the first days of the evacuation of people from the town of Pripet. And that is completely all wrong. All was very organized at a very high level and all the drivers understood perfectly well the task they faced. And all was done at the highest standard to get all the people out. The first driver then concludes by saying we must all campaign for peace and disarma- ment and stop arms from going into space. Kiev Student Gives Assurances LD022123 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1700 GMT 2 May 86 [Report by correspondent A. Guretskiy with remarks by Kiev student K. Amadou, identi- fied by caption -- date and place not given; recorded] [Text] Spring and the May holidays add their usual concerns to this busy international rail line, giving people a good reception and creating the best possible conditions for their journey. As we know, there are five all-union tourist itineraries which run through the border town of Brest and its hero-fortress. [Video shows the railway sta- tion at Brest; view of the outside of the building; station platforms and tracks] A train has arrived from Kiev. Its passengers include a group of students from Mali who are completing their studies at the faculty of internatonal relations and inter- national law at the University of Kiev. They are on vacation until 6 May and they have decided to make a trip to Berlin. [video shows more scenes in the station; passers-by in city streets] [Amadou] We live in Kiev and feel nothing. People here are living normally and there is nothing dreadful. We are leaving now but will be back soon. All the things they are saying are lies, that is what I think. [video shows students speaking to ' Guretskiy out-of-doors] Tourists Complain at Evacuation LD021921 Moscow Television Service Service in Russian 1430 GMT 2 May 86 [From the "Vremya" newscast; interviewed tourists speak in English with superimposed Russian translation throughout] [Text] The Western mass information media are spreading slanderous fabrications con- cerning the accident at the Chernobyl AES. [Correspondent] I had a meeting with British tourists outside the Rossiya Hotel during the festive merrymaking. Jim Tweedle, a railway dispatcher from Glasgow, and Ian Smith, a Devon businessman, were on a tour around our country, that was organized by the. Thomson Holidays tourist company. They say that their group, which comprised 17 per- sons, visited Leningrad. Then they visited Novosibirsk and Irkutsk and spent several days at Baykal. [Jim Tweedle] We had a very fine and pleasant trip, a trip that none of us will forget. Everything was wonderful until we were brought back to Moscow yesterday. [Correspondent] I asked them the reason for their unexpected return. 140 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Ian Smith] Suddenly an official representative of Thomson Holidays told us that an atomic explosion has allegedly taken place in the Soviet Union. The city of Kiev has been evacuated. Many people have died and thousands have been injured. We were also told that our lives are in danger and that we must immediately leave Moscow. [Correspondent] That is not true. The situation in Kiev is normal. People there are also celebrating May Day, just as they are in Moscow. [Ian Smith] I do not know exactly, but we have been told that special aircraft have been flown here from Britain in order to urgently evacuate British citizens from Moscow and Leningrad. [Correspondent] What is your view of this? .[Ji Tweedle] . I am very grieved. We all are very grieved that we have to leave Moscow. Thousands of Muscovites have nbw come out into the streets and are celebrating May Day. We can see that there.is no danger, as attempts have been made- to make us believe. [Ian Smith] I also asked the Thomson Holiday representatives about this but they were unable to give me a sensible explanation. One gains the impression that it is only Thomson Holidays that is suddenly so concerned and has been exaggerating all this. [Correspondent] T see, it is a provocation. 'Ian Smith] I am convinced of it. [Correspondent] The fact that the order to urgently leave our country is dictated by no means out of concern for their health was understood too by many Of these foreign tourists, students, and postgraduates who have been urgently dispatched to Sheremetyevo. However, efforts were made to convince them otherwise. [video shows clothes being measured for radioactivity at entrance to aircraft] .There you see how clothes are being demonstratively measured for radioactivity at the entrance to the British aircraft. We were not allowed to take pictures in the air- craft itself. Those who insisted on giving interviews to Soviet television were, of course, allowed to leave the aircraft, but they had to emerge without their shoes on. The fact is that they had been insistently requested to take off their own clothes, and in their place they had been given these suits, thereby creating, by their ap- pearance alone, a sensation when incidentally they descend the aircraft steps in London. [Unidentified interviewee] I had been studying Slavonic languages in Minsl. [correspondent] Why are you leaving? [Unidentified interviewee] Our embassy has insisted on it, indeed insisted very etti [Second unidentified-interviewee] I have been studying in Kiev. I believe that the accident is being used by the Western press for unseemly ends. All this has very quickly been transformed into plain political propaganda. We are regretful and very ashamed in front of our Soviet friends. I like your country, which I have already visited on five occasions, and I do not want these events to be used to worsen East-West relations. , 141 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Third unidentified interviewee] I was also engaged in research work in Kiev. I objected sharply to the departure. I would like to be in Kiev. Our Soviet friends would not have allowed a threat to our health to be created, or, incidentally, a threat to the health of their children. The children would have been taken away from Kiev if there had been the slightest danger. This is an example of how Western propaganda functions. It was reported that 2,000 people were killed at the AES -- 2,000 and not 2 as was actually the case. [video shows another young lady being inter- viewed, but an official, presumably British, holds up his indicate that the interviews are at an end] [Correspondent] As you see, we did not manage to finish our talk, although we were outside the British aircraft. Foreigners Bemoan Departure LD022042 Mowcow in English to breat Britain and Ireland 1900 GMT 2 May 86 [Identity of speakers not given] [Text] Now as you may have heard in the news, the Soviet Union has already officially denied rumors spread by some Western news agencies about the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, but even despite these denials the authorities in some Western countries have obliged their citizens -- tourists, students and teachers to leave the Soviet Union. We now bring you the recording of interviews with some of these citizens: [Begin recording] [first woman] I wanted to stay until the lastmoment. The whole, thing is very, very sad. I had difficulty making the decision whether or leave ,or to stay. These two were very... [First man, interrupting] I have been studying at a language institute in Minsk, the town of Minsk in Belorussia. [Reporter] And now you are just in a short time leaving us, yes? [First man] Yes, we are leaving for England. [Reporter] What is the reason? [First map] The reason is that our embassy have asked us to come out. .[Second woman] I come from Kiev where I was also on a language course. It was, I feel it was exploited by the Western press. [Reporter] Why? [Second woman] Well, because it because it became very quickly a political propaganda and we are all very sad to leave. I am ashamed what is done to our Soviet friends,' be- cause they have done, you know the utmost to welcome us. I have a great respect for this country, I have been five times in the Soviet Union. I hope this is not going to jeopardize the relationship between East and West. [Third woman] I didn't want to leave Kiev at all in the first place, I wish I was there now, and I voted very strongly against leaving. I believe that our Soviet hosts are 142 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY very concerned about our health and I know that you love your children very much and that if there was any danger to health the children would have been evaucated from Kiev., I know that some Western sources apparently indicated that 2,000 people had died in the accident, which we know was... [Reporter, interrupting] They were Soviets. [Third woman] Soviets, and there were 2, not 2,000. [Fourth woman] Because the information from the West was very distressing, but I just don't know where the truth. '[sentence as heard] [end recording] Muscovites 'View Western Reaction LD031755 Moscow Television SerVice in Russian 1700 GMT 3 May 86 [G. Sedov report from the iNremya" newcast; persons interviewed in Moscow street identi- fied from captions] [Text] Moscow. A usual picture of the capital's streets on nonworking days. Today there are more pedestrians on the streets that vehicles. People are not hurrying any- where, they are enjoying the spring air and the sunshine; they are sharing impressions and discussing the news. One such item of news is the events at the Chernobyl AES and the feeling of bitterness brought about by the unseemly row created by Western pro- paganda in this connection. [F.A. Shvets] Of course the reaction is surprising. There was the recent case of the Challenger spacecraft: what grief was felt by our people. Well, the reaction of the United States and its Western allies in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station is no doubt what one would expect: When politicians proceed from the position of the worse things are the better they are, then no doubt it would be foolish to expect anything else from them. [Pensioner A.G. Gaplyuk] Well, an accident, a misfortune, but not on the scale for them to whip up and provoke there. As for the foreigners, yesterday on television we saw that they also expressed the opinion of our Soviet people, they also understand that this is a provocation, that this is being whipped up in order to aggravate relations. [Military officer V.I. Borodach] In general the inperialists always want to find any grounds for distorting even facts in their own interests with the object of subsequently justifying their drive into space, of taking nuclear weapons out there, and of justify- ing precisely that new level in their desire for nuclear arms -- the new aspect regard- ing space is what I have in mind. And that is all. Kiev Radiation Level 'Low' AU021551 Paris AFP in English 1542 GMT 2 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 2 (AFP) According to counts taken Wednesday, radioactivity levels were low in Kiev, the Soviet Union's third largest city and the closest to the disabled Chernobyl nuclear plant, Western experts said here Friday, quoting data relayed to for- eign envoys by Soviet officials. The experts said the level for the Ukrainian provincial capital of 80 micro-roentgens per hour reported by Soviet Atomic Energy Minister Andronik Petrosyants was "weak". 143 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 ruii UtrIlAAL UL ONLY They note, however, that favorable winds had blown most possible fallout away from Kiev, which is 133 kilometere (83 miles) from Chernobyl. The British and Finnish ambassadors and the French and Austrian charges d'affaires here were summoned to the Foreign Ministry Wednesday evening, and the Dutch ambassador on Thursday. Petrosyants: 'Severe Blow' AU021621 Paris AFP in English 1617 GMT 2-May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 2 (AFP) -- The Soviet Union's nuclear energy chief, speaking to Western diplomats, has implicitly acknowledged that last weekend's accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukraine was the worst civilian nuclear mishap in history, reliable sources said here Friday. Andronik Petrosyants, president of the Atomic Energy Ministry, Was quoted by the sources as having said the accident was a "severe blow to the peaceful exploitation of nuclear energy, not only in the USSR, but in the world" Mr. Petrosyants was one of three Soviet officials who briefed three ambassadors and two charges d'affaires at the Soviet Foreign Ministry Wednesday Thursday. He confirmed that, a meltdown had taken place in the core of the Chernobyl reactor, and said a "protection zone' 30 km (20 miles) in radius had been set up around the ' plant. Reassuring the diplomats of the safety of their citizens in the USSR, Mr. Petrosyants also expressed satisfaction that Soviet experts had managed to control the graphite fire in the plant without foreign assistance, the sources said. KIEV PAPER OUTLINES CONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS AT CHERNOBYL LD040508 Kiev LITERATURNA UKRAINA in Ukrainian 27 Mar 86 p 1 [Pripyat resident Lyubov Kovalevska article: "The Decisions of the 27th Congress Being Put Into Action -- It Is No Private Matter"] [Excerpts] Outlining on the basis of comprehensive substantiation the strategy for its economic policy, the 27th CPSU Congress also worked out specific, real steps for the move to an economy with a higher level of organization and efficiency, comprehen- sive development of productive forces, mature socialist relations, and a well-organized system of management; it pointed to ways of implementing this strategy, the main one of which is'reconstruction of the national economy on the basis of scientific-technical 'progress. The nuclear power industry is developing particularly rapidly in the Ukraine: In 1984, the capacity of the Chernobyl AES was already 4 million kw; moreover, bringing' the. power sets up to design capacity was being carried out ahead of schedule Aprychomu vvedennya enerhoblokiv na proyektnu potuzhnist zdiysnyuvaloSya ranishe ustanovlennoho stoku]. All this enabled the Chernobyl AES to rank among the most progressive and . powerful nuclear power stations in the USSR and to make a great contribution to the 144 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY power supply in the entire southwestern area of the country. Apart from this, since September 1980, power from the Chernobyl AES has been supplied to CERA member-countries. Since the station was commissioned, nearly 150,000 million kwh of electricity have been generated. Work on increasing capacities at the Chernobyl AES is continuing. Work is under way on construction of the third phase, containing the fifth and sixth power sets, which should be put into operation in 1986 and 1988. With the commissioning of these power sets, the station's capacity will reach 6 million kw and it will become the most powerful in the world. Over the 15 years of construction at the Chernobyl AES, a builders collective has been formed. It ,includes highly qualified workers who have been through formal training in ,building power projects in various parts of the country and gained great experience during the construction of .the 4 million-kw power sets. During this work, quite a lot of new and progressive factors have emerged. A strong body of technical engineering workers has been formed. The successes of the builders, assembly workers, technicians, and designers have been rewarded with high-level government awards. Now, against the background of these achievements, the delay in construction of the fifth power set is particularly noticeable. The plans and specifications for building and assembly work in 1985 have not been fulfilled. Is this slump a coincidence? Of course not, but it is not enough to give such a simple answer either. Let us not assume the task of making a profound analysis of the conditions and consequences of the collective's work, but dwell instead on the main factors, which are characteristic of many construction sites in the country. The building site should be an uninterrupted production line of work on the basis of the strictest adherence to correct building techniques. This is precisely what is lacking. The problems of the first set were passed onto the second, from the second to the third and so on, but together with this, they expanded, "became overgrown" with a huge humber of unsolved problems. At first these problems were discussed with interest, with firm self-confidence, then they aroused indignation and later, desperation was also added to this: "How long, they said, are we going to go on talking about one and the same thing, and what is the use of all this talking?..." As for the fifth set.., the time allocated for its construction was reduced from 3 years to 2 and building work began in 1985 with minimal supplies. Added to this change in work schedule and also tightening up of plans which were already tight, it turned out [i ushchilnennya vlasnykh i bez toho napruzhennykh planiv] that no one was ready -- not the designers, the suppliers, nor the builders themselves, whose resources are naturally not infinite. But the directing bodies, sometimes even for objective reasons, without increasing the strength of the building organization, hasten to impose an unrealistic program, which is not backed up by resources and this then leads to disorganization of building work and often to the collapse of the plan. The late release of design and costing documentation by the "S. Ya. Zhuk" Gidroproyekt Institute did not allow effective planning of distribution of orders for prefabricated reinforced concrete and metal structures. The main bulk, let us say, of the latter were ordered in the fourth quarter and this led, in turn, to a disruption in supplies. The consequence of this was then lack of rhythm in the work of teams and stoppages. It was a vicious circle. The structures only reached assembly organizations in October-November, but the subdivisions were by then unable to do anything with them. 145 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The low quality of the design and costing documentation, which unfortunately is a common phenomenon, caused additional labor costs and called for reworking and great material and moral efforts. ? Lack of organization weakened not only discipline, but also the responsibility of each and everyone for the overall result of work. The impossibility, or even unwillingness, of technical engineering workers to organize the teams' work lowered the level of exactingness. "Fatigue" started to be felt, wear and tear of equipment, machinery and mechanisms, lack of tools, instruments, and so on. In a word, all the shortcomings in the building process, which are unfortunately typical, became acute and apparent. There is yet another problem, a considerably more serious one. Due to the unscrupu- lousness of the factory-producer, the customer cannot rid himself of defective material and of disruptions in supply. ? Thus, in 1.985, 45,500. cubic meters of prefabricated. reinforced concrete were ordered, 3,200 were missing, and out of the 42,300 cubic meters received, 6,000 were faulty. Thus the reinforced concrete is there, but it cannot be assembled. I do not wish to suggest that the factory-producers do not have problems of their own and complications, nor do I'want to pose as a teacher. All the same, I consider it to be an abnormal situation when contract obligations are-constantIy violated. In the "forefront" here is the "Dneprenergostroyprom" Association, which last year under- supplied by 800 cubic meters of water-cooling tower structures, the "Severenergo- .stroyprom" Association, which failed to supply more than 150 cubic meters of wall panels for the machine hall and the "Lvovenergostroyprom" Association, which did not supply more than 300 cubic meters of concrete slabs and pumping channels. Equally "helpful" to the builders of the Chernobyl AES last year were the suppliers of metal structures, who undersupplied by 2,358 tons, and what was delivered was largely faulty. This included 326-tons of fissure sealant for the nuclear fuel waste depository, which arrived in a defective state from the Volzhskiy-metal works. The ' same works was partially responsible for defects in the manufacture of girders for the machine hall. The Kashira Metal Works sent nearly 220 tons of faulty columns for its assembly. The technical inspectorate (the department which monitors quality of supply and work) has accumulated mountains of documents for designating the value of additional labor costs and deducting this from the value of shoddy structures. And spoilage has to be paid for, and paid for over decades. Citing these facts, I would.like to draw attention to the inadmissibility of defects In the construction of nuclear power stations and power projects in general, where the ? strength of every structure must conform to a certain standard. Every cubic meter of reinforced concrete must be 4 guarantee of reliability, and thus of safety. The main factor governing everyone involved in the construction of power projects must be, above all, his conscience. I am convinced that any person with a conscience finds defects unacceptable, because this is degrading to him.: It is offensive and insulting to the worker to have to correct mistakes made by-others, because this shows, above all, a lack of respect for him. An absurd situation arises: The structure has arrived, but it is of no use for assembly, and there will be no other. Just how much self-control, sharp wittedness, strength, and nervous energy is required from the builder to finally put a structure like this in order? 146 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Among the shoddy producers one frequently encounters the Pridneprovskiy Works of the uSoyuzatomenergostroypromu Association which is the main supplier of farraginous ferro?concrete for the Chernobyl AES. As to contractual discipline, it does not stand up to any criticism. Out of the ordered 11,500 cubic meters last year only 10,300 cubic meters were received, nearly 1,000 cubic meters of which were parts of the frame of the main premises. However, no changes for the better have occurred in the current year: During the January?February period the shortfall amounted to 500 cubic meters. The uSoyuzatomenergostroypiomn Association has not only failed to make good last year's shortfall amounting to 3,200 cubic meters, but during the 2 months this year added to it another 2,000 cubic meters out of the 12,300 cubic meters supplied, 5,000 cubic meters arrived in a dismantled state. A similar situation prevails where metal structures are concerned: The shortfall amounts to 2;436 tons. If we are to look for the concrete culprits, then we have to name the Kiev Works of Experimental Structures (744 tons), the already familiar Volzhskiy Works (698 tons),. the Kurakhovskiy Works (477 tons) and the Donetsk Works (182 tons). The building of the social?cultural sector is being slowed down by the Novovoronezhskiy Works: Out of the 530 cubic meters of farraginous ferro?concrete ordered it underdelivered 380 tons, over a half! FOREIGN MINISTRY HOLDS PRESS CONFERENCE ON CHERNOBYL Officials Comment LD062143 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1755 GMT 6 May 86 [Press conference at USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 6 May on accident at Chernobyl AES, moderated by Yu. Gremitsikh, with B.Y. Shcherbina, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and chairman of the government commission; AB. Kovalev, first deputy minister of foreign affairs of the USSR; A.M. Petrosyants, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy; Y.S. Sedunov, first deputy chairman of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control; Y.I. Vorobyev, first deputy USSR minister of health; Yemelyanov, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and deputy director of the Scientific Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering ? recorded] ' [Text] [Kovalev] What happened in Chernobyl is a calamity [bedal, but lessons can be drawn not only from achievements but also from tragedies. We are not the first to suffer from an accident at a nuclear power station. Similar cases have occurred in other countries too. What happened in Chernobyl confirms again how cautious one must be in dealing with nuclear energy. In this case, we are dealing with the peaceful use of nuclear energy, with a controlled nuclear unit. But the energy of the atom is also the basis for nuclear weapons; it is specially intended for massive strikes, for destruction. If it were to be put into use, it would be uncontrollable. 147 In the statement issued by the leaders of the seven developed countries at their conference in Tokyo, they touched upon the subject of nuclear safety. As well as making statements, which are of an objective and generally positive nature, they are direct- ing a reproach at us regarding the information we are presenting. This reproach is totally unacceptable. As soon as any reliable data appeared, they were immediately reported. As soon as the facts became clear at the site, about the real state of affairs, we started to report, and we report nearly every day. We do not indulge in guesswork. We rely on the facts and data provided by the best specialists and instruments. Our authoritative and competent representatives present at the press conference will talk about this. I would also like to note in passing, not by way of reproach but for the same of truthfulness, that 'when an accident took place in the United States in 1979, the U.S. side did not sort out the causes of what had happened at once by any means. It submitted information to the U.S. Senate after 10 days and to the IAEA after almost 2 months. Our approach, the Soviet approach, lies in ensuring that the information is responsible, objective, trust- worthy, balanced, or to put it in one word ? honest. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Shcherbina] Comrades, ladies and gentlemen. We have come from the place around which passions are raging today. You know about what has happened at Chernobyl from the reports of the Council of Ministers and from TASS. What did happen there? On April 26th, at 0123, during a planned shut-down of the set [blokl and at a power level of 200 megawatts thermal, there was an accident at the fourth set of Chernobyl AES with partial destruction of the core of the reactor and an escape of fission fragments outside the limits of the station. The criticality of the reactor was lost at this time. In connection with what has taken place, the Council of Ministers formed a government commission to take steps to make good the accident and to find out the reasons for what happened. The commission includes eminent scientists, leaders, and specialists from ministries and departments. Liter- ally in a few hours the members of the commission were in the locality [na mestel Everyone naturally is interested in why this happened. Only scientific and engineering investigation can answer this. Prelimi- nary results now make it possible to conjecture that the most probable thing is that there was an accident in the reactor. Taking into account that the design and structural solutions correspond fully to the norms of both our country and generally accepted international practice, and that the quality of the manufacture, the installation and acceptance of equipment was properly checked, the cause of the accident could be the con- sequence of the coincidence of several exceptionally unlikely and therefore unforeseen failures. The activity of the staff on duty is also being analyzed carefully. Hurry and haste in drawing conclusions in any matter, not just this one, are inappropriate. The commission has not completed its investigations. Its report has not been submitted. It is not all simple in a matter such as this. Time is needed, and a careful account. There must be no mistake, we cannot err. The price of such a conclusion is too high. I think that the majority will understand us, and for those who are programmed for prejudice and ill will ? for those it is all the same, one stereotype. White is black. They invented raging fires, thousands of victims, total destruction of the station. Now, when it is known that the entire station is intact except for the fourth set, it is simply exaggerating lzhivopisat] to say that it is now a wasteland without people. I can report that today there are 150 people on duty at the sets, on duty round-the-clock. Incidentally, work is also under way in the lower zone of the fourth reactor. They have reached it. Shielding [zashchita] is being constructed from various materials ? sand, clay, boron, metals, lead ? in order to curtial radioactive escape over the core: its upper part is already covered with more than 4,000 metric tons of these protective materials. As a result of the measures that have been adopted, the radiation situation in the Chernobyl area is normal- izing; over the past 24 hours the level has come down even further. According to the results of systematic monitoring of the radioactive contamination of places on the territory of the Ukraine, Belorussia, and Moldavia, the radiation level has not exceeded radiation safety norms established by the IAEA and the USSR Ministry of Health. An increased level of radiation has been noted on the territory immediately adjacent to the 148 accident site, where the maximum radiation level has now reached 10-15 milliroentgen per hour. According to data com- piled for 5 May, the level of radiation in these areas [as heard] has fallen two- to threefold, including in the power workers' settlement. The highest radiation?there was observed on 27 April. Water facilities and the Kiev reservoir are being monitored regularly. The concentration of radioactive substances here also presents no danger. As a result of the accident at the station, 2 persons died and over 100 people received radiation damage [radiatsionnoye pora- zheniye]. During the night of 26-27 April they were all taken to Moscow and given essential medical assistance; that assistance continues to be given. Some of them are in a serious condition. I want to mention with satisfaction that Professor Gale and Profes- sor Tarasaki, who have arrived from the United States, are helping Moscow specialists. In order to ensure the safety of residents in areas adjoining the station, the entire population of the danger area was evacuated. Verification was carried out in a very precise and well-organized manner. As regards the moving of people from the 30-km zone, the population is being given essential assistance ? medical, material, and job placement in the new places where they have settled. A decision has been adopted on raising the rates of pay [tarifnykh stavok) for workers in these areas. Provision of aid to families in need ? clothing and other daily requirements ? is being given free of charge. In the areas of Ukraine and Belorussia, which have not been evacuated, work is proceeding in agriculture, at enterprises, and at all organizations. Those to whom has fallen the difficult job of dealing with the accident, carrying out decontamination work, and returning the areas to normal life, are conducting themselves in a courageous and well-organized way. Naturally, the question arises: Can it be that some people are trying to use the Chernobyl situation to strengthen their future position in the arms race and to distract the attention of the people from vitally important issues, from the issues of the threat of nuclear war and the program put forward by the USSR for the total destruction of nuclear weapons by 2000? We should think hard about this. Banning all nuclear tests would be an important step on the road to the attainment of this aim. In Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev's recent reply to a message from the leaders of six states, the Soviet Union's readiness was stressed for the conclusion of the relevant agreements. Without in any way belittling the seriousness of what has happened at the Chernobyl station, we stand against political speculation and the desire to undermine the positive international interest in Soviet peace initiatives. [Gremitskikh] I'll begin the written questions. Correspondents from the newspaper MLADEN FRONT of the CSSR, the Jap- anese newspaper YOMIURI, the ASSOCIATED PRESS agency, and many others ask: What is meant by the reactor being in a shot-down condition? Many journalists are interested in whether the emission of radioactive substances has stopped. Over to Comrade Yemelyanov, corresponding member of the Acad- emy of Sciences. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Yemelyanov] The reactor being in a shut-down condition means that the chain-reaction fission has been stopped. This happened automatically in the damage-control shielding when the reactor was at a mimimal power level ? which you were told about ? of 200 megawatts. The reactor is still in that condition. Thus, naturally, there are now no emissions of radioactivity connected with the chain-reaction fission. There are none; there is only emission of radioactivity through radioactive fission fragments which accumulated in the process of the present work and which became partially unsealed. [Gremitskikh] Michael Davidov, correspondent from the U.S. newspaper PEOPLE'S DAILY WORLD asks: What are rayon leaders doing, what measures have they taken, to reduce to a minimum the effect of this accident? How quickly was work organized to clear it up, and what was done with regard to medical aid? [Shcherbina] When the radiation situation became dangerous, buses with escorts were sent to every house and to every doorway, with the result that from 1400 on the 27th to 1620, everyone was taken out of the town. There remained only an insignificant proportion of the necessary workers to service and maintain the viability of the town itself? municipal workers, communications workers, and certain others. As for the provision of medical aid, the commission adopted measures to mobilize medical workers, first and foremost from Ukrainian organizations in the town and oblast of Kiev. In those places where people had been evacuated, additional medical points were organized, medical services were organized, the collection of blood, and the provision of iodine preparations for the population. This is exactly what happened. [Gremitskikh] Another group of questions which have come in from the GDR Magazine NEUE BERLNER ILLUSTRIERTE, the ASSOCIATED PRESS agency, a number of Japanese jour- nalists, the television companies CBS of the United States, ARD of the FRG, the NOVOSTI press agency, and others deals with the nature of the radiation injuries and the methods of treating the victims. Comrade Vorobyev has agreed to answer these questions. [Vorobyev] The press, the Western press, is reporting the most varied figures for injuries and deaths among our Soviet people. They cite figures of up to several thousands contaminated. I say again that only two were people killed. One of these died from heat burns: the burns covered 80 percent of his body, but in spite of all the measures that were taken, he died. These burns were absolutely huge. And the other person died from injuries incurred from things falling on him. Those are the two people who died [pogibli] in the first 24 hours after the accident. A mere 204 people were taken to hospital after being diagnosed with radiation sickness ? 204 people, that is with varying degrees of contamination with [word indistinct] radiation. There are three groups of contamination: slight, medium, and severe. Of these 204 people, 18 people were diagnosed as having a severe degree of contamination. All 204 were taken immediately [svoe- vremenno] to the very best, qualified clinics in the Soviet Union, and they are being given every possible kind of help ? including using bone marrow. All types of antibiotics are being used, everything possible which exists at the present time is at our disposal for giving help. 149 I must say there has also been a question about whether the Soviet Union accepted help from foreign states. I would like to point out with satisfaction that Professor Gale from the United States has arrived in the Soviet Union and is giveng consultative help. He is a great expert in the field of bone marrow transplan- tation. We hope that Professor Gale, apart from his own exper- ience, will be able to give other help to the victims, including a number of medicines. A second well-known scientist, immunologist Professor Terasaki, arrived from the United States on 5 May, also to give consulative help in treating the victims. [Unidentified journalist] NEPSZABADSAG, Hungary. I would like to ask: What consequences have there been in neighboring countries from the accident; for example, with us in Hungary? [Gremitskikh] Similar questions are also asked by journalists of the ASSOCIATED PRESS agency, Danish television, and sev- eral other journalists. They are interested in the opinion of Soviet specialists on the question: Is there any kind of danger to the population of other countries as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl AES? Evidently this is one for Comrade Sedunov. [Sedunov] The following can be said about this: In our opinion, there was no direct threat to the population either of our areas which are far enough away from the site of emission, or of foreign countries. Certainly, the relevant services registered a rise in the natural background radiation. This is also noted by our radiation service. Because of the meteorological conditions in the first few days after the accident, such a result did take place successively in a northern direction, then in a northwestern direction, then west- ward, then southward, and this gave rise to a situation where signs of enhanced radiation coming in waves were noticed succes- sively in various foreign countries. Up to I May, for example, an enhanced level of radiation was noted in the Polish People's Republic. After 2 May this enhanced level was noted in the territory of Romania. We consider that his emission was shortlived; it was insignificant, not high. The raising of the level in the areas contiguous to the bordering territory shows that in comparison with the background the rise was about fivefold. That is, here the average background radiation amounts to about 100 milliroentgens an hour. [Gremitskikh] A large group of questions deal with the problem of the safety of Soviet nuclear power stations. This is asked by Japanese journalists, from YOMIURI in particular, the cor- respondent of Finnish television, and many others. [Petrosyants] The scientific and technical standard of work con- nected with nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, the plans for nuclear power stations and atomic reactors are at a very good technical level. In addition, for a number of individual units and items, they are superior to foreign ones. Yes, an accident happened. A large accident, an unusual one, one out of the ordinary. But it must not be forgotten that in the Soviet Union there are 41 atomic power units. They have been working FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY now for 30 years, or even a bit more. Incidentally, conventional, classical power engineering has been in use in the world for about 130-140 years. So nuclear power is a young technology. In spite of this, it has nevertheless managed to become reliable and confident, and it works like this quite within the norms of safety and reliability. The accident at Chernobyl AES confirms yet again that indeed there might be individual instances leading to such unpleasant consequences. But to assert, or to think, or to declare that nuclear power in the Soviet Union is worse than that abroad is incorrect, to say the least. But this is technology. The technology is young, the technology is very critical [ostraya], very complex, and, I would say, in a number of questions it is problematic. To speak of foreign countries, I will give you some examples. In Britain, at Windscale, in October 1957, there was an accident at an industrial gas graphite reactor for the production of plutonium ? plutonium for nuclear arms. The accident happened as a result of an uncontrolled fission of energy. The reactor core overheated and the graphite caught fire. The fire at the reactor lasted more than 2 days. There was an emission of radioactive fission products into the environment. Incidentally, there was a large quantity of radioactive iodine, as has been reported here, in the active core among other things. And it must be noted that the radioactive cloud from this phenomenon, from this accident, was detected in both the FRG and Norway. A second example: In Idaho, United States, on 3 January 1961, an accident happened at the boiling water reactor SE-1. The level of radioactivity increased as a result of a sudden withdrawal of a regulating rod which, incidently, happened during the main- tenance procedure. This was the fault of the personnel. And this increase in radioactivity caused a sharp increase in power and, again, considerable melting of the core. An emission of active materials into the reactor hall and the environment took place. And, by the way, the accident caused the death of personnel at the station. One more example which you know well: At the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in the United States in 1979. A major accident happened there, and the world was agitated. And one can give a number of additional examples. This is new technology and science which, unfortunately, also in some cases requires sacrifices. [Gremitskikh] STERN magazine correspondent (Frederics), and (Nicholas Danilow), correspondent of the U.S. NEWS AND WORLD .REPORT magazine, ask first: What was the highest level of radiation recorded in the USSR on 26 April in Chernobyl, Kiev, Gomel, Minsk, and Moscow? And second: What was the maximum radioactivity in a radius of 30 km from Chernobyl AES, and what is the radioactivity in this region now? I think Comrade Sedunov, yes? Please! [Sedunov] Esteemed comrades. As .far as the concrete maximum radiation levels connected with the 26 April accident are con- cerned, first of all I would like to say that in Moscow no change in the natural background radiation level has taken place. In Chernobyl the level rose to 15 milliroentgen an hour. And as the deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers has said already, it has currently dropped threefold. In Kiev, the level at the moment of emission was at.the natural background, levellna mrovne fona] and only 3 days ago, apparently because -of,the southerly wind direction, the level there changed substantially and is now 0.2 milliroentgen an hour. In Minsk, there was no substantial increase over the natural background level. In ,Gomel, the sit- uation is approximateley similar to the situation in Kiev. [Gremitskikh] AP, STERN magazine, and Japanese journalists ask: How do Soviet experts view the problem of using nuclear energy in light of the Chernobyl AES accident?. Is not the conclusion that the scale of using it should be reduced? [Shcherbina] Nuclear power production will continue to develop ? and develop throughout the world at a high rate. In the Basic Guidelines for the development of the country's national econ- omy approved by the 27th party. congress -- many of you, of course, have read these materials,? we are required to put into use in this 5-year plan period power capacities of the order. of 40 millions [as heard] at nuclear power stations which means that nuclear power production industry will not be stopped. Nuclear power production will develop, and it is necessary to undertake all the new measures, probably, additional, some new additional scientific ideas and designs will appear, in order to provide more reliability so that no chance happening puts these reactors into an emergency situation. [Gremitskikh] And here is a question to the press section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Correspondent (Martin) of the GLOBE AND MAIL asks: In 1979, during a similar accident in the United States, correspondents had an opportunity to visit the scene of the accident. Why do you not organize a similar trip now? If you have nothing to conceal about the accident, why do you keep it a secret? On behalf of the press department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, I can tell you that we will consider the possibility, of organizing such trip. And, of course, you must understand that if the trip does take place, the group will not be too large. 150 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Further Remarks LD061838 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1440 GMT 6 May 86 [Text] A news conference for Soviet and foreign journalists was held in Moscow today at the USSR Foreign Ministry press center in connection with the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station. Comrade Kovalev, USSR first deputy foreign minister, addressed those assembled. He said in part: [Begin Kovalev recording] As you know, reports are being pub- lished regularly on behalf of the USSR Council of Ministers; they contain reliable information. A few days ago the Chernobyl nuclear power station,region was visited by Nikolay Ivanovich Ryzhkov, member of the CPSU Central Committee Politburo, chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, and Yegor Kuz- mich Ligachev, member of the CPSU Central Com'mittee Polit- buro, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. With the participation of the governmental commission, the leadership of the Communist Party and the government of the Ukraine, and local leaders, they reviewed measures being taken to eliminate the consequences of the accident and for helping the population. Today, at this press conference, in addition to data which has already been published, we wish to present to you information first hand, as they say. Before handing over to Boris Yev- dokimovich Shcherbina ? as has already been announced, he is also. chairman of the governmental commission in connection with the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station ? I would like to draw your attention to two or three general aspects. The USSR 'expresses sincere gratitude to the governments, public organizations, and individual citizens who manifested or expressed sympathy in connection with what happened at Cher- nobyl nuclear power station. We accept with gratitude the help that is offered with good intentions, and which might prove useful. On the other hand, the conjectures and fables which are being heaped up around the Chernobyl accident, and which pollute the information environment, have a perfectly obvious and at the same time political and hostile underlying cause ? an underlying cause which is hostile to the USSR and to our people. Of course, what happened in Chernobyl is a calamity [beda], but lessons can be drawn not only from achievements but also from tragedies. We are not-the first to suffer from an accident at a nuclear power station. Similar cases have occurred in other countries, too. What happened in Chernobyl confirms once again how cautious one must be in dealing with nuclear energy. In this case we are dealing with the peaceful use of nuclear energy, with a controlled nuclear unit: But the energy of the atom is also the basis for nuclear weapons; it is specially intended for massive strikes, for destruction. If it were to be put into use, it would be uncontrollable. In the statement issued by the Tokyo conference of leaders of the seven developed countries, they touched upon the subject of nuclear safety. Making statements, which on the surface appear to be of an objective and generally positive nature, they direct reproach at us regarding the information we are presenting. This reproach is totally unacceptable. As soon as any reliable data appeared, they were immediately reported. As soon as the facts became clear at the site, about the real state of affairs, we started 151 to report, and we report nearly every day. We do not indulge in guesswork. We rely on the facts and data provided by the best specialists and instruments. I should also like to note in passing, not by way of reproach but for the sake of truthfulness, that when an accident took place in the United States in 1979, the U.S. side did not immediately identify the causes of what had happened. It submitted informa- tion to the U.S. Senate after 10 days and to the IAEA ? the International Atomic Energy Agency ?after almost 2 months. Our approach, the Soviet approach, lies in ensuring that the information is responsible, objective, trustworthy, balanced, or to put it in one word ? honest. The experience of the last few days has revealed something very unsightly, and that is that this latest hysteria is being organized and directed from one center ? the United States ? and obviously in accordance with the same old scenario. It is not at all a matter of the accident at the nuclear power station; it concerns something completely different. Certain mili- taristic circles feel that they are on shaky ground. It is shaky because world public opinion is decisively calling for an end to nuclear tests and for eliminating nuclear weaponry altogether. That is, it is calling for precisely that which the Soviet Union is putting forward. Such are, to put it plainly, the real motive forces behind the stream of lies being issued forth, the forgeries and garbled facts. All this is being done by those who would like to destroy international trust and now allow a return to detente, to complicate international cooperation in every possible way. The lessons to be drawn from what has happened confirm again and again the main conclusion: Governments and peoples, all mankind, have no right to forget what terrible danger lies in nuclear weaponry. This is why it is so important to multiply the efforts of all countries and peoples for an immediate cessation of all nuclear tests and to embark finally upon reduction, and then total elimination, of nuclear weaponry. This is precisely the aim of the Soviet initiatives put forward by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, in the statement of 15 January this year, and confirmed and developed from the rostrum of the 27th CPSU Congress. [end recording] Comrade Shcherbina, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, chairman of the governmental commission, then spoke. [Begin Shcherbina recording] You know about what happened at Chernobyl from the Council of Ministers and TASS reports. Just what happened there? On 26 April at 0123, during a planned shut-down of the set [blolc] and at a power level of 200 megawatts thermal, there was an accident at the fourth set of Chernobyl nuclear power station, with partial destruction of the operational area of the reactor and FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY an escape of fission fragments outside the limits of the station. The criticality of the reactor was lost at this time. In connection with what happened, the Council of Ministers formed a government commission to take measures to make good the accident and to discover the reasons for what happened. The commisison includes eminent scientists, leaders, specialists from ministries and departments. Literally in a few hours, the mem- bers of the commission were in the locality [na meste) and chemical protection units arrived there with additional protection forces. Taking circumstances into account, the scientists and specialists worked out specific measures and began to put them into prac- tice. The necessary amount of various equipment, helicopters, and material were deployed to the Chernobyl area. Accident repair work is now being carried out at the station. The fist, second, and third sets have been put on standby. After what took place, they were all operating. Round-the-clock monitoring of their status and activity [deyatelnost] is being carried out. The third set, situated next to the damaged set, of course requires careful technical examination before start-up. As for the first two sets they are ready to produce power at any time. Everyone, of course, is interested in why this happened. Only scientific and engineering investigation can give the answer to this. Preliminary results make it possible today to conjecture that most probably there was a chemical explosion in the reactor. Taking into account that the design and structural solutions correspond fully to the norms of both our country and generally accepted international practice, and that the quality and the (?administration) of the installation and receipt of equipment was properly checked, the cause of the accident would be the con- sequence of the coincidence of several exceptionally unlikely, and therefore unforeseen, failures. The activity of the staff on duty is also being analyzed carefully. The accident in Chernobyl has stressed once again that the problem of safety is very important for everyone. Hurry and haste in any matter, let alone this, are not compatible. When it is known that the whole station is intact except for the fourth set, it is simply exaggeration to say that is is now a wasteland without people. I can report that today there are 150 people on duty at the sets, on duty round-the-clock. Work is also under way, furthermore, in the lower zone of the fourth reactor. A barrier [Zashcital is being constructed from various materials ? sand, clay, boron, metal, lead ? in order to curtail radioactive escape over the operatoinal area: Its upper part is already covered with more than 4,000 metric tons of these protective materials. As a result of the measures that have been adopted, the radiation situation in the Chernobyl area is normalizing; over the past 24 hours the level has come down even further. According to the results of systematic monitoring of the radioactive contamination of places on the territory of the Ukraine, Belorussia, and Mol- davia, the level of radiation has not exceeded the nqrm of radiation safety established by the IAEA and the USSR Minis- try of Health. According to data compiled for 5 May the level of radiation in these areas has fallen two- to threefold, including in the power workers' settlement. The highest radiation there was observed on 27 April. Regular monitoring of water facilities and the Kiev reservoir is under way. The concentration of radioactive substances here also presents no danger. As a result of the accident at the station, two pesons died and over 100 people received radiation damage [radiatsionnoye porazheniye]. During the early hours of 27 April they were all taken to Moscow, where essential medical assistance was given them; that assistance continues to be given. Some of them are in serious condition. I want to mention with satisfaction that Profes- sor. Gale and Professor Tarasaki, who have arrived from the United States, are helping Moscow specialists. For the purpose of ensuring the safety of residents in areas adjoining the station, the whole population of the danger area was evacuated. Verification was carried out in a very precise and well-organized manner. As regards the moving of people from the 30-kilometer zone, the population is being given essential assistance ? medical, material, and job placement in the new places where they have settled. In those areas of Ukraine and Belorussia which have not been evacuated, work is proceeding in agriculture, at enterprises, and at all organizations. Those to whom has fallen the tough job of dealing with the accident, carrying out decontamination work, and returning the areas to normal life are conducting themselves in a courageous and well-organized manner. I wholly share the fully understandable unease over the consequences of the acci- dent, and! value highly the expressions of sympathy offered us. At the same time, we are bound to remark ? and here I am endorsing what has been said by Comrade Kovalev ? that in the West, and this includes some government circles, attempts are being made to use Chernobyl to undermine trust and cooperation. The most common complaint by far has been the reproach that we have not been prompt enough with information. But let us be realistic. Literally a few hours after it happened came the gov- ernment decision to set up a commission. More than half the members of the commission were at that time in different parts of the Soviet Union, thousands of kilometers apart. And yet we arrived there and got down to work on the same day. We certainly had one or two things to sort out, to sort out in depth, to get to the bottom of what had happened. Immediate assessments had to be made, and we were on the spot where this had happened: It was not as though we were viewing the situation from afar. Therefore, when it was reported to the government on 28 April, governments of other countries were given all possible informa- tion at that time about what had happened. Therefore, govern- ment announcements have been published almost every day and, as has been said, IAEA Director General Mr Blix, has now arrived in the country. We have nothing to hide. All work will be carried out to give the final conclusions, and in keeping with our being a member of the IAEA,, all the necessary information connected with this will be submitted according to the established I procedures. Today, one can convince oneself yet again how various informa- tion organs try to misinform the public. Western propagandists, as it were, strive to give the impression that they cover this matter objectively, but in essence they are blacktning the USSR, crudely ignoring the information provided by the Soviet side. Attempts to make use of the Chernobyl nuclear power station 152 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY accident for selfish political aims fundamentally contradict the interests of cooperation in the matter of resolving the urgent problems facing mankind in the use of nuclear energy. Naturally, the question arises, can it be that some people are trying to use the Chernobyl situation to strengthen their future position in the arms race and to distract the attention of the people from vitally important questions ? from the questions of the threat of nuclear war, from programs put forward by the USSR for the total elimination of nuclear weapons by the year 2000. [end recording] The participants in the press conference replied to many ques- tions from journalists. Kovalev on Danger of Nuclear Energy LD061329 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1242 GMT 6 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 6 May (TASS) ? The entire course of events in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station and the measures to eliminate its consequences emphasize with a new and special strength the quality of the Soviet political and state system ? its sense of responsibility, a respqnsibility for the life and health both of Soviet people and also of foreign citizens present in our country -- stated ? Anatoliy Kovalev, USSR first deputy minister of foreign affairs, at a press con- ference which took place here today for Soviet and foreign journalists. Of course, he continued, what happened at Chernobyl is a misfortune. But lessons are drawn not just from achievements, but from tragedies, too. We were not the first to suffer from an accident at an atomic power station. Similar incidents have taken place in other countries, too. What happened in Chernobyl confirms once again the caution that has to be shown in handling nuclear energy. In this case, the representative of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs stressed, it is a question of the peaceful use of atomic energy, of a controlled nuclear unit. But the energy of the atom has also been incorporated in nuclear weapons, it is specially destined for a mass strike, for destruction. Once it has been set in motion it becomes uncontrolled. The lessons of what has happened, the USSR first deputy min- ister of foreign affairs said, confirm again and again the main conclusion: Governments, peoples, all of mankind has no right to forget the terrible danger that is inherent in nuclear weapons. That is why it is so important to multiply the efforts of all countries and peoples for the urgent halting of all nuclear tests and for ultimately embarking upon the reduction of nuclear weapons, going so far as its complete elimination. The Soviet initiatives, which were put forward by Mikhail Gorbachev, gen- eral secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, in his statement of 15 January of this year and which were confirmed and developed from the platform of the 27th CPSU Congress are directed toward precisely this. And precisely these goals are served, too, by the proposals and deep and wide international Monitoring, including on-site inspection. Media Reaction to Conference Noted LD071023 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 0230 GMT 7 May 86 [From the "International Diary" program [Text] The attention of the foreign mass media has been attracted by the press conference held in Moscow on issues connected with the accident at the Chernobyl AES. The progressive press notes that the press conference was a logical continuation of the policy of providing the public with a wide range of information on this event. It supplemented the reports regularly published in the USSR and contained detailed, reliable information. Citing the speech made at the press conference by Comrade Kovalev, USSR first deputy minister of foreign affairs, REU- TER picks out his words expressing the USSR's sincere gratitude to governments, public organizations, and individual citizens who have expressed their sympathy about the accident. In the commentaries one's attention is drawn to the speaker's words to the effect that on the other hand the political backdrop to the event, obviously hostile to the Soviet Union, contains conjecture and fabrications which dominate this event. This latest hysteria is organized and directed from one center, from the United States, according to the same old scenario, BTA reports, quoting the press conference. And it is not about the AES presented by Oleg Brinov] accident at all. Some militarist circles feel that under pressure from world public opinion the ground is shaking beneath their feet. This is because world public opinion is decisively demanding an end to nuclear tests and the elimination of nuclear weapons ? a position supported by the Soviet Union. This, ADN points out, is the real motive force behind the torrents of lies covering the pages of some of the Western press. News agencies draw attention to Comrade Kovalev's view that the lessons of what has happened yet again support the fun- damental conclusion that governments, peoples, and all mankind have no right to forget how terrible is the threat inherent in nuclear weapons. This is why it is so important to intensify the efforts of all countries and peoples toward an immediate end to all nuclear tests, and ultimately to embark upon reducing and then totally eliminating nuclear weapons. The USSR first deputy minister of foreign affairs said that this is the aim of the Soviet initiatives proposed in the 15 January statement made by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev and confirmed and developed from the 27th CPSU Congress platform. 153 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PRAVDA'S ZHUKOV ON U.S. REACTION TO CHERNOBYL PM061436 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 6 May 86 First Edition p 4 [Article by PRAVDA Political Observer Yuriy Zhukov: "Accidentally Dropping the Mask. Who Is Fueling the Anti?Soviet Ballyhoo and Why"] [Text] In recent months the world public has been viewing the current U.S. Administration's blatantly provocative foreign policy escapades with understandable concern. The United States leaps at any excuse to heat up further an already tense situation, sow distrust and discord among the peoples, and poison the political climate. And the purpose of it all is to divert attention from the criminal, aggressive actions of the United States, like the reeent bombing of Libya and the undeclared wars against Afghanistan, Angola, and Nicaragua, to justify the intensification of the arms race, the continuation of nuclear tests, and the refusal to accept the Soviet peace initiatives. The other day the escalation of these provocative actions reached a new peak. The U.S. state apparatus and the news media which do its bidding put out some fabrications about the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl AES. These fabrications are at odds with fundamental moral norms. The purpose of the new anti-Soviet campaign is to further fuel distrust of and enmity toward the Soviet Union. Everyone knows that vigorous steps were immediately taken to eliminate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to aid the victims. As required, the Soviet Union informed the leaders of many countries of what had happened at Chernobyl. The USSR representative at the United Nations, addressing a plenary session of the General Assembly, talked about the work being done to eliminate the consequences of the accident. UN Secretary General Perez de Cuellar expressed satisfaction that the situation at the Chernobyl AES was under control. Many governments, organizations, and private citizens in various coun- tries offered the USSR words of sympathy and the Soviet Gov- ernment expressed sincere gratitude for them. The vigorous, selfless actions of Soviet bodies and specialists have won the respect of those who appreciate the significance of these actions. It was only senior figures in Washington and in the capitals of some other NATO states who immediately latched on to the news of the Chernobyl accident in order to exploit it for their own hostile political ends. The fueling of hysteria and panic began. Cock-and-bull stories were concocted about "thousands of dead" and about the possibility of the population of Western Europe and, in all likelihood, the United States being affected by radio- activity. Prompted by Washington's special propaganda services, the West European gutter press started concocting fabrications, each one more awful than the one before. Expert panic-mongers began the forced evacuation of Western students, specialists, and tourists from the USSR, even if they were in Siberia. Soviet citizens were able to see on television angry, protesting tourists literally being herded onto aircraft that had been spe- cially sent to collect them, made to change into clothes provided by the authorities, and subjected to special checks which invari- ably showed, as one might have expected, that they had not been affected by any radiation while in the USSR. The organizers of the new campaign of provocation are stepping up the pressure on the U.S. NATO allies, demanding that they stop buying foodstuffs from the socialist countries and prohibit their citizens from going there. There is more in the same vein. Washington has been at pains to undermine trust in the Soviet proposals aimed at eliminating nuclear weapons. Again it has put forward the false thesis that there can be no agreement with the USSR on this since effective verification [kontrol] of observance of agreements would be impossible because U.S. reconnaissance satellites and other facilities set up for observation purposes failed to register... the? Chernobyl accident, THE NEW YORK TIMES wrote. (Pen- tagon spokesman R. Sims said that Washington learned of the accident from a Soviet Government communique, although, as he put it, "our reconnaissance operation is splendid." A statement by U.S. Vice President Bush himself was in the same vein.) Finally, it got to the point where the Chernobyl accident came under special scrutiny at the meeting of the heads of the , seven major capitalist powers in.Tokyo ? the U.S. side used the topic in order somehow to play down the friction between the allies as a result of increasing contradictions in the economic sphere and the U.S. aggression against Libya. 154 But the dense cloud of dust whipped up by certain Western politicians and propagandists has begun to settle. On the evening of I May U.S. and West European television companies were forced to show pictures received from Kiev and Minsk, which up to that point had been described as cities allegedly affected by the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Stunned Americans , saw the festive mass demonstration taking place there. CBS reported: "People in Moscow are dumbfounded, wonder- ing why there is so much fuss about this in the West." Another company ? ABC ? reported that "the Soviet authorities are still allowing Western tourists to visit Kiev, which is 80 miles from the scene of the nuclear accident," although the U.S. Administration is telling people to refrain from making trips there and to the USSR in general.' THE NEW YORK TIMES published a report from Warsaw that a radiation specialist who had been rushed in from the United States carried out measurements in the U.S. Embassy living quarters and in U.S. diplomats' apartments and was forced to state that he had "found nothing untoward." And so on and so forth... FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The sensation grew. The French television company TF-1 said that Western news media (they alone?!), "endeavoring to present their own version of the 'news,' were helping to fuel anti- Sovietism in the West." U.S. reporters dashed for clarification to the special interdepartmental group set up on instructions from the U.S. President "to examine questions connected with the accident at the Chernobyl AES." L. Thomas, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, was thrown to the wolves and found himself in a difficult situation. He was forced to state that "this incident poses no threat to the health of Americans." And later he had to admit, albeit with reservations, that the "casualty figures reported by the Soviet side may (0 be true." Having received clarification which basically demolished the version fed to them by the administration, the U.S. journalists angrily told Thomas that the U.S. Government had "drawn irresponsible conclusions" in its assessment of the Chernobyl accident. Suddenly realizing his mistake, the agency administra- tor rejected the journalists' assessment, but once something has been said it cannot be unsaid. White House and State Department spokesmen had to heat up the unappetizing broth of Washington lies again and again, reiterating old fabrications which had already been exposed. In that way the "chronic liars," as late U.S. President Roosevelt called these experts at dirty work, began to lose their masks. The ballyhoo over the events in Chernobyl had an effect that Washington had not bargained for: It made Americans look around and ask themselves ? but what is the situation here, at U.S. nuclear power stations? There emerged a truly alarming picture which the authorities had carefully concealed. The first to sound the alarm was Senator Glenn. He made available a confidential, unpublished report by the Congress General Accounting Office showing that from 1971 through 1984 there were 151 accidents at nuclear power stations in 14 countries, the term accident signifying, according to Glenn, a "significant discharge of radioactive material or cases of radioactivity affect- ing people" and a "considerable deterioration of safety systems." Many of these accidents occurred in the United States, but they chose to keep quiet about them, stating that U.S. equipment precludes the possibility of such "incidents." But even this information paled beside a report circulated by the U.S. "Public Citizen" organization whose authors, as has already been reported in PRAVDA, demonstrated that there have been around 20,000 "incidents and faults" since 1979 at U.S. nuclear power stations alone, and the number is rapidly growing. So the unsavory ballyhoo kicked up by Washington over the accident at the Soviet nuclear power station has rebounded on the organizers of this disgraceful campaign. Soviet people do not gloat over failures and accidents at U.S. nuclear power stations. They appreciate that the development of nuclear energy is com- paratively new, difficult, unexplored territory. It requires busi- nesslike cooperation among scientists, specialists, and engineers in all countries. It is high time those who in their blind anti-Sovietism and anticommunism are quick to use any excuse to speculate on someone else's misfortune realized that in a civilized society such unsavory escapades can only arouse the condemnation they deserve. ZHOLKVER: U.S. PUBLICITY DISTRACTS FROM DISARMAMENT LD061934 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1800 GMT 6 May 86 [Commentary by Political Observer Aleksandr Zholkver] [Text] The newspapers, radio, and television in a number of Western countries, primarily in the USA, are continuing a noisy campaign concerning the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. I will point out first of all that accidents at nuclear power stations, unfortunately, occur not too rarely and happen in many coun- tries. Thus, for example, according to data that were disclosed in the U.S. Congress recently, between 1971 and 1984 151 acci- dents took place at nuclear power stations in 14 countries. Incidentally, the greatest number of dangerous incidents was recorded last year in the United States itself, where socalled major faults were recorded at one in 10 nuclear power stations. At the end of March, a serious incident took place at a British nuclear power station in Kent. But this became known only in an incidental publication in the London paper the OBSERVER last 155 Sunday. Another British paper, THE GUARDIAN, remarked in this connection that this accident is far from being the only one that has occurred at British nuclear fuel processing plants; in particular, THE GUARDIAN recalled that as a result of the catastrophe at the Sellafield nuclear plant, 13 people died. Bearing in mind that nuclear power engineering is still a little known and difficult thing, it would seem that such accidents should not arouse delight in the misfortune of others. Nor should it in this case. Current statements by certain high-ranking Amer- ican officials, however paradoxical it may seem, are full of undisguised feelings of malevolence. The desire to avoid a response to the demand of world opinion to support Soviet proposals on nuclear disarmament comes through fairly transparently. That is why anti-Soviet hysteria is going full steam ahead here, and people in the West are being scared by "radio- active winds from the Soviet Union." FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY True, those who understand a little bit about these things do not support the panic-mongers. Thomas, a director of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for example, acknowledged that reports from the European countries indicate a low level of radiation, and that there is no threat to the health of Americans. Incidentally, if one is talking about a threat, not just to Americans but to all mankind, then, as noted at the press conference in Moscow today, it is linked above all with the nuclear arms race. The reason for this most dangerous race is sufficiently well known. It is Washington's refusal to accept the Soviet proposals on nuclear disarmament, and, first and fore- most, ending nuclear weapons tests. So I cannot but agree with the West Berlin paper DIE WAHR HEIT when it writes: Those who are now attacking the disaster at Chernobyl AES and at the same time saying nothing about the catastrophic consequences of the military use of nuclear power are just hypocrites. WEST SAID TO MAKE FALSE REPORTS, HIDE OWN INCIDENTS LD052326 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1830 GMT 5 May 86 [Announcer?read report from "The World Today" program presented by Farid Seyful? Mulyukov] [Text] The attention of overseas mass media has been attracted by the TASS report in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. In essence, the commentaries amount to this: that work to get rid of the consequences of this accident and to give assistance to its victims continues at the station itself and in the surrounding locality. Neither has it escaped foreign observers that the Soviet Government expressed sincere gratitude to all those who expressed their sympathy and understanding of what has happened and who offered assistance and cooparation. Certain circles in the West, however, continue to gloat over someone else's misfortune, which is in itself an unworthy thing to do. The screaming headlines that have appeared on the front pages of bourgeois U.S., British, and other Western newspapers are intended to deceive public opinion and not to report actual facts, the Portuguese DIARIO writes today. Thoroughly false asser- tions about the number of accident victims have been dictated by a clear intention to play up to reactionary forces in their dirty game directed against Soviet society and its achievements. Com- pletely groundless, too, are the statements made by some western figures about the lack of sufficient information from the Soviet Government, the Portuguese newspaper continues. Reports from Moscow have given an extremely clear picture of the accident itself and the measures being taken to eliminate its consequences, DIARIO notes. I would like to draw your attention to yet another aspect of the noisy campaign in the West. The accident at the Chernobyl AES is deliberately being blown up in Washington, London, and other Western capitals, but, at the same time, they are deliberately keeping quiet about similar incidents in their own countries. Last year, the greatest number of dangerous incidents took place at atomic power stations in the United States since the major accident at the Three Mile Island atomic power station near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1979. This was the conclusion reached by Markey, a member of the House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress, on the basis of an analysis of the annual report of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was pre- sented to Congress. The report stresses that major incidents or faults were recorded at one-tenth of all atomic power stations in the United States last year. Even if one takes into account the fact that the federal authorities are inclined to play down the seriousness of accidents that take place at atomic power stations, the data that have been given are evidence of violations of safety techniques and give rise to alarm, Markey stressed. 156 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY UK REACTION TO CHERNOBYL TERMED 'SENSATIONALISM' PM061456 Moscow LITERATURNAYA GAZETA in Russian 7 May 86 p 9 [APN and LITERATURNAYA GAZETA correspondent Viktor Orlik dispatch under the rubric "How Anti?Sovietism Is Produced": "For the Sake of Sensationalise] [Text] London ? It is quite possible that some of the British students who flew into London from Kiev and Minsk at the request of their government following the Chernobyl AES acci- dent may have heaved a sigh of relief on their return home. According to a report by THE GUARDIAN, however, many of them are indignant at being sent home. They suspect that the Western mass news media exaggerated the danger caused by the accident. They accuse the Western press of wishing to gain political advantage from events in Chernobyl. Indeed, the false, biased, and totally unfounded reports which flooded the local newspapers cannot be described as anything but an attempt to take advantage of other people's misfortunes. They started by citing data obtained via a U.S. spy satellite to the effect that many thousands of people had died, that an explosion had allegedly occurred at a second reactor, and that there was an increasing leak of radioactive elements into the atmosphere and a deadly danger threatening the USSR's neighbors to the west and northwest. Later, when none of this was confirmed, they were forced to admit reluctantly that these data were "incorrect" and to retract the reports. The Chernobyl accident caused mainly a flood of speculation instead of sympathy for the victims among the local press and right-wing political circles. The mass news media, blowing up the consequences of the accident beyond the limits of credibility, attempted to discredit the Soviet program for the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, to generate political mis- trust in the USSR as a partner in nuclear disarmament talks, to divert the world public's attention from the aggressive U.S. policy, and to reduce the intensity of anti-American feelings in Europe and the world. The desire to cause economic damage to the USSR and the socialist countries exporting certain foodstuffs to West Europe was by no means their least consideration. It is easy to understand that this pushes up the prices of commodities produced by Western corporations. According to newspaper reports, grain, livestock, and sugar prices have already shot up in the market. As regards the radiation which was used to frighten residents in Scandinavian countries, according to the FINANCIAL TIMES, Gunnar Bengtsson, director of the Swedish National Radiation Protection Institute, has declared that the level of radiation there now is not at all dangerous to people's health. Official announcements and reports presented to Western repre- sentatives in Moscow and other countries contained all the necessary information about the occurrence. But the Western mass news media needed sensational, "terrifying" news. This is why they resorted to the tested method of concocting it, sacrific- ing objectivity for the sake of traditional and vulgar anti- Sovietism. 'POLITICAL EXPEDIENCE' BEHIND WEST'S REACTION LD961451 Moscow in English to North America 2300 GMT 5 May 86 [Commentary by Vladimir Pozner] [Text] This past Sunday two American friends of mine who have Soviet wives told me about the frantic calls they have been getting from home. Their mothers, it seemed, were almost basket cases. They'd been getting all this news ? and I put that word in quotes ? about the Chernobyl atomic power station accident, and they were convinced of several things. First that the radiation was worse than Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined, second that at least 25,000 people were already dead, third that the whole European territory of the USSR was contaminated, but that all of this, even the fact of the accident itself, was being hidden from the Soviet people. But frankly I wasn't surprised, (?yet) only because on Friday night, 30 April, [as heard] just before I left Moscow for Leningrad I received four calls in a row from the U.S., three from TV stations in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and California and one from the NEW YORK POST. The questions they asked were like: Is it true that 20,000 have died, why is Kiev being evac- uated? As they asked these and siniilar questions, I asked myself do I perchance detect a note of glee, a, shall we say, tonal rubbing of hands? 157 Well, to make a long story short, the U.S. reaction ? better said, a significant portion of that reaction ? to the Chernobyl acci- dent, has led me to the following thoughts: Number one, prior to the partial test ban of 1963 (?the) United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union tested nuclear weap- ons in the atmosphere; and after the signing of that treaty, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the atmosphere by France and China. Now, some of those tests had high yields and yet nobody except a few peaceniks were screaming about radio- active fallout in the United States. Why? Well, because the policy was pro-testing, and I sincerely hope everyone realizes how far removed the Chernobyl accident is from testing in the atmo- sphere. So the question I ask is: What has changed? And the answer is: Nothing, because the ho-hum attitude of the media to atmospheric tests then and the eye-popping, hair-raising approach to Chernobyl now, are both the result of political expedience. Number two, official Soviet sources have thus far given the casualty list as 2 dead and 18 in critical condition. The state of affairs has been on national TV every day, as well as the subject of newspaper reports. According to the United States media, the number of dead is supposed to be upward of 20,000, a mere 10,000 times more than the official Soviet figure. They also say that people here know nothing about the 'accident because the Soviet media are saying nothing about it, a disaster more terrible than Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. So I ask myself a second question: How can a self-styled free press, that supposedly prides itself on its integrity, first create rumors and then present them as information to its audience without even the slightest concern for truth or responsibility? And again I get the same answer: Political expedience. For to make things, anything at all, look worse in the Soviet Union than they really are is politically expedient. And that brings me to number three. A sincere desire to render aid has been voiced by many individuals and organizations around the world. Needless to say, we are grateful for them. Others however have seen fit to exploit the Chernobyl accident to promote their political interests. Let it be said that accidents at atomic power plants have happened before. Can anyone guar- antee they won't occur in the future? Far from being an occasion to point fingers, (?they) should serve as rallying points where international combined efforts (?can) lead to major advances in dealing with what will ultimately be humankind's boon or bane, the (?harnessed) but never harmless atom. CHERNOBYL 'CLOUD OF LIES' OVER U.S., W. EUROPE LD061543 Moscow World Service in English [Commentator Aleksandr Putko analysis] [Text]Throughout the past few days we've all been following with understandable attention the regular government reports about the elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Cher- nobyl nuclear power plant that's situated 130 km north of the city of Kiev, capital of the sovereign Republic of the Ukraine. Here's an analysis from our commentator Alelcsandr Putko. He writes: , This is the second week since the accident, which occurred at night. Structural damage was caused and the reactor was also damaged. Some radiation escaped. A fire began and it has been unusually difficult to put it out, since water and the chemicals fire fighters usually resort to would have instantly evaporated because of the extreme heat and would have escaped into the atmosphere. All this has been reported in the mass media. On television screens we could see eports from the site of the accident and from nearby areas. People involved in the events described how assistance was given to the casualties, how well- organized and panic-free was the evacuation of the residents of the power plant's community and nearby communities, what the situation is like in the neighboring localities. Misfortune is misfortune. Of course it makes all normal people sorry. All the people correspondents have been talking to have spoken about the problems that have to be solved when the many thousands of the evacuees have to be resettled in safe areas. Some people told correspondents bitterly that the Western propaganda media have been using this accident in order to further aggravate the situation, to poison the political climate. Well indeed, a cloud of lies is floating now over the United States and the West European countries. A stream of dirty inventions has been dis- charged into the atmosphere of international relations. But 1410 GMT 6 May 86 158 silence is being kept on many things. The Western press tries to omit the fact that energetic measures have been taken in the Soviet Union to cope with the consequences of the accident, and, as could be expected, the Soviet Government has informed the leaders of many countries about the accident. The Soviet ambas- sador to the United Nations described in a speech at a plenary meeting of the General Assembly how the aftereffects of the accident are being removed. The United Nations Secretary. General Perez de Cuellar has expressed satisfaction over the fact that the situation at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is under control. And yet much is being written in Western newspapers about a panic that allegedly hit Kiev, about the failure of the crops in the Ukraine. All this is being done in order to divert the attention of people from the aggressive actions of the United States ? for instance, the recent bombings of Libya ? from the continued arms race. But now lets return to the events at the Chernobyl plant. According to the latest reports the situation there is still complex. Yet the main thing is that the situation is under control. Engineers and workers are busy cooling and shutting down the other reactors. The level of radiation is falling off. It is being thoroughly monitored everywhere in the nearby areas. Field work, also under such control, is well in progress. A report has just been shown on television from a large vegetable -farm near Kiev. And this is what the manager of the farm said: The manager of the farm said that all the workers on the farm are toiling hard and that the farm has just sent another batch of vegetables to Kiev. The vegetables have been checked for radio- activity. No increased radiation was found. The work to , eliminate the consequences of the accident continues. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IZVESTIYA REPORTS ON CHERNOBYL AREA EVACUATION Situation 'Under Control' PM071004 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 7 May 86 Morning Edition p 6 [A. Illesh report: "The Situation Is Under Control. IZVESTIYA's Special Correspondent Reports From the Chernobyl AES Area"] [Text] Kiev Oblast ? It has already been reported that an accident occurred at the Chernobyl AES near Kiev. A fire broke out inside the AES building, in the No 4 reactor unit. It was a matter of exceptional complexity to extinguish the flames ? the fire could not be controlled by either water or chemicals. The high temperature would have instantaneously transformed everything in the fire zone into steam. Our reportage will cover matters that are evident today and the measures being taken to eliminate the consequences of the occur- rence. In order to do this we will have to turn back to the night of 26 April. Let us recreate the sequence of events with the help of IZVESTIYA's Kiev correspondents N. Baklanov and S. Tsikora. It was 0127 hours. The duty crew of the No 2 Military Fire Fighting Unit, on duty at the power station at that time, heard a roar. Duty crew chief Lieutenant V. Pravik automatically recorded the time. The very next instant the fire fighting unit's premises echoed the howling of the siren ? the duty crew chief had sounded the alarm. But the firemen had themselves realized a second earlier that their help would be needed and were already on the move, putting on their protective clothing while running in the direction of their vehicles. The controller-switchboard operator immediately contacted the fire fighting unit in the city of Pripyat and then the central fire fighting control unit of the Fire Protection Administration under the Kiev Oblispolkom's Main Administration for Internal Affairs. The fire fighting services were operating at the highest precedence for calling out subunits ? precedence three. This priority demanded that reserves would also be placed on standby at the fire fighting units. All off-duty staffers were immediately placed on alert. At that time Lieutenant Colonel I. Kotsyura, deputy chief of the Fire Protection Administration, chiefs of departments, and other officials left Kiev by car in the direction of the AES. The situation at the power station was extremely complicated ? the roof of the machinery hall was on fire. The first task was therefore clear. The main point was to extinguish the flames. The fire had to be fought at a height of 30 meters. This was not just a matter of working at height. The firemen had to make incredible efforts to advance step by step toward the fire; the bitumen on the road surface was melting in the infernal heat, and boots became heavier by the minute, getting caught in the Molten mass, and turning "leaden" because of the resin that was sticking to them. Unit chief Major Telyatnikov headed the work up above.... Disregarding the danger, he and the firemen fought the flames until the threat of the fire spreading further had disap- peared. And that was the main point. After all, AES reactor units Nos 1, 2, and 3 were right next door. The militia operated precisely and selflessly in the complex situation. A conference of the Pripyat City Internal Affairs Department was held at 0215 hours. All traffic not involved in dealing with the accident and helping the victims had to be stopped in the city. The second item on the agenda was the maintenance of the strictest order in the city. Finally it was necessary to close all approach roads to the AES to all vehicles that were not needed at the time. Militia staffers from Polessk were the first to arrive at the City Internal Affairs Department by 0400 hours to help. They were followed by staffers from the Chernobylskiy and Ivankovskiy Rayon Internal Affairs Departments (they are the neighboring rayons). All forces were drafted to organize traffic check points, close off roads, cordon off areas, and form groups to control traffic in the city and patrol important installations. Staffers on duty at the traffic check points found themselves under exceptional circumstances. The greatest danger was, of course, there ? close to the accident site, two steps away from the burning building. At the same time, however, special vehicles were rushing there, and their flow had to be regulated. During the first day, State Automobile Inspectorate staffers from Prip- yat had to remain on duty for 10-12 hours. Special mention must be made of Junior Lieutenant of Militia V. Vishnevskiy, a state automobile inspector, and Petty Officer of Militia M. Matyukha and Senior Sergeant V. Denisenko, inspectors from the highway patrol service. Order was imposed on the roads. The fire was extinguished. But the work that remained to be done was no less complex and responsible, demanding, on the one hand, tact and understanding and, on the other hand, particular speed of execution. We are talking about the evacuation of people. And the militia coped well with this most important work. The entire city of Pripyat was divided into five sectors (each one of them covering one residential neighborhood), and five evac- uation groups were set up corresponding to each sector. They were headed by senior officers from the City Internal Affairs Department and the Ukrainian MVD. G. V. Berdov, republic deputy minister of internal affairs, arrived in Pripyat 26 April, followed by Major General A.I. Borovik, chief of the political section, on the 27th. They did not return to Kiev until 4 May, when all the most complex operations had been finally completed. "Our staffers," G. Berdov said, "acted selflessly under all the complex circumstances and displayed staunchness. In my view, a major role in the organization of work was played by the party groups and organizations headed by A. Borovik...." Let me add that Berdov himself displayed equal courage. 159 The main burden of all the difficulties connected with evacuation work was borne by precinct inspectors in the city of Pripyat. The FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY speed and precision of the evacuation itself depended largely on them. Lists were drawn up through the night and for half of the next day, staffers were assigned duties depending on the number of homes and doorways, transportation needs were calculated. Buses were allocated to each sector and were given precise routes. "The evacuation was announced at 1400 hours," A. Borovik told us. "At 1350 hours, one of our, staffers called at each doorway, visiting every apartment and warning people, repeating what had only just been announced on the radio. No assembly points were set up in order to avoid commotion and panic, and we achieved what we wanted." The result speaks for itself: In the space of 2 hours virtually the city's entire population ? around 40,000 people ? was evacuated on 1,100 buses. State Motor Vehicle Inspection Administration staffers arranged for this enormous convoy to run smoothly and without holdups. The few people who were not evacuated with all the inhabitants of their apartment block or' yard went to the police. They were quickly taken to evacuation points and were given seats ? if available ? on the buses, which arrived on time. The city emptied... But the apartments with personal effects, stores, institutes ? in short, everything ? were not abandoned. Immediately after the evacuation the guard service went into action. The republic's MVD leadership particularly notes the actions of the deputy chief of Pripyat City Internal Affairs Department, Militia Capital Stelmakh, and Lieutenant Colonel Kovalenko, whose wife was in the hospital and who had three small children at home. He raced off to see them for just a few minutes and then rushed back to work... The people from the danger area were finally evacuated. The line ? a 30 km ring around the AES ? was closed tight. The only people inside it were those who were eliminating the conse- quences of the accident or working on the three remaining AES reactor units. Militia workers organized a registration service and an address department for lost persons. And today any person can find his family within a matter of minutes. There is no population in the danger zone. How can those who have left the zone find out about their health? People's concern is natural... This is the seventh night in succession when the lights have been burning all night on every floor at the Ukrainian s Ministry of Health. This was one of the first places where the news about the misfortune at the Chernobyl AES arrived. V. Kozlyuk, chief of the Main Administration for the Provision of Medical and Preventive Aid to the Population, spoke about it. "The Health Ministry duty officer called me early in the morn- ing. Fortunately, I live near the ministry. And I got there, to the necessary communication channels, quickly. The information I had managed to obtain forced me to make decisions quickly and responsibly. A few minutes later 'first aid' vehicles were rushing to Chernobyl from all subunits in Kiev and the oblast's central rayon hospitals... "Only a few hours had passed but in the areas around the AES there were enough physicians both to carry out checks on people who were near the station and to give medical aid to the casual- ties. 160 "In the first and most alarming and tense days I worked at Polesye. A specialized aid center was organized there on the basis of the rayon hospital. All the patients who,were in the hospital for treatment showed surprising understanding of the situation and the utmost tact and nobility. Those whose ailments were not too serious asked to be discharged. They gave up their places to particularly serious casualties of the AES accident. Of course, those who were discharged early were not left without medical aid. "The physicians in the Chernobyl area worked round the clock without a break. By the end of the first day everyone with the slightest, even theoretical, sign of radiation sickness was hospital- ized at Polesye and Ivankov hospitals. These hospitals were tasked with carrying out the preliminary examination role. If the patients still showed signs of sickness they were immediately moved to the Kiev Radiological and Oncological Research Insti- tute clinic. "Today all those who were in the AES zone are undergoing a full medical examination, including blood tests. These examinations may be carried out several times. "We will act in such a way as to reveal any discrepancies," V. Kozlyuk reported. "This most important preventive measure must be our insurance against any problems in the future." Yesterday specialists appeared on Kiev television. The necessary knowledge makes it possible to prevent the emergence of any improbable rumors. Here is what G. Revenko, first secretary of Kiev CPSU Obkom, said: "Now, as you know, the evacuation zone has been increased from 15 km to 30 km. We have evacuated all people from that area. But we have not acted in this way because any of the evacuees are threatened by a specific danger. No. The zone has been expanded as an extra justifiable precaution in this instance. We are perfectly well aware that it is ultimately a question of our people's health. And there can be no two opinions about how to act in this matter. "Yes, in Kiev Oblast we have encountered an unprecedented disaster. But the phones are ringing at the party obkom: People , are prepared to go where and when they are needed, are offering their help, and are ready to tackle any job... "There is enough work. The evacuees are being accommodated in four of the oblast's rayons (in dozens and dozens of settle- ments), and these people must be supplied with food and clothing as soon as possible and have provision for their children's .schooling and hospitals for the elderly. What would I like to note? The state is shouldering all the 'concern for the evacuees. As is the population, of course. Even though they are sometimes cramped, they are saying: You can stay with us. They are offering all sorts of help. "Difficult work has been done and even more complex work lies ahead," the obkom secretary said. "People do not just move with their belongings, they take their livestock and poultry. Who FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY would leave their dog behind? And we have to preserve every- thing and help everyone! The state is allocating funds for this. Items will be issued free to those who need them. Money will be issued on the basis of registers. The Oblast Potrebsoyuz and trade organizations are offering credit without prior payment. The oblast consumer services department is supplying the population with clothing... "The oblast party organization sees its prime tasks as being to give all possible effective aid to the work of the government commission, to prevent panic, and, of course, to continue to handle the fulfillment of national economic plans. Nobody has withdrawn or is withdrawing these matters from our jurisdiction. Agricultural products continue to arrive uninterruptedly in vast Kiev ? the city must be fed. The quality of the produce is checked twice. So there is no and should be no concern about what is being sold in the stores. The oblast's plants are producing output... Life goes on!" ...Accident teams ? dozens of people whose work can, without any exaggeration, be compared with a feat ? are currently working at the AES. The situation, specialists say, is difficult but wholly controllable. And that is the main thing. TASS Updates Status of Cleanup LDO 6 2026 Moscow TASS in English 2009 GMT ["Chernobyl Station ? Report" ? TASS Headline) [Text] Kiev Region May 7 TASS -- By TASS special correspon- dents Vladimir Itkin and Lev Chernenko reporting from the Chernobyl nuclear power station area: The workers' collective at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (NPS) is united like a family in grief. With the reactors inoper- ative, it is now not the station giving energy to people, but the people giving their energy to the NPS. It is not easy to combat the consequences of the accident. Although the reactors have been shut down, they are being maintained in the required mode, and necessary operations are being carried out. Electric power specialists are continuing their work at the station. Their health is being constantly monitored by physicians. Gennadiy Karyaka, deputy secretary of the Chernobyl NPS party committee, told the correspondents that the people acted with courage during the accident, and there were no deserters. None refused work, and everyone performed his duty. The township of Pripyat was evacuated immediately after the accident. The families of the station personnel are now settling down in new places. The demand for kindergarters and creches has been fully met. Schools and medical institutions are working at near-full capac- ity. Transport workers are particularly busy at the moment. They are accompanied by radiation control operators at the major crossroads. Among the convoys of vehicles there are many lorries carrying animals. Cattle and horses are being evacuated from the accident area. Domestic animals have not been left behind. Summer pens have already been built in the farms to accommo- date the cattle. The evacuated live-stock farmers will tend their animals. District radio regularly broadcasts reports on the current evac- uation and radiation situation, the progress of field-work and milk yield. 6 May 86 We haven't observed a single instance of panic or refusal to do what one was asked. All necessary things have been supplied to shops. Farmers are considering harvest prospects: spring is a special time for peas- ants. Every person who happened to be inside the 30-kilometer zone around the NPS has been subjected to special decontamina- tion treatment. According to official medical information, there, are no health risks for the absolute majority of the evacuees. Although the situation remains disquieting, there are no grounds for unwarranted scepticism. High-pace work is under way to eliminate the consequences of the accident and deactivate the contaminated areas. Grigoriy Revenko, first secretary of the Kiev regional committee of the Communist Party of the Ukraine, said to the TASS correspondents that the entire republic, the entire country were taking part in the effort to eliminate the consequences of the accident. The work of doctors should be specially mentioned. Together with other specialists they should monitor everything: the state of crops, soil, water and air. Nothing is brought into shops without being checked first. Vegetables supplied to the towns are checked twice: on the field ? and in shops. All roads in the region are constantly washed. Hundreds of special vehicles were assigned to do the job. Drivers, shop and consumer service personnel are doing a great? deal,of work on these days. Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is living a calm, confident and full-blooded life. All enterprises are operating. The main thoroughfare, Kreshchatik, is crowded. In the evening, as always, its theatres and concert halls are filled with people. The peace cycling race started in Kiev yesterday. 161 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Life 'Normal' in Kiev LD060734 Moscow TASS in English 0722 GMT [Text] Moscow May 6 TASS ? Life is normal in the Ukraine's Kiev region, the newspaper KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA says today. The story deals with the urgent measures taken to eliminate the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It took less than three hours to evacuate the inhabitants from the township of the nuclear power, plant and several neighbour populated localities, the newspaper stresses. The necessary medi- cal aid has been timely given to people who got into the accident. Four districts of the Kiev region have hosted the eyacuees, who were accorded a hospitable welcome everywhere. Grigoriy Revenko, first secretary of the Kiev regional committee of the CPSU, told the correspondents about the amazing examples of friendly consideration, of how the inhabitants of villages offered to share their homes with the evacuees. 6 May 86 The life of temporarily evacuated people is speedily returning to normal. While on the first day after the arrival, 50 percent of evacuee children went to school, now nine in each ten evacuated children are attendig classes. Material aid is offered to those who need it, often on an unrepayable basis. The supply with foods, clothing and everything necessary has been efficiently ensured. Medical men are busy examining all the arrivals. The state of the soil and crops is under permanent control. Drinking water is in good condition. If there is even the slightest doubt about the quality of foods, they are not put up for sale. The economy of the region functions, as always, efficiently. The test has once again shown the generosity and spiritual wealth of the Soviet people, their indomitable courage, the newspaper says. CHERNOBYL STAFF PREPARING TO RETURN TO WORK LD061431 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1300 GMT 6 May 86 [Report by special correspondent Vladimir Chernobyl AES"] [Text] [Sokolov] I am conducting this report from the Lesnaya Polyana sanatorium. The AES personnel who immediately after the accident fought against its aftereffects are here; they are now preparing to return there. (Gennadiy Alekseyevich Koryaka), deputy secretary of the AES party committee, explains. [(Koryaka p the staff will rest here for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks there will be replacements. Some of the staff will be going on shift, and those who have been working will come here to recover [dlya ustanovlyeniya sill [Sokolov] Are there employees on duty now? [(Koryaka)] Fifty to sixty people are on duty around the clock. The staff has protective means the whole time; the station will be provided with complete protection. [Sokolov] (Antoliy Nikolayevich Ved), the head of a shop, adds: [(Ved)] People are now working in two shifts. [Sokolov] What are the tasks of these shifts which are currently (?on site)? 162 Sokolov "from the region of the [(Ved)] The task of the shifts now is to provide control and measurement instruments for running the systems which still remain in operation and overall monitoring of the situation in the sets. All three sets have been shut down, but certain systems remain in operation. [Sokolov] Are you also preparing to return there? [(Ved)] Of course. They've let me have a little rest, because I've had 4 days and nights without sleep. After my rest, of course I'm going back. [Sokolov] The people ? and there are more than 150 of them here?are surprisingly calm and ielf-confident. They only begin to get excited when the talk turns to the fabrications of foreign propaganda about the accident and the supposed victims and panic. (Anatoliy Konstantinovich Ponomarev), a foreman, has this to say: [(Ponomarev)] No, there was no panic. The evacuation was announced. It was reported over the radio that buses would be brought to every entrance, and in half an hour ? in 15 minutes ? people emerged from the entrances carrying their things. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Sokolov] The deputy secretary of the AES party committee adds the following details; [(Koryaka)] Some 1,100 buses were brought into the town. A bus was brought up to virtually every entrance. In Pripyat there is no population at the present time; it has been completely evacuated. Pumps are working there to provide water for the town. The electricity has not yet been switched off. Personnel go there periodically. Work is now being prepared to carry out radioactive decontamination. Our staff is travelling out in order to organize this radioactive decontamination. [Sokolov] In conclusion, an understandable question for the chief doctor of the sanatorium, (Vitally Alekseyevich Melnichenko). How are the people who are under careful observation by the doctors, people who were in the area of the accident and who are now preparing once again to work at the station? [(Melnichenko)J The people here in the sanatorium are quite capable of starting work. They are completely healthy people. THIRD PERSON DIES FROM DISASTER; OTHERS TREATED LD081020 Belgrade TANJUG DOmestic Service in Serbo-Croatian 0934 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 8 May (TANJUG)--Another Soviet citizen, a victim of radio- activity released after the disaster in Chernobyl, died in a Kiev hospital this morning. According to official sources, this is the third victim of the Chernobyl disaster. All the others affected by radiation, about 200 of them, have been transferred to Moscow hospitals. According to official reports issued today, bone marrow transplant operations were carried out on six patients yesterday. They were said to be among the most seriously affected. Bone marrow was donated by the patients' parents. COUNCIL OF MINISTERS REPORTS ON WORK AT CHERNOBYL 'Work Continues' PM081020 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 8 May 86 Second Edition p 3 ["From the USSR Council of Ministers"--KRASNAYA ZVEZDA headline] [Text] Work to eliminate the consequences of the accident has continued at the Chernobyl AES over the last 24 hours. As a result of the measures that are being taken the radiation situation is continuing to improve. Work to decontaminate the terrain in the region of the AES, where the radiation level has fallen sub- stantially, is beginning [razvertyvayetsya]. The banking up of river banks is being completed with a view to preventing radioactive substances from being washed into the Pripyat River. The radiation level of the territory beyond the zone directly adjoining the station is somewhat higher than the natural background level, but it does not pose a danger to people's health. 163 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOB OFFICIAL USE ONLY TASS Details Actions LD071937 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1835 GMT 7 May 86 , [Text] Kiev, 7 May (TASS) ? Special correspondents Vladimir ltkin and Lev Chernenko report from the area of the accident at Chernobyl AES. At present a veritable battle between humans and the elements Istikhiyaj is in progress in the area of the AES. The battle is one of a systematic nature, backed up by the calculations of the scientists and specialists, and made incarnate in human courage. Having read dozens of so-called "reports" by the Western mass media, in which the disaster which occurred at Chernobyl was transformed from a human tragedy into a problem of political blackmail against the USSR, a desire arose to say, speaking from the very site, near Kiev: "Stop! Let's get to the bottom of this!" From the moment of the breakdown, hundreds of people fought the fire courageously and selflessly, with all their strength. Getting stuck in the molten bitumen, their faces black with ash, they saved their comrades, and they saved the station. Neither these people, nor the most senior Soviet scientists, who arrived a few hours later with members of the government commission, could then know what the causes of the breakdown were, nor what its consequences were. Time was needed to investigate what had happened. Several hours later, the situation at the station was already being monitored. But it was still early, and simply impossible to speak of the extent of the accident. During the very first minutes of the accident, Vladimir Voloshko, chairman of the Executive Committee of the Pripyat Soviet of People's Deputies, was by the fourth block. He has worked at the station for a long time. He is described as a good, knowledgeable specialist. It was he who took charge of the local operational headquarters set up in the atomic specialists' town. Having learned that the London DAILY MIRROR reported that 2,000 people had supposedly perished at the station, Voloshko said indignantly: It's a lie. It was, after all, the night shift and the time for the planned shutdown of the block. As at all power stations throughout the world, at this time the shifts involve fewer people, especially at night. I will say something else. At the moment of the accident, each of those who were at the station were worth a hundred men. Only now can it be realized, and then not fully, what these people did. They are heroes. I am not afraid of high-flown words. They suffered most of all. Many of these people are now in the country's best special clinics, and the best doctors are struggling for their health. I should bow low to them ? Soviet, American, or Japanese physicians ? if they do everything possible and impossible to save my comrades. Gennadiy ICaryalca, deputy secretary of the party committee at the station, is still at his post. The watch continues on the first, second, and third blocks. We know, says Karyalca, that those in the West who wish us no good are claiming that radioactivity here is continuing to increase. That is also a fabrication. The reactor was shut down as soon as accident protection [avariynaya zashchita] came into effect, at minimum capacity level. Many other technical questions are now being dealt with to remove the consequences of the accident, but there is no chain reaction. The Ukrainian health minister, Anatoliy Romanenko, who appeared on television, told the inhabitants of the oblast about the operative radiation situation, and said there was no direct threat to the health of people living in Kiev and Kiev Oblast. The meteorological conditions that developed initially after the acci- dent at Chernobyl excluded any spread of radioactive substances toward the city. The works that are in progress at the station have made it possible to reduce considerably the amounts of such substances entering the external environment. In the last few days, however, with a change in the direction and strength of the wind, some increase in the level of the radioactive background has been observed in the city and in some rayons of the oblast. This level of radiation is not dangerous to health and is no obstacle to normal working activities. The radiation situation which has arisen in Kiev at the moment does not require the application by the population of medical prophylactic measures. Furthermore, the unsupervised taking of various medicines, so-called "self-treatment," may be detrimen- tal to health. The republican Ministry of Health is keeping all questions linked with the influence of the external environment upon the health of the population under its unwavering supervi- sion. Some of the city's hospitals for infectious diseases have indeed reported to us some instances related to the events at Chernobyl. Life is life, and there are always panic-mongers. Heeding ill- considered advice, some people have taken medicines which supposedly give protection against radiation. They had the oppo- site effect?the result was poisoning. Now they are being treated for this. These days we are, as they say, in the thick of things in the Chernobyl area, we can see what titanic work is being done by the party and local-government organs of the republic, to ensure work and a normal life for the evacuated families. The evacuees are given the best of everything; the best rooms in the houses are allocated the visitors. The children who have arrived all go to school in the first shift, while the local children attend the second.... No one is concealing anything about the misfortune in Cher- nobyl. What has occurred convincfs one yet again that atomic power, even when used for peaceful purposes, requires great caution. And if it is included in bombs and in missiles aimed at the annihilation of people then this is human madness! That is what is being said now by people at many rallies and meetings being held here near Kiev. Normal and peaceful life is going on in the capital of the Ukraine and in adjacent rayons. All enterprises are at work. Of course, there is also disquiet, especially among parents with regard to their children. The summer holidays are approaching. Lines for 164 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For 'Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY tickets have appeared at railway and Aeroflot ticket offices. Dozens of addi? tional long?distance trains, suburban electric trains, diesel trains, and flights by Aeroflot which were not in the plan are now being allocated. All the children from the evacuated rayons will be the first to be sent to pioneer camps, to sanatoria, and rest homes. KIEV HOSTS SCIENTIFIC?ECONOMIC CONFERENCE PM061113 Moscow SELSKAYA ZHIZN in Russian 6 May 86 p 3 [Dispatch by correspondent S. Luzgan: Into Production"] [Text] Kiev, 5 May ? The all-union conference of the scientific- economic society began work here today. Its participants, who have come to the Ukrainian capital from all corners of the country, will discuss topical economic problems of the introduc- tion of the achievements of scientific-technical progress into production. The venue for the conference of the USSR scientific-economic society ? that comparatively young public body ? was not chosen by chance. The Ukraine's scientific-economic society, which numbers over 3,000 primary organizations and unites 125,000 full members, is performing a large amount of purpose- "The Achievements of Science Must Be Put ful work to accelerate the transfer of the republic's economy to the path of intensive development. The activity of 400 scientific sections and over 1,800 public creative associations is subordin- ated to this aim. The conference's participants will visit industrial enterprises and the republic's kolkhozes and sovkhozes. It con- ference will last 3 days. IAEA DIRECTOR GENERAL BLIX MEETS OFFICIALS LD071859 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1700 GMT 7 May 86 [Announcer?read report on Hans Blix, director general of the IAEA, visit to Moscow 6-7 May--from the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] On 6th and 7 May, Hans Blix, the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), who is in Moscow at the invitation of the Soviet Government, had conversations with Comrade Petrosyants, chairman of the USSR State Com- mittee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy; Comrade Vorobyev, first deputy USSR minister of health; Comrade Sedunov, first deputy chairman of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control; and Comrade Semenov, deputy chairman of the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. Comrade Konstantinov, USSR deputy director general of the IAEA, and Rosen, United States director of the Nuclear Safety Department of the IAEA, took part in the talks together with Blix. 165 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY KIEV PARTY CHIEF, EVACUEES INTERVIEWED Evacuees Describe Hardships PM071554 Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 8 May 86 First Edition p 4 [TASS correspondents Vladimir Zhukovskiy, Vladimir Itkin, and Lev Chernenko "Special Report for SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA": "The Alarms and Hopes of Chernobyl"] [Text] For 96-year-old Ganna Mikhaylovna Naumenko, evac- uation is a difficult word. Difficult to pronounce, and hard to understand. When she left her old home in 1941, "the fanatical fascists were on the rampage," and now that "life is so good," now that spring is in full swing in the little garden by the house and the lilac and chestnuts are in flower, now that it is time to sow the "spuds," she is leaving her home once agiin. Now they are asking her to leave, hurrying her, and Grandma Ganna does not understand why it is so necessary or that there has been trouble nearby. We met the elderly kolkhoz member in Zagaltsy village, one of the 16 villages in Borodyanskiy Rayon which is now taking in the evacuees from Chernobyl. She was being given shelter in a bright little house by 83-year-old Mariya Lukinichna Pavlichenko. As is the way with old people, they sit on the bench by the house, and the mistress says, more for the benefit of her new acquaintance than for us: "I've got everything: milk, lard, bread, what we old ones need. We'll get by. And over there, everything will be fine." At the village soviet, we struck up a conversation with a tall guy and a young, fair-haired woman. She held a child in her arms. They were Mr and Mrs Voronov, Aleksandr and Yekaterina, and their 12-year-old son Artur. "We were on leave when the accident happened at the AES. When we heard about it we went straight home. But by then they were not letting people into our apartment block in the power workers' settlement. We only had what we stood up in. We came here, to Z,agaltsy. They settled us with good people; they fed us. At the village soviet they told us that Artur can have a place in the creche. I am a driver, today I drove my car here from Chernobyl. All the machinery has undergone decontamination and will work here." "As soon as we settle the child in the creche, I'll go to work too," Yekaterina joins in. "Medical personnel are particularly needed here now, and I'm a nurse." There were many such meetings. Tamara Nikolayevna Ugvinenko, secretary of Borodnyanskiy Ukrainian Communist Party Raykom, is lifting the telephone handset practically, every minute. She says: "The joiner Romaryuk just called. He is offended because they haven't placed anyone with him yet, although he has a big family of his own. We have already placed 6,200 people. These are the 166 tactics we have worked out: One rayon's kolkhoz takes the workers from a kolkhoz in Chernobyl Rayon, construction work- ers take construction workers, and so forth. They will have to live and work together for some time [kakoye-to vremyal" Petr Ivanovich Moskalenko, chairman of Borodyanskiy Rayis- polkom, told us that the need for kindergartens and creches is now fully satisfied and the schools and medical institutions are working almost to full capacity. The transport workers have particular worries at present. There is a constant stream of buses full of people along the roads of Borodyanskiy, Ivankovskiy, Makarovskiy, and Polesskiy Rayons. The vehicles have license plates from Kiev, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk, Cherkassy, and Zaporozhye Oblasts. State Motor Vehicles Inspectorate workers are carrying out an efficient labor vigil in the prevailing situation. Radiation supervisors [dozimetristy] stand together with the transport workers at the "key" intersections. The line of vehicles includes many livestock trucks. Cattle and horses are being shipped out of the accident region. Domestic animals have not been forgotten. The summer sheep pens have already been erected on the farms which are receiving livestock. The evacuated stockmen are taking their own animals to look after. Milkmaid Anna Panteyenko, a mother of five, has come to the livestock unit. "It's okay, we'll get by," she says. "My eldest son has come back from the army, the youngest is in the first grade at school. I'm not the only one in trouble now. Trouble brings people together." The rayon radio regularly transmits information on the current evacuation and radiation situation, the course of field work, and the milk yields. We did not see a single case of panic or of people refusing to tackle the task entrusted to them. There are many people in the streets of the villages and settle- ments now. People are saying gratefully that everything neces- sary has been brought into the stores. The grain growers are thinking about the next harvest: Spring is a time of special concern for farmers. Everyone who was within a 30-km zone around the AES has undergone special health treatment [sanitar- naya obrabotkal As official medical figues show, there is no danger to health for the vast majority of evacuees. All the same, the situation is still alarming, but there is no reason for unjustified skepticism. The essential emergency shifts are working at the AES, in the zone of the damage and at units 1, 2, and 3, which have been halted. Intensive work is under way to eliminate the consequences of the accident. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For: Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15:,CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 The evacuated party raykoms and soviet ispolkoms are constantly receiving inquiries from workers at the station as to when and where they can go to work. The situation is complicated by the fact that the day before the accident was a day off, followed by another 4 nonworking days. Many people, including station employees, went off on vacation. Realizing that being in the accident zone is not safe, the AES workers, first and foremost Communists, are insisting that they be used in the work now taking place, citing their experience and professionalism. TASS correspondents talked with Grigoriy Ivanovich Revenko, first secretary of Kiev Ukrainian Communist Party Obkom. "The oblast party organization is now resolving three tasks," he said. "First, we are doing everything possible to ensure the successful work of the government commission for the elimination of the consequences of the accident and carrying out the evacuation of the population from the dangetriznes. I can say that the whole republic and the whole country are taking part in this very complex operation. Second, uncontrolled processes can- not be allowed to occur here. It would be wrong to say that everything is already fine. So from the very first hours of the misfortune which befell us, the party obkom and raykoms and primary party organizations took the entire situation in the oblast under their control. "The level of cadres' responsibility can be judged from how problems are being resolved, including economic problems. And that is our third urgent task. We must do everything to ensure that the oblast's national economy functions steadily and that working people in the Ukrainian capital experience no interrup- tions in supplies of produce, especially agricultural produce. Here unremitting attention is being devoted to completing the sowing and cultivation of the sown areas." The obkom first secretary reported that four rayons have received evacuees from the danger zone. Their population, he noted, regards what happened as their own personal misfortune. Of course, there are difficulties. Even war veterans do not remember such a mass resettlement of people in an exceptionally short space of time. For instance, the evacuation of the nuclear power workers' settlement took place in 2 hours 45 minutes. A total of 1,100 buses were brought in, with a vehicle standing at prac- tically every doorway. The convoy stretched for nearly 20 km. There were some hitches Ineuvyazki], mainly of a departmental nature, in providing the evacuees with essential goods, especially Zlothing and footwear. The evacuation of the rural population was more complex: After all, it was necessary to remove a large mass of villagers together with tools and livestock. Many peasants did not want to leave their homes, but you could not risk people or their health so in a number of cases they had to be persuaded. Trouble invariably arouses fellow feeling and human participa- tion. We have seen this for ourselves. Many families, after receiving people from the nuclear workers' settlement, imme- diately asked the party raykoms and rayispolkoms to send them another one or two families. Schoolteachers have many worries now. In Polesskiy Rayon, for instance, about one-half of the children resettled here came to the first lesson. Today there is 100-percent attendance in the schools. The kindergartens and creches are functioning. A special word about the medics. Together with other specialists, they have to monitor everything: the state of the crops, the soil, the water, the air. Nothing is now being brought into the stores without being checked, and vegetables delivered to the cities are being checked twice: in the fields and on the store counters. All the roads in the oblast are constantly being washed. Hundreds of special vehicles have been assigned for this. During these days drivers and trade and consumer services workers are doing tremendous work. ...Kiev. Its gardens and parks are all decked in white blossom. The Ukrainian capital is living a tranquil, confident, full life. All the enterprises are working. The Kreshchatik [Kiev's main street] is full of people. In the evenings, as always, its theaters and concert halls are full. The people of Kiev greeted enthusiastically their favorites, the Dinamo footballers, winners of the European ? Cupwinner's Cup. More on Settling of Evacuees PM071051 Moscow KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 7 May 86'p 4 [Report by "our special correspondents" N. Dolgopolov and P. Polozhevets: "Countering Misfortune"--first paragraph is KOMSOMOLSKAYA-PRAVDA introduction [Text] Kiev Oblast--What is the situation at the Chernobyl ABS right now, today? Without repeating what is already known, we asked Gennadiy Alekseyevich Korkyak, deputy secretary of the AES party committee, to describe it: "Shifts are operating at the station. A 24-hour watch is being kept there. They are shutting down the first, second, and third units and are monitoring equipment and ensuring constant radiation control. Their workers' duty is being fulfilled sacredly. Even when the radiation situation was still causing serious alarm, 167 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rvn vrrnAiu, ur.. %/NIA they worked to the utmost as long as the radiation dose overloads permitted. In addition, work has been launched in this region to erect walls along the shores of the Pripyat River. This is being done to prevent its possible pollution." "Gennadiy Alekseyevich, how did the evacuation of Pripyat City proceed?" "In an organized manner. Some 1,100 buses were sent to the settlement ? to virtually every doorway. The inhabitants were taken immediately to Polesskiy and Ivankovskiy Rayons, Kiev Oblast." And we visited Borodyanskiy Rayon, which took in over 6,000 evacuees from the Chernobyl villages. They were evacuees. The reader should not be excessively optimistic or sunny. The level of radiation is dropping but the situation in the region of the AES remains complex. And no one intends to risk the health of the inhabitants of nearby population centers. They have been removed outside an 80-kilometer zone around the area of the accident. For instance, the Chernobyl "Komsomolets Polesya" Sovkhoz has moved to the "Zarya" Kolkhoz, Borodyanskiy Rayon. Boris Mironovich Skorik, secretary of the sovkhoz party organization, has dozens of things to do so our talk with him was brief and terse: "They prepared well to receive us and billeted about 1,000 people in 60-90 minutes. Even the local schoolchildren and Komsomol members helped us Fill in the documents (there were not many of them). Formalities were reduced to the minimum. We were examined immediately by several groups of doctors. Trade made an effort: The store had milk, soured cream, sausages, canned goods, and, naturally, necessities. So we did not stand idle for long and are rapidly returning to our normal working rhythm." Sovkhoz Director Valentin Nikolayevich Bezik is up to his neck in work. The disaster obliged them to evacuate livestock and to drive the sovkhoz tractors and trucks to another rayon, dozens of kilometers away. Some people were confused, but all the villagers were morally prepared for a decisive and so essential evacuation. But the second day at their new site began as usual ? with a meeting about the plan. The leaders of the evacuated stockraising units reported that the first tone of dairy produce has been dispatched. A quality control was carried out twice: on dispatch and at reception at the dairy plant. In the evening the director together with the party organizer met for the milking to listen to people, to see yet again how they had settled and whether they had everything they needed. But the party organizer and director lingered with us on the "5-kopec piece" ? that is what the Chernobyl people have dubbed the area in front of the old kindergarten. The local children were recently moved to a new kindergarten. The building was standing empty and has been offered as an office for the evacuated sovkhoz. We met with the young machine operators and listened in on the conversation they struck up. "They are my hope and my bulwark," the director introduced the boys with a smile. "This is Nikolay Gunich. He used to work as a welder, a master of the kind you go looking for. Here he has been assigned to the tractor station." 168 "They may have assigned him, but I want to take him for myself, for the stockraising unit," Aleksandr Ignatyevich Chernyak broke into the conversation. And, seeing that Nikolay was in no particular hurry to reply, he added for the sake of conviction: "I have also temporarily changed my profession. But what can you do? I was a machine operator ? I have become a stockraisers team leader. And Sasha Voronov will also have to come to work with me." All the sovkhoz livestock were sent to the summer camps. Only the pedigree herd and calves remained on the unit. It was for here that the busy Chernyak was selecting a team. But things were far calmer for the summer camps. The new domain of the fourth Kopachevskiy stockraising unit is here. At home the unit was always among the frontrunners and worked under the collective contract, and in Zagaltsy village it has decided not to surrender its positions. The teachers of the Zagaltsy school have assumed the care of the children. On the second day all the evacuated children were at their desks. It is easy and pleasant to report this. But truth to tell, how much energy and effort were required of Tatyana Ivanovna Cheshko, director of the local school, and her colleagues to ensure that the children could study normally. The school textbooks were there at the school but there was a shortage of exercise books, pencils, and pens ? of course, in the haste of the enforced round-up they did not have time for that. The children from Zagaltsy came to the rescue: They shared everything necessary with the arrivals. The school director and, we must admit, we ourselves were amazed at the following incident. A few days later an impressive delegation was knocking on Tayana Ivanovna's office door after classes. The Chernobyl schoolchildren asked to be taken on at the labor and leisure camp. They had learned from their contem- poraries that the latter had for the first time set about growing vegetables on 20 hectares. The Chernobyl children know their aid will be useful to their hosts. In addition to everthing else the director is also a rural soviet deputy. She placed the arrivals, organized catering, helped equip additional rooms in the kinder- garten. Two days without sleep ? how did she survive? At the lessons she would joke. The children from Chernobyl had very sad faces. She wanted to dispel their grave thoughts and divert them. She encouraged them, played with them, driving her incipient tiredness away from her. Nonetheless she did not hold out. During the lesson with the eighth graders she was checking their homework and.., fell asleep. She was awoken by the bell ? the children had not stirred until then. Yes, our people always respond to kindness with kindness. As we left Zagaltsy we took a look at the mail. We ran into the republic's deputy minister of communications. "We have tried to ensure that there are no hitches over mail delivery," Deputy Minister Vasiliy Fedoseyevich Boyarchuk explained. "At their new location people are being served by their old mailmen, who have been transferred with their communications sections. They have already learned and recorded who is living where and had time to distribute pensions." There was an announcement hanging up here. The Komsomol raykom was suggesting that parents from Chernobylskiy Rayon FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 send their children to the "Artek" and "Molodaya Gvardiya" pioneer camps for the summer. Yes, to the renowned "Artek." The telephone is ringing all day long for Tamara Nikolayevna Ugnivenko, secretary of the Borodyanskiy Ukrainian Commu- nist Party Raykom. But this was the only telephone call of its kind. At the other end of the line an emotional woman's voice was asking: "Where are your children?" Tamara Nikolayevna did not understand immediately what she was talking about. And then the woman exploded: "Ah, you have nothing to say! That means a white Volga has drawn up at your house and taken your sons to the Crimea. But ours are here, living in cramped cpn- ditions....Ugnivenko went pale. She ran her pencil nervously down a sheet of paper. But she did not betray her hurt and her voice sounded mild and calm: "My son has graduated from military academy, and he is now serving on the border in Chita Oblast. My daughter is with me. Every evening she is home at 2130 hours here in Borodyanka. You can come and see." And Tamara Nikolayevna dictated the address. There was silence from the receiver. Then a quiet voice: "I'm sorry..." Let's write once again that cases of panic are rare, almost unique. The disaster is being endured with dignity. Everything is being done to ease its consequences. We admit that hitches and blun- ders are occuring. Enormous efforts are being made to avoid and eliminate them.... And at the Borodyanskiy Party Raykom a telegram lies on Tamara Nikolayevna Ugnivenko's desk: "I am an experienced foreman radiation supervisor. I have worked on atomic reactors for 30 years. I ask permission to take part in eliminating the emergency. I agree to work at any post." And the sig- nature: Mikhail Petrovich Tsvetayev. This telegram is not the first. Officials on Pripet Evacuees LD071102 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 0600 GMT 7 May 86 [Text] After the accident at Chernobyl AES the population of the adjacent town of Pripet and surrounding villages was evacuated to other rayons of Kiev Oblast. Our correspondent Vladimir Sokolov reports. Here is the recording: [Begin recording][Sokolov]Borodyanskiy Rayon, approximately 100 kms from the AES, has taken more than 6,000 evacuees from there. Petr lvanovich Moskalenko, chairman of the Rayon Executive Committee, says: [Moskalenko] The spiritual qualities of our people were shown clearly in this situation. You know, when the evacuation from the zone of the Chernobyl AES began, an appeal was broadcast to the rayon's population to take in the new arrivals, and there were immediate and warm responses to this appeal everywhere. Every family, every kolkhoz household expressed its readiness to accommodate the new arrivals. [Sokolov]The picture is the same in the village of Zagaltsiy where Vladimir Vasilyevich Golubnichenko, chairman of the village soviet, (stated): [Golubnichenko] In our village soviet there are 1,441 households, and they took in 1,085 people, one family to every household [figures as heard]. While the people were arriving, there were people standing on the roads and telling them: Come and stay with me. [Sokolov] There is, of course, particular concern about children, pregnant women, sick people, and old people. The medical bri- gade is examining everyone carefully and providing the necessary aid. Here is' a curious detail. The canteen of the local Zarya kolkhoz immediately prepared lunch for the new arrivals, but no one came. Would any family really allow its involuntary guests to go unfed? The Lutsenko family was received cordially in the 169 home of the tractor driver Filonenko as Irina, one of the three sisters in that family, says: [Lutsenko] We ourselves were near the Chernobyl AES. [Sokolov] Where did you work there? [Lutsenko] At the radio works [word indistinct]. I worked as a punch operator. [Sokolov] How do you like it here in the village? [Lutsenko] Well, I have very good hosts, of course. [Sokolov] How Many are in your family? [Lutsenko) Three children and our mother. My little sister has arrived here now, after the accident. She arrived on Monday evening [5 May]. and our mother was evacuated during the night. She started going to school today. [sentence as received] As soon as she arrived they gave her books; they gave her a diary; they gave her everything. [Somolov] Incidentally, there is sufficient work for everyone. For it is not only people who have arrived. At Zagaltsyy they have also taken in from one village a dairy farm with its milkmaids, cows, and all the equipment. The chairman of the Rayon Execu- .tive Committee says in conclusion: [Moskalenko] In our rayon everything necessary was deployed rapidly for the feeding and for the medical, commercial, and domestic service of the new arrivals. Children went to the school on the following day. The little children are being accommodated as necessary in kindergartens and nurseries. Adults, in their turn, immediately started work on many farms. In general, as you can see, life is proceeding normally. [end recording] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA:RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 PRAVDA CITES ACADEMICIAN VELIKHOV ON ACCIDENT PM081053 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 8 May 86 First Edition p 6 [Special correspondents V. Gubarev and M. Odinets report: YCity, Sea, and Reactor; Our Special Correspondents Report From the Region of the Chernobyl AES"] [Text] The hydrofoil is proceeding northward on the unusually empty Kiev Reservoir [Kiyevskoye More]. "It's as though we were travelling to the center of Halley's Comet," Captain Viktor Golovkop smiled, referring to the name of our diesel ship? the Vega. In a few minutes we should see the blocks of the Chernobyl AES, but meanwhile the diesel ship is slowing dbwn, the engines die, ttnd Vasiliy Galka takes another water sample. On the shore to the left a bright spot appears ? a helicopter. It overtakes us, veers slightly to the right, and begins to descend. Now it is there, above the reactor. And another portion of sand, clay, lead, and boron will be thrown into its maw in order to make people even safer against its radioactive nucleus. No, unfortu- nately the struggle against it has not ended, but it is being continued and thousands of people are waging it even more fiercely than the day before. Today our path to Chernobyl began at the Kiev river port. This route to the AES was not chosen by chance. Dozens of diesel ships up and down the Dnepr are now setting off on passenger trips from Kiev river port. About 40 high-speed ships of the "Raketa" type alone are docking and casting off. Passengers travelling to Cherkassy, Chernigov, and ICanev are constantly being sum- moned over the radio. At the landing platform the fine three- decked Viktor Glushkov shines white in the sun after completing a cruise alonng the mighty, ancient river with 330 foreign tour- ists. The diesel ships Vutevich, Dobrolyubov, and XXVSezd KPS are also sailing. Yet another ship of the GDR arrived recently and by fall the diesel ship General Batunin will join the ranks of the tourist ships. Our diesel ship Vega has a special function. We are bound for the Kiev reservoir to take samples of water at the mouths of the Rivers Irpen, Teterev, and Pripyat. Foaming waves rise behind the stern and the ship rapidly mounts the current, leaving behind to the right and left along the banks of the river the white stone bulk of the residential areas of Obolon and Troyeshchina. Here is the Kiev GES Dam. The ascent through the lock takes a little more than 10 minutes and the diesel ship emerges onto the expanses of the Kiev Reservoir. The manmade sea occupies an area in excess of 920 square kilometers and countains 3.7 cubic kilometers of water. How has it been affected by the accident at the Chernobyl AES? Can Kiev's inhabitants use the reservoir water or has it been polluted by radiation? To answer these questions water samples are needed, and they are taken by public health doctor V. Gallca at varius places in the Kiev Sea. These samples will then be care- fully studied at laboratories of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of 170 Sciences Nuclear Research Institute's public health and epide- miological station. A. Koval, chief public health doctor for the Dnepr basin, who has not spent a night at home for the past week, says that initially there were naturally some fears but the samples are invariably showing that the state of the water is normal. V. Golovko, the captain of our Raketa, who has been sailing the Dnepr for nearly one-third of a century now, stops the ship at the mouth of the Teterev. From here it is not far at all to Chernobyl. While the samples are being taken we talk with Nikolay Mak- simovich Zubets, the chief of the Strakholesye Village landing pier, a war and labor veteran, who describes how the workers from the village, situated next to the 30-kilometer zone, are carrying out spring field work. Two Chernobylskiy Rayon farms nearby ? the Lenin and Michurin farms ? have been screened and are going about their normal business. "There is a calm, businesslike atmopshere in the teams," war and labor veteran I. Lizogub says. "We are greeting Victory Day as befits war veterans and their children and grandchildren." This atmosphere exists not only in Strakholesye, Gornostay6ol, and Dityatki, where the above-mentioned farms are situated. G.I. Revenko, first secretary of the party obkom, whom we met yesterday, said that the production collectives in the rayons next to Chernobylskiy Rayon ? Polesskiy and Ivankovskiy Rayons ? have never worked in such an organized manner. Throughout the oblast as a whole the spring crops have been sown to a higher standard than last year, over 650,000 hectares. That is 100,000 hectares more than in the spring of last year. Potato planting has been completed everywhere. Corn has been sown to nearly 150,000 hectares, which is 40,000 hectares more than last year. The closer we came to Chernobyl, the fewer people we saw. This was the zone from which the entire population has been evac- uated. The Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia published last year has this to say about Chernobyl, whose name, because of the accident at the AES, is now being repeated in many languages of the world: "Chernobyl ? city in Kiev Oblast, rayon center on the River Pripyat (a tributary of the Dnepr) where the river Uzh flows into it, 18 kilometers from the Yanov railroad station. A river port... The city has the Dnepr River steamship company repair base, pig iron, cheese, and mixed feed factories; a section of the Kiev artistic production association; a rayon committee for the supply of production equipment to agriculture; a rayselkhoz- khimiya [association]; an industrial combine and a consumer services combine, medical and agricultural vocational and tech- nical colleges; four general education schools and a musical school; a hospital, a polyclinic, culture center, movie theater, and library." FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At first the little town on the hill drowning in gardens is quiet and deserted. You have a strange feeling when you enter a city and see someone... Suddenly a little dog jumped onto the landing stage. It rushed joyfully toward us, wagging its tail. Its masters had left and it was guarding the house... A helicopter appears above us. It is rushing to the white blocks of the AES which can be clearly seen from here, from Chernobyl. The helicopter hangs over the establishment where the accident had occurred and a new, consignment of sand, clay, lead, and boron flies down to the reactor. Soon we notice that our first impression of Chernobyl was an erroneous one. We emerge into the next street and were imme- diately surrounded by trucks. They are on their way to the landing pier, where the river banks are being banked up. Nearby, pontoon specialists are dismantling a 200-meter temporary bridge on which the population had been evacuated the previous day. We struck up a conversation. The pontoon specialists, as is always the case, included people of various nationalities. "We are people belonging to one family," the Estonian Lembit Kalymegi said. "If the Ukrainian city of-,Chernobyl has suffered a misfortune we are ready to come to its assistance." "Soviet people," pontoon specialist Bektor Shubaliyev from the far-off Kirghiz city of Osh, told us, "have the same joys and the same concerns. I know that in my republic my people have tremendous sympathy for the inhabitants of these afflicted places and we are trying to do everything to eliminate the consequences of the accident as rapidly as possible." "We have a sacred principle -- one for all and all for one," Dmitriy Zhuravley says. "The sacred law of brotherhood. Spe- cialists who have come here from Belorussia are working alongside us. In the town center I have met with people from Moscow, Leningrad, and other cities of our motherland. They all want to help the Ukraine to eliminate as quickly as possible the disaster which has occurred here." In the center of Chernobyl you can indeed meet with people from the most diverse corners of the country. Trucks from Kiev, Belorussia, Chernigov, and Zhitomir, Cherkassy, and Dneprope- trovsk Oblasts. 171 The government commission has taken up residence at the party raykom. On the doors are pinned handwritten notices: "Academy of Sciences," "Ministry of Power and Elec- trification," "Engineering Section," "USSR Ministry of Health..." This is the headquarters for eliminating the disaster. There is calm and confidence on the faces of the people dressed in protective overalls. A businesslike, tense atmosphere. Each person here has his work sector. This is the center to which all information flows. It is here that decisions are taken and they are fulfilled in a moment. One of the authors was at the front and he attests: "The atmosphere reigning here is reminiscent of the headquarters of an army waging an offensive." "Unfortunately, as yet we are occupying an echeloned defense," Academician Yevgeniy Pavlovich Velikhov says. "We are endeavoring to anticipate all possible variations. The main task is to make people safe and that is why an evacuation from a 30-kilometer zone has been carried out. And we are mounting an offensive on the reactor, working not only next to it but also under it. Our task is to neutralize it completely, to 'bury' it, as we say. Everything is proceeding in an organized manner and one tele- phone call is enough for a decision to be made. Previously it took months to reach agreement but now a night is enough to decide virtually any problem. There is not a single person who has refused to work. Everyone is acting selflessly." Yevgeniy Pavlovich's face is tired. Today he has even forgotten to shave. But he has till managed to carve out a few minutes for ? us. "No one has encountered a similar accident," he notes. "And the unusual nature of the situation requires the solution of problems with which neither scientists nor specialists have ever had to deal. The reactor is several thousnd tons. And this gigantic mass is warming up [gretetsya]... In general the accident at the station has taught many lessons, not only to specialists. It is already showing graphically once again how catastrophic nuclear war is. This accident is a trifling incident by comparison. Over there in the West, particularly in Europe, people are shouting and making a din about Chernobyl, but they themselves are keeping quiet about or are trying to belittle the danger which the Pershings' nuclear charges contain. So it is worthwhile for Western propa- gandists to consider: Should they gloat over the accident which has occurred or would it be better to prevent a worldwide catastrophe?" FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 rvli OFFICIAL USE ONLY LIFE REPORTED 'NORMAL' IN UKRAINE AREAS Assistance in Evacuation LD071629 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1513 GMT [Text] While the consequences of the accident are being elimi- nated at the Chernobyl AES, normal life and work is continuing in the surrounding areas outside the danger zone. Our correspondent Vladimir Sokolov reports: Traffic on the Kiev-Chernobyl highway is at the present time markedly busier than usual. Everything necessary to eliminate the consequences of the accident and to give assistance to the population, which has been evacuated from the danger zone to the northern rayons of Kiev Oblast, is moving in a constant stream along the road in the direction of the AES. Approximately 100 kilometers from Chernobyl, the highway goes through the town of Dymer. A large state farm is situated there, which is also called the Dymer state farm. Here is what its director Nikolay Nikiforovich Tsukan said: [Begin Tsurkan recording] Spring field work is nearing comple- tion. We are completing the planting of potatoes. This is one of the main crops at our farm. The mass sowing of corn is also under way. We have undertaken a pledge to fully provide our livestock 7 May 86 with our own feed this year. Our livestock is fairly impressive; we have 3,500 head of livestock; including about 2,000 cows. As usual, we are carrying out a great deal of construction work at the farm. Two residential houses have been built, and a kin- dergarten is being expanded. At the end of the year, we will begin constructing a canteen. Altogether, we carry out construction work annually to the value of approximately RI million. [end recording] I asked Anatoliy Ivanovich Artimchuk, the secretary of the party committee, whether the accident at the atomic power station had affected Dymer in any way. [Begin Artimchuk recording] Well, it did affect Dymer. When the alarm was given, our motor vehicles were sent along with people to give practical assistance in evacuating people and the equipment [khozyaystvol Over 30 people drove off to give assis- tance. It must be said that all of them worked conscientiously and well. Now the normal, usual work is under way at our settlement. [end recording] Kiev Water Said 'Pure' LD081148 Moscow World Service in English 1000 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] According to latest reports in the Ukraine, work to eliminate the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are proceeding as scheduled. The damaged reactor remains in a choked state, and there are no more radio- active emissions. The immediate task is to neutralize the reactor completely. The republic's health minister, Anatoliy Romanenko, says all the residents of the regions neighboring on the nuclear power station have been evacuated, and their health is not in danger. The only people hospitalized are the plant's workers who were at the plant at the moment of the accident. Most of them suffered from stress, and are now observed by medical experts. The radiation situation in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is safe. Local television announced that the water coming from the city's water supply system is absolutely pure. Boats with tourists ? foreign tourists among them ? are making trips along the River Dnieper, on which Kiev stands. 172 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FUR UttICIAL USE ONLY Physicians on Kiev Radiation LD061949 [Editorial Report] Moscow Television Service in Rus- sian at 1700 GMT on 6 May, in its "Vremya" newscast, broadcasts a video reportage from Kiev Oblast by Aleksandr Krutov. The reporter begins by pointing out that this morning he travelled through several parts of Kiev Oblast. He notes that "the situation remains complex but the main thing is that it is under strict control. Everywhere there is careful medical observation of the environment. Operational medical services have been set up in all rayons of the oblast, both near to and far from the accident. Thousands of people from the evacuated areas have been accomodated. At present they are organizing jobs, and all the possible conditions are being created for them which are possible to create in such a short time." The camera cuts to an open-air interview with V.V. Poluneyev, chief doctor at the Vasilkovskky Rayon clinic, who says medical observations of people from the Chernobyl area are being made and that there is no cause for concern at the state of their health. "They feel completely normal," he says, adding that "many of them have already started working here with us for the national economy." The reportage continues with an open-air interview with G.N. Grinchuk, chief sanitary doctor of Vasilkorskiy Rayon, who says "The sanitary and epidemiology service of the rayon is carrying out round-the-clock checks and constant monitoring of the purity of the air, the soil, food products, water ? its drinking quality, and water in open reservoirs ? fodder, and machinery. We have not measured an increase in radiation here." The camera cuts to an indoor interview with an unidentified man. The reporter asks where he is from and how he feels. The man replies, "I am now undergoing analysis. If everything is normal I'll get a temporary job. And when the town reopens I'll go back." A doctor then tells him that his analysis confirms nothing is wrong. The doctor says, "All the people we have checked are absolutely normal." The reportage ends with a visit to a pioneer camp where children from the evacuated area will be living, showing that everything is ready for the children to arrive. Foreign Students: Life 'Normal' LD071709 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1530 GMT 7 May 86 [Text] Concerning the accident at Chernobyl AES, our cor- respondent in Kiev, Vladimir Sokolov, reports: In Kiev, as always at this time of year, the city's famous chestnut trees are in blossom, displaying a multitude of white candle-shaped flow- ers. As always in the mornings, people are hurrying to work, there is a noisy to-ing and fro-ing in the crowded Kreshchatik, the city's principal thoroughfare, there are crowds in the shops and mar- kets, and in the evenings the theaters, concert-halls and parks ? the latter particularly splendid-looking and spring-like ? are equally crowded. Naturally, people here are following all the reports from Cher- nobyl AES with the keenest interest ? it is, all the same, about 150 km away. Yesterday they heard and today have been reading accounts of the press conference about the elimination of the accident at the power station. I have been talking about this with foreign students at the civil aviation engineering institute. Incidentally, there is one of the signs of the times in evidence there? radiation gauges have been set up everywhere to enable everyone to check the radiation level and to see for himself how far the instruments are from danger level and how the levels continue to fall. I asked the students what they had to say about this: [Begin recording] I'm Miroslav Dvorak from Czechoslovakia. I'm a second-year student at the engineering faculty. On May 2d and 3d we went on a boat trip down the Dnieper. We sat by a camp-fire in the open air, on the banks of the Dnieper. After that, we strolled around the town, we went to the cinema. Life here is normal. In the capitalist countries they are making propaganda; they, of course, want to use this incident against the socialist countries. They are saying that lives here are endangered, they want to make some kind of very big sensation out of this. I have naturally written to my family that everything here is normal, telling them not to worry. [end recording] [Sokolov] I then spoke to Samuel Guiara, a student from the Mali republic: [Begin recording] I can say that life is normal as far as I am concerned. We have not encountered any problems so far. Every- thing is normal. The accident was not as terrible as is being said in the West, and I am studying normally. We are preparing for our exams. 173 [Different voice] I'm Yusuf al-Shuf. I'm a student from Syria. I have heard a great deal about how people in other countries are saying Kiev is in a very dangerous predicament. But I want to say life goes on, people are going to work, and we are attending classes as normal. As you heard just now, we are studying for our exams. When I heard for the first time what is being said in other countries...you know, when our parents hear this, they must be so worried about us. That's why I sent off a telegram right away. [end recording] [Sokolov] And all the foreign students, it seems, are sending letters and telegrams home so that their families do not worry and their fellow-countrymen do not believe the mendacious propaganda being made by those who are indulging in unscrupu- lous politics out of the accident at Chernobyl AES. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 WE OFFICIAL USk. ONLY Tourists on 'Contemptible' Propaganda PM071322 Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 7 May 86 First Edition p 5 [A. Nazarov report under the "Rapid Investigation" rubric: Misfortune Is Immoral"] [Text] The Ukraina hotel. There are always many visitors to Moscow from different countries here. There are quite a few of them at present, too, even though the tourist season is by no means at its height yet. An Intourist bus drove up. There was a group from Yugoslavia on board. The members of the group had been visiting Leningrad and Kiev. This was described by a girl wearing a jacket with a blue globe [Intourist symbol] on it. Her name is Barbara Jurman. "We arrived in Kiev on 30 April and saw a host of interesting things. But the main thing, of course, was the people. The people of Kiev were very sociable and hospitable to us. We had very many pleasant meetings in the Ukrainian capital. Nowhere was there any of the panic that Western publications have been reporting. What happened at the Chernobyl AES was unfortu- nate. To revel in that misfortune, as they are doing in the West, is immoral." The Yugoslav tourists went into the Ukraina. They were followed by a well-built dark-haired young man. We introduced ourselves. His name was Sulayman Abu-Diyab from Syria, and he now intends to go to Kiev. "I have a brother living there and I have long wanted to visit him," Sulayman said. "I telephoned him yesterday. I asked him about the Chernobyl AES. What my brother told me completely contradicts what Western propaganda is shouting about. It is claimed that there is a danger emanating from your country now. This is just another variation on the old theme of the 'Soviet threat.' If you live in one of the world's trouble spots, the Middle East, for example, it is perfectly clear that the threat, the danger ? and not ephemeral ones but real ones, reinforced by bombing raids ? come from the West, from imperialism. And I am convinced that the fuss about the Chernobyl AES is a clear attempt to divert the world public's attention from the crimes of Washington and its allies." A Toyota with a foreign number plate stopped in front of the hotel. A woman in dark glasses slammed the door shut and came up to the hotel entrance. She was Japanese, her name was Tazika. "I sympathize deeply with Soviet people," she said. "In my view there are and can be no other 'assessments' of this event. Am I leaving Moscow? I do not plan to. Why should I?" The next people I spoke to were part of a team from Poland. They will be installing computers for the USSR Academy of Sciences. "I am sure that the Soviet Union will quickly cope with this problem," said Stanislaw Bronsztaj. "And in my view what Western propaganda is doing now is contemptible." "Sympathy and understanding ? that is the attitude of all decent people to the events at the Chernobyl AES. And are the reports of the various radio stations really plausible, anyway?" his colleague Jaroslaw Gwiazdowski added. Journal on Plant Problems, Poor Work AU031403 Paris AFP in English 1352 GMT 3 iText] Paris, May 3 (AFP)? The Chernobyl nuclear power plant where a reactor exploded last weekend had been plagued with labor problems in the construction of buildings for two new reactors, a Ukrainian magazine has reported. LITERATURNA UKRAYINA said in a critical March 27 article that work crews at the construction side were hampered by low morale, difficult work conditions, botched material deliv- ery schedules and poor material quality. The problems were manifested in poor work quality, the "errors of which will be felt in the decades to come," the magazine said. May 86 174 _ The problems extended into the technical and engineering levels, said the article, where corners were cut to compensate for sub- quality and quantities of materials. "In 1985, while 45,500 cubic meters of concrete were ordered, only 42,300 cubic meters were delivered, and of those 6,000 were unusable," the article said. "Likewise with steel, 2,436 tons were not delivered on time the same year. In such conditions, it is difficult to meet unrealistic work quotas." - Instead of profiting from problems encountered in the construc- tion of the four previous reactors, said the article, the same problems were ignored when they resurfaced, the magazine said. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR Vkl'ItAAL UL VINLI VILNIUS REPORTS NO DANGER FROM RADIOACTIVITY LD080919 Vilnius in Lithuanian to North America 0001 GMT 18 May 86 [Text] At a press conference yesterday in Moscow about the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which is sit- uated 130 km from the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, experts explained that radioactive substances reached the atmosphere after the accident. The wind has spread them to neighboring areas. Radioactivity has increased in these areas. The Lithuanian Meteorological and Environment Directorate, which for 3 deacdes has been constantly observing and register- ing natural radioactivity, reports that since the accident it has increased in Lithuania, too. This increase is, however, very small, within the limits of the natural background radiation. There is no danger to the health of people or to the environment. This radioactivity is several hundred times smaller than the danger point and substantially smaller than the general radioactivity that was registered up to 1963 when, in accordance with the Moscow treaty, tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere were banned. COMMENT ON WESTERN REACTION TO CHERNOBYL INFORMATION Inadequate Information Discounted PM071108 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 7 May 86 First Edition p 5 [Yevgeniy Grigoryev "Commentator's Column": "With Marked Cards"] [Text] To listen to certain Western politicians, nothing is of such concern to them now as information. But they themselves quite ? frequently hide it from the eyes of the public when preparing piratical operations in secret. And even when accidents occur at nuclear power stations they endeavor to prevent "leaks." For example, "on the first day of the accident at Harrisburg (United States) in March 1979," NBC television reporter (J. McLaugh- lin) has now recalled, "the administration tried to reduce its seriousness to a minimum..." The first days of the accident, so commentators believe, were "characterized by concealment of the facts." And in Britain, with regard to a serious incident which occurred 31 March at a nuclear power station at Dungeness (Kent County), THE OBSERVER writes, "The British Central Electricity Generating Board originally preferred to surround it with a veil of silence and only undertook to provide certain information after repeated insistent requests." But it is one thing in your own home, and another, the aforementioned gentlemen believe, to try to play on the question of information for the purpose of the anti-Soviet campaign being fanned in the West in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES. It is well known that the Soviet Union provided the relevant information to the governments of many countries, including the United States. Nevertheless, it is precisely Washington figures who continue more than anyone to complain hypocritically on all propaganda corners that they are being kept in almost total ignorance. To this end use has even been made of the stage at the Tokyo conference of the "seven," where a special statement was adopted. It bears the imprint of American propaganda and demands that its authors be "urgently informed" of what they actually know perfectly well with regard to the events in Cher- nobyl. "We do not have adequate information," a White House spokesman complained at a press conference there. "Have the Russians responded by refusing any specific request for informa- tion?" one of the journalists asked. "I do not think that we have gone into specific details. We simply asked for general informa- tion," the spokesman ducked. "Did. they respond by refusing your request?" the journalist persisted. "I do not think they refused," the spokesman admitted and, without batting an eyelid, at once lied, to put it mildly: "They simply did not provide information." As we see, it is certainly not the truth, the facts, or the actual state of affairs that interest the Western pseudochampions of information. Playing with marked cards, they would like to blacken the Soviet Union as a country which is hiding something and which must not be trusted in matters either big or small. Is it not a fitting venture for misinformers? But they will not get any further with this lie of theirs either. 175 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 AviA WKKJOulAMIA VOK. VOILAL 'Propaganda' Approaching 'Absurdity' PM071316 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 30 Apr 86 Second Edition p 5 [V. Bolshakov rejoinder: "Senseless Zeal"] [Text] The Chernobyl AES accident has naturally attracted attention abroad. The Soviet Union has given information about what happened to the governments of many countries, interna- tional organizations, and the public. Responsible politicians and objective journalists abroad have approached what has happened seriously and without hoopla. Nonetheless, certain circles in the United States as well as in a number of other NATO countries are disseminating conjecture and yarns, and their "commentaries" on the accident are reaching the point of absurdity. They are trying to present the accident as virtually an international crisis. The American press and TV are whipping up a fear campaign. Demands are being voiced for the United States to be granted the right of "immedi- ate inspection and investigation of the circumstances on the spot." For what reason? As is well known, from 1971 through 1984 there were 151 accidents at nuclear stations in 14 countries, and this reaction was never observed in Washington. The explanation is simple if one reads certain Western press commentaries or ponders certain recent events. By artificially whipping up a fuss they clearly want to divert the world public's attention away from the barbarity and shame of the recent U.S. aggression against Libya. Away from the nuclear explosions in Nevada that are alarming all mankind. Away from the militarist "star wars" program. This, and by no means people's health, is what the organizers of the propaganda shows are concerned about. Sensible people worldwide realize that an accident has happened from which nobody is safe. Conclusions will be drawn from it to the benefit of the entire world community, which has not yet managed to entirely rule out accidents at nuclear power stations that have already been built. The USSR advocates cooperation among states in this sphere too, believing that nuclear power ought to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. Obviously, some people among the proponents of continuing the nuclear arms race in the "NATO sphere" clearly saw a threat to them- selves in this. That, clearly, is why they decided to whip up a larger-scale propaganda "smoke screen" in the hope of poisoning the international atmosphere. This zeal, to put it bluntly, is senseless. Donald Regan Criticized for Remarks PM071026 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 7 May 86 First Edition p 5 [T. Vasilyev rejoinder: "At the Level of Neanderthals"] [Text] The United States is continuing to escalate the anti-Soviet campaign connected with the accident at the Chernobyl AES. What is more, high-ranking White House spokesmen have joined in during the past few days. Thus, appearing on an NBC televi- sion program on Sunday, White House Chief of Staff D. Regan evidently decided to break the records for insinuations against the Soviet Union. He repeated the irksome fabrications about the USSR's "reluctance" to provide the "whole world" with detailed information about what had happened, adding that the Soviet Union had supposedly cut itself off from everyone in this matter behind a "stone wall." Entering into the role of an arbitrator, he even launched into a "profound" discourse to the effect that this is "unworthy of a civilized nation." Mr Regan, who, thanks to his post, bears considerable responsibility for Washington's pre- sent foreign policy course, is the last person who should philoso- phize on the subject of what is worthy and what is unworthy of a "civilized nation," if only because, precisely as a result of this adventurist course, an unprecedented threat of nuclear anni- hilation,now hangs over all human civilization. It is permissible to ask Mr Regan: Is such a policy worthy of a civilized nation? Is it worthy, while considering yourselves to be "civilized" people, at the same time to pile up mountains of weapons designed for the mass destruction of millions and demonstratively wreck the Soviet moratorium on nuclear tests by refusing to heed elementary logic and common sense? No, this is not how civilized people behave. Rather, it is the level of thinking of Neanderthals. This is what the Washington figures who are bent on making their contribution to fanning anti-Soviet hysteria ought to remember. 176 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY U.S. 'Fabrications' Said 'Nasty' PM071332 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 7 May 86 Morning Edition p 5 [Report by own correspondent A. Palladin: [Text] Washington ? The other day eminent lawyer (T. Edkin- son) was arrested in a Washington suburb. The former head of the "Democrats for Reagan" organization was kept in isolation because he had maltreated his young son by forcing him to watch horror movies on television. To ensure that (Edkinson) Jr. did not take his eyes off the screen (Edkinson) Sr. held a loaded pistol at 1'is temple and even threatened him with a real grenade... Since last Monday the local press has been doing something similar with the U.S. population. From early in the morning till late at night ? around the clock in the case of some television companies ? it has been bombarding its fellow citizens with incredible reports, commentaries, and interviews on the accident at the Chernobyl AES. What happened there, or rather what did not happen, is being used as an excuse for further "brainwashing" with a giant dose of anti-Sovietism. What is particularly nasty about this operation is the fact that it is allegedly prompted by humane motives. The U.S. press has even cast off the camouflage of "impartiality and factuality" and is openly applying the "a little bird told me" principle. This is the source of a UPI fabrication to the effect that the accident at the Chernobyl AES has killed 2,000 people. On what grounds, one wonders, have they multiplied the true figure by 1,000? neither more nor less? These "figures" were apparently provided by "a woman living in Kiev." And this fable, masquerading as a fact, did the rounds of the local newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. But the purveyors of lies did attain one of their goals. Tourists began to return to the United States from the USSR. They are being greeted here as if they escaped death by a miracle. There was a similar spectacle in October 1983 involving U.S. students in Grenada who also had their "eyes opened" to the alleged threat of disaster, but whereas at that time the people who had been "plucked out of the communist hell" were compelled to kiss their native soil, on this occasion the new arrivals are being made to shake the foreign soil off their shoes so that it can be immediately checked for radioactivity. This is all done very ostentatiously, the voices of impartial experts ("They are all in fine shape" ? Charles [Meinhold], for example, a local public health worker, said, having checked the tourists at New York airport) almost lost in the clicking of camera shutters and whirring of movie cameras. The cacophony of fiction, fabrication, and all the other devices intended to create maximum hysteria is being conducted by personages in official garb, such as retired Marine (Steven Simms), now a senator, and former State Department employee (Nadia O'Shea), are openly preaching hatred of our country ("A pity the accident did not happen in the Kremlin" ? [Simms] lamented. As far as Russians are concerned, the more people killed the better," ? [O'Shea] gleefully remarked). Others, lead- ing State Department officials prominent among them, prefer the quiet method, engaging in incitement. This department is bom- barding ordinary Americans with "information," basically advising people to keep as far away as possible from the USSR's borders. And people in state service, for example, employees at the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw, have been told to send the mem- bers of their households "to a safer place." It is interesting that so far no one has taken the bait, although volunteers are being tempted by the promise that all their expenses will be paid. The coverage of the emergencies involving nuclear submarines in THE NEW YORK TIMES was brief, a note in small print, hidden at the very bottom of page six. THE WASHINGTON POST printed a similar report, but on page nine. Space is at a premium in the U.S. papers at the moment: They are all full of fabrications about the Chernobyl AES. U.S. 'Inventions' Reach 'New Apogee' LD070904 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 0800 GMT 6 May 86 [Excerpts] In recent months the world public views with under- standable concern the political carryings-on of the current U.S. Administration which have a clearly provocative character. They are grasping at any pretext in order to even further inflame the already tense situation, to sow mistrust and dissension between peoples, and poison the political climate. All this is to draw attention from the criminal, aggressive U.S. acts such as the recent bombing of Libya and the undeclared wars against Afghanistan, Angola, and Nicaragua, and so as to justify strengthening the arms race, continuing nuclear tests, and refus- ing to accept the Soviet peaceful initiatives. In recent days escalation of these provocative actions has reached a new apogee. 177 The U.S. state apparatus and the mass information media which are obedient to it have put into circulation inventions on the subject of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. A week ago an explosion took place here which destroyed structural elements of the building housing the reactor. Radio- activity was partially discharged upward and then a fire started inside. It was unusually difficult to extinguish it. However, measures to ensure the safety of the population and control what was happening were made very swiftly. Many thousands of inhabitants were evacuated in a short time from the Chernobyl FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 run %fur ILIAL UL UNLI atomic station's settlement and the area adjacent to it. Work to eliminate the accident is now continuing at the atomic power station. Work is now underway to dyke up the Pripyat River in the atomic power station area in order to prevent its possible pollution. In Kiev, Chernigov, and other major cities and small settlements, the environment is being closely monitored. Additional measures to eliminate the consequences of the accident have been taken. Despite the entire complexity of the situation that took shape after the accident at the 4th power generating unit, order reigned all the time and continues to reign now in the nuclear power station's settlement and nearby villages. West Covering Up N?Weapons Issue LD080218 Moscow Television. Service in Russian 1700 GMT 7 May 86' [Commentary by Tomas Kolesnichenko, PRAVDA editor of the International Informa? tion Department; from the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] Hello Comrades! The furor over the aceident at the Chernobyl AES is not abating in the West. Moreover, one gets the impression that some people, especially in the United States, are actively fanning this furor, spreading various fables on the consequences of the accident as a kind of authentic facts, at the same time acusing the Soviet Union of allegedly not providing sufficient information about what has happened. Let us leave this to the conscience of those who are speculating on the accident, using it to whip up anti-Soviet campaign. One can only remind? you once again that the relevant reports on the accident were provided by the Soviet Union to the governments of many countries, including the United States. The question arises however in connection with this sensation: Are they not trying in Washington and in other NATO countries' capitals, to rearrange the cards, so to speak, and to substitute one problem by another? After all, if one is to show concern in connection with nuclear matters, then one should evidently think above all of those enormous accumulations of nuclear weapons, 'which continue to grow, precisely as a result of the policy of the United States and its allies. It is these that present the real danger fraught with catastrophe for the whole of mankind. Scientists, both Soviet and foreign, have calculated ? and this, incidentally has been published in the press ? that if there is a thermo- nuclear catastrophe one could expect the death of about one half - of mankind as a consequence of direct effects of nuclear weapons alone, while the 'total number of casualties might reach over 2 billion people. It is about this and other terrible consequences connected with the use of nuclear weapons that the propagandist centers of the West overlook as often as possible, especially while Washington is demonstratively wrecking the Soviet moratorium on any nuclear explosHoons, and the United States istelf, is preparing to put mass annihilation weapons into space. Today one must always remember that the main question which determines the fate of mankind is how to remove the nuclear threat. Everyone knows our peaceful initiatives. They indicate a ? realistic way to the goal, so that forces of reason should gain the upper hand over the crazy, dangerous policy of the nuclear maniacs. Unfortunately people cannot yet exclude the word "accident," from their vocabulary, but mankind is already quite mature enough for the words "nuclear war," to disappear from their vocabulary forever. Kiev Radio Attacks West' s Reports LD061030 Kiev in Ukrainian to North America [Text] Who is fanning an anti-Soviet rumpus, and why? Some Western news agencies and other mass media in the last few days have been busy spreading obviously false rumors about the consequences of the accident which took place in the USSR at the Chernobyl AES. Accurate information about what took place has been published. The numbers were given of those who died ? two people ? and of the people who were hospitalized ? 197. Information has been given about the measures taken, about the fact that a, chain reaction of the nuclear fuel is not taking place and about the work to clean up the adjoining district and to give assistance to the local population. 178 2100 GMT 3 May 86 It would seem that there are no grounds for gossip and rumors. In the press, and in television and radio programs of a number of countries, reports are appearing, one more nightmarish than the next, both about thousands of dead, and about the mass evac- uation of Kiev, and about the fact that supposedly the USSR has turned to Western countries with a request to receive for treatment people who have suffered from radiation. All of this is obviously a lie, from the first to the last word. The data on the numbers who suffered has just been cited. Kiev is leading a peaceful life, which was appropriately mentioned in appearances on Soviet television by citizens of Britain and France who were forced by their embassies to completely leave the Soviet Union. The USSR has not turned to other countries with any kind of FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY requests about the hospitalization of those who suffered. All of this is obviously known to the disseminators of dirty rumors. However, they are continuing to excell in telling lies. The simplest thing to do would be to blame everything on Western propaganda, which is striving to blow up a sensation in any way possible, even using the Most underhand methods. This did, of course, play its role, but now the repercussions from the hullabaloo created are primarily political. Thus, it is no coinci- dence that obviously false information is accompanied, for exam- ple, by deliberations to the effect that the accident that occurred somehow undermines the very possibility of establishing reliable monitoring of a stop to nuclear tests and nuclear weapons limi- tation. At the same time, data about the consequences of the accident are by no means a secret. It is very indicative that many foreign experts ? in Sweden and the United States, for example ? assessed the nature of the consequences on the basis of objective scientific information and came to the conclusion that they do not present any danger. Moreover, these conclusions by scientists are hushed up as a rule by the mass media. All this has its own internal logic. The organizers of the anti- Soviet campaign feel obliged to force people to believe that the Soviet Union is the source of the threat of a nuclear death. In this way they hope to make the masses forget about the real threat of 15,000 nuclear warheads in West Europe, about the fact that new U.S. medium-range missiles are currently being deployed there. Western propagandists are doing everything they can to stifle the protests of the world public against the nuclear explosions being carried on by the United States and to lead the Western countries to refuse to adopt the constructive Soviet proposals aimed at nuclear disarmament. The anti-Soviet rumpus following the accident at the Chernobyl AES is also serving these aims. Poland's Urban Condemns 'Inventiona'. LD071305 Moscow TASS in English 1218 GMT 7 May 86 [Text] Warsaw May 7 TASS ? Addressing a press conference here, a spokesman for the Polish Government has strongly con- demned the various inventions and cock-and-bull stories issued by bourgeois propaganda in connection with spreading to Poland of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. He said that a certain number of the Western news media, first and foremost the subversive "Free Europe" radio station, were deliberately trying to use in their programmes beamed to Poland the accident at the nuclear power plant with [as received] their political ends, to frighten that country's population and cause panic in order to heighten tensions and use what happened against the Polish state, against the vital interests of the Polish people. "Free Europe" was hysterically shouting that the "Polish leadership was concealing from the population the threat, which has emerged", that "the Polish authorities preferred to remain tight-lipped instead of saving people." Thus, "Free Europe", THE WASHINGTON POST and the "Voice of America" as well as the French LIBERATION, which echoed "Free Europe", were doing their utmost in an attempt at undermining trust in the measures, which were taken by the Polish authorities. I wish to say in all responsibility, the government spokesman said, that the Polish people were informed about the radioactivity level which emerged, and about preventive measures, timely and conscientiously. There was no peril to human health in Poland anywhere, nobody fled anywhere, and schools were not closed, contrary to the Western propaganda claims. The radioactivity which emerged in Poland, albeit it was greater than before the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, was nevertheless not dangerous to human health. This was also later confirmed by American experts. Then what right had Western propaganda to try to cause panic in Poland and arouse distrust in its authorities? In the name of what human rights was that done? Certain forces in the West thus had recourse to heinous methods, but they could not care less about the safety of the Polish people. The spokesman for the Polish Government said: We wish to tell a number of governments and political forces in the West, which have recently all of a sudden displayed the wish to help Poland with medicines and foods ? Stop trying to harm Poland. This is the only thing we want. This will be the best, and for that matter, free assistance to the Poles. Western propaganda is engaged in a foul game, its sights being set against the Soviet Union. This is a new kind of the same political gambling, in which the Western press has been engaged from the very outset of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Yet, no attempts of this kind will ever upset Polish- Soviet relations of friendship and trust, the spokesman for the Polish Government stressed. 179 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY French Reaction Assessed LD071944 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1500 GMT 7 May 86 [Report by Paris correspondent Oleg Maksimenko] [Text] Anti-Soviet radioactivity. One could use this headline from one of the articles publised in L'HUMANITE, the press organ of the French Communists, to express the attitude of the majority of local mass information media to the accident at the Soviet atomic power station at Chernobyl. French students were attending courses in Kiev. On the pages of the press the cry rang out: We must save our fellow country- men. They flew home without delay. At CharIgs de Gaulle Airport they underwent extremely strict checks for the presence of radiation. Naturally, no signs of its presence were discovered but the deed was done. The incident with the students played its role. It served for the further whipping up in France of unfriendly attitudes toward our country. But things were not limited to distorting the facts. Soon the bourgeois press began to argue that the Soviet Union was an unreliable partner and that with such a partner it was not possible to try to solve the problem of disarmament. Accepting at face value the U.S. version that the scale of the accident was much greater, the papers virtually totally ignored our information. The conclusion that was palmed off onto the reader was simple: The USSR cannot be trusted. The sober voices of some French specialists and scientists were drowned out in this anti-Soviet choir. But the truth will out. Now, everyone here has been obliged to admit that what happened was precisely what the USSR reported. In the science of the future, which is what nuclear power generation is, such things can happen; and this is well understood in France. Such accidents have happened on several occasions in the West. The question arises: Who needed to spread here anti-Soviet radioactive fall- out? Perhaps this is needed by the Reagan administration which initiated the whipping up throughout the world of the hysteria and psychosis about the Chernobyl events. But does France need this? MOSCOW PARTY CHIEF YELTSIN INTERVIEWED ON ACCIDENT DW070951 Hamburg STERN in German 7 May 86 p 245 [Interview with Boris Yeltsin, candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee and party chief of Moscow, by correspondents Dieter Guett and Uwe Zimmer in Hamburg, no date given] r [Text] STERN: Why did the Soviet Union so belatedly and incompletely inform its own people and those of its neighbor countries about the seriousness of the accident? Yeltsin: Obviously we are applying different yardsticks. The Western press is overly active and commits blunders more often than not. We are striving for 100-percent truth and therefore sometimes suffer in speed. We had no intention of suppressing news we had in our possession. The accident happened on Satur- day, 26 April. The government dealt with it the next day, and we ! informed Western governments and the United States on 28 ; April, consonant with the information we had at that time. What c we had in mind was building confidence. After all, we were not 1 obligated by any international treaty or any convention torotify other countries about the nuclear power pia accident. 'STERN: What exactly happened in Chernobyl? Yeltsin: There are different versions. One possibility is that in preparing the reactor for maintenance work, proper procedures rwere norobierved7The?tigultant, highly?exploiive co- mpound7 ignited. As a consequence of the explosion, part of the reactor ; building was damaged and the reactor itself leaked, whereupon I radiation escaped. STERN: What caused the leak in the reactor? - + ; Yeltsin: I'? We do not know that yet. At this moment we are not sending any human beings directly into the scene of the accident because of the danger of radiation. At this time the leaky reactor is being covered up with sand, boion, and lead to seal the leak. ; STERN: ' ,You mean to say that radioactivity continues to; ?..: .Yeltsin: . Radioactivity is being checked at 2-hour intervals. It 1 dropped g hundredfold on 1 May. 1 180 STERN: How many people were hurt in the accident? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOB OFFICIAL USE ONLY 7 Yeltsini.?We have evacuated 49,000 people from four settle- ments in a radius of 30 km. This was done directly after the ' "breakdown." That territory was blocked off. ? ? ; STERN: Western newspapers quote eyewitnesses who claim to know that there were more than 2,000 dead. ; f Yeltsin: I can only react to those figures with outrage. The so-called free press propagates many lies. Actually two people were killed. It is possible that there will be a few more casualties. Some 20-30 people were affected by a high dose of radiation. So: many people were at the site of the accident, but in no case were there hundreds of victims, let alone thousands. Livestock Within a radius of 30 km was slaughtered. People found to have been I contaminated with an increased dose of radiation were hospital- ized. Some of them have since been released. ' STERN: At the party congress... Yeltsin: ...begging your pardon: I have asked for some translations from BILD-ZEITUNG. "Thousands of injured peo- ple" ? that is a lie. "Two reactors afire" ? that is a lie. "The , core and the reactor proper have melted" ? also a lie. There are. no refugees, either on the roads or elsewhere. "Drinking water is short" ? that is also a lie. All levels are absolutely safe in the rivers. The newspaper writes that there will not be any foodstuffs to be had soon and that famine will ensue. Does STERN also have the nerve to print something like that? ? ? STERN: We are not from BILD-ZEITUNG. Yeltsin: I am really upset because it is entirely without basis. It is not attributable to any information whatsoever. ? STERN: At the CPSU party congress in February you deli- vered a scorching speech against slovenliness and lack of dis-. , cipline. Is it possible that slovenly work was done at Chernobyl? Yeltsin: There were objections that cropped up during the , construction of the installation about faults that later were corrected. At this time we have no reason to speak of slovenliness on anybody's part because we do not know the cause of the accident. Should people have been culpable, they will be severely punished. STERN: Have the other 20 reactors of the same design been ? switched off in the meantime? Yeltsin: No. STERN: Even though you cannot rule out a technological* fault as the potential cause of the accident? COPYRIGHT: 1986 Gruner & Jahr AG & Co. 181 YeltsinF'lt goes without saying that we switched off the otheil ithree reactors at Chernobyl. They are in a condition where they ; can be connected to the grid again at any time. Perhaps it is just *! a person who must be blamed for the accident, in which case we do not need a new system. All we must do is exclude the influence on the entire system of a single person. Once the causes are clear, it may be necessary to review some norms, yet the fundamental technologies will be retained. . r?;. 1?? 1, ? STERN: Does that also apply to the gigantic energy program, ? ,which envisages doubling the power supply by the year 2000? , ? , Yeltsin: ?? Work on that program, which provides for the con- struction of many new nuclear power plants, will be continued. ! At the same time measures will be taken to safeguard against 1 Why did the Soviet Union decline offers of assis- , "breakdowns" such as at Chernobyl. STERN: tance? i..YeltsiirirrWOnitiiTiea;iTarii-niicientific point of view, w-e7 ',have ample means for handling the matter on our own. There is : I:no need to approach other countries for help to eliminate the hconsequences of the accident. - . ? STERN: , Do you believe that the reactor accident will affect t international relations? Western governments can hardly musterl 'any understanding for Soviet information policy. Yeltsin: There was, formerly, a certain reserve in the informa- tion policy of our country. In the most recent past, under the new leadership, I cannot recall any case in which anything was held .%arck. Just as in any family, though, an accident must not end up confrontation. .STERN: Will the summit between President Reagan and 'Gorbachev take place before the end of the year? iYeltsin: The probability of a summit meeting has not ; increased. A meeting for the mere purpose of shaking hands I would be useless. The two know each other. What is needed now is a meeting to solve problems. The only conclusion we can draw 4; from the deportment of the United States is that the United I: States thus far has nothing to suggest; and it disagrees with our proposals. Now, I have a question myself. Do you believe me? ?i !Look into my eyes.: FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For 'Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BLIX, ROSEN CONTINUE VISIT, HOLD PRESS CONFERENCE Visit Chernobyl Area LD081721 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1630 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Blix, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the IAEA, who is in our country at the invitation of the Soviet Government, has visited Kiev. Today he toured the area of the Chernobyl AES. With him were Comrade Petrosyants, chairman of the State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy; Comrade Gurenko, deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR; Comrade Konstantinov, deputy director general of the IAEA; and Rosen, director of the Depart- ment of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA. Explanations were given by Academician Comrade Velikhov, vice president,of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and Comrade Sidorenko, first deputy chairman of the State Committee for Safety in the USSR Atomic Power Industry. More on Visit to Area LD091303 Moscow TASS in English 1255 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? The IAEA officials who had arrived in the USSR in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station had "an opportunity to get the picture of the accident during very frank and open talks," Hans Blix, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), said at a press conference here today. He said that the IAEA officials had visited Kiev, where they had had talks with Stanislav Gurenko, deputy chairman of the Coun- cil of Ministers of the Ukraine, Academician Yevgeniy Velikhov, and Professor Viktor Sidorenko, deputy chairman of the Com- mittee for Atomic Power and Safety. Velikhov and Sidorenko are supervising the removal of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Hans Blix said that they had been taken by helicopter over the city of Chernobyl 18 kilometres outside the atomic power station and over the station itself and that they had viewed the damaged unit from a distance of 800 metres. Blix Comments on Tour of Site LD081856 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1700 GMT 8 May 86 [Report on interview with Hans Blix, IAEA general director; Bllx remarks in English with superimposed Russian translation--from the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] Hans Blix, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the IAEA, who is in our country at the invitation of the Soviet Government, has visited Kiev. Today he spent some time in the area of the Chernobyl atomic power station. [video shows Blix climbing out of a helicopter on a landing strip. He is wearing dark green overalls and a white cap and has a broad smile on his face throughout the interview. Three other men leave the helicopter with him, two of them wearing white gloves in 182 addition to the above-mentioned garments. Blix's inteiipreter introduces him to the "Ukrainian TV" film crew] [Unnamed correspondent] Mr Blix, you have just flown around the site of the Chernobyl atomic power station accident. What is your opinion? What do you have to say on the subject? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 run urrnAiii, U316 VNLI [Blix] Well, we have seen the site from the air and we have seen that A little smoke is still coming up from the damaged part. We have also seen that there is a lot of activity to contain the reactor and to keep it under control. And we have also been informed by the competent persons about this work. [Correspondent] What can you say about the intensiveness of the work? [Blix] Well, they have evidently had very heavy work to do in the past 2 weeks and have been successful and we hope that they will continue to stabilize the situation. Sees Reactor From 800 Meters Away LD091127 Moscow TASS in English 1124 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? The director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Hans Blix, said today that he had been able to see the Chernobyl nuclear power station from a distance of 800 meters and that there was a good deal of activity under way there to keep the reactor under control. Speaking at a new conference in the Press Center of the Soviet Foreign Ministry, he said competent officials from Soviet orga- nizations had provided him with detailed information about the work being done. Blix informed the attending Soviet and foreign newsmen of the main provisions of a communique on the results of his stay in the Soviet Union. The news conference was also addressed by Morris Rosen, director of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Division, who gave the reporters the details of the Chernobyl accident and the measures being taken to deal with its conse4ences. Rosen Says Levels 'Stabilizing LD091143 Moscow TASS in English 1123 GMT 9 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? At a press conference in Moscow today for Soviet and foreign correspondents, the IAEA Director of Nuclear Safety Division Morris Rosen mentioned his flight yesterday on board a helicopter at a distance of some 800 metres from the damaged 4th unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. "There is relatively little radioactive release from the 4th unit", he said. "The situation appears to be stabilizing and radioactive reading, taken from the helicopter, confirms this conclusion". He added that no damage had been caused to the safety arrangements of the 3rd unit. Answering questions he also said that "temperature readings are decreasing" and that infrared studies showed that there were "no large hot-spot areas" at the station. 183 May 86 Referring to "a small amount of smoke emanating from the unit" he said that whereas graphite fire has a dark colour this smoke was light grey. Morris Rosen also noted that the radiation level in the Kiev reservoir was normal throughout the period following the acci- dent at the Chernobyl station. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Says 204 'Affected by Radiation' LD091349 Moscow TASS in English 1342 GMT [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? Morris Rosen, director of the Nuclear Safety Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency, today gave at a press conference in Moscow a provisional evaluation of the causes and consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. So far there are only hypotheses regarding the specific reasons for the accident. Research and detailed analysis are under way. Fire in the fourth unit of the station caused extensive damage in the reactor itself and the reactor core, resulting in radioactive releases beyond the nuclear power station area. The chain reac- tion automatically stopped at the time of the accident. This is confirmed by the fact that medical examination of persons affected showed no evidence of high neutron flux exposure. The work of fire teams was complicated by the fact that neither water nor chemicals could be used. Firemen and some nuclear power station personnel were among those injured by radiation. Most residents in adjacent areas were indoors at the time of thd accident thus reducing their exposure. 9 May 86 In the early morning of the 26th of ApriVmonitoring equipment registered increased radioactivity and reported this. Evacuation began on the 27th of April, starting with women and children. Up to 48,000 people were evacuated from Chernobyl and other locations within a 30-kilometre radius. As a preventive measure, potassium iodine tablets were widely distributed inside as well as outside the 30-km zone. 204 persons, including nuclear power station personnel and fire fighters, were affected by radiation from 1st degree to 4th degree, ? 18 persons being in the 4th degree. All 204 persons were hospital- ized in Moscow and treated medically. In some cases bone marrow transplants were performed. The radioactive releases from the damaged unit have been signif- icantly reduced by shielding and neutron absorbing material ? sand, boron, clay, dolomite and lead ?dropped from helicopters over the reactor, resulting in decreasing radioactivity levels in the 30-km zone. Rosen: 'Temperatures Remain High' LD091359 Moscow TASS in English 1355 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS --The director of the International Atomic Energy Agency's department for nuclear safety, Morris Rosen, said today that "necessary shift personnel work on the site (of the Chernobyl nuclear power station) to keep the undamaged reactors in safe shut-down conditions". Speaking at a news conference in Moscow, he added: The third reactor adjacent to the fourth was not damaged in the accident, and its safety systems for cooling are functioning." "The damaged reactor suffered some fire in parts of the graphite. These fires have been extinguished but temperatures remain high," he said. "The aim is to encase the whole fourth unit in concrete and work has begun to place a concrete foundation under the reactor." "Maximum radiation level within the 30-kilometer zone has been 10;15 millirem/hour," Rosen said. "By the 5th of May it had decreased to 2-3 millirem/hour. On the 8th of May it had dropped to a maximum of 0.15 at the perimeter of the zone. The level of radioactivity in Kiev's water reservoir was within normal limits at all times." 'Very Frank, Open' Talks Cited LD091054 Moscow TASS in English 1050 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? "We had very frank and open talks" with senior Soviet officials and "agreed on certain actions", the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agepcy (IAEA) Hans Blix said referring to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. He spoke at a press conference for Soviet and foreign jourhalists at the Press Centre of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs today. Hans Blix visited the Soviet Union at the invitation of the USSR Government. It was agreed, he said, that the Soviet side would "continuously release data to the IAEA" as of today and that Soviet specialists would come to Vienna for a post-accident analysis in order to assist IAEA member-states to learn from this accident and thus to further improve nuclear power safety. 184 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Blix Asked About Causes of Chernobyl LD091109 Moscow TASS in English 1055 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] .Moscow May 9 TASS Today, the last day of his visit to the USSR, Hans Blix, the IAEA director general, held a press conference for Soviet and foreign correspondents. Asked whether the information furnished by the Soviet side concerning the Chernobyl accident was extensive and exhaustive, Hans Blix said: "Emphatically yes". When a question was put about the causes of the accident, Hans Blix gave the floor to the IAEA director of the Nuclear Safety Division Morris Rosen to answer it. "There are many guesses", Morris Rosen said, but it is "much more prudent to wait" for results of further analysis. Blix on Smoke, Major Work at Reactor HK090052 Hong Kong AFP in English 0038 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 9 (AFP) ? International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Chief Hans Blix said Thursday night that he saw "a little smoke" coming from a damaged reactor and "major work" still underway at the crippled Chernobyl Soviet nuclear power plant when he flew over the site earlier in the day. Soviet authorities issued conflicting reports about whether the fire at Chernobyl was still burning 13 days after the nuclear disaster there, and a Western diplomat said the evacuation of the nearby town had only been completed two days earlier, leaving thousands of inhabitants exposed to high radiation for more than a week. Meanwhile, the 12-nation European Economic Community (EEC) suspended meat and some animal imports from seven East European countries because of possible radioactive contamina- tion. In an interview shown on Soviet television shortly after Mr Blix flew over Chernobyl in a helicopter, the 1AEA's director-general said he had seen "a little smoke" escaping from a damaged reactor. After the trip, he told Soviet journalists at the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, 130 kms (80 miles) away, that he had seen "major work" underway but that authorities "are controlling" the situation. "It's obvious that during these past two weeks, work has been carried out successfully (at Chernobyl). We hope the situation will stabilize in the future," Mr Blix said. More than 1,300 doctors and medical workers, assisted by 240 ambulances, had been working in recent days as "during war- time" to rescue residents from the contaminated region, the Soviet news agency TASS said. Soviet reports have said two people were killed and some 200 hospitalized as a result of the accident, believed to have been caused by a chemical explosion. (The Yugoslav news agency TANJUG reported that a third person died Thursday morning in a Soviet hospital.) Urgent cases were taken to the main hospital in Kiev and specialized clinics there, TASS said in a major report from special envoys at the site. Without specifying the total number of people evacuated, TASS described one case ? "the village of Peskovka which took in more than 2,000 people who had left the danger zone." Eminent Soviet specialists had arrived from Moscow and Lenin- grad to help in the rescue work, TASS said, including the vice-president of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. TASS did not mention U.S. specialists Gale and Teraski who had gone to Moscow to do bone marrow transplants on people worst hit by radiation. ? "Those workers at the power station and firemen who had suffered worst in the accident were transferred by plane to Moscow," TASS said. 185 The government newspaper IZVESTIYA earlier reported that the fire was still smouldering at Chernobyl and indicated that authorities faced serious difficulties in containing the after- effects of the disaster. (In Bonn, an Interior Ministry spokesman said West German nuclear experts feared the fused core of a reactor at the plant ? which has four reactors ? might be boring into the earth after having destroyed the building's concrete foundations.) But the premier of the Ukrainian Republic, Alexander Liyashko, told visiting foreign journalists in Kiev that the disabled reactor was "no longer burning." Its temperature had dropped to around 300 degrees centigrade (575 Fahrenheit), and radioactivity levels "continue to drop." FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The. fire that ravaged the fourth reactor at the power station reached the roof of a building protecting the third reactor before it was put out, the newspaper SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA reported in Moscow. It said 17 firemen were hospitalized and 50 "platoons" of firemen had been sent to the site from Kiev and the surrounding region. It did not report any damage to the third reactor. (In Brussels, a spokesman for the EEC Executive Commission said the community had suspended until May 31 all meat imports, as well as those of live cows and pigs, from seven Eastern European countries due to possible contamination from radioac- tive fallout from the stricken Soviet nuclear plant. (The ban, to start on Saturday, affected imports from the Soviet Union, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia, but not East Germany. (EEC governments are to rule shortly on other items ? including sheep, fowl, fresh dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables and freshwater fish.) The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia strongly protested the ban, TASS saying EEC reports of contamination were "inventions," and Yugoslav authorities saying the decision was not based on official Yugoslav radiation levels. Blix Emphasizes Objective Reporting LD091202 Moscow TASS in EnglisH 1155 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? At a one-and-a-half hour press conference here today for Soviet and foreign correspondents the IAEA director general Hans Blix emphasised the "importance of objective reporting" when asked to comment on coverage in the West of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A correspondent's duty is "not to sensationalise" but to report, he said. However, he went on, accidents at nuclear power plants are very difficult things to write about since this involves extremely complicated technical and scientific problems. One needs "first to understand them," he added. Rosen Confirms Reactor Shutdown LD091225 Moscow TASS in\ English 1210 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 9 TASS ? "The chain reaction (at the Chernobyl nuclear power station) automatically stopped at the time of the accident," Morris Rosen, director of the International Atomic Energy Agency's nuclear safety division, told a news conference here today. Together with IAEA Director-General Hans Blix he had visited the area of the accident. Rosen said the fact that the reactor had been shut down "is confirmed by the fact that medical examination of persons affected showed no evidence of high neutron flux exposure." He denied rumors of the third reactor having been damaged in the accident, saying: "Its safety systems for cooling are func- tioning." "The level of radioactivity in Kiev's water reservoir was within normal limits at all times," Rosen said. 186 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Visit Concludes 9 May LD091305 Moscow TASS in English 1300 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS--Hans Blix, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), today left the Soviet Union. He had paid a visit to the USSR at the invitation of the Soviet Government. Communique Issued on Visit LD091029 Moscow TASS in English 1016 GMT 9 May 86 ["Communique on Blix Visit to USSR"--TASS item identifier] [Text) Moscow May 9 TASS ?On the invitation from the USSR Government the director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Hans Blix visited the Soviet Union from 5 to 9 May 1986. He was accompanied by the Deputy Director-General L.V. Konstantinov and the Director of the Nuclear Safety Division M. Rosen. H. Blix and the IAEA specialists accompanying him were received by the Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers B.E. Shcherbina, at the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs and at the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. In the course of the visit H. Blix and the specialists accompanying him were provided information pertaining to the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (N PS). Ways of further enhancing nuclear power safety by strengthened international cooperation and increasing the IAEA role in this area were discussed. The Soviet experts gave the IAEA representatives detailed infor- mation about the accident at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPS and about the measures taken for the elimination of consequences of the accident. H. Blix was informed that necessary operational personnel are present at the three undamaged Chernobyl NPS units, which are shut down. Blix and his colleagues accepted the invitation to visit the Chernobyl NPS area, where they received additional informa- tion as to on-site conditions and measures being taken for the elimination of consequences of the accident. 187 In response to the request from the director-general of the IAEA, the Soviet side expressed its willingness to provide, as soon as it is available, information on the accident, to be discussed at a- meeting of nuclear safety experts in order to assist IAEA member-states to learn from this accident and thus to further improve nuclear power safety. The Soviet side is ready to provide the IAEA with information on the level of radiation from a station located at the distance of 60 km from the NPS and from several other stations located along the Western border of the USSR; the agency will be distributing this information to national radiation protection authorities concerned. The Soviet side stated that the accident will not affect the implementation of nuclear power development plans in the Soviet Union. Ways of further improving nuclear power safety were discussed as well as international measures which may be usefully devel- oped within the framework of the IAEA in order to minimize possible consequences of nuclear power accidents. Both parties noted that such measures may include the development of a timely warning mechanism on radioactivity releases which could affect areas beyond national boundaries, provision of information on background level of radioactivity, and the introduction of possible additional technical measures in nuclear facilities for the prevention of accidents and reducing their consequences. Both parties stressed the importance of IAEA activities, those directed to nuclear safety as well as those directed to ensure a totally peaceful utilization of nuclear power. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ORF: GOVERNMENT ADMITS INHABITANTS FLEEING KIEV AU081411 Vienna ORF Teletext in German 1400 GMT 8 May 86 [Excerpt] Moscow--The government has admitted for the first time that Kiev inhabitants are fleeing the city because of the nuclear power plant accident. Additional trains and planes are being made available to enable inhabitants of this area to leave. Hundreds of schoolchildren with their mothers have arrived today in Moscow from Kiev. Instances of poisoning with medicines have been reported. Authorities speak about panic reactions. Certain people believed that they could protect themselves against radiation by taking medicines. ANNOUNCEMENT: USSR GOODS POSE NO RADIATION HAZARDS PM091124 Moscow KRASNAYA-ZVEZDA in Russian 9 May 86 Second Edition ["TASS Announcement"--TASS headline] iTextj ? Fabrications that Soviet export goods and means of transportation are hazardous because of their "radioactive con- tamination" have been launched in the West in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. A number of West European countries have taken measures to restrict the import of food products and other goods from the USSR and some European CMEA countries. Such actions undermine the purposes of international agreements on trade, on economic, industrial, scientific and technical cooperation concluded between those countries and the USSR and are not in keeping with the generally accepted prac- tice of solving problems arising in international trade. Competent state bodies of the USSR have taken and continue taking the necessary effective measures. Soviet goods and means of transportation do not pose radiation hazards either to the population of our country, or to citizens of other states. UKRAINIAN OFFICIAL 9 MAY: AES FIRE 'CONTINUING' 5 AU090812 Paris AFP in English 0807 GMT 9 May 86 [Excerpts] Kiev, Soviet Union, May 9 (AFP)--The fire at Chernobyl "is con? tinuing" a senior Soviet official said here Friday, in remarks that countered earlier statements that the blaze at the stricken nuclear plant had been put out. 188 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "The extinction of the fire" was still being carried out, said Ivan Plyushch, an official responsible for the Kiev region. He added that radioactivity leaking from the damaged reactor had dropped from between 180-190 Roentgens on Thursday to 113 Roentgens Friday. Mr. Plyushch's remarks ran counter to a statement here Thursday by Alexander Lyashko, premier of the Ukrainian Republic, that the plant's disabled No 4 reactor was "no longer burning." Soviet technicians have dumped tons of boron, lead and sand onto the plant in an effort to form a protective shield. Published reports in the West say that the molten reactor core is burning through the building's concrete foundations. Meanwhile, the Ukrainian minister for health, Anatoliy Romanenko, and Kiev Mayor Valentin Zgurski, told journalists that radioactivity at Kiev was falling and was currently being recorded at 0.15 milliroentgens, which they said was a "normal" level. However, they said that 250,000 Kiev children aged from 7 to 14 would be allowed to leave the city next Thursday to go to holiday camp. They denied that it was an evacuation, saying it was only a step to bring forward annual school holidays by a week. Parents who do not wish to send their children to camp have been advised to send them elsewhere, while parents of children of pre- school age have been authorised to leave Kiev, they said. UKRAINIAN PREMIER: REACTOR 'NO LONGER BURNING' 'Radiation Levels Dropping' AU082014 Paris AFP in English 2012 GMT 8 [Excerpts] Kiev, Soviet Union, May 8 (AFP) ? Aleksandr Lyash- ko, premier of the Ukrainian Republic, Thursday told visiting foreign journalists that the disabled nuclear reactor at the Cher- nobyl nuclear power plant was "no longer burning." Mr. Lyashko said the reactor's temperature had "gone down" to around 300 degree Celsius (575 F) and that radioactivity levels "continue to drop." "This means that it is no longer burning," he said. Mr. Lyashko said that a few hours after the accident, Moscow authorities had only been told that there had been an explosion at Chernobyl. It was only two days later, on April 28, that they were informed of the magnitude of the disaster, he added. "The situation was getting worse and worse. Moscow was warned on April 28. An enquiry commission arrived on that day. It was a very difficult situation which was evolving into an unpredict- able manner," the Ukrainian premier said. Mr. Lyashko revealed that a total of 84,000 people had now been evacuated from an area 30 kms (19 miles) from the disabled plant. The day after the accident, the evacuation had affected an area 10 kilometers (six miles) from the plant, including the town of Pripyat, he noted. The minister said that people had been taken to sites 70 to 130 kilometers (45 to 80 miles south of the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, in a "well organised" operation that includes daily medical checkups and transfers to hospital as soon as abnormal radio- activity levels were detected. He said two people had been killed, 204 injured, included 18 seriously, all staff of the plant. May 86 Mr. Lyashko denied that the accident was the result of a human error, saying it occurred as, following a technical intervention, the power of the reactor had dropped from its usual 1,000 megawatts to only 200 megawatts. New medical installations have been built for the evacuees, Mr. Lyashko said, adding that the makeshift facilities were manned by 230 teams of doctors brought from around the Ukraine. A military medical unit also was at hand, he said. Mr. Lyashko said that a 3.2 billion liter water reservoir north of Kiev, itself 130 kilometers (80 miles) south of the Chernobyl plant, was checked daily for radioactivity. "Luckily," he said, "the quality of the water has not suffered," adding however that preventive measures such as drilling new wells had been taken. He said radioactivity levels in the air outside the 30 kilometer (18 mile) evacuated area posed no danger, but ground radioactivity inside the zone was "high." Mr. Lyashko also said that "farm work has been curtailed" outside the danger zone, hinting that ground-level radiation there also was high. "We believe that Ave're eliminating the after- effects of the accident well," the Ukrainian premier said, adding that the Chernobyl plant "in the term" would resume operations. He also said that the disaster would not stop the construction of nuclear power plants in the Soviet Union. 189 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved ForL Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY More on Premier's Comments LD081803 Moscow TASS in English 1753 GMT 8 May 86 [Text) Kiev May 8 TASS ? Aleksandr Lyashko, chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, met on May 8 with a group of foreign journalists, who arrived in Kiev. He briefed the newsmen on the measures being taken to eliminate the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. He pointed out that the situation in the area of the power plant is under control. It was reported that at present the tem- perature in the damaged unit of the power plant has reduced down to 300 degrees centigrade. This is an indication that the process of burning in the reactor has been ended. There is no threat to the health of the population; the economy of the Kiev region is functioning at a stable rate. At the same time, the attention of the journalists was drawn to the fact that some Western news agencies have launched a slanderous cam- paign around the accident aimed at deceiving the world public and distracting its attention from the key issues pertaining to an improvement of the international climate. The chairman of the Council of Minsters of the republic has answered questions of the journalists. Present at the meeting was Yuriy lzrael, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control. AFP CITES IZVESTIYA: FIRE STILL SMOULDERING AU081611 Paris AFP in English 1608 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 8 (AFP) ? The fire at the crippled Cher- nobyl nuclear power plant in the Soviet Ukraine has not yet been totally put out, the government newspaper IZVESTIYA reported Thursday. It praised the courage of those "who, taking risks, are striving to eliminate the after-effects of the accident and to put out the fire which is still smouldering." "There are circumstances in which to carry out one's duty amounts to a feat. This is the situation facing those who stayed in the Cherobyl nuclear power plant," the daily added. IZVESTIYA also blasted the lack of initiative shown by local Ukrainian officials during the first hours which followed the April 26 meltdown at Chernobyl, the world's worst nuclear accident. "Why hide it? In that exceptional situation, some workers did not show enough firmness, nor radiness to take decisions," IZVESTIYA said. Similar criticisms were made Wednesday by the daily SO VET SKAYA ROSSIYA, which particularly denounced delays in evacuating the Chernobyl area population. A Western diplomatic source here said Thursday that the evac- uation from Chernobyl, a town located only 18 kms (11 miles) from the stricken plant, had been completed only two days ago. The paper also revealed that the accident had shown that "sani- tary and epidemiological services assigned to nuclear power plants have no 'contact with services operating outside and are responsible for monitoring the quality of the air, water and soil in their surrouding area." "It is too early to draw major lessons, but the lesson cost us dearly," the paper said, quoting officials of the Kiev Communist Party. It also said "strict safety checks" had been ordered in airports, train and bus stations in kiev, located 130 kms (80 miles) from Chernobyl. All passangers leaving Kiev receive medical checks while the quality of foodstuffs, particularly farm products, is tested "according to very strict norms," IZVESTIYA added. 190 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY HEALTH MINISTER: RADIATION NO DANGER TO HEALTH LD082150 Kiev Domestic Service in Ukrainian 1915 GMT 8 May 86 [Talk by Anatoliy Yefimovich Romanenko, minister of health of the Ukrainian SSR; in Russian--live or recorded] [Text] Esteemed comrades, a couple of days ago Ukrainian television and radio presented me with the opportunity to tell you of the radiation situation in connection with the accident lavariya] at the Chernobyl AES, and to express certain rec- ommendations of our ministry about the efficient labor and rest conditions of the population of the city of Kiev and of Kiev Oblast. I can report that since the time which has elaPsed since my previous speech, the situation has noticeably improved. The level of the background radiation is gradually falling. At the present time it is within the norms recommended by national and inter.- national bodies, and does not present a danger to the health of the population, including children. In the last few days about 20,000 inhabitants of the city of Kiev, including more than 5,500 children, have been examined in educational establishments of the ministry; in no one person was there a discovery of any change to their state of health which one could connect with the effect of radioactive substances. Nonethe- less, we consider it untimely to renounce the recommended precautionary measures. I would like to recall, comrades, that our main enemy in the present situation is dust [pyl] as a possible carrier of radioactive substances which fell on the locality in previous days. 'Direct measurements show that in regions where intensive washing of streets, courtyards and squares is being carried out, the back- ground radiation is several times lower. In production premises and flats apartments, where damp cleaning is frequently carried out, practically no discovery is being made of an increase in the usual [obychnogo] level of radioactivity which always exists because of cosmic particles and radiation from various materials and so forth. One ought not to underestimate the observance of rules of personal hygiene ? a daily shower and washing hair. In the last few days there have been less children playing on the streets and in the courtyards of the city. It is correct to say this and although today there is virtually no direct danger of their being irriadiated, let's look after them first and foremost, and again, primarily protect them from dust. It is understandable that children don't very much like to live in conditions of a complete absence of being outdoors. But this is not necessary. They want to be out in the open air, so let them play, but not as usual as in good weather from morning until night, but just for the odd hour, and they should not kick balls around on dusty areas. On ,this subject, parents have fully understandable con- cerns and worries, including that of children's summer vacations. Over recent years, a certain area of pioneer camps, children's sanatoria, and labor .and leisure camps has been established. Now, taking into account the situation that has arisen, amendments are being made to the organization of school holi- days, [words indistinct] in order to ensure a proper rest for all children from Kiev city and oblast, in the most favorable con- ditions. A decision has been adopted by the Ukraine Council of Ministers to organize the work and leisure of the student youth and to improve the health [ozdorovIeniye] of the children of Kiev City and Oblast in 1986.11. has been decided to end the school year in the general education schools of the rayons in Kiev Oblast which have accepted evacuated schoolchildren by 15 May. The (?chil- dren) are then to be sent to work, leisure and pioneers camps in southern oblasts. In Kiev, the school year for the first seven classes will also end by 15 May. The pupils of these classes will be sent to summer vacation camps which have been prepared, and to health care establishments in other oblasts of the republic. For the senior classes of schools and other education establishments, summer vacations will be conducted as before. Children will be sent to pioneer, work, and leisure camps in a well-organized manner, and for this purpose an adequate number of trains and vehicles are being set aside. All this work of organizing summer rest for students has been entrusted to the republic's ministries and departments, the Kiev Oblispolkom and Gorispolkom, the Kiev Trade Union Council, and the republic's Komsomol Central Committee. Comrades, in conclusion I would like to stress once again that all matters connected with the influence of the environment on the health of the population are constantly being monitored by the Ukrainian Republican Ministry of Health. 191 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY HEALTH OFFICIAL REVIEWS CONSEQUENCES LD081843 Bratislava Domestic Service in Slovak 1630 GMT 8 May 86 [Interview with Professor Viktor Knizhnikov, chief Soviet public health officer, by Moscow correspondent Stefan Simak; questions and answers in Russian fading into superimposed Slovak translation; time and place not given?recorded] [Text) [Simak) Many people today compare the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident with a nuclear bomb explosion. Can you tell us what really happened and what are the consequences of the explosion? [Knizhnikov] There are considerable differences between the explosion of a nuclear bomb and the recent accident in Cher- nobyl. When a bomb explodes plutonium or uranium divides immediately. No such process took place in the 'reactor. Most probably, it was a thermal explosion which occurred after steam overheating as a result of a technical fault or incorrect proceed- ings by attending staff. Therefore, the situation after the accident in the reactor was different to what would have happened after a nuclear explosion. Pollution of the atmosphere was smaller and the composition of radioactive substances was different. Simi- larly to the reactor accidents in England and in the United States the greatest danger for people is formed by the fundamental nucleide Iodine 131. [Simak] Soviet health workers have examined the evacuated people from the vicinity of the nuclear power station. What are the results of these tests? [Knizhnikov] Within a 30 kilometer radius, which includes the power workers town, the greatest danger for people lies in the ARMY AIR MISSIONS CONTINUE OVER CHERNOBYL external radiation by radioactive substances that have escaped from the reactor. Naturally, radiation there. was many times higher than in Kiev, which is 130 kilometers away. The pop- ulation from distant neighborhoods was exposed to lower radi- ation than in normal medical tests involving the use of nuclear isotopes. Regular blood analyses and other thorough check-ups on the people who were in the vicinity of the power station. [sentence as received) With the exception of 204 workers at the nuclear power station we did not find ? and, in theory, could not find any changes in the organisms of the other people. [Simak] People are concerned that their health could be jeopar- dized by the consumption of some foodstuffs. What do you think? [Knizhnikov)Some long-term health danger might arise after the consumption of Iodine 131 linked to milk or or fresh vegetables. Therefore we adopted certain procedures in the USSR. They arc 10 times stricter than the norms observed in England in 1957. Milk from cows which grazed in the affected area is sent for processing. Milk products, especially cheese completely lose their iodine content. If additional contamination of the air and soil does not take place, we will harvest the fall yield of agricultural produce without concern. Iodine 131 disintegrates in 8 and 1/2 days. This means that in 10 days not only will we not be talking about danger but we will not find such danger in foodstuff either. LD082141 Moscow TASS in English 2127 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 8 TASS ? TASS special correspondent Vladimir Zhukovskiy, Vladimir Itkin and Lev Chernenko report from the area of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant: Major General of the Air Force Nikolay Antoshkin was ordered on the memorable night of April 26 to fly on a mission, which subsequently determined in a large measure the outcome of the battle waged by people against the elements in Chernobyl. It was then that the general started the battle against the invisible, and therefore the most perfidious enemy. It was a battle for life, in the name of life. When due to the titanic efforts of the firemen the blaze on the destroyed unit was smothered, it became necessary to close the source of danger, to choke it up, block it, and thus "seal" it. It 192 could be done only from the air. And then it was for the airmen to act. It turned out that people the world over have not yet learned to combat such accidents; there is no specific experience and no'specific measures for the resolution of such problems. Some "experts" advised that the site of the accident be covered with sand. Thanks for the advice. But by that time courageous Soviet pilots had already flown hundreds of missions and "bombed" in unbelievably difficult conditions the crater emanat- ing heat. It can be said now that several days have already passed since the inner part of the unit has been reliably choked up with a huge flaky pie of sand and other materials...more than five thousand tons of them are in that stopper. And all of them were thrown down from helicopters. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For 'Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On the first day of the accident neither the airmen nor, for that matter, anybody at the station knew for sure what the radiation situation was. Neither did General Antoshkin know about it. The first missions, Antoshkin recalls, were the most difficult ones. Imagine a crater of a limited size, to which one first had to choose the shortest way possible and then try and accurately drop a sand bag in a matter of seconds. The pilots showed top class in that peaceful "bombing" exercise. On the first day they dropped their "cargo" 93 times, on the second day ?186 times, and hit the target accurately every time. The pilots thought that dropping one by one a single sand bag was not the best idea, and then they invented packages, tied together six-eight sand bags. They began using makeshift nets. To be able to throw such a package through a helicopter hatch the pilots themselves designed a self-opening lock. it was neces- sary to load the helicopters as soon as possible. Everybody on the take-off ground was asked to assist, General Antoshkin said, and nobody refused to do the work. Only when the opening of the reactor unit was shut down, a TASS correspondent was allowed to fly over it to reproduce the picture of what had happened there only a few days before. We took off from (he ground on an outskirt of Pripyat. Below we could see a sunlit, amazingly beautiful city with straight streets, beautiful public gardens and cosy backyards. But the city is abandoned. We were flying at a speed of 140 kilometres an hour, yet it was most clearly seen that the crater of the damaged unit was closely "sealed". We knew that most important technical work was in progress at the bloc and under it to eliminate the consequences of the accident. But from above the opening panorama was serene. There were no flames, no smoke, nothing disquieting. But in the ear-phones we could understand what was happening in the air when "bombing" was done. The voice of an invisible traffic controller led us to the target: "There are one hundred metres, fifty, thirty, ten, five, three, two, one metre before the target, drop the cargo". This is done with the assistance of a monitoring plane equipped with instruments taking helicopters over the crater. And today too Army helicopters fly several missions a day over the station. TASS CITES FOREIGN REACTIONS TO CHERNOBYL AFTERMATH LD081222 Moscow TASS in English 1208 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Moscow May 8 TASS ? A spokesman for the Vienna- based International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has told a press conference that the IAEA had been informed by the Soviet side about the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station and that the USSR always cooperated closely with the agency. He expressed confidence that such cooperatiod would be contin- ued in the future. On the radiation situation in Europe, the IAEA spokesman said that he did not view it as dangerous to human health. Friedrich Zimmermann, interior minister of the FRG, in his speech broadcast on television and radio, said, in part, "according to available information, there has not existed, nor exists now any danger. The level of radioactivity, heightened for some time in the atmosphere, lowered and became normal in many places." In turn, ieth Smeth, Belgium's secretary of state for the environ- ment and social emancipation, reported that the radiation level in Belgium was practically normal. The Danish newspaper BERLINGSKE TIDENDE published an interview with H.L. Giorup, department head at the Atomic Research Centre in Rise, who said that the mass media and the population overestimated the danger of the Chernobyl accident to the health of the Danes. "The radiation level was only 10 per cent higher than normal," he said. "That is 100,000 times lower than the safe level." 193 Radiation safety experts had a meeting at the headquarters of the World Health Organization (WHO). According to them, radioactive substances over the European Continent cleared as of May 6, while most of the short-lived radioactive elements decayed. Many measures, recommended at the earliest phase of the incident, were no longer necessary. It was noted at the press conference that the coverage of the incident by the Western mass media generated an undesirable reaction incommensurate to the real extent of danger. The scientists pointed out in this connection that there were no reasons for recommending any restriction on imports from East European countries, including the Soviet Union. On the noisy propaganda campaign launched by the Western mass media, including American,radio stations, in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl power plant, the French L'HUMANITE wrote today, "One can hardly remember the 'radio voices' spreading such a great diversity of rumours. The Soviet people are undoubtedly concerned, but they are calm." Medical experts and spokesmen for radiological control services in Britain, interviewed by the British television companies, BBC and ITV, pointed out that some rise in radioactivity posed no threat to the health of the population. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The GDR press has published an anouncement by the State Committee for Atomic Safety and Protection From Radiation saying that the radiation situation, which emerged in the GDR's territory as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, did not and does not constitute any perils to the health of citizens of the GDR. Speaking on Bulgarian television, L. Shindarov, first deputy minister of public health of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and I. Pandev, chairman of the Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, said that there were no perils to human health. The radiation situation in Bulgaria will completely come to normal within the next few days. The Polish PAP agency has issued a report by the Government commission on the results of the recent radiological measure- ments all over that country's territory. According to findings of experts, the degree of contamination of the air has considerably reduced and returned to normal. The commission said that there is no ground to believe rumours about the alleged contamination of drinking water. Such rumours were set afloat with the aim of deliberate misinformation of the population. FURTHER REPORTAGE ON LIFE IN SURROUNDING AREAS 'Resettlement Proceeding Smoothly LD081728 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1430 GMT 8 May 86 [A. Zhuk video report; from the "Vremya" [Excerpts] We filmed this report in Khoyniki Rayon of Gomel Oblast, which is very close to the zone of the Chernobyl AES. Enterprises and organizations are operating normally. People are engaged in their work. In the kolkhoz fields the machines are sowing the last hectares with spring crops. Livestock has been put out into their summer pasture. [video shows busy streets, seed- drills in the fields, and a large herd of cattle] But, of course, there have been changes too in the life of the rayon. The population has been evacuated from its southern part. Inhabitants evacuated from the Novaya Zhizn Kolkhoz have been accommodated at the Oktyabr Kolkhoz. [Video next shows interview with D.M. Dem ichev, first secretary of the Khoyniki raykom.] [Demichev] I would like to say thank newscast] you to our people ? to those who have been resettled and also those who have received our people. The resettlement took place in a well-organized way and smoothly. Now we are already emerging from the difficult position in which the rayon has found itself. Literally over the last few days ? over the first 6 days of May ? the rayon has not reduced the production of animal produce from the 1985 level. Also, over these 6 days we have increased milk production by 10 percent. Despite the fact that four of our kolkhozes and sovkhozes find themselves in a tempo- rarily difficult position, the situation is already becoming more stable. The party organization is functioning in the new con- ditions. Joint sessions of rural soviets, at which the deputies are discussing the tasks facing us, are being held. Party meetings are being held in conjunction with those party organizations which now find themselves in new conditions. The tasks have been defined, and they arc being smoothly and strictly carried out. Agricultural Work Continuing LD081623 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1500 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Belorussian radio's Gomel Oblast correspondent, Grigoriy Artemyev, has been to the areas bordering on Chernobylskiy Rayon in the Ukraine. [Artemycv] The border between the fields of Braginskiy and Khoynikskiy Rayons in Belorussia passes in the tract of land between the Rivers Dnieper and Pripet. Chernobyl is 30-40 kilometers from here. Farm workers knew that a misfortune had occurred there, but the incident did not cause panic although everyone knew what dangers an accident at an atomic power station could bring. Throughout recent days, the grain workers have been toiling on their fields, laying a firm foundation for the forthcoming harvest. 194 Here is Georgiy Nikolayevich Pankov, first secretary of Bragin- skiy Raykom: [Begin Pankov recording]There was much discussion in the rayon of these events. We set up chemital monitoring stations. Farm managers and the party organization started acting from the very first few days on the basis that the radiation doses were small. In individual farms they amounted to 50 or 40 milliroentgens. People realized that this was not a threat to life. And that is why work on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes, at the livestock farms, and in the fields did not stop for a single hour. And 1 can tell you that we have successfully carried out our work. The sowing of early grain crops has been completed. The sowing of fibre-flax has been FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY finished. Potato planting is being carried out intensively: more than 80 per? cent of the planned planting has been completed in our rayon. [end recording] [Artemyev] On-the fields of Khoynikskiy Rayon, I met Mikhail Ivanovich Vasyukov, chairman of the Oktyabr Kolkhoz: ? [Begin VasyukoveCording] The, spring sowing has practically been 'completed.. To date, 20 hectares out of.the.planned 200 hectares of cornremain tobe sown on the farm. Weliave sown the-beet, flax, and the remaining crops. Work at Kiev Monitoring Center LD091023 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 0930 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] You are aware, comrades, that at the present time in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES the condition of the atmosphere and the water is being most strictly monitored everywhere. Our correspondent Vladimir Sokolov presents a report from the Kiev Center for the Study and Monitoring of the Environment: [Sokolov] I am now in a laboratory where samples of water from the Dnepr, Pripyat and Desna Rivers and other water bodies are being studied. The head, of the laboratory, Irina Pettovna Semenova, is working with a large piece of equipment whose indicator is flashing figures that are repeated on a printout. [Semcnova] This instrument makes it possible to make a chemical analysis of surface waters, and the readings that are on the printout make it possible now to determine the concentration of pollution in the surface waters. We check this in field conditions, and we also carry out laboratory research. That is to say, we need to know what is happening to the waters and in what conditions. [Sokolov] And in usual conditions, as the head of the center Yuriy Nikolayevich Pimenenko, has said, observations of the atmo- sphere, water, and soil are conducted constantly. [Pimenenko] However, these observations have now been consid- erably expanded with regard to their number, frequency, and volume. Additional field posts have been deployed in Kiev and adjoining oblasts. All the data obtained from them are being processed at our center and are passed on to the headquarters responsible for eliminating the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl AES. ' [Sokolov] Could one say what the general picture is? [Pimenenko] In the most general terms one can say the following. The radiation in the atmosphere, which already presents no danger, is on a downward trend. The water is virtually pure. With regard to the soil we are conducting our usual observations. Makarov Rayon Activities Reported LD081635 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1430 GMT 8 May 86. [Report by correspondent V. Lyaskalo, over video--from the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] This is Makarov Rayon in Kiev Oblast. It is one of the nearest rayons to the Chernobyl Rayon. As one arrives by motor vehicle in its territory, representatives of the rayispolkorn, doc- tors, specialists measuring dosage, and staff of the Main Motor Inspectorate, who are prepared for decontamination service, are on duty around-the-clock at the checkpoint. Here too are the communication workers. They have installed the town telephone directly in the field. Over this telephone it is possible to ring up not just the rayon center but also, through the intertown network, any pOpulated locality in the country.i 195 Meanwhile, the post offices of all the villages and especially the rayon communications network are at present working with double the load and at times three times the load. All off-days have been cancelled. Telephonists, telegraphists, operators, and electrical mechanics from other rayons in the oblast have arrived to help. Let us note the fact that the post offices have left the Pripyat area and Chernobyl and the adjacent villages together with the inhabitants. Now they are continuing to function in neighboring villages. Thus, all letters and telegrams sent to Chernobyl Rayon will definitely reach those to whom they are addressed. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Medics Working Non-Stop LD081940 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1800 GMT 8 May 86 ["How the Medics Are Working in a Battle Situation in the Region of the Chernobyl AES"--TASS headline; report by TASS special correspondents Vladimir Zhukovskiy, Vladimir Itkin, and Lev Chernenko] [Excerpts] Kiev, 8 May (TASS) ? The senior doctor of the "Lesnaya Polyana" sanatorium-dispensary, Vitaliy Alek- seyevich Melnichenko, has not slept for 2 days. The sanatorium has been receiving a reserve group of workers of the Chernobyl AES for a rest. The operations in extreme conditions, the evac- uation of families ? all this of course has left its mark on people. For this reason it is necessary to create all the conditions for making them feel at home here. This is the task that the senior doctor has set for the medical personnel. They have introduced round-the-clock duty for teams of doctors, and the burden has also increased on the laboratory which has had to make dozens of blood analyses. It was in this way that "Lesnaya Polyana" has been meeting those who will soon have to continue their watch at the Chernobyl AES. After all, although the reactors have been stopped, it is necessary to maintain the necessary conditions for them. And the people who are entrusted with such a responsible task must also be in good form. The medics are taking care of this. The results of our studies show that our patients are completely healthy and that after a rest are able to return to their work, the senior doctor believes. The radiation monitor has become a familiar figure in the corridors of the sanatorium. A radiation "patrol" attentively checks the condition of the air and the soil. The medics have also mastered this new specialization for them- selves. More than 1,300 doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians and radiation monitors and 240 ambulances ? such is the medical task force that is working in the region of the Chernobyl AES says A.N. Zelinskiy, first deputy minister of health of the Ukraine. In his hands he has a list about the accomodation of the evacuated population. For example there is the village of Pes- kovka. Here they have received more than 2,000 people from the danger zone. We sent 12 teams of doctors from other oblasts to help the local medics in proving them with medical care. The Ministry of Health of the Ukraine is constantly receiving requests to be posted to the area of the Chernobyl AES, the deputy minister continues. Many medical workers entered the struggle to liquidate the consequences of the accident from the very first nervous days. The Ukrainian Ministry of Health was one of the first to receive the signal about the disaster at the A ES. Steps were immediately taken to provide first aid to those affected and to check on the condition of the environment. Not an hour had passed before ambulances were rushing in the direction of Chernobyl from Kiev and from other cities. The leading specialists of the Republic's Ministry of Health were sent to the region. At the station itself, radiation monitors measured the level of radiation, doctors examined ill people. Those who were in need of urgent attention were hospitalized. They were received by the Kiev Oblast hospital and other specialized clinics of the capital of the Ukraine. Those most seriously affected among the workers of the AES and the fire brigades were sent by aircraft to Moscow to specialized clinics of the USSR Ministry of health. Leading specialists from Moscow and Leningrad have arrived in Kiev for consultations and to provide assistance. Among them are the vice president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sci- ences, Academician L. Ilin, Professors L. Romanov, E. Gogin, V. Kharitonov, 0. Pavlovskiy and others. The healing establish- ments of Kiev and the oblast have all the necessary preparations at their disposal. Great health-education work is being undertaken. A. Romanenko, minister of health of the Ukraine, has been appear- ing on television and radio, speaking about the preventive mea- sures necessary in the situation that has arisen. Now, almost half the patients who entered the hospital after the accident at the AES have already been discharged. Through the efforts of the medics, people are being returned to health, and through the efforts of the party and local workers and of various specialists, life in the region of Chernobyl is returning to normal. Radiation Levels Decreasing LD081607 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1500 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] In connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES, the strictest monitoring of the atmosphere and water is presently being carried out everywhere in the Ukraine. Our correspondent Vladimir Sokolov presents a report from the Center for the Study and Monitoring of the Environment in Kiev. 196 [Begin recording] [Sokolov] I am now in a laboratory where samples of water from the Dnepr, Pripyat, Desna and other bodies of water are being examined. Irina Petrovna Semenova, the head of the laboratory, is working at a large instrument on which display figures are flashed up; these are then duplicated on a printer. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Semenova] This instrumcnt enables us to complete the chemical analysis of surface water, and the readings that are printed out make it possible for us to determine the concentration of the contaminants in surface water. We also carry out checks on field conditions, and arc also doing laboratory research. What we need to know is how the water is behaving and what the conditions are. [Sokolov] In normal circumstances, according to the chief of the Center, Yuriy Nikolayevich Pimonenko, constant observations of the atmosphere, water and soil are carried out. [Pimonenkol At the moment, however, these observations have been considerably expanded in terms of quantity, frequency and scope. In Kiev and adjoining oblasts additional field stations have been set up. All the data from them are processed at our center and sent to the headquarters for the elimination of the con- sequences of the accident at Chernobyl AES. [Sokolov] Could you tell us what the general picture is, at least. [Pimonenko] Speaking in the broadest terms, we can say the following. The radiation in the atmosphere, which already presents no danger, is tending to go down. The water is practically pure. As for soil, we are carrying out the normal observations. [end recording] Officials on Evacuation PM081734 Moscow PRAVDA in kussian 9 May 86 First Edition p 6 [Special correspondents V. Gubarev and M. Odinets dispatch: "Spring of Alarm and Courage. Our Special Correspondents Report From Kiev"] [Text] At times it seems as if the occurrence was an absurd dream. Spring is all around, with bright and gentle sunshine, flower beds in bloom, lush greenery in parks and boulevards.... And suddenly tears come to the eye: No success yet in finding out where the relatives have been evacuated. A day or two will pass and they will definitely be found, but nonetheless people's anxiety and perturbation are so easy to understand and explain. A woman entered the PRA VDA correspondent's office. We were already prepared to explain the situation in the oblast one more time, to give the address and name of the organization to bc contacted for assistance. But the woman unexpectedly began: "Please, my viewpoint must definitely be printed in the paper!" "What exactly do you mean?" "I am Polina Vladimirovna Kuzmcnko," the caller introduced herself. "Medical worker. I am indignant that some people in the city are spreading stupid rumors. They say that schools are closing down and that children are being transported out of the city. This is why some people are walking about with long faces and downhearted. I have a daughter, Alenka. She is in the ninth grade. I know that school examinations are due to begin 25 May. Why are such rumors spreading?! So, do write in the newspaper: Medical worker Kuzmenko knows for a fact, and not by hearsay, that there is no danger to people's health in Kiev! I really beg you, write it...... "We will try." "Thank you!" Polina Vladimirovna made her way toward the door, then turned back: "It is springtime out there, spring must be welcomed with smiles." Kiev is always unique in May. Chestnut trees in bloom, gardens ablAze with snow-white flowers.... And yet, May this year is special. It is different from last year, even though streets and squares are crowded like in the past, preparations are underway for Victory Day, dance ensembles are rehearsing, and the people 197 of Kiev are following the Bicycle Race of Peace with tremendous interest. As in the past, enterprises, institutions, stores, and markets are operating with precision. But events at the Cher- nobyl AES perturb everyone. And this is not just idle curiosity ? the capital of the Ukraine is going all out to help in the struggle launched in the north of the oblast against the consequences of the accident. Motor vehicles are needed ? and they are immediately on the highways leading to Chernobyl. Medical institutions are helping the victims and monitoring people's health, internal affairs organs are maintaining law and order. Generally speaking, every citizen of the Ukrainian capital is helping, to a greater or lesser extent, to overcome the misfortune that has befallen us all. Perhaps people in Kiev initially lacked complete information about the events that were taking place and the situation in the city. This provided grounds for all kinds of rumors which, inci- dentally, were quite actively disseminated by various "voices" in the West. The press conference in the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the statements by departmental leaders on republic radio and television, the press reports, and also the information sup- plied to the population by party workers ? all this helps to present a more accurate picture of the occurrence and, therefore, to combat the consequences more effectively. "People have reacted to the events at the nuclear power station as a personal misfortune," was how Kiev Obkom First Secretary G. Revenko began our conversation. "And this is why the evacuees from the danger zone have been greeted cordially in villages and settlements. Incidentally, we never had any doubt about our people; we appealed to them and met with complete understanding and a readiness to help and share everything there is. At this time the overwhelming majority are toiling coura- geously and, I would say, selflessly. They are coming to party raykoms and ispolkoms with a single question: How can I help? And many are themselves helping in the evacuation heedless of time and difficulties." On the roads we saw convoys of vehicles carrying livestock, and posts and medical monitoring centers are operating ? it proved FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY possible to organize a precise evacuation system within a short space of time.... "It was particularly difficult during the first days," Grigoriy Ivanovich noted. And he immediately added. "It is not easy today, either. I can say that from the first hour the obkom and the rayon and all party committees have been working round the clock in accordance with a 'combat norm.' There,are many difficulties. The evacuation from Pripyat proceeded rapidly, but difficulties emerged in the village: For not only people but also livestock have to, be moved out. Where to house them? How to find jobs for the people? At the initial stage there was considerable confu- sion ? after all, several tens of thousands of people were evac- uated! And in a very short space of time. Nobody had any experience of this kind of thing...." "We saw tractors in the fields, and agricultural work is going on "How else cauld it be?" the secretary expressed surprise. "The oblast is working. Incidentally, I have one criticism of the press: You are writing very little about labor collectives this year, yet we planted the potatoes ahead of scheduile and milk yields have risen. We are monitoring the milk carefully ? twice in fact: before it is dispatched to the city and when it comes into Kiev. We are equally diligent toward vegetables ? monitoring is also obligatory. Accidents must beYsavoided, and in a matter like this it is necessary to be exceptionally organized. -I can say that a30 km zone has been created, and it is possible to live in it. But no risk should be taken. This is precisely why we are sending children and breastfeeding Mothers to guest houses and camps for the entire Summer. The radiation situation in Kiev is not a cause for fears, but nevertheless some questions, in my view, should be resolved expeditiously. When school ends the kids used to head off for young pioneer camps ? many of them on the Kiev Sea [Kiyevskoy More] coast in the north of the oblast. It is clear that the children will not be able to spend this summer there. Camps, sanatoriums, and guest houses wuill be made available for them in the south and other areas. "The necessary conclusions must be drawn from what has hap- pened," the obkom secretary continued. "Sometimes harsh con- clusions, even. People show themselves up in different ways. There have proved to be fainthearted people and people who simplylled. And there are also hundreds of examples of heroism. But, I repeat, nobody can doubt our people's courage and selfless- ness. City, rayon, all the oblast's party organizations are being put to the test at this time. It is simultaneously a test for every person and Communist. We are clearly aware of this." Today is Victory Day. Veterans have begun to come into Kiev to meet with combat friends in the Ukrainian capital's parks and squares. But some of them will not be able to come to Kiev. Although they are not far away ? only just over 100 km from the city. They are in Chernobyl. Here, as in those harsh far-off years, is where the front line lies today and they are struggling for a tranquil life for people. In Chernobyl we spoke with I. Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. "A very responsible stage of work is now beginning for all specialists' and scientists who work at the Chernobyl AES," he said, in part. "The evacuation from the 30 km zone has been completed, and the population has been moved out to safe areas. The government commission has concentrated its efforts pre- cisely on the,power station, where hundreds of specialists are now working, among them many who have come to eliminate the consequences of the accident from all corners of the country. They are working courageously and selflessly." There is only one word which can define what is being done today by those who are working in the nuclear power station zone ? an exploit. It is an exploit by thousands of people who during difficult minutes, hours, and days are withstanding with honor the test which has fallen to their lot. Army Paper Gives Update PM081350 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 8 May 86. Second Edition p 3 [TASS correspondents Vladimir Itkin and Lev Chernenkoj.eport: ,"Chernobyl, Fact and Fiction; TASS Special Correspondents Vladimir Itkin and 'Lev Cbernenko Report 7 May From the Area of the Chernobyl AES Accident"] [Text] We watched the press conference held by the USSR Foreign Ministry in Moscow for Soviet and foreign journalists in connection with the Chernobyl AES accident while only a few ' dozen kilometers away from the nuelear staticin;Ourtelevision was not in a bunker behind layers of reinforced concrete. We were attentively listening to the journalists' questions and the replies of the official Soviet spokesmen in a hotel room, outside which was a city at dusk concerned about the day that was ending and the day yet to come. Several days have already passed since we were given the opportunity to visit the accident region. We have met with dozens of people who witnessed the tragedy which happened at 0123 hours on 26 April. We were, so to speak, at the edge of the "zone" in which people are currently really battling against the elements [stikhiya]. This battle is systematic, backed 198 up by the calculations of scientists and specialists and embodied in the courage of people of whom, we are sure, more will be told in theluture. We have seen a treat deal and understood a great deal during these days. Listening to what was said at the press conference and having read beforehand dozens of so-called "reports," "allegations," "statements;" and "suggestions" by newspapers, radio and TV stations, and news agencies in the West,"where the Chernobyl disaster has been turned from a human tragedy into a problem of political blackmail against the USSR, we wanted to simply say from here, near Kiev: "Stop! Let's find out!" FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOB OFFICIAL USI, ONLY ...When Militia Major General Gennadiy Vasilyevich Berdov, Ukrainian SSR deputy minister of internal affairs, arrived on the scene 90 minutes after the event following an emergency phone call, he realized that a battle was starting which would last more than hours and perhaps more than days. It was then that he gave the order to compile a "battle log" similar to a ship's log, and to record in it everything happening at the AES and the power workers' city in strict chronological order. We saw this log and the entries made by different hands. "The fire fighters fought the flames at a height of 30 meters." "Molten bitumen is forming puddles." "The Fire has been preve,nted from reaching the third reactor unit." "Sites have been decided for the fire crews." "People have been evacuated from the fire zone"... Later the entry "Radiation" appeared in the log. Neither General Bcrdov, nor the hundreds of people manning their work stations or arriving here in reponse lb the distress signal were aware of this at the time and, frankly, they did not give it a thought. They fought the fire, sparing no effort, coura- geously, withoui a thought for themselves. Getting stuck in the molten bitumen, their faces black with soot, they were saving their comrades, they were saving the station. Neither these people, nor the prominent Soviet scientists who arrived a few hours later together with members of the government commis- sion were able to tell then the causes of the accident or its consequences. Time was needed to find out what had happened. A few hours later, according to eyewitness accounts and as confirmed by the documentary information contained in the "log," the situation at the station was already under control. However, it was still too early, indeed simply impossible, to speak of the scale of the accident. That was here, in Chernobyl... Meanwhile in London THE DAILY MIRROR reported without a hint of embarrassment, feigning measured concern: "Some 2,000 people are believed to have been killed during the first stage." TIME [as published] wrote: "According to information received from certain U.S. intelligence circles, the fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power station is still out of control." And the self-same TIME again: The newspaper's Moscow correspon- dent C. Walker, citing a certain Rhona Branson, one of approx- imately 100 British citizens "who are being hastily evacuated from the Ukraine," claimed that "the government hospital in Kiev is full of victims of the catastrophe." Yet here is what the Soviet Union stated at a press conference through its official spokesman: "Our approach is aimed at providing information which is responsible, objective, reliable, and considered, or, in a word, honest." Honest! Minutes after the accident V.P. Voloshko, chairman of the Pripyat Soviet Ispolkom was at the No 4 unit. He worked at the station for a long time. He is regarded as a good, knowledgeable specialist. It was he who headed the local oper- ational headquarters set up in the nuclear power workers' city. "How can you talk about 2,000 dead!" ? Vladimir. Pavlovich is outraged. "It is a lie. After all, it happened during the nightshift and moreover during a scheduled shutdown [ostanovka] of the unit. "It is the same at power stations all over the world ? power workers know this very well -- there are fewer people on duty at such times, particularly at night I would like to make a different point. At the time of the accident everyone who was at the station was worth 100 men. What those people did can be appreciated . only now, and even now not fully appreciated. They were heroes. And just as war heroes draw fire upon themselves, they too drew ' fire upon themselves. I am not afraid of high-flown words. They 'suffered the most. Many of those people are now in the country's finest special clinics. Our finest doctors are fighting for their health. I would hold in high esteem any doctors, Soviet, Ameri- can, or Japanese, if they do everything possible, and indeed impossible, to save my comrades' lives." G.A. Karyaka, deputy secretary of the power station party committee, is still at his post. Communists are mounting a vigil at power units I, 2, and 3. We met with him on the very edge of the "zone" to which we have already referred. On the morning of 26 April Gennadiy Alekseyevich was also at the power station. "Only now is it possible to recreate a picture of what happened at the time of the accident," he said. "The reactor suffered damage, its core was partially destroyed, some radioactivity was released, and the reactor's criticality was lost. We know that those ill-disposed to us in the West are alleging that radioactivity is even now continuing to increase. That too is a fabrication. The reactor was suppressed [zaglushen] the moment safety control procedures were activated, at minimum capacity. Many other technical questions concerned with eliminating the consequences of the accident are now being resolved, but there is no chain reaction." ? A certain Rhona Branson hastened to leave Kiev. Did she express a desire to do so, or was she forced? We are unable to say. But, nevertheless, we visited Kiev hospitals. We enquired whether there were now many radiation victims receiving treatment. We were answered by Ukrainian Health Minister A. Ye. Romanenko, who, incidentally, appeared on television to inform the inhabitants about the current radiation situation. 199 "There is no direct danger to the health of residents of Kiev and the oblast. The meteorological conditions initially prevailing after the Chernobyl accident prevented the spread of radioactive elements toward the city. The work done at the station made it possible to significantly reduce the release of such elements into the environment. Nevertheless, following the change in wind direction and force in the last few days, a certain increase has been observed in the level of background radiation in the city and some of the oblast's rayons. This radiation level is not dangerous to health and is no obstacle to ordinary labor activity. "The radiation conditions currently prevailing in Kiev do not necessitate any preventive medical treatment for the population. Furthermore, the uncontrolled use of various medicines ? so- called 'self-treatment' ? could damage people's health. All FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY questions concerning the effect of the. environment on the pop- ulation's health are unflaggingly monitored by the republican Ministry of Health." But we were indeed told in the city's hospitals for infectious diseases Of cases directly connected with events in Chernobyl. Life is life, and panic-mongers do exist. Taking ill-considered advice, some people took medications thought to protect them against radiation. But the exact opposite occurred ? people suffered from poisoning. This is what is being treated now. In the Chernobyl area at the moment we are, so to speak, in the thick of events. We can see the titanic work being done by republican party and soviet organs to provide the evacuated families with work and a normal life. We have seen for ourselves yet again the simple and yet so great truth: How wonderful our people are! What golden people ? young and old, city dwellers and peasants, educated by our system and our entire style of life. They are giving the best "morsels" to the evacuees, and the best spots in their luitne,s are assigned to the guests. Children that have joined new schools have been assigned to the first shift, and the locals attend the second... No one makes any secret of the calamity [beda] in Chernobyl. The occurrence confirms yet again that the atom, even the peaceful atom, demands great caution. And if the atom is locked inside bombs or missiles targeted on human destruction, it is nothing but human madness! This is what people say now at many rallies and meetings being held here, near Kiev. We affirm once more: Life is running normally and calmly in the Ukrainian capital and the adjacent rayons. All enterprises are functioning. Of course, there is also anxiety. Particularly on the part of parents for their children. The summer vacations are approaching. Lines have formed for tickets at railroad and Aeroflot offices. Dozens of additional long-distance trains, sub- urban electric trains, diesel trains, and special Aeroflot flights are now being organized. All the children from evacuated areas will be the first to be sent to young pioneer camps, sanatoriums, and rest homes. ...Once we have transmitted this item, we will again make our way to the Chernobyl area. A government commission is now working there, amazing people are performing exploits every minute there, the front line of the struggle now runs right through there. IZVESTIYA CORRESPONDENT REPORTS FROM KIEV OBLAST PM081601 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 9 May 86 Morning Edition p 6 [Special Correspondent A. Mesh: "Reportage From the Region of the Chernobyl AES": "In a Difficult Roue] [Text] Kiev Oblast ? We tried in vain to elicit from Petr Voronovskiy, commander of a KA-26 helicopter, information about any particular sensations on his part on his first flight up to the Chernobyl AES. The young, strong man refused to be drawn and tried to confine himself to brief phrases: "Every- thing was normal. As usual. The usual picture. Flames? I didn't see any. The smoke was similar to what any enterprise emits in normal conditions...." Neither he nor his colleague Yuriy Bolodko had the feeling that theywere doing anything out of the ordinary. Perhaps the pilots have a right to call their work ordinary and the flights routine. But their labor, however prosaic it might appear, helped special- ists to study the situation (they carried instruments and helm! , to measure radioactivity), and the job they did so simply helped . to limit the consequences of the accident which had happened. Let us make no bones about it: the aviators certainly took a risk. And we must now mention, among the firemen, militiamen, medics, drivers, and others who displayed courage, the nahles of the helicopter commanders ? Sokol and Kunayev, Volkov and Malenchenkov, Muscovites from Myachkovo; Yanko from Ros- tov and Pushchin from Uzhgorod, Sokolov from Odessa and Shevel and Brolgin from Kiev...in time we will be able to evaluate "from a distance" their actions and the actions of those who are 200 now working at the AES itself. But even now it is no sin ? it is a duty ? to pay our respects to the rescuers. It would be good to mention them by name. But a newspaper page would not have_. room for all whom we should thank today. Let us remember: at the station itself alone, 150 people a day are coming on shift. But the people for whom the danger has passed are already living a new, unaccustomed, and naturally, for the time being, difficult life. Resettlement is no easy matter, especially when it takes place by force of circumstances. ...The village of Razvazhev, one of the 17 settlements in Ivanov- skiy Rayon which have taken in evacuees. The central farmstead of the Ukraina Kolkhoz is here. It is a big farm. There is a secondary school, a cultural institute, a library, a hospital. Our interviewee, pensioner Aleksandra Andreyevna Davidova, for- merly a creche worker, said: "When the busloads of people appeared in the village, we real- ized, especially we old ones, that there had never been any evacuation like it: the people just kept on coming! Well, you have to live...and everyone was willing to give shelter to the people who came. I took in the family of Mikhail Mikhaylovich Voznyy. Quite a big family. There is the wife, Galina Vasilyevna, and two children, the boys are studying in the fourth and eighth grades. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We made them as welcome as we could, from the beginning. And food was soon brought in. When the Voznyy family had settled in, they asked: 'How long can we count on?' I said: 'You stay as long as necessary.'" "Nearly all our inhabitants have been so friendly," kolkhoz chairman A. Radchenko says. "People seemed to blossom in the face of trouble. So much sympathy and understanding!" We ? myself and IZVESTIYA's Kiev correspondents A. Dolenko, N. Baklanov, and S. Tsikora ? saw this for ourselves.... Yevdokiya Aleksandrovna Otroshenko, chief of the livestock unit laboratory on the Razvazhev kolkhoz, took in Valentina Mikhay- lovna Bryukhanova, wife of the AES director. She has started work as a relief milkmaid at the livestock -unit. Galina Timofeyevna Kuksenok, a teacher at the local school, took two families under her roof. One is the family of office worker Valentina Aleksandrovna Popova. It is a family of five: there is a ton and his young wife and children. They are living in harmony. They prepare meals together and busy themselves about the house. Popova's son. Vladimir says: "It's like visiting our aunt." The concern of the state and their compatriots for the resettled people is effective and concrete. Razvazhev has found jobs for 37 people. Taken on by the Ukraina Kolkhoz, they have set about their work. People at the comprehensive consumer services center are pleased with the work of a hairdresser and a photographer from the AES settlement. Four new teachers soon started work, as well as four workers in the canteen, five in the forest, two at the bakery.... The Ukraina Kolkhoz presented May Day gifts to the 200 children who came to Razvazhev together with their parents. And 6 May was a particularly memorable day for the new inhabitants; they received their first wages in the new place. In another Kiev Oblast rayon, Polesskiy, they have received evacuees at 58 settlements, and in Borodnyanskiy at 18 settle- ments. Nine villages in Makarovskiy Rayon have also given shelter to those in trouble.. Life goes on, people settle in. In Polesskiy Rayon, 50 percent of the evacuated schoolchildren turned up for lessons on the first day. On the second day, 90 percent were there. Now all the children are at school. The little ones have been found places in kindergartens. But it must be said that the events in Chernobyl have affected not only the oblast's life, but the whole face of ancient Kiev., Thousands of stands selling icecream, piroshki, and fruit juice have disappeared from the street's. Now they are only 0(1 indoors. Why? We will explain later. The city was awaiting the spring rain. Everyone is waiting for its torrents to wash the dust from the foliage. And not only what we call street dust. For the time being, on doctors' recommendations' they are very, thor- oughly hosing down the streets and washing all the highways, without economizing on water. We saw unusual pictures in the markets too. Now everything shipped in from the suburbs is being checked by dosimeter operators. Dairy products are examined particularly carefully. Only an "okay" from the specialists can release the product onto the store counters. As before, there are mountains of greens and heaps of meat and lard on the vegetable and meat stalls. Natives of Kiev remain true to their traditions ? they buy their main food products at the bazaar. As always, the market premises are crowded. But the question "where is it from?" is now being asked not only in order to start a conversation about the merits of the goods on offer. "The republic's sanitation and epidemiological station has plenty on its hands now," V. Betchinkin, chief of its main administra- tion, says. "Public health doctors are entrusted with all the monitoring of the quality of food products, the purity of water, and the organization of trade in the new way." These services in Kiev and the oblast began work almost simulta- neously with the teams of medics who gave first aid to those who suffered at the time of the accident. It is still too soon for major conclusions to be drawn, we were told at Kiev Ukrainian Com- munist Party Obkom, but facts and observations are accumulat- ing. The lesson taught at the AES proved costly. But we must profit from it skillfully. We cannot be content solely with optimis- tic information or with information which does not mobilize people to overcome the difficulties. There is no point in denying that there were individual workers who failed to show sufficient firmness or readiness to take decisions in the emergency con- ditions. Unfortunately it transpired that the sanitary and epidemiological service serving the AES has no contacts with the one that operates outside the AES, and is responsible for the condition of the air, water, and soil on the territory adjoining the AES. "Strict dosimetric monitoring of people leaving has now been imposed at airports and rail and bus stations," V. Betchinkin goes on. "The purpose is to give primary medical aid to those who need it. And that is all. Other precautionary measures concern food products. Temporary and, I want to stress, very stringent norms for the quality of all agricultural products have been imposed in the republic. "It is purely as a preventive measure, and by no means because of the condition of the atmosphere, that, as you know, street trade in piroshki, icecream, fruit juices, and drinking water has been banned in Kiev. It is correct to say that in such cases it is better , to be 'on the safe side.' And the population fully understands these preventive measures." We wanted to end our reportage here. But the conclusion was "dictated" by our readers. The fact is that people today fre- quently ask all sorts of questions at' the IZVESTIYA correspon- dents' center in Kiev. But they are all connected in one way or another with the AES accident and the elimination of its con- sequences. 201 People are most interested in the problems facing parents whose children are going to school today, the problems of providing the evacuated population with everything they need, and the way in which sanitary treatment of people and clothing is organized. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 run vrtquiAL Ubt, VINLX Our readers are answered by the leaders of the appropriate state organizations. A. Tyrnchik, chief of the Kiev Gorispolkom public education administration: "Indeed, Kiev's schools do not appear quite as usual at present. You will not see the usual noisy crowd of children in the school- yards and sports fields. Teachers make sure that the children do not go outside the buildings. And the schoolchildren themselves know about the medical recommendations. But what they are most concerned about in this situation is whether or not the summer vacation will start early. Naturally, parents are inter- ested in that too. "The schools are working according to the established schedule. Teachers are explaining to parents that as yet there has been no decision on curtailing the school year. Of course, there are still many difficulties to be overcome. We were also engaged in resolving the problem of the schoolchildren's summer vacation at pioneer camps and labor and leisure camps. As soon as the situation becomes finally clear, we will of course inform all the population." V. Starunskiy, Ukrainian SSR minister of trade: "In the regions where evacuees have been plated, we have organized food supplies for people and the sale of bread, pasta, groats, butter, fruit juices, mineral water, clothing, footwear, bedding, and other essential goods. The supply of goods' to people is constantly monitored by the ministry," ? V. Zhegulin, the republic's deputy ministerof consumer services: "The main task for representatives of the service sphere in the prevailing conditions was the sanitary treatment of people and their clothing. In the regions where evacuees have been placed, sanitary washing centers [sanitarno-ornyvochnyye punkty] and clothing decontamination stations are now. in operation ? both mobile and stationary. There are also emergency facilities based on dry cleaners, bathhouses, and the specialized combine of the Kiev consumer services administration. Workers of the ministry and the oblast consumer services administration are on duty around the clock in the rayons and carry out checks when necessary." GRIGORYEV: MAN CANNOT RENOUNCE ATOMIC ENERGY LD081437 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1306 GMT 8_May 86 ["Propaganda: headline] Pollution of the International Information Environment"--TASS [Text] Moscow, 8 May (TASS) ? Aleksey Grigoryev, TASS political observer, writes: It seems that Western propaganda media are focused on only one geographic point: Chernobyl. As if the ruins of Tripoli and Banghazi no longer existed and the bodies of Libyan women and children mutilated by U.S. bombs were no more. As if deadly radiation did not ooze from underground in Nevada where recently, to the outrage to the entire world, nuclear blasts echoed again. As if Israel did not join Britain and the FRG in expressing its wish to cooperate with the United States in the preparation for "star wars". As if finally, the Pentagon did not just now complete the deployment of the last Pershings-It's in the FRG. Closing their eyes to all of this and to much else that is alarming mankind today, a number of high-ranking figures in the West and their journalist army are sounding the alarm, becoming excited and indignant, and are scaring other people and them- selves with what happened at the Chernobyl AES. "The United States still does not know all the details of the situation in Chernobyl," complains State Department representative C. Red- man. "The Soviet statements remain vague and indicate that the problem has not yet been resolved. The information we have is insufficient for a full assessment of the situation." Anyone would think that the morning after the very serious accident at the AES 202 near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979 all the problems were solved and that information sufficient for making a full assess- ment fo the situation had appeared! Going by U.S. standards, the USSR could have announced the Chernobyl accident only yester- day and have informed the IAEA 2 months later. The behavior of the FRG authorities is indicative of the reaction of a number of Western countries to this accident. Speaking on radio and television, Friedrich Zimmermann, federal minister of the interior, stated: "The serious accident at the Soviet atomic power station has perturbed all of us." After this, in accordance with the notorious rule, he accused the USSR of providing "incomplete and tardy information," but then admitted: "There was no danger for us and there is now no danger for us... WHO also does not see any danger for people outside the affected zone in the USSR." And immediately, contrary to all logic, Zimmermann's department began i to sow panic among the FRG population, calling for windows to be sealed, for vegetables and fruit to be washed (as if they used to eat them when they were dirty!), and in general to remember..."the nuclear threat from the East." The "free," "independent," and "above-party" Press, in an attack of anti-Soviet hysteria, beats in unison with such appeals by issuing reports that "all the land in the Ukraine is poisoned" FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and that "there are mountains of bodies around the power station." The unusual nature of the situation that has arisen in connection with the accident at Chernobyl AES demands rapid and bold decisions as well as courage and responsibility. Soviet people understand the vast attention being paid to this work, the results of which are, in the final analysis, important for all mankind, ARBATOVCOMMENTS ON CHERNOBYL INCIDENT beeitise mankind cannot renounce the peaceful use of atomic energy. But what is not understandable is the relishing of our misfortune which is being used to conceal attempts to distract attention from the real threat hanging over the planet: the threat of nuclear war. It is precisely those people who are preparing such a war who are interested in contaminating the information environment with lies about events at the Chernobyl AES. PM081758 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 9 May 86 First Edition p 4 [Academician G. Arbatov article: "Boomerang"] [Text] ...We have had a misfortune ? the accident at the Chernobyl AES. A government commission is to investigate its causes. This accident (it is not the first in the world but the I 52d recorded at nuclear power stations, although, by all accounts, it is rather serious) will make specialists of all countries study all conceivable aspects of safety in nuclear reactors in all their details over and over again. But the events at Chernobyl have troubled not only government experts and specialists in nuclear energy. The accident was at the center of world public attention for many days. There are natural reasons for this. An increase (true, not on a scale dangerous to people's health and life) in the radioactiveness of clouds and precipitation was doted not only in nearby USSR oblasts but also in other countries. It is understandable that all this could not help but arouse a certain unease in every normal person. We understand this unease. And we ourselves also feel certain alarm when such a thing happens in another country. These days many people in other countries have also felt a sense of compassion, for the accident was not without casualties. People have been injured and irradiated. Thousands of people have had to be evacuated from adjacent settlements. We have no doubts about the sincerity of the expressions of sympathy for the victims ? what else could have made the American doctors, Professors Gale and Tarasaki, hurry to Moscow. And the same feeling prompted thousands of Britons,. Americans, French people, Swiss, Japanese, and Germans to offer their services as bone marrow donors (a marrow transplant is essential in serious cases of irradiation). Soviet people feel profound and truly heartfelt gratitude to all these noble men and women and to all whose moral support they feelduring these difficult days. A friend in need is a 'friend indeed, as the saying goes. And, incidentally, that is also when enemies make themselves known. And they have not been dozing these days. Rather, they have simply not even closed their eyes. The apparatus of "psychologi- cal warfare" created by the United States and its NATO allies was switched to a state of emergency. Edo not rule out that this was done even before the accident at Chernobyl. They had long been waiting for an excuse to mount a new anti-Soviet campaign. 203 Many Western figures were just too concerned at the response evoked in the public of the United States, West Europe, and the whole world by the major Soviet initiatives. Such, for example,_, as the Soviet Union's unilateral cessation of nuclear tests. Or the program to eliminate nuclear arms by the year 2000. Or the proposal to create a comprehensive international security system. The fact that all this formed in the eyes of the world public an image of the USSR as a country honestly and unbendingly championing peace frightened the instigators of the arms race far more than Soviet submarines and missiles. They were fever- ishly seeking a cause, even a hint of a cause, to open concentrated fire with propaganda guns of all calibers. Fire against the Soviet Union's growing international prestige. And against mutual trust. Trust, very little of which still remains, let us state frankly. And which, nevertheless, is as essential as air for stabilizing the situation and starting to get away from the dangerous brink toward which we are inexorably being pushed by the arms race and the "cold war." An absurdly primitive fairytale ? the reader knows this ? was thought up: Since the Soviet Union did not immediately report the causes, scale, and consequences of the accident at the Cher- nobyl AES, we must not believe a single one of its proposals, and we must not even hold talks with it, let alone conclude agreements. Precisely this was being shouted from all the crossroads from morning to evening, day after day. Scientific terms which mislead inexperienced people were used. There began shameless manipulation of the strongest human emo- tions: the sense of self-preservation, fear for one's children, fear of an invisible threat. Unfortunately, this propaganda campaign did not pass without trace. I have been convinced of this during the past week on talking with foreign guests and also on answering questions from foreign television journalists and radio listeners during inter- views. At the same time, I do not doubt the sincerity of the questions or the concern that prompted them. Delusions are quite frequently sincere. However, they frequently result also from someone's prompting, in this case prompting by deliberate liars and falsifiers. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONLY !low could, for example, someone living in a small Scottish town, who is concerned about the health of his four children, know that there is no answer to his question: Why has the Soviet govern- ment "so far not given the reasons for the accident?" There is no answer for the simple reason that the Soviet Government does not know yet (just as, for example, the U.S. Government does not yet know the true reasons for the destruction of the Challenger spacecraft, although it occurred back in January). Someone has also persuaded him that the anxiety for the health of his children is due to the fact that Moscow has not reported the radiation level, although it is far harder for the Soviet authorities than for the British to measure the level in the Glasgow or Edinburgh area. At the same time, incidentally, the same "well-wishers forgot" to say that the radiation level in Scotland would pose no threat to people's health. Another example. Can a Dutchman, West German, or Frenchman, reading his "respectable" (that is, bourgeois, and, as a rule, hostile toward the USSR) newspapers not recall that it took the U.S. authorities nearly 2 months to prepare a report on the accident at their Three Mile Island nuclear power station and submit it to the IAEA, whereas the Americans and their allies began to demand a report literally on the day after the event? Did it enter the head of the Japanese journalist who carefully interrogated me and complained about the "radioactive rain" in Tokyo that Tokyo is closer to Nevada, where the United States carries out its nuclear explosions (with frequent discharges of radioactive substances), and to French nuclear test sites (on a Pacific island) than to Chernobyl? I explained the true state of affairs in detail to my interlocutors and listeners. I explained in particular that there had been an accident and that our first concern was to administer first aid to the dozens of victims, to evacuate many thousands of inhabitants, and to localize the center of radioactivity. I think that when the passions inflamed by the anti-Soviets subside, we will be forgiven this "sin." Although ? and this is my own personal opinion ? it certainly was a "sin." It was due not to an underestimation of the significance of public opinion but to an underestimation of the activeness and coordination of anti-Soviet propaganda. Somehow one never thought that even a misfortune, an accident, and human distress could be so shamelessly exploited for sordid propaganda games. But if the organizers of the "hate campaign" unleashed in connection with the Chernobyl accident are celebrating a "suc- cess," they are also, it seems to me, in for a bitter disappointment. In order to kick up a propaganda ballyhoo and direct it against the USSR, they obviously overdid it: A serious but, of course, local accident was portrayed as some kind of world nuclear disaster. But in doing so they made people think about the danger of an actual nuclear disaster. This wiped out in a week the long efforts by certain Western politicians and propagandists to "train" the peoples to reconcile themselves to the nuclear threat, so to speak, "to learn to live with the nuclear bomb." So their effort has turned in to a propaganda boomerang. There will be exhaustive information on Chernobyl, of course ? it has. already started coming, in fact. Straight into the hands of IAEA Director Dr Hans Blix, who was invited to the USSR. There is no doubt that the dust, propaganda as well as radio- actiye, will soon settle and people will start to think. Think about the fact that for 2 weeks the world ? from Britain to Japan ? 204 was in fear of a radioactive discharge which had occurred not even as a result of a nuclear explosion ? there was no explosion ? but as a result of an accident at a nuclear power/station. Yes, there are more than 50,000 nuclear warhcads stockpiled in arsenals. And people have somehow started to forget about this -- to the pleasure and direct benefit of the arms race instigators. They will now certainly remember these terrible facts, and the fact that the United States and its allies are continuing nuclear tests at full speed, with all the resultant radioactive discharge. Perhaps now, after the shock caused by the propaganda, the Western public will take a new look at the justice of NATO's strategy, which even now envisages first use of nuclear weapons. The accident ? albeit trivial in scale compared with the threat of nuclear war and the nuclear arms race ? has once again graphically demonstrated an indisputable fact of our era ? that man has breathed life into, created forces against which he is totally impotent if they are used for destructive purposes. This is one of the lessons of Chernobyl. People have been able to see from this example how irrational and absurd is the very idea of nuclear war. And the second lesson: Sometimes even the most reliable and tested equipment, absolutely perfect equipment fails. And our enemies who are now muttering something about the reason allegedly being the Soviet Union's "lag" in the technical sphere are wasting their breath. According to the IAEA's evaluation, the RBMK-1000 reactor installed in Chernobyl is, as regards reliability, superior to the best Western models. Moreover, both in the United States and Britain there have been quite a few accidents at nuclear power stations and they are using their equipment and not ours. Not to mention other catastrophes in which most advanced and, it would seem, thoroughly tested equipment has failed ? the Challenger tragedy, for instance, or the recent Titan and Delta missile failures. No, it is not a question of someone's backwardness here, but at the same time no one should entertain any illusions about any- one's perfection either. There are issues which are far too serious to be entrusted to mechanisms, thus removing them from the control of human intelligence and renouncing rational proce- dures for the joint adoption of substantiated decisions. These are primarily the issues of war and peace. These are also all other issues pertaining to security, whether it be in the military, political, economic, or humanitarian sphere. And so, whether or not it was the intention of the organizers of the deafening anti-Soviet campaign, they have provided a pow- erful impetus, encouraging people to think and see things clearly. And, in the final analysis, they have helped them to understand how vulnerable the entire modern human civilization has become, technologically vulnerable among other things. Even before Chernobyl there had been no shortage of "warning sig- nals." The discharge of toxins at the U.S. chemical plant in Bhopal (India), for instance, cost the lives of 2,500 people and the health of tens of thousands. Subsequently, the alarm was sounded regarding the highly toxic waste dumps scattered throughout the world. "Acid rain" made people aware that their neighbors could out of complacency or through saving pennies ruin their forests, lakes, and rivers. The pollution of entire seas has become a reality. Not to mention the greatest danger of all ? the growing FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY threat of mankind's annihilation through conventional and nuclear weapons, through holocaust, radiation, or "nuclear win- ter." Mankind's rapidly increasing technological vulnerability demands a Profound restructuring, a restructuring of the entire system of international political and economic relations and radical changes in political thinking. Because, in order to live normally, indeed in order to survive at all, given all the contradic- tions, differences, and difficulties which are tearing the world apart, what is needed is cooperation, cooperation in establishing the comprehensive system of international security which the CPSU proposed to the world at its 27th congress. Outlining the principles of this system, sketching its overall outline, M.S. Gorbachev noted that our proposal has been dictated not just by pious wishes but by an understanding of the realities of the modern world and the demands stemming from the specific characteristics of the current stage of international development. The choice confronting mankind is tragically simple: It is peaceful coexistence or "nonexistence." It was not the intention of the organizers of the anti-Soviet campaign, of course, to lead the broad public in the West to an understanding of this truth. But blind hatred, just like other uncontrolled emotions, often pushes people to take steps which have unforeseen results. This is what will most probably happen also in this case. The accident at Chernobyl ? that is not just our misfortune. It has shown that, in the nuclear age, even what happens in the sphere of the peaceful use of nuclear energy concerns the interests of one and all. And as for nuclear war ? its threat is a predicament of a much more far-reaching nature. RESIDUAL ANTI?SOVIET 'RADIATION' LINGERS LD081709 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1500 GMT 8 May 86 [Commentary by PRAVDA observer Vladimir Bolshakov] [Text] In the West, the slanderous fuss over the accident at Chernobyl AES continues. Not for the first time, our press reports on the unbridled campaign that has been whipped up in the West over the accident at Chernobyl AES. It now looks as if its murky propaganda cloud is beginning to disperse, having circled the globe several times. Also becoming clearer are the aims of those who inflated this cloud, and the consequences of its ? to speak technically ? residual radiation. The prime object of whipping up anti-Sovietism over the incident at Chernobyl was once again to sow distrust of the Soviet Union's domestic and foreign policy. They have been attempting to represent real socialism as some sort of closed society, based on secrecy, in which the authorities might even sacrifice the lives of their fellow citizens for political ends, by concealing the truth from them ? in this case, the truth about the accident in the nuclear reactor and its consequences. This myth was strenuously inflated. Fantastic numbers of victims of intense radiation dos- ages were mentioned. It was asserted, for instance, that the power workers' town had been totally destroyed, and that the con- sequences of the accident were scarcely less serious than those of the bomb that exploded over Nagasaki. Those who had lied so irresponsibly had to bite their tongues immediately after the Soviet Government provided the ambassadors of a number of Western powers with information on what had occurred. Besides this, film of Chernobyl AES was shown on Soviet television, and those in the West who had dreamt up figures about thousands of deaths had to take them back. The Soviet data on the number of people affected arc now no longer being challenged. Western public opinion has also undoubtedly been impressed by the figures on the free and urgent help being given to inhabitants within a 30-km radius of the station who have been hit by the disaster. 205 A statement published yesterday by the World Health Organiza- tion says that, in the opinion of its experts, there is no reason to recommend restricting imports from Eastern europe ? the very thing the organizers of the anti-Soviet campaign had been rec- ommending. The WHO statement says there are no grounds to advise people not to visit the USSR or the other countries of Eastern Europe ? yet we know that tourists have been dis- suaded, and even brought home from the Soviet Union. It was also noted that the way the incident has been reported in the Western media has aroused a reaction among the population that is undesirable and inappropriate to the real degree of danger. That is the competent assessment of the World Health Organiza- tion. People's eyes are now being opened. People in the West have begun to see more clearly, now that they have found out the real facts about the accident at Chernobyl. They have understood that the United States, by sowing panic, wanted to quell apprehen- sions about the nuclear tests that the United States and the other nuclear powers are continuing to carry out ? the apprehensions about the continuing arms race. Chernobyl has also made people think about what would happen if just one of the nuclear war- heads the Americans have now stockpiled by the tens of thou- sands in Europe alone had exploded. What sort or radiation cloud would that be, and who would escape it? The propaganda cloud has dispersed, but the question remains: People are asking, what do they intend to do in Washington and the other NATO capitals to save mankind from a global nuclear catastrophe? And to that question Washington, alas, has no answer. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 kVA l/1.11UIAL UL ONLY U.S. 'HYPOCRISY' OVER ACCIDENT ASSAILED PM081750 Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 8 May 86 First Edition p 3 [TASS correspondent A. Lyutyy article for SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA: "Those People in the United States Who Stand To Gain From Organizing a Hysterical Spectacle Around the Accident at Chernobyl"] [Text] Washington ? For more than a week now a map of the world has appeared on U.S. television screens almost every hour. That map shows the whole of Western Europe as a thick red blob. Before the viewers' eyes that blob spreads to Asia, engulfing more and more countries. It becomes more terrifying as you watch. It will be recalled that more or less the same red blob, on a far smaller scale it is true, was used recently to illustrate to Americans Nicaragua's "expansionist schemes" and the "com- munist offensive" in Central America, which is on the point of reaching the U.S borders. These blobs, of course, are products of the imagination of the TV companies' anti-Sovietists and all manner of consultants from the Reagan administration. When Americans need a good scare with the "Soviet threat," the producers of such shows splash out with the red paint. It would seem that people are already becoming accustomed to this passion for painting the globe a toxic shade of red, a passion not marked by intellectual brilliance. It is by no means the first time that this method has been used here and it will not be the last. Nevertheless, the current anti-Soviet campaign is beating all records for hypocrisy and inhumanity. The red blob spreading across the whole world is, apparently, not just a "Soviet threat," it is the "Soviet nuclear danger." It is the radiation allegedly released after the accident at the Chernobyl AES. You can understand why some people living in the western states of California, Oregon, and Washington, seeing these hor- rors on television, immediately rushed out to the local pharmacies to buy iodine solution and who are now scouring the stores in search of special protective suits.... It is perfectly clear to any unbiased person that the Washington administration has recently had an acute need for a diversionary maneuver which would enable it to stem the tide of anger in the world after the American buzzards' raid on Libya. It needed such a maneuver to divert the world's attention that bit more quickly from its inflexible and unconstructive position on the question of banning nuclear tests. The Soviet moratorium on nuclear explo- sions and the USSR's other peace initiatives have received an extraordinarily large response. The White House has clearly decided to drown that response in a sea of anti-Soviet slander. Photographs of the accident area, allegedly taken by intelligence satellites, are constantly being shown on television. Apart from large rivers and reservoirs it is impossible to make out anything definite in them. Nevertheless, squares and circles are drawn in thick white lines and?"specialists" with thoughtful expressions present them as "evidence of colossal destruction" and "raging 206 conflagrations." Right-wing groups, intoxicated with anti- Sovietism, have come out onto the streets and a gang of our country's enemies in Congress, headed by Representative Robert Walker (a Republican from Pennsylvania), has submitted a whole pile of provocative resolutions. Other unscrupulous congressmen have even gone so far as to accuse us of committing an "interna- tional crime." And that after the act of mass terror against Libya! Let us make particular mention of the theme of the gloating that is going on. It is obvious. They do not even try to hide it behind diplomatic formulas or even purely formal expressions of grief and sympathy. Rubbing their hands with glee, people across the ocean dream of how the Chernobyl accident will undermine the Soviet plans for the accelerated development and modernization of the economy and how it will hit the country's agriculture. They are particularly exultant at the fact that the accident occurred in the Ukraine, the USSR's granary. And there is not even a hint of shame or conscience in any of these spiteful predictions. "Operation Chernobyl" has shown the criminal ease with which Western ruling circles try to make dishonest political capital out of tragedy. Did Soviet people revel in the catastrophe involving the seven astronauts on the "Challenger" shuttle in January? Did they whoop with delight after the catastrophe last Saturday involving the "Delta" launch vehicle carrying a weather sat- ellite? No matter how they try to distort it, the fact remains that America greeted the 25th anniversary of the flight by Alan Shepard ? the first U.S. astronaut to go into near-earth orbit ? with three of the biggest disasters in the U.S. space program's history. "Operation Chernobyl" has also illustrated the astonishing hypo- crisy of the authorities here, who have accused the USSR of inadequate monitoring of safety equipment at the AES. They would do well to look at their own record here! The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has just published its annual report in which it acknowledges that last year U.S. nuclear power stations recorded the highest number of accidents in the past 6 years and that it was pure chance that some of them did not lead to dangerous leaks of radioactive materials. The administration tried to keep this report secret and only published it after persistent demands from Congressmen Edward Markey.The U.S. nuclear industry, the press. here acknowledges, has sur- rounded itself with an almost impenetrable cloak of secrecy and I inflicts punishment on anyone who tries to tell the general public the truth about the situation at America's nuclear power stations. ...The members of the Washington peace center, a well known public organization, study not only arms limitation problems but also nuclear power industry questions. I telephoned the center's headquarters. Heike Kleffner, a West German citizen, who is working for a while at the center, answered my call. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "In my view," she said, "President Reagan is not interested in real arms limitation, and the fuss about the Chernobyl incident is a convenient way of justifying his refusal to negotiate with the USSR on a constructive basis. For example, the demand is now being put forward virtually as an ultimatum to allow U.S. experts to visit Soviet AES's. But do you think that the Americans will allow Soviet experts to visit theirs? No way! It is clear that they are using the incident to denigrate the Soviet Union instead of turning this tragic event into a way of giving impetus to the struggle against the nuclear arms race. I hope that people of common sense will draw the correct lessons from what has happened, will not yield to hysteria, and will work to reduce nuclear arsenals." SCARE STORIES REPORTEDLY ORDERED BY WASHINGTON LD082006 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1645 GMT 8 May 86 [Commentary by political obserlYer Aleksandr Zholkver, from the "International Diary" program; presented by Sergey Pravdin] [Text] What our Rome correspondent has just told us about (referring to previous commentary by Yuriy Vybornov on Rome media treatment of Chernobyl accident] is characteristic of many countries in the West. Here, as if by order ? and seemingly such an order was in effect given, and not just anywhere, but in Washington ? all types of cock-and-bull stories were earnestly spread about the Chernobyl accident, stories used to intimidate people and to whip up anti-Soviet hysteria. But what is notewor- thy is that in the last few days, in particular after the press conference in Moscow, they have begun to talk differently in a number of Western capitals. Thus, for example, the FRG minis- ter of the interior ? that same FRG where perhaps they have been shouting particularly loudly about the threat of Soviet radiation ? has now officially announced that there has not been and will not be any danger for the population of West Germany. Moreover, the minister of state for the Federal Chancellor's office has even spoken out against the needless hysteria. Well, as the saying goes, better late than never. I will add that a certain amount of sobering up is taking place at the moment not only in Bonn, but in other Western capitals as well. British Foreign Secretary Howe has come out, for example, with a warning about the fact that the accident at Chernobyl should not be used for anti-Soviet propaganda. A human misfor- tune, added the minister, should not be turned into a political game. That is a fair statement, particularly if one takes into account the fact that in some Western countries, including Britain, and the United States in particular, some politicians and journalists these last few days have been earnestly engaged in precisely such an unworthy political game, speculating on the natural anxiety of people. By the way, now even U.S. specialists, as AP reports, admit that the additional dose of radiation that West Europe received after the accident in Chernobyl is not great, and by way of example, is lower than the usual background radiation at great height, in particular during flights from Eur- ope to the United States. 207 Regarding the United States itself, there the head of the Envi- ronmental Protection Agency long ago acknowledged that the health of the population is in no way threatened. It is true that, as it happens not infrequently in the United States, here and there the press and television have so intimidated people that they, to the delight of the pharmaceutical concerns, have rushed to buy all sorts of medicines with highly dubious properties. Now CBS itself announces that physicians are beginning to fear that the population may suffer not at all from radioactive irradiation, but from poisoning from pills. And, by and large, experts from the World Health Organization who have gathered in Copenhagen have stated that there was an excessive reaction in the West to the accident in Chernobyl, and that although individual increases in radiation are possible, no long-term effect on people's health can be foreseen. But all the same I would add that a threat does exist ? not the mythical threat of Soviet radiation, but, unfortunately, the quite real danger for the whole of mankind in connection with the accumu- lation of nuclear weapons on earth and attempts to place it even in space. The participants of the UN Disarmament Committee' session, which has just opened in New York, talk about this with unconcealed alarm. They note that while the Soviet Union has proposed a specific plan for the total elimination of nuclear weapons in the forthcoming 15 years and has unilaterally stopped testing them, the United States continues to accelerate the nuclear arms race ? and during the Soviet moratorium it has carried out nine nuclear blasts. By the way, THE NEW YORK TIMES, in one of its recent issues, has acknowledged that quite great leaks of radioactive gas occur at the Nevada test site. So, all the grounds are there for supposing that the hullabaloo in the West, in the United States itself first and foremost, around the Chernobyl accident, has had and does have the aim of diverting attention from the real threat: the threat of nuclear war. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PROPAGANDA CONTRASTED WITH 'COMPETENT' VIEWS LD091106 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 0230 GMT 9 May 86 [From the "International Diary" program [Text] Of course you know, comrades, of the measures being taken to liquidate the consequences of the accident at the Cher- nobyl AES. The central press publishes official government reports on this matter and reports by correspondents from the Chernobyl area every day. Despite the obvious normalization of the situation, many mass media organs in the West continue to wage a noisy, provocative, and essentially anti-Soviet propa- ganda campaign around this issue. In this connection, I would like to mention a few competent views that raze to the ground the conjectures put forward, above all, by the U.S. propaganda machine. The representative of IAEA stated at a press conference that the IAEA was informed by the Soviet side of the accident and that the USSR has always cooperated closely with the agency. With regard to the radiation situation in Europe, the IAEA representative noted that he does not consider it dangerous to people's health. presented by Vladimir Beloshapko] Zimmermann, FRG minister of the interior, speaking on radio and television, said in particular that there has been no and there is no danger for us. The Danish paper BERLINGSKE TIDENDE considers that the mass media clearly exaggerated the danger of the accident at the Chernobyl AES. An increase in the level of radiation in Denmark of only 10 percent compared with the normal level was noted. This is 100,000 times less than the level that is considered dangerous. The French paper HUMANITE, noting that Western propa- ganda tried to provoke panic among Soviet people, writes: It is difficult to remember a time when such a quantity of rumors have been scattered over the airwaves. However, none of this is getting the desired reaction. Soviet people are without doubt concerned, but they are calm, the paper stresses. AFP CITES GOVERNMENT ON REPORTING 3D DEATH First Radiation Victim AU091913 Paris AFP in English 1911 GMT 9 May 86 [Excerpt] Moscow, May 9 (AFP)--The Soviet Government on Friday said a third person had died as a result of the April 26 Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster, the first victim of radiation exposure. Thursday, the Yugoslav news agency TANJUG, quoting sources in Moscow, had already reported that a third victim had died. Soviet Deputy Health Minister Yevgeniy Vorobiev told a press conference of Eastern bloc journalists that the third victim, who had been "heavily irradiated" in the accident, died three days later in a Kiev hospital. One of the other two died of burns, the other was killed by a falling object, it was announced earlier. APN's Falin Reports 4th Death AU111306 Paris AFP in English 1252 GMT 11 [Text] Hamburg, West Germany, May 11 (AFP) -- Staff at Chernobyl wrongly evaluated and reported the April 25 nuclear accident, and it took nearly two days for Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to get a "detailed, factual report," a Soviet news agency chief says. In an interview with the weekly DER SPIEGEL appearing here Sunday, the chairman of NOVOSTI NEWS AGENCY, Valen- 208 May 86 tin Falin, also disclosed that a fourth person had died in the accident. Service personnel had "in part failed" in their mission, as "the content and quantity of information communicated to Moscow was neither sufficient nor correct," he said. From this failing, he said, "arose a great deal of what subsequently happened." The radioactive leak, he added, was now completely smothered. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Mr. Falin also said it was "desirable that all countries using nuclear energy worked out rules valid for all" in anticipation of such accidents, and accused Western nations of hiding nuclear accidents from their people. He said a country close to the Soviet Union -- which he refused to name-- was very quickly advised of the accident, adding that the quantity of radioactive isotopes which crossed the Soviet border was not dangerous. Indicating the death toll -- earlier officially three-- was now four, Mr. Falin said two of 18 seriously injured people had died, after the deaths of a man who was burned alive and another buried under collapsed construction units. He reaffirmed official Soviet figures that 204 people suffered dangerous radiation higher than 100 rads, but that 50 were able to leave hospital after a few hours. A rad is a unit of absorbed ionized radiation. Reporting that the radioactivity leak at Chernobyl is now com- pletely smothered, he said a protective covering of sand, lead, and boron was being continually strengthened, and would be "com- pletely covered with concrete." All reactors of the same type in the Soviet Union continued to function, but would be inspected. Mr. Fal in exonerated the local administration from responsibility for information delays, but said technicians at the Chernobyl nuclear plant "had believed with the best intention they could control the situation." But it appeared they "had been taken unawares and had not always taken the best decisions, on the whole by an under-estimation of the risks and an over-estimation of their own capacities." After that, insufficient and incorrect data were sent to Moscow. "internally we were not prepared for such an accident, we had not basically foreseen any instructions in advance, particularly in the information area," Mr. Falin said. Mr. Falin said Soviet party chief Mikhail Gorbachev, warned of the accident on Saturday, only had "the first detailed, factual report" before the party Politburo meeting on Monday April 28. Don't implicate the general secretary. Before he can commu- nicate information, he first has to have it," he added. "about half' of the radioactive isotopes released from Chernobyl were of Iodine-131, dangerous but with a half-life of only eight days, he said. As for Casium-137 and Strontium-90, their propor- tions had been 10 to 100 times weaker compared to those in "emissions provoked" during nuclear tests. "The quantity of these isotopes, which crossed the borders of the Soviet Union, raising radioactivity levels 10 to 15 times, is not dangerous," Mr. Falin said. Mr. Falin expressed "indignation" at the way "American spokesmen and Secretary of State George Shultz" had reacted to the affair. He also charged that the West, in the United States, Britain, Japan, and Belgium, had often hidden nuclear accidents from its people. "When there is a nuclear test in Nevada, radioactive emissions are sometimes carried by winds to Mexico, but are not spoken of because they are American," he added. Mr. Falin discounted any evacuation of Kiev, saying that when winds had carried radioactivity towards it five days after the accident, levels were 5,000 times below danger levels, and only 30 times normal levels. PRAVDA DETAILS CHERNOBYL PARTY REORGANIZATION PM121000 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 12 May 86 First Edition p 8 [Special correspondents V. Gubarev and M. Odintsev report: "Raykom Working Round the Clock; Chernobyl AES: A Test of Courage"--first two paragraphs are editorial introduction] [Text) "What do I dream of?" V. Lyskin, foreman at the electric shop asked. "Of the time when we will return to Pripyat and start living and working normally. I know that time will come, but we must work unsparingly to ensure it... And let us agree that when it is all over you will hold a PRAVDA readers' conference at our culture center. Do you agree?" PRAVDA accepted the proposal. In essays, articles, and reportages we will discuss the progress in eliminating the accident at the Chernobyl AES and the heroic labor both at the site [promploshchadka] and in the areas where the inhabitants from the evacuated zone are now living. And then, when Pripyat's inhabitants return home and the station starts working normally, a PRAVDA team will hold a readers' conference at the AES. 209 Previously the party gorkom bureau session would probably have lasted longer and, obviously, more would have been said. Now there is no time for long discussions. The situation is difficult and every minute counts. It is 10 days since the collective at the Chernobyl subsidiary of the "Yuzhatomenergostroytrans" Transportation Production Association, comprising more than 200 people, was evacuated along with the families to Polesskiy and Ivankovskiy Rayons. However, during this time the collective's leaders ? Communists A. Sichkarenko and A. Shapoval ? have essentially done nothing to help the people under their jurisdiction or to provide them with work. Wages have not been paid on time, clothes have not been allocated, and evacuees' legitimate requests have been ignored. Finding himself FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in Polesskiy Rayon among subordinates evacuated from Pripyat, A. Shapoval, the subsidiary's chief engineer, was entirely indif- ferent to the fate of people who found themselves in a difficult position. Political immaturity, failure to act, and failure to understand the prevailing situation on the part of irresponsible leaders have cost the collective dearly. The Pripyat Party Gorkom Bureau resolved at its session to expel A. Shapoval from the CPSU for the callous way he tried to dodge his duties. A. Sichkarenko was strictly reprimanded and his party card endorsed. The bureau deemed it inexpedient for the compromised leaders to remain in their posts. A. Gubskiy, secretary of the subsidiary's party organization, who failed to make a timely and principled assessment of what had happened, was brought to justice. The unusual and complex situation has highlighted bottlenecks. Certain leaders have turned out to be psychologically unprepared for work under the conditions that emerged following the AES accident. True, what happened with the leaders of the Chernobyl subsidiary of "Yuzhatomenergostroytrans" was an exceptional case. The same party gorkom bureau session cited numerous cases of selfless and courageous behavior on the part of Commu- nist leaders who showed high organizational qualities and per- sonal courage in a difficult situation. A. Nagorodniy and V. Deygraf from the Chernobyl Installation Administration and N. Sklyarets and V. Abramov from the Pripyat administration of "Yuzhatomenergostroytrans" were cited first and foremost. Fol- lowing their leaders' example, the members of their collectives also acted decisively. "Of the 18 Communists at the Pripyat administration only two are still at work; the rest are undergoing tests in hospital," A. Gamanyuk, first secretary of the party gorkom, said. "But this situation further rallies and organizes people." Moreover, the gorkom secretary himself learned about the acci- dent in hospital. Aleksandr Sergeyevich immediately left his hospital bed to head the party committee's work. "Raykom bureau sessions have become shorter but they are being held more often. This requires efficient organization," the secre- tary said. "Many collectives at Pripyat's enterprises and organi- zations have been moved to Polesskiy Rayon. The evacuation took place on a tight schedule, and certain subunits were dis- persed and people separated. In the first 10 days of May eco- nomic leaders specified and are now solving the problems linked with moving enterprise and organization personnel and with providing people with temporary work and their usual vacations [otpuskj. Party organization secretaries have established contacts with Communists who have currently been dispersed to various places. In the first 2 days at the new site 20 temporary party groups, together with party groups within the watch teams (vakhtennyye smeny) at the Chernobyl AES, were created from among Communists from the Pripyat city party organization. Their efforts were directed toward mobilizing working people to eliminate the consequences of the accident." The Pripyat party gorkom is temporarily housed in the premises of the Polesskiy Ukrainian Communist Party Raykom, and the two party orga- nizations are now operating in close contact. The party organiza- tion of the Kolkhoz imeni 40-Letiya Oktyabrya has established 210 the most friendly professional ties with the Communists arriving from the AES. There are 13 of them. They chose S. Rodionov, deputy secretary of the "Yuzhenergomontazhventilyatsiya" Administration party organization, as 'Their party organizer. A joint session of the party bureau planned organizational measures to ensure the smooth running of everyday life and the organiza- tion of work for the new arrivals. Electrical welder V. Novokhat- skiy has already started repairing kolkhoz equipment. A. Gorbunov, a worker from the AES, has joined a kolkhoz team on the construction of an enclosed hay store, two of which are under construction. "There is enough work for everyone," Komsomol member Sergey Stepanchuk, leader of a kolkhoz construction team, said. Polesskiy Rayon has 13 farms. Each one of them has a staff operating to ensure normal working and living conditions for the evacuees. The staffs include representatives of party organiza- tions both from the teams which have arrived from Pripyat and from the local kolkhozes. Open party meetings are currently being held on each of the farms to discuss the Communists' and party organizations' tasks in stepping up mass political work and organizing preparations for gathering in and procuring this year's harvest. Rape for laying in early silage is already being mowed at the "Khabna" Sovkhoz, where a meeting was chaired by N. Priymachenko, first secretary of Polesskiy party raykom. Some 800 metric tons of rape have to be procured. Machine operators here carried out maintenance work in good time on vitamin meal preparation units. The sovkhoz stockmen are making skillful use of the green feed arriving now from the farm's fields -- for example, the dairy stock unit headed by Nina Savchenko, delegate to the 27th Ukrainian Communist Party Congress, increased daily milk yields per cow in May by 1.2 kg in comparison with the same period last year. Aware that the elimination of the consequences from the Cher- nobyl AES accident demands doubled and redoubled efforts from everyone, stockmen on "Vladimirskiy" Sovkhoz proposed that the pledges previously given for 1986 be reviewed, and that milk yields per cow be raised to 3,000 kg. Polesskiy party raykom approved the patriotic initiative, which has already spread widely among the rayon's stock units. Visiting the Kiev Oblast party raykoms in the last few days, we observed the concentrated and considered work being done by their instructors, section chiefs, and secretaries. Difficult prob- lems are being solved with precision, without haste, and effec- tively. A specific and businesslike approach can be observed everywhere, in every step by party workers, and there is no superfluous talk or vague promises. "Under these conditions," A. Gamanyuk, first secretary of Prip- yat party gorkom, told us, "we have no right to allow ourselves the luxury of any relaxation. Every minute is valuable, even though the party committee is working almost around the clock. Decisions are brief and precise, their execution is swift and accurate. The situation may change repeatedly during a day or night, and every time we must be ready to act so as to successfully mobilize the Communists and to enthuse people with ardent words to overcome the hardships. There is something else that is FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY very important for us: to ensure that under these conditions, when everything has been moved but not yet settled down com- pletely, the collective in each enterprise finds its place and determines Its line of action. Of course, much in this respect depends on the leaders, on their initiative, efficiency, skill, and boldness in making an independent and at times even risky decision, but the only correct decision under given circumstances. This is why work with cadres has top priority, as it actually always has with us...." ...The doors to the Polesskiy party raykom are open around the clock. People come there for solutions to the most urgent and most vital questions. COUNCIL OF-MINISTERS ISSUES COMMUNIQUES ON CLEANUP 9 May Statement LD091713 Moscow TASS in'English 1909 GMT 9 May 86 ["USSR Council of Ministers Communique"--TASS byline] [Text] Moscow May 9 TASS ? Work to eliminate the con- sequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station continued there on May .8 and 9. An intensive cooling of the reactor has been under way in order to lower the temperature of the active zone and has helped sharply to reduce the emission of radioactive substances. Work has been carried out to shore up the banks of the River Pripyat in the area of the, nuclear power station in order to prevent the radioactive contamination of the river with rain water running off from adjacent territory. The situation at the nuclear power station's first, second, and third generator units is normal. The area of the Chernobyl nuclear power station on May 8 was visited by Hans Blix, director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Soviet scientists and specialists briefed him on the situation and the measures being taken to localize the accident. 10 May Statement PM121106 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 12 May ["From the ussR Council of Ministers"] [Text] Throughout May 10, work to eliminate the consequences of the breakdown continued at the Chernobyl atomic power station. The temperature inside the reactor went down substan- tially as a result of the taken measures. The opinion of scientists and specialists is that this is indicative of a practical termination of the reactor's graphite burning process. The release of radioac- tive substances has sharply diminished. Work to decontaminate the territory, buildings and facilities of the power station, as well as the motor roads and other facilities located in the nearby terrain has begun on a large scale with the use of up-to-date materials and technical means. 86 First Edition p 3 211 Work is being done to additionally consolidate the reactor's ' foundation. According to the data of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Monitoring the Natural Environment, the radiation level is 0.33 milliroentgen per hour at a distance of 60 km from the station and 0.32 milliroentgen per hour in Kiev, ? which is absolutely safe to people's health. On the country's western border, the radiation level is within the limits of the natural background. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 11 May Statement LD111717 Moscow TASS in English 1714 GMT 11 May 86 ["Announcement of USSR Council of Ministers"--TASS item identifier] [Text] Moscow May II TASS ? Work for radioactive decon- tamination of the territory, facilities of the station, and transport communications has been prepared today at the Chernobyl atomic power station and nearby locality. Preparation is conduc- ted for decontamination of residential houses. A complex of preparatory measures is implemented for encasing in concrete the reactor compartment of the fourth power- generating set. The radiation situation on the western borders of the USSR is normal. The radiation levels on the territory of the Ukraine and Belorussia remain the same. SILAYEV, VELIKHOV SAY CHERNOBYL DANGER PAST Silayev Conducts Work Sessions LD111824 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1430 GMT 11 May 86 [Report over video by correspondent Aleksandr Krutov, from Chernobyl--from the "Vremya" newscast] [Text] Chernobylskiy Rayon: This is where the 30-km zone begins from which the population was evacuated for security reasons. Entry into the zone is permitted only by special passes. Every house in the abandoned villages and settlements has been closed and sealed. As they left, people took all precautionary measures. [Video shows main road filmed from inside car, show- ing tanker coming in opposite direction, other traffic on road, sign saying Chernobylskiy Rayon, brief shot of surrounding country and road block, marked "danger zone, entry forbidden", with minibus halted, army trucks parked at side of road, uniformed serviceman questioning driver and waving him through. Road through to town filmed from car window, crossing river; truck loaded with what might be building materials proceeding ahead. Brief shot of houses as car speeds by, nobody visible, apple blossom on trees; sealed well.] trousers or in uniform. Uniformed militiaman wearing a mask directs traffic, mostly buses and trucks.] With every day more vehicles are on the streets, carrying various cargoes. Special remote control equipment for work in the espe- cially dangerous radiation zone is being delivered by helicopter. Like this machine, for instance. [Video shows masked militiaman directing traffic, including truck with load of long metal pipes, small tanker. Close-up of parked car bearing special permit with a large red circle on windscreen; men in white jackets and trousers or overalls, walking up path to building; machine marked toro 200d (Latin script) parked outside building - four- wheeled vehicle with open cabin, excavator shovel at front, fire extinguisher at side of cabin.] The headquarters directing the work to liquidate the conse- At the very entry into Chernobyl, the first thing we saw was a quences of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic station are stork. And then, a quite lively town street. Specialists are arriving situated in this building here. Specialists, both civilian and here from many towns. Canteens have been opened for them, military, chemists, physicists, and medics, are working here; mobile shops are coming in, from which necessary goods ean be people of various specialities are engaged in the main thing, purchased. In a word, all such conditions as are possible, of eliminating the consequences of the accident. Let's go into the course, in such a situation, have been created. [Video shows stork headquarters and have a look at the work going on there. [Video standing on nest on chimneypot; town street, a few pedestrians shows Krutov, with no mask, outside building marked Chernobyl on pavement, several jeeps parked and driving along; street Raykom; audio includes snatches of birdsong.] surface wet, pavement dry. Most pedestrians in white jackets and 212 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [White-coated man in office] Well, let's map out specifically which points we are to visit, let's map out [words indistinct]. [Video shows five men pouring over map in office marked "Radiological Security Group" and "Medical Point" on pencil- written notice pinned to door] The headquarters' working day lasts from 0600 to 0100. People sometimes eat into the night, too. And here the sessions of the state commission are held. They are now being conducted by Ivan Stepanovich Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. [Video shows serious of rooms with groups of people talking, and further group consisting of Silayev and Velikhov, among others, under a portrait of Lenin.] [Krutov] I heard Academician Velikhov say just now that a historic event occurred today. [Silayev] Well, in the main he is right. We have come to the conclusion today that the basic, main danger has been elimi- nated. This is of course a historic event. Today we can already work more calmly, insofar as what the world predicted, in particular the Western bourgeois newspapers which shouted from the rooftops that a colossal catastrophe was about to happen ? today this does not threaten us. We are today firmly convinced that the danger has passed. This does not mean that we can stop work. There are still very serious questions which must be resolved. These are questions relating, that is, to the further localization of this zone; questions relating to decontamination ? there are still many problems. But, indeed, the main danger has been averted. [Krutov] What can you add? [Velikhov] I should say that the situation is like this: We really do see that today we are not threatened by the major catastrophe we feared, in connection with the fact that a large quantity of fuel and graphite was concentrated in one spot. But of course, there are still a large number of issues we must now resolve, and very quickly at that; because we must first of all measure and determine where all the radioactivity is situated, and in the fastest possible time remove such a crude [sentence incomplete]. After that it is necessary to pass to the next stage, which consists of total ? well, putting it crudely ?deactivation of the territory, and the conservation and encapsulation of all the radiation. Therefore, this work is as great as before. We are also carrying out a great deal of work to ensure that the radioactivity has not penetrated the water table, and we are hurrying with this. There are a lot of measurements to be taken in difficult conditions, because we do not know what is situated where. And builders are 213 now carrying out a great deal of work because they are supplying concrete, freezing the soil, and covering all this up in conditions of high radioactivity. So the pressure is being kept up there. [Krutov] Well, I sense that all the same you have taken a bit of a breather, haven't you? [Silayev] No, it is, of course, too soon for us to take a breather. One might say, rather, that we have grabbed a quick breath, insofar as there is still a lot of work, as you see. But the work is gradually being taken in hand. Since the main danger has now passed we can concentrate on the issues which previously seemed to be secondary. Now these are coming into the foreground: that means decontamination, removal of the remnants, diagnosis and monitoring. And, in the final analysis, there is the solution of the problem of burying this zone. This involves, first, the very impor- tant task of putting into operation in a short time the first, second, and third sets: These are capable of operating, but a whole series of tasks must be carried out to isolate them from the fourth set. This is also a serious task which must also be resolved. There is still a lot of work. [Krutov] These photographs are the latest photographs received from the station, are they not? [Video shows Silayev with folder of photographs.] [Silayev] Yes, these are the latest. No, they are not the latest, the latest photographs are much calmer. Where are they? [Video shows Silayev looking through folder] Yes, let's have a look, yes, this is the latest photograph. As you see, this shows a completely calm state. You can see no smoke here, and certainly no shining spots. We will put it like this: The reactor site is calm here. This is not just a visual assessment: It has been confirmed by a series of analyses and research. This is why we have come to the conclusion that the main danger that had seriously threatened us is today behind us, and the time has come to start work on eliminating what has happened altogether. This indeed involves a great deal of work. [Krutov] Are there enough resources and opportunities? [Silayev] The country is giving everything necessary. We are not meeting any refusals today, no difficulties whatsoever. Every- thing has been mobilized ? technology, materials, resources. And the main thing is that the people who, of course, to start with were wary and frightened, have today got into a normal rhythm of work. People are laboring with enthusiasm. They know they are now under no threat. They of course have to observe precau- tionary measures. Zones have been defined where they must not go for the time being. Signs are up. That is, they are today working calmly and know that they are sheltered. And there is a great deal of work to be done.. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Velikhov: 11 May 'Turning Point' LD111431 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1330 GMT 11 May 86 [Text] A report from Chernobyl: A headquarters of the battle waged by people against the formidable and dangerous element for more than 2 weeks is in operation here. The government commission is at work. Today, we arrived at the conclusion that the main danger has been eliminated, Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, said to TASS correspondents. Now we can work more calmly. What was predicted in the West where it has been shouted in all manner of voices about the forthcoming colossal catastrophe, Silayev said, has not happened. Today we are absolutely confident that the danger is over. This, however, does not mean that the work can be. curtailed. A whole number of complex problems are yet to be resolved. These are issues linked with the further localization of the dangerous zone, the issues of its decontamination, and others. The head- quarters is elaborating a strategy and tactics for the struggle directed at eliminating the consequences of the accident. Tense collective work is underway in which high-ranking leaders, prominent specialists, and scientists are participating. Among them is Academician Yevgeniy Pavlovich Velikhov, vice presi- dent of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The academician called today a turning point. He said to 'ASS correspondents that the situation currently does not pose a major threat, which was feared. A new stage in the struggle is beginning. A whole range of measurements and research is still to be carried out, and the places affected worst are to be located. All this is being done in exceptionally difficult conditions. The work on decontamination and encapsulation [kapsulirovaniye] of radiation is being carried out. When these measures are implemented and results of the research are summed up, a decision concerning resumption of ? work of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant will be made. When a certain period of time ? which will be determined by securitV norms ? elapses, the station will be put into operation again and will resume production of electric power. We have not only to restore the AES, but also to revive the surrounding land, to give its life force back to it, Academician Valeriy Alekseyevich Legasov added. 'Possibility of Catastrophe' Existed LD111436 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1351 GMT il May 86 [Text] Kiev, 11 May (TASS) ? The present situation at Cher- nobyl AES no longer poses a major threat, Academician Yev- geniy Velikhov, vice president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, told Soviet journalists. The academician said that, until now, in theory the possibility of a catastrophe really did exist: A great quantity of fuel and graphite in the reactor was in an incandescent state. Now this is not the case. Velikhov said that a new stage in the work is now beginning. It is necessary to carry out a whole range of measurements and experiments to determine the most contaminated places. All this is already being done. Work is under way on the deactivation and encapsulation of radioactive substances. This guarantees against their entering the water table. Special work is being carried out within the utiit in very dirficuk conditions of high radioactivity. At the mOrtient, builders are doing a great deal. They are freezing the soil and supplying large amounts of concrete. The aim of the action's is "to bury" the broken-down reactor. When these measures have been implemented and when the results of the investigations have been drawn up, a decision will also be made on the resumption of the work of the Chernobyl AES, said Academician Velikhov. He said that at a certain time, which will be dictated by safety norms; the station once again will go into operation and will supply power. Kiev Radio Cites Silayev, Velikhov WAI21248 [Editorial Report] Kiev Domestic Service in Ukrainian at 1545 GMT on 11 May broadcasts a 4-minute report from the Chernobyl AES. Reception is very poor to unmonitorable. The station announcer reveals that answering a correspondent's questions are Ivan Stepanovich Silayev, USSR Council of Min- isters deputy chairman; Academician Yevgeniy Pavlovich Veli- khov, USSR Academy of Sciences vice president; Yuriy Antoniyevich Izrael, USSR State Committee for Hydrometerology and Environmental Control chairman; and Vitally Andreyevich Masol, Ukrainian SSR Council of Ministers deputy chairman, State Planning Committee chairman. None of the speakers are subsequently identified but are heard to speak in Russian. One speaker says that "the main danger that seriously threatened us is behind us today," and the time has come to commence work to eliminate what as a whole (?took place)." Another speaker affirms that "the situation today is such that we are not 214 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY threatened by any kind of catastrophe as we had feared," and goes on to talk about the tasks that lie ahead. A discussion on radiation and the evacuation of the area around the station follows. A speaker is heard asserting that the pop- ulation is taking things "with understanding," and reports that people are working with great enthusiaism in order to avoid the consequences of the accident while awaiting "impatiently for that day when they can return to their homes." Another speaker is heard talking about the acute problems that have been faced, including the evacuation of the population to reasonably safe areas, and also about what people are thinking of doing in the future, noting that "we are thinking of how to use that land in the future" for agriculture. With reference to the latter activity, he acknowledges that very serious measurement and research must be done, in addition to the emergency work. The speaker notes that the country is supplying everything that is needed and asserts that everything is mobilized. He continues by stressing that the main thing is that the people have returned to a normal work routine following the initial natural feelings of fear, and again reports that the people are working with enthu- siasm and that they know they are not threatened, although cautioning them to observe measures [notfurther identified due to poor reception' EMBASSIES IN MOSCOW WARN OF POSSIBLE FOOD DANGERS AU120734 Paris AFP in English 0730 GMT 12 May 86 [Milan Dragovic report] [Text) Moscow, May 11 (AFP) ? Thousands of foreigners living here have been warned by their embassies to beware of using fresh foodstuffs, in case of contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster two weeks ago. Most embassies here have warned their nationals not to drink milk, nor eat lettuces, while also advising them of possible radiation dangers from tap water, other vegetables and even meat. Many foreigners are following these instructions to the letter and are eating up stocked supplies of food in the deep freeze and canned goods, or they have ordered food from abroad, mainly from Finland and Denmark. Some of those working for private foreign firms have told their head offices about their food supply difficulties, asking them to send food containers and bottled water to them in Moscow. However, all foreign medical teams, including American, which have arrived recently in the Soviet capital have formally and unanimously stated that they have not detected any abnormal levels of radiation. Nevertheless, the "radiation panic" has gradually gripped Mos- cow, as more and more people arrive from Kiev, 900 kms (540 miles) southwest of here and 30 kms (18 miles) from Chernobyl. Some of them bring alarming stories which rapidly go the rounds here, adding to rumours of possible appalling environmental consequences of Chernobyl. The Soviet news agency TASS for the first time on Saturday mentioned the potential dangers of radiation contamination by eating and drinking. "A series of isotypes have been discovered in analysing the radioactive waves given off by the reactor," TASS reported. "These isotypes contain iodine-131 which is dangerous as it can enter the body in food." Many Muscovites comment "prevention is better than treatment." On Sunday, most of the city's markets supplied by Kolkhoz (state farm) goods were stocked as usual with fruit and vegetables, but there were few foreign customers. Muscovites questioned stall-owners on where their produce came from, mak- ing sure it was a long way from the Kiev region. Milk and butter, however, were in short supply in state stores, although it was not clear whether this was because of Chernobyl, or just a transport delay caused by the recent public holiday for the 41st anniversary of the end of Won l War 11. And there were practically none of the usual stalls selling meat and cheese, in Moscow's market places. But local housewives, as always, rushed to buy lettuces, tomatoes and potatoes from state shops, as they were cheaper and, many of them said, "probably safer." Several people have reported that lorries and cars coming from the Kiev region were being stopped at police roadblocks 100 kms (60 miles) from Moscow and tested for radiation. Only vodka and brandy drinkers seemed unworried about radi- ation dangers, as they started to queue up at noon, two hours before opening time, outside the "vino" shops. 215 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TV CARRIES BLIX, ROSEN 9 MAY 'NEWS CONFERENCE LD092034 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1750 GMT 9 May 86 [News conference for Soviet and foreign journalists given by Hans Blix, director general of the IAEA, with Professor Konstantinov, USSR deputy IAEA director general, and Morris Rosen, U.S. director of the IAEA nuclear safety department, at the Press Center of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow on 9 May; Blix and Rosen speaking in English with superimposed announcer?read Russian translation?recorded] [Text] [Blix] We have been invited by the USSR Government in connection with the accident that took place on the fourth power set at the Chernobyl AES [Atomic Energy Station]. We arrived here on Monday afternoon [5 May] and are leaving in a few hours time. We flew by helicopter over the town of Chernobyl which is 18 kilometers from the atomic power station; we also flew around the atomic power station in a helicopter. We saw the damaged plant from a distance of 800 meters. During our stay we have had an opportunity to form our own impressions of the accident. During very frank and open talks we also reached agreement with the Soviet authorities on definite measures. Before I go over to the joint conclusions which were worked out by us with the Soviet competent authorities I would like to say on behalf of the IAEA that we expressed great regret about the tragic accident, the human casualties, and the damage that has been inflicted. We have circulated a communique which has been agreed between Petrosyants, chairman of the State Committee [for Utilization of Atomic Energy]. and myself. In reply to my invitation our Soviet colleagues have agreed to come to Vienna for an analysis of the accident which will be carried out with their colleagues from other IAEA member-states. Of course, our Soviet colleagues must have sufficient time themselves to analyze the accident. Second, we have now agreed with the Soviet authorities that appropriate data will be constantly provided by them to the IAEA for transmission by us to the radiation protection bodies of the countries concerned. That release of data for the IAEA starts today. [Rosen] The data will be produced by the State Committee for Hydrometereology and Environmental Control, the State Com- mittee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy, and then, daily, by telex to the Agency headquarters in Vienna. The information will consist of the following data: the coordinates of the station, wind direction, wind speed, the temperature at 0100 when the readings will be taken, and the regional weather conditions. The data will be collected from a station 68 kilometers southeast of Chernobyl, and then six other stations along the western border of the USSR, these stations being at Leningrad, Riga, Vilnius, Brest, R,akhov, Kishinev ? in other words from points in Leningrad down toward the Black Sea. These stations are registered with the World Metereology Office. 216 [Blix] In the penultimate paragaph of our communique we have also jointly raised the idea of further international measures which might be developed within the framework of the IAEA to improve the safety of nuclear power installations. [Announcer] Professor Konstantinov gave information about the specific measures which are being taken by the IAEA in the field of nuclear power engineering safety. [Blix] Let me end by noting the third point in the final commu- nique: that the Soviet side stated that the accident will not affect the implementation of the nuclear power engineering develop- ment plan. I will stop here and then ask Mr Morris Rosen to tell you the picture that we ourselves have formed of the accident. [Rosen] I would like to begin by reading a summary description which we have prepared: A full and authoritative description of the accident, the causes of the accident, and its consequences, can only be given by the Soviet authorities after the necessary analysis. So far only hypo- theses exist about the specific causes of the accident. Data from the control room were recovered after the accident and are now being studied. In the reactor building, the equipment in it, the reactor itself, and the reactor core were seriously damaged as a result of which radioactivity was emitted to beyond the area of the AES. The chain reaction was immediately shut down at the moment of the accident. This is confirmed by the fact that medical examination of the people affected did not show that they had been subjected to high neutron irradiation. A considerable part of the radioactive release consists of short-life radionuclides. Measurements show that up to 50 percent of the release was in the form of Iodine-131. Fire teams came quickly to the site. Work was complicated, however, by the fact that neither water nor chemicals could be used. Firemen and some of the station's personnel were among those subjected to radiation. Most of the people in the neighboring areas were indoors at the time of the accident which reduced the irradiation. In the early morning of 26 April a high level of radioactivity was registered; this was reported. Evacuation began on 27 April starting with women and children. Up to 48,000 people were evacuated from Chernobyl and other areas within a 30-km radius. As a prophylactic mea- sure, people inside and outside the 30-km zone were given potassium iodine tablets: 204 people, including the nuclear sta- tion personnel and firemen, were affected by radiation from first to fourth degree, 18 people with fourth degree. In all 204 people FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY were hospitalized in Moscow and are receiving medical treatment. In some cases bone marrow tissue transplants were carried out. Radioactive discharges from the damaged unit have been signif- icantly reduced by creating a shield from neutron absorbent material ? sand, boron, clay, dolomite, and lead ? which were dropped from helicopters. As a result, the level of radioactivity within a 30-km zone has been reduced. Necessary shift personnel are working on site to keep the undamaged reactors in a safe shut-down condition. The third reactor which was adjacent to the fourth was not damaged following the accident and the cooling and safety system is functioning. The damaged reactor suffered from some fires in the graphite. This burning has been extinguished, however the tem- peratures remain high. But criticality is not a problem. The object is to contain the whole of the fourth set in concrete and a concrete foundation is now being created under the reactor. The maximum radiation within the 30-km zone is 10-15 mil- liroentgens per hour. On 5 May it had decreased to 2-3 milliroen- tgens per hour. On 8 May it had dropped to a maximum of 0.15 milliroentgens per hour on the perimeter of the zone. The level of radioactivity in Kiev's water reservoirs was normal at all times. , [Blix] Since we are in Moscow I think it may be proper to begin with a question from a PRAVDA correspondent. The question is as follows: Mr Director General, are you satisfied with the volume and the nature of the information which you have received during your visit to the USSR? To this question I reply unquestionably yes. We had very frank and open discussions with ministers and experts and in many cases the experts and officials are people whom we have known for a long time. We have worked out an accord with the USSR on the release of information on a continual basis. I think that this is the first step in international efforts which will require some kind of early-warning system to be set up. This is also recognized in the communique. Next I would like to go over to questions that have been asked by correspondents from nonsocialist countries. In the light of this accident can Mr Blix outline his views on the advantages of nuclear energy over conventional power generation as far as pollution of the atmosphere is concerned, and particularly as far as the problem of the destruction of forests in the FRG is concerned? Let me say that I personally support nuclear energy for reasons of environmental protection. Nuclear energy does not lead to emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, or carbon dioxide, which can lead to the creation of a greenhouse effect in the planet's atmosphere. In my view, therefore, nuclear energy has great advantages from the point of view of environmental protec- tion. At the same time, among public opinion there is a certain amount of concern about the safe disposal of nuclear waste and the possible consequences for the environment as the result of radioactive fullout. And the accident at Chernobyl will without doubt teach all of us in the world a lot. It will give us some 217 experience about the consequences for the environment and also about the methods which can be used to decontaminate the environment and deal with the consequences of such contamina- tion. A question from a Kuwaiti correspondent: In Kiev and Minsk there are students and postgraduates from many foreign coun- tries, including Arab countries. Does the accident present any danger to their lives and health? We were in Kiev yesterday, and life seemed to us to be quite usual and normal. There were many people on the streets. In Kiev they were preparing for a bicycle race. We were shown a moument dedicated to the victory of world War II. We saw many tourists there. In other words what we saw proves that life is quite normal. We asked whether schools are closed but we were told quite definitely, no. I asked for more scientific replies as to what the consequences of the accident will be with regard to exposure to radioactivity throughout the area and what consequences this could have for people's health. I think I should ask Mr Rosen to comment on that. [Rosen] We know first of all that we are all exposed to radiation in ordinary life. Increased levels of radiation may have detrimen- tal health effects and this will be true for this accident as well. However, until one knows the amount of radioactivity released, its spread, its duration, and individual doses there is no point in speculating in figures. On the one hand we know 204 individuals were hospitalized; on the other we have been told that medical examinations of the inhabitants of Kiev including children have indicated nothing to suggest any significant health detriment. [Blix] Has the release of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear plant's fourth energy set completely ceased? And the second question is what is the danger of agriculture in the Ukraine from the environmental contamination and to the water table from radioactive fallout? The first question ? has the radiation stopped? [Rosen] Well perhaps I should just say for the fourth unit there is relatively little radioactivity now. The temperature is falling and the situation appears to be stabilizing. I should also note that dosimetry readings taken during our helicopter flight seem to confirm a considerrable reduction in the amount of radioactivity being released. The second question concerns the damage to the Ukraine's agriculture. The accident area will be inhabitable again. The radioactive isotopes ? and these are mainly isotopes of radioac- tive Iodine-131 discharged as a result of the accident ? have rather short half-lives. [Blix] The next question comes from ZYCIE WARSZAWY: What, in your view, is now dominant in the activities of nuclear power stations in East and Wese? Do you think they have more in common or do they have a variety of approaches? [Konstantinov] I think that there are more things in common than there are differences at the present time. We know full well that any accident anywhere at any station is without doubt an obstacle and a hindrance to the further development of nuclear power engineering; but on the other hand it is a lesson which should always be taken into account during the further development of nuclear power engineering. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Blix] What in your opinion could be done in addition to what is being done at Chernobyl to deal with the consequences of the accident? [Rosen] I can say that a competent ? a very competent ? group of Soviet experts is working at the site. They have many very practical ideas and are carrying out this work now, at this very moment. [Blix] A question: It has been reported that work is being done around the fourth power set and underneath it. What does this mean? And what kind of work is being done under the power set? Is there a danger that the radiator casing will melt through the reactor foundations? And are there any consequent fears for the water supply to the Ukrainian capital? [Rosen] The Soviet engineers working on this prob16 recognize the need to take measures to eliminate the danger. They are currently considering several options for doing work under the fourth power set. This work could be done by driving a tunnel or by getting at it from the third set. The work could be done by driving a tunnel or by getting at it from the third set. The work being done now is to pour concrete into the area underneath the broken casing? [Rosen says in English "into the area below the destroyed reactor core"). This concrete eventually will form a foundation to entomb, as it were, the whole set. [Blix] Another question: Why is it considered necessary to enclose the power set at Chernobyl in concrete? Is there a danger that the reactor will melt into the earth? [Rosen] The reason for making a concrete casing is to make it simpler to put a complete stop to the accident. And one can also be confident that in this case there can be no danger of a critical situation occuring again or of melting as cooling proceeds, includ- ing cooling to the level at which it will have no effect. [Blix] A question from the LOS ANGELES TIMES: Will the USSR close down its other reactors of the Chernobyl type? No, during the investigation the Soviet authorities have not discov- ered anything which would necessitate closing down the other reactors. We have been told by Soviet representatives that mea- sures are being taken to raise safety at other installations. A question from the NOVOSTI PRESS AGENCY: After all that you have seen and learned during the course of your visit, how could you comment on the attempts by some Western information media to frighten the public with the Soviet nuclear threat? In the United States maps of the world are being shown on television with a red spot of radiation which extends over the whole of Western Europe and as far as the continent of Asia, allegedly threatening the world's countries.' I think that you newspapermen know how the information media function in different countries. Even small incidents at nuclear reactors give rise to a great deal of talk, whether in the West or in the East. At the same time it seems to me that the media in this case and in other cases must not exaggerate. That is their responsibility, not to exaggerate, not to disseminate rumors of different kinds or 'any kind of information which will only worry people. I am glad that before we take off for our Vienna head- quarters we have had an opportunity to reply to all your ques- tions. Thank you for your attention. BLIX INTERVIEWED ON CLEANUP, NUCLEAR FUTURE LD101156 Moscow in English to North America 2300 GMT 9 May 86 [Text] The director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Hans Blix, who came to this country at the invitation of the government, on Thursday [8 May] visited Kiev and the region of the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Aleksandr Barabeychik of Radio Moscow has talked to Dr Hans Blix: [Begin recording] [Barabeychik] Dr Blix, you have just made a trip to Chernobyl and Kiev. What did you learn there? Your impressions of the situation there? [Blix) Well, we saw that a great deal of work is done and accomplished and directed by dedicated people, and that the situation seems to be under control, and that they are limiting the consequences of the accident. (Barabeychik] Some Western press agencies report that there was a kind of panic in Kiev. What is the mood of the people there at present, really? 218 [Blix] We drove around in Kiev for some time, and the streets were full of people. We certainly did not see any signs of panic. There were also tourists at the war memorial, as there usually are. [Barabeychik] During the last week you spent in the Soviet Union you have been meeting chief officials of the Soviet Atomic Energy Committee. What did you learn from them? [Blix] We have discussed the accident extensively, and we have also discussed what ought to be done at the international level, in particular within the IAEA. We are, of course, interested in establishing what international measures should be taken through which the world, the whole world, can learn from this accident and thereby to improve nuclear safety. [Barabeychik] You also signed a joint communique on your stay in the Soviet Union. What points are you stressing? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Blix] Well, precisely these points. That is to say, what further joint international measures can be taken to improve nuclear safety. There are quite a few things that one would like to do and which have already begun to be discussed, such as early warning systems. [Barabeychik] Some people in the West now try to generalize and cast a kind of shadow on the whole Soviet atomic power industry. Can a single accident in more than 30 years of efficient function- ing of atomic power stations in the Soviet Union be regarded as a major breakdown in our technological thinking, or is it just a case of shoddy workmanship? [Blix] There is no doubt that there is an enormous amount of competence in the nuclear field in the Soviet Union, and that this has given very great benefits to the Soviet energy supply. At the same time, it is clear that the Soviet authorities themselves do not take the accident lightly, they consider it seridus. However, they need time to analyze the reasons for the accident and the cause of the accident. [Barabeychik] What about safety standards used in our Soviet power stations? Is the reactor used in Chernobyl station inferior in any way to those used in the West? [Blix] Experts tell me that there is one significant difference between this type of reactor and those, whether in the Soviet Union or in the West, that have structural containment buildings. Such buildings, of course, help to contain, prevent releases of radioactivity. [Barabeychik] Would you then apply a Murphy's law ? what can go wrong will go wrong ? to what has happened in Cher- nobyl? Perhaps this is a philosophical reflection, but should mankind introduce the state-of-the-art technology in fusion, in space, to be in the forefront of knowledge in general, when the loss of life and property is perhaps an inevitable byproduct here? [Blix] Well, most technologies have associated risks and can cause the loss of life and some, we know, have had very great environ- mental consequences. We have huge environmental problems in the industrialized world in particular today. They are mainly caused by the excessive use of oil and coal for the production of electricity and for our transportation systems. In the transportation and the mining of coal, they cause a lot of loss of life. The use of hydro-energy in waterfalls, exploiting waterfalls, also sometimes leads to the bursting of dams with the loss of a great deal of life. So nuclear [energy] is not at all alone in this. I would rather say that when nuclear does not have any decontami- nation [as heard] as the result of accidents nuclear is probably the most lenient source of electric energy from the point of view of the environment. [Barabeychik] So you don't think humankind can ever be pushed aside from its track of building more atomic power stations, of harnessing essentially unlimited resources of a controlled ther- monuclear fusion? [Blix] It is already clear from the statements of the Government of the Soviet Union, and it's clear from the statements of the leaders who met in Tokyo recently, that this accident will not stop the further development of nuclear power. But it is also clear that it leads to an even stronger determination to make nuclear power even safer. This is the same (?path) as you have in other technol- ogies; aviation, for instance, is all the time becoming safer, and this is also what nuclear power should be. [Barabeychik] Perhaps this is a bit sinister question, but do you think this misfortune at Chernobyl atomic power station helped people everywhere to better realize the possible consequences of the nuclear warfare when 50,000 nuclear charges accumulated so far can be used? [Blix] I think we are all terribly well aware of what consequences there would be in nuclear warfare, and I don't think any one of us needs a nuclear accident of this kind in order to become better aware of it. [Barabeychik] Dr Blix, I thank you very much. [end recording] IAEA EXPRESSES GRATITUDE FOR SOVIET COOPERATION LD081502 Moscow TASS in English 1439 GMT 8 [Text] Vienna May 8 TASS ? The participants in the session of the committee for administrative and budgetary issues of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was held here, have expressed gratitude to the Soviet Government for the invitation extended to the director general of the agency to visit the USSR in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, and welcomed the preparedness of the competent Soviet authorities to cooperate with the agency in providing informa- tion. The committee pointed out the need for a further 219 May 86 strengthening of international cooperation in the field of nuclear security and expressed the wish that the IAEA member-countries should make proposals on that score for examination at the IAEA board of governors in June this year. The committee has exam- ined the programme of the agency's work and budget for 1987-1988, including on such issues as cooperation of states within the agency's framework in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear safety, the international nuclear information system and thermonuclear research. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PRAVDA CITES NEWS CONFERENCE WITH UKRAINE PREMIER PM091706 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 10 May 86 First Edition p 6 [Special correspondents V. Gubarev and M. Odinets report: "From Chernobyl to Kiev; Our Special Correspondents Tell of Meeting at the Ukrainian Council of Ministers"] [Text] A group of foreign journalists has arrived in Kiev and on 8 and 9 May they acquainted themselves with the situation in the Ukraine's capital and the oblast. They include representatives of major news agencies, newspapers, and television from the social- ist countries, the United States, Sweden, Japan, Italy, Canada, Kuwait, France, Finland, and the FRG. They were given the opportunity to meet with the republic's leaders, specialists, sci- entists, and foreign citizens working and studying in Kiev. Our foreign colleagues visited one of the rayons in the oblast to which people were evacuated from the danger zone. The journalists also visited the Ukrainian SSR Council of Min- isters. A meeting took place there with A.P. Lyashko, chairman of the Ukrainian Council of Ministers, Yu.A. Izrael, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Envi- ronmental Control, L.A. Ilin, vice president of the USSR Acad- emy of Medical Sciences, A. Ye. Romanenko, Ukrainian SSR minister of health, and leading personnel from Kiev and the oblast. The conversation with the journalists went on a long time. The discussion ended only after all the questions had received detailed answers and explanations. It began with the following announcement: "They have just phoned me from Chernobyl," A.P. Lyashko said, "and told me the situation now. The reactor temperature has decreased to 300 degrees, and this means that the process of combustion has ended. The radiation situation is improving." [Question] What are your main concerns today? "Ensuring the safety of the people living in the zone around the Chernobyl AES [Atomic Energy Station]," A.P. Lyashko said. "We are trying to take every measure to give the maximum help to the stricken [poterpevshiy] population. Those who had suffered serious radioactive contamination were immediately taken to Moscow, where they are being given medical help. People who show pronounced symptoms of sickness are being immediately hospitalized. Some 230 crews from Kiev and other oblasts in the Republic have begun providing medical services in regions adjoining the 30-km zone. The people who are at their posts looking after the AES units, and also the evacuated population have undergone medical screening for symptoms of sickness." The account of the chairman of the Ukrainian Council of Min- isters painted a picture of the tremendous organizational work that is now being conducted to eliminated the consequences of the accident. In view of the fact that the Kiev reservoir is south of the AES, particular attention is being paid to water quality. Dwelling on the evacuation of people from the 30-km zone, A.P. Lyashko reported that the population has been accommodated in the rayons neighboring Chernobyl Rayon and that the temporary migrants have been provided with housing, medical aid, and 220 consumer services. The victims are being given a money grant to replace possessions lost during the evacuation. Children are studying in schools and the little ones have been placed in kindergartens. Answering the correspondents, A.P. Lyashko gave a detailed and cogent account of how the announcement of the accident at the Chernobyl AES was made as soon as the highly authoritative specialists who traveled to Chernobyl from Moscow made their "diagnosis." There can be no haste in such a serious matter and rash conclusions are impermissible. Western journalists have been able to see for themselves the falsity of the myth that Kiev was dead when they drove through its crowded, sunny streets. [Question] Is the station going to start work, and if so, when? "We believe that the elimination of the accident is proceeding successfully," A.P. Lyashko replied. "As soon as total safety is ensured, the station will resume work. Of course, I am referring to the first, second, and third units; the fourth will be buried. Although its machine room suffered no damage and is perfectly serviceable, it is inadvisable to use it." [Question] What is the future of nuclear power in the Republic? "Conclusions must naturally be drawn from this incident, but progress cannot be retarded. Man's genius placed nuclear energy at people's service. And we have to use this boon. Forty-one power units are in operation in the USSR. Ten of them are in the Ukraine. The future belongs to nuclear energy. Different coun- tries must cooperate and exchange experience, including exper- ience of the safe utilization of this energy potential. At the same time we must realize what tremendous forces are contained in nuclear power. So they must be used only for peaceful purposes. Events in Chernobyl are yet another reminder that nuclear weapons on the planet must be eliminated. The 15 January statement of M.S. Gorbachev, general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, sets out a clear program of action. But, unfortunately, the Western countries, and primarily the United States, are not as yet responding properly to it ? nuclear weapon tests are continuing in the West." [Question] How many people are there in the AES zone? "We came to this meeting from Chernobyl," L.A. Ilin, vice president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, said. "Many people are working at the industrial site at this time. Some are servicing reactor units I, 2, and 3, others are eliminating the consequences of the accident at unit 4, and still others have begun the decontamination of the station. These include workers and engineers, physicists and chemists, service- men and medics. Constant monitoring is being carried out. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Everybody in the AES zone has been provided with means of individual protection. As chairman of the National Radiation Safety Commission I can say with all responsibility that we are carrying out stringent monitoring precluding the overexposure to radiation of the personnel and all who are currently in Pripyat." [Question] What is the radiation situation in the zone? Yu.A. lzrael, chairman of the USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control, answered: "The radiation there is not identical everywhere. In most rayons it does not exceed the permissible norms. But the task is to reliably ensure the safety of people, and that is why they were evacuated from the zone. In Kiev the monitoring organs have been working constantly, not only during the accident but also before. The background radiation increased somewhat, but not once ? I stress, not once! ? did the radiation level approach levels which would threaten human health. There is a similar picture in Gomel. In recent days radioactivity has declined by between 60 percent and two-thirds. "I can add," says L.A. Ilin, "that all the radiation levels recorded in Kiev and other cities are Completely safe in terms of the effect on people. Every one of us receives an incomparably greater dose from an x-ray of the teeth or the gastrointestinal tract." [Question] When will people go home? "After the completion of all the work to eliminate the accident," A.P. Lyashko replied. "It is necessary to decontaminate the soil, houses, apartments, and so forth. This is a very big job. It 'has already begun, but as yet it is hard to say precisely when it will be completed." [Question] Is there a danger of pollution of the Dnepr and the Black Sea? "Even in the region of Pripyat the level is within normal limits," Yu.A. lzrael replied. "We are monitoring carefully and taking samples every hour. This is the situation today. In case of rain the banks are being reinforced: A barrier is being built up [nasypayetsya val] and peat is being laid to filter the water. A very great deal of work is being done in the zone with a view to preventing all kinds of situations. Yes, we are being supremely cautious. But it is a question of safety. And therefore it is better to do too much than to omit something. The Dnepr, for the whole of its length, and of course the Black Sea, have experienced n6 increase in radioactivity." ...The meeting at the Ukrainian Coun- cil of Ministers helped journalists from many countries to see the events at the Chernobyl AES in a new way. They were convinced that the struggle to eliminate the accident is being conducted not only courageously but also intelligently. There should now be no unexpected or unforeseen elements in the situation... MEDICAL CARE FOR RADIATION VICTIMS DESCRIBED PM081804 Moscow KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 8 May 86 p 4 [Special correspondents N. Dolgopolov and P. Polozhevets report: "A Test of Staunchness. Confidence, Courage, and Staunchness--Qualities Displayed by Soviet People in the Critical Situation; Our Special Correspondents Report From the Chernobyl AES Area"] [Text] Kiev Oblast ? Aleksandr Skorupich will always remem- ber those moments. A senior foreman in the Chernobyl AES electrical workshop [elektrotsekh], he received an emergency call at 0320 hours. The message was curt: "Accident at No 4." He started gathering his comrades: Almost all workers in the AES live at the Pripyat settlement. Soon they were at the power station. Skorupich is 34 years old. He knows the AES inside out. And so he should ? he has been at the station for 10 years. He grew up with it. He started as an assembly worker, and later became a repairman in the electrical workshop. His friends Petr Petrovich Kozhanov and Gennadiy Aleksandrovich Proshkin worked with him that anxious morning. The situation had to be assessed urgently. A small group of men entered the strictly protected area [zona strogogo rezhimal. They had to do the most dangerous work.... 221 Meanwhile Skorupich, Aleksandr Grigoryevich Oleshchuk, and Vladimir Stepanovich Lyskin were checking instruments and tackling restoration and adjustment work. They did everything within their power, and even more. Yes, those working under extreme conditions and close to the accident site did need the assistance of medical personnel. And this assistance was given energetically, skillfully, and promptly. Doctor of Medical Sci- ences Anatoliy Yefimovich Romanenko, Ukrainian SSR min- ister of health, with whom we ha cl a lengthy conversation, feels that it could not have been otherwise. [Romanenko] I would suggest that you write as follows: All medical personnel displayed a lofty sense of professional respon- sibility and great humanism and patriotism, Anatoliy Yefi- movich advised us and went on to say: Hundreds of teams from all oblasts in the Ukraine were called to assist the local health service organs, each team consisting of doctors, radiation mon- itors, and laboratory technicians. The task was clear ? to provide medical inspection and observation services. My orders for FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY departure from the other oblasts were issued in the night. By next morning most of those who had been called had already arrived in Kiev. Those traveling overnight from the more distant oblasts arrived there within 48 hours. There was not a single instance of refusal. [Dolgopolov/Polozhevets] Could you tell us briefly about the organization of medical services? [Romanenko] Medical assistance was available around the clock for the entire population evacuated from the 30 km zone. Every- one was examined by doctors, everyone underwent a radiation check. Laboratory checks are now underway. [Dolgopolov/Polozhevets] And how about hospitalization since, in some cases, such measures were probably necessary? [Romanenko] Those who voiced even the slightest complaint involving general indisposition or stress effects have been hos- pitalized and are being investigated in detail. Whenever neces- sary they are sent to specialized institutions. I must say that patients needing specialized treatment are still in single figures. The bulk of those hospitalized are people who really experienced stress effects ? the accident, the emergency evacuation, the alarm for family and relations. [Dolgopolov/Polozhevets] Nevertheless, what preventive mea- sures would you recommend for those living relatively near to the accident site? [Romanenko] I spoke on this subject a few days ago on Ukrainian television. Even though the situation today is safe, we must also bear in mind the certain amount of exposure to the effects of radioactivity. I would recommend that buildings be hosed down. Why? Dust is the main carrier of radioactive elements. I would refrain from bathing in open-air facilities. Mains water should be used for this purpose, it is absolutely clean and can be drunk. How about the state of health of people who nevertheless did suffer, those injured or exposed to large doses of radiation? No one makes any secrets. Such cases do exist. It was reported in newspapers and at the press conference in the USSR Foreign Ministry that seriously ill patients had been sent to Moscow. Patients hospitalized in Kiev include workers from the Chernobyl AES and residents from Pripyat settlement. The treatment of the most seriously ill has been entrusted to Valentin Leonidovich Ganul, Leonid Petrovich Kindzelskiy, Nikolay Mikhaylovich Bondar, Era Dmitriyevna Chebotareva, Nina Alekseyevna Tomilina ? specialists from Kiev's Roentgenology, Radiology, and Oncology Scientific Research Institute. These most noble people in white coats deserve words of warmth and most profound gratitude. Doctors in unrelated fields, they have worked in different positions, directions, and sectors in the past few days. But their work did have common elements. Human lives depended on the speed and correctness of decisions made by the doctors. And they solicitously took these lives in their strong and caring hands, driving the disease away and bringing the cure nearer. We visited the patients' ward. Actually, they are already out of bed, walking along the corridors. Appetite is coming back. There are four of them. AES workers Nikolay Migkov and Nikolay Bondarenko, student Stanislav Lobanov from Voronezh, and worker Viktor Ilyashev from Pripyat. Nikolay Bondarenko was on shift duty at the time of the accident. Nikolay Migkov returned there only a few hours afterward. Ilyashev and Lobanov, who were in Pripyat to gain practical work experience, found themselves in the danger zone by accident. They felt indigposed after the evacuation. They were immediately hospital- ized and given emergency treatment at one. New methods were used for the decontamination [ochistka] of their blood. The situation improved. The point of maximum danger had passed. The patients' blood and hemogenesis are now constantly mon- itored. All those who suffered are surrounded by such attention ? medical and human. 'STRENGTH OF CHARACTER' SHOWN IN AFTERMATH PM071340 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 7 May 86 Second Edition p 3 [TASS special correspondents Vladimir Itkin and Lev Chernenko 6 May reportage from the Chernobyl AES area: "Stronger Than the Atom"] [Text] Kiev Oblast ? "Where were you when the accident happened?" ? we put this question to people who were manning the control panels at the Chernobyl AES only yesterday and who are prepared to go again and work their next shift. Although the reactors are shut down, the required regime has to be maintained, "routine" work is in progress, hundreds of power workers con- tinue working at the station, and its other services, including the accounts department, are also functioning. As usual, on pay day, people received their wages, the nuclear power workers are in the constant care of medical staff and their health is being closely monitored. Everyone is conscientiously doing his job. 222 "During the accident most Communists displayed true heroism," Gennadiy Alekseyevich Karyaka, deputy secretary of the Cher- nobyl AES party committee, said. "Having assessed the situation realistically, people acted selflessly, no one ran away, no one refused to do his job, everyone was doing their duty." "When I saw what had happened at the No 4 power unit I rushed to my work station without thinking about the danger," Nikolay Grigoryevich Polishchuk, senior foreman in the power hall, told us. "The cables were under water. It was necessary to ensure the back-up power supply and to activate the transformer which had dropped out." FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "People were working with no thought for themselves. Having received medical aid, Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lelichenko, dep- uty head of the power hall, refused to be hospitalized and returned to his hall. He worked right up to his last bit of strength and was sent to the hospital only the next day. Their sense of duty and awareness of the danger which an accident can produce guided the actions of the Chernobyl workers who joined in the struggle against the terrible force. They now say that they did not experience fear. An "emergency" situation arose, the very situation for which nuclear power workers must always be pre- pared, irrespective of the outwardly tranquil, measured rhythm of their routine, day-to-day work. And during those minutes they displayed not only their experience and professionalism but also their human qualities. They were also thinking about the families and children left at the settlement. As for foreman Vladimir Stepanovich Lyskin, he had his son with him ? they were working side by side, repairing damaged power equipment. Army training had taught his son Yevgeniy not to lose his head in a complex situation ? he had come to work at the AES after his service with the missile forces. The father's experience and the son's youthful courage merged in a common cause at the difficult moment. Lyskin's wife was also at the AES, she was on duty at the pumping station. The family of nuclear power workers are ready even now to continue their watch at Chernobyl. Like a family hit by misfortune is how the collective of the Chernobyl nuclear power station has accepted what has hap- pened. The reactors have been shut down and it is now no longer the station which supplies people with energy, it is the people who are giving their energy to the AES. Dealing with the aftermath of the accident is not easy. And it is important for the Chernobyl power workers to know that their families are safe, that arrangements have been made for them. Immediately after the accident the Pripyat settlement was evacuated. The power work- crs' families are now settling in at new places. Preparing for their next shift, workers at the AES receive news from their families. "My family has been evacuated to Ivankovskiy Rayon," foreman Anatoliy Konstantinovich Ponamarev told us. "My family is in Polesskiy Rayon," senior operator Ivan Afanasyevich Sologub joined in. "My son is attending the same kind of vocational technical school there." However, not all workers have as yet heard from their families. And it is not easy to establish contact with them immediately; after all, tens of thousands of people have been moved to different places. Naturally, this is causing anxiety. However, the AES workers on duty in Chernobyl know that care will be taken of their near and dear ones. They know that there is a force more powerful than the energy of the atom. It sustains us at the time of difficult trials. This is the strength of the Soviet character. The selflessness of those who combatted the accident, of those who continue to work at the station right now, the composure of those who were forced to leave their homes, the warmth with which Ukrainian families are welcdming the evacuees, and the assis- tance which the Chernobyl people are receiving from the whole of the republic and the whole of the country ? these are vivid manifestations of our character. Dozens of telegrams are currently arriving at the Chernobyl AES. "I request permission to take part in clearing up the_ aftermath of theaccident," Mikhail Petrovich Tsvetayev, a retired experienced radiation monitoring expert, writes. The inhabitants of the villages where the evacuees are being settled are applying to rural Soviets to make sure that they are not forgotten, that they too are allocated a Chernobyl family. People are prepared to lend a helping hand, to share everything they have. In order to eliminate the consequences of the accident, this is no less important than the technical solutions. In the difficult situation which we are confronting for the first time, what is 'needed is not just experience and knowledge, but also strength of character. And people are displaying this with honor. NEWSPAPER READERS OFFER HELP TO VICTIMS Money Sent to Fund PM081312 Moscow KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 8 May 86 p 4 [L. Kurin report: "A Measure of Sympathy, a Measure of Kindness"--first para? .graph is KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA introduction] (Text] "We are ready to help!" ? These are the opening words of our readers' communications with the editorial office today. "Hello, editorial office? This is V. Vasilyev, deputy secretary of the Komsomol Committee at the Oskol Electrometallurgical Combine. The Komsomol and young people's collective named for the 19th Komsomol Congress has decided to work 1 day to 'Ielp the victims of the Chernobyl AES accident. Where can we send the money?" Yesterday alone the editorial office was asked many such ques- tions. Pupils at the No 7 School in the City of Balashikhi near Moscow organized a subbotnik and decided to transfer the funds they earned to the victims. Vitaliy Polnikov, a driver at Moscow's No 4 Motor Vehicle Combine, offered help for the fastest possi- ble elimination of the consequences of the accident.... 223 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We got in touch with Y. Danilov, first deputy chairman of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Executive Com- mittee, who told us that money for the fund to help the population in the Chernobyl AES area is to be remitted to current account No 700 624 in the name of the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies at the (Mosgosbyudbank) [expansion unknown] (code No 191 016 for those outside Moscow). It was already evening when Moscow painter Ashot Karapetyan called at the editorial office. "The way Western propaganda is now behaving in connection with our misfortune is veryinsulting and worthy of indignation," he said. "In my view, it is immoral to mock as people in the West are doing. This is a great sorrow for us, and I perceive it as my personal sorrow. This is why I have just remitted R200 to the fund to help the victims." Offers of Foreign Assistance Noted PM081247MoscOw IZVESTIYA in Russian 8 May 86 Morning Edition p 4 [TASS report: "Humane Sympathy"] [Text] The Soviet Government and various organizations and departments in our country continue to receive expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance from foreign citizens and public organizations and private companies abroad in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES. A telegram from New Zealand doctors advocating the prevention of nuclear war, signed by Doctor (Ya. Prayor), says, in part: "We offer our support arKI assistance if they are needed. We hope that the event will serve the cause of uniting all people on earth for the sake of attaining the goals that face us all." In a telegram to Academi- cian Ye.!. Chazov, Soviet cochairman of the "International Physicians for the Prevention of 'Nuclear War" movement, (J. Geiger), president of the influential U.S. organization "Physi- cians for Social Responsibility," and Doctor (Zaydel), leader of the U.S. Association of Public Health Organizers, write: "We express our sympathy to Soviet people at this difficult time and we are prepared to give any assistance." These are just two of the many telegrams that have come from abroad in the past few days. ' Such apposite, humane sympathy over what has happened cannot fail to arouse feelings of sincere appreciation among Soviet people. TASS CITES IZVESTIYA ON REGIONAL SITUATION LD081726 Moscow TASS International Service in Itussian 1530 GMT 8 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 8 May (TASS)? IZVESTIYA today publishes a reportage by its correspondents on the situation in the Cher- nobyl AES region. ...[TASS ellipsis] The village of Razvazhev, one of the 17 local- ities of Ivankovskiy Rayon, which has given refuge to those evacuated. The local kolkhoz, `Ukraina,' gave presents on 1 May to 200 children, who arrived in Razvazhev with their parents, while 6 May was particularly memorable to the new settlers: They collected their first wages at their new place. In another rayon of Kiev Oblast ? Polesskiy ? the evacuees were accepted into 58 localities; in Borodyanskiy Rayon into 18 localities. Nine villages in Makarovskiy Rayon also gave refuge to those afflicted by misfortune. Life goes on and people are settling in. In Polesskiy Rayon, 50 percent of evacuated schoolchildren turned up for studies on the first day. On the second day there were already 90 percent. Now all children are studying. The youngest are in kindergartens. But events in Chernobyl have reflected not only upon the life of the oblast but also on the whole countenance of ancient Kiev. As a purely prophylactic measure, and not because of the condition of the air over Kiev, the street trading of pastries, ice cream, 224 juices and bottled water is forbidden. Thousands of hawkers' stands for,ice creams, pies, and juices have disappeared from the streets. Now these commodities are only .being sold indoors. In such instances it is better to be "over-insured." The population regards such prophylactic measures with complete under- standing. At the recommendation of doctors, and without sparing water, the streets are being watered in the most careful way and all highways are being cleaned. At markets, everything which is being brought in from the suburbs is being checked by radiation monitors. Milk products are being examined with particular care. Only the "OK" given by specialists allows a product to pass to the shops' shelves. However, on the vegetable and meat counters, as previously, there are mountains of greens, and meat and fat. As always, there are many people under the arches of the markets. But the question "where did you bring this from" is now posed not merely for the start of a conversation on the merits of the goods on display. The republic's anti-epidemic station now has more than enough to do, V. Vetchinkin, the head of its chief administration said. Public health specialists have been given the task of monitoring the quality of foodstuffs, water purity and of reorganizing trad- ing. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At airports, railway and bus terminals there are strict dosimetric controls to be passed through by people departing, V. Vetchinkin continued. Other precautionary measures are being taken with regard to foodstuffs. Temporary, and, I would like to stress, very strict standards have been introduced in the republic for the quality of all farm produce. People are interested more than anything else in the problems facing parents whose children go to school, the problems of providing the evacuated population with everything they need, and how the decontamination of people and clothing has been organized. The schools in Kiev do not currently look as they usually do. In the playgrounds and sports areas there is not the usual hubbub of crowds of children. The teachers make sure that the children do not go outside. The schoolchildren themselves, too, are aware of the medical people's recommendations. But in this situation the thing they are most worried about is whether the summer holidays will start early. This, naturally, is of interest to the parents, too. As A. Tymchik, chief of the Kiev City Executive Committee People's Education Directorate stated to TASS correspondents, schools are working according to an established regime. There are as yet no decisions to reduce the school year. Of course, there are not a few difficulties to overcome. We are also occupied with resolving the problem of summer vacations for schoolchildren in pioneer camps, and in work and leisure camps. As soon as the situation finally becomes clear we will of course notify the whole population about this. V. Starunskiy, the Ukrainian SSR minister of trade, announced that in the regions where those evacuated had been accom- modated, the feeding of people and the sale of bread and mac- aroni products, barley, butter, fruit juices, mineral water, clothes, footwear, bedding and other necessities has been organized. Distributing provisions is constantly being monitored by the ministry. The prime task of representatives of services personnel in the circumstances which have arisen is the decontamination of peo- ple, of their clothing, V. Zhegulin, deputy minister of consumer services of the republic, said. In regions where those evacuated have been accommodated, sanitary-cleaning points and stations for the decontamination of clothing are operating, either mobile and stationary. MOSCOW TV CARRIES REPORT FROM PRIPYAT SANATORIUM WA091600 [Editorial Report] Moscow Television in Russian at 1700 GMT on 9 May, in its regular "Vremya" newscast, follow- ing a repeat of the USSR Council of Ministers' communique on Chernobyl, carries a report from a sanatorium, said to be "not far from the town of Pripyat." The reporter says that a group of workers and specialists have returned today after having carried out operational repair work at the Chernobyl AES. The video shows men playing guitars, chess, or reading newspapers. One of the men describes conditions at the sanatorium as being "quite good." At the conclusion of the report a caption identifies one man as "chief physician of the dispensary:" He says "medical examinations, measurements, radiation monitoring and blood analyses are being carried out thoroughly and repeatedly. These people come to us for 2 weeks, for the time being, so that repeated examinations of their health can be carried out." 225 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY U.S. USES CHERNOBYL IN 'ANTI?SOVIET CAMPAIGN' LD111750 Moscow?TASS in English. 1725 GMT 11 May 86 ["'Cave Men's Code' Is Not for the Present Epoch"--TASS headline] [Text] Moscow May 11 TASS -- By TASS military writer Vladimir Chernyshev: Washington persists with an anti-Soviet campaign, in which it resorts to various fabrications and insults directed at the USSR. Taking advantage of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station, the United States opened fire on the growing interna- tional prestige of the Soviet Union, the very idea of confidence among states. They in Washington declare that the USSR is not to be believed, that it is impossible to conduct negotiations and, moreover, conclude agreements with Moscow. They in the White House went so far as to accuse the Soviet Union of "uncivilised conduct". What is it all about? As is known, there were 151 accidents at atomic power stations in 14 countries from 1971 to 1984, and never did they in Washington make an uproar. And now certain circles in the USA need a campaign of fear and hatred. They need it to play down the importance of the Soviet peace initiatives and practical actions, such as the Soviet Union's proposal to create an all-embracing system of international security, the programme for the elimination of nuclear armaments by the year 2000 and ridding the world of other types of weapons of mass destruction, the Soviet Union's unilateral moratorium on any nuclear explosions that lasted for many months and other such actions. This campaign is needed to distract the attention of the world public from the United States' actions that are dangerous for peace and that clearly cannot be described as civilised. inventiveness, work and patience will make it possible to over- come natural difficulties. Meanwhile, certain persons in the USA refuse to admit the fact that the nuclear arms race is a clear regress, the threat to the very existence of civilisation on our fragile planet. The United States brought the world to the brink of nuclear catastrophe more than once, both deliberately and by chance? in connection with the accidents involving U.S. nuclear weapons, as well as technical errors, defects and faulty signals in the U.S. systems of the warning of a nuclear missile attack. As many as 630 incidents involving nuclear weapons or dummy warheads were registered only in the U.S. Navy within 20 years. The whole world knows about crashes of planes of the U.S. Air Force equipped with nuclear bombs, the incidents involving U.S. strategic and medium-range missiles. Because of errors of detec- tion equipment and computers, they in Washington were about to push the nuclear button more than once and then established after a lapse of some time that it was a false alarm. All this, regrettably, has taught the U.S. authorities nothing. They continue heaping up nuclear arms. Having stockpiled over 25 thousand units of nuclear ammunition they plan to man- ufacture another 17 thousand units of the latest ammunition, weapons of mass destruction. Washington is blocking any Soviet peace initiatives, refuses categorically to end nuclear explosions, speeds up the programme of "star wars", is pushing the world to nuclear abyss and is using any achievements of scientific and technical revolution for the creation of weapons of mass destruc- tion. They in Washington, ignoring the realities of the nuclear-space age, act and think according to the "cave-man's code" that was The U.S. Administration is ignoring the inexorable fact that the invented in Washington, too. "Nuclear stick", "space stick", new level of automation in military technologies is a new step to "laser stick", such "highly civilised" terms are much used by war, the increase of the risk of its chance outbreak. It is not for U.S. leading politicians. The sample of Washington thinking is, nothing that American Senator Paul Tsongas once suggested, as for instance, the dream of ensuring for the United States the a grim joke, that a computer controlling the U.S. Armed Forces possibility for achieving unilateral control of space and then be elected a President of the USA. It is a sad joke for it reflects establishing domination on earth with the use of most up-to-date the concern over the dangerous plans of the U.S. Administration. achievements of science and technology. For during the implementation of the U.S. "star wars" pro- gramme a situation would be created when decisions of princi- By what else but the bluntness of a cave-man who intruded upon pled importance, decisions that are irreversible for the possible a civilised society can one explain the declarations of "star wars" consequences, would actually be made by electronic machinery, apologists that having created space laser weapons the United without the participation of human reason, political will, without States would have "the longest stick in history"? How can a the consideration for criteria or morality. Such developments civilised man talk with zeal about how a ramified SDI system could lead to universal disaster even if the initial impetus resulted will make it possible to hit cities and fields planted with crops of f WM an error, a miscalculation, a fault of highly complex com- the other side and to cause the damage which can roll back an puter systems. industrialised country to the level of the 18th century within half an hour? And it is those in the USA who are creating space strike Spreading allegations and falsehoods about the accident at the arms that like to talk in such a way. Soviet atomic power station, they in Washington who orchestrate propaganda hullabaloo clearly miscalculated. Fanning up allega- tions about the accident which is insignificant in its scope as They in Washington can hardly be unaware of the fact that the compared to the menace with which nuclear war, the nuclear use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes is the path of man- arm race, creation of space strike arms are fraught, they showed kind's progress. And though there are thorns on this path, man's the Washington's "cave-man's code" is utterly unacceptable for the nuclear-space epoch and poses mortal danger to humanity. 226 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IZVESTIYA CITED ON LESSONS FOR NUCLEAR ARMS RACE LD081550 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1454 GMT 8 May 86 (Text) Moscow, 8 May (TASS) ? Everything is coordinated in a close-knit world. Political lessons may be drawn from a tech nical accident. As an unexpected example Chernobyl has con- firmed the vital necessity of new political thinking in the nuclear age, writes IZVESTIYA's political observer Stanislav Kondra- shov in the newspaper today. When speaking about such thinking one has in mind first and foremost a new general approach to the madness of the nuclear arms race, which does not strengthen but weakens the security of its participants, because genuine security cannot be achieved exclusively for oneself to the detriment of others. The misfortune of Chernobyl has as it were extended and concretized the field of the practical application of this thinking. New political thinking in a narrowed and interdependent world demands as a minimum greater understanding between the East and the West, S. Kondrashov stresses. Understanding is impos- sible without a common language. It is a question, of course, of the language of international political intercourse. It should be comprehensible to the other side, take into account the nature of the other society, take into account, perhaps, another attitude towards information in the context of another social psychology, even another speed in its distribution. Chernobyl has posed the question, with new acuteness, of the search for a common lan- guage between two different societies ? the socialist and the capitalist. The search should be a common one, it should presup- pose tenacity and a great sense of urgency and mutual com- promises. We are ready for such a search and affirmed our readiness from the rostrum of the 27th Congress of the CPSU. Of course, this reasoning does not apply to inveterate anti-Soviets working, as it were, in automatic mode. There is no common language to be found with them. They have no language, but a poisonous sting, which has frequently been demonstated in recent days. They become particularly zealous over the ocean, spreading frightening rumors and fabrications. "A human tragedy should not be turned into a political game," stated Geoffrey Howe, British minister of foreign affairs, a few days ago. But it is precisely, in this that various malefactors have been engaging, undertaking in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES yet another mass-scale attack on Soviet peace initiatives, trying above all to sow doubts regarding our plan to save the world from nuclear weapons by the end of the 20th Century. To the honor of the world community, and also of official circles in the West, there nevertheless proved to be more who sympa- thized, showed understanding, who expressed readiness to help, and who found the right moral and political measure in judging what has happened, stresses the observer. COUNCIL OF MINISTERS: 6 DEAD FROM BURNS, RADIATION LD121726 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1700 GMT 12 May 86 [Text] From the USSR Council of Ministers ? During the last 24 hours, work on cleaning up the radioactive pollution from the area and installation of the power station has significantly widened at the Chernobyl AES. Effective cooling of the damaged reactor is being carried out and encasing the core in concrete is continuing. The radiation situation in Belorussia and the Ukraine, including in Kiev, is improving. In the areas beyond the limits of the 30km zone, agricultural work is being carried out, industrial enterprises are functioning normally, and usual tourist excursions are being made. Treatment and preventive measures are being carried out among those who suffered injuries. Thirty-five people are in serious condition. Six people suffering from burns and radiation have died. 227 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY TOP SCIENTIST: REACTOR TO BE ENCASED IN CONCRETE AU130958 Paris AFP in English 0957 GMT 13 May 86 [Text] Moscow, May 13 (AFP)? A new cooling system is being installed under the exploded Chernobyl nuclear reactor, which will then be encased in concrete to protect it "for hundreds of years," a top Soviet scientist, Ivan Emelianov said Tuesday. Mr. Emelianov is first deputy director of the Scientific Research and Construction Institute for Energy Techniques, which pro- duces the Soviet Union's water-cooled, graphite-moderated RBM K-1000 reactors of the Chernobyl type. At a meeting with journalists, he added that he had not ruled out a cooling-system failure as the cause of the April p explosion. At the same time he continued to regard RBMK-1000 nuclear reactors as "extremely reliable." "My opinion on this point has not changed ... we will undoubtedly continue to use graphite reactors, which are in no way inferior to other types of reactor." But it would be advisable to re-examine existing "security means" and to envisage additional measures in this respect, Mr. Emelianov said. The concrete casing would be installed at Chernobyl to prevent any future leak-of radioactive material, as it would be "hundreds HELICOPTER FLIGHTS CONTINUE OVER CHERNOBYL of years" before the most dangerous such materials were neut- ralised. These were notably cesium, cobalt, and xenon. The RBMK-1000 reactor contained 192 tonnes of uranium and 1,700 tonnes of graphite, but it was impossible to know how much of the graphite had burned at Chernobyl, Mr. Emelianov added. Mr. Emelianov, a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, did not express a view on whether human error could have been behind the recent accident. He stressed that RBMK-1000 reactors had a series of automatic alarm and security systems, designed to prevent such errors, even "the most gross." The possibility of a failure in the water cooling system could not be ruled out, he said. The government enquiry commission, which was continuing its work, would have to make a "minute study" of the facts assem- bled, before pronouncing on the accident causes. Mr. Emelianov said he was convinced the situation at Chernobyl was now "clearly" the right side of the critical point. LD121650 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1430 GMT 12 May 86 [Aleksandr Krutov report from "The Area of newscast?recorded] [Text] Helicopters take off from this small meadow and fly off in the direction of the Chernobyl atomic power station, a flight of 14 km. [video shows helicopter taking off; another is seen on the ground] The aim of this flight is to collect air over the reactor. Beneath us is the neighborhood of the station. When you see it from above, the green villages with their apple blossoms, it is hard to imagine that it is dangerous below. This is indicated, however, by the lack of people in the streets and the deserted roads. The pilots' route is regulated [vyveren]. Since the day of the accident, they have carried out several hundred flights here in order to block off the damaged reactor, for this could only be done from the air. The work was very difficult, because next door in the neighboring units, people were carrying out the necessary operations at the other reactors. High standards were shown by Air Force officers (Serebryakov), (Yakovlev), (Telegin), (Voytko) and many, many others. The first day 93 drops were made, the second 186, and all of them with 100 percent accuracy. 228 the Cernobyl AES"; from the "Vremya" [Video shows aerial views of village, with houses and fields, and then of power station, showing undamaged reactors and closer up view of damaged one; other shots of the whole plant] Now you can see the bags they drop. They are packed in packets like this. In the bags are dolomite powder, sand, and lead. As the helicopters hover over the reactor, the bag are thrown into it. This is done to lower the temperature in the reactor and lessen the danger of radioactive emissions. The work is now continuing, and specialists and scientists believe that the situation has been stabilized. Now other pilots are working. The first ones have done their duty, and have been sent off for rest and medical examina- tion. [Video shows helicopter landing in the same meadow; it is painted with camouflage paint and has a large "60" painted on its side. The described bags are lying in a heap on the ground near Krutov. In the background airmen seem to be putting sacks into white plastic covers. There is a close-up of an airman checking the wheel of the helicopter with what appears to be a Geiger counter. Another helicopter is visible in the background. A group of four pilots is seen getting into a helicopter with a "50" painted on its side] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 MTh OFFICIAL USE UNLX [Video then cuts to show Krutov inside a helicopter, talking to the pilot, who is identified as V.I. Surkov by screen caption. Another man is also in the cockpit. None are in protective clothing] [Krutov] Tell me, do you have to make flights often? [Surkov] Well, we make flights when we have to. Many are needed, however, so that is how many we do. The situation itself dictates to us how many flights to make. [Krutov] Well, what is the work like then? Is it dangerous? [Surkov] Well, at the present stage the work is not dangerous because there are (?changes for the better). So our work is full of confidence. [Video cuts to meeting where tactics are being dis&ssed] RED LEAD BROUGHT TO CHERNOBYL FOR AES WORK [Krutov] Today the helicopter pilots are discussing a new task. It is essential to lower the load directly onto the reactor. [Video shows uniformed pilots standing around, while two civilians and a man in military uniform pore over a plan of the plant. One civilian appears to be outlining what to do, while the other agrees with him] [Krutov]So, the rehearsal of the upcoming operation has started. The task is not a simple one. There is not even a meter's leeway, especially because time is short, as the operation will be carried out in a zone of high radiation. That's it! The load has been dropped. [Video shows helicopter maneuvering to drop a bag onto a pile of other ones, while the organizers look on] [G.A. Kuznetsov, commander of the squadron ? identified from screen caption] The helicopter is hovering at about 270 meters. We carried out the transport on a (?suspended rope) and put the load down exactly at the right place. Of course the task was rather difficult, but we managed it successfully. [video ends with another shot of a hovering helicopter] LD121142 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1100 GMT 12 May 86 [Text] Two convoys of vehicles of the Yaroslavlavtotrans Association have left Yaroslavl for Chernobyl. They are delivering more than 700 tons of red lead, a material intended for restoration work at the Chernobyl AES. The best drivers of the town's enterprises were called up to deliver the responsible freight. MORE THAN?90,000 REPORTEDLY EVACUATED FROM AREA LD101325 Budapest Domestic Service in Hungarian 1200 GMT 10 May 86 [Excerpt] MTI correspondent Laszlo Fazekas has toured the vicinity of Kiev and has learned that a little more than 90,000 people had to be evacuated from the Chernobyl region. Prior to the accident the No 4 reactor block was prepared for maintenance work, and the block was working with an output of only 200 megawatt instead of the usual 1,000 megawatt capacity. 229 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ACCIDENT REPORTED Izrael Interviewed PM121820 Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 13 May 86 First Edition p 3 [Report by TASS special correspondents V. Zhukovskiy, V. Itkin, and L. Chernenko: "Always Remember: The Atom Is Two?Faced!"] [Text] Kiev ? May time is beautiful in Kiev! The chestnuts are in blossom, the lilac is giving off its fine scent, and the acacias are coming into flower. When looking at the spring splendor of nature you feel particularly acutely the misfortune which unex- pectedly occurred near here. How has the Chernobyl AES acci- dent affected the nature of this fertile land? What,is being done to eliminate its consequences and prevent pollution of the envi- ronment? TASS special correspondents put these questions to Yuriy Antoniyevich lzrael, chairman of the USSR State Com- mittee for Hydrometerology and Environmental Control, who is currently in Kiev. A certain quantity of radioactive substances escaped into the atmosphere at the time of the accident. This is a small proportion of what had accumulated in the reactor during the period it was in operation, he said. The leak of radioactive gases and volatile substances lasted several days and was linked with the high temperature in the reactor zone. This temperature has now fallen sharply. The leak of radioactivity has practically ceased. An increase in the level of radiation in any areas is now ruled out. The radioactivity in the atmosphere has dispersed. On the surface of the land it remains only in individual places directly adjacent to the Chernobyl AES. The level of radiation here has reached 10-15 milliroentgens per hour. It is now several times less as a result of decay. Although, in accordance with national and international norms recommended by the IAEA, the doses accu- mulating here were within limits permissible for the population in the event of accidents at AES's; nevertheless, a decision to evacuate them from a 30-km zone was taken to ensure people's complete safety and health. A slight increase in the level of background radiation was observed in a number of cities both in the Ukraine and in Belorussia. In Kiev this level totaled 0.3-0.4 milliroentgens per hour, which poses no threat to health. A negligible proportion of small radioactive particles were carried great distances by air currents and reached the territory of Poland, Romania, and a number of Scandinavian countries. A slight increase in background radioactivity, also posing no danger to the population, was observed here. It was noted at the 8 May CPSU Central Committee Politburo meeting that the commission and local party and soviet organs are expeditiously taking the necessary measures to overcome the consequences of the accident. A great deal of work to prevent any damage from radioactive pollution is being done in the zone of the Chernobyl AES and the adjacent locality. In particular, barriers are being erected along the banks of the Pripyat River 230 to rule out or reduce the possible seepage of any proportion of dangerous substances into it. In this zone organs of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control and other departments are carrying out a big program of mea- surements and studies with a view to studying radioecological influences and effects. In connection with the fact that an increase in soil radioactivity has been observed in the zone adjacent to the Chernobyl AES, the limits of agricultural work have been strictly demarcated. But beyond the limits of the 30-km zone work of this kind is carrying on normally. The quality of drinking water is being constantly monitored. Regular samples are being taken from the Kiev reservoir. The results of numerous observations show that the established radio- activity norms are not being exceeded here. In the course of the identification of the isotope composition of the radioactive substances emitted from the damaged reactor, a number of isotopes were detected, including Iodine-I31, which is dangerous in that it can enter the human organism from food. The half-life of this isotope is 8 days. Strict monitoring of its level has been instituted. The quality of milk is being checked in particular. The checks are carried out twice ? in the livestock units and at dairy plants. The country's meteorological stations are constantly observing the radioactivity level. For this the State Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control is also using spe- cially equipped aircraft and helicopters. Continuous analysis of the results obtained is being carried out in scientific research institutes. Agreement has been reached on the regular transfer of data on background radiation from one of the stations of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service Administration near the Chernobyl AES to the IAEA. What has happened at the Chernobyl AES compels us yet again to give thought to the tremendous forces linked with atomic energy. Even in peaceful utilization, this energy requires excep- tional control. Even negligible radioactivity getting into the environment can become a source of great misfortune. But its scale could be immeasurable unless the gigantic nuclear arsenals of weapons are completely destroyed. Even the very possibility of the appearance-in the environment of the enormous radioactivity caused by nuclear explosions is totally impermissible. This is afitinatural, both for nature and for man. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Soviet program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons is the only realistic way to rid mankind of the threat . hanging over his existence, over nature, and over the entire planet, Yu.A. lzrael stressed. You can now understand particu- larly keenly how vitally important and necessary is the struggle for the complete elimination of nuclear military arsenals, how necessary is peaceful cooperation among scientists and specialists from various countries in deepening experience of the peaceful utilization of the atom and in further understanding its secrets. Legasov Comments LD121611 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1517 GMT 12 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 12 May (TASS) ? IZVESTIYA today pub- lished the answers of two eminent Soviet specialists from the headquarters for the elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl AES, to questions from its own correspondent. Academician Valeriy Legasov, deputy director of the Moscow "Kurchatov" Atomic Energy Institute, said: "The reactor has lost its criticality; it is not creating radioactivity. But as is known, radioactivity did escape, and today intensive work is being car- ried out aimed initially at reducing it, and ultimately at totally eliminating it. The accident was localized, but there is still a lot of work, and it is being carried out in most unusual, and let's be frank, difficult conditions. But even so, we are coping." Yuriy Izrael, corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chairman of the USSR Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, noted: "The country's meteorological stations are constantly and intensively monitoring the level of radioactivity. For this the State Commit- tee for Hydrometeorology is using specially equipped aeroplanes and helicopters, and other machinery. Our scientific-research institutes are constantly analyzing data received. As has already been reported, accords have been reached on the regular transmission to the IAEA of data on background radiation from one of the stations of the Ukrainian Directorate of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology, situated close to Chernobyl. DER SPIEGEL INTERVIEWS NOVOSTI'S FALIN ON ACCIDENT DW121241 Hamburg DER SPIEGEL in German 12 May 86 pp 139-143 [Interview with NOVOSTI board chairman Valentin Falin by Lorenz in Moscow, no date given] [Text] SPIEGEL: Mr Falin, when did the NOVOSTI chief learn about the reactor accident in Chernobyl? Falin: I knew on Sunday that something had happened in the Ukraine. There was a Politburo meeting on Monday at which a detailed report of the investigating commission, which had been appointed Saturday, was discussed. SPIEGEL: When was General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev informed? Falin: On Saturday, the question only being to what extent. SPIEGEL: The super-GAU [groesster anzunehmender unfall ? worst-case scenario] in Chernobyl was followed by a super- GAU in information policy. Why did it take so long for other countries to be informed about the accident and the concomitant dangers? 231 correspondent Andreas Falin: Super-GAU is your choice of words. What you wish to regard as long or not is relative. What is considered long in this particular case was not considered remarkable in similar cases. Take the breakdown of the U.S. reactor at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg. There, the Senate received the initial reports only 10days later. And the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna received the first report about 2 months later. To help you to assess our situation objectively, it is necessary for us to bear in mind that the first reports from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant management were incomplete and ultimately turned out to be incorrect. SPIEGEL: Did the local authorities underrate the dangers? Falin: No, not the local authorities, but the technicians at the station. As so often happens, the people believed, with the best of intentions, that they could get the situation under control. Mean- while, they were not fully aware of the extent of the accident. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 VAX WI 1 OK. l.1111-.1 The breakdown occured in stages. Had they acted in the best possible way in the first few minutes... SPIEGEL: What happened in the first few minutes? Falin: What happened was a chemical explosion in the reactor, the cause of which has as yet not been determined. It takes time to determine what really happened. A situation emerged that had not been envisaged in the emergency procedures. It seems at the moment that the technicians acted inconsistently and that their decisions were not always the best. SPIEGEL: Was carelessness involved? Falin: No, it was probably more an underrrating of the hazard and an overrating of their own capabilities. There are always several choices in a critical situation. This time they did not pick the best one. Initially, they could have kept the dmage within limits, just about in the way it has been done in other countries. When the developing situation overtasked the technicians, the situation grew worse. That is why some measures were taken too late. That is how it is in life. In the end, all of us are wiser. SPIEGEL: Hence, it was known in Moscow on Saturday that a large-scale breakdown had taken place. Consequently, the criticism by the Scandinavian countries that they were informed too late is justified. Falin: As far as I know, a neighboring country was informed. SPIEGEL: Which one? Falin: A very closely situated country. It was safe to assume ' that this country might be affected by radioactive fallout. Besides, we must bear in mind that no danger prevailed at any time for any of our European neighbors to be affected by a mass of radioactive substances such that people would be harmed. The level of radioactive pollution was smaller than the dose absorbed by a man during an X-ray examination. SPIEGEL: Was that already clear at that time? Falin: It was clear there was no nuclear explosion at Chernobyl. It was clear that merely steam with radioactive aerosol was billowing from the reactor. I do not want to play down what happened, nor the dangers. I personally advocate the earliest possible information, if only protectively. I believe that more information is better than less information, even though many dangers lurk in that, too. Experience shows that such information can well be misused for various purposes. SPIEGEL: The Scandinavian countries were told on Monday afternoon, meaning long after the accident, that nothing had happened. Falin: I can neither confirm nor deny your information. I do not know whom the Scandinavians approached. It may be that it was addressed to low-level officials only. SPIEGEL: The result is an enormous, worldwide loss of pres- tige for the Soviet Union. Many states have the impression that Moscow again wishes to hide something. Does the Soviet Union never learn? Falin: I do not want to play eye-for-eye politics; but for the sake of truth, we must make a comparison to assess the situation objectively. The West is applying a much stricter yardstick where the Soviet Union is involved. Take the 1957 breakdown in Great Britain. The radioactive consequences of that accident were felt in the Federal Republic and in Norway. There was no stir, no particular debate. British authorities were not particularly lib- eral with information for the press and for other countries. SPIEGEL: That was a different era. At that time nuclear tests were still conducted above ground. The people had a different relationship with the atom. One ought to have learned in the meantime. Falin: Fair enough. Take the case of Three Mile Island. That was in 1979. By then, there was some experience. Yet it took the Americans at least three times, as long as the Soviet Union to supply the required information. SPIEGEL: In that case, other countries were not affected. Falin: Do not be too sure. Canada was affected. SPIEGEL: The character of the accident was different. Falin: To this day, the people have not been informed about the real extent of the accident. As many as 70,000 people lived in Harrisburg at the time. Even the personnel of the station did not have an idea about the situation, and, according to U.S. experts, the radioactive pollution was greater than that following a nuclear explosion. Besides, it was noted that 1.7 million liters of radioactive water flowed into the Susquehanna River. A list of various accidents in the nucler energy field shows that we are not among the worst. If you ask the International Atomic Energy Agency, which most accurately details everything that happens, you will learn that the Soviet Union is not among the stragglers. We are given the highest marks, whereas the Americans are not among the best. SPIEGEL: Let us stay with Chernobyl... Falin: In retrospect, with the advantage of hindsight, it would seem that it would have been better to publish on Sunday the information we published Monday. SPIEGEL: It was a meager eight-line report by TASS. Falin: It was a terse public notice. I think there was a longer announcement to some of the countries affected. SPIEGEL: Evidently not. Your ambassador in Bonn, Yuliy Kvitsinskiy, merely submitted a brief government communique to the Federal Government. Falin: Probably not all ambassadors received the information, only the ambassadors in neighboring countries. SPIEGEL: The belated information has harmed the credibility of the Soviet Government, including that of General Secretary Gorbachev. Western politicians are wondering how you can trust a man who calls for cooperation in many fields but himself fails to comply when the occasion arises. 232 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 kUlt OFFICIAL Ubt, UINLX Patin: The general secretary had to have information first before he could supply it. I stress once again: The first objec- tive, detailed information was received by the general secretary prior to the Monday meeting of the Politburo. Let us leave the general secretary out of it. For such questions, we need the experts. SPIEGEL: The West still needs more detailed information about the accident; for example, how much radioactivity was released and how many of the isotopes are long-lived like pluto- nium. Such data is required for corresponding precautionary measures. Falin: The situation is serious enough. Speculation will not get us anywhere. In order to provide you with adequate information we ourselves must first have such data. That requires surveys directly at the scene of the accident. There is no sense in puzzling over what has and has not happened. Today, the following must be stated: About 50 percent of the isotopes released are relatively dangerous, albeit short-lived, isotopes ? Iodine 131, then Iodine 132. As far as Cesium 137 and Strontium 90 are concerned, their'share in the mission is, by current analyses, 10-100 times smaller compared to earlier man- made emissions. The number of isotopes carried beyond the border of the Soviet Union, which have raised the natural quan- tity of radioactivity by 10-15 times, is not dangerous. An under- ground nuclear explosion releases much greater quantities of such substances. If, following a nuclear test in the Nevada desert, the wind blows south, the effects of that test can be sensed in Mexico. It is generally not reported because the Americans are involved. SPEIGEL: The attacks by Soviet media against speculation by Western politicians and media look like diversionary maneuvers. Falin: I strongly object to that. There is indignation about the method with which public authorities in the West are handling the whole matter. SPIEGEL: Give some names. Falin: I mean the U.S. Administration, primarily government spokesmen. I mean Secretary of State Shultz. SPIEGEL: Shultz made relatively moderate statements. Falin: One could take it from his answers that the Soviet Union had acted relatively irresponsibly. Now West European mass media are saying that Soviet society is barbarian and one cannot do anything with it. The undertone of all these commentaries was about the same: How can one bold responsible negotiations on arms 'control with such a tonntry if such things can happen? Actually, that was the real substance of most commentaries. SPIEGEL: Lack of information was the reason for the indig- nation. Falin: I repeat: One can realize lack and 'abundance only by comparison. It cannot be that different criteria are applied to different countries. Otherwise, everything bad that happens in 233 our country gives someone pleasure -- the neighbor's cow has died, a small but pleasant surprise. Where did you get the figure of 2,000 dead? It was pulled from the air. From what sources did it come? SPIEGEL: They were estimates by Western scientists which were created in a vacuum of information. They assumed how many people could possibly die in the future because of radiation. Falin: One cannot act that way in international relations. You just cook up something. We know such scientists as Mr Adelman. (Kenneth Adelman is head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disar- mament Agency.) His way of counting shows 20 times more missiles than we actually have. It is merely the Pentagon's way of getting a bigger budget. You in the West would be well advised not to exploit the knee-jerk reaction of your audience. What do you in the West write now? Chernobyl is located near Kiev. However, it is located 130 km from Kiev. Nuclear power plants in the FRG are located an average of 10-30 km from big cities, which is really close. Unfortunately, however, you do not act in any other way. SPIEGEL: It is said in our country that Soviet power plants are not safe enough to be located so close to cities. Falin: Ask the International Atomic Energy Agency. They know better than most Western journalists write. SPIEGEL: The Finns have built additional containment buildings and emergency generators onto Soviet nuclear power plants. Falin: Just a moment; that is not quite correct. A plant was built in Finland before containment norms existed. When the Americans and the Germans set norms, the project was changed. We also have such containments at our plants. SPIEGEL: Not at Chernobyl. Falin: But we have them in many other cases. Chernobyl is considered one of the safest stations in the world. SPIEGEL: It isn't any longer. Falin: Certainly. Scientists and engineers said that Chernobyl was the best one could build. However, not just technology plays a role here, but also the discipline of the personnel. If you analyze world atomic accidents, you will find that about 70 percent of them have been caused not by technology itself, but by human failure. SPIEGEL: At Chernobyl too? Falin: That is one of the main presumptions. ? SPIEGEL: Is it correct that reactors of the same type have been shut down in your country in the meantime for safety reasons? Falin: They continue to operate, but they are being examined. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SPIEGEL: Is everything tight now? Falin: Yes. SPIEGEL: However, sand is still being dropped on it. Falin: Sand, lead, and boron are necessary to make the insula- tion even safer. Later, everything will be encased in concrete. SPIEGEL: Can you say anything about the actual number of victims? Falin: A man was cremated. Another was buried under structural parts that toppled on him. Of the 18 severely injured people, 2 have died in the meantime. At the moment we are careful in our statements about the consequences of pollution. You know, each person as a different susceptibility to radioactivity. I am now saying a bit more than I am perhaps allowed to say: Medical people reckon that the president of the Academy of Sciences, Anatoly Aleksandrov, was hit with a deadly dose of radioactivity twice in his life, at a time when people still did not recognize the danger. His predecessor at the Institute for Nuclear Energy, Igor Kurchatov, was in a similar situation and, alas, he died. SPIEGEL: The number of injured people was said at a press briefing to be 204. Falin: Of those, roughly 50 were released after a few hours. The others needed in-patient treatment, bone marrow surgery, blood transfusions, and so forth. What is important is that children are under particularly intensive care because they are primarily threatened. Everyone in the danger zone has been registered in a card file and will be examined at regular intervals, first weekly, then monthly, then at yearly intervals. SPIEGEL: It sounds very much like playing down the con- sequences. How many dead do you expect in the future? Falin: Out of every 1,000 people who are exposed to a radiation of 100 rad, theoretically cancer occurs in 20 cases. But the number of people that suffered during the accident is much smaller; so far those 204 cases you mentioned have been hit by more than 100 rad. SPIEGEL: People in the West are astounded not only about the external information policy but also about the sparse news for the USSR's own citizens. Would it not have been an opportu- nity to put into practice the demand by General Secretary Gorbachev for more openness? Falin: Technically, you are right. But allow me to ask you some questions in return: To what extent are you familiar with accidents in nuclear power plants in your area in the past 10 years? Can you state that off the cuff? SPIEGEL: What does that have to do with openness? Falin: Quite a lot. The Western press remains silent in most cases. In Gundremmingen in 1975, two people were killed by overheated radioactive steam. In 1978, a pipe socket broke in Brunsbuettel; radioactive steam escaped into the engine room and, in part, into the atmosphere. SPIEGEL: You have that from the Western press; however. Falin: Not necessarily. That We have, for instance; from the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were also cases in Belgium in 1978. In Japan in 1981, 40 tons of radioactive water flowed into a bay, which to this day is blocked off. Radiation affected 270 people, more than in our case. In the U.S. State of Oklahoma, a man died this year because of an explosion of radioactive gas; more than 100 people were injured. In Sellafield, in Great Britain, radioactive matter escaped four times, six people injured, and so forth. But we are said to be a big case. SPIEGEL: These accidents cannot be compared with Cher- nobyl. Now all of Europe is affected by the fallout. Allow us to repeat the question: Was the information to Soviet citizens not a bit too thin? It was only 10 days later that Kiev citizens were warned against eating vegetables and staying outdoors too long. Falin: People in the West like very much to rack their brains about our worries. Let us not go into what is behind this concern. I say this: There was not enhanced radioactivity in Moscow. I can state that authentically because NOVOSTI has a measuring station of its own. As for Kiev, the situation was such ? and that might mitigate your outrage ? that the wind at first blew the radioactive clouds northward. The wind changed 5 days later. Radioactivity in Kiev increased. But it grew to 30 times its normal rate and yet remained 500 times lower than the hazard level. The recommendation you mentioned was given at that particular time. Besides, the danger zone around Chernobyl was extended from 30 to 50 km. By Thursday 84,000 people had been evacuated from that zone. SPIEGEL: Radioactivity was also found in the Baltic states , and in Belorussia ? but no information for the people. 234 Falin: Do not be so sure that there was none, if only because on Sunday, 27 April, 30,000 people were evacuated from the town of Pripyat and taken elsewhere. Those are the best indicators. SPIEGEL: The people inthe Baltic states and in Belorussia wonder about the consequences of the accident for themselves and what they can do to protect themselves. Falin: If there is no danger in Minsk and in the Baltic states, is it really necessary to urge the people to feel endangered? SPIEGEL: The Poles have measured increased ratings and taken certain precautionary 'measures. The citizens were informed by the government spokesman. At the same time, all was quiet in the Soviet Union in the vicinity of the accident site. Falin: There is a difference. The Poles took the measures protectively because they proceeded from the premise that it could become worse. They said: We do it to play safe. On Monday reports in Moscow said that the situation was under control. SPIEGEL: A very vague formulation. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Falin: The West claims that there was a fire in the reactor lasting several days, even though its active phase was over after several hours. SPIEGEL: We were not informed. Were you not trying to play the thing down for your own people? Falin: No. As for the government, there has been no attempt to play, the matter down. In addition, no country is in a position to keep such matters secret. That is just impossible. SPIEGEL: Should you not have said to your citizens that something was amiss and that they should not let their children play in the sand? That was said in the Federal Republic, for instance. Falin: Such ,a thing is only done in the West if spmething has happened in the East. SPIEGEL: People are extremely worried. They are leaving Kiev because they anticipate consequences for their children. Falin: Please do not exaggerate. There were many overreac- tions after the schools were temporarily closed and precautionary measures were recommended regarding the consumption of fresh milk and vegetables: There can be no talk of an evacuation of the city. SPIEGEL: But now omissions of recent years should be made good and the Soviet people should be better informed about the risks of nuclear power plants. Falin: Please do not create the impression that our people are not informed. SPIEGEL: That is exactly the impression we have. Falin: Without gloating, we have objectively reported on a number of such incidents abroad: on Harrisburg, accidents in Japan, and so forth. If the Soviet people read that and live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, they will have their own ideas. SPIEGEL: The Soviet Union has so far argued that an accident could only happen under capitalism, because security was neglected there in the interests of profits. 235 Falin: Do not make us appear so primitive. We only say that such a thing also happens in the West. Regarding risks, there is for the moment the danger of unforeseen events such as what happened at Chernobyl, not from leaks or fallout. The danger of leaks is much smaller in nuclear power plants than it is in coal power plants. SPIEGEL:' So, in the future there will be no discussion on the risks of nuclear power plants either? Falin: There will be a discussion. I assume that a detailed report including conclusions and an assessment of what happened will be published. That will be the stuff for constant discussion. One thing is clear, however: We in the East and the West cannot continue to live a normal life without that technology. There will always be some danger. People have the urgent task to keep that danger so small as to make it purely theoretical. I do not doubt that information is important for the people. However, in the final analysis, the question of whether a technology is safe is not decided by discussion but by exchanges between engineers and scientistis. SPIEGEL: A question to the experienced propagandist: Would Chernobyl not have been an opportunity to implement more openness as demanded by Gorbachev, and thereby to show the citizens more confidence? Falin: A new quality of openness cannot be achieved overnight. I do not want to play down the matter and belittle what happened. Something bad happened unexpectedly. We were not mentally prepared for such an event. Basically, we had no precautionary instructions, including in the field of information. Much was done offhand, including information. The fact that part of the service personnel in Chernobyl failed is a problem per se, if only because the quantity and content of information reaching Moscow were neither sufficient nor cor- rect. As a result, much of what happened subsequently was preordained. We must draw substantial lessons from all that. The best thing would be for those countries dealing with nuclear energy to draw up rules that are valid for all in case of accidents. There should not be different standards for the Americans or us, for example. SPIEGEL: Mr Falin, we thank you for the interview. FOR OFFICIAL USE" ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY KALYAGIN CONDUCTS 'TELEBRIDGE' ON CHERNOBYL LD102022 Moscow Television Service in Russian 1700 GMT 10 May 86 ["Vremya" "Telebridge" program conducted by Boris Kalyagin, with contributions from correspondent Vladimir Dunayev in Washington, correspondent Eduard Sorokin in London, and correspondent Yuriy Vybornov in Rome] [Text] [Kalyagin] Hello, comrades. Here in Studio 20 today we have lines to Washington, London, and Rome. Taking part in our television link-up are our correspondents in those capitals, Vladi- mir Dunayev, Eduard Sorokin, and Yuriy Vybornov. We are going to talk about the unworthy campaign which Western officials and mass information media are pontinuing to this day in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES. They are whipping up the row about the supposedly excessive secrecy in the Soviet Union and the shortage of information about the accident. You see, it is easier for them to continue nuclear explosions when people are shouting that it is difficult to trust the USSR, to conclude agreements with it. Is not this why they are making more noise than the others in Washington? What is your opinion, Vladimir Pavolovich? [Dunayev] Yes, of course; and it is also for that reason... [changes thought] Although if one believes the political forecasts official Washington will have to wait a little with its new tests; it will have to wait because the attitude of Americans is not favorable and they will not accept them. Here is a letter in today's issue of THE WASHINGTON POST. It is written by (Robert Fitzpat- rick) of Washington. The reaction of our press, television, and politicians to the Chernobyl accident was shameless and regret- table. Instead of recognizing in full the danger of nuclear weap- ons in our country, they were interested in scoring points in the psychological war. And it was quite wrong to carry statements by stock exchange speculators and individual congressmen who guessed with delight the amount that their shares on the Chicago Stock Exchange would go up if the accident had an effect on the harvest in the Ukraine. [Kalyagin] So, ultimately they haven't been able to mislead everyone in the United States. There is a difference between what the press is writing and what the man in the street is saying? [Dunayev] Yes, the reaction from official America and from unofficial America are as different as chalk and cheese. Those of us at Gostelradio's correspondents' office here in washington are aware of this because there has been a large number of telephone calls, hundreds of telephone calls, from people we know and people we don't know. The reaction was a very human, a very natural one, the only one possible with normal people. They offered to do all they could; they expressed sympathy. They said that everyone now had to draw lessons and conclusions so that in no way can the nuclear arms race be continued; because if an accident with a peaceful reactor can lead to unpredictable con- sequences, then what can one say about the use of combat atomic and nuclear devices? [Kalyagin] Returning to the nuclear explosions which are being carried out by the United States, there have been reports that 236 radiation is making its way to the surface at the nuclear testing ground in Nevada, and that threats are being created for the local population and even for Mexico. [Dunayev] Yes, that is true. The last time was in April, during the latest explosion in Nevada. An official spokesman of the Environmental Protection Agency gave the following figures during a Senate session: Since 1964, U.S. nuclear devices have been tested 100 times, and radioactive gases have been released into the atmosphere. On 31 occasions these gases reached the territory of Mexico and of other countries in Latin America: they went beyond U.S. territory. Those are the statistics. [Kalyagin] The Thatcher government, too, has not missed the opportunity to cast a shadow over the Soviet Union and to join in the campaign of disinformation. What are they saying in this connection where you are, Eduard Alekseyevich? [Sorokin] Today I would like to draw attention to one point. In dramatizing the events, many of the West's mass ,information media, including the British, have been talking for several days about the panic which has supposedly gripped the people of Kiev. At the same time they have been deliberately sowing doubts and fears of all kinds in their own country. In particular, they say that the radioactive cloud has reached foggy Albion. , Although the radiation level remains within normal limits, if one wants to obtain additional information, people are told to ring such-and-such a telephone number. And the calls are being made. People ask things like: On Saturday! was playing cricket and got caught in the rain. Is this dangerous to life? Or: My husband has just returned from Poland. What's going to happen to him now? I have no doubt that these and other questions were asked. They are certainly the result of the campaign of hysteria which is being fanned in the West. The same old thesis is being reworked, the thesis of the Soviet threat; only now it has acquired a somewhat specific local color: the talk is about the danger of radioactivity from the Soviet Union. [Kalyagin] And those who have engaged in falsification have been covered with shame. There are no thousands of victims in com- mon graves; there is no panic in Kiev; there is no threat of neighboring countries being infected ? as the Western newspa- pers heralded. Moreover, a visit to the Ukrainian capital has been organized for foreign journalists, while Hans Blix, director gen- eral of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has been given an opportunity to,inspect the site of the accident from a helicop- ter. Afterwards'he held a news conference in Moscow and stated that he had been given all the necessary information. So has the tone of the British press changed today, Eduard Alekseyevich? FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [Sorokin] It would seem that there are people here who consider that truth is only harmless when it has been diluted somewhat. The statement by the IAEA director general has been reported, but they have immediately diluted it with conjectures and insinu- ations of all kinds linked with the accident. [Kalyagin] And what are they writing in Rome now, Yuriy Yiktorovich? {Yybornov] First of all, the muddy wave that was flung over readers' heads and those of radio listeners and television viewers is gradually being reduced to nothing, though of course it has not yet gone away. A gradual sobering-up is now taking place. No, their propaganda has not begun loving us more. But they have been pinned to the wall by the facts; and in light of this the newspapers have started to provide more objective information, more sensible information. Here are today's newespapers for example. They give a lot of material about yesterday's press conference in Moscow by Hans Blix, the IAEA director general. This headline says: The Fire Has Been Put Out, Radioactivity Is Falling. [video shows Vybornov leafing through newspapers] They give long reports from Kiev, where there is a group of Western correspondents. Nevertheless, even in this situation there are attempts to exert an influence on the psyche of readers and listeners. Take for example the major bourgeois newspaper, the CORRIERE DELLA SERA. Today it came out with a large headline saying: Two Steps Away From a Nuclear Desert. And of course, by the words nuclear desert, they meant the area of Chernobyl. Nevertheless, in Italy today the broad public opinion is coming to a conclusion about something else: about the fact that what happened at Chernobyl is part of the cost of traveling the road toward new heights of progress, the road toward the peaceful mastery of the atom. But the main thing ? and this thought is stressed in speeches and commentaries and simply in what people say when you meet and talk to them in the street ? is that one has to pay attention to ensure that the atom is always peaceful, that there is never a tragedy for mankind linked with its use for military purposes. [Kalyagin] We now conclude our television link-up. Thank you, Washington, London, and Rome. PRAVDA REPORTS IAEA OFFICIALS' PRESS CONFERENCE PM101900 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 11 May 86 First Edition p 6 [TASS report under the rubric "Surrounding the Chernobyl AES": "Press Confer? ence in Moscow"] [Text] Increasingly reassuring news is coming in from the scien- tists and specialists who are eliminating the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl AES. With each passing day the temperature in the damaged unit decreases and there is a consis- tent decline in the radiation level and therefore also in the likely threat to the health of people in the zone directly adjoining the station. The state of the water and air in the AES settlement and in Kiev, Minsk, and other nearby towns is not causing concern either. That is the summary made by the leaders of the IAEA who have been in our country at the Soviet Government's invitation. At the USSR Foreign Ministry Press Center on 9 May, H. Blix (Swe- den), director general of the IAEA; L. Konstantinov (USSR), his deputy; and M. Rosen (United States), director of the agency's Nuclear Safety Department, gave a press conference for Soviet and foreign journalists. The'lAEA director general told of?his meetings with the leaders ?of the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Nuclear Power, the USSR Ministry of Health, the USSR State Commit- tee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control, and the USSR State Committee for Safety in the Nuclear Power Indus- try. On 8 May the IAEA representatives flew in a helicopter over the town of Chernobyl, 18 km from the AES, and also the territory of the station, and saw the damaged unit from a distance .o1800 meters. In extremely frank discussions, H. Blix said, and 237 as a result of visual observations at the scene of the event, we have managed to form a fairly complete, although preliminary, impression of the accident and its consequences. We will receive a detailed and authoritative description of the accident, its causes, and its consequences from Soviet specialists after the necessary analysis, the IAEA leaders stated. But even today we are quite satisfied with the preliminary information and with the positive development of events. The chain reaction was automatically stopped at the moment of the accident. This was also indirectly confirmed by medical examination of the vic- tims: They were not subjected to intense neutron radiation. A considerable proportion of the radioactive discharge consists of short-lived radionuclides, half of them in the form of an isotope of iodine?Iodine 131. Professor M. Rosen commented favorably on the methods used by the Soviet specialists to absorb radiation by means of a shield consisting of sand, boron, clay, dolomite, and lead. Within a short time this led to a decrease in the level of radioactivity in the 30-km zone and enabled the necessary shift personnel to continue work on the three other reactors in order to keep them in a safe, shut-down [zaglushennyy] condition. Reactor No 3, which is next to No 4, was not damaged and its cooling and safety systems are operating normally. Work is continuing beneath the damaged unit ? the aim is to completely neutralize the seat of the radiation and, as physicists say, to "entomb" it in a thick mass FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of concrete. The improvement in the radiation situation in the 30-km zone is shown by the following figures. Compared with the peak radiation at the time of the accident (10-15 milliroent- gens per hour), by 5 May radiation at the border of this zone had decreased to 2-3 milliroentgens, and by 8 May it had dropped to 0.15 milliroentgens per hour. The level of radioactivity in the water reservoirs of Kiev and the oblast was normal at all times, the director general noted. The meetings in Moscow and the Ukraine were very fruitful, H. Blix declared, and their results are reflected in the communique on our visit. I would like to make a few additions to this document. Nuclear power is a complex and important sphere of mankind's activity in which it is extremely necessary for us to consult with one another. The IAEA is simultaneously both the forum and the machinery for such collaboration. In response to n;iy invitations, our Soviet colleagues eagerly agreed to come to Vienna to discuss the results of the measures that are being taken to eliminate the accident. Something else that is no less important its the fact that the Soviet specialists will promptly inform the IAEA of the radiation situation. This information channel for the IAEA is being opened up today, the day of our departure from Moscow. H. Blix described this accord as the start of the creation of new international machinery to ensure timely warning of any inci- dents at AESes that may have cross-border consequences. Most of the questions put by the journalists quite naturally concerned the health of the people living in the zone adjoining the station and beyond ? How soon will the seat of radiation be completely entombed, and how soon will people return to their homes? RSFSR PAPER DESCRIBES EVACUATION OF AREA We were in Kiev only yesterday, the IAEA representatives said. We saw normal, ordinary city life. There were many people in the streets, and there were even more on the day the international cycle race began. We visited the monument commemorating the victory in World War II. We saw many foreign tourists there. In short, life is going on as usual. The schools are open. Medical investigation of the residents of Kiev, children included, shows that there are no grounds for speaking of a danger to people's health. U.S. journalists asked whether the discharge of radiation from power unit No 4 has been totally ended and what damage has been done to the Ukraine's agriculture. The situation in the damaged unit, the specialists emphasized, is stabilizing. Dosimetric readings made during our helicopter flight over the station confirm the sharp reduction in the quantity of radioactive materials being discharged into the atmosphere. As for the damage to agriculture, this must be considered in the light of the distance of the locality from the seat, and also according to the passage of time. We have already stressed that the radioactive isotopes released as a result of the accident are short-lived. This means that in the future work will resume in nearby fields and the AES Settlement will be safe for habitation. Certain foreign correspondents asked: Is the Soviet Union going to close other reactors of the Chernobyl type operating in the country? In the course of a careful analysis of the accident, the Soviet authorities have found nothing to necessitate the closure of other reactors, H. Blix said. We have been told that measures are being taken to improve safety at other installations. PM121030 Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 9 May 86 p 5 [Article by TASS correspondents Vladimir Chernenko "specially for SOVETSKAYA ROSSI [Text] The general threw off his tunic. The gold of the shoulder- boards and the multicolored medal-ribbon bars flashed. He looked for the last time at his still-quite-new uniform, pondered for a moment, and then unclipped the insignia of meritorious worker of the USSR MVD. His tunic and striped trousers would be destroyed: This was required as part of the precautionary measures. That was how the commander, who had together with his comrades-in arms fought an arduous engagement, left the battlefield. There have been quite a few difficult situations and fights against bandits and dangerous criminals in the life of Gennadiy Vasil- yevich Berdov, major general in the militia and deputy internal affairs minister of the Ukrainian SSR. But the duel which was now in its 9th day in Chernobyl was special. Never before perhaps Zhukovskiy, Vladimir Itkin, and Lev YA": "The Battle With No Front Line"] 238 have people confronted such a dangerous enemy ? unseen but powerful, and thereby extremely insidious. And the responsibility borne in this encounter was incomparable. The "combat operations log" which Major General Berdov began to keep on arriving in the Chernobyl AES area early in the ? morning of 26 April has become a kind of diary for him and his many colleagues. a document whose laconic words record the feat of the thousands of MVD workers who were among the first to begin combating the accident. If you do not see everything for yourself, you can't evaluate the situation correctly, was how G.V. Berdov reasoned; and therefore he did not sit around headquarters but was constantly in the worst trouble spots. Not only sergeants and warrant officers but also FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA:RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 colonels performed checkpoint duty [postovaya sluzhba] in the danger zone. And in those very difficult conditions there was not been a single case of refusal of duty. Ensuring order and security in the danger zone and helping victims were the tasks that MVD workers tackled. People were, of course, alarmed by the announcement of an imminent evacuation. A whole delegation came to the ispolkom. General Berdov was instructed to meet with people and reassure them. Gennadiy Vasilyevich went out to see people dressed in his general's uniform. Tall, gray-haired, and calm, he knew how to find the much needed words about the imminent evacuation of the city. One thousand buses were already waiting on the outskirts of the nuclear power workers' city. The convoy entered the city at exactly 1400. A bus stopped at every entrance-way. Many people simply had not considered that their absence might be protracted and were traveling light. The militia checked every apartment to ensure that everyone had left the settlement. "In that situation much depended on the actions of our workers, on their calm and confident behavior," G.V. Berdov opined. "After all, the people were anxious and agitated; therefore we had to show particular restraint, tact, benevolence, and readiness to help." And that is precisely why energetic political education work was carried out among MVD workers in the tense, acute situation that prevailed. Temporary party organizations and party groups were set up in combined detachments and meetings were held. All this work was headed by Militia Major General A.I. Borovik, chief of the Ukrainian MVD political section. The political work was then carried out according to a precise plan embracing the most important questions in those extreme condi- tions, including party recruitment. This is what Militia Captain Oleg Dmitriyevich wrote in his application: "I want to carry out my official and civic duty as a Communist in eliminating the after-effects of the accident..." V.A. Kuybin, Yu.G. Vergel, and A.S. Vdovichenko, Communists with long party service, recom- mended their work colleague. Approximately 20 applications came in during the first 3 days. All of them, as required by regulations, were immediately exam- ined. As we were informed at the Kiev Gorkom, the decisions of the party meetings held in the power workers' settlement were examined as a priority. For many, work in the extreme conditions at the AES was a supreme test. There were thousands of vehicles on the roads during the evac- uation. But thanks to a large extent to the State Motor Vehicle Inspectorate there was not a single accident or major holdup. The transport militia also remained essentially in charge at the Yanov station situated near the AES. Trains loaded with important national economic freight were there at the time of the accident. Passenger trains, whose locomotive teams were of course unaware of what had happened, were arriving at the station as scheduled. The extremely difficult conditions demanded resolute and urgent measures to clear the station, establish efficient order, and stop traffic. That task was successfully dealt with by workers of the southwest internal affairs administration in charge of transport, headed by Colonel A.I. Shevandin. There were small villages whose inhabitants were removed from danger by militia- men. The Chernobyl events have severely tested people's character and true moral fiber. Cowards suddenly appeared and new heroes were born. The accident at the AES will serve for us not only as a severe technical lesson but also as a moral lesson. The difficult duel continues. CHERNOBYL FIRE CHIEF INTERVIEWED IN HOSPITAL PM121405 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 10 May 86 Morning Edition p 3 [G. Alimov report under the rubric "By the Laws of Courage": "Fulfilling His Duty: After the Accident at the AES He Was One of the First To Go Into Danger"--first paragraph is editorial introduction] [Text] In its first reportage from the region of the Chernobyl AES IZVESTIY A reported the resolute, courageous actions of the firemen under the leadership of Major L. Telyatnikov. He is now in Moscow, in Teaching Hospital No 6. The doctors allowed IZVESTIY A's correspondents to see him briefly. They asked us to change our clothing. They explained: There is no danger to you, but you might harm him. They issued a complete suit of new hospital clothing ? from socks and slippers to a respirator. I asked if I could shake hands with my inter- locutor. I wanted to shake Leonid Petrovich's hand on behalf of all the readers and thank him for what he and his men did. They gave me permission. But Professor Angelina Konstantinovna Guskova urged me not to ask too many questions. 239 "You mustn't," she said. "You must understand: It is not easy to live through what happened all over again." Rules are rules... Doctor Lyudmila Nikolayevna Petrosyan lcd us to Ward 842. Telyatnikov was having dinner. When he saw us he stood up and smiled. A small man, lean, strong, with an open Russian face. Then he sat opposite me on the bed, which was made with soldierly neatness. The window in the ward was open, you could smell the spring and the fir trees growing in the hospital yard. I noticed the newspapers on the bed ? PRAVDA, IZVESTIY A, KRASNAY A ZVEZDA. A color photograph was stuck to the wall below the light switch. Two boys standing arm in arm. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "My sons... I managed to grab the photo and bring it with me. The one on the right, the older, more serious one, is Oleg. This one, the younger, is Mikhail. A cheerful little boy. You see, he's smiling here." Telyatnikov spoke eagerly about them. The elder is studying in the fifth grade. He will soon take the first exam in his life, in mathematics. Naturally, his father is worried. Oleg is in the third grade, and wants to be a combine operator. Leonid Petrovich sighs: "I miss them." His wife Larisa lvanovna and the children are in Kiev now. He says he has already sent them two letters. He has had no reply yet. He does not know how they are. He fell silent again and seemed to tense up. I still did not have the heart to take him back to that fateful day. I felt 1 did not want to remind him. Professor Guskova was right. We spoke of how he feels. "Everything seems normal at the moment. I told my relatives that when I wrote, so that they do not worry for nothing. I have a good appetite, I'm sleeping quite well. When I'm free from medical procedures, I listen to the radio. It's nice that my father and all four of my sisters have come to Moscow now. It's a kind of psychological support group," he jokes. "After 20 May," he said, "I'm expecting my wife and sons: once the lads have finished school." Leonid graduated from the Sverdlovsk firemen's technical school 15 years ago, and then studied in Moscow, at the USSR MVD Higher Fire Engineering School. Four years ago he was appointed chief of the militarized fire unit for the protection of the Chernobyl AES. He was 31 at the time. He served irre- proachably. He was more than once commended by the leader- ship. He did excellent work during the extinguishing of a peat fire on Pripyatskiy Sovkhoz in Chernobylskiy Rayon. At that time the fire threatened the whole village. The skillful actions of Telyatnikov's subunit helped to save the people's property and the village. And then 26 April came. The alarm system connected to the AES went off in the fire unit. The duty crew is always in a state of number one readiness, it set off for the site immediately. It subsequently became clear that it was they, the firemen, who decided the outcome of the affair. Telyatnikov's telephone rang at once. That is the procedure, even though he was on leave and was due to return to work next day. On the telephone, Telyatnikov recognized the agitated voice of the controller: "Fire in the machine room! The roof is burning... The crew has gone out..." He was prepared to run the 6 km to the station on foot, but time, time! ...The car took him there rapidly. Not feeling the ground beneath his feet, he ran toward the machine room, finding time to tell the driver to bring in the other people who were not on duty. From 240 that moment on he was responsible for everthing! As an exper- ienced specialist, he realized that a crew of 15 men could not cope with the fire? reinforcements were needed. ...In the reactor hall, flames were raging on various levels, in at least five places, including the roof. The fire was spreading implacably in the direction of the neighboring reactor and might penetrate the cable conduits which form a network embracing the entire power station. Fires had broken out in the instrument room too. The fire threatened to spread to the machine room and destroy the system for controlling the protection of the entire power station. And that must be prevented! ...Speedy, intelligent decisions were required. The fire must be stopped at all costs in the key direc- tions and must not be allowed to spread. Telyatnikov sent one division to protect the machine room, two others, at the cost of incredible efforts, were holding back the advance of the seething fire toward the neighboring power unit and eliminating the burning in the reactor hall. In this menacing situation, when the fate of the power station ? and not only the power station ? was being decided, none of the firemen faltered or gave way. They all understood clearly and consciously what they were going into ? by that time the dosimeter operators had already given the terrible warning ? radiation! But there was simply no other way-out. They knew what was at stake in their struggle against the fire. They stood firm in the face of trouble and were the first in-the firing line. Telyatnikov climbed up several times to the highest point of the power stations (71 meters up), where the instrument department and the main seat of the fire were located. Exceptionally complex conditions were created here. Part of the roof over the reactor had collapsed, load-bearing structures had warped, and -a scorching hot torrent of burning bitumen was surrounding the firemen on all sides. A dense, poisonous smoke reduced visibility and made breathing difficult. People were working under the threat of a collapse at any second or of sudden jets of flame. In this situation it was particularly important to organize efficiently' the work of all the sections and to distribute reinforcements correctly as they arrived. Telyatnikov lost track of time as this work went on. "We did not know how long we had been there. We only knew one thing: We must stay till the end. That was our duty to people." It has been calculated that the major's subunit was at the station for nearly 3 hours from the moment of the accident. They were taken away at around 0500 hours. By that time the fire was practically eliminated. They had done what was most important: They had gotten the fire under control and beaten down the main seats of the fire without allowing the flames to spread to the station's other power units. ...The time allotted to me had dwindled disastrously. Lyudmila Nikolayevna, the doctor accompanying us, was already pointing to the clock. I asked Leonid Petrovich to say just a few words about the guys in his subunit. "What can I say? Heroes, real heroes. All of them, without exception." FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY He particularly mentioned the still very young Lieutenant Vladi- mir Pravik, chief of the crew. In that critical situation he dis- played outstanding courage and was the major's right hand. It was time to take our leave. Once again I shook the major's hand. He said: "If you see Pravik, give him my greetings. Find out how he is. Tell him I'm fine..." Later, we had another conversation with Professor Guskova. I asked about the condition of the patients. "We are doing everything necessary," Angelina Konstantinovna said. "They are now undergoing additional laboratory and clinical tests. The treatment process is prolonged, it requires time, patience, and expertise. American doctors are advising us on a number of specialized questions. We are counting on an improvement..." PRAVDA REPORTS NATIONWIDE SUPPORT FOR CHERNOBYL PM121635 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 13 May 86 First Edition p 6 [Special correspondents B. Gubarev and M. Chernobyl AES: New Stage in the Work"] [Text] It is our motherland's pain. And it will take time for the wound to heal. Chernobyl... The name of the small Ukrainian city flew around the entire world in a flash and all honest people in the world heard with sorrow the news of the disaster which had happened there. Its consequences could have been even greater had it not been for the selflessness and heroism of Soviet people who, sometimes sacrificing their own lives and health, rushed to vanquish the nuclear giant which has shown over the last few days how dangerous it is. It was only an accident to one peaceful reactor, but it resulted in a major disaster ? what if stockpiles of nuclear weapons were brought into action?! It is terrifying to even think about it... Things are now slightly easier. Ten days after the accident there was still a threat that it could escalate [rasshiritsya]. When we met with Academician Ye. Velikhov, he told us: "The reactor has been damaged. Its heart is an incandescent core which is, as it were, 'hanging [visit] there.' The reactor is covered from the top with a layer of sand, lead, boron, and clay, and this is an additional strain on the structure. Below, there may be water in the special reservoir... How does incandescent reactor crystal behave? Will it be possible to contain it or will it melt down [uydet v zemlytd? Nobody in the world has ever been in such a complex situation: It is essential to assess the situation very accurately and not make a single mistake..." The further development of events showed that the right avenue had been chosen for fighting the raging reactor. The water was pumped out from under the reactor, wells were drilled, and a "cooling zone" was created which cooled the reactor. Preparations are under way to bury the reactor. I.S. Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, noted: "Today it is firmly possible to talk about a new stage in the work to eliminate the consequences of the AES accident. The main danger is over at this stage: However, there will be an enormous amount of work to do in totally decontaminating the station and the adjoining territory." We must not relax under any Odinets report: "Battle Continuing; circumstances! The elimination of the consequences of the acci- dent is essentially starting now. The reactor is still not safe, there are radioactive substances on the station territory and in the zone. Working with them will require very great care and thorough- ness. No forecasts can be made on this matter, but it will take a long time for all the consequences to be eliminated ? maybe even months... It would probably be expedient to hold special radiation security "lessons" in the oblast and to explain to the inhabitants of evacuated regions all the features linked with radioactivity. There are enough specialists at Kiev's scientific and educational establishments to discuss the basics of radiation security in laymen's terms. 241 The Chernobyl disaster has touched all Soviet people. There is an endless flood of telegrams to PRAVDA pledging readiness to help eliminate the AES accident. "Please inform the Ministry of Power and Electrification that the collective of the team of acid resistance workers from the `Yuzhenergokhimzashchita' specialized administration engaged in anticorrosion work in building the Rostov AES considers it its duty to participate in the work to eliminate the consequences of the accident. The specialists have experience ranging from 10-18 years. Team leader Sevastyanov, Foreman Kachanov, team members Nikolayev, Kulikov, Mareyev, Parfenov, Sobolev, Shcherbakov, Yakovlev, Ryabukhin, Yeshtokin, Vdovikin, Timofeyev, Sklyarov, and Feddseyev." "I wish to do what I can to help in eliminating the Chernobyl AES accident. I am 47. I am deputy chief occupational safety engineer at `Nizhnevartovskneftedorstroy.' Onuchkin." Tele- grams, letters, and money transfers are arriving from all corners of the country.... All Soviet people are treating Chernobyl's misfortune as their own. Many letters are also arriving in Kiev, expressing sympathy and support for the heroic working people at the AES. Many people write to the power station workers, asking them to send their children to the Caucasus, the Kuban, the Volga Region, Moscow, FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY or Leningrad. They will be received there like the closest and dearest relatives. It would probably be expedient for the Ministry of Power and Electrification to set up a special "staff' to notify people if they are needed and inform them of the proper place to address in different cases. Work in the zone is specialized and the appropri- ate skills are necessary ? the required specialists are present in adequate numbers. It is, however, clear today that the best assistance to Chernobyl would be for everyone to work more productively and more efficiently at his own work position. ...The TRIBUNA ENERGETIKA, house newspaper of the Prip- yat AES, has resumed publication in lvankovo. The evacuated journalists were cordially welcomed and accommodated by the collective of the Ivankovskiy Rayon newspaper. The first issue of the newspaper published in the new location carried a long article describing the heroism and courage of working people at the Chernobyl AES struggling to eliminate the consequences of the accident at the power unit. The newspaper narrates how, while its issue was coming off the presses, the editorial office received a phone call from the Obu- khovichi Rural Soviet. The staff dealing with the population's evacuation asked that thanks be conveyed to Ye. Us and V. Babenko, residents in Obukhovichi Village, and also to N. Khomenko and A. Musmenko from Stanishovka Village, who have housed five and more persons each. S. Glushchenko even managed to house eight evacuees in his home. There are very many events happening at and around Chernobyl AES. The entire country is helping the collective of power industry and construction industry workers to eliminate the consequences of the accident. Now there is an urgent need for drill-operators, excavator drivers, and crane operators there.... Without slowing down the pace of building a new line for the capital's metro system, the "Kievmetrostroy" has seconded an integrated Komsomol and youth team from the tunneling section to Chernobyl, led by Communist V. Vilko. On the Chernobyl road, one of us met a group of bulldozer drivers who had flown in from Urengoy. Vladimir Lakhtin said: "1 have with me an entire group of experienced machine operators. But I also know that nine drill-operators have flown here from the Baykal-Amur Main Railroad track. Lads from the Caucasus are also here. The concerns of people in Chernobyl are our common concerns, and we will try to do everything to eliminate the consequences of the accident as soon as possible." Now the Kiev plants are executing in a flash any orders placed by those "advancing on" the No 4 power block. Hero of Socialist Labor P. Shilo, director of the "Tochelektropribor" Plant, told the PRAVDA correspondent's office that people in the shops have worked around the clock, not leaving their machine tools until they have completed the devices requested from Chernobyl. The same work enthusiasm was displayed by workers in the "Bolshe- vik" and "Leninskaya Kuznitsa" Plants. When the people taming the damaged reactor needed concrete, the Zhbi-5 Plant under the "Glavkievgorstroy" was started up at night, and the "Yugozaptransstroy" and "Yugenergomontazh" concrete- making units started work within a matter of hours.... Working people in many Ukrainian enterprises are overfulfilling their targets beneath the slogan "Let Us Help the Chernobyl AES Collective!" We had an opportunity to talk with Pensioner Lyubov Aleksandrovna Vilenskaya, who decided to transfer R200 from her modest savings to the fund for assistance to Pripyat. The bank is transferring this money to the credit of Account No 904. LOMEYKO CONDEMNS WEST'S RESTRICTIONS ON FOOD IMPORTS 'Discriminatory Measures' LD121500 Moscow TASS International Service in Russian 1412 GMT 12 May 86 [Text] Moscow, 12 May (TASS) ? At a briefing for Soviet and foreign journalists held today in the Press Center of the USSR Foreign Ministry, the discriminatory measures announced by Western countries with respect to the import of certain food products from socialist states were condemned. The prohibitions and embargoes, which the Western powers introduce from time to time, said Vladimir Lomeyko, chief of the USSR Foreign Minister Press Department, have already become a constant weapon to exert pressure. This new action does not constitute an exception. It is a surprising fact that certain Western powers are attempting to make political capital out of the accident which has taken place. First they whip up hysteria concerning the Chernobyl AES and then they make use of it to introduce discriminatory measures. These actions are completely groundless. The consultative conference of the World Health 24 Organization which took place the other day with the participa- tion of a large group of authoritative specialists from many countries of Western and Eastern Europe adopted a document in which the complete groundlessness of the assertions put forward to justify the discriminatory measures is stressed. The main conclusion of this document is 'that at the present time the radiation situation poses no danger at all for the population of Europe. From the point of view of health, these restrictions on the importation of food products are groundless. The head of the Foreign Ministry Press Department exposed the underlying cause for the sensational hysteria which is being whipped up by some press organs in the west. First, they com- plained about the lack of information, and at the same time ignored the information they were receiving on the accident. The FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY accident and people's misfortune has been turned into a sensa- tion, the scale of the accident has been grossly exaggerated. As an example, he showed a copy of the NEW YORK POST of 2 May, where the entire front page is occupied by the headline: "Mass Grave; 15,000 People Buried in a Nuclear Pit." Western correspondents would be of much better service to the cause of peace and mutual understanding between peoples if they were just as persistent in urging the U.S. Administration for an answer about why it continues nuclear tests in Nevada. The accident in Chernobyl is a mishap, but blasts in Nevada are a conscious policy of poisoning our planet, which is being conduc- ted in order to develop new death-dealing varieties of nuclear armaments. This is pushing humanity toward a nuclear catastro- phe. More on Lomeyko Criticism AU121515 Paris AFP in English 1458 GMT 12 May 86 [Excerpts] Moscow, May 12' (AFP) ? Soviet Foreign Ministry spokesman Vladimir Lomeyko Monday denounced an EEC ban on imports of East bloc countries' foodstuffs as "unjustified and without foundation." Mr. Lomeyko said the ban was aimed at applying "political pressure on the socialist countries." Speaking at a press conference, Mr. Lomeyko said that the "uproar" over Chernobyl had led to an "uncontroilled psychosis in Western public opinion, which has been the pretext for dis- criminatory measures" against the East bloc countries. "In some countries, the hysteria borders on an anti-Soviet psychosis," he said. When asked why the Soviet Union had been so slow in disclosing information about the accident, Mr. Lomeyko said that Moscow had not immediately recognized "either the nature, or the scope" of the accident because, he said, "nothing of the kind had ever happened before." "The Soviet Union did not deliberately seek to hide the truth," he said, but it wanted to be sure its information was "verified, exact and clear" before communicating it to other countries. Mr. Lomeyko, who was in the United States at the time of the accident, said that Americans, "on the one hand complain about the absence of information, and on the other, they ignored what they were told" in order to "immediately infer that a country that hides the truth cannot be trusted." He called this attitude "intol- erable, amoral and dangerous." He said the situation around Chernobyl was "stabilizing and improving every day." Everything'is interlinked in a small world. Political lessons are being drawn from 2 technical disaster. In an unexpected way, Chernobyl confirmed the vitally impor- tant need for a- new political thinking in international life in the nuclear age. When people talk about that kind of thinking they mean primarily a new overall approach to the madness of the nuclear arms race, which does not increase its participants' security but instead reduces it because you cannot achieve true security for yourself alone to the detriment of others. The Cher- nobyl disaster seems to have extended and, at the same time, given concrete form to the sphere of practical application of the new thinking. I would like to cite in some detail the conversation between a West Berlin radio correspondent and FRG Foreign Minister Genscher. The correspondent said: "Suddenly every citizen in the FRG has noticed how small Europe is and how close Kiev actually is in this instance." Genscher replied: "The whole world has become smaller as a result of technical progress. Consequently, we have begun to depend more on each other." The correspondent continued his line of reasoning: "Perhaps the realization of how small the world is and how close Kiev is to the FRG will help those politicians discussing security questions at the various talks; in other words, there will be consequences for security policy, too." Genscher replied: "That is probably so. This event will probably have those consequences. I believe that once again the fact has clearly been shown that in this shrinking world man- kind's survival can only be guaranteed by collective decisions, that is to say that collective decisions are the only possible ones to ensure that everybody does not seek security for themselves and that there is a joint search for security in the sphere of the protection of the natural foundations of life, security against those threats contained in the new forms of technology alongside the great potential, and security of course on the military level, the level of disarmament, arms control, and confidence-building measures." It is surely possible to agree with every word of that argument. The new political thinking in a shrinking and interdependent world requires at the very least greater East-West understanding. Understanding is impossible without a common language. This does not mean English, French, or Russian, of course, but the language of international political contact. It must be com- prehensible to the other side, take account of the nature of the other society, and perhaps take account of a different attitude to informnation existing in the other social psychology, even a different speed of dissemination of that information. Chernobyl raised with a new acuteness the question of seeking a common language of cooperation between the two different societies ? socialist and capitalist. It must be a joint search and must presuppose restraint, great flexibility, and reciprocal compro- mises. We are ready for such a search and confirmed that readiness from the platform of the 27th CPSU Congress. Of course, this line of reasoning does not apply to inveterate anti-Sovietists working, as it were, in automatic mode. You cannot find a common language with them. They do not have a language but a poisonous sting and this has been demonstrated 243 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY often recently. They went to particular pains across the ocean to disseminate frightening rumors and fabrications, using them to fill every available space. "A human tragedy should not be turned into a political game," British Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe stated the other day. But that is precisely what the various malefactors have done who, in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl AES, have undertaken yet another mass attack on the Soviet peace initiatives, particularly when trying to instill doubts regarding our plan to rid the world of nuclear weapons by the end of the 20th century. It is to the credit of the world community and also of official circles in the West that there were more people who sympathized, showed understanding, expressed a readiness to help, and who found the right moral and political measure in judging what had happened. It is with them that the difficult search for a common language must be continued, even making use of such experience as Chernobyl. It would have been better had it not existed; but now that it does, this experience will give all countries another opportunity to learn. KONDRASHOV ON ANTI?SOVIET TREATMENT OF CHERNOBYL PM121010 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 9 May 86 Morning Edition p 5 [Political observer Stanislav Kondrashov article: [Text] In the past when fate took an unexpected turn our forefa- thers used to say: Everything is at the mercy of God. Without getting involved again in the argument about God, let us set out the evident truth of our time that everything is now at the mercy , of the atom. And that applies to all mankind and all life on earth. Whether the atom is used for military or peaceful purposes. We have been reminded about that from time to time by accidents in the United States, Britain, and other countries. Another tragic reminder was provided by the accident at the Chernobyl AES, which suddenly entered our life ? and not only ours ? and world politics. For almost 2 weeks Chernobyl has been featured in newspapers and on the "Vremya" TV program. It occupies no less important a place in our thoughts and feelings. This accident, this calamity occurred in our land. Our land is vast; and, of course, the nearer someone is to the scene of the event, the more keen and involved is his experience of what happened. But we are all children of one country; and no matter how many hundreds or thousands of kilometers separate us from Chernobyl, in our thoughts we are beside the people stricken by misfortune and with our fellow- countrymen who have had to hurriedly leave their houses and their homes, fleeing the threat of radiation. We think about their changed lives and their anxieties ? they cannot fail to be alarmed, even if they are now being comforted by the concern and warmth of sympathy in their new locations. The TV screens have shown us just a small part of the scenes which they will remember all their lives. Pictures taken from helicopters show the deserted settlement around the AES, the bright new apartment blocks, the straight and empty streets. Sensing the meaning of this picture as people of the nuclear age, we felt the unseen, silent, and awesome presence of increased radioactivity. So this is what it is like, we thought as we watched. Perhaps it looks like that, perhaps not; but what is clear is that this monstrous force is kept under protective casings which keep the working peaceful atom in check; but the power concealed in 244 "Thinking About Chernobyl"] stockpiles of nuclear warheads, designed to destroy and kill, is incomparably more terrible. Everyone is at the mercy of the atom, having awakened, curbed, and, it would seem, entirely tamed it. But who guaranteed its absolute obedience? All these questions and thoughts concern us, casting their shadow on the blossoming of spring, the May Day celebrations, and the approaching Victory Day. We feel fraternal sympathy with the victims, a unity of kinship with those forced to leave their homes. We pay tribute to the courage of those who in dangerous conditions are eliminating the after-effects of the accident and are extinguishing the smoldering remains of this conflagration. There are situations when doing your duty is tantamount to performing an exploit. That is the case with the people who remained at Chernobyl AES. You cannot counter panic with thoughtless or careless bravado. This is no place for those two opposites. We are not the only ones thinking about Chernobyl. This word, until recently unknown to most people in our country, is now on the whole world's lips. On such occasions you see once again how small the world is. In the modern poet's metaphor, "the world dangles in a string bag of latitudes and longitudes" containing almost 5 billion people gripped with fear at the threat of nuclear war to which has suddenly been added the danger of radiation from the Chernobyl atom. There is much sincere sympathy and understanding in the world now for those who have the ability to put themselves in others' shoes. Pepple are casting plenty of wary looks at the sky and their surroundings ? radioactivity needs no visa and is no respecter of national frontiers. Immediately panic- mongers turned up, who set about poisoning the atmosphere with the radiation of distrust of the Soviet Union; their initial offensive was halted and turned back by the force of facts, particularly those cited at the press conference in Moscow. The radiation of distrust is also subsiding to a certain extent, as is the radiation in the atmosphere. As various countries are reporting, the radiation presents no threat to people's health and even less to their lives. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15 : CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IZVESTIYA ON WORK TO SEAL STRICKEN REACTOR SITE PM131637 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 14 May 86 Morning Edition p 3 [Special correspondent A. Illesh report: "Level of Intensity; IZVESTIYA Special Correspondent Reports From the Chernobyl AES Region"] [Text] Kiev ? The words "radiation level" appear often in reports from the accident region. This indicator determines the degree of danger associated with working in the zone. Today I want to talk about another level ? the intensity felt by people eliminating the consequences of the 26 April accident. It is busy alongside the building bearing the plaque "Chernobyl Ukrainian Communist Party Raykom" now housing the govern- ment commission headquarters. It would seem dim the "uni- form" of special suits, white caps, and respirators around most people's necks would bring people down to the same level and make them similar. Just try and recognize someone you know! But L.A. Ilin, vice president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, is immediately distinguiishable by his gestures, smiles, and readiness to engage in detailed conversation. The latest conference is over and the specialists are free for a short time and have gone outside. "Here comes a hero," the chairman of the radiation defense commission said. "Let me introduce you to B.V. Gidaspov, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences." "Don't exaggerate," the Leningrader and director of the State Institute of Applied Chemistry tried to "defend himself." "But to be serious, there have been considerable successes in our work," the scientist said. "We are working to decontaminate the AES site, the station itself, the buildings, and the soil. We are doing everything to ensure that people can return as soon as possible even to what are currently the most dangerous places. "At the first stage," Boris Veniaminovich continued, "we are concentrating our main efforts on particularly contaminated areas: the reactor and everything alongside and around it. You know, people are mobilized not only physically but intellectually in a difficult situation. All their creative potential is geared to resolving a single task. That is clearly shown by the joint work by scientists from various 'departments.' ""At this most difficult time," V.A. Masol, chairman of the Ukrainian Gosplan, joined in the conversation, "all departmental obstacles and barriers are really being broken down. Here in Chernobyl decisions are being made quickly without any superfluous paper. The result of cooperation among 'informal groups,' "he greeted some people ? a corresponding member, a general, and an engineer ? exiting the building, "is extremely effective." "We started with the small things," Gidaspov continues, "and now, having tested our methods in the accident situation that emerged here in Chernobyl, we are covering 150-200 square meters a day with special decontaminating film. It is now also clear how we should proceed and what we should do." "The scientists' help and their contribution to the common cause is hard to overestimate," was how I.S. Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, started our conversation. His study is situated here on the second floor of the headquarters. "Later on I will talk about the work of the chemical workers. But to start with ? other services. Have you noticed the number of vehicles and equipment crossing the 30 km zone?" "Of course. There are considerably fewer of them, in my opinion." "But the amount of loads reaching the AES site has sharply increased. How is that? By banning contaminated transportation from leaving the 'circle' we were pursuing the most important goal of minimizing the possible spread ? on tires or truck bodies ? of even low-level radioactiv- ity. To that end three transshipment bases were created by the exits, where everything we needed was unloaded from 'clean' transportation. And loads intended for the site are unloaded onto internal transportation. There is a whole chain of transport at work." Ivan Stepanovich drew my attention to the highly detailed wall map. "Look," he pointed, "Here you can see yet another 'circle' around the 30-km zone ring. It is bigger than the first and, so to speak, shows the limits of our territory and the adjoining total radioactivity security territory. So it is here, on the edge of the 'big circle,' that the stores have been organized. We do not need to send vehicles on long trips, everything is at hand. Fur- thermore, quite a large railroad siding has been opened. This is an advantage both because of the volume of shipments and because it is considerably simpler to decontaminate rail cars in comparison with motor vehicles. Unlike the ribbed rubber of tires, their metal parts 'clean' more reliably and quickly. River transport has also been included in the work. "You promised to tell us about the chemical specialists...." "As the scale of accident management work unfolded, there arose the problem of swiftly decontaminating the site. Otherwise it was impossible to work; the risk was high. Let me note by the way that all the strictest norms in terms of the length of time spent in the zone and the workload of people stationed there are being adhered to. So, the time of the chemical specialists came. As you already know, they are spreading a composite film which tightly covers the surface. After that, the radioactive dust and particles cannot penetrate into the soil or water. "Altogether, the experimental work by scientists and the discov- eries they have already made here, in the AES region, are considerable," I.S. Silayev went on. "Here is a graphic example. Through its representatives a Swedish firm offered us its services in delivering decontamination chemicals. They asked 18.5 dollars per kg. Today we have succeeded in organizing our own produc- tion of a similar liquid. And production is on the scale of 30 metric tons per day. It is easy to calculate how much currency has been saved. And the work progresses incomparably faster. Just imag- ine, though, the efforts that were demanded by this work of everyone who took part in it! The actual pace at which dangerous areas are being covered is 300,000 square meters every 24 hours. And we started at some 10,000 square meters...." It emerged that B.V. Gidaspov had inadvertently supplied the correspondent with outdated figures. Indeed, the pace of work is so fast that you cannot always keep up with it. 245 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY So there it is, the level of exertion! "We must under no cir- cumstances flatter ourselves or exaggerate the achievements," I.S. Silayev emphasized. "Tomorrow, or in a week's time, every- one will have to do even more work, and everyone will have to make even greater efforts to carry it out." "What additional 'isolation' methods are being used at the AES?" "A method for pouring liquid glass has been developed. It is extremely promising for application on the roofs of buildings and installations: There is no way water can wash off such a covering." "There have been many occasions to hear fears being expressed, fears caused by water. What I have in mind is rainfall...." "The sealing of the effluent drainage system was completed 13 May. Thus we can completely rule out the flow of rainwater from the station to Pripyat." "From your office window one can clearly see helicop- ters flying toward the station one after the other. What are the Mi-8 crews engaged on now?" "They are carrying lead pellets on their carrier arms and dropping them on the target. The task is to block off completely all the openings through which the emission of radioactivity in the atmosphere is even only theoreti- cally possible. Instrument readings indicate that emission levels are systematically dropping." "Ivan Stepanovich, a few words about the helicopter pilots' contribution...." "Here are the fig- ures:' Today they dropped 70 metric tons of lead pellets. Out of 66 missions, 58 resulted in the load being dropped right on target." The conversation turned to immediate plans. "We have embarked on the most complex underground work. We are preparing to sink a shaft and will place a strong 'cushion' beneath the reactor. One of the most important tasks now is to get underneath the reactor and start pumping liquid nitrogen so as to create yet another tight safety layer there. This isbeing tackled, in particular, by specialists from the USSR Ministry of Transport Construction. Let me repeat that there are very many jobs to be done, including some most important and urgent ones." "IZVESTIYA's readers are asking about the ultimate appear- ance of the damaged No. 4 power unit at the AES." "The specialists have nicknamed their work the building of a 'sar- cophagus.' Let us not simplify matters, though: It is not just a question of covering the reactor in concrete, encasing -it com- pletely ? and that is all. This will not be just a 'sarcophagus,' but a most complex engineering structure, fully controlling its internal heat and releasing any excess." The time for talking came to an end. Moscow was on the line to Chernobyl, to the headquarters. I also had to hurry: Daylight ? flying time --- was running out. I returned to Kiev by helicopter. The day had seemed strenuous to the crew, just like to the scientists, engineers, departmental leaders, and everyone else who had been on duty at the AES area. An ordinary damage repair day ? day 17.... The flight engineer moved the lead shield which is used when flying in the reactor area into a corner of the cargo bay, collected the lead aprons, and slammed the door. A thunderstorm was raging on the approach to?Kiev. It was the first thunderstorm this May. MOSCOW DESCRIBES EVENTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER ACCIDENT LD131943 Moscow Domestic Service in Russian 1315 GMT 13 May 86 [Dispatch from Kiev by correspondent Vladimir Zhukovskiy; from the "Yunost" program] [Excerpt) The events at the Chernobyl AES have moved all Soviet people, not only because of what happened but also because of the courage shown and being shown in the disaster area by those whose lot it was to toil there; to toil and to struggle. To toil and to struggle ? this could well be the headline for the despatch we have just received on the telephone from Vladimir Zhukovskiy, our correspondent: The Kiev region. the heart of the Ukraine ? is beautiful now. The chestnut trees blossomed early, the lilac is fragrant, the acacia is coming out. Looking at nature's rites of spring, the calamity that suddenly struck the Chernobyl AES stands out in bolder relief. Yunost correspondents were given an opportunity to visit the accident zone. We met with dozens of people, witnesses of the tragedy that took place in the town of the atomic power industry workers on 26 April at 0123 hours. We visited, as it were, the very outskirts of the zone itself. A real battle between people and the forces of nature has now been going on for more than 2 weeks at the edges of this zone. This is a clash that is being waged in accordance with plans, based on calculations by major scientists and experts, among whom are Silayev, deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Academician Velikhov, vice presi- dent of the country's Academy of Sciences, Academician Legasov and others, it is a battle which finds it embodiment in the courage of people of whom ? I am confident ? we shall yet tell you. One and one-half hours after what happened, Militia Major General Berdov, deputy minister of internal affairs of the Ukrainian SSR, responding to an emergency telephone call, arrived at the scene of the accident. He understood that a battle was beginning. It was then that he ordered that a log of battle operations be instituted, not unlike a log onboard a warship, and that everything that was happening at the AES and in the power workers' town be entered in it in strict consecutive order. 246 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY We have seen this log, with entries done in different handwriting. Later on this entry appeared in the log: The radiation has started. Neither General Berdov, nor hundreds of people at their work posts know about it at that time, and speaking frankly, nor did they think about it: they were saving their comrades and saving the station. Neither these people, nor members of the government commis- sion who arrived here several hours later, nor the best Soviet scientists could at that time know the causes of the accident and its consequences. Time was needed to understand what hap- pened. Several hours later, the situation at the station was under control. The operations staff, attached to the party gorkom and gorispol- kom, issued the instruction to evacuate the inhabitants of the atomic power workers' settlement. Thousands of militia function- aries began thist most difficult operation. In all, 3 hours were needed for it. This is what Militia Captain Oleg Kazakov, chief officer in charge of operations, wrote in his report: I wish to perform my service and civic duty in eliminating the onsequences of the accident at the Chernobyl AES like a communist. On 29 April, before his relief at the duty post protecting the settlement of Pripyat was due to arrive, (Vladimir Pashko), expert criminologist, turned to the secretary of the party organization and notified him of his wish, as he put it, to be together with the communists at this time in the foremost ranks, performing the most crucial tasks. During the first 3 days, civilian militia employees sent about 20 of such declarations. It became necessary to close off the source of danger, to block it off, deluge it, and seal it off. This could only be done from the air ? and the aviators' turn came. Courageous helicopter crews carried out hundreds of flights and, in incredibly difficult conditions the core of the fourth unit was sealed off by means of an enormous stopper, composed of sand and other materials, weighing in excess of 5,000 metric tons. And all this was dropped from helicopters. Dozens of helicopter pilots showed miracles of courage in this clash. Among them are: (Yakovlev), (Serebryakov), (Voytko), and (Pyshkovskiy). Military helicopters overfly the station several times a day even now. 247 Medical personnel joined the struggle to overcome the con- sequences of the accident right from the very first days of the Chernobyl disaster. The Ukrainian SSR Ministry of Health was among the first to receive the AES disaster alarm. Immediately, measures were taken to give medical aid to those affected and to check on the state of the environment. Not even an hour had passed and ambulances from Kiev and other towns were on their way speeding toward Chernobyl. Leading specialists from the Republican Ministry of Health Protection left for the accident zone. More than 1,300 doctors, nurses, laboratory assistants, radiation monitoring personnel, 240 ambulances ? this medical assault team is currently in action in the region of the Chernobyl AES. Leading specialists from Moscow and Leningrad have arrived in Kiev for consultations and to help. Medical establishments in Kiev city and oblast have at their disposal all that is necessary to ensure medical examination and the needed treatment. Jointly with other specialists, the medical personnel took under its control the state of the environment and the quality of food products. Almost half of the patients who found themselves in hospitals following the accident at the AES have now been discharged. Following careful examination and necessary treatment they are ready to go to work. The situation in Pripyat, Chernobyl, and Kiev is normal. People are not only struggling with the formidable forces of the atom; they are also calmly working, resting, and marking holidays. The red flag, this invariable companion of our holidays, was, just like everywhere else in the country on 9 May, the Day of Victory, hoisted on the building of the Chernobyl AES. It was hoisted by those who are on duty today. One can justly call it battle duty. Yes, things are difficult now, work is underway, titanic, exhausting work ? but these people, who have been through hard tests, who accomplish feats every minute, are already the winners. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/07/15: CIA-RDP09-00997R000100270001-9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IZVESTIYA CITES SILAYEV; 'DISASTER' DANGER NOW PAST PM121314 Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 12 May 86 Morning Edition p 3 [Special correspondent Andrey Illesh report: "Days of Concern and Alarm; IZVESTIYA Special Correspondent Reports From the Chernobyl AES Region"] [Text) Kiev, 10 May ? The State Motor Vehicle Inspectorate Administration official raised his stick and our editorial vehicle braked at the checkpoint on the highway leading to Kiev. There were trucks, refrigerated vehicles, and "Volgas" in the convoy alongside us... It is understandable: Giant cities have large traffic flows. Produce, industrial goods, and everything needed for Kiev's plants and factories are brought here. The echo of the Chernobyl accident should not hamper the businesslike rhythm of the life of the Ukrainian capital. Our turn arrives. We drive up slowly to the specialists who are carrying out dosage checks of the vehicles and passengers. We get out of the car. The wheels and bodies of our "Zhigulis" do not cause "clicks" on examination and the instruments show that there is no radiation "contamination." But we too are examined. Primarily our footwear. "It doesn't matter where you've been walking," smiled N. Psur- tsev, chief of the oblast State Motor Vehicle Inspection Admin- istration's second division, who was standing alongside and had just checked our documents. "I've been reading your reports in IZVESTIYA," he said. But when we inquired about his work he replied: "I have to 'disap- point' you ? there are no sensations in my sector. Transportation into Kiev is normal. But that doesn't mean we can give up. The situation calls for special vigilance." Own correspondent N. Bak