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September 30, 1974
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Approved For Release 2011/08/09: b'A-RDP09TO0207RO01 000020021 -0 3 0 SEP 1974 ( The aA: Time to Come In from the Cold Question: "Under what international law do we have a right to attempt to de- stabilize the constitutionally elected gov- ernment of another country?" Answer: "! am not going to pass judg- ment on whether it is permitted or au- thorized under international law. It is a recognized fact that historically as well as presently, such actions are taken in the best interest of the countries involved." That blunt President Gerald Ford at his press conference last week was either remarkably careless or remarkably candid. It left the troubling impression, which the Administration afterward did nothing to dispel, that the U.S. feels free to subvert another gov- ernment whenever it suits American policy. In an era of detente with the So- viet Union and improving relations with China, Ford's words seemed to repre- sent an anachronistic, cold-war view of national security reminiscent of the 1950s. Complained Democratic Senator Frank Church of Idaho with consider- able hyperbole: "Ut is] tantamount to saying that we respect no law save the law of the jungle." The question on "destabilizing" for- eign governments followed Ford's con- firmation that the Nixon Administra- tion had authorized the Central intelli once Agency to wage an $8 mil- lion campaign in 1970-73 to aid oppo- nents of Chilean President Salvador Allende's Marxist government (see box page 21). Until last week, members of both the Nixon and Ford Administra- tions had flatly denied that the U.S. had been involved in undermining Allende's regime. They continue to insist that the CIA was not responsible for the 1973 coup that left Allende dead and a re- pressive right-wing junta in his place. Congressmen were outraged by the news that they had once again been mis- led by the Executive Branch. More im- portant, disclosure of the Chile opera- tion helped focus and intensify the debate in Congress and the nation over the CIA: Has the agency gone too far in recent years? Should it be barred from interfering in other countries' domestic affairs'? Where it has erred, was the CIA out of control or was the White House at fault for misdirecting and misusing the agency? Should it be more tightly su- pervised. and if so. by whom? In ad- dition, the controversy spotlighted the fundamental dilemma posed by an open, democratic society using covert activity -the "dirty tricks" or "black" side of in- telligence organizations-as an-instru- ment of foreign policy. CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY DIRECTOR WILLIAM E. COLEY "There's nothing wrong with accountability." At the center of the storm was Wil- liam Egan Colby, 54, the CIA's director for the past year. Shrewd and capable, Colby has sought from the day he took office as director to channel more of the CIA's efforts into the gathering, evalu- ation and analysis of information and less into covert actions-the "operation- al" side of the intelligence business. Says he: "The CIA's cloak-and-dagger days have ended." Certain Actions. But obviously, not quite. It was Colby who oversaw the last months of the CIA activity in Chile as the agency's deputy director for oper- ations in 1973, though this operation ap- parently ended shortly after he became director. But it was also Colby who dis- closed details of the covert action to a closed hearing of the House Armed Ser- vices Subcommittee on Intelligence last April 22. A summary of his testimony was leaked to the press two weeks ago. By the time Ford met with the press. Colby's revelations were more than a week old; the President had been briefed by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and doubtless was ready to field report- ers' questions. Said Ford: "Our Govern- ment, like other governments, does take certain actions in the intelligence field to help implement foreign policy, and protect national security. I am informed reliably that Communist nations spend vastly more money than we do for the same kind of purposes." Since so much had already leaked out, Ford perhaps had no choice but to make an admission. But his statement seemed to set no or few limits on clan- 002 CO-"it-1 Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0 Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0 destine intervention in another country.; mittee launched a review of the testi Chilean coup. Now, he said, she won- A somewhat sharper but still highly flex- mony and a probe into the Chilean' dered whether India might not be next. ible limit was set afterward by Kissin affair. ' Many"Latin Americans shrugged; the ger. He told TIME: "A democracy can; Anxious to heal the rift with Con- episode seemed to confirm their suspi- engage in clandestine operations only gress, Ford and Kissinger briefed nine cions that the CIA invariably is behind with restraint, and onlyin circumstanc-I senior Congressmen at breakfast the the continent's frequent upheavals-po- es in which it can say to itself in good next day on Chile and covert affairs in litical and otherwise. conscience that this is the only way to general. Later, at a previously scheduled Some cynical foreign reaction was achieve vital objectives." hearing on detente, Kissinger reiterated not so much concerned with the CIA ac- Moreover, there was an unsettlingly before the Senate Foreign Relations tivities themselves as with their becom- disingenuous quality to Ford's words. Committee that the intent of the CIA op- mg known. Said a former President of Was the intent of the Chilean opera lion really to preserve freedom of the , eration in Chile was merely to keep the Argentina: "If you ask me as an Ar- tion opposition alive and "not to de- gentine, the CIA intervention in Chile press and opposition political parties, as i stabilize or subvert" his gaveinment. was wholly illegal interference in the he insisted, or simply to undermine Kissinger also conducted two separate sovereignty of another state. If you ask Allende? In this context, it is worth not- briefings at the Senate. Still, Congress me to see it from the point of view of an ing that after the-coup, the U.S. did not was neither convinced nor mollified. As American, the fact that Senators and object when the new military regime the week progressed, growing numbers Congressmen can interfere with the na- banned all political parties and shut of Representatives and Senators called, tional security interests of the country l down all opposition publications. for an all-out review of the CIA. for political motives indicates a grave There were other disquieting notes.. the sFord described the op- The affair served to confirm all the decadence in the system." in eration as statement. in the suspicions about the CIA and its The uproar recalled two earlier CIA being "in the best interest pf, exaggerated image as a vast conspiracy. fiascos: the Bay of Pigs disaster in 1961, the people of Chile"-a throwback to Reaction abroad ranged from incredu- and the revelation in 1967 that the agen- an America-knows-what's-best-for-you lity to dismay. The London Times called cy for years had partly funded and ma- offensive to many countries. In addition, Ford did not make the small but cru- cial distinction between intelligence gathering and covert operations, which led some critics to suspect that he was not wholly familiar with the subject. Misled Congress. There was a de- gree of ingenuousness, perhaps even hy- pocrisy, in much of the indignation, since the CIA is widely known to have carried out Chile-style operations else- where before. What galled Congress and many other U.S. and foreign leaders was the fact that members of the Nixon Ad- ministration had repeatedly misled Con- gress about the Chile operation. At his State, Kissinger assured the Senate For- eign Relations Committee that since 197Q, the U.S. had done nothing in Chile except try to "strengthen the democratic political parties"-although critics ar- gue that fostering strikes and demon- strations amounted to a lot more than that. During another hearing, then CIA the revelations "a bitter draught" for nipulated the National Student Associ- those who regard the U.S. as "sometimes ation and dozens of business, labor,' clumsy, often misunderstood, but fun- religious and cultural groups. Both flaps damentally honorable in its conduct of overshadowed the positive services that international affairs." West Germany's the CIA had rendered before; there were, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung predict- demands for greater restraint by the CIA, ed that "the disconcerting naivete with and closer control by the Executive which President Ford enunciated his se- Branch, but no real changes came. cret service philosophy" would have a The Chilean affair, however, poten a"provocative"effect. tially has more lasting impact, for the Grave Decadence. That was the agency has already been badly bruised case in the capitals of the so-called Third by the Watergate scandals. Says Mich- World. From New Delhi, U.S. Ambas- igan Representative Lucien Nedzi,; sador Daniel Patrick Moynihan angrily cabled the State Department that he had assured Prime Minister Indira Gandhi that the CIA had not been involved in the Director Richard Helms was asked if the CIA had passed money to Allende's political opponents. Helms' response: "No, sir." Former Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs Charles A. Meyer, former Ambassador .to Chile Edward Korry and other Ad- ministration officials gave similar testi- mony, though they may not have known about the operation. The revelations, and Ford's confir- mation of them, stunned many in Con- gress. "Unbelievable," declared Demo- cratic Senator Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota. "Unsavory and unprinci pled," said Church. Democratic Senator Stuart Symington said that the disclo- sure "certainly does not coincide with the testimony that this committee [For- eign Relations] has. received." The com- 0 13 Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0 Conti Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0 chairmar. of a House committee that oversees the agency: "I don't believe that " the CIA will ever be what it was before . Agency officials have admitted that bolically into the CIA's seal: an eagle sig- lion-lots of it-knowing that he will t l a inet domestic CIA ac- ten th and alertness and a eventually take some for himself. When aws a f g espte ytng s g nt tivity, they supplied one of the White compass rose representing the collection he gets dependent on it, you move in."? House "plumbers," former CIA Employ of intelligence data from all over the; Once hooked, the recruit is given a lie ee E. Howard Hunt, with bogus iden-, world. But as the cold war grew, so did detector test to discover his weaknesses. tification papers, a wig, a speech-alter-.-the scope of the CIA's duties. The law,Continues Agee: "Then it all hangs out., ation device, and a camera in a tobacco provided that in addition to collecting He can go on serving you as a spy for pouch. In addition, the agency provid-, information, the CIA was "to perform the rest of his life." ed the White House with a psychological, such other functions and duties related) Americans usually learn of the agen- profile of Daniel Ellsberg. to intelligence affecting the national se- c 's'covert actions only when they fail criticism has come may from time to time direct." Under cy's discomfiture , from disillusioned former CIA employ- that directive, the CIA actively began try- .Tees. For two years, the agency struggled, ing to penetrate and even roll back the and the Cult of Intelligence, whose prin- ter Communist influence in other coun-din 1961; the Chilean operation. Over the cipal author is ex-CIA Officer Victor; tries. Its methods included support of years, there were successes for the CIA Marchetti. The book accused the agen- pro-American political parties and in- as well: the 1953 coup that deposed Pre- cy of using outmoded cold war methods dividuals, covert propaganda, economic mien Mohammed Mossadegh (who had' and urged that it be prohibited from in- sabotage and paramilitary operations. nationalized a British-owned oil compa- tervening in other nations' affairs under Under Cover. In theory, at least, ny and was believed to be in league with: any circumstances (TIME, April 22). the station chiefs who head CIA offices Iran's Communist Party) and kept pro- I Another critical book, Inside the overseas operate under the cover of some American Shah Mohammed Reza Pah- Company: A C.I.A. Diary, will be pub- innocuous-sounding embassy job such asi lavi on the throne of Iran; the 1954 rev- lished in London this January. In it Au- attache or special assistant. In practice, olution that overthrew the Communist-, thor Philip Agee, who, after twelve years some chiefs are well known and some re- dominated government of President of undercover exploits for the CIA in Lat- main under deep cover, depending on Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. The CIA in America, switched to the side of the the nature of the country. In London, has been suspected of participating in leftist revolutionaries he had been hired for example, practically anyone who is the 1967 military coup in Greece, the to defeat, calls the CIA "the secret po- interested can learn the identity of the capture and killing in 1967 of Cuban litical police of American capitalism.". CIA station chief; his arrival was even, Revolutionary Che Guevara in Bolivia, On the contrary, CIA directors have - disclosed in the Manchester Guardian. and the 1970 overthrow of Prince No- secret. Examples: the U-2 incident in 1960, when the Soviets shot down the spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Pow- maintained since the agency's founding 27 years ago last week that clandestine actions constitute only a small part of CIA activities. Indeed, over the years, the agency has provided a huge volume of reliable analysis and intelligence data that has served in part as the basis for U.S. defense and foreign policies. But Marchetti reports that the CIA devotes two-thirds of its annual budget (which totals around $750 million) and some 6017c to 70% of its estimated 5,000 overseas employees to clandestine operations. That evidently was not the intent of Congress in creating the CIA and giving it almost complete autonomy to safe- guard its secrecy. Originally the agen- cy's principal task was to gather Intel- ligence and keep the Government informed about other countries, partic- was money. He describes the CIA meth-i ularly the Communist nations. od of snaring an agent: "You start out, ,11 Oa,5Uia, ?.~ ~,.~~..,...,.u,.. ? ....,...... 7 - . .,... --- ... . well known but, by tacit agreement, nev- The CIA was deeply involved in the! er publicized by reporters. In politically war in Southeast Asia. Starting in 1962, turbulent countries, the identity of the) it organized and equipped an army in station chief is a closely guarded secret. Laos to fight the Communist Pathet Lao. Warns one U.S. ambassador in South The army, which grew to 30,000 men, America: "If he is named, he will have costs the U.S. at least $300 million a to be recalled or his life won't be worth year, but Colby credits it with having a nickel." prevented a Communist takeover. The extent of their duties also var-, Prison Camps. The chief justifica- ies widely. In Hong Kong and Taiwan, J for CIA operations is that the other the CIA operatives are all ears but not side is doing the same-and more. Com- hands, their activities confined to mon- munist powers have an advantage over itoring radio broadcasts from the main Western democracies. Communist gar- land, interviewing refugees and other in-i ties can be directed from Moscow or formation gathering. other Communist centers (although in By his own less than impartial ac-' recent years many have become more count, Agee's main function for the CIA1 independent) but take the guise of local was to recruit agents in Latin America. political movements. Moreover, Com- In nearly every case, he says, the lure munist dictatorships without inquisitive legislatures or press can organize and C O6t ES SCHLESINGER Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207R001000020021-0 ~r+;>1t,:.ri Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207R001000020021-0 finance secret operations in other coun- tries in a way that no open society can. Unlike American leaders, Communist leaders never acknowledge such activ- ities. The Soviet Union's KGB, headed by Yuri Andropov, regularly runs what the Russian bureaucrats call aktivniye meropriyatiye (literal translation: active measures). The KGB's budget is un- known, but it has about 300,000 employ- ees, many of.them assigned to domestic duties like operating the vast network of prison camps. Overseas, a majority of the Soviet embassy personnel are KGB officers. p e, agreed to e o Teren peak at a c ????? n tale CIA and co- are better known than its successes. The of the CIA's Far East division in Wash- vert actions, which was sponsored in organization apparently no longer com- ington. He returned to Saigon in 1968IWashington, D.C., by the Center for Na- mits political assassinations abroad, but to take charge of the pacification effort,,;tional Security Studies. When associates it does try to subvert or overthrow un- which included the notorious Phoenixwarned that he would be up against a friendly governments-as in the Congo program. By 1971, Phoenix had caused'stacked deck, Colby shrugged: "There's; 1966 (now 7aire) in 196'2 and Ghana i n In Mexico, authorities uncovered a KGB- sponsored guerrilla group in 1971. Just last week officials in Belgrade disclosed an unsuccessful Soviet attempt to set up a pro-Moscow underground party in Yu- goslavia. Moreover, the KGB's Disinfor- mation Department tries to sow suspi- cion abroad by circulating false ru- mors and forged. documents. A case in point: the KGB campaign now going on to convince Indians that American ex- change scholars and Peace Corps vol- unteers are actually CIA agents. Communist China's equivalent of the CIA and KGB is so secret that the Chi- nese are believed not to even have a name for it. Among Western Sinologists, it is known as the Chinese Intelligence Service and is believed to be part of the foreign ministry's information depart- ment. The services primary job is to sift intelligence data from members of Chi- nese embassies and overseas news cor- irdnsuk'tw or dirty tricks. "I'd call hint an enlightened cold warrior," says a CIA officer. "But remember that this busi- ness is cold." In 1971, Colby went back to the CIA labyrinth in Langley, Va. His private life-style matches his professional modesty. Father of four (a fifth child died last year), he lives in- conspicuously in an unpretentious house' in suburban Maryland. He does not smoke, drinks only an occasional gin. and-tonic or glass of wine, and is a de- vout Catholic. His favorite recreations are sailing and bicycling. Since taking over as director, Colby has tried to reform the CIA's operations and rehabilitate its reputation. To woo support, he has made a point of being most of his adult years in the world of more open and candid than his prede- spies. Son of a career Army colonel, he censors. He has in effect undertaken a is a Princeton graduate who worked for task that to many seems self-contradic- the Office of Strategic Services during tory: to be open about operations that World War II. In 1943 he-parachuted by definition must be secret. Who ever into France to join a Resistance outfit. !heard of an espionage chief being pub- Later, he headed a unit that was dropped licly accountable? So far this year, Colby, into Norway to sabotage a railway line, and other CIA officials have testified be-' Mustered out as a major, Colby fore 18 congressional committees on 30 earned a law degree from Columbia. He occasions. Colby estimates that he has practiced law in New York until the Ko- I talked with 132 reporters in the last year, organization to the oss, the CIA. After He has also made more public serving in Stockholm and Rome, he was.speeches than any previous CIA direc- named CIA station chief in Saigon in tor. Recently, for exam he l the deaths of 20,587 Viet Cong mein-nothing wrong with accountability."I bers and sympathizers, according to Col The conference was dominated by crit- by's own count. He explains, however, ics like Ellsberg, who harangued Colby that when he took over, a year after the for 20 minutes, and Fred Branfinar of program began, he "laid stress on cap-. the Indochina Resource Center, who ac- turing rather than killing." In discussing cused the director of telling "outrageous the victims, he claims that "87% were lies." Colby kept his temper. killed by regular military in skirmishes." With Colby's encouragement, elev-' To all outward appearances, Colby respondents, who act as secret agents. The Chinese Communist Party, howev- er, does funnel funds to revolutionary groups abroad, particularly in Asia and Africa. From time to time, Chinese co- vert operations also have failed spectac- ularly. In 1965, Indonesia reacted to China's attempt to sponsor a revolution, in the archipelago by butchering tens of thousands of Communists. Phoenix Program. Few men un- derstand better these clashes of,anon- ymous armies on darkling plains or are more practiced in the covert arts than the CIA's William Colby, who has spent' Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207R001000020021-0 )ntinued Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0 AGENCY HEADQUARTERS (INSET: CIA SEAL) An end to cloak-and-dagger days? en agency analysts, wearing lapel tags ligence work less of a semiautonomous labeled CIA, attended the recent Chica-ithmk tank and more of an appendage go convention of the American Polit- of the NSC and the White House. ical Science Association. Explains Gary Many skeptics view Colby's green- Foster, the agency's coordinator for ac- mg of the CIA, his assurances of reform ademic relations: "We wanted to dem- and restraint (see interview page 18) as onstrate that we are a functioning, bona deceptive. They think these steps are de- fide research organization." In addition, signed merely to enable "the firm" (as Colby has permitted the agency's an- it is sometimes known) to carry on busi- alysts to.publish articles in scholarly and ness as usual. But Colby clearly realizes popular journals under their own names that he faces a serious questioning of the' and CIA titles. At the same time, how- agency's purposes and function, which ever, Colby has lobbied in Congress for is closely related to America's view of a bill that would make unauthorized dis- its own role in the world. closures of CIA activities by past and pre-, In the postwar era, covert action sent employees a criminal offense. The seemed eminently justifiable on the bill is now bottled up in committee. If it grounds that the U.S. was in a mortal is enacted, ex-CIA employees like Mar- struggle with the Communist world. chetti and Agee would risk jail for ex-, Now that the cold war has abated and posing the agency's secrets. Communism is no longer a monolith, An Appendage. Above all, Colby many scholars, diplomats and congres has taken steps to reduce covert actions sional leaders favor ending the CIA's co and direct more of the CIA's energies vert operations altogether, leaving it an back to its original mission of intelli- intelligence-gathering agency. gence gathering. Spies still have a role No Secret. The reasons are both in the modem CIA, but the U.S. now de- moral and practical. Says Richard N. pends less on men and more on satel- Gardner, an international-law specialist lites, high-altitude reconnaissance air- at Columbia University: "Dirty tricks craft like the SR-71, and equipment that have always been immoral and illegal. intercepts rival nations' secret commu- Now they also have outlived their use- nications. Such technical advances' fulness." Former Ambassador to the So- make the CIA highly successful in cot- viet Union George Kennan disapproves lecting military and other strategic of covert operations as "improper and information. undesirable." But he also disapproves for Even so, Kissinger complained pragmatic reasons: "The fact that we throughout Nixon's first term that CIA can't keep them secret is reason enough assessments of the state of the world, to desist." U.C.L.A. Soviet Specialist Ro- which were prepared by the agency's man Kolkowicz argues: "The track rec- Board of National Estimates, were un- ord is deplorable. By and large, these focused and useless for policymaking. operations have been a series of disas- Last year Colby abolished the twelve ters." Adds Eugene Skolnikoff, director member board and replaced it with ex- of M.I.T.'s Center for International perts assigned to a country or region. Studies: "The resulting scandals provide Now they periodically make concrete grist for attacks on the U.S., retroactive- recommendations through Colby to the ly validate charges-true or false-that National Security Council. The result the U.S. makes a habit of overthrowing has been to make the CIA in its intel- governments, and even exacerbate do- mestic distrust of public officials." CIA would unwisely limit the President's freedom of action. Last week Democratic Senator! James M. Abourezk of South Dakota, sponsored legislation that would prohib- it the CIA from "assassination, sabotage, political disruption or other meddling in a nation's internal affairs, without the approval of Congress or the knowledge of the American people." That propos- al is unlikely to be enacted because most Congressmen believe that restricting the Further, says William Bundy, for- mer CIA officer and now editor of For- eign Affairs: "The last thing in the world that is ever going to disappear is Soviet covert activities of a political nature. To say detente stops them is grossly naive." Thus Bundy argues that the U.S. should not be precluded from covert actions, but should not use such actions as ex- tensively as in the 1950s. Bowdoin Col lege Provost Olin Robinson, an author- ity on intelligence organizations in democratic societies, agrees: "Unless you've got a cast of world characters who are willing to play by a certain set of rules, you're going to have covert op- erations." In other words, the CIA should be left the capacity for covert action but forbidden to use it except in tightly re- stricted circumstances. Colby himself believes that more stress on intelligence gathering will make it less likely that various situations will develop into crises; the occasions where covert action might be considered would thus be reduced. But he main- tains that to prohibit the CIA from con- ducting any covert actions would "leave us with nothing between a diplomatic protest and sending in the Marines." Ideas vary about what limits should be set. Harry Howe Ransom, professor of political science and an intelligence KGB BOSS YURI ANDROPOV Rumors and forgeries. 00616 Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207R001000020021-0 anti:=--- Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09TOO207RO01 000020021 -0 COLBY & HIS WIFE BARBARA IN THEIR SUBURBAN MARYLAND HOME isIlation, and both times the bills were! An unusuoWegree of openness and candor. I - soundly defeated Last week Republican' _ his warning reflects widespread concern Howard H. Baker Jr. of Tea-; specialist at Vanderbilt University, be- that the CIA may be too independent. Senators lieves that "covert operations represent The CIA takes its orders from the nessee and Lowell P. Weicker Jr. of Con-, an act just short of war. If we use them,: 40 Committee, which has existed under necticut made another attempt. Their, it should be where acts of war would oth-; ' bill would create a committee of House, various names since 1948. It screens ev- supervise and, the members erwise be necessary." Ransom would ery proposal for clandestine activity. and Senate cm,-and all other membersl permit covert actions only when U.S. se-'Chaired by Kissinger, the committee is regulate the the U.S. intelligence committee. curity is clearly in jeopardy. William made up of Colby, Deputy Secretary of T.R. Fox, professor of international re- State Robert S. Ingersoll, Deputy Sec- Possible Leaks. Its chances of pas- lations at Columbia University, would, retary of Defense William P. Clements sage are rated better than even, because additionally permit them "to undo the, Jr., and Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman of the storm over the CIA and because spread of Hitler and other like govern- . General George S. Brown. In his book, the bill was referred to reform-minded ments." Dean Harvey Picker of Colum- Marchetti describes the committee as a Sam Ervin's Government Operations; bia's School of International Affairs rubber stamp that is predisposed to give Committee. But the bill may yet be de- would allow clandestine operations to the CIA what it wants. But others say , feated. Even many members of Congress prevent nuclear war. As Senator Church believe that they should not be entrust- that the committee frequently rejects or ed with CIA secrets because of points out, however, the "national se-1 orders revision of CIA proposals. More- possible, curity considerations must be compel- over, recommendations for major covert leaks. The alternative is to keep Con- ling for covert action to be justified. For gress uninformed, which seems equally his part, Colby declines to say under actions like the Chile operation require unacceptable. what precise circumstances he would fa presidential approval. Whatever the degree to which Con- vor Congress's supervision of the CIA is covert action. gress can be informed-and even crit- inadequate; in some respects, it is a Many critics who concede the need ics of the CIA concede that it is tricky for covert action in some cases never- myth. A Senate subcommittee headed for legislators Mississippi irregularly to be in on the decision- theless propose two other reforms: by conservative Democrat hnd Stennis has making of an espionage agency-there , separating intelligence gathering from is a clear necessity for Congress to hold covert operations and 2) tighter control.almost no staff. Member Symington the Executive more accountable for Most experts doubt that "dirt, that, from the U-2 incident what the CIA does. tricks" can be separated from intellito the Chile affair, the subcommittee has To some extent, the dilemma over gence gathering. Explains Richard Bis- known less about CIA activities than the the CIA has to do with an American need sell, onetime head of CIA covert oper- press. A House subcommittee chaired to have it both ways: the U.S. wants to, ations: "The gathering of information by liberal Democrat Nedzi meets more be (and to see itself as) a morally re- inevitably edges over into more active often, but he looks on his responsibility sponsible country and yet function as a functions, simply because the process of, "as making a determination as to wheth- great power in an immoral world. As making covert contacts with high-rank- er or not the cu has acted legally, after Bowdoin's Robinson puts it, "There is; ing officials of other nations gives the or during the fact." Thus no one in Con- an inevitable tension between an orga U.S. influence in them." To eliminate, gress knows in advance about potential- nization like the CIA and a democratic that problem, the U.S. could run two ly controversial CIA operations. Coro- society. From time to time there will be separate agencies. Bissell claims that I plains Democratic Representative Mi- pulling back when the organization may this idea was found to be impractical i chael J. Harrington of Massachusetts: have gone too far." The U.S. has reached, by both Britain and Germany in World' "There is a studied inclination in Con- such a point with the revelations about, War II because agents kept "running gress toward noninvolvement, superim- its actions in Chile. which, on balance,' into each other." i posed on a pattern of deference toward are hard to justify. While it cannot rule1 The case for closer surveillance is I the Executive Branch. If the Executive out covert operations in all circumstanc- . much stronger. Says Kolkowicz: "En- is in the dock, you have got to put the es, the nation must remember that it has trusting covert operations to a secretive Congress in there too-and firmly." better and stronger weapons to rely on: agency lacking effective supervision More than 200 times in the past two its economic and technological weight, amounts to leaving policy to faceless bu- decades, Congressmen have sponsored its diplomacy, its cultural impact and reaucrats whose judgment is question- bills and resolutions calling for more ef- -though tarnished-its freedom. able." Although somewhat exaggerated, fective supervision of the CIA. At least twice, Congress has voted on such leg 00617 6ti Approved For Release 2011/08/09: CIA-RDP09T00207RO01000020021-0