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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ,r- Volume 21, Number 1 July, 1966 SOVIET ATOMIC ENf RGY ATOMHAfl 3HEPfYIfI (ATOMNAYA ENERGIYA) ` TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN CONSULTANTS BUREAU Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 SOVIET ATOMIC ENERGY -~ , . ~ . Soviet Atomic Energy is acover-to-cover translation of Atomnaya Energiya, a publication, of the Academy of Sciences;of the USSR. An arrange~ment~witf~"`Mezhdunarod`naya Kniga, the Soviet book " export agency, makes available both advance copies of the Rus- Sian journal and original glossy .photographs and artwork. Thais serves to decrease the necessary tune lag between' publication :of the original arld publication of the translation and helps to im= ~ ` prove th?e,quality of the latter,"theltranslation began with the first , issue of,the Rus'sia:n journal ~ ~ ~ ' . .~ 1 Editorial Board of Atomnaya Energiya: f ,?, , j . .Editor; M: D: Millionshchikov . ,~ Deputy Director, Ihstitute of; Atomic Energy ? ? ? irr{eni I. V. Kurchatov' Acadefny of.Sciences~of the USSR ., tvloscow, USSR , ,/ , s , Associate Editors: N. A. Kol"okol'tsov,,~ . N._A.?Vlasov A. I. Aiikhanov A. A. ?Bochvar 1 sec, 0.5 < ~ < 1 and, consequently, l /Tt ~13< 10'2 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 aA[1-Re~(jw)](1 ~ o-e-?a cos?c~)-}-[w-ImcU(jw)](w~--e-?a sin ?w) a 1-cos w -0 [1-Re~()w)I2-I-[w-ImcD(Iw)]2 + -?6( !a )- ~ (17) aA [1- Re ~ (ice)] (~-fie-?a sin ?w)- [w-Im ~ (iw)l (1-f-v-e-?6 cos ?ca) + w + e-?Q Sin ?w = 0, where the real parameter w takes all positive values, from 0 to infinity. In. addition to the D-curve (17~ the D-sub- division itself includes the singular-curve - ~? ?? - . ? ~ . corresponding to the value w= 0. It is obvious that the singular curve lies outside the region a > 0, ? >_0, since in this region 1 + a -e?? > 0. We shall show that the D-curve is also located outside this region: Let us consider Eq. (17). Depending on the actual values of ?, a and w, four cases are possible: w -{- a-uQ s in ?w ~ 0. } In view of expression (15), 1-Re~(jw) > 0 and, consequently, it is not possible to satisfy Eq. (17) simultaneously in any of the four cases. This means that if the inequalities (19) have identical sense, the first. equation of (17) will not be satisfied; if the inequalities of (19) have opposite sense, then the second equation of (17) will not be satisfied. Thus, neither the singular straight line (18) nor the D-curve (17) lies in the region of? >_ 0, a > 0. Consequently, for proof of the stability of the unit, it is sufficient to show that all the roots of the characteristic Eq. (14) have negative real parts at any single point of the' region ? >_ 0, a ,> 0. We choose as an example the point with the coordinates ? = 0 (a is some positive number). In this case, the characteristic Eq. (14) will have the form P~-1-cD(P) Let us assume the contrary: suppose that Eq. (20) has roots with a positive real part and that p = u + j u is one of these roots (Rep = u > 0). We substitute p = u +jv in Eq. (20) and we separate the imaginary and real parts. As a result we obtain the system of identities: where U=aA u-{-1-Re~(u-{-jv) [u~-1-Re @ (u-f-1v)]2-~-[v-Imp (u~-Iv)]2 , V=aA -v-f-Im~(u-{-jv) [u-{-1-Re ~ (u-}- jv)]2+[v-Imcp (u+jv)]2 . According to inequality (16), U > 0 and, consequently, the left-hand sides in Eq. (21) are always positive. This latter shows that whatever be the signs of v and V, it is not possible to satisfy simultaneously the identities of (21 ). Consequently, the characteristic Eq. (20) has no root with a positive real part and. the point of the ? , a plane which we selected belongs to the region of stability. Thus, stability over a small region is proved. Reactor without Delayed Neutrons The resulting (nonlinear) system in this limiting case has the form: ~1 . dt _ dz di =zin-z-}=ay. It is easy to demonstrate here the stability of the unit being considered in relation to arbitrary deviations of the variables from the equilibrium state, i. e., overall stability. We compile the transfer constant G(p) from power to reactivity, taken with the reverse sign. To an accuracy of up to constant positive coefficients G (P) = 1 p -{-1- cD (P) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 According to the Velton-Smets criterion [10], it is sufficient for. stability of the reactor that Re G (jw) ~ 0 for all values of c,~ ~ 0. After substituting p = jw in Eq. (24), we obtain Re G (~ 1-Re ~ (jw) (1 )=[1-Re~(I~)l2-!-[c~-lrrcQ~(j~)]2>O by virtue of Eq. (15). Consequently, overall stability is proved. The author thanks N. A. Zheleztsova and E. F. Sabaeva for critical comments and interest in this work. (25) 1. W. Ergen, J. Appl. Phys., 25, 6, 702 (1954). 2. W. Ergen and A. Weinberg, Physica, 20, 7, 413 (1954). 3. J? Fleck, BNL-357 (1.955). 4. R. Figueuredo, Report No. 1815, presented at the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [Russian translation] (Geneva, 1958). 5. Yu. R. Kharper, Basic principles of fission reactors, Chapter 10 [in Russian], Moscow, Gosatomizdat (1963). 6. M. A. Schultz, Control of nuclear reactors and power plants, McGraw-Hill (1961). 7. B. N. Devyatov,. Dokl. AN SSSR, 130, 68 (1960). 8. A. B. Vasil'eva and V. F. Butuzov, in the collection "Numerical methods of solving differential and integral equations and quadrature formulas [in Russian], Moscow, Nauka (1964). 9. Yu. I. Neimark, Stability of linearized systems [in Russian], Leningrad Air Force Engineering Academy, Leningrad (1949). 10. H. Smets, J. Appl. Phys., 30, 1623 (1959). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 The aircraft Kanchenjanga crushed on the slopes of Mt. Blanc on January 24 of this year. There were no. survivors. Several days earlier the renowned Indian physicist Homi Jehangir Bhabha, on his way to a meeting of the scientific consultative council of the International Atomic Energy Agency, had changed his ticket from a January 22 flight to a January 24 flight ... Who is capable of predicting his own fate ? Homi Bhabha was among the victims of the tragedy occurring on the slopes of Mt. Blanc. News of his death profoundly moved all of us who had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with this out- standing man, talented physicist, prominent organizer of India's atomic science program, consistent fighter for the peaceful uses of atomic energy,. and profound and able connoisseur of literature, sculpture, and music. The mutual acquaintance of Soviet physicists and Homi Bhabha was by written word at the beginning. In 1937 he published, jointly with W. Heitler, work on the cascade theory of electron-photon showers in cosmic rays [1-3]. This theory became the basic theory for understanding the behavior of the soft component of cosmic radiation. Other contributions by Homi Bhabha dealt with a topic of high current interest, the theory of mesons and particles with higher-order spins [4-6]. He was the first to-point out the fact that a moving meson has a longer lifetime than a meson at rest. The famous "twin paradox" of Einstein's relativity theory was carried over from the realm of theoretical abstraction to phenomena observed in reality. Only very recently, physicists of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research returned to a work of Homi Bhabha [7] in their study of the structure of the meson, to gain insight on the scattering of particles of spin t/2 by particles of spin 0. The scientific achievements of Homi Bhabha were given their due when he was elected member of the British Royal Society (1941), and honorary member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1957). He was awarded the Adams prize (1942) and the Hopkins prize (1948). In the post-war period, Homi Bhabha distinguished himself as an outstanding organizer of Indian atomic science and engineering. This was a turning point in the development of physics when the scale of physical experi- ment underwent a transition from the scale of the laboratory bench to the scale of modern reactors and accelerators, and the staffs of physics institutes expanded from several dozen members to many hundreds and even thousands. Homi Bhabha correctly evaluated the significance of this turning point and was convinced that his own home- land was capable of playing its part creatively in the contemporary scientific and technical revolution. When one of the public officials responsible for atomic science attempted to prove the impossibility of the developing countries mastering atomic science and engineering before traditional and older stages of science and engineering had been developed, Homi Bhabha protested .vigorously against this variety of shortsighted snobbism. The Institute of Fundamental Research was founded in Bombay in 1945 on the initiative of Homi Bhabha. Characteristic traits of the initiator of the institute are manifested in the style of the institute. The institute is not only equipped with modern instrumentation, but is embellished with modern literature and sculpture in a delicate and tasteful manner. Art and science, combined here by the deliberate design of Homi Bhabha, serve to create an atmosphere of intellectual culture on a high level. Not far from Bombay Homi Bhabha founded a second center, the atomic center of Trombay, which he viewed as providing a foundation for the development of India's nuclear power program. In this "Sturm and Drang" period of post-war atomic science and inc]ustry, I had the opportunity to become personally acquainted with Homi Bhabha who twice visited the World's First Nuclear Power Station at Obninsk following the visits of Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi. In 1955, Homi Bhabha chaired the first international Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 7-8, July, 1966 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy at Geneva, where the leading nations informed the world of their achieve- ments in the development of atomic power. It was then for the first time that the veil of secrecy surrounding the work of atomic scientisu was lifted arid that these scientists, already grown accustomed to lack of communication with each other, found to their surprise that scientific truth, like gold, is the same no matter in what part of the earth it is mined. At that time Homi Bhabha represented a country in which most of the necessary power was furnished by human labor and buffalo. What was it that placed Homi Bhabha in the chairman's seat at the famous 1955 conference? My. feeling is that the basis for the deep respect accorded to Homi Bhabha was his profound faith that the great conquest of human intellect-the mastery of the fission chain"reaction in uranium and plutonium-will be used only for the welfare of mankind, and not for war, destruction and annihilation. Homi Bhabha remarxed more than once that India "has the know-how to make an atomic bomb, and has the necessary materials, but will not use them for this purpose." Even at the first Geneva conference, Homi Bhabha expressed his conviction that in the not too distant future mankind will be in possession of an almost inexhaustible source of energy-the energy of thermonuclear fusion. Now we are less optimistic about that, but work is proceeding ahead, the search is being continued, and it would be incorrect to think that these hopes must be abandoned. Homi Bhabha's profound faith in the high purpose of science, his conviction in the triumph of reason, clearly flowed from the fortunate combination Hof high level of scientific culture and the traditional spirit of Indian wisdom, a humanistic and peace loving wisdom which gave birth to the famous "Panch sila" principles. Homi Bhabha had a deep understanding of the fact that the end does not justify the means. There are bounds beyond which the means will destroy the very essence of the end. The use of atomic weaponry is just such a means, no matter how "important" or how "noble" the ends. Homi Bhabha took an active part in the work of international organizations. He was a member of the scientific consultative council of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), where he actively defended the interests of the developing nations. For several years he headed the Presidium of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). As President of this body, Homi Bhabha exercized great tact in combining the interests of persons representing different nations, different political systems, and different races. It was always a pleasure to me to see in him. the prototype of the man of the future, with a deep understanding of the interests of mankind and a capability of standing above the temporary but tragic bounds which separate mankind today. We shall always retain a shining memory of Homi Bhabha. This article was reprinted from Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk 89, No. 1, 173 (1966). 1. LITERATURE CITED H. J. Bhabha and W. Hettler, Proc. Roy. Soc., A 159, 432 (1936). 2. H. J. Bhabha and S. K. Chakrabarty. Proc. Ind. Sci., A15, 464 (1942). 3. H. J. Bhabha and S. K. Chakrabarty, Phys. Rev., 74, 1352 (1948). 4. H. J. Bhabha, Proc. Roy. Soc., A166, 501 (1938). 5. H. J. Bhabha, Rev. Mod. Phys, 17, 200 (1945). 6. H. J. Bhabha, Phil. Mag., 43, 33 (1952). 7. H. J. Bhabha. Proc. Roy. Soc., A164, 257 (1958). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 A function is derived from the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors that can be used in the deter- mination of the variation of the multiplication coefficient if the variation of the neutron density is known, and also in the derivation of the law of variation of the multiplication coefficient that will yield a given variation of the neutron density. It is known [1] that the dynamics of the processes taking place in nuclear reactors are governed by the kinetic equations N do Keff -1-Keff n ~,?c? at - t +~i = =+S~ i=1 dtL = -~z Keff n- ~tct (i =1, 2, 3, ... , N), where n (t) is the neutron density, ci (t) and ~i are the concentration and decay constant of the radiators of delayed neutrons of the ith group, i; Bi is the field of the delayed neutrons of thei-.thgroup, is S and ~ Si is the total i , field of delayed neutrons, l is the mean life of prompt neutrons, Keff is the effective multiplication coefficient of the neutrons, and s(t) is the strength of extraneous neutron sources. The kinetic equations are usually solved to determine the law of variation of neutron density if the multiplica- tioncoefficient varies according to a given law, i. e., a functional n {Keff (t)} is found. It is of interest to find the functional Keff {n(t)} which can be used: 1) for 'the determination of Keff when the neutron density is known for all preceding times; 2)in the planning of optimum systems of automatic control to-find the law of variation of Keff for which n(t) varies according to a given law ns(t); 3)in the determination of the characteristics of the executive mechanisms and of the absorbing rods ensuring a. given law of variation of the neutron density. The problem of finding the functional Keff { n(t)} is posed and solved in [1] for linearized kinetic equations. In [2] this problem is solved for a special case (considered below), but the method used cannot be employed to find the desired functional for l = const. In the present work we give a complete solution of the problem. We consider a reactor controlled by influencing the absorption or dissipation of neutrons. In this case, as shown in [3], Z is not constant but depends on Keff Z = AKeff where the generation time A is constant. The values of A and l are identical in the critical case. If this expression for l and the reactivity Keff -1 ~ Keff ' are used, relations (1) and (2) yield N do e-~ n + ~1 ~i~Z ~ s~ at - A L ati - ~i n - 7~ici (i =1, 2, 3, ... , N). W e assume that the reactor is in equilibrium fort < 0, i. e., Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 9-13, July, 1966. Original article submitted November 20, 1965; revised February 2, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 -0,025 plt) 0,75 - 0,05 0,5 -0,075 - 0,25 /zrt~ ' n 4 there is in general no analytic solution,altho.ugh we can find a solution with any desired degree of accuracy. Numer- ical solution is not required in practice, however, since if we use the fact that S ? 1 we can determine the functional analytically with sufficient accuracy. Infact, if we neglect terms of the order of S compared with unity in (16) and (1,7), we can obtain the.,relation N t 4K (t)= n(t) ~l ~ dt -S/ ~"~ ~t ~ dr exp[-7~i(t-~c)]di~ i=1 0 after some transformations, To find the next term in the expansion in powers of S> we leave out the constant component and introduce a correction function. This operation yields an expression for ~ (t) with a precision up to terms of the order S: N ~ (t) ? (1 + ~) S (t) -. ~ ~,~t exp [ =7~it]. (21) i=1 Formulas (19) and (21) coincide in the single-group approximation. Substituting the expression (21) for ap(t) in (17), we obtain-the following formula with the same accuracy: N t' .,K (t) = n (t) ~l (1-~ ~) ~ at - s) ~-- l ~' ~~~t ~ s (i) exp [ - ~i (t -'c)] d~c i=1 0 t N N + ~ d~ { ~ ~t exp [ -7~L (t -z)] [ 1-}- ~-~r~t (t-t)-~ ~k ~k+~a -ta;i ] }d~r 0 i=1 k~i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 N + ~ (1 + Tito) {1-exp [ - \~i t + o/tiJ~ X exp [ - ~i (t = ti) l , i=1 t < 0; OGt TK, then the resultant rate of condensation is given by formula b'm = fi 1 (nr)y-~ - n1oo (TH) l + 2 f2 (n2)y=0 - n2oo (TK) IL 2nm 1 4nm ~kT x ~k7 Ec ft =~2aai fz= )zaaz (see [6, 7]) (14') In the particular case when al = 1 and a2 = 0, we have f t = 2; f 2 = 0, and i+- qm=2 lnm kT'rc In the derivation of (14), (14") and (32) (vide infra) we assume for simplicity that (T~ ~ ,/ TK . If gm?gm max? the error due to this approximation is small. Diatomic vapor molecules, brought to the condensate surface by con- vection currents in the vapor. are reflected from the condensate surface and diffuse in the opposite direction to the convection current. The concentration of diatomic molecules in the vapor therefore decreases with increasing distance y from the condensate surface, and when y -> ~ it tends to the equilibrium concentration n2~ (Tn?o), which depends on the temperature of the saturated vapor at an infinite distance from the condensate surface. (Fig. 2). The concentration of diatomic molecules near the condensate surface is higher than the equilibrium concentration n2~ (Tn,~, and therefore endothermic dissociation of diatomic molecules will take place in the vapor phase, causing supercooling of the vapor. During evaporation, the concentration of diatomic molecules in the vapor increases with increasing distance from the liquid surface, tending towards the equilibriui concentration n2~ .Since the concentration of diatomic molecules near the liquid surface is lower than the equilibrium value, dimerization must occur in the vapor near the evaporating liquid. The heat liberated by this reaction superheats the vapor. Thus, in the scheme adopted, there must be a positive temperature gradient in the vapor during evaporation. As shown by the solution to the diffusion problem which we shall give below, the dimensions of the region in which the main concentration and temperature changes occur depend on the temperature of the saturated vapor and the direction and magnitude of the resultant mass transfer flux qm. For example, for sodium with saturated vapor at 773? K and evaporation rate qm = 1.5 ? 1020. atoms/cm2 ? sec (thermal flux q = 233 kw/m2), the. size of this region is of order 10 cm. Note that the boundary conditions are not used in the derivation of this size. It is therefore independent of the absolute value of a2. The distribution of the diatomic-molecule concentration can be found by solving one of the differential equations Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 t i~ i- D1 d2 2 ~ wl do ~ do ~~ dy dy dt d2nz dnZ dnz Dz dy2 ~ wz dy ~-- dt - 0 using the condition that the total pressure is constant at all points in the vapor phase: Po = Pi -I- Pz = n1kT -{- nzkT = nokT = const, n! --~ nz = no = const. The lower (minus) sign attached to the convective term in (15).and (16) the case of evaporation. Hence we find dnt _ -dnz dy dy (18) Substituting from (18) into (15) and remembering that ~T1= - 2 dz , we find that D, `~ry? _~ w, `Gay -}- 2 ~dt = 0. (l s) Let us now write down the boundary conditions for (16). When y = 0 there is no resultant flux of diatomic molecules through the phase interface, because the coefficient of condensation of diatomic molecules a2 = 0. It follows that the convective flux of diatomic molecules must, when y = 0, be equal to the diffusion flux of diatomic molecules flowing in the opposite direction, i. e., dnZ1 -I- w2 (nz)y=o . Dz dy Ju=o? (20) The convection velocity wz is found from. the condition that the resultant mass flux qm (atoms/cmz ? sec) is constant for all points in the vapor space, -?- D, ~yi f 2Dz dy -{- wlnr ~-- 2wznz = q,~ = const. (21) Using (17) and (18), and remembering that Dl = 2Dz and that wt = 2wz, we can simplify (21 ): 2wzno = qm = cotrst, (22) whence The second boundary condition is Thus we have to solve the equation 4m.. - wz = 2n - const. 0 nz ~ nz~ (Tn~) when y ~ oo . D2 d? 22 ~ w2 dn2 +dn2 ` O dy dy di with boundary conditions (20) and (24). We linearize (25), using (9). We get den u;Z do B dy2 ~ Dz ? d y -}- Dc n = 0. r d 3 lli~ \ .y ~ lli~ J i d,-~2 I ~i;r ~nl - n-~ n2n1J I }n2-nz~ _ ~'r L `~nloo T nz (nlao-nZoo) ll L Expression (26) corresponds to the characteristic equation 1 12 u; 1 B Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 1_ w2 w2 2 B ~ 1 w2 w2 2 B l1 - ~ 2Dz+ ~(2Dz) Dz ~ ~' lz. - ~ 2Dz C2Dz) . Dz . The general solution of (26) is of the form When y -- ~, ny --> nZ,~ and n -? 0, so that Cl = 0 and n = CZ ey/lz, or, returning to~our previous notation, nz-naw = CZeY/lx. When y = 0, (nz)y = o -nt ~ = CZ and nz-nz??= ~(nz)y=o -nzro] ev/12. Differentiating (29), But, according to (20), dn2 _ 1 ~ dy I(nz)y=o - nz??] lz ey/ a it dy y=o=[(nz)y=o-nz~] l 2 dr.L 1 w2 (nz)y-p C dg / r=o - ~ Dz ? n~~ y=~ = f ~ wzl~ Dz (lz < ~) From the constant-pressure condition (17) it follows that n1~ (Tn~) - (ni)p=o =_ (nz)~=o - nz~ (7'?~). Onph = n1~ (T,,~) - (no)r=o, ~n~, _ (ni)y=o - n1~ (Tx); ~IPh _ (%',~),~=o - Tt;, ~n = Ondc -I-- Onp~ n1~ (T,~~) - n1.,, (T?), 4T = ~Tdc -~ 4Tph. The subscript do denotes quantities associated with the diffusion-chemical resistance. The relative concentration difference arising from the phase transition can be found from (14" ): 4m Lnm q?z '/ 2tcnz On ~ _ ~ 2 ~ kTx ,~ f 2 V kTn~ ' (32) Knowing nl,~ as a function ofTao (see the table) we easily go from the concentration differences to the con?e- sponding temperature differences. For the case of condensation and evaporation of sodium with condensation (evaporation) rate qm = 1.5 ? l O20 atoms/cmz ? sec (thermal flux q = 233 kw/m2) we calculated the concentration differences ~trdc, anph, and On, and the corresponding temperature differences OTdc, GTph, and DT. The table gives the initial data and the course and results of this calculation. The diffusion-chemical resistance depends markedly on the kinetics of the dimerization reaction. Unfortun- ately, we have no data on the kinetics of this reaction or on the possible variation of a2 with the degree of deviation from equilibrium, qm/qm maxi the changes of liquid structure with temperature, and other factors unknown to us, and so were unable to analyse this process in more detail. Nevertheless, we can assert that at pressures near to atmospheric the coefficient of heat transfer is very large (more than 150 kw/mz ? deg), even allowing for diffusion-chemical resistance (of course, in the absence of impurities, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 non-condensing gases and other extraneous factors hindering heat transfer). From the table it will be seen that for the chosen scheme of evaporation (a2 = 0) the diffusion-chemical resistance must increase with decreasing saturated vapor pressure. This is explained by the sharp retardation of the chemical reaction which occurs when the pressure is reduced. However, measurements [9] of the temperature field in the vapor near the condensate surfaces of con- densing potassium and sodium have shown that at low pressures (1-100 mm Hg) there is no diffusion-chemical resistance, despite the fact that there are quite a lot of diatomic molecules (1-12%) at these pressures. In this pressure range, much sinallei' amounts of non-condensing gas (argon) give a diffusion resistance which exceeds the phase-transition resistance by a factor of ten, and leads to the appearance of a temperature gradient in . the layer of vapor near the liquid surface. Such gradients weie measured by the present authors in experiments on the condensation of mercury and the alkali metals. The absence of diffusion-chemical resistance for pure vapor at low pressures shows that at these pressures the coefficient of condensation of the diatomic molecules is close tbunity: At low pressures evaporation proceeds via libera'tiori from the liquid surface of monatomic as well as diatomic molecules. If the accepted scheme of evaporation, which entails dimerization in the vapor, is correct for high pressures, there must .be a transitional region in which qq changes from zero to unity. 1. Symposium: "Liquid Metal Heat-Transfer Agents," translated under the editorship of A. E. Sheindlin, Moscow, Izd. inostr..lit. (1958). 2. E. L`. Shpil'rain and E. I. Asinovskii, Inzh.-fiz. zh., V, No. 4 (1962). 3. F. Metzger and E. Miescher, Helv. phys. acta, 16, 205, 323 (1943). 4. O. Knacke and I. Stranski, Progr. Metal. Phys., 6, 181 (1956). 5. Ya. B. Zel'dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Pheno- mena, Moscow, Fizmatgiz (1963), p. 285. 6. R. Ya. Kucherov, and L. E. Rikenglaz, ZhETF, 37, No. 1 (1959). 7. R. Ya. Kucherov and L. E. Rikenglaz, Dokl. AN SSSR, 133, No. 5 (1960). 8. V. I. Subbotin et a1.,Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur> 2, No. 4 (1964). -All abbreviations of periodicals in the at,ove bibliography are letter-by-letter translitera- tions of the abbreviations as given in the original Russian journal. Some or all of this peri- odical literature may well be available in English translation. A complete list of the cover-to- cover English translations appears at the back of the first issue of this year. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 THERMAL DEFORMATION OF FUEL ELEMENTS E. Ya. Safronov, B. A. Briskman, UDC 621.039.548 V. D. Bondarev, and V. S. Shishov The authors calculate the temperature drops in the walls of cassette-.type fuel elements under neutron fluxes with radial gradients. The thermal deformations of the walls are measured in the working range of temperature drops. In the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, together with their reflectors and control or compensating rods, there arises a radial neutron-flux gradient due to splashing in the reflector or neutron absorption in the rods. Simultane- ously there is created a radial gradient of heat emission in the fuel element; for constant heat removal at the cir- cumference of the fuel element, this leads to the appearance of a radial temperature drop which causes thermal deformation of the casing (1]. For complex fuel-element geometry, it is very difficult to calculate the deformation, and therefore practically the only method of determining the deformation in such cases is the use of experiment. ? To widen the scope of our ideas on the operation of fuel elements of a -model cassette-type ftiel element of hexagonal cross section. Analytical Determination of Temperature Drops we have studied the thermal deformation The calculation is performed for an external hexagonal casing in the form of a thin plate. Let us write down the equation of thermal conductivity for a thin plate (one-dimensional problem) with an internal heat source: a2T 4v __ axe -I- ~ 0. (1) aT _ C ax x=0 ~' (5) Fig. 1. Diagram of working section. 1)Water; 2) current busbars; 3) rubber sheath; ~ 4) indicators; 5) ebonite manifold. Qvl = gvmin [ 1 -~ L (n - 1) J (we are taking a linear heat-emission gradient); and where n is the degree of non-uniformity of heat emission, L is the semiperimeter of the model fuel-element casing, ~ is the coefficient of thermal conductivity, a is the .coefficient of heat transfer from the wall to the water, gvmin is the minimum rate of heat emission, to is the mean temperature of the cooling water, S/V is the surface-to-volume ratio, and T is the temper- ature of the casing. "Some experimental results on deformation of model fuel ele- ments, obtained at the affiliated branch of the A. I. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Leningrad, were available to the authors of the present article. Translated from Atomnaya ~nergiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 22-26, July, 1966. Original article submitted November 17, 1965. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 S, mmi 0, 7 4 / ~ 4 3 ~ 2 1 x / n ?~ Fig. 2. Deflection versus temperature drop between faces 4 and 3 half-way up the fuel element. (1)-(6): Numbers of faces. )Outer casing of fuel element; ---=-- ~ inner casing of fuel element, face 4. Experi- mental results: O, )Face 4 for outer and inner casing, respectively; 0)face 1; x)face 3; ).face 2. 4 3 1 / 4~ i S` ~~~ ~j ?' \ \\ 70 20 30 40 50 Height? of fuel element, cm Fig. 3. Distribution of deformation over height of fuel B2 = 2 ~8 . element. (1)-(4) Numbers of faces. ) 4t= - For the range of heat emissions studied, ~To 24.2 ?C; ----- ) ~t = 14 ?C. Notation of experi- varies from 12.5 to 20.2 ?C when n = 1.5, and from mental points: same as for Fig. 2. 25 to 40.4 ?C when n = 2. From what has been said, it follows that the thermal deformation of the model fuel element must be studied for temperature drops up to 40? C. With constant coefficient of heat transfer a across the gap, the maximum tempera- ture drop must occur in the outer casing. However, since the inrier casing has lower rigidity, the point of maximum drop does not necessarily coincide with that of maximum deformation. Thus'the deformation must be measured both for the external jacket and for a possibly greater number of internal jackets. Since the model is an exact copy, we can quite correctly transfer our results to the prototype fuel element. Figure 1 is a diagram of the experimental equipment. The model was heated by direct current from an AND- 5000/2500 set (nominal power 30 kw). The model was cooled by means of circulating water. To create the required temperature drop, the model was divided into two halves in cross section, one cooled and one not cooled. The head and foot of the model were of ebonite. The water pipes were so arranged as to cool the current leads as well as the model. The current busbars were made of packets of 0.5 mm thick copper foil, sufficiently flexible to eliminate any influence on the rigidity of the model. uT C ~x )x-L - then (1) has the solution , ~`-4(n-1)b_4(n-1)S, eBL-1 2a LaB eBL+1 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 a b? c S 2 6 4 2 4 2 S 1 5 'S5? 3 1 t=85?C 3 1 t= 16,5 C 173 C 7?C 27?C 21 ?C Fig. 5. Distribution of deformation round perimeter of fuel element. Points at which deflection was measured (a) Lower cross section; (b) central cross section; (c) upper cross section. Positive deforma- tions refer to the inner casing, negative deformations to the outer casing. De- formation of inner casing refers to Ot for outer casing. m a b~ ~~- 0 8 , ~ ~, ~ i ~/ f - Q6 i i d: ~~~ \~ ~,i i 04 ~ ~ _ e_~~ _ ~ ~i _~ --- - 0,2 ~~s , O f 6 5 4 1 e 3 Number of 0,2 face b 0 4 , a 9 s ~ , Fig. 4. Distributions of temperature and deflection in central cross section of fuel element, round the peri- meter. )Deflection of fuel element; - -- ~_.) temperature distribution. Curves with the same letter were measured in the same experiment. Designation of experimental points: same as Fig. 2. measurements were made so as to record the generator temperature drop and current strength:) The casings were welded together alternately in the upper and lower parts of the assembly, so that by connecting them in series the total electric resistance should be as large as possible. The resistance of the model was 3.7 ? 10-4 ohm at t = 0 ?C. The fastening of the lower end of the model was exactly the same as the attachment of the fuel ele- ment in the support grid of the separator. The upper part was fixed down with special bolts allowing for free movement in a vertical direction. In a slot in the base was a slidebar to which were attached the gauges (type ICh, scale division 0.01 mm) for the deformation measurements. The depth of camber was measured for each face of the model. The wall temperature was measured by means of 15 chromel-copel thermocouples of dia- meter 0.4 mm arranged in three cross sections at differ- ent heights. Experimental Method When conditions (as read on a recording device) were steady, we measured the temperatures, defom~a- tions and voltage drops ~U in the model. (The ~U currents in order to calculate the relation between the Owing to the comparatively high temperature coefficient of the resistance, the current in the model's peri- phery changed quite appreciably (with the temperature drop). In these conditions, the current strength J through the model was given by L J- 0U dz 2LRo ~ 1-{- ~t (x) 0 Ro the resistance of the casing at 0 ?C, and t(x) the In the actual conditions we took as an approximate valve of the integral the expression where S is the' temperature coefficient of the resistance in ?C measured temperature distribution on the periphery. 0, 6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 8 ,r ev 1 'j'".12Ro ~ i+~ti t=~ We made a spot check on the use of (9) to evaluate the integral in (8), by planimetry of the curve 1/[1 + R t(x)]: the error made by using (9) was less than 2?Jo, f The apparatus was constructed so as to allow measurement of the deformation of the first internal casing on the uncooled side. For this purpose, after a series of Fig. 6. Cross section of fuel tests on thedeformation.of the external casing on the uncooled side, sets of three element. 1-6; numbers of holes were drilled on the axes of the faces at the three heights at which the measure- faces. ments had been made. Repeat measurements in the same conditions, made in order to test for changes of rigidity of the outer casing due to the drilling, showed that there were no appreciable changes in the deformations. We made simultaneous measurements of the deformation of the outer casing (on the cooled side) and the inner casing (on the uncooled side) under various conditions. As no temperature measurements were made on the inner casing, the temperature drops were determined by calculation in this case (see Appendix). The appropriate curves were constructed from the calculated relation between the temperature drop and the current strength. The results of the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for the external casing (et =12?C for J = 3500 A, Dt = 21?C for J = 4500 A ). The cal- culated results could thus be regarded as trustworthy and could be used for determining the temperature drop in the inner casing. In practice, the curves of Ot versus J were almost the same for both casings; this is explained by the fact that the greater heat emission for the internal case was compensated for by the smaller distance between. .opposite faces of the casing, i. e., the corresponding reduction in thermal resistance to heat flux from the uncooled to the cooled section. Discussion of Results The results of the deformation measurements are plotted in Figs. 2-5. Figure 2 plots the deflection of the wall, S, in mm, versus Ot, in ?C, for the cross section halfway up the model. Figure 3 shows the variation of the deflection with height for the various faces of the model. Figure 4 shows the deflection around the perimeter of the casing half-way up the model, for various values of Ot. It also gives the corresponding temperature curves. Figure 5 gives the results of the simultaneous measurements on the internal and external casings for various cross sections around the perimeter for various values of Ot. The straight lines in Fig. 2 were obtained by processing the experimental results by the method of least squares [2]. This figure also gives the relation between Sand Ot for the internal casing at the middle cross section, face 4. As seen from this graph, in the range of Ot under examination, the deformation of the inner casing was about 20% greater than that of the corresponding face of the outer casing, i. e., the inner casing was less rigid than. the outer one. It should be noted that in the prototype the specific heat emission in the inner casings is practically equal to that in the outer ones, while the temperature drop is less. In the experimental apparatus the current strength was the same in both casings (which were connected in series), and therefore the specific heat emission in the inner casing was the higher, although the temperature drops obtained were practically the same. It must be pointed out that the two opposing factors-reduction in rigidity and decrease in temperature drop for the internal casing-compensated each other to some extent, and therefore the deformations of the external and internal casings should be approximately equal. In actual fact, the values of OT calculated from (7) confirm the present authors' assumptions. As will be seen from Fig. 2, in the region plotted there is no tendency for the curve of S versus Ot to deviate from linearity, i. e., it is possible to extrapolate to the neighboring regions. From Fig. 3 it is seen that there is a certain asymmetry in the distribution of deformation with height of the model. This is due to the different possible ways of fastening the model (two degrees of freedom at the upperattach- ment and one at the lower),. which are also characteristic of the fastening of a fuel element in the reactor. The deformation and temperature distributions round the central perimeter of the outer casing, shown in Fig. 4, show that the corresponding temperature and deformation profiles are symmetrical; as ~tdecreasesthecorresponding profiles become smoothed out. The rigidity nodes (points of zero deformation) approximately coincide with the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 boundaries of the cooled and uncooled halves. The scatter for varying Ot of the points corresponding to the rigidity nodes is due to inaccurate setting of the gauges on the central axes of the faces. This error is characteristic of the temperature curves. In this case a specially large error can occur for faces 6, 1, 5, and 2, because the derivative dt/dx is a maximum on the joints between the cooled and uncooled parts. In conclusion, we must note that all the deformations were elastic. 1. W e have devised a method of simultaneous measurement of the thermal deformation of the different casings of a model cassette-type fuel element. 2. W e have obtained calculated data on the temperature drops in fuel elements as functions of the magnitude and degree of non-uniformity of the heat emission. 3. We found that with temperature drops of ~ 25? C the maximum deflection in the central cross section is 0.6-0.7 mm. 4. W e derived theoretical formulae for the temperature drop in terms of the current strength for an electrically- heated assembly (allowing for the temperature dependence of the ohmic resistance). 5. Since the gaps between the casings are small, the deformations obtained are very substantial, and show that the deformation behavior of a fuel element in a reactor must be studied (in theoretical and experimental re- search on heat transfer in the distorted cell). It is quite probable that temperature deformation of the fuel elements will be the factor limiting the power of a reactor. Appendix (calculation of relation between temperature drop and current strength) A solid hexagonal section of thickness S, height H, and perimeter 4L (where L is 3/z of the length of a side) is electrically heated by a current of strength J. The section is divided by an impermeable diaphragm (Fig. 6). Section I is cooled by air with heat-transfer coefficient cxl; section II is cooled by water with heat-transfer coefficient az. We are to determine the stationary temperature profile round the perimeter, given that H is infinitely large; the air temperature (mean) is t', the water temperature (mean) is t". We write down. the equation of thermal conduction for regions I and II: S 8 t 4v-ai y (t-t') 2 I. axe -}- ~ = 0, 8 t 4u-a2 V (t-t?) II. axe -}- ~ = 0. S 2 H ere V S -Let us write down the boundary conditions. 3 (cf. Fig. 6). Then (d t/a x)x = n = 0. At points e and f we must have We take the origins of coordinates for the two regions on ti = trrr x = ~ L; We introduce the notations A=(0.86 Ro/~)JZ, Ro = resistance of jacket at t = 0? C; 2 S1-A~ A~-2a1 8 z 2 S -A~ A-~-Laz b z al _ ~ az = ~ ; b1= ~ z = ~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 2 8 -A~ If ~ _ ~ ~ 0: ,the solution of (10) and (11) is /ai_b2 ~t = tp - tg = I ai bi a 28-AS while if ai = - , ~. 1 b~ sh b1I, + a1 ~ sh a1L b1 sh biL ' ch b1L ~- Qt ' sh a1L oh a1L. b1 sh b~L _ 1 a2 bZ ai ~ sh a1L ._ 1 Ot=tp-tg = 2 - C al bl b, sh b1L ctg aiL - ch b1L a1 The relations between ~t and J found from (12) and (13) have been confirmed by experiment. 1. A. Rapier and T. Jones,. J? Nucl: Energy, 19, A/B, 145 (1965). 2. R. S. Guter and B. V. Ovchinskii, Elements of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Processing of Experi- mental Data, Moscow, Fizmatgiz (1962). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 STUDY OF THE. SPECTRA AND DOSES CREATED IN THE IRON -WATER SHIELDING OF A MONOENERGETIC NEUTRON SOURCE O. A. Barsukov, V. S. Avzyanov, UDC 621.039.58:539.125.5 Many-group calculations were made for the penetration of neutrons, emitted from monoenergetic sources, through water, iron, andwater-iron systems of finite dimensions; the results of these cal- culations are presented. The neutron spectra resulting from the passage of such neutrons through water and iron shielding layers were calculated on the twenty-group diffusion-transport approxi- mation. Detailed attention was paid to the high-energy part of the spectrum; certain peculiarities in neutron migration and moderation processes in shielding of the type in question were elucidated. Dose curves D(r) were plotted for neutrons of various energies. By using the superposition principle, the results enable the neutron spectrum to be determined for sources having any arbitrary spectrum. Presentation of the Problem. and Method of Calculation In developing optimum neutron shielding it is important to know the structure of the inteinal neutron field. In order to solve this kind of problem, the real source, with its complex spectrum, may be replaced by a set of monoenergetic sources. This approach makes it possible to observe. some important effects which are difficult to observe when ?studying integral fluxes created by sources with complex spectra. Moreover the results obtained by studying the neutron distributions of monoenergetic sources are easy to interpret physically. The problem reduces to the consideration of a monoenergetic neutron source screened by a layer of finite thickness. The space-energydistribution of neutrons inside the shielding is found. The following shielding com- positions are considered: 1)water shielding 62 cm thick; b)iron shielding 62 cm thick; c~iron-watershielding, the iron forming an inner layer 10 cm thick. and the water forming an outer 52-cm layer. The basis of the calculations is a multi-group diffusion-transport approximation to the kinetic Boltzmann equation (1) where cp i is the integral neutron flux of the i-th group, Di is the diffusion coefficient, Ei is the neutron transfer cross section (i. e.> that characterizing capture and transition to lower groups), f i is a neutron source including (in general) both source neutrons and neutrons brought into the range of the group as aresult ofslowing-dowri processes. Energy Groups Group ~ M VgY range, I Group I Energy range, I 10,8- 9,8 XI 1,5 -1,1 MeV II 9,8- 9,4 XII 1,1 -55 keV III 9,4- 7,75 XIII 55 -28 keV IV 7,75- 7 XIV 28 -15 keV V 7- 6 XV 15 -6 kev VI 6- 5,45 XVI 6 -1,5 kev VII 5,45- 4,8 XVII 1,5 -450 eV VIII 4,8- 4 XVIII 450 -220 eV IX 4- 3,1 XIX 220 -6 eV X 3,1- 1,5 XX 6 -0,025 eV Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 27-35,-July, 1966. Original article submitted September 16, 1965; revised March 2, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 N,.rel. units 20 r, cm c: x X x x X Iron Water Fig. 1. Radial distribution of neutrons of various energies: A)In water; B)iniron-water shielding, a)First neutrons; b) neutrons with energies between 5 and 220 eV; c) neutrons with energies between 0.025 .and 5 eV; x , O) expeti- 10-' 10-r r=1C' T 20 30 x x x x~ x\ % 60. . x x x ~ x x x x x x x 10-P r=10 x 2G x x ~I x x 1 R x x x x x x x x Fig. 2. Neutron spectrum in water for a point source (a) and in iron for a plane source (b). (r is measured in cm.) The system of Eq. (1) was solved numerically by the method of differential factorization [1]. In order to allow for the transformation of the neutron spectrum arising from migration in nonmultiplying media, we used the method of successive approximations (iteration over the spectrum). The latter reduces to a refinement (with respect to a variable spectrum) of the group cross sections and group diffusion coefficients defining the constants of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 103 -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,6 -D,4 -Q2 0 Lethargy ~ ~ r= 2 8 14 0 0 yG' 0 2 4 6 E Lethargy b 6 8 10 12 14 16 Lethargy 104 103 8 10 12 14 16 18 Lethargy c Neutron spectrum in water. Source: a)In group I; b)in group-IX; c)in group XIV. (r is measured in cm.) difference equations [2]. The Fermi spectrum was taken as the original. The variation of the microscopic cross sections with energy and other neutron parameters were taken from [3- 6]. Data from these papers were used in setting up the matrix of elastic transitions in hydrogen and inelastic transitions in iron. The distribution of monoenergetic electrons from the source was determined by analytic solution of Eq. (1). This was due to the fact that there was a deviation from the exact solution of the diffusion equation when the method of differential factorization was used at large distances from a concentrated source. The analytic solution for a plane source in a homogeneous finite medium has the form ~_ ~r~ - QzLt . 2Di Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~ ~ ,~ 3 2 r. g 14 N 0 0 w ? 30 o ~ G -1,8 -1,6 -1,4 -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0 Lethargy . 10 f 103 a~~ lOs lOs 1e4 103 103 102 102 2 0 2 4 6 8 TO 12 14 16 18 0 2 Lethargy b r=2 8 ~\ 1 i I ~ ~ I\ ti 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Lethargy c Fig. 4. Neutron spectrum in iron. 'Source: a) In group I; b) in group IX; c) in group XIV. (r is measured m cm.), where Qi is the strength of the course in neutrons /cm~ ? sec, Li is the fictitious diffusion length of monoenergetic neutrons in cm, ai is the thickness of the shield, 'including the extrapolation length, and r is the distance from the source in cm. If, however, the source neutrons diffuse in'two adjacent layers of iron and water of finite thickness, the solution may be put in the form _ r r ~, 1r~ - QiFeLiFe Bi B LiFe + 1 gLiFe ~ iFe 2DiFe ~Bi-1 Bq- 1 ro t? Bi a 1'iFe + 1 e LiFe _ r _ i _ (2a r) ~r~ = QiFeLiFe . Bi- 1 Bq- 1 (e 1'iHZO -e L'iHgO t ~ . tHzO 2DiFe - r0 - 1 (2a, -rnl 1 e LiH2O - e LiH2O r=2 8 ~t ~ ti~ . ~~ ~. 7 2 4 6 8 10 l 2 J f 16 1 8 Lethargy r=1 8 14 20 30 40 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~~ dui 102 102 ~Fe 2' m ~~ c rs ~~ Z`R' ` \ ` p`"~ - , \ ,~ ~ f '~ 20cm ?~D ~'~ ,30~ m -1,8 -1,6 -1,4 -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 D 0 2 Lethargy 104 - - ~~ ~` r=~ cminFe - -- 1 2 cm 10 cm G,cm ~Qcrn 5 10 lOf 10'1 102 102 -1,2 -1,0 -Q8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0 0 2 Lethargy , 6' 8 IG 12 14 1C Lethargy 8 10 12 14 16 18 Lethargy 1~ , s O IOS /'=2;c 1 m 4 10 10 3 20/cm 10 Z 0, c m lO 5 8 10 1T 14 16 Lethargy Fig. 5. Neutron spectrum in the iron-water system. Source: a}ln group I; b)in group VII; c)in group IX. Here we have introduced the following notation 2(ai-ro) tai (DiFe + DzH2O ~ (DiFe DiHaO e LiH2O L `LiFe I'iH2O ~ - \ LfFe LiH2p Bi == 2 zFe .,,_ _ . . DiFe _ ~iHgO DiFe DiHzO 1 LiH2O e LiFe LiH2O / - \LiFe + LiH O a ro is the thickness of the first layer (Fe}; LiFe and cpiHZp are the fluxes of monoenergetic neutrons in the layers of iron and water respectively. ~/'=20 -- cm in -'~ H2O Z,~m ~_ ~ 10~m _ 20, cm ~ 30 cm ~ i 4a, \ .., ~ \ u ` ' _ r _ 2cm r 2 ~m "'Fe 10 ~fi 0 cm O ~ m Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 8 16 24 32 40 48 56r, cm a lo'' 0 16 24 31 40 4B 56 r, cm b D, mrad/h 10 2 10- 10~3 le'' 10_B I I 0 or G p ~G ~ ~ s ~ t, cQ',~ ~'' . LP ~ ~ I ~ G o J c ~p ~ O 0 ~io .r G -~ ~G L- 12 16 20 24 28r, cm c Fig. 6. Doses of neutrons of various energies in water. Source: a)In group I; b)in group LX; c)in group XIV. The calculation was made in plane geometry for twenty monoenergetic sources with strengths of 2 ? 106 neutrons/cm2 ? sec, embracing the energy range between 11 MeV and thermal energies (seeTable). The results of these calculations enable us to find the neutron distribution in other shield geometries also. The transformation from plane to spherical geometry (assuming apoint-source center) may be effected by means of the formula ~sph (r) 2:tL ? r tPpl ~~1) The transformation from plane to cylindrical geometry with a filamerit source at r = 0 is effected by means of the approximate relation ~Pcyl ~r~ ~ 1/2nL ~/r ~r~' where L is the diffusion length of the neutrons, and rp (r) is the neutron flux in the corresponding geometry. For deriving the latter relationship, an asymptotic expansion of the function ko is used [7]. We compared the calculated results with our own experimental data and the data of other authors. Figure 1 shows the radial distribution of neutrons with various energies emitted by a point Po-Be source in a sphere of water and in aniron-water:system. The theoretical curve agrees closely with the experimental data. Figure 2 a shows neutron spectra in water a't distances of 10, 20, 30, and 60 cm from the fission source. The continuous curves correspond to the neutron distributions obtained by the method of moments [8]. The crosses indicate the values calculated from the superposition principle on the basis of the results in the present paper. The spectra agree closely in the range E> 6 MeV. The discrepancies at low energies are due to leakage of the moder- ated neutrons, since in the second case the medium is finite. Figure 2b gives an analogous comparison between calculation and experimental data for iron [9]. The cal- culated spectrum is normalized to the experimental results for E = 4.8 to 5.45 MeV at a distance of 20 cm from the source. There is good agreement for r values of 10 and 20 cm. For r = 40 cm the calculated curve lies below the experimental. In all cases the calculated values exceed the experimental in the range En < 2 to 3 MeV; this is apparently due to the different geometries used in experiment and theory. The experimental and theoretical curves have the same general character. The comparison shows that the diffusion-transport approximation gives calculated values of practically accept- able accuracy, at least in a range up to 50 or 60 cm. o 'r ~~ w o? .iA~ o 7P N 7 '~~ ~ ~. ~r .. s ~i o ~ _ 'c '` ~ ~ ~ ~O ~P ~%- O c.~ O J `rs~ I +o ~ l ~ ~ ?Gi '~ ~G J Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 X/I!_ r r Xl~///g,ySS s e 2 ,ke f ~O :p? X/,Y-,Y {,l , er ~22p p ~p S " ~'~ ~~ ~~ r `' j ~ ~~ ~ Q I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~~ s J J 2r ~~ PJ `0G J i ~~' To ~ , ~/I~f~6'r taj7o is se O11k o I tJ a/. ~i ~ ~^~~ ~~r/11O O~~.J ,Sk " D PG J 0 8 16 24 32. 40 48 56 r,.cm c Fig. 7. Doses of neutrons of various energies in iron. Source: a)in group I; b)in group IX; c)in group XIV. D, mrad/h ,Total dose I I T tal d i o ose n wale XI/ g= \ (11-0,055 Me V j \ XIII XY//!gr(55-0, V) XIX -X X g = (220 -D, 025 e v ) 105 24 32 40 b Fig. 8. Doses of neutrons of various energies in the iron-water system. group IX. D, mrad/h \` -- - - ;To tal d ose \ T otal dose in wale \\X XIS=(3,1-;11 Me V I I /X (~ 31I M V (220-0,025ev) \ \ 111 XV/If a= \ (55-0,221keV) ~ ~ Xlbgr(1,1-0,0551Mev) \ 1 10 0 Source: a)in group I; b)in group VII; c)in Energy Spectra of Neutrons Emitted by Monoenergetic Sources The results of the calculations enable us to trace the transformation of the neutron spectra during migration in the compositions considered. Figures 3 to 5 show the energy spectra of neutrons for several monoenergetic sources situated in water, iron, and an iron-water system. Analysis of the histograms shows that the neutron spectrum has certain characteristic features in water (see Fig. 3, a, b, c; initial neutron energy 10 MeV, 4 MeV, and 20 keV respectively). In the high-energy range, even "In the histograms the middles of the energy ranges are connected together for clarity. In calculating lethargy, the standard energy is taken as E = 2 MeV. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 near the source, the spectrum passes from the monoenergetic to the continuous (and hence softer )type. The. inver- sion of the spectrum is maintained on further increasing r. For an initial energy below 1 MeV, the monoenergetic .source neutrons are absent even in the neighborhood of the source, which is explained by the effective slowing down of the neutrons at hydrogen nuclei. Analysis of histograms 4, a,b, c, shows that in-iron there is a considerable softening of the spectrum with in- creasing distance .from the source. The characteristic feature in the high-energy region (see Fig.4,a) is the dip in the curves over the range 6 to 7 MeV, later transforming into a high maximum at E < 1 MeV. This is due to the fact that, during the inelastic slowing-down processes, the neutrons pass into the intermediate-eriergy range, missing out the values E > 1 MeV. However, further slowing down of the neutrons at the iron nuclei takes place extremely slowly, in general as a result of elastic scattering. As a result of this, there is an accumulation of neutrons with energy E < 1 MeV. The neutron spectrum in the iron-water system is a peculiar superposition of those corresponding to homo- geneous iron and water shields and contains the characteristic features of both (see Fig. 5, a, b, c). For example, for a source in the first group (see -Fig. 5,a) and r = 2 cm (i. e., at a point within the iron layer), there is a dip in the spectral curve at 6 to 7 MeV. In this case, however, the minimum is less severe than in the case of homogeneous iron. This circumstance implies the development of a counterflow of neutrons with energies between 6 and 7 MeV in the two-layer system, moving from the water to the iron. Hence the effect of the water on the spectrum is even felt at this great depth in the iron. The leveling effect of the water rises`^still more with increasing r. Thus the curve for r = 10 cm (boundary point) is characterized by quite a small minimum in the range in question, while a long way from the iron, in the water (r = 20 cm ), the character of the histogram resembles the analogous distri- bution in water. In the case of a source in groups VII and IX (see Fig. 5, b, c) the histograms have smooth curves in the high- energy range, while in the low-energy part of the spectrum the curves are much the same as in the preceding case (see Fig. 5a). Effectiveness of Various Shielding Compositions The effectiveness of the shielding was estimated from the distribution curves of the doses created by neutrons of various energies. Figure 6 shows some D(r) curves for water. In the case of a source lying in the first group (see Fig. 6a ), at a distance of 40 cm from the source, the total dose bf the I-to-XI energy groups (fast-neutron dose) is more than 30 times that of the XII-to-XVIII energy groups, which correspond to neutrons of medium energy. If, however, the source lies in group IX, the contribution of fast neutrons exceeds that of the intermediate neutrons by an .order of magnitude (see Fig. 6, b). In all cases considered, the contribution of the slow neutrons is small. If the source lies in the low-energy part of the spectrum (E < 1 McV)thenthe dose falls'to zero-even in the source zone (see Fig. 6, c).Hence for such sources a single layer of water shielding is so effective that additional layers of iron are superfluous. The spectral composition of the dose in iron differs considerably from that described above (Fig.7, a, b, c). Thus the dose distribution for a source in the first group (see Fig. 7, a)shows that the total dose is mainly affected by neutrons of intermediate energies' (groups XII to XVIII, corresponding to energies between 1 MeV and 0.22 keV). At r = 40 to 50 cm, the contribution of these to the total dose is almost two orders greater than that of the fast neutrons. As regards the latter (groups I to XI, E > 1 MeV), the dose curves of these groups rapidly fall to zero with increasing r. The energy distribution of the doses has a similar character for all the remaining groups of sources (see F ig. 7; b, c). It should be noted that, as the initial energy of the neutrons falls, the curves for the total dose approach the component curves. Hence the spectral composition of neutron radiation must be taken into account for sources with a spectrum situated above 1 MeV. A point worth noting is the slow fall in the total-dose curve, which indicates the undesirability of using a homogeneous iron shield. The dose distributions for the iron-water system are shown in Fig. 8, a,b, c. We see from the D(r) curves that a characteristic trait of these is the existence of a break at the boundary between the media, due to the redistribution Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 of the neutron fluxes. By way of example, let us consider the dose distribution for a source of the first group (see Fig. 8, a). The curves have a considerably greater slope in the iron layer than in the water. This is because the water slows the neutrons of this group (9.8 to 10.8 MeV) down very poorly. The dose curve of groups II to VII (4.8 to 9.8 MeV) falls out of the general picture, being very shallow. The point is that there is a peculiar vacuum for neutrons of these energies in iron: This creates- conditions for the migra- tion of neutrons from the water into the iron, and it is this which causes the peculiar form of the curve. The neutrons from energy groups XII to XVIII, which in the case of an iron shield constitutes one of the main components, contribute less than 10% of the total dose in the iron-water system. It is interesting to make a quantitative comparison of the doses in water and in the iron-water system (see broken curves in Fig. 8, a, b, c). Thus, for fast neutrons with energies between 9.8 and 10.8 MeV, the total-dose curves in the iron-water system lie half an order lower than in the case of pure water. This difference gradually diminishes and vanishes entirely at about E = 1 MeV. Hence the iron-water shielding is effective for an initial source-neutron energy of over 1 MeV. The detailed study of fast-neutron migration in iron, water, and iron-water shielding enables us to make a . quantitative estimate of the effectiveness of these forms of shielding for neutrons of various energies. The dose curves presented may be used for calculating the neutron shielding associated with a source of any energy spectrum. 1. G. I. Marchuk, Numerical Methods of Calculating Nuclear Reactors [in'i Russian], Moscow, Atomizdat (1958). 2. O. A. Barsukov and V. S. Avzyanov, Atomnaya Energiya, 10, 478 (1961). 3. D. Hughes, Neutron Cross Sections, BNL (1958); Supplement, No. 1 (1960). 4. I. V. Gordeev et al., Handbook on Nuclear-Physical Constants for Reactor Calculations [in;Russian], Moscow, Gosatomizdat (1960). 5. I. V. Gordeev et a1.,NuclearPhysical Constants [in, Russian], Moscow, Gosatomizdat (1963). 6. L. P. Abagyan et al., Group Constants for Calculations of Nuclear Reactors [in RussianJ, Moscow, Atomizdat (1964). 7. I. N. Bronshtein and K. A. Semendyaev, Handbook on Mathematics [in Russian], Moscow, "Nauka'` (1964). 8. Shielding of Transport Equipment with Nuclear Motors [Russian translation], Moscow, IL (1;361), p. 40. 9. A. P. Veselkin et al., Atomnaya Energiya, 17, 32 (1964). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 M. M. Dorosh, Ya. E. Kostyu, V. A. Shkoda-U1'yanov,_A. M. Parlag, and A. K. Berzin A method of differentiating between oil- and water-bearing rock strata based on the difference between the nuclear compositions of oil and water (as regards 013 content) is described. A property of N17nuclei based on the emission of delayed neutrons is used. , , The separation of the oil- and water-bearing components of a stratum in uncased wells is in the majority of cases quite easily effected by electrometric methods. In cased wells, this problem can only be solved by non- electrical (e. g., radiometrical) methods. Oxygen and carbon, by the percentage content of which water and oil are distinguished, have small cross sections with respect to the processes usually used for the solution of such problems, and main attention in nuclear geophysics is concentrated on the properties of other elements present in water (Na, C1, etc.). The establishment of indirect methods by no means fully solves the problem, as is very apparent when working with weakly-mineralized waters, or waters freshened by the injection of fresh water used-for extracting oil during the intensive exploitation of oil fields. One possibility. not so far studied is the use of the (y ,n)-reaction of the C63 nucleus which occurs on bom- barding this with monochromatic y quanta; another possibility is the use of the nuclear properties of the O83 isotope. This is less abundant than other isotopes (around 0.2 %), but on bombarding this nucleus with y of fairly high energy the specific reaction Ola (y, p) Nt7 R 017 -- 016 + n takes place*. The unstable N17 nucleus is a well-known source of delayed neutrons with ahalf-life of 4,15 sec. Since determination of the boundaries of water-containing media by existing methods presents no difficulty, we have here a new principle for separating water- and oil bearing strata in these media by recording the delayed neutrons formed in the Ots(y , p) Nt7 reaction. *Preliminary experiments show that the "next zone" does not eliminate the effect, but only necessitates an increase in the intensity of the y quanta, since the delayed-neutron yield falls by 20 to 30?lobecauseofthe"next-zone" effect. Delayed-Neutron Yields from Water- and Oil-Bearing Strata Q,x 10'3 de- layed neutrons Q,x l0~de- layed neutrons Q,x 103 de- layed neutrons ao ~ o0 o""~ o~ o 17 0,10 0,05 12,90 7,43 3,87 2,23 18 1.,57 0,86 19,83 11,81 5,95. 3,56 19 5,19 2,93 21,01 12,50 6,33 3,75 20 11,03 6,f7 23,74 14,36 7,12 4,32 21 18,88 10,72 - 19,69 - 5;92 Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 35-38, July, 1966. Original article submitted January 20, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 78 >9 E,MeV Fig. 1. Calculated curves for the delayed-neutron yield from: 1}'water; 2)water-bearing stratum (70% SiOZ + 30% HEO); 3)sand; 4)oil-bearing stratum (70% SiO2 + 30% petroleum). ,1 I 2 ,3 1'~ ~ ~ ~ -5 ~ Fig. 2. Measured delayed-neutron yields per act of y quantum irradiationlfor:l~water, 2)water-bearing stratum, 3)sand, 4)oil-bearing stratum, 5)petroleum.. petroleum, stratal water, and mixtures of sand with water bearing strata, respectively. The point is that petroleum contains anegligibly- small quantity of oxygen, so that on passing from the oil-bearing to the water-.bearing stratum there will be a sharp change in the neutron yield. As regards the deleterious effects of the "next zone" in actual strata, these will be small in the method proposed owing to its great depth. In the present investigation, we calculated the delayed-neutron yields for a target of almost infinite thickness by means of the Belen'kii-Tatum avalanche theory, using the excitation function of the Ot$(y, p) Nt~ reaction, experimentally measured in [1]. Figure 1 shows the results of these calculations for water, sand, and also for oil- and water-bearing strata when these are bombarded by 17-to-20MeV electrons. The small variation in the delayed-neutron yields for water, sand, and awater-bearing stratum is due to the fact that there is a special kind of com- pensation between the oxygen in the SiOz and the water. This gives rise to the sharp jump on passing to an oil-bearing stratum. The greater the petroleum content, the lower will the curve giving the delayed- neutron yield from the oil-bearing stratum lie in rela- tion to curve 2 (Fig. 1), which serves as a boundary criterion. For the petroleum concentration in question (order of 30% petroleum in the stratum), the jump in the delayed-neutron yield on passing from the oil- to the water-bearing stratum, corresponding to irradiation in the 17-to-20-MeV energy range, is characterized by a factor of 2. TheTable shows the delayed-neutron yields for the case of primary bombardment by y radiation. As might be expected, the yields are considerable. In order to elucidate the practical possibilities of the proposed method of warding off water-petroleum contact, we made some experiments on the 25-MeV betatron of Uzhgorod State University. At maximum energy, the intensity of the radiation is 30 R/min ? m for a y quantum pulse length of 10 to 12 ? sec and a repetition frequency of 50 cps. The mean beam electron-current falling on the target is of the order of 10-$ A. The thick target constituted a metal tank 72 cm long and 13 cm in diameter, filled successively with or petroleum, these imitating water-bearing and oil- The apparatus for recording the delayed neutrons consisted of a paraffin cube 50 x 60 x 70 cm in size with a central channe113 cm in diameter for accommodating the samples and two counters of the SNM-8 type. The neutron-recording efficiency of this system, using a Po-Be source, was 0.33%. Relative monitoring of the beam was effected by means of astraight-through integral chamber with an RC circuit having a time constant of 6 sec, equal to 1/~ for the N17 isotope; this enabled errors in the experimental data due to changes in the intensity of the y radiation to be avoided. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 After 15 to 20 sec of irradiation, the activity of the Nt~ nuclei practically reached saturation. Assuming that the interval between two successive pulses of y quanta in the betatron equals 20 msec and the maximum operating time of the relay is of the same order, we may consider that the recording of neutrons took place within not more than 40 msec after removing the ybeam. The corresponding loss in neutron count is of the order of 0,7% for N17 with ahalf-llfe of 4,15 sec. The leading edge of the sample was placed at a distance of 44 cm from the tungsten target of the betatron, the beam intensity of which did not exceed 10 to 15 R/min (at a distance of 1 m from the target) and a maximum energy of 25 MeV during the experiments:. In the basic measurements, the intensity of the y beam was measured by an absolute aluminum ionization chamber. The experimental results for the delayed-neutron yields are shown in Fig. 2: The x axis represents the maxi- mum energy of y quanta and the y axis represents the number of pulses per act of irradiation (each point corresponds to the results of five to seven measurements). W e see from the results presented that even for relatively small y beam intensities (current of the order, of 10-y A in the absolute ionization chamber at the position of the sample)atan energy of 21 MeV and higher there is quite a marked jump in the delayed-neutron yield on passing from the oil-bearing to the water bearing stratum and vice versa, i. e., we obtain information on the position of the contact zone. The method proposed may also possibly provide quantitative information on the petroleum content of the strata, although there are certain difficulties in this owing to specific characteristics of each particular well. We note that it is not absolutely necessary that the recording of the delayed neutrons should only be carried out after the accelerator has been switched off. In the present experiments, delayed neutrons were also recorded in the intervals between y quantum pulses within 7 msec of the electron .throw on to the inner target of the betatron. The neutron-count rate for water-bearing strata (recorded with a neutron apparatus of about 1~/o efficiency) was 100 to 130 pulses/min. Thus the theoretical and experimental results presented show that there is a real possibility of warding off water-oil contact if an accelerator giving y quanta with an energy higher than the 16.4-MeV threshold of the Ol$ (y, p) N17 reaction (say 17 to 20 MeV) is available. Experiment showed that adelayed-neutron intensity adequate for recording is obtained if there is a y quantum flux at the stratum sufficient to give a current of the order'of 10-9 A in the absolute ionization chamber described in [2]. This order of intensity can be obtained even with low-powered equipment. The creation of a small-scale cyclic accelerator giving y quanta of 17 to 20 MeV at an adequate intensity is a complex and as yet unsolved problem; considerable work has however already been done in this direction and a certain amount of success has been achieved.. The following possibilities, in the opinion of the authors, deserve attention in this respect. , It is well known that, on bombarding lithium or tritium targeu with protons, the following reactions take place: 3Li' -}-1Hi ~ 4Be$ -}- ~ with E =17.6 MeV, iH3 -i-1Ht -~ ZHe4 -}- ~ with E = 20 MeV< In the first reaction y quanta with an energy of around 17.6 MeV are formed; this is sufficient for excitation of the Ol$(y, p) N17 reaction. Approximate calculations showed that, in order to ward off water-oil contact, the proton-accelerator current should be not less than 100 ? A. Work being done on the design of small-scale (oil-well) betatrons in the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute under the direction of A. A. Vorob'ev [3], heavy-current small-scale iron-free betatrons with equilibrium-orbit radii of 3 to 20 cm (A. I. Pavlovskii et al. [4]), plasma accelerators, and iron-free synchrotrons (under the direction of G. I. Budker) [5], all suggest that the method described here [6] will prove promising as regards further technical development. 1. W. Stephens, J. Halpern, and R. Sher, Phys. Rev., 82, 511 (1951), 2. B. Flowers, J. Lawson, and.F. Fossey, Proc. Phys. Soc., 65B, 286 (1952). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 3. Summaries of Papers Presented to the Fifth Inter-University Scientific Conference on Electron Accelerators (Tomsk, March 17 to 21, 1964) [in Russian], Tomsk, izd. Tomsk. gosudarstvennogo univ.: V. A. Gorbunov, G. A. Kunitsyn, and Yu. A. Otrubyannikov, Starting an Iron-Free Pulse Betatron; L. M. Anan'ev and V. L. Chakhlov, Economic System for Throwing Electrons in Heavy-Current and Small-Scale Betatrons; V. L. Chakhlov and M. M. Shtein, Small-Scale Source of Gamma Radiation with an Energy of 17.4 MeV; L. M. Anan'ev and Ya. S. Pekker, Single-Pulse Iron-Free Betatron; L. M. Anan'ev ed al., Portable Small-Scale Betatron for the Defectoscopy of Large-Scale Features in Field and Assembly Conditions; V. A. Vorob'ev, G. V. Titov, and V. L. Chakhlov. Use of Small-Scale Betatrons for the Radioscopic Control of Materials under Erection-Platform Conditions. 4. A. I. Pavlovskii et al., DAN SSR, 160, 68 (1965). 5. G. I. Budker et a1.,Iron-Free Single-Turn Synchrotron (BSV) [in Russian] Preprint, Novosibirsk (1965). 6. A. K. Berzin et a1.,Authors' Certificate No. 174, 284, December 12, 1963, . . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 G. V. Byurganovs.kaya, E. G. Gvozdev, UDC 621.387.46:621.386.82 and A. 'I. Khovanovich Information on the composition and sensitivity of glass dosimeters, the operation of which is based on the change in optical density caused by irradiation, is reviewed. The principal dosimetric character- istics of the Soviet y dosimeter SGD-8 and the y neutron dosimeter L-15 (based on sodium- and lithium silicate glasses with nickel additives) are described; these enable doses from a few tens of roentgens to a million roentgens to be determined. In view of the growing use of nuclear radiations in various departments of science and technology, it has be- come necessary to devise a simple, versatile dosimeter capable of repeated use. Glass dosimeters have proved promising in this respect. By suitable choice of compositions it is possible to produce glasses by means of which the y component in mixed y and neutron radiation can be determined. The first glass dosimeter which found practical application was made of ahome-produced optical glass (with a large content of alkali-metal oxides); -this darkened substantially under the influence of y - and x radiation. The dose was measured from the increment in the optical density of the irradiated glasses. However, since this glass is sensitive to slow neutrons and also undergoes severe spontaneous decolorization (regression), it is very limited in application. Outside the Soviet Union, a phosphate glass composed of 50 wt. % Al(PO8)s, 25 wt. % Ba(PO8)Z, and 25 wt. % KPOs has been proposed for dosimetric purposes [1]: The transparency of this glass falls linearly with increasing dose up to 105 R (for larger doses saturation effects set in). Of special interest are silicate glasses containing traces of cobalt oxide, which raises the sensitivity of the glasses to radiation in the short-wave part of the spectrum [2-4]. Glasses containing 60 to 70 wt. %SiO2, 10 to 20 wt. %Na20, 1 to 20 wt. %BZOy CaO, Mg0, A1ZO8, with the addition of 0.1 to 16 wt. % Co8O4 have been studied. With increasing cobalt-oxide content, the sensitivity of the glasses to radiation increases and the regression diminishes. The glasses may be used for doses from several hundred to 107 R. The presence of boric anhydride makes the glasses sensitive to neutrons and hence suitable for the dosimetry of mixed radiations. The marked spontaneous decoloriza- tion of the boron-silicate glasses, however, limits their field of use. Dosimeters for doses of 104 to 107 R may be made from silicate glasses containing manganese and cerium oxides [5, 6]. For stabiliza~on of the induced absorption of manganese glasses, compounds of iron and tin are intro- duced into them. The addition of vanadium or chromium to manganese glasses raises their sensitivity to smalldoses. Examination of the possibilities of determining large doses of radiation (106 to 109 R) showed [7] that the most pro- mising in this respect were glasses with a high content of SbEOB (60 to 70 wt. %), and also glasses [8] containing 50 wt. % BizOs; in these glasses there was no saturation even at a dose of 109 R; the optical density after irradiation with 108 R was of the order of 10 in 1 cm. Great sensitivity to radiation is shown by iodide-metaphosphate glass [9], which changes its tint on irradiation by a dose of 70 R. Sodium-borate glass tinted to a blue color with elementary sulfur may be used as an indicator. Under the influence of y and x radiation this becomes colorless [10]. The authors of the present paper made a special study of glasses not containing BZOs, Ba0, and Pb0. As additives, cobalt and nickel oxides were introduced. The sensitivity of the glasses to radiation was expressed in terms of the increment in the optical density (for ~ = 350 m?) per unit thickness (in the present case 1 cm) after irradiation with a dose of 104 R, i. e., Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 38-41, Juiy, 1966. Original article submitted May 21, 1965; revised December 22, 1965. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 0S = s - S0 Z where S is the optical density of the irradiated sample (S = -log T, T =transmission coefficient), Sa =optical density of the nonirradiated sample, and l =sample thickness. Study of silicate and phosphate glasses containing nl various quantities of Coo (0.1 to 1 wt. %) showed that the sensitivity systematically increased with increasing cobalt- 0 0,1 0,3 0,5 0,7 CoO, wt.% oxide content (Fig. 1), being considerably smaller for the phosphate glasses. Increasing the cobalt-oxide content to 10 wt. % reduces the sensitivity of the glasses to radiation. Fig. 1. Sensitivity of silicate and phosphate glasses Glasses containing cobalt and nickel are two or three irradiated with y radiation (up to a dose of 104 R) as times more sensitive to radiation than those containing a function of the cobalt-oxide content (~ = 350 m?.): other additives (Ce02, Nd203, Fe203, Sn02 and etc.). 1) Silicate glasses; 2) phosphate glasses The most suitable types for dosimetric purposes SS were silicate glasses of complex composition containing ~ NiO. These had a rather larger sensitivity to radiation ~ 1 1 ~ 3i than cobalt glasses, a smaller regression factor, and a I 1 11 \~~ ~'2 rapid fall in induced radioactivity after irradiation with 11 ~ 111 a mixed radiation flux. The regression factors K = ~ ~ 11 0, log (St/SZ)/log(tz/tl)(where St and SZ are the optical 8 i ~2 ~ 2/~ densities at times tr and tZ respectively) of cobalt glasses ~ 2 _i ~1 ford values of 350 and 740 m? are .0.02 and 0.05 0'4 respectively, while for nickel glasses they are 0.005 and ~~ / 2 0.02. The spectral curves for the optical density of the 1 ~..,~ r 0 glasses (SGD-8) before and after irradiation are shown in 300 400 500 600 700 A, m? Fig. 2. The sensitivity of the glass with the nickel addi- tive equals 0.45. The relationship between the sensitivity Fig. 2. Spectral curves of optical density: } (for ~ = 350 m?) and the radiation dose is linear over the silicate glass; ----) barium-silicate glass; 1)before ran a studied Fi 3 B measurin "the o tical densit irradiation; 2)104 R; 3) 2 ? 106 R. g ( g' )' y g p y (for ~ = 350m?) of :lmples 100 and 5 mm thick, we can determined doses in two ranges: 50 to 4000 and 2000 to 750 DX1C;~R 80;000 R respectively. dS In order to determine doses of 2 ~ 104 to 106 R, the long-wave part of the spectrum (~ = 740 m?) is used with sample thicknesses of 5 mm. A study of the sensi- tivity of glasses 100 mm thick to radiation in the energy range 50 to 1500 keV showed that, on using lead filters ZO S of appropriate thickness (0.3 to 0.5 mm), the readings of the dosimeters would be practically independent of the energy of radiation above 60 keV. When using the dosimeters in the temperature range-100 to + 100? C, the error in determining the optical density due to ~~ decolorization does not exceed t 10%. By heating the irradiated glasses to 400 or 450? C for 6 h, the original D 1000 2000 3000 D, R 0 optical density can be completely restored; since the sensitivity of the glass dosimeters does not depend on the number of restorations, they can be used repeatedly. Fig. 3. Sensitivity of silicate glass containing nickel as a function of y radiation dose: 1) ~ = 350 m? ; Z _ .100 mm; 2) ~ = 740 m? ;l = 5 mm. +On the SF-4 spectrophotometer or the photoelectric colorimeter FEK-60. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 For measuring doses of y radiation with a narrow spectral energy range, for example, from a Co60 source, we may use glasses of any composition having negligible Fig. 4. Sensitivity of silicate glass to slow neutrons as a function of Bz03 and Li~O content (~ - 350 m? ): In order to examine the possibility of setting up a O) BZOs; e} LiZO, y-neutron dosimeter the sensitivity of certain experi- mental glasses with various proportions of boric anhydride and lithium oxide to slow neutrons was determined. The presence of BZ03 or Li20 produces an additional increase in sensitivity as a result of the B10(n, a)Li7 and Lip (n, a) T reactions. The sensitivity of the glasses to neutrons is characterized by the quantity il7l Rn = D e n where IIn is the neutron flux in 1 cm2, Dn = Dn+y - Dy is the dose of neutrons. in rem.cmZ/neutron(D n+y ~ the total dose of y and neutron radiation,.determined by measuring the optical density of the irradiated glasses with a correction for regression, Dy is the dose of y radiation). As the content of BZ03 or Lilo in the glasses increases, the neutron flux producing the same darkening as y radiation (dose of 1 R) systematically falls, tending to a certain definite value in the case of boron-silicate glasses (Fig. 4). Hence there is no point in raising the boric-anhydride content of the glasses above 20 wt. ?10. The Li20 content is limited by the chemical stability of the glasses.: For dosimetry of a mixed flux of radiation, we can recommend lithium-silicate glass containing a nickel additive (L-15j. In sensitivity toy radiation, type of absorption spectrum, relationship between optical density and the dose and energy of the radiation, and kinetics of spontaneous.and thermal decolorization, L-15 glass hardly differs from SGD-8 . and is suitable for repeated use. 1. J. Schulman, C. Keick, and H. Rabin, Nucleonics, No. 2, 30 (1955). 2. N. Kreidl and J. Hensler, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 38, 423 (1955), 3. N. Kreidl and H. Blair, Nucleonics, No. 1, 56 (1956). 4. N. Kreidl and H. Blair, Nucleonics, No. 3, 82 (1956). 5. J. Paymal, M. Bonnaud, and P. Clerk . J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 43, 430 (1960). 6. J. Kugler, Atomkernenergie, 4, 67 (1959). 7. W. Hedden, J. Kireher, and B. King, J? Amer. Ceram. Soc., 43, 413 (1960). 8. A. Bishey, Phys. Chem. Glasses, 2, 33 (1961). 9. A. Hiesenrod and B. Gehauf, Chem. Phys, 24, 914 (1956). 10. K. Otley and W. Weyl, J. Appl. Phys, 23, 499 (1952). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 NOTES ON ARTICLES RECEIVED REFLECTION OF 250-1200 keV ELECTRONS L. M. Boyarshinov UDC 539.124:539.121.72 For primary radiation with energies of 250-1200 keV, the electron reflection coefficient (back scattering) was measured for targets of bismuth, tin, molybdenum, copper, and iron. The reflected electrons were collected in an aluminum Faraday cup and recorded with a microammeter. The values of the reflection coefficients for primary monoenergetic electrons with energies of 1200 and 250 keV are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, a determination was made of the secondary electron emission coefficient, which was 10-15% of the value of the reflection coefficient for primary electrons. As is clear from Figs. l and 2, the values for the reflection coefficient at 1200 keV are approximately 15% less than the reflection coefficients for the same targets at 250 keV. Such a reduction in reflection coefficient with increasing primary electron energy was first established in this work for the 250-600 keV energy range and was verified for the 600-1200 keV region. Also shown in Fig. 1 is a comparison of the results of this work with published data [1-3] obtained from meas- urements using a similar technique. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the results of the present work are in good agree- ment with published data. The curve in Fig. 1 was constructed from data for 22 independent measurements of re- flection coefficients for 18 elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers 4-92, and can be used to determine the nature of the dependence of reflection coefficient tl on atomic number Z. From this most representative curve, and also from similar curves for other primary electron energies, one of which is shown in Fig. 2 for 250 keV (where the reflection coefficient for aluminum was taken from [4]), it is possible to establish that this dependence is deter- mined by the expression tl = AZn, In determining the thickness of coatings [5], and in doing chemical analysis by reflected s radiation, it has been shown that sensitivity is greater for larger exponents n. For monoenergetic electrons, it was established that the exporient n increases with increasing energy, and therefore it is most advisable to use harder radiation sources for the abovementioned practical purposes. n, i 50 40 30 0 f0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Z 010 20 30 Fig. 1. Reflection coefficient as a function of atomic Fig. 2. Reflection coefficient as a function of number for 1200 keV electrons: O) This work; A) atomic number for 250 keV electrons: O) This work; e.) [4]. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 42-43, July, 1966. Original article submitted February 18, 1966; abstract submitted March 17, 1966. , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Note that the reflection coefficients for copper are higher than those. for nickel with 600-1200 keV primary beam energies, which is not in agreement with the data of Danguy [6] obtained by using S sources. According to [6], nickel has an anomalous reflection coefficient which is 0.5% higher than the reflection coefficient for its neighboring element in the periodic table with higher atomic number, copper. 1. P. Ya. Glazunov and V. G Guglya, Dokl. AN SSSR, 159, 632.(1964). 2. V. G. Guglya, Candidate's Dissertation, Moscow (1964). 3. K, Wright and I. Trump, J. Appl. Phys.; 33, 687 (1962). 4. I: Trump and R. Van de Graaf , J. Appl. Phys., 19, 599 (1948). 5. N. N. Shumilovskii and L. V. Mel'ttser, Fundamentals of the' Theory of Automatic Control Equipment [in- Russian],Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR (1959). 6. L. Danguy, Inst. Interuniv. Sci: Nucl. Monographic, No. 10, 3 (1962). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 S. B. Goryachev and I. N. Meshkov UDC 621.384.61]..3 To increase the intensity of ahigh-current betatron with spiral storage [1 ], an external 500 keV injector with a current of several amperes was developed. The operating length of the current pulses is ~ 20 ?sec. An overall view of the apparatus is shown in the figure. The injector is ahigh-voltage do accelerator which uses as a voltage source a controlled pulsed voltage generator (PVG) with short-circuiting spark-gap cascade permitting smooth regulation of the length of the voltage pulse in the range 1-1000 ?sec. The accelerating unit consists of an electron gun at 200 keV and a 300 keV accelerating tube with an intensity of 10 kV/cm. The insulators are porcelain and are in sections. To increase electrical stability, the external surface of the tube is located, in a tank filled with transformer oil. Supply for the cathode heater of the gun is obtained from a GSR-3000M generator, which is at Accelerating unit Heater supply system Short-circuiting spark - ga p cascade Fig. 1. Diagram of the injector: 1)IMY-100/0.1 condenser; 2) 200 kS2 resistance; 3)spark gap; 4)tank of transformer oil; 5)accelerator tube; 6)cathode assembly; 7) insulator; 8) cathode heater supply generator; 9) monitoring lamp: 10)1.5 kSd resist- ance; 11) photomultiplier; 12) motor; 13) Rogovskii coil; 14) lens; 15) aligning mechan- ism; 16)solenoid; 17)bending magnet. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 43-44, July, 1966. Original article received February 18, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 cathode potential and is driven by an insulated shaft. Heater current is controlled by a photomultiplier through the brightness of an incandescent lamp included in the heater circuit. An electron-optical channel, consisting of magnetic lens, shielding solenoid, and bending magnet, serves to carry the beam through the betatron magnet yoke and to inject it into the chamber: One can calculate the behavior of the beam in the channel by matching the solution for the variation in the dimensions of an intense beam y(z) in free space [2]: dy y (z)=y in "~" dz )in ,4222 z , yin 3/2 A2 _ e7 ~ me \ mc3 P in the thin lens and solenoid. The behavior of the beam in the solenoid is described by the equation 2y 2 dz2 +w2y_ 2y -0' ~= 2pc ' whose solution is a periodic function. For w2yent ~ 2A2/yent and small (dy/dz)ent we have y(z) ~yent (1 + 1/2A (dy/dz)ent sin ,~wz); in other cases, a solution can be obtained numerically. The parameters for the channel elements were selected on the basis of calculations of this type. A current of ~ 2 A was obtained at the injector output. Beam dimension is 8 x 8 mm with ~ 2.5? angle of divergence. 1. G. I. Budker et al., Proceedings of the International Accelerator Conference, Dubna (1963) [in Russian], Moscow, Atomizdat (1964), p. 1065. 2. I. N. Meshkov and B. V. Chirikov, ZhTF, 35, 2202 (1965), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 COMPOSITION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF RADIATION AROUND A 10 GeV PROTON SYNCHROTRON BUILDING A study of the relationships governing the propagation of mixed radiation from high-energy accelerators at large distances is of decisive importance in connection with the need for reliable prediction of radiation levels in planning new installations. In the case under consideration, the space profile of the. radiation field around a proton synchrotron was determined along eight radial directions located at 45? to one another. In these directions, existing equipment made it possible to differentiate the following components: thermal neutrons; slow and intermediate neutrons (0.4 eV-0.1 MeV); fast neutrons (0.1-20 MeV); very fast nucleons (> 20 MeV) and pions (> 50 MeV); charged particles (electrons, muons) and y rays of various energies. The paper shows that fast neutrons (< 20 MeV) were distributed symmetrically at large distances from.the target with respect to the center of the building. The effective energy of the fast neutrons was in the range 0.7-4 MeV.. In the case of shield geometry, neutrons of such energies are the greatest hazard. The dose distribution for the radiation components mentioned are shown in the figure. The direction with maximum flux density of high- energy nucleons was taken as the basis for the determination of the dose from such particles. In this situation, the doses from fast neutrons and from high-energy nucleons were approximately equal. ? ? ~ 6 \~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 5 ~.~ ~ 3 7 \~' 2 ~~\ v 0 20D 40D 600 800 Distance, m Dose as a function of distance from the geometric center of .the accelerator buildirg; 1) thermal neutrons; 2) slow and intermediate neutrons; 3) muons, electrons, and y rays (tentative); 4) fast neutrons; 5) nucleons and pions; 6)total dose. (where Eo = 10 GeV); kgeom is a geometry factor: An empirical formula is presented in the paper for calculating the fast neutron flux at any distance from the accelerator. The results of measurements made at the proton synchrotron are compared with data obtained by other authors. 'The experimentally determined function for the spatial dose distribution of 0.4 eV-20 MeV neutrons has the form _ r ~ (r) _!~1 kik geom k d a. eff 4~tr2 e ? rem /1 Otl protons. Here, I is the intensity (proton/sec) of the internal proton beam at an energy Ep, GeV; A is a factor taking into account target thickness and material, shielding thickness and configuration, and also the effective solid angle for the yield of radiation in the upper hemi- sphere; the factor A can be interpreted as the effective neutron yield in the upper hemisphere per unit flux of protons with energy Ep = 10 GeV (A = 7.84 ? 10-2 n/p); kt is a factor taking into account the value of the final energy of the protons: k1_C$p\0.7 Eo /J11 _ r-100 kgeom ti ~[1 rt 2 ~ 10-4 (r -100)2 a 5s j F (e) Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 44-45, July, .1966. Original article submitted February 18, 1966; abstract submitted April 9, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 (where F(8) = 0.5-1, depending on the chosen radial direction);r is the distance from the axis of the vacuum cham- ber of the proton synchrotron to the point under consideration; Jeff is the effective mean free path of the neutrons in air (~eff = 391 m); kd is a dose conversion factor (for neutrons of the given spectrum,kd=1.15.10-E?rem/n/cm2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 FAST NEUTRON RADIATIVE CAPTURE IN Cuss V. A. Tolstikov, V. P. Koroleva, UDC 539.17.012:539.172.4 V. E. Kolesov, and A. G . Dbvbenko This paper gives the results of measurements and of calculations of the fast neutron radiative capture cross section in C uss. The relative activation method of measurement, which has been described in detail [1], was used. The U2ss fission cross section for fast [2] and thermal [3] neutrons and the thermal neutron radiative capture cross section in Cum [4] were used as reference cross sections. The measured results are compared with data of other authors in the figure. Cross section calculations were made on the basis of the statistical theory'of nuclear reactions rising the optical model~of the nucleus. The method of calculation has been described [5]. The potential in the calculation of nuclear surface penetrability contained aspin-orbit term. The parameters for the levels in the target nucleus, the values of D, I'y ,and of the parameter a were taken from [12, 4, 13], respectively. The sharp bend in the radiative capture cross section curve for neutrons with an energy of ~ 1 MeV is explained by competition from inelastic scattering. ,~1=2 ~1=3 IR. II Results of neutron radiative capture cross section measurements for Cu63: Data from: ?) this work; ?)[3]; O) [6]; p) ['1]; ~) [8]; ~ [9]; C) [10]; D) [11]. Arrows indicate the position of excited levels; )total capture cross section; ----) capture cross section for neutrons with different angular momenta. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 45-46, July, 1966: Original article submitted February 18, 1966; abstract submitted April 9, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 1. Yu. Ya. Stavisskii and V. A. Tolstikov, Nuclear Reactions at Low and Medium Energies [in Russian],Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR (1962), p. 562. 2. K. Parker, AWREO-82/63 (December, 1963), ; 3. Neutron Cross Sections, BNL-325, Second Edition, Supplement No. 2, Vol. III, Z-68 to 98 (February, 1965), 4. I. V. Gordeev, D. A. Kardashev, and A. V. Malyshev, Nuclear Physics Constants [in Russian], Moscow, Gosatomizdat (1963). 5. V. A. Tolstikov et al., Atomnaya Energiya, 17, 505 (1964). 6. R. Booth, W. Ball, and M. MacGregor, Phys. Rev., 112, 226 (1958). 7. R. Macklin, N. Lazar, and W. Lyon, Phys. Rev., 107, 504 (1957). 8. D. Hughes, R. Garth, and ]. Levin, Phys. Rev., 91, 1423 (1953). 9., J. Perkin, L. O'Connor, and R. Coleman, Proc. Phys. Soc., 72, Pt. 4, 505 (1958). 10. V. Dementi and D. Timoshuk, Compt. rend.,Acad. Sci,URSS, 27, 929 (1940); M. Mescheryakov, Compt. rend., Acad. Sci.URSS, 48, 555 (1945). 11. W. Lyon and R. Macklin, Phys. Rev., 114, 1619 (1959). 12. R. Ricci, R. Girgis, and R. Lieshout, Nuovo Cimento, XI, 156 (1959). 13. A. V. Malyshev, ZhETF, 45, 311 (1963). All abbreviations of periodicals in the above, bibliography are letter-by-letter translitera- tions of the abbreviations as given in the original Russian journal. Some or all of this peri- odical literature may well be available in English translation. A complete list of the cover-to- -cover English translations appears at the back of the first issue of this year. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 THE HOMOGENIZATION OF A HETEROGENEOUS PERIODIC SYSTEM Homogenization of a heterogeneous periodic system consists in the replacement of this system by an equivalent homogeneous medium such that the neutron flux and current in that medium coincides with the corresponding quantities for the heterogeneous medium on the average in each elementary cell. Neutron diffusionin the equivalent homogeneous medium is described by the diffusion coefficient tensor Dik, which obviously has a diagonal form in a coordinate system coinciding with the symmetry axes of the elementary cell. There are two known methods for calculating the tensor Dik for a heterogeneous periodic system. The method of mean-square ranges was first used by Behrens [1) for calculating neutron diffusion in a medium with hollow channels. The basic theorem of this method is the equality Le.n (h)2, (1) where Li is the diffusion length along the axis i; n is the average number of neutron mean free paths; (li~ is the average value of the square of the neutron mean free path projected on the axis i; i is a unit vector. The second method is based on the use of an integral neutron transport equation. This method was developed by Laletin [2] for weakly-absorbing media. The essence of the method is that the exact neutron flux is broken down into two terms: one of them- fi(r)-takes into account the overall drop in flux over .the entire system; the second, which is proportional to the gradient of ~, takes into account the variation of neutron flux within an elementary cell of the medium. The second term, the so-called microflux, is zero for longitudinal diffusion in. a medium with cylindrical channels. However, the microflux is different from zero and makes a corresponding contribution to the magnitude of the diffusion tensor for the case of transverse diffusion. In [2], on the basis of a comparison of the results of that paper. with Behrens' formula [1], it was asserted that the mean-square range method was not applicable to the calculation of neutron diffusion in a direction perpendicular to a channel axis. The present paper shows that with correct consideration of the angular correlations between individual neutron mean free paths, both methods mentioned are completely equivalent to one another: To do this, Eq. (1) should be replaced by the more general expression Li? 2 (Ri)2, where R is the vector for total displacement of the neutron from an arbitrary point in the elementary cell. Writing R in the form of a sum of all separate neutron mean free paths, one can represent expression (2) in the foml L2- 2 ~ Ps (I1) pS (12) ... PS (In-1) PQ (ln) [ ~ (lki)2-~- ~ (lkl) (lk'1) ),, n=1 k-1 k#k'=1 where Ps(1~), Pa (t)are the probabilities that the rangex is ended by neutron scattering and absorption, respectively. The first term in expression (3) reduces to equality (1) after appropriate transformations. The second. term takes into account the contribution to the diffusion tensor from angular correlations between individual neutron mean free paths. It is shown in the paper that angular correlations exist in a homogeneous medium even for spherically symmetric scattering ir1 all components of the medium. In a medium with cylindrical channels, these correlations of neutron mean free paths, which are specific for heterogeneous media, make a contribution to Li only for transverse diffusion, the sign of the quantity depending on the ratio between the scattering cross sections of the various components. An analysis of the equation which determines the microflux makes it possible to assert that the microflux in a hetero- geneous medium is uniquely determined by the angular correlations of the neutron mean free paths. Translated from Atomnaya E,nergiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 46, July, 1966. Original article submitted January 21, 1966; abstract submitted April 18, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 LITERATURE CITED 1. D. Behrens, Proc. Phys. Soc., A62, 607 (1949). 2. N. I. Laletin, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy (Geneva, 1958) [in Russian],Dokl: sovetskikh uchenykh, Voi.'2, Moscow,Atomizdat (1959), p. 634. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR EQUILIBRIUM OF PLASMA IN A STELLARATOR WITH A CIRCULAR MAGNETIC AXIS V. D. Shafranov UDC 533.9 When plasma is introduced into a toroidal magnetic trap (for example, the stellarator [1]), a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the torus is developed, leading to a displacement of the plasma pinch from the center of curvature and distortion of the shape of the magnetic surfaces. In this paper we calculate the displacement of the plasma pinch for the case in which the cross sections of the magnetic surfaces are nearly circular. The solution is obtained by the perturbation method in the linear approximation with respect to the dimensionless parameter S?yR/b, where S is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the pressure of the magnetic field, ? is the torsional angle of the magnetic lines of force divided by 2tr , R is the radius of the torus, and b is the transverse size of the system. Our main approximation to the problem (which, in contrast to analogous papers [2, 3], enables us to obtain a solution in simple analytic form) is that the vacuum magnetic fields and surfaces are presented as expansions in powers of the distance from the magnetic axis. Zero Approximation. Neglecting the curvature of the system, the magnetic field Bo = ~ ~ of an m-turn stellarator is described by the scalar potential _ u' ~ Bo (s-I-E meo _2 p"` sin mu~ , 1 ( ) and the magnetic surfaces z/i(r) = const by the function ~o=e2+E ~~-z Q,n cos mu, (2) meo satisfying the equation BoO:Gu = 0. Here Bo is the longitudinal magnetic field, s the longitudinal coordinate, pthe distance from the axis (polar radius), e and po parameters characterizing the amplitude of the helical field and the form of the magnetic surfaces: ~ls n mR ml{ where wis the azimuthal angle, and n is the number of periods of the field in the length of the torus. The amplitude of the azimuthal component of the helical field equals BoEU'p u (p /po)m-t For m = 2 the parameter p o falls out and the configuration is characterized by a single dimensionless parameter e < 1. Form >_ 3 the parameter ~ may be taken as unity. In this case p u constitutes the distance from the axis to the edge of the separatrix [4]. Subsequently we shall consider that the second term in the expression for ~u is small in comparison with the first, so that the sections s = const of the magnetic surfaces are nearly circular. Hence,in the calculations we may formally take e ?1. i The derivative of the transverse magnetic flux with respect to the longitudinal, ?, related to the torsional angle i of the lines of force by the relation i = 2tr?, is easily calculated by the method described in [5]; near the axis it equals ~ / 2 m- Er (e)= mm21) n s2 ( ~z ~ 2. \ eo The formulas given are valid for p ~ R/n. Currents in the Plasma. The curvature of the system produces a certain distortion in the shape of the magnetic surfaces in vacuum. Let us neglect this effect and consider only the curvature of the magnetic surfaces associated with the presence of plasma. The density of the current arising on introducing plasma into the trap may be written in the form [6] Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 47-49, July, 1966. Original article submitted February 8, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 [BOp] $p m-t J=~ B2 -I-hB=~p~ (~"n`1) {[ B ]~"htB where p is the plasma pressure, constituting a surface quantity [6], i. e., a function of ~. From the solubility con- dition for the equation-div j = 0, which corresponds to the requirement that the solution be finite at p = 0, it follows that the pressure must be an analytic function of ? ~ = const ~m-t. Hence the function ~m-1 is taken as argument of p. W e note that, for finite plasma conductivity, the solubility condition for the electric-field scalar- potential equation E _ -~cp BAS= -hB2/o II (6) (a II .being the longitudinal electrical conductivity of the plasma) requires that p should be an analytic function ?Z ~, = const ~zm-s . The si. aplest distribution of plasma pressure in the zero approximation (neglecting curvature) which satisfies this condition'tas the form The current continuity equation div j = 0 leads to an equation for hl of the form [BO~m_lJ ~B2 Bvh,= B4 r The main contribution toC~BZ is associated with the toroidal longitudinal magnetic field Bs = Bo/[1- p/R (cos w)]. In the remaining terms of Eq. (8), Band ~ may be taken in the zero approximation described by Eqs. (1) and (2). In the lowest order of expansion with respect top the equation for hl takes the form ~7h1 u'p'n-1 ahg ~h1 m_s 4 (m-1) ds -f-e ?1-z Csinmu ap -}-cos mu e8c,~ ~ ~ =qC sin w, where 4= R It is easy to see that the solution of this equation takes the form m02~m-3 e + _e_ cos w m C Co cos (mu-co)~ q. ~m-1) s2u' Co Thus fora ?1 the density of the longitudinal current js = cp'(~i m-1)htBois determined from the simple expression 4cm2 2 2) 2cm2 (CU 2(m-2) dp (m- ~ m-t I s = - Boe2n 0o p ('~ ) 0 COS co = -Boe2n (m-1) \ p / dp cos w. For comparison we write the transverse component of current density 2 (m-1) gyp' (lam-1) ~2m-3 ~1~- Bo (12) 2 We note that the ratio of the mean squares of the longitudinal and transverse current density, ~ =~]s )/ Q 8e -i- edw Taking account of the relationship js ~ cos c~, solution of these equations may be expressed in terms of a single function Br (p) Bp=B1 sin ~, B~,=d dQ 1) cos w. For Bl we obtain a differential equation of the second order which can be integrated once. Thus we obtain 2 2(m-~) P . dB1 _ -8~tm E 0 1 Os-2m dp d0 s2n (m-1) e3 ~ de 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Let us assume that the radius of the plasma pinch, a, is smaller than the radius of the chamber. Then outside the plasma pinch E Nt / 2? \ 2 (m-2) ll2 `l o where C is a constant of integration and S denotes the integral a 41tm ~ 16-2m dp For atwo-turn stellarator (m = 2) we obtain ~ = 8tr p /Bo ,where p is the plasma pressure averaged over the cross section; for athree-turn stellarator (i = 6trp(0)/Bo . The factor in front of the integral is chosen so that the pressure distribution of formula (7) corresponds to S = 8tr p /Bp for any value of m. Distorted Magnetic Surfaces. The new magnetic surfaces in the presence of plasma, ,~ _ ~ o + ~ t ,may be found from the linearized equation BD~V = 0: d'Fo BoDYri=-B10'Yo,6 0 4 U ~' U ~ , 'ti .~ ~ '? ~ ~ 1,2 0,2 0 ~ 0,8 0 4 , 0 4 B 12 >6 20 Deuteron energy, MeV Fig. 1. Yield of Mn54 versus proton energy, for thick targets of manganese and chromium. (1) Mn + p; (2) Cr + p. X~' Alpha-particle energy, MeV Fig. 3, Mn54 yield versus alpha particle energy, Fig. 2. Mn54 yield versus deuteron energy, for thick tar- gets of iron and chromium. (1) Fe + d; (2) Cr + d. The integral irradiation currents were measured by means of the induced activity of Zn~ with the aid of copper monitor foils. Calibration data on the Zn65 activity induced in the foils were previously found experimentally, using a precision current integrator. The Mn54 activity was measured with a 100-channel scintillation gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) crystal of size 40 X 40 mm, with gamma-line photo-peak area 840 keV. .The photo-efficiency of the gamma spectrometer was determined by means of the activity of aliquot parts of Mn54 solution meas- ured in an ionization chamber. The chamber was calibrated with standard Co60 sources. The present authors measured the Mn54 yield versus particle energy for thick targets: the results are given in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The errors in the Mn54 yields are due to errors in the measure- ments of Mn54 activity, integral beam current and particle energy, and amount tot 15%. for thick targets of chromium and vanadium. The greatest Mn54 yield was observed on irradiation of (1) Cr + a ;(2) V + a . manganese by protons, but -the product is obtained in a carrier. In addition, it is difficult to prepare heat-resistant manganese targets. The remaining five methods give Mn54 without a carrier: the highest yield from these is from irradiation of chromium with alpha-particles. Since a method has been perfected for preparing heat-resistant targets by gal- vanic coating of a copper substrate with chromium, this latter method must be preferred. The authors would like to thank Z. P. Dmitrieva and G. A. Molin for help with the work, and Yu. G. Sevast' - yanov for the radiochemical separation of the Mn54. 1. W. Garrison and J. Hamilton. Chem. Rev., 49, 237 (1951). 2. A. Ateti. Phillips Techn. Rev., 16, No. 1 (1954). 3. J. Gruverman and P. Kruger. Internat. J. Appl. Rad. and Isotopes, 5, 21 (1959). 4. K. Chackett et al. Nucl. Instrum. and Methods, 14, 215 (1961). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 5. H. Moeken. Productions of Radioisotopes with Charged Particles, Amsterdam (1957). 6. J. Martin et al. Nucleonics, 13, No. 3, 28 (1955). 7. P. Kafalas and J. Irvine. Phys. Rev., 104, 703 (1956). 8. K. Wagner. Kernenergie, 5, 853 (1962). 9. M. Z. Maksimov. Proceedirigs of Conference on Preparation and Use of Isotopes (Moscow, 1957), Moscow, Izd. AN SSSR (1957), p. 31. . 10. P. P. Dmitriev et al. Ibid, p. 28. 11. N: N. Krasnov et al. Pribory i tekhnika ~ksperimenta, 4, 22 (1965). 12. M. Z. Maksimov.. ZhETF, 38, 127 (1959). All abbreviations of periodicals in the above bibliography are letter-by-letter translitera- tions of the abbreviations as given in the original Russian journal. Some or all of this peri- odical literature may well 6e available in English translation. A complete list of the cover-to- cover English translations appears at the back of the first issue of this year. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 CALCULATION OF THE DOPPLER TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF REACTIVITY FOR ISOLATED RESONANCES IN A HOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM P. E. Bulavin and G. I. Toshinskii UDC 621.039.512.26 The calculation of the Doppler temperature coefficient of the reactivity in a nuclear reactor is linked with calculation of the temperature derivative of the self-screening factor at the resonances. Reference [1] gives cal- culated results for the temperature derivative of the self-screening factor for isolated resonances in a non-homo - geneous plane medium (curves of G. Roe). These results can clearly also be used for a homogeneous medium if we go to the limit of zero thickness of the absorber and moderator plates. However, [1] does trot give the method of calculation, and therefore we cannot assess the accuracy of the results. We have therefore calculated the tempera- ture derivative of the self-screening factor for isolated resonances in a homogeneous medium. Below we give the method of calculation and the results. The expression for the self-screening factor at an isolated resonance in a homogeneous medium can be written in the following form (see, e. g., [2, 3]): 2 e x - d~ _~ is the approximate form of the resonance, allowing for the Doppler effect for the gas model of an absorber; ~ = r/D is the Breit-Wigner ratio and the Doppler resonance width; ~ = 2 E is the Doppler width; ? h = pa o /Es (in the case of the narrow-resonance approximation)t; pis the nucleat concentration of the resonance absorber; ao is the total cross section at the resonance maximum; and Es is the total cross section of potential scattering. Expression (1) is valid on the assumption that we can neglect the effect of interference between resonance and potential scattering. This assumption is satisfied for purely absorptive resonance (I'n ? t) or for a dilute medium (papa ? Es where a Pa is the cross section of potential scattering of the resonance. absorber). When h ? 1 the integrand in (1) can be expanded in a series in h and is limited by terms of order h. Then, using the relation ~ ~I''2 (x, ~) dx = 2 n'Y' (0, ~ v2) [4], we get Differentiating (3) with respect to T, we get, for h ? 1, T 8/ = 4 [(1+52)'1`~0,~~)-521? ?For a crystalline substance T is the temperature of the substance, provided that 6D ~ T (AD = Debye temperature). If 8 D >`T , we must replace T by the effective temperature Teff [5]? tIn the case of the wide-resonance approximation [6],h = p?oa /~sm~ whereaoa is the capture cross section at the resonance maximum, and Esm is the cross section for potential scattering by all the nuclei except the resonance absorber. Translated from Atomnaya E`netgiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 54-56, July, 1966. Original 8rticle submitted January 21, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Curves for calculating Dopler temperature coefficient Tal/aT 0,01 0,1 1,0 >0 Using (1) and (2) we obtain an expression for T (a f / aT) for any h, r of __ 4 ~ _L 2 (x2-1) -1 ] `Y (x, ~) -I- 2 - x~2~ (x> i;) 0 z 00 - 4 (x-b)2 v _~ The functions V~(x, ~) and ~(x> ~) bear the following relations to the real and imaginary parts, u(x, y) and y(x, y) of the complex probability integral: ~ (x, ~) = 2 v~ o C 2 ~~ 2) Tables of the functions u(x, y) and v(x, y) are given in [7]. The function T (8 f/c3 T), for which an expression is given by(5), has maxima in ~ and h. For convenience, let us introduce a new function [1], a/ which has no maximum in ~, and, when ~ -- 0 or ~-> ??, has nonzero limits which differ from one another very little. From (5) we get an expression for the function W(~, h'): ? ? r 22 (x2 --1) - 1 ] 2 - z~2~ (x, S) 'Y (x, ~) -I-- 11 1 2 (9) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 W (~, h)= 1 ~ (-1)n(2n-i-3)!I n_!-1 hn+1; n=0 `~~ W (0, It')= 2 LJ (-q)n n+1 h'n+t. where h'= Pao ~(0, ~) is the ratio of the macroscopic cross section at the resonance maximum (allowing for the s Doppler effect) to the total cross section of potential scattering. . For resonance close to the Breit-Wigner type (with ~ ? 1), using an asymptotic expansion of ~ and ~[7] and integrating (l0), we get T~4. (oo, h) = 4 -}- 31z + 4 . - 2 2h ~/(1 -{- h)3 h2 ~j/1 ~- h h For resonance close to the Doppler type, using the expansion of ~ and ~[7], we get, for g ? 1, TT' (0, It')= 1 ' (2v2-f)E v2dv. 12 When h' < 1, the integrands in (10) and (12) can be expanded in series in h'. We then get the following formulae: ~n (~) _ - f n'Y 0 1 ` { [ ~2 (x' -1) -1 ] tY (x> s) -I- ~2 - x~2~ (x, ~). r ~ (x, ~S)1 "+` dx; [ (, ~)1 ~ n 2 2 ~ L ~Y (0, s) _l From (10)-(15) we can calculate the function W(~, h') in the ranges 0.01 s h' ~ 100 and 0 s g ,0 1,2 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 >,0 1,2 Shielding thickness, m Shielding thickness, m Fig. 2. Distribution of neutron fluxes in shielding Fig. 1. Distribution of neutron fluxes in iron-water shielding. of iron-heavy concrete. p, ~) Distribution of fluxes ^) Distribution of high-energy Neutrons (E > 20 MeV); ?) fast of resonance neutrons, according to data from two neutrons (1.5 < E < 20 MeV): ~) resonance neutrons (E ~ 1.44 MeV ). experiments. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 56-57, July, 1966. Original article submitted February 22, 1966. ~---- ~ ? ~ - ~ I'~ I Iron Wate r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~~ E ~ ? ^ ^ ~ s ~ ~ I ~ I ? . , ~~ ~~ 1~ I ~ r ., # T T ~ 1 7 i- II T Z ~ ~ , ~~ ~ ~ Water Iron I W a e 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 Shielding thickness, m Fig. 3. Distribution of neutron fluxes in water-iron-water shielding. ^) Distribution of high-energy neutrons; ?)fast neutrons; m)resonance neutrons. ?) Distribution of gamma-ray dose rate, 10-s ?r/sec. On analysing the experimental results shown in Figs. 1-3, we conclude that, within the experimental error, the presence of a preceding layer has no effect on the attenuation of fluxes of high-energy neutrons in the following layer. . Statistical data for many shielding materials [4] indicate that there is a linear relation between the inelastic- interaction cross section Ein of high-energy neutrons (E > 100 MeV) and the density p (in g/cros), to within about 5%: Etna=0.59(f.5~-~) ,r-r., The extraction cross section Erem of high-energy neutrons is proportional to Ein [2, 3, 5]: din Ererit ~ Ct > where the parameter a varies from 0.9 to 1.4, according to the neutron spectrum, and varies little with the material of the shielding. In homogeneous shielding of sufficient thickness [2, 5] the following relation holds good: ~f _ - Ein tPtr ~ n ; f ' 'rem where ~ f and ~h are the fluxes of fast and high-energy neutrons, respectively, n is the mean number of evaporative neutrons emerging from the excited nuclei, and Ejem is the extraction cross section for fast neutrons. The value of n Ein/Erem increases with the atomic weight of the shielding material. It was estimated to vary from ~ 0.1 for water to 1 for iron. The varying values of this quantity for each layer satisfactorily explain the behavior of a flux of fast neutrons. Surges in the fluxes of resonance neutrons at the boundary between two materials are due to the difference in these materials's moderating properties and also to deformation of the intermediate-neutron spectrum with ,increasing distance from the boundary. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Attenuation of the resonance-neutron flux in the material behind the iron can be regarded as exponential, after short transitional sections. The transitional sections are approximately equal to the relaxation lengths, and are ~1 ~ 3 cm in water and ~Z ~ 9 cm in heavy concrete. For these materials, the ages of the intermediate neutrons up to 1.44 eV (Eo = 1.5 MeV) are approximately T t ~ 30 cmZ and T2 ~ 120 cm2 [5]. From these values of T and 1, we can infer that, to a certain approximation, ~ characterizes the attenuation of a flux of inter- mediate neutrons in the second layer. The increased indications of the x-ray film in the layer of water following a layer of iron (cf. Fig. 3) are due to the hard component of the scattered capture gamma radiation. Owing to the appreciable accumulation of intermediate neutrons in the heavy materials, especially in steel, it is desirable to make a subsequent layer of shielding of water-containing material. The authors would like to thank Z. Tsisek and A. P. Cherevatenko for help in the experimental work. 1. L. N. Zaitsev et al. Atomnaya Energiya, 12, 525 (1962). 2. B. S. Sychev et al. Atomnaya Energiya, 2Q 323 (1966). 3. B. S. Sychev et al. Atomnaya Energiya, 20, 355 (1966). 4. L. N. Zaitsev et al. Atomnaya Energiya; 19, 303 (1965). 5. D: L. Broder et al. Concrete in Shields for Nuclear Plant. Moscow, Atomizdat (1966). 686 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 HEAT EMISSION FROM POTASSIUM BOILING IN' A TUBE IN THE REGION V. M. Borishanskii, A: A. Andreevskii; K. A. Zhokhov, G. .S. Bykov, and L. S. Svetlova Fig. 1. Working section of apparatus. UDC 621.039.517.5 Until recently, heat exchange during the. boiling of alkali metals has ,been studied mainly for the case of free convection of the ligtiid in a large vessel [1-4]. In [1] it was shown that, for sodium or potassium boiling with bubble formation in a large 'vessel, the heat- . transfer coefficient is proportional to the 0.7th power of the specific thermal load, i. e., the relation between a and q is the same as for the boiling of nonmetallic liquids. A similar relation was found by the authors of [2 ,8]. This problem was analyzed theoretically in [5, 6]. However, less work has been done on the boiling of alkali metals in tubes. In this letter we give some results on heat transfer during the boiling of potassium in circular tubes of diameter 10 mm and length 600 and 800 mm.. The apparatus used for this work consists of a closed circulation loop made of steel 1Kh18N9T. The main unit is the working section (calorimeter), which is directly heated by an electric current, and consists of two tubes (Fig. 1). To reduce the electrical resistance, the gap between the tubes was filled with copper. It was calculated that, for the given thickness of the copper layer (S = 4 mm), the heat emission in the liquid metal (in absence of vapor formation) was less than 10% of the total heat emission in the working section. During boiling practically all the heat was emitted in the walls. The wall temperature was measured at ten positions along the working section, in each of which was installed a chromel-alumel thermocouple. The temperature of the potassium was measured at the inlet to the working section, and also inside it at 30, 90 and 210 mm from the inlet and 30 mm from the outlet. The experiments took place at saturation pressures in the range ps ~ 0.42-3.38 atm (ts ~ 678-910?C) with thermal loads of up to t,'C - -; --~ i 900 ~ o ~ e ~ 890 880 - - 8700 100 200. 300 400 500. 600 700 [, m m Fig. 2. Temperature distribution along working section. Operating conditions: q= 263, 000 kcal/mE ' h; G = 131:5 kg/h; p = 3.2 atm; xout = 10.8%. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 58-59, July, 1966. Original article submitted February 18, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~ /0 t,?C - 530,000 kcal/m ? h. The vapor content at the inlet was ~15 by weight. The apparatus was constructed so that potassium 870 \ could be fed to the working section both after heating to the 850 ~?. saturation temperature and with a content of the vapor phase: \ ? ? ? ? Figure 2 gives the temperature distribution curve along 830 the working section with the vapor content at the inlet slightly o~~ -- 790 hence also the coefficient of heat transfer, are approximately ~ I i constant along the tube. 1JUIlilg C[LC eXpCIlIIlGlll ulc w~aauuul Wa? uwcwcu w uc come superheated above the saturation temperature. This Fig. 3. Temperature distribution along working phenomenon took place when the working section was fed with section. Operating conditions: q = 460,000 liquid metal not heated to the saturation temperature, so that kcal/mZ ? h; G = 84 kg/h; p = 1.78 atm; xout = further heating took place in the working section. However, . 25.6%, after the potassium reached saturation temperature, it became ' further heated during the course of its motion. The extent of the superheating was 30-50? C above the saturation temperature. After this the temperature of the potassium rapidly fell to near the saturation value. This process was accompanied by strong temperature pulsations of the wall and vapor-liquid mixture throughout the length of the working section. The maximum amplitude of these tempera- ture pulsations was observed to occur in the superheating zone and amounted tot 20? C. Figure 3 plots the temperature distribution along the working section when the latter was fed with potassium not heated to saturation temperature. Our experimental results on heat transfer are plotted in Fig. 4; this diagram also gives results from [1] on potassium boiling in a large vessel, and from [7] on potassium boiling in tubes of diameters 8.3 and 22 mm. Satis- factory agreement is observed between the data for the large vessel and the tubes, in the region of moderate vapor content. The experimental points are grouped near the line which represents the equation given in [1] for boiling with free circulation in a large vessel: ' ^ ^ a ^ o ~ . o ~~ o?~ ?. ? ? ? s ~ o? t d 00 0 o ~ . 0 ~ oo? 0 0 o ~oo oo ~ 00 I j ~o i Fig. 4. Heat emission for potassium boiling in a large vessel and in tubes of various diameters. O)Large vessel (data of'presenf work); ?)d= 10 mm (data of present work); ^)d = 8.3 mm [7]; ^)~d = 22 mm [7]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 where a is the coefficient of heat transfer in kcal/mE ? h ? ?C, q is the thermal load in kcal/m2 ? h, and p is the pressure in 'atm. Thus, Eq. (1) can be used to calculate the heat transfer from potassium boiling in a tube, in the absence of effects due to the vapor content. LITERATURE' CITED 1 . V. M. Borishanskii et al. Atomnaya Energiya, 19, 191 (1965). 2. R. Lyon, A. Faust, and A. Katz. Chem. Engng Progr. Sympos. Series, 51, No. 7 (1955). 3. R. Noyes. Trans. ASME (Series G), 5, No. 2 (1963). , 4. N. Madsen and C. Bonilla, Chem. Engng Progr. Sympos. Series> 56, No. 30 (1960,). 5. V. M. Borishanskii and K. A. Zhokhov. Atomnaya 1`nergiya, 18, '294 (1965). . 6. V. I. Deev and A. N. Solov'ev. Inzh.-fiz. zh., No. 6, 8 (1964). 7. A. Fraaz. Atomnaya Tekhnika za Rubezhom, No. 6; 12 (1964). All abbreviations of periodicals in the above bibliography are letter-by-letter translitera- tions of the abbreviations as given in the original Russian journal. Some or all of this peri- odical literature may well be available in English translation. A complete list of the cover-to? cover English translations aPPears at the back of the first issue of this year. 689 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 CHANGES IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AN AGING ALUMINUM ALLOY AFTER USE IN A NUCLEAR REACTOR A. P. Kuznetsova and B. V. Sharov This investigation deals with the alloy"Avial' Mark SAV-1", which consists of aluminum plus 0.6-1.2% silicon and 0.45-0.9% magnesium. The phase diagram of the system Al-Mg-Si contains a .quasibinary eutectic betweeri an aluminum-based solid solution and the intermetallic compound Mg2Si. The solubility of Mg2Si in aluminum decreases from 1.85% at the eutectic temperature to ~ 0.1% at room temperature [1]. Thus, after quenching of the alloy, age hardening takes place, owing to the appearance in the aluminum matrix of zones enriched with the alloy components and the forma- tion of particles of Mg2Si during the later stages of aging. ~ ~ y ~cC-~ L. (~''!! G ( ~'!! G 4-. 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ aoi o ~ ~ `V .x x ,~ ~, ~ 0 ~ th q ~ 0 .o - O 1 --1(l~. ._ lOta 30,5~0,(i 22,8_T1,6 i1,5?0,8 i(1 '~ - - 3(l,'1t0,7 23,5~1,4 11,6~0,9 8 3 2.1(1'r`-' fi?90t?~ i0,1.~0,4 23,2.~-0,6 10,4-}-0,5 5 4 2.10r~4 (i?'10~~~ 30,3~0,6 24,8?0,9 10,31,1 11 Before --- 27,50,6 21;1?0,9 12,50,2 ic; irradia ~ tion SAV-1 is used as a structural material for reactor cores, because it contains no substances with a large absorption cross section for thermal neutrons.' It is also resistant to corrosion in water, carbon dioxide and other media. We have studied the properties of the material of an. "Avial'" tube which has been acting as a pro- cess channel in the reactor of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Fig. 1). The "Avial' " "References [2, 3] give some data on the effect of irradiation on the properties of annealed SAV-1 and the similar American alloy 6061(61S). TABLE 2. Results of Tests on Control Specimens and on Specimens Irradiated by 6.1020 neutrons /cm2 Conditions of creep Residual Results of rapid testing to destruction after test deformation creep tests ~ S i after * reep, I No. of tests T, ~c a, kg/ i,. h men pec i % 6B, kg/ 6o,z, kg/. 6, ?/, performed mm2 , 2 mm mm2 Control 2,31 19,2?1,6 16,(i~2,1 101,7 3 9544 7 I L30 j Irradiated ~ 1,81 1~9,1~-1,8 ~ 16,11,5 101,7 3 Control I ~ 2,5~-f 18,01,2 16,00,6 7,9.0,1 3 154f4 5 i 350 Irradiated I j j 1,41 I 14,71,1 ,, 1-,31,3 10,9}0,7 4 Control i I. D. 65 cm. The cable must be irradiated in an inert atmosphere, say argon, in order to forestall oxidation. Before commencing the irradiation, the processor together with the cable loaded into it is to be "washed" with argon by successively evacuating and refilling the space three times. After this operation the radiLtLUir-chemical processor is filled with argon to an overpressure of 0.3 arm, and the cable is then irradiated in the argon environment. A large amount of hydrogen (as much as 160 liters daily) is given off during the irradiation process, and for that reason the argon-hydrogen mixture is pumped out every 12 hours the plant is in operation, after which the plant is refilled with argon to an overpressure of 0.3 atm. The KP-200 radiation-chemical plant [6] using a Co60 gamma-ray source with a total activity of 180,000 gram-equivalents of radium proved well suited to the purpose. The irradiator in this unit consists of 20 individual channels placed, in this application, on two concentric circles. The inner irradiator consists of six operating channels, with a diameter of 55 em, while the outer irradiator consists of 14 channels and is 113 cm in diameter. =The activity distribution between the inner and outer- irradiators was decided upon in such a way as to provide the required uniformity of dose field in the horizontal cross section. There were seven Co60 preparations in each channel, forming line sources 74 cm in height. -The radiation sources were transferred from the storage pond to the irradiator channels under compressed air at 0.4 atm. Calculations of the dose-rate field distribution in the horizontal cross section of the radiation-chemical pro- cessor were checked experimentally with the aid of ferrocuprosulfate dosimeters placed in a processor filled with water or cable material. The choice of water as simulator is dictated by the close agreement between the values of the bulls density of the cable material and the specific weight of water (respectively 0.95 and 1 g/cm3). Discrepancies between calculations based on data reported in [7] and the experiment kept to within 2%. The processor was rotated on its axis at a speed of 2 rpm in order to obtain the required uniformity of dose-rate field over the cylindrical surfaces concentric about the surface of the irradiators. The height of the irradiator had to be increased to 150 cm in order to obtain a uniform field of dose rates up the entire height of the cable-filled radiation- chemical processor. Pneumatic conveying of the radiation sources made it possible to cope with this problem with ease (i. e., doubling the irradiator height) by positioning the sources in two tiers. Experimental checking revealed a need to smooth out the dose-rate field along the height of the radiation- chemical processor. The existence of a clearance of 3 cm between the top and bottom tiers of sources in the irradiator, plus partial shielding of the middle of the irradiators by lead filters 20 cm high and 2 mm thick, brought about the required field uniformity of absorbed dose throughout the volume of the cable-filled processor. The experimental dose-rate field values throughout the volume of the processor loaded with cable, with lead. filters in place, are shown in Fig. 3. The dose required for different types of cables was chosen on the basis of product specifications and service conditions. When an insulated core in the geophysical cable was irradiated, a dose of 140 Mradt 10% was arrived at on the basis of preliminary experiments. The productivity of the facility was 0.7 kg of cable per hour at a dose rate of 63 r/sec and exposure time of 610 h. This means agamma-radiation efficiency of ~ 13% for the plant. Crosslinking of polyethylene insulation for the insulated core of geophysical cable 9 km in length was brought about on a KP-200 isotope facility. The practical realization of this process demonstrated how feasible it is to use isotope facilities for radiation-chemical processes in the treatment of large-size stock. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~. The authors are indebted to G. N. Lisov for his part in the design of the facility, and to M. E. Eroshov, M. D. Larionov, L. K. Topil'skii, Yu. D. Kozlov, and the late N. A. Kuznetsov for their kind assistance in the experimental phase of the work. 1. E. E. Finkel' et al. In the book: Proceedings of the Cable Industry Research Institute [NIIKP] [in Russian], No. VI, Moscow, GosBnergoizdat (1962), p. 151. 2. N. P. Gashinova et al. Ibid., No. VII, Moscow, Gos~nergoizdat (1963), p. 109. 3. E. E. Finkel'. Coll: Applications for Plastics in the Cable Industry [in Russian], Moscow, All-Union Research Institute for Electromechanics (1964), p. 25. 4. V. L. Karpov et al. Proceedings of the II All-Union Conference on Radiation Chemistry, Moscow, Izd, AN SSSR (1962), p. 547. 5. G. I. Gladkov et al. In the book: Proceedings of the Cable Industry Research Institute,[in Russian], No. LX, Moscow, Gos~arergoizdat (1963), p. 131. 6. N. G. Gusev et al. Shielding Against Emission by Extended Sources [in Russian], Moscow, (Gosatomizdat) (1961). 7. V. I. Volgin et al. Atomnaya ~nergiya,'18, 546 (1965). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 An exhibition hall devoted to the peaceful use of atomic energy in the USSR has found great popularity among visitors to the Polytechnical Museum. A central position in the exhibition hall is assigned to a section showing the role of nuclear power in the USSR. Numerous models, posters, and exhibits illustrate recent advances in nuclear power in the USSR. Among the most interesting of-them is a working model of an atomic power station which will soon be put into operation at Shevchenko with the BN-350, the first commercial, fast-breeder power reactor in the USSR. Energy generated in the reactor will be used both for the production of electrical power and for a desalinization plant with a capacity of 100,000 ms/day. A prominent place in the exhibition is occupied by low level nuclear power, which is represented by models ~of a 1500 kW portable atomic power station with aboiling-water, water-cooled reactor and of a 750 kW organic- cooled reactor (ARBUS-2). At the center of the hall, there are working models of the largest Soviet atomic power stations complete with buildings and equipment-the Kurchatov station at Beloyarsk and the one at Novo-Voronezh. At the Beloyarsk atomic power station, uranium-graphite reactors have been installed which have nuclear superheating of steam to ~ 500? C making it possible to use series turbines. The efficiency of the station is 35-38%. The reactor of one section of the Novo-Voronezh atomic power station has six circulating coolant loops, each pair of loops producing steam for one 70,000 kW turbogenerator. A single reactor forms a unit with three turbogenerators. This reactor is enclosed in a vessel in the form of a steel cylinder 3.8 m in diameter and 12 m high. The reactor core contains 312 operating fuel assemblies each of which contains 91 uranium dioxide fuel elements enriched to 1.5%. The efficiency of the station is 26.6%. Attracting the attention of visitors is a model of the First Atomic Power Station reactor and operating engi- neering loops which demonstrate clearly, and in detail, the operating principles of an atomic power station and of a reactor core. Of great interest is an exhibit of a model of the Romashka device, an outstanding direct converter of thermal energy to electricity. The device was shown at the Third International Conference on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy. The energy source in the device is a fast reactor with fuel in the form of 49 kg of 90% enriched uranium carbide. Energy is converted by means of semiconductor thermal converters. Temperature at the reflector surface is 1000? C, and power of the device is 0.5-0.8 kW. Tables presented in the exhibits reveal the prospects for the development of nuclear power in the USSR and the economic efficiency of an atomic power station in comparison with an ordinary coal-fired station. They indicate how the competitiveness of an atomic power station with respect to a coal-fired station increases in proportion to increase in the power of the atomic power station. In addition to nuclear power, the exhibition hall includes other fields in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Models of thermonuclear devices, toroidal chambers, and of the Ogrenok device give an idea of thework on mastering thermonuclear power. Of them, the most interesting is a model of the Ogrenok magnetic trap for thermo- nuclear research which is a cylindrical vacuum chamber with longitudinal magnetic field and magnetic mirrors. To produce ahigh-temperature plasma, deuterium ions, previously accelerated by a powerful accelerator, are injected into the chamber. Charged particles in the plasma are captured by the magnetic field. Also shown in the hall are instruments and equipment which demonstrate modern capabilities for the detection and measurement of radioactive radiations. Of particular interest is a model and diagram of a scintillation counter intended for measuring intense radiation fluxes and also for counting individual particles. The radiation detection efficiency is extremely high (it is about 100% for aand /i radiation, and as much as 50% for y radiation). A model and diagram is also shown for agas-discharge counter intended for detecting individual radioactive particles (the detection efficiency fora and t3 particles is close to 100%). Several instruments illustrate the use of radiation counters in various pieces of apparatus. For example, type SCh-3 equipment for counting neutrons is intended for the measurement of neutron fluxes by recording the electrical Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 74-76, July, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 impulses produced by neutrons in a SKM-5A boron counter, the latter acting as a sensor. The equipment is used for monitoring reactor operation and for research. The resolving time of the equipment is less than 50 ?sec. Also on exhibit is a type B-2 counting equipment which consists of a VSP (1) scaler with electromechanical pulse counter and scintillation attachment for measuring the intensity of radiation with a scintillation counter, the apparatus being intended for detection and pulse counting in the measurement of cx, p, and y radiation. The count rate of the apparatus goes to 6400- cts/sec separated by more than 50 ?sec. In a number of exhibits, there are PS-100 scalers with special decatron tubes in which counting rates of 20,000 cts/sec are achieved. The use of counters in biology is demonstrated by IMA-1 tracer atom ratemeters which are intended for qualitative and quantitative differential determination of soft and hard a and y radiation in working with tracer atoms. The instrument makes it possible to follow the path and the point of accumulation of tracer atoms in plants and animals. Indications of radiation inten- sity are given by measuring instruments, sound, and light signals. The pulse sensor is an SBT- 7end-window halogen counter in a hermetically sealed case. A special section is devoted to the use of radioactive isotopes and to equipment, and the operation of equip- ment, using radioactive isotopes for flaw detection and measurement. Among the interesting exhibits in this section is a CUP-Co-0,5-1 flaw-detector for industrial x-ray work and a portable GUP-Ti-0.5-3 which makes it possible to manage without expensive x-ray equipment. Also exhibited is working demonstration equipment--a Sliva radio- active soil-meter which makes it possible to measure- the percent content (from 0 to 40%) of soil in the silt passing through the silt pipes of a dredge; this enables one to regulate? the optimal mode of dredge operation. Operation of the instrument is based on the measurement, with an ionization chamber and tube circuit, of the radioactive radiation passing through the soil pipe from a radioactive source. Any change in the consistency of the silt produces some kind of attenuation in radiation intensity and a corresponding change in the reading of the instrument. Of interest is a UR-4 radioactive level gauge which is intended for continuous, contact-free measurement of the height of the interface between two media by illuminating the object with y rays from a Co60 source. The instrument consists of two columns and an electronic unit. The columns contain movable carriages, one of which carries a container with the radioactive source, and the other, two STS-8 counters. Dosimetric equipment is also exhibited in the hall. Included is the Tiss type universal radiometer which is .intended for measurement and warning when a given level of radioactive contamination by a- and a-active materials is exceeded on the surface of equipment, or on the clothing and hands of operating personnel. Instru- r~ents on exhibit enable one to measure radiation dose-the Kaktus microroentgenometer (a fixed line-fed instru- ment for measuring y-ray dose rate) and the KND-1 individual dosimeter (for measuring total doses of 0.02-2 R from y rays with energies from 115 keV to 2 MeV). Numerous posters and illustrations acquaint one with a brief chronicle of the most important events in the field of the peaceful use of atomic energy and also show the structure of the atom and the nucleus simply and clearly; they tell about radioactivity, nuclear reactions, the principle of chain reaction, and the operation of fast and thermal nuclear reactors. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 In Dubna, the jubilee session of the Scientific Council of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has completed its work. It was decided to confer the name of Academician Igor Vasil'evich Kurchatov on the new, one hundfed- fourth element in the periodic table ~in memory of his outstanding service in the development of Soviet and world- wide physics. Research carried out at Dubna on the synthesis of elements one hundred two, one hundred three, and one hundred four indicated that the most promising method of synthesis was connected with the irradiation of heavy elements by accelerated, complex nuclei. This is particularly apparent in the work on element one hundred four. The first data on the properties of the new element were obtained in 1964 in the JINR Nuclear Reactions Laboratory by G. N. Flerov, Yu. Ts. Oganesyan, Yu. V: Lobanov, V. I. Kuznetsov> V. A. Druin, V. P. Perelygin, K. A. Gavrilov, S. P. Tret'yakov and V. M. Plotko. One hundred and fifty spontaneous fission events in the new element were recorded as the result of extremely complex and lengthy experiments. Its lifetime turned out to be about thirty. seconds. After completion of the physical experiments, a group of Soviet and Czechoslovak staff members-I. Zvara Yu. T. Chuburkov, R. Tsaletka, T. S. Zvarova, M. R. Shalaevskii, B. V. Shilov-beganastudy of the chemical pro- perties of element 104. ~ This .problem was proposed by G. N. Flerov, and the development of techniques had already started in 1960. The investigations used original, rapid methods for continuous separation of the products of nuclear interactions. The method developed by the chemists made it possible to study the chemical properties of an element in fractions of a second while having only individual atoms at their disposal. The idea of chemical identification was based on an assumed sharp difference in the properties of the higher chlorides of element 104. In the chemical experiments, atoms of element 104 were separated from all actinides. It was shown that the new element was an analog of hafnium. Thus the cycle of research on the identification of element 104 was completed. Now a new element, bearing the name of an outstanding Soviet scientist, must take its place in the periodic 'The paper of I. Zvara et al., Chemical properties of element 104, will be published in the August issue of Atomnaya Energiya. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 76, July, 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY M . A . H e a 1 d and C . B . Wharton , Plasma Diagnostics with Microwaves. New York-London- Sydney, John Wiley and Sons (1965), 452 pages. Microwave diagnostics of plasma is a widely used technique, not only in thermonuclear fusion experiments, but also in space research, ionosphere studies, the development of spacecraft engines, MHD energy converters, microwave instruments, and other applications. The great advances in microwave diagnostic techniques have rendered it a standard technique in plasma investigation in many laboratories throughout the world. In this connec- tion the book by M. A. Heald and C. B. Wharton, pioneers in this field, is of .enormous interest. These authors set themselves the goal of writing a book which-would serve as reference text and handbook for the experimental physicist first approaching the study of plasmas by microwave techniques. The book contains an exhaustive pre- sentation of the theoretical fundamentals, plus a very detailed and what appears to be a unique, to date, description of the experimental technique. One special merit of this book, writteri by experimental physicists for experimental physicists, is the large number of photographic plates, oscillograms, graphs, and diagrams, which will be valuable tools to anyone working in the field. The presentation of the material begins at the elementary level and gradually rises to the frontier of research in this field. In the first chapter, the authors acquaint the reader with the now familiar theory of wave propagation through a cold plasma. In the second chapter, discussion centers on the role of collisions, especially electron-ion coulomb collisions. The third chapter applies kinetic theory to wave propagation in a hot plasma, when the random thermal velocities of the electrons are commensurate with the phase velocity of the wave. This chapter concludes with a brief discussion of Landau damping. The fourth and fifth chapters deal with the theory of wave propagation in a confined plasma. They take up microwave probing of plasma and the theory of plasma-filled waveguides and resonators. The sixth chapter presents a detailed discussion of all possible practical schemes of active microwave diagnostics of plasma (measurement of transmission, attenuation, and reflection of waves, microwave interferometers, measurements of Faraday rotation, wave scattering experiments, and so forth). The next two chapters take up the theory of microwave emission by the plasma itself as a result of both thermal and nonthermal processes, and discusses techniques of passive radiometric diagnostics. The ninth chapter cites a very detailed description of microwave equipment and microwave plumbing for use in plasma diagnostics. The tenth and concluding chapter of the book gives a brief description of other plasma diagnostics techniques. Here we find laser measurements, Langmuir and magnetic probes, optical spectroscopy, and similar topics, plus a discussion of how to use the various techniques to check the other diagnostic techniques. The book ends with a generous bibliography (mentioning over 500 titles) and an alphabetically ordered subject index. J . H . Sanders . The Fundamental Atomic Constants. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford (1965), 98 pages. This is the second edition of a monograph devoted to the fundamental atomic constants. It includes: the charge on an electron (e), the mass of the electron (m ), the mass of the proton (M), the speed of propagation of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum (c), Planck's constant (h), Avogadro's number (N), Boltzmann's constant (K ), and the gravitational constant (G). Modem atomic physics requires a knowledge of the exact values of these constants. The experimental (direct and indirect) and theoretical determination of these values is the subject of a large number of papers which serve as the basis for this book (the list of pertinent literature extends over 213 titles). The content of the monograph can be divided into four basic sections: earlier measurements of the constants, modern exact measurements and measure- ments of the speed of light, and deviations in values of the constants. The appendices give the commonly used designations for the constants, standardization of measurements, and a table of values of the constants with precision indicated. The monograph will be of interest to both theoretical and experimental physicists as a reference containing the most exact values available for the atomic quantities in question. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 77-80, July> 1966. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Seventh Report on the Activities of the [European Nuclear Energy] Agency. Paris, ENEA (1965), 125 pages. The European Nuclear Energy Agency, in which 18 European nations enjoy membership, issued its seventh report on its activities in 1965. The report starts off with a description of the work carried on in joint efforts at the Halden and Dragon reactors and at the Eurochemic spent-fuel reprocessing plant. The reactors are presently in operation, and the reprocessing plant will be on stream before the end of 1966. A description of the collaborative efforts of the ENEA in the field of nuclear constants, reactor physics, reactor safety programs, computer programming, neutron constants, irradiation of foodstuffs, power. production with radio-.. active isotopes, and similar topics, takes up a lot of space in the report. Close attention is given to international rules and regulations on reactor safety, radiation shielding, disposal of radioactive wastes, transportation of radioactive materials, etc. The outlook for the development of nuclear power in member nations of the ENEA and is dealt with in brief, and the fuel-power balance of those countries is also described. The book has several appendices: the organizational structure of the agency, the work of the committee on reactor safety terminology, irradiation programs, a list of power reactors, research reactors, and critical assemblies in the ENEA member-nations. The report is mainly of an informative and descriptive character and may prove useful to those readers who are primarily .interested in the activities, organization, and administration of international atomic agencies. Use of Plutonium for Power Production. Vienna, IAEA (1965),162 pages. This publication comprises a collection of papers submitted to an IAEA-sponsored conference on the use of plutonium in power production. The increase in production of plutonium in power reactors of different countries places added emphasis on plutonium recycle operations and on more efficient utilization of plutonium supplies. For example, ~?3000kgofplutonium will be produced annually in Great Britain's reactors during the Seventies; the annual production of plutonium in the USA is expected to reach 15,000-20,000 kg by 1980. The collection of papers is divided into two parts. The first section presents papers from different countries (twelve papers in all); the second section presents brief reviews summarizing the discussion at the conference (7 reviews). The research program on the use of plutonium in Belgium's reactors is discussed in a paper by E. Bemben. The brunt of this paper is the description of trends in research and the organization of research work. There are some brief remarks on irradiation experiments in the BR-3 reactor using plutonium fuel elements. A costs analysis of a plutonium recycle fuel cycle in thermal reactors appears in a report by O. Reynolds (Canada). The author concludes that the use of plutonium produced in CANDU type reactors in water-cooled water-moderated reactors will bring down the fuel component of power costs to 0.05 cent per kWh. The physics of plutonium utilization as nuclear fuel is discussed in a paper by J? Vandres et al. (France). Costs are discussed in general outline. Similar topics are discussed by S. Paranipe (India), but here attention is centered on fuel cycles utilizing thorium fuel in systems with thermal and fast reactors. L. Sani (Italy) centered his attention on the isotope compositions of fuel discharged from the reactor at different bumup levels. The next two papers are from Japan. The first (S. Omachi) deals with the status of re- search work on plutonium utilization in Japan, and the second (M. Takahashi) deals with the outlook for plutonium utilization in electric power generation. Great Britain submitted a fundamental paper on plutonium utilization (H..Kronberger). Physics in thermal reactors and fast reactors, fuel element fabrication, costs, burnup in thermal reactor, and fast reactors are discussed. F. Albauch (USA) cited a large amount of experimental data on plutonium fuel technology for thermal reactors. This report was complemented with one by S. Lawrowski (USA) on the USA fast reactor plutonium utilization pro- gram. The technology and fabrication techniques of plutonium fuel elements, plutonium fuel material, and their utilization were stressed in this report. The last two reports were presented by Euratom. These were a paper by W. Rajewski on plutonium utilization research and one by H. Mikhaelis on plutonium utilization costs. The reports gave most of their space to the out- look for plutonium production and plutonium utilization (extrapolated to 1980). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 International Symposium on Working Methods in High Activity Hot Laboratory, Volumes I, II. Paris, European Nuclear Energy Agency (1965), 1030 pages. A symposium, whose proceedings appear in a separate publication, was organized by the Commission of Economic Cooperation and Development of ENEA in collaboration with Euratom, and held at Grenoble in June 1965 at the atomic research center of the Commissariat de 1'Energie Atomique of France. Representatives of sixteen nations and five international bodies participated in the symposium. The two- volume publication includes 53 papers and material on 12 discussions following presentation of the papers. All the papers are grouped by according to the six sessions, each of which was devoted to a particular topic. X-radiographic and similar radiographic inspection of irradiated fuel elements were discussed at the first two sessions, as well as several nondestructive techniques for inspecting fuel elements and experimental capsules (gamma- ray spectroscopy, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current techniques, fluoroscopy, metrologic determinations of dimen- sional changes and warpage, remote photography and remote inspection techniques). The reports cite diagrams of remote control facilities designed for these studies. A. Fudge, R. Coser (Great Britain), H: Engelman (France), et al. discussed topics pertaining to the study of fission product distribution and migration in the interior of fuel elements by gamma-ray scanning techniques. Results were cited. Reports by F. Browne (USA) and G. Vinebliss (Great Britain) et al. discussed various methods for nondestructive inspection of fuel elements, and cited some diagrams of remote control accessories and facilities for sampling gaseous fission products to determine their composition and quantity. The third session was devoted to various techniques and equipment for disassembly and mechanical treatment of spent fuel elements and experimental capsules in hot caves for the fabrication of inspection samples. The fourth session discussed several techniques and methods for the transportation of spent fuel elements and experimental capsules following in-pile irradiation. Close attention is given to shielding techniques designed to eliminate contamination of rooms, equipment, and the surrounding atmosphere at fuel reloading sites (paper sub- mitted by F. Larsen, Denmark). The problem is handled by correct organization of the ventilation system (inflow- discharge), by bringing about a properrarefaction in rooms occupied by personel, in hot caves in a-, p-, andy- shielded glove boxes. Reports by P. Pesenti (Euratom), M. Heeren (West Germany)>et al. cited diagrams and sequencing of reloading operations, with all manner of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride films 0.3 to 0,4 mm thick in jacket and sleeve configurations employed for protecting the environmental atmosphere from a-, S-, and y -contamination. P. Graf (Switzerland), G. Schult (USA), A. Ritchie (Great Britain), P. Gotlob (West Germany),and others dis- cussed various types and designs of transporting and reloading devices employed in hot laboratories in their re- spective countries. Reports submitted at the fifth session discussed deactivation of rooms,. hot caves, a-, S-, and y-shielded boxes,. manipulators, and various approaches and techniques in the conveyance of contaminated materials from radiation- hazard zones to deactivation and maintenance rooms. Reports by C. Watson (USA), H. Wells (Great Britain)>et al. cited a number of physical deactivation techniques (ultrasonic cleaning, pneumatic chisel treatment of con- taminated surfaces, treatment of contaminated surfaces with metal brushes, abrasive grinding wheels, vacuum suction dust collectors and moisture collectors, etc.) and chemical deactivation techniques (acids, alkalis, organic solvents, water), and the equipment and materials utilized in this work. Recommendations are given for the deactiva- tion of floors, walls, ceilings, and the structural materials employed in building hot caves and glove boxes. Reports by H. Brinkmann (West Germany), C. Cesarino (Italy), L. Hayette (France),, and others cited examples of organiza- tion and planning of rooms for deactivation of contaminated equipment (manipulators, a-and 13-shielded glove boxes for work in hot cells, instruments, facilities, devices ).All the authors are of the view that deactivation operations should always be carried out in a specially isolated room which is properly planned and equipped (air locks) and designed to prevent the propagation of radioactive contaminants through clean rooms in a hot laboratory. Examples of correct organization and outfitting of rooms for deactivation are cited. The last session heard reports on planning of hot laboratories (USA, Great Britain, etc.) and shops for repro- cessing and inspecting spent fuel elements; organization of ventilation systems, transportation of irradiated materials, equipment for inspection of fuel elements in hot caves with heavy shielding against gamma rays, gloveboxesshielded for a- and a-emissions, and organization of inspection, measures .to prevent radioactive contamination of laboratory rooms, shops, and surrounding premises or of the equipment used in those facilities. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Sections appended to those symposium papers list hot laboratories in the participant nations represented at 'the symposium, their locations, brief data on them,and some indication of the work pursued there. A list of con- tributing authors is also given. The symposium materials are accompanied by a large number of illustrations and diagrams, with references to the literature. The appearance in print of this collection of symposium papers will enable many specialists working with highly radioactive materials to familiarize themselves with techniques in use, and to broaden their horizon on topics pertaining to the proper organization of conveying radioactive materials in hot laboratories and deactivation of different types of contaminated equipment. .These materials will also be of great value to designers of hot caves, glove boxes, and hot laboratories. Exchange Reactions. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (1965),417 pages. "Exchange reactions" is the title of the proceedings of a symposium on exchange reactions organized by IAEA and held in May-June 1965 at Brookhaven. National Laboratory (USA). The collection contains 29 jpapers, with abstracts in English, French, Russian, and Italian. Each paper is followed by a brief account of the ensuing discussion. Some of the papers deal with the theory of reactions involving electron transfer and their significance in structural effect, with the effect of the stability of complex compounds on electron exchange reactions, with electron transfer and proton transfer by the Grothus mechanism in aqueous'solutionsand inbiological systems, and with techniques used in the study of exchange reactions (mass spectroscopy of exchange regions of isotopes and investiga- tion of exchange reactions of alkyl groups in aluminoalkyl compounds by proton magnetic resonance). The bulk of the reports submitted concern research on concrete systems. The mechanism and kinetics of electron transfer reactions in systems of elements of differing valency (tetravalent and hexavalent uranium, divalent and trivalent iron, trivalent and pentavalent antimony) occurring in aqueous and organic media. One of the papers reported the effect of the nature of the solvent, of salts present, and of temperature on exchange reactions in systems containing neptunium and uranium. Many of the papers dealt with exchange reactions in complex compounds (hexachlorides and pentachlorides of trivalent radium; complexes involving divalent platinum; halide complexes of elements of the platinum group with coordination number six) and in organic systems (electron exchange reactions of aromatic molecules, electron transfer in vinyl aromatic polymers, etc.). Finally, some of the papers reported results on exchange reactions occurring on the surface of ionic crystals. Nondestructive Testing in Nuclear Technology. Vienna, IAEA (1965), 393 pages (Volume I) +446 pages (Volume II). This is a collection of 46 papers presented by leading specialists from 20 countries and two international organizations at a Budapest May 1965 international symposium, as well as accounts of the discussion at the sympos- ium sessions. The collection reflects the advances registered in recent years in the use of nondestructive testing methods for quality control of structural materials and finished products employed in nuclear technology. Included are methods for detecting cracks and latent defects, gaging of dimensions of tubes and fuel elements, and mapping uranium and plutonium distributions in fabricated fuel elements. Much attention is given to both already established and recently proposed techniques of nondestructive testing to secure detailed data on physical properties and the state of materials,and on the effect of processing technology on those properties. The papers presented are buttressed by a generously detailed bibliography (over 380 titles), and will be greeted with interest by specialists and production experts in nuclear power industry. Atomic Handbook. Vol. I-Europe. Edited by Y. W. Shortall. London, Morgan Brothers Ltd. (1965), 868 pages. This first volume of a reference handbook set encompasses Europe, with socialist countries included, and con- sists of 6 sections. The first section presents a brief review of the current status of atomic industry and of the development of scientific research in 29 countries in Europe. According to incomplete data, capital investments in all sectors of atomic industry are estimated at four billion dollars, and Europe's 1965 "atomic budget" is placed at around one billion dollars, the minimum estimate of the number of personnel employed in atomic industry and scientific institutions is 230,000, the total power output of electric power. generating stations now on the line is 326 million kW, with nuclear-fueled power stations accounting for 3.3 million kW out of that total. The number Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 of nuclear power generating stations is: 26 now in operation, 23 under construction, 17 in the planning stage. Reactors and critical assemblies number 160, and there are 92 atomic research centers. The second section contains information on international organizations (IAEA, Euratom, CERN, COMECON, and others) based on European countries. The third, and principal, section contains reference material on European countries: atomic research and development programs, membership in international organizations, agreements with individual countries, jurisprudence in atomic power, utilization of radioactive isotopes, atomic budget, number of persons employed in atomic industry, development of electric power on the whole, and development of nuclear power in particular, reactors, research centers, governmental organizations, private films, universities, and mis- cellaneous organizations concerned with atomic energy. The fourth section lists periodicals and newspapers (with specialists and pertinent journalists indicated) which regularly publish material on atomic energy, the fifth section lists leading personnel in the principal firms and atomic agencies, and the sixth section lists yearbooks and reference handbooks on atomic energy published in European countries. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~~ '~ ~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 ~ ~ ~ . ientist-trans~ato ? ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ You ,can keep abreast of,the latest Soviet research b c 1 in your?field while supplementing your income y t"ranslating in your own home on a part-time basis. ' In the expanding Consultants Bureau publishing program, we guarantee a continuous flow of trans- ~. ~ ~, _ iat~on in~your specialty. it you nave a nauvC c~ii--. , mand of English, a good knowledge of Russian; and ? ~ .? . experience and ,academic training in a scientific' `' discipline, you may be qualified for our program. ' ~ ~ ,Immediate openings, are available in the following ~ ~ fields:: physics, chemistry, engineering, biology, ge- ology, and instrumentation. Call ~or write, now .for additional information: -TRANSLATIONS, EDITOR .RUSSIAN TO ENGLISH r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP10-021968000700040001-3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP1O-021968000700040001-3 Crystallization Processes. Institute of Solid State Physics and Semiconductors Academy of Sciences of the Belorussian SSR, Minsk. Translated from Russian by Geoffrey D. Archard Corrected by,the editors for the American editioh. Edited by N. N. Silrota, F. K. Gorskii and V. M. Varikash Devoted to a consideration of the mechanism and kinetics ~ - of crystallization and the production of single-crystal semi- conductor materials, their purification and the controlled distribution of impurities. Several articles in this important new volume cover theoretical and experimental aspects of the relief and the state of the surface of growing crystals and the surface energy at crystal-melt.boundaries. Attention is given to the competing mechanism in crystallization prroc- esses,"compared with experimental data on the temperature- , dependence of crystallization parameters, the linear velocity. of crystallization, and the rate of crystal growth. A number of papers consider the structural and kinetic laws of crystal dissolution and the role of the structure of liquids in crystal- lization processes. , Most of the'articles in this collection were presented at the All-Union Conference on the Theory of Crystallization, thermodynamics; and. the Kinetics of Phase Transform~- tions. Translated from afour=part Russian volume, Mecha- nism and Kinetics of Crystallization, the present work com- -prises two of the sections. The remaining two parts are being published simultaneously in a translation entitled Solid State Transformations. The Russian text from which the transla- tion was prepared was thoroughly corrected by the .editors. CONTENTS: Experimental end Theoretical Study of Processes of Crystal- lization: Interphase surface energy of sodium chloride at the crystal-melt boundary, F. K. Gorskil, A. S. Mikulich ? Relief on the surface of crystals growing from solution, G. R. Bartlnl, E. D. Dukove, 1. P. Korshunov, A. A. . Chernov Molecular roughness of the crystal-melt boundary; D. E. Temkin ? `Mechanism of the growth of safol crystals from the malt, D. E. Ovsienko, G. A. Alfintsev ? Character of the linear crystallization rate? temperature curve of,hexoacetate, M. M. Mezhul', L. K. Sharik ? Study of the temperature dependence of the linear crystallization rate of ealol, 169 pages ' betol, salipyrine, antipyririe, and codeine; L. O. Maleshko Method of determining the temperature dependence of the number of crystallization centere, L. O. Maleshko Effect ,of crucible materiel end the purity of the original metal on the supercooling of iron, V. P. Kosryuchenko, D. E. Ovsienko ? Broadening of the region of primary,solid solutions in alloys of eutectic end peritectic types, 1. S. Mlroshntchenko ? Formation of the structure of eutectic-type alloys at high cooling rates, f. S. Miroshnl- chenko ? Kinetic equations of alloy crystallization, V. 7. 8ortsov ~ Experi- , mantel determination of kinetic coefficients for binary syeteme, V. T. Borisov, ;4. 1. Dukhln, Yu. E. Matveev, E. P. Rakhmanove ? Effect of mor-' phology of the etch figures on the form of diseciving metal crystals, 1. M. Novosal'Skif ? .Dissolution structures of individual faces of aluminum single crystals in a solution for chemical polishing, V. A. Dmltriev, E. V. Rzhevskaya, V. A. Khristoforov ? Etch spirals on single crystals of steel, L. 1. Lysak, B. i. Nikolin ? Effect of the pH of the solution an the form of emmonbrn dihydrophosphate crystals, 1. M. Byteva ? Growing alkali-haLlde single crystele from the melt by directional heat extraction, A: E. Mallkov Two types of skeletal crystals, S. A. Stroltelev Structural features of zone-mailing iron, F. N. Tavadze, 1. A. Balrarrtashvlli, L. G. Sekvarelldze, V. Sh. Metrevll, N. A. Zoidze, G. V. Tsagarslshvili ? Phase transformations' in the processes of reducing uranium oxides, V.' M. Zhukovsk/!, E. V. Tkachenko, V. G. Vlasov, V. N. Strekelovskll ? Theimodynamica of phase transformation of the interstitial solution In frozen soils and mountain rocks, N. S.,Ivenov ?`Effecb of External Aetions on the Processes of Crystallization: New experimental results on the etching of single crystals In an ultrasonic field, A. P.~Kepustin Dispersion herdenin0 of lead-base alloys M an ultrasonic field, F. K. Gorskii, V. 1. Efremov ? Role of insoluble impuritles~in the crystallization of metals In an ultrasonic field, O. V. Abramov, 1. 1. Teumin ? Kinetics of the decomposition of supersaturated solutions of aluminum fluoride in ultrasonic fields, Yu. N. Tyurin, S. 1. Rempel' Decomposition of aluminete solutiona~under the influence of ultrasound and with mechanical agitation, V. A. Derevyankln, V. N. 71kho- . nov, S. /. Kuznetsov ? Effect of an electric field on the crystallographic parameters of a substance, L. T. Prishchepa ? Effect of a magnetic field on the, formation.. of crystalline nuclei in supercooled betol, F. K. Gorskll, . A. ~V. Akhromova. ~ ~ ~, Crystallization.Processes: $22.50 Solid State Transformat'ions': $22.50 Set Price: $40.00 6 CONSULTANTS BUREAU 227"West 17th Street, New York, New York 1001.1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/12 :CIA-RDP1O-021968000700040001-3