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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 ISSN 0038-531X Russian Original Vol.-47, No. 3, September, 1979 March, 1980 SATEAZ 47(3) 691-790 (1979)' SOVIET ATOMIC EN ERGY ATOMH'AH 3HEPfNH (ATOMNAYA ENERGIYA) TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN C CONSULTANTS BUREAU, NEW YORK Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 SOVIET Soviet Atomic Energy is a Cover-to-cover translation-of Atomnaya fnergjya,`a-publication of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. An agreement with the Copyright Agency of the" USSR (VAAP) ATOIVIIC makes available both advance copies of the Russian journal and original glossy photographs and artwork. This serves to decrease the necessary time lag between publication of the original and publication of the translation and helps to improve the quality ENE.RY Hof the latter. The translation began-with the first issue of the Russian' journal., Editorial Board of Atomnaya Energiya` Editor: 0. D. Kazaphkovskii Associate Editors:,. N. A. Vlasov and N_. N.' Ponornarev-Stepnoi, Secretary: A. I. Artemov I.. N. V. I. l I_'ichev V. E. lv.anbv V. F. Kalinin P. L. Kirillov\ Yu. I. Koryakin A. K. Krasin' E. V. Kulov B. N.-Laskorin V. V. Matveev I. D. Morokhov A. A. Naumov A. S. Nikiforov A. S..' Shtan' B. A. Sidorenko M. F. Troyanov E. 1. Vorob'ev Copyright (D_ 1980, Plenum Publishing Corporation. Soviet Atomic Energy partici-; pates in the program of Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. The appearance of a code line at the bottom of the first page of an article in this journal indicates the copyright owner's consent that copies of the article' may be made for personal or internal us~. However, this consent is given on the condition that the copier pay: the stated per-copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. for all copying not explicitly permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. It does not extend to other kinds-of copying,'such'as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale, nor to the reprinting Of figures, tables, and `text excerpts. Consultants Bureau journals appear about six months after the 'publication of the original Russian issue. 'For bibliographic accuracy, the English issue, published by Consultants Bureau carries the same number and -date as the original Russian from which it was translated. For example, a Russian issue published in December will appear in a Consultants Bureau English translation about the following June, but the translation issue will carry the December date. When ordering any volume or particu- Iar issue of a 'Consultants Bureau journal,'please.specify, the'date and, where appli- cable, 'the volume and issue numbers of the original Russian. The material you will receive will be a translation of that Russian volume or issue. Subscription (2 volumes per year) . Vols. 46 &"47: $147.50 per volume (6 Issues) Single Issue: $50 Vols. 48 & 49: $167,50 per, volume (6 Issues) Single Article: $7.50 Prices somewhat higher outside the United States. Soviet Atomic Energy, is-pbstracted or in- dexed in Chemical Abstracts, Chemical Titles, Pollution Abstracts, Science Re-' search Abstracts, Parts A and B, Safety " Science Abstracts Journal, Current' Con- . tents, Energy Research Abstracts, and, Engineering Index. CONSULTANTS BUREAU, NEW YORK AND LONDON E C b 227 West 17th Street ' New York, New York, 10011 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Published monthly. Second-class postage paid at?Jamaica, New Yor'k 11431. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 SOVIET ATOMIC ENERGY A translation of Atomnaya Energiya March, 1980 Volume 47, Number 3 September, 1979 CONTENTS THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Development of the Nuclear Power Industry in the German Democratic Republic - W. Mitzinger .................. ............ Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic in the Light of the Decisions of the Ninth Congress of the German Socialist Unity Party -K. Fuks ............................. .................. . ARTICLES Effect of Nonuniformity of Fuel Depletion with Height on the Physical Characteristics of a Reactor - A. M. Afanas'ev and B. Z. Torlin ............ Power Effect of Reactivity in Fast Power Reactor with Allowance for Behavior.of Fuel under Irradiation - G. M. Pshakin and A. A. Proshkin ..................................... . Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Sodium Void Effect of Reactivity - S. P. Belov, P. V. Gerasimov, Yu. A. Kazanskii, V. I. Matveev, G. M. Pshakin, and P. L. Tyutyunonikov ................... Minimization of Loss of Energy Output by System of Reactors Operating with a Variable Load Schedule - V. I. Naumov and A. M. Zagrebaev ................... ..................... . Effect of Entrance Conditions on the Development of Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes - B. N. Gabrianovich, Yu. D. Levchenko, Yu. P. Trubakov, and P. A. Ushakov................................. A Graphicoanalytical Method for Determining the Length of Elements along the Height of a Multielement Thermoemissive Assembly - V. V. Sinyavskii ....................... ................. . Fission Neutron Detectors -Z. A. Aleksandrova, V. I. Boll shov, I. E. Bocharova, K. E. Volodin, V. G. Nesterov, L. I. Prokhorova, G. N. Smirenkin, and Yu. M. Turchin .................. .... ...... . Analysis of the Reliability of Radiochemical Plants. with Electron Accelerators - V. M. Kshnyaskin and Yu. D. Kozlov ..................... NEW BOOKS E. P. Anan'ev. Atomic Plants in Power Engineering - Reviewed by Yu. I. Koryakin ................ ................ . Engl./Russ. 691 147 693 149 697 152 703 157 708 161 713 165 715 167 718 169 721 172 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 CONTENTS (continued) Engl./Russ. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Evaluation of the Selectivity of Electrochemical Reactor-Fuel Recovery on the Basis of Thermodynamic Data - V. A. Lebedev...... .......:.... 731 180 Determination of Neutron and Radiation. Components of Energy Release in Boron-Containing Rods,U.sing Gray Chambers - V.I P. Polionov, Yu.G.Pashkin,andYu.A.Prokhorov.................................... 733 182 Photoproduction of Neutrons in a Thick -Lead Target - V. I. Noga, Yu. N. Ranyuk, and Yu. N. Telegin ..................................... .735 183 Mathematical Model for Calculating Fission Products Concentration and Energy Release in Circulating Nuclear Fuel - L. I. Medvedovskii, E. S. Star-iznyi, VV. A.'Cherkashin, V. A. Rudoi, and K. I. Stepanova ....................................... 737 ?184 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR A Possibility of Reducing the Doubling Time. for Thermal Liquid=Salt Breeder Reactors V. L. Blinkin ...... 740 186 A Possibility for the Use of Highly Active Fuel Regeneration Wastes of Fast Power Reactors -.E. M. Vetrov and E. M. Ikhlov ..................... 742 187 Use of a Crystal Synchrotron Target to Obtain a Positron Beam - V. G. Potemkin and S. A. Vorob'ev ... ' ................................ 744 188 Gas-Chromatographic Apparatus for,, Determining Carbon in Uranium and Uranium Dioxide Pellets with Serial Loading of Specimens - V. A. Nikol'skii, V. K. Markov, A. S. Panov, and B. S. Valyunin ................. 746 190 a Particle Recording with RF-3 Film Track Detectors -I. V. Zhuk, A. P.Malykhin, L. P. Roginets, and'O. I. Yaroshevich .................... 748 191 Identification and Estimate of Tritium Content in VVR-M Reactor Water - A. M. Drokin, V. K. Kapustin, V. -P. Korotkov, V. V. Leonov, V. K. Mironov, and Yu. P. Saikov ........................... `750 192 Calculation of X-Ray and v-Ray: Photoelectric Attenuation -Factors for Statistical ,Modeling of TransportProcesses =S. Marenkov and T. V. Singarieva. 752 194 Purification of .Iron from U and Ra Microimpurities by Zone Melting - I. R. Barabanov, L. P. Volkova, V. N. Gavrin, V. L Glotov, D. S. Kamenetskaya, L. L. Koshkarov, I. B. Piletskaya, and V. I..Shiryaev ..................... ........ 754 195 Reliability of Detection of Sodium Boiling by Correlation of Acoustic and Neutron Noise - B. V. Kebadze and K. A. Aleksandrov .................. 756 197 Calculation of Sanitary-Protective Zones around Accelerators - Yu. A. Volchek .................. ....... ............ ........ 759 1-98 Systematics of (n, p) and (n, a) Cross Sections - V. N. Levkovskii , .. 762 '200. Reactimeter with 'a Pulsed Measurement Channel - V. A. Lititskit, A. G. Kostromin, V. V. Bondarenko, and F. B. Bryndin........................ 764 202 Estimate of the Risk from the Combined Action of Radiation and Chemical Agents - V. N. Lystsov and V. A. Kinzhinkov ..................... 7167 203 Estimate of Doppler Broadening of Resonances - V. V. Kolesov and A. A. Luk'yanov ................................... .......... 770 2,05. Neutron Resonances of 241Cm In the Energy Range 0.5-20 MeV - T. S. Belanova, A. G. Kolesov, A. V. Klimov, S. N. Nikol'skit, V. A. Poruchikov, V. N. Nefedov, V. S. Artamonov, R. N. Ivanov, and S. M. Kalebin ....................... .................. 772 -2.06 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 CONTENTS (continued) Engl./Russ. CONFERENCES, MEETINGS, SEMINARS Soviet-British Seminar on Fast Reactors - R. P. Baklushin ...................... 774 208 Conference on Hydrogen Power Generation - Yu. I. Koryakin ..................... 776 209 Second Conference of the Consultative Group on Nuclear Data for the Isotopes of the Actinide Elements - V. M. Kulakov ..................... 777 210 Soviet-Swedish Seminar on the Burial of Radioactive Waste - L. P. Zavyal'skii .............................................. 779 211 National Conference in the USA on Charged-P article Accelerators - Yu. M. Ado and I. N. Semenyushkin .................................. 780 212 BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Tenth Spring Symposium on High Energy Physics - A. B. Kaidalov .................. 783 213 Fifth Meeting of the Combined Soviet-Canadian Working Group on Collaboration in the Field of Power Generation - M. B. Agranovich ........... 784 213 First Meeting of the Joint Soviet-French Working Group on Collaboration in the Field of Electric Power Generation - M. B. Agranovich ................... 784 214 First Moscow Kurchatov Lecture - I. A. Reformatskii .......................... 785 214 NEW BOOKS Kh. Wong. Basic Formulas and Data on Heat Exchange for Engineers - Reviewed by P. L; Kirillov ....................................... 786 215 I. I. Malashinina and I. I. Sidorova. Training Equipment for Nuclear Power Station Operators - Reviewed by S. G. Muradyan ..................... 787 215 G. M. Fradkin (Editor). Radioisotope Sources of Electric Power - Reviewed by A. A. Efremov .......... ......................... . 788 215 The Russian press date (podpisano k pechati) of this issue was 8/23/1979. Publication therefore did not occur prior to this date, but must be assumed to have taken place reasonably soon thereafter. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY IN THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC* W. Mitzingert In the 30 years of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) the power industry of the country has to an every increasing extent become an important factor in the growth of the national economy. In accordance with the further development of the socialist society the energy policy of the country is aimed at ensuring the well- being of the nation, in the service of the working class and all working people. The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (CC SUPG) and Chairman of the State Council of the GDR, E. Honnecker, stated at the Ninth Congress of the Party that the creation of a powerful modern energy and raw materials base is a fundamental condition for the development of the productive forces for the gradual transition to communism and its material and technical foundations. The energy policy of the country, deter- mined at the Eighth Congress of the SUPG and reaffirmed at the Ninth Congress is based on three main prem- ises: security of fuel and energy supplies through maximum use of domestic energy and raw-material resour- ces; rationalization of the processes of conversion, transportation, and application of energy for a further decrease in the specific fuel and energy consumption; implementation of a comprehensive program of socialist economic integration for the extensive utili- zation of the scientific and technological advances, the creation of specialized production of highly effi- cient plant, particularly in electrical machine construction, and stable, long-term supplies of raw mater- ials and fuel for the country. In accordance with these premises, low-calorie brown coal will, as before, remain the main source of primary energy in the country, at least up to the year 2000. In the future as well a large proportion of the energy demand will be covered by domestic brown coal. The directives of the Ninth Congress of the SUPG set the goal of "ensuring the production of domestic solid fuel with the minimum possible costs by increasing the power and efficiency of existing strip mines and concentrating plants in combination with the discovery of new open pits." However, because of the limited possibilities of increasing extraction and the increasing deteriora- tion of the geological and hydrological conditions, further expansion of brown coal production, especially after 1990, will be restrained by natural causes. In the light of present concepts, atomic energy presents the only possible alternative for meeting the requirements of the GDR for energy, especially after 1990. Thus, the early development of an industrial base for nuclear power in the country is envisaged. With due regard for the sci- entific and technical potential and the structure of industry, this problem can be solved only in close cooper- ation with the Soviet Union and other COMECON member-nations. As long ago as 2 years after the start-up of the Obninsk Atomic Power Plant (APP) an intergovernmental agreement was signed on the joint construc- tion of the Rheinsburg APP with a VVER (water-moderated-water-cooled power reactor) with an electrical power of 70 MW. During the design, construction, andoperationof this APP scientists, designers, builders, erectors, and operators of our country had the opportunity to become acquainted with the new technology in close cooperation with Soviet specialists. While the technical design and the principal equipment, of the APP were supplied by the Soviet Union, the detail design and auxiliary equipment, including the stream generator, were elaborated and built in the GDR. The construction and the assembly of the equipment of the APP were carried out by GDR specialists. The successful start-up of the Rheinsburg APP on May 8, 1966, on the anniversary of liberation from fascism, demonstrated that in the GDR the prerequisites had been created for mastering atomic energy in fra- ternal cooperation with the Soviet Union. 'Thus, the road was laid for mastering a new source of energy, atomic energy. Already in 1965 a new agreement was concluded with the Soviet Union on joint work on the con- *Translated originally from German; ?1979 by Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. tMinister of Coal Mining and Power. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 147-149, September, 1979. 0038-531X/79/4703- 0691$07.50 ? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 struction of the next APP. The site chosen for it was the Lubmin wasteland on the shore of the Baltic Sea, roughly 20 km to the northeast of Greifswald. The choice of site was due mainly to the presence of cooling water as well as the inadequate supply of electrical energy in the northern regions of the country. The reactors chosen for this APP were of the pressurized water type of reliable Soviet design, similar to those installed at the Novovoronezh APP. The electrical power of each energy unit is 440 MW. Such reactors have come into most widespread use primarily because of their economy, high degree of safety, and use of pressurized water as the working medium, which has been well investigated in ordinary engineering. The first unit of the Greifs- wald APP, which has been named the Bruno Loischner APP, went into operation at the end of 1973. The com- mercial introduction of atomic energy thus began in the GDR. At present, the APP operates four energy units with VVER-440 reactors with a total power of 1760 MW. The APP accounts for more than 9% of the power of all the electricity generating plants of the GDR. The next energy units are to be constructed both on the site of the Bruno Loischner APP and on the Elba, about 25 km from Stendal. Over the next decade the contribution of the APP to the installed capacity of electric power stations in the GDR will rise to 15-20%. At the same time, plans call for a transition to pressurized-water reactors with a higher unit power. The APP built in the country have displayed high operating characteristics. In the first place this per- tains to operating readiness and safety. The Rheinsberg APP has been operating consistently for more than 13 years. In recent years it has been reequipped into a research center and a center for training personnel for the nuclear power industry. With a training unit coming into service here in 1975, conditions approximating those in practice as closely as possible were created for training and raising the qualifications of operating personnel for APP of the GDR and other COMECON member-nations. In the critical months of the 1978-1979 winter the operational readiness of the units of the Bruno Loischner APP was 95-100%. Operation in January and February, 1979, which were particularly severe in the northern regions of the country, demonstrated that the APP is relatively independent of the weather conditions. Operating at full capacity, it ensured electrical energy for the country even when, because of exceptionally heavy snowfalls, the plant was temporarily cut off from the outside world. Under the conditions existing in the GDR a capacity of 440 MW for a power unit is economically justified. As for the capital investment and energy costs, a unit with a VVER-440 reactor is com- parable with a modern 500-MW unit operating on brown coal. The construction and operation of APP in the GDR are under strict government control. Operating ex- perience has confirmed that the characteristics are favorable for the environment. The radiation in the direct vicinity of the APP is less than 1% of the natural radiation. The long-range energy policy of the GDR is aimed at the continuous development of nuclear power with the use of mastered, reliable, and tested APP and invidi- dual APP systems. In order to increase operating safety provision has been made for continuous and annual inspection of the state of the APP, especially the nuclear part, this being done in the form of comprehensive. examinations of the equipment on the basis of instructions strictly laid down by law. The high requirements concerning- the professional training of operating personnel, regular enhancement of the qualifications in com- bination with qualification examinations, and continuous and concrete monitoring of the state of the training of operating personnel by on-the-spot analysis of maladjustments and regular training sessions for handlingemer- gencies are also important measures for ensuring the required high safety of APP. Supplies of nuclear fuel for APP in our country as well as the return of spent fuel are ensured by long- term agreements and treaties with the Soviet Union. Thus, there is no need to reprocess spent fuel on the terri- tory of the GDR in order to extract highly active fission products and recover the uranium and plutonium not used in the reactor. This results in very visible streams of nuclear materials, which makes it possible for the IAEA, on the basis of the treaty of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, to carry out effective inspection of the pureful peaceful use of nuclear technology in the GDR. Special railway cars and containers have been con- structed for the safe transportation of fresh and spent fuel. Low-level and medium-level radioactive waste formed as the result of the operation of the APP and the application of radioisotopes in many areas of the national economy are appropriately processed and then stored on the territory of the GDR. All of these successes would not have been possible without the close, fraternal cooperation with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries on the basis of bilateral government agreements within the frame- work of COMECON, especially in the domain of science and engineering. Already in the early stage of develop- ment of nuclear energy, in October 1960, COMECON established a Standing Committee on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. It has ensured long and fruitful cooperation among the COMECON member- nations in mastering a new source of energy. The principal task of the Committee consists in coordinating the scientific research and long-term developments in the field of nuclear energy. To this end, working bodies were set up to deal with particular problems, especially the development of pressurized-water reactors, pre- paration for the introduction of fast breeder reactors, elimination of radioactive wastes, reprocessing of spent Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 fuel, as well as problems of radiation protection and protection of the environment. An international research team was created in Budapest to develop reactor physics and study related problems. The COMECON Standing Committee on Electrical Energy also set up a special working group of specialists engaged in the design, con- struction, and operation of APP with water-moderated-water-cooled reactors. Specialists of the GDR are participating actively in the activities of these international working bodies. In this connection mention should be made first of all of the creative teams of the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf, the Academy of Sciences, the Bruno Loischner APP, and the industrial group for the construction of electric power plants. The main efforts of the GDR in the further joint development of water-moderated-water-cooled power reactors and preparation for the introduction of fast breeder reactors are aimed at creating neutron-physics and heat-engineering programs for designing reactors, improving their water conditions and regulating and control systems, developing methods of deactivating an individual piece of equipment and the entire primary circuit of a water-moderated-water-cooled power reactor, methods of monitoring the state of the equipment and metal during inspection and operation of APP, as well as developing methods and special equipment for packaging, transporting, and storing radioactive wastes. This work,.as well as the creation of special methods for monitoring the sodium circuits of fast reactors, are conducive to a further increase in the safety, oper- ational readiness, and economy of APP. The GDR also participates in improvement of the designing, construc- tion, assembly technology, and start-up and loading operations in the construction of APP. On the 30th anniversary of the GDR it is with satisfaction that we note the successes of our workers, engineers, and scientists during the 23 years since the conclusion of the first intergovernmental agreement with the Soviet Union on the establishment of a nuclear-energy base in the country. They have earned our gratitude, as also have our Soviet friends, whose great professional knowledge and participation created the scientific, technical, and economic prerequisites for the introduction of atomic energy into the power industry of the GDR. NUCLEAR RESEARCH OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC IN THE LIGHT OF THE DECISIONS OF THE NINTH CONGRESS OF THE GERMAN SOCIALIST UNITY PARTY* The first report concerning the birth of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic was inscribed with the motto "theoria cum praxi," framing a miniature portrait of Leibnitz on the cover of the journal Kernenergie. Such, too, was the sense of the second report, dated July 1, 1946, and called "enlistment of science in the construction of a democratic Germany." In the first years of nuclear research in the GDR controversies arose over whether "current issues" were a matter for the research and design organizations of the heavy power engineering industry whereas the activities of the Central Insitute of Nuclear Research should be devoted exclusively to future development of reactors. The controversies have long since ceased. Now everyone has taken to heart the words of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the German Socialist Unity Party (CC GSUP) and Chairman of the Coun- cil of State of the GDR, E. Honnecker, that "socialism is sole appeal to science." The profound sense of this statement can be comprehended when one examines how in fact the ideal of unity of the economic and social policy of the Party is accomplished. Particularly large changes have occurred in the style of management and *Abbreviated translation originally from the German; ?1979 by Akademie-Verlag, Berlin. tChairman of the Scientific Councils of Foundations of Power Engineering and Microelectronics, Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 149-151, September, 1979. 0038-531X/79/4703-0693$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 693 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 psychological climate of enterprises since the resolution adopted by the Ninth Congress of the SUPG stating that acceleration of scientific and technological progress is the basis for the intensification of production. The Academy of Sciences bears a dual responsibility: for the development of science as a source of new knowledge and for the effective use of its results. It is called upon not simply to link theory with practice but to ensure the most efficient performance of the social purposes of fundamental research. In 1975, when the program for physics research was being drawn up, we tried to answer this question. The answer can be for- mulated as follows : work on the development of the fundamental problems of physics and individual areas of physics makes it possible to discover and understand many new physical phenomena with great potentialities for practical use. The discoveries must be directed at solving the basic problems of society, primarily those of the national economy. This approach refutes the mechanistic view that only "appropriate" fundamental research should be engaged in. Also refuted was the demand that each line of research have an unquestionable economic purpose. How did we arrive at this answer and what is the crux of it? It was useful for us. to have the development of nuclear energy in a leading position among the principal areas of research. And this is no accident since the experience gained from the development of nuclear power should be used to solve other major problems. The development of the nuclear power industry in the GDR, therefore, has two tasks in the main. One of them is the result of agreements within the framework of COME- CON. The second stems from the need for such a scientific basis for the technological processes in the nu- clear reactor which will ensure safe and efficient operation of atomic power plants (APP). Accordingly, for this reason and also for the diagnostics, monitoring, and control of the processes reactor physics has been transformed from an exact science into one of the technological areas of research. This has occurred to the extent that the neutron-physical characteristics determine the engineering factors of APP. Thus, neutron characteristics are now studied not as a physical but rather as a technological phenomenon. Finally, the reactor installation, including the primary circuit, attracts attention as an object of research, as evidenced by the in- tensive exchange of specialists as well as instruments and technical information between the central nuclear research institutes and APP of the country. The knowledge that the information participates in the technological process is important for the exten- sion of the experience. The growing size and complexity of industrial plants of another type lead to the same problem. It cannot be resolved without a precise technique for data acquisition and computer processing of the data. At an exhibition devoted to the 275th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, the state of the research program at that time was illustrated schematically. This aspect of information science has beencon- firmed in part. Reactor physics, as a technological discipline, realizes the link between fundamental research and the technology of APP. However, the link between fundamental research and information science continued to be an "uninvestigated area." The gap between fundamental research and the use of the results of research was understood and the first steps were taken to eliminate it. Thus, we were not unprepared when we encoun- tered this problem in microelectronics. Microelectronics is of interest to us as a material carrier of complex informational processes and as a difficult branch of manufacture. It was first used to automate scientific experiments in the domain of nuclear research. In nuclear power engineering the application of microelectronics has taken the route of construction of hierarchical monitoring and control systems which are in accord with the technique of automating the devel- oping socialist society. In turn, nuclear research was conducive to the development of microelectronics. Thus, the many years of experience of the Academy of Sciences with ion implantation was used in the production of some microelectronic devices. The ion-beam technique still has many undiscovered technological capabilities which will also lend themselves to application. The Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research and the Central Institute of Nuclear Research have developed nuclear methods of analysis which are used in micro- electronics to solve problems of pure materials. In many cases only such methods are sensitive enough to permit a transition from materials "as pure as possible" to materials "as pure as required." Clearly, there are sufficient examples to show the effect of technology on research in the realm of physics. Technology is that mirror with which a variety of possible areas of development are focused on the most important directions, yielding the greatest effect from the intensification of production today and at the same time significantly im- proving the production technology of tomorrow. The nuclear research of the Academy of Sciences encompasses problems such as those below. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 1. Continued research on the fundamental laws of space, time, and matter. The physics of the nucleus and elementary particles makes a contribution to this work. The goal is to determine the limits of present- day knowledge. The point is to penetrate further into the microcosm and to create the instruments necessary to do this. In this connection one should not neglect the practical application of knowledge, methods, and in- struments which in many ways promote general process. Elementary-particle physics has been stimulated with the appearance of a possibility of experimental verification of the quark hypothesis. New currentresearch has been concentrated in the Institute of High-Energy Physics at Zeuthen and is being conducted in close co- operation with the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR). The work is planned so as to utilize the unique capabilities of the experimental facilities as Dubna and Serpukhov. Moreover, we can count on the use of the experimental capabilities of CERN. Theoretically validated problems should be subjected to critical analysis at JINR and obtain experimental confirmation with the aid of high-quality modern technology. Major results from such work were obtained at the end of 1978: an international team of specialists at Zeuthen built an ap- paratus for processing and interpreting photographs of particle tracks. In nuclear physics note should be taken of a developed generalized method of describing the mechanism of reactions on the basis of an exact many-particle theory. The high level of nuclear-engineering instrumen-. tation facilitated a center for the development of instruments for scientific research in the Central Institute of Nuclear Research. Interesting results on the dependence of nuclear decay on the chemical bonds were- obtained in the Cen- tral Insitute of Isotope and Radiation Research. Laws which were discovered will probably lend themselves to use in the development of nuclear-medicine preparations. These are only some of the results. Reviews published in Kernenergie in July 1975 to mark the 275th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR can be recommended to the interested reader. 2. The next problem is that of studying complex physical structures of a natural origin. Of greater interest in this respect is work done at the boundary with other sciences, which was the case particularly in isotope and radiation research. Thus, research on isotopic effects in geochemical processes makes it possible to obtain interesting data about the history of elements and the origin of deposits, data which could be used in geological prospecting. The similarity theory can be used to model the combined processes and to determine their parameters. Researches carried out in the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research with nitrogen-15 have attained a high level and have produced results applicable in biology, agriculture, and medi- cine. Radiation-chemical research has been enriched with fundamental work on the effect of irradiation on elementary processes which could find application in radiation-chemical chlorination of polyvinyl chloride and development of cable insulations. 3. An important place in the investigations of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR is occupied by the study of artificial physical structures, i.e., the fundamental laws of technology. Research for nuclear power engineering and microelectronics are the most prominent, but not the sole example of work in this area. Along with personnel from the Bruno Loischner APP further research is planned with other APP. Thus, within the framework of the international team in Budapest, established for preparations for the introduction of the VVER- 1000 water-moderated-water-cooled power reactor, specialists of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR are engaged in work on problems pertaining to diagnostics from noise analysis. Other problems for this team are being worked on in collaboration with specialists from the Rheinsburg APP. In conjunction with workers of the Scientific-Research Institute for Atomic Reactors (NIIAR) research is being conducted on fast reactors. In the realm of thermonuclear research two substantial projects were conducted in 1978. One of them was the con- struction by the Institute of Electronic Physics of an instrument for analysis of the interaction of plasma with a wall. Such an instrument was installed in the T-10 tokamak at the I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. A considerable contribution to the solution of technological problems was made by research with isotopic tracers. The use of the results of the work for analysis of processes in chemistry, metallurgy, and coal dress- ing increased the efficiency of these processes. These are only some examples of work which has been done in recent years in 15 areas of research in the domain of physics. Basically, this work was aimed at ensuring energy, material, and information, as well as the development of instrumentation and health protection. The solution of numerous problems of nuclear research is impossible without international cooperation. Jointworkwith specialists of the Soviet Union means much to us. The successes mentioned above and the pro- blems formulated are at the same time an expression of gratitude for invaluable assistance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Faithful to. the behest of Ernst Thaelmann, we know on whose aide we stand in the class struggle. "Human failure" is the usual conclusion when western atomic power plants experience abreakdown. And the question is not asked as to why a human, endowed with talent and ability, proved to be such a weak link in the production sys- tem controlled by automatic devices that it is best to replace that human by a microprocessor. The purpose of our automation of APP is to provide the human with information and instruments for monitoring and control while relieving him of heavy physical and monotonous mental work. We proceed from the premise that atomic energy and microelectronics are indispensable aids in the construction of a socialist society. Atomic energy will never be used for the annihilation of mankind; this is the highest demand of our time. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 EFFECT OF NONUNIFORMITY OF FUEL DEPLETION WITH HEIGHT ON THE PHYSICAL CHARAC TER IS TICS OF A REACTOR A. M. Afanas'ev and B. Z. Torlin UDC 621.039.51 The development of the reactor for an atomic power station usually passes through several stages. The early stages are characterized by numerous variant calculations and economic estimates, in which an impor- tant role is played by the attainable depletion of the fuel (burn-up) S as a function of its initial enrichment, the parameters of the lattice, the construction of the fuel elements, the method used to cool them, the frequency of recharging with fuel, and so on. Comparatively simple relationships for estimating the burn-up are proposed below; they are of acceptible accuracy and they allow for the distorsion of the neutron field with height under steady conditions as a result of burn-up and boiling of the coolant. To refine these estimates and also to cal- culate the neutron field,itself, the isotopic content of the discharged fuel, and a whole string of other param- we describe a simple and effective method of numerical computation. Describing the neutron field by the diffusion approximation, we write the starting' equations in the form: k (z) + f (S, (p, z) Alp (z) = 0; * (0) _* (H) = 0, (1) where, in the one-group approximation, H = (d/dz) Dth(d/dz); A=1; [k (S, (p, z)-1JIM' (S, (p, z); =N (z), and, in the two-group approximation, d. , d 1 1. W d aZ -ti (z)' ti() ? _(0' 1 1 d D'` d_ 1 A-\0; 0) C 2' . th z LZ S z Lo dz d ( , ) k (S, (P, z)- n (z) ti (z) ; (N (z) The notation here is as follows : Dth(d) = Dth(d) (z, cp)/bth(d) (zo, 0) ; Dth and Dd, diffusion coefficients for ther- mal and delayed neutrons; zo, arbitrary point of the core; k, multiplication factor for thermal neutrons; S(N), fuel depletion (burn-up); cp(N), vapor content; M2, L, T, square of the migration length, the diffusion length, and the neutron age, evaluated at Dth(zo, 0) and Dd(zo, 0); N(z) and n(z), flux density distributions of thermal and delayed neutrons; and H is the core height. The dependence of k on the depletion S can be calculated as described. in [1]. The dependence of k on the vapor content qo we expressed in the following manner: k (S, (p, z) = k.(S, yo, z) -I- AkR (H, S) g (z) p (z)/ q) (H); W (z) E (S, z,) N (z,) dz,, hec 0; 0 < z < heC; g(z)=11; heX-z 1. 'These conditions are normally satisfied. The effect on S of end reflectors can readily be estimated using the approximate method. Replacing the, reflectors by an effective increase of size up to heff, we obtain: Sh) = S(0)" H+2heffcos rzheff (14) H H+2heff c1~,_ Radm). Before proceed- ing to describe the algorithm, we shall formulate a geometric-profiling problem somewhat more general than the one in [2] We must determine the optimal number mopt of consecutively joined therrmoemissive electricity-gen- erating elements (EGEs) and the optimal vector for the distribution of their lengths {1f)?Pt i E [1; m?Ptl, along an assembly of height H with n distributed parameters of the form Aj (z), / E [1; nl,which, for k given limiting values R,,, P E [1; kl, determining the resource, reliability, efficiency, technological quality, and other proper- ties of the thermoemissive assembly, will realize the maximum useful electrical power (or total efficiency) of the assembly. When the efficiency is maximized, the total thermal power is equivalent to the maximum useful electrical power for a given value of thermal power. It is possible to have a variant of the problem in which the assembly height H is optimized in addition to mopt and {1i}opt. The problem of geometric profiling, i.e., the actual determination of {il}opt, can be solved by various methods. Thus, the authors of [2] give a` variant of the geometric-profiling problem which is simpler but is most often encountered in practice, in which m is given, n=1, k=1, and, correspondingly, Aj(z) =q(z), Rt= Tee max. A simple but effective graphicoanalytical method for determining {li}opt enables us to solve the problem in the most general formulation, with some distributed parameters and any number of restrictions. It is based' on the use of V-q (voltage-heat) diagrams, which, for a given total current I, show in graphical form how the EGE voltage V varies with the density of the heat flux qF per emitter (or the density of volumetric heat gen- eration in the heat-generating core, qV), the length 1, the emitter temperature To max, and, if necessary, other parameters (the collector temperature Tc, the pressure PCs of the cesium vapors, etc.). Such functional rela- tionships for V (q, 1, Te, max) I= const are easily constructed from the volt-ampere characteristics of the EGEs Translated from Atomr_nya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 169-172, September, 1979. Original article sub- mitted September 11, 1978. 718 0038-631X/79/4703- 0718 $07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 424 , ti 4s, W/cm2 Fig. 1. Volt-ampere (V-q) diagram for profiling the length of the elements, taking account of the nonuniformity of heat generation and collector temperature and the restriction on the maximum emitter temperature (I=100 A). at constant thermal power I (V)qF, l ... and constant emitter temperature I (V) Te, max l .... The volt-ampere characteristics of the EGEs may be calculated with any accuracy by means of any algorithm. A typical V-qF diagram for determining {1i}opt for two parameters q(z) and Tc(z) distributed along the height of the assembly and restrictions only on Tee max for I=100 A are shown in Fig. 1. The volt-ampere characteristics of the EGEs on which the diagram is based were calculated on a computer by the algorithm used in [1], taking account of the distributed nature of the heat fluxes entering the emitter jacket, the nonisothermal and nonisopotential nature of the electrodes, the thermal and electrical losses, and the effect of the nonoptimality of the collector temperature Tc. In order to keep the figure clear, the diagram shows the variation of V (q, 1, Tc) I for three values of Tc: 900; 1000; and 1100?K. The working diagrams contain more detailed information on Tc. The coincidence of the characteristics for Tc=900?K and 1100?K is a result of the experimentally observed specific variation of the isothermal thermoemissive transformations (TET) with Tc [10] which was used in calculating the EGEs. From the V-q diagrams for specific values of qi, Tci, and if necessary, other values of Ai, we determine the li which for a given I yields the maximum value of Vi on condition that Tee max < Te, adm and the other Rj Radm? Knowing all the Vi, we determine the total voltage V a = E Vi, ? the total electrical power Wa = Val, and the efficiency of the assembly with the resulting {li}, If the dimensions li can vary continuously, then the profiling is carried out in such a way that Te, max = Te, adm i E [1, m]. This actually means that if we have only q(z), li is selected along the curve Tee max(q) = Te, adm, if we have the nonuniformities in q(z) and Tc(z), it is selected along the surface Tee max(q, Tc) = Te, adm, etc. If for a given {1i} we obtain an assembly height H* = Z (la + lc),where lc is the height of the switching connector, and this assembly height does not coincide with the given H, then we must make a correction to {li} in such away that H H*. This can be obtained by repeated determination of the vector {Ii} from the V-q diagrams for another value of m, another absolute q(z) (the rela- 719 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 tive distribution of q(z) remains as before), or a reduction in the length of some of the EGEs (usually at the edges of the assembly) in such a way that H - H*. It should be noted that in the last case the shortened EGEs will operate at Teo max< Tadm? Naturally, in the absence of other considerations, we should select from the above methods the one which yields the maximum target function. When we have thus determined ill} for some values of I, we can construct the volt-ampere characteristic I(Va) Te, max < Te, adm' from which we can readily .select. the point, and consequently the fli}opt as well, for which we reach the maximum value of electrical power and satisfy restrictions of the form Rp s Radm, At the same time as we optimize fli}opt, we also optimize the number of successively joined EGEs in the assembly, mopt, and its thermal power. Geometric profiling leads to some redistribution of the fuel along the height of the assembly, since for {li}opt the central EGEs are shorter than the peripheral ones, which must be taken into account in calculating the q(z) and Tc(z), and also in estimating the critical parameters of a system with profiled multielement assem- blies. Let us briefly consider some results obtained by means of the above method. It has already been noted that Te, max is restricted; even a slight nonuniformity in q(z) leads to a sub- stantial reduction of the electrical power W(Kz) in comparison with the power of an assembly with the constant heat generation, WO - W(Kz = 1) [1-3]. Thus, the authors of [1] obtained an empirical formula for determining the relative power of an assembly with elements of identical length for a cosinusoidal law of distribution of q(z) : wq = W (K,)/W, :s 2,52 - 1,52K;, which, e.g., when Kz = q xC =1,25, yields wq - 0.6. The individual EGEs operate at a Tee max almost 400?K higher than the maximum admissible value. Geometric profiling of an assembly with nonuniform q(z) and the restriction Te, max '< Te, adm+ for con- tinuous variation ofli, enables us to obtain electrical power values which are only a few percent lower than the power of an assembly with constant heat generation. Analogous results were obtained in [2, 7]. For a restricted number of typical dimensions of the EGEs, we also observe an increase in the output power of the assembly in comparison with an unprofiled one. However, since in this case some of the EGEs have a lower value of Te, max, the power of the assembly is found to be lower than for continuous variation of 1. If we assume dis- crete variation of 1 by a value which is a multiple of 0.5 cm, for the same conditions we have wq Pt 0.85 when the Te, max values of individual EGEs differ from Te, adm by only 40?K. The nonuniformity of Tc(z) for constant q(z) but with the restriction Te, max'` Te, adm also leads to con- sidpetrable losses in electrical power W(Tc) in comparison with the power of an assembly with constant Tc = TA Thus, for Tc, max-Tc, min 150?C and Tc, min= Tcp'c = W (Tc)/Wo ~ 0.8 [1] with a difference of more than 100?C in the Te, max of individual EGEs. Geometric profiling with continuous variation of 1i increases we to 0.95 out of the optimal power value when all the EGEs have constant Tee max values. For same condi- tions when we have only two typical dimensions of the EGEs, we -- 0.9. The simultaneous effect of q(z) and Tc(z) on an unprofiled assembly yields an even lower relative power value, wq, c= W(Kz, Tc)/Wo, where WO is the power of the assembly when Kz = 1 and Tc(z) = TgPt, i.e., even lower. For the conditions considered above, wq,c 0.55. Geometric profiling which takes account of the effect of q(z) and Tc(z) enables us to increase wq,c to - 0.9. When it is possible to have only discrete variation of 1 (by 0.5 cm), wq,c se 0.72. Thus, the algorithm worked out above enables us to determine {li}opt in a relatively simple manner for some parameters arbitrarily distributed along the height of the assembly and taking account of the restricted number of typical EGE dimensions that are actually possible. An important advantage of the method is that it can take account of any factors restricting the resource and operating capacity of the assembly. To do this, other boundary curves are drawn on the V -q diagrams in addition to the Te, max isotherms. The determination of the fli}opt is carried out in an analogous manner, but with all the Radm restrictions taken into account. 1. Yu. A. Broval'skii et al., Teplofiz. Vys. Temp., 13, No. 1, 171 (1975). 2. V. M. Dmitriev and V. A. Ruzhnikov, Preprint FEI-704, Obninsk (1976). 3. Yu. Ya. Kravehcnko and G. A. Stolyarov, Preprint IAE-1579, Moscow (1968). 4. E. S. Bekmukhambetov et al., At. Energ., 35, No. 6,-387 (1973). 5. B. A. Ushakov, V. D. Nikitin, and V. Yu. Korbut, At. Energ., 31, No. 5, 467 (1971). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 6. E. S. Glushkov and N. N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi, At. Energ., 20, No. 6, 478 (1966). 7. E. Wolf and W. Haug, Atomkernenergie, 16, 213 (1970). 8. A. Schock, in: Proc 3rd Int. Conf. of Thermionic Electrical Power Generation. Julich, FRG (1972). 9. V. A. Kuznetsov et al., At. Energ., 36, No. 6, 450 (1974). 10. B. P. Baraksin et al., in: Reports of Soviet Scientists at the Second International Conference on the Thermoemissive Transformation of Energy [in Russian], VNIIT, Moscow (1969), p. 231. FISSION NEUTRON DETECTORS Z. A. Aleksandr.ova, V. I. Bol'shov, I. E. Bocharova, K. E. Volodin, V. G. Nesterov, L. I. Prokhorova, G. N. Smirenkin, and Yu. M. Turchin The average yield of neutrons per fission event u and their energy distribution N(E) are fission neutron characteristics that belong to the category of fundamental constants of breeder materials in reactors. Most practical problems can be solved using the well-known approximation of the fission neutron spectrum by the Maxwellian distribution X (E, 0) _ (2/ a03) I /T exp (- E/0), (1) i.e., N(E)=-vX(E, B). In such a case, knowing the average energy 3 OA, or the so-called neutron temperature ItT, it is possible to find the entire fission neutron spectrum. Thus, most experimenters focus their attention on the determination of the two first moments of the distribution N(E) : the zero moment v and the first moment uc (precisely speaking, their ratio e). These fission neutron characteristics, and especially j, are most frequently measured with the aid of detectors consisting of a hydrogeneous moderator and slow-neutron counters. The moderator is usually poly- ethylene and the slow-neutron detectors are BFI or 3He counters. In such detectors, which in contrast to detectors that detect single events of microscopic interaction of fast neutrons with nuclei are called macro- scopic detectors, neutrons live for tens of microseconds while being slowed down and scattered. Since the moderation length \essentially depends on the energy of fast neutrons entering the moderator and since the spatial distribution of slow neutrons is a strong function of t/V(t being the distance to the neutron entry plane), the energy sensitivity of a slow-neutron counter can be varied within wide limits by changing its position in the moderator, its orientation with respect to the beam of incident neutrons, or the moderator con- figuration. Such an approach is frequently employed to fit the characteristics of the detecting system to the needs of the particular problem. Well-known examples of such detectors are the all-wave (long) counter [1], the isodose neutron detector [2], the Bramblett multispherical spectrometer [3], etc. Here we report on certain new applications of the macroscopic method to the measurement of fission neu- tron characteristics. Three versions of the method are discussed: a macroscopic fast-neutron spectrometer (E detector), simultaneous measurement of the average yield and average fission neutron energy (vE detector), and a detector which measures v without being sensitive to the average fission neutron energy (v detector). Energy Dependence of Slow-Neutron Counters in Polyethylene Moderator The results reported in this paper are based on an investigation of the dependence of the sensitivity c(E, tn) of slow-neutron counters in a polyethylene block on the energy of fast incident neutrons E and on the distance from the neutron incidence surface tn. Although the measurement of these characteristics. over an energyrange from 0 to 15 MeV is rather difficult, no such, difficulties exist when the characteristics are calculated theoreti- cally. We have thus studied the sensitivity function e(E, tn) by calculating its relative behavior by.the Monte Carlo method and by normalizing it experimentally at several points taking into account the individual charac- teristics of the counters. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 172-176, September, 1979. Original article sub- mitted May 17, 1978; revision submitted November 17, 1978. 0038-531X/79/4703- 0721$ 07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 -90& 10 ? 5th 10u, . b 10-1 100 ?? ? 6th .10-1 y'4, ? . ~-e~ t tad 2nd ' i A 1r? 4 .8 1091 I .4th S* 10-31 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 4 1 1 I I I l i i 1 1 :1 I I I 1 9 , 1 1 1 4 4 .. I 1 I I III 1 ( ) l0 41 1 10.. E,MeV Mev Fig. 1. Compar1s:on of .results obtained by the Monte .Carlo method {4) ..and experimentally (0) for the function ,,z (E) [cm?] for one ,type- SN10 NA counter. Two basic "counter+moderator" arrangements are discussed: for measurements in the so-called good geometry when the detector registers source neutrons within a small solid angle, and for experiments in 47r geometry in which the detector monitors a considerable portion of space around the source. Good geometry is usually employed for studies of fission neutron spectra :[3-6] and 47r geometry, for v measurements [7]. The first arrangement is most suitable for measurement of the sensitivity function e(E, tn) with mono energetic neutrons [6]. 47r detectors usually have a central channel reserved for a fission-fragment detector in coincidence with whose output pulses neutrons are registered by the coaxially positioned neutron counters. The measured and calculated values of the function en(E) =,e(E, tn) for a rectangular detector are shown in Fig. 1. The Monte Carlo procedure used in the calculations is described in [8]. Measurements were carried out for monoenergetic neutrons and for neutrons of radioactive (a, n) sources having a continuous energy spec- trum. The source of monoenergetic neutrons were T (p, n), D (d, n), and T (d, n) reactions taking place in an electrostatic generator with solid targets. Neutron yield was monitored with a thick-walled fission . chamber with a 235U layer placed near the neutron target within the same solid angle as the detector .being, calibrated. The measured F-n(E) functions were normalized with the aid of radioactive neutron sources consisting of .a homogeneous mixture of 231pu with Li, F, B, and Be using the expression (4nR2/Q) MI,,.= e? (E.)'[c0l. where R is the distance between the source and the detector front surface (in the calculations. and in-a:ll:experi- ments R = 100 cm). The source yield Q was determined to within -' 10%. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 The measured and calculated results (Fig. 1) are seen to be in good agreement with each other indicating that the sensitivity of slow-neutron detectors depends strongly on their position within the moderator. The irregular structure of en(E), associated with resonances of the cross section of neutron scattering by carbon nuclei, manifests itself clearly at great depths tn,'viz., when n >3. The behavior of sensitivity en(E) weakly depends on the counter dimensions and on the distance R to the moderator surface as can be seen by comparing the functions F-n(E) calculated for a prism and for a 41r detector in which these parameters differ'considerably. This is very fortunate from a methodological point of view since it allows one set of en(E) curves to be used without taking into account in the first approximation thegseo- metric features of the detection system. It should also be noted that the resonance structure of &n( ) prominent in 47r detectors because of the large spread of neutron "ranges" in the resonator. Similar tables of the function en(E, tn) are given in [5] for a prism and in [7] for a 47r detector. Stacked Macroscopic Spectrometer. (E Detector) The investigated detector has several advantages over the multispherical detector [3]. First of all, with a stacked structure there is no need to change the moderating envelopes and an entire set of readings for dif- ferent moderator depths can be obtained simultaneously. Secondly, a stacked structure imposes no such strict constraints upon the dimensions of slow-neutron counters as a multispherical spectrometer making it possible to increase the sensitivity by one order of magnitude or more. Finally, in a stacked-counter spectrometer it is much easier to obtain an extensive set of en(E) functions. Thus, the family of en(E) curves of the multispherical .spectrometer is covered by the characteristics of the first four rows of a stacked spectrometer. In other words, the later covers a wider dynamic range which is shifted towards higher energies, and this is one of the main factors that determine the accuracy of measurement of the parameter 0. Let us consider the last problem in some more detail. Considering that the difference I DO I = I O - Oo I 103 neutronsjsec. In many cases this condition can be satisfied only when a considerable amount of fissionable material is available, which appreciably restricts the experimental possibilities of the method. By increasing the,.method sensitivity by -several orders of magnitude, the 4'7r detector eliminates these difficulties. Secondly, because of,the energy dependence of the neutron detector efficiency, the results of measurement of the fundamental nuclear physics constant T must be corrected for the difference between the fission-neutron spectra of .the me'asured?isotope and the standard. The measured experimental ratio of the number, of neutrons :registered per one fission event.,can be written as V p=- V0 .~ X (E, 0) s,, (E) dE ? ="k I 'R (E. 8u) P. (E-)-d9 0 where k is the correction mentioned above, and (E) is the detector efficiency. Using expression (2),?the factor k can be written as AO- g k=i + o ,n+ 902 yr[+..., (5) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 indicating that its accuracy depends in a large measure on the ratio 0/0o. Unfortunately, this ratio is not very reliably known for thermal-neutron fission of even the most common reactor materials. In some cases the error of the correction factor is comparable with the correction proper I k -1 1. Simultaneous measurement of v and 0 eliminates this difficulty. The method of simultaneous measurement of ti and o is implemented by placing in the moderator several concentric rows of counters and recording coincidences of their output pulses with the fission-fragments detec- tor pulses. The ratio of the number of coincidences is used for finding o and their sum, for measuring v. Detector for Measuring v Irrespective of the_ Average Fission Neutron Energy E (p Detector) Above we have discussed a method of relative measurement of u in which the correction for the differ- ence between the fission-neutron spectra of analyzed object and the standard is determined experimentally. The dependence of the parameter xn on the location of counters in the moderator [7] makes it possible to design a detector for which no correction is needed. However, the point is not a strict observation of the condition k= 1, which is true only for all-wave detectors [e(E) =const], but the approximation (6) x=0 Or (E)=E, to which corresponds the energy-dependent efficiency of the detector. The solution of (6) can be easily found from the function x(t) for a 41r detector represented in Fig. 2. It is seen from the figure that condition (6) will be satisfied if the counters are placed at a distance Copt=10.5 cm from the inside surface of the moderator. Figure 2 also shows the parameter y, which defines the second-order term contribution in expression (5), and the difference between the factor k and unity for x=0, as functions of the distance t. It is seen that in the neigh- borhood of t=toptt 0.5 cm, the correction factor lk-11 is less than the error in vo for the standard 0.3%O) A0/0o typical of the range of B for heavy nuclei. The realization of the condition x=0 by placing the counters precisely on the surface t=topt is the sim- plest but not the only and best one since it limits the number of counters. One can make use of the fact that x has different signs to the right and left of t=to t, place the counters on both sides of the optimal surface, and complete the row of counters without violatingthe condition x=0. Detectors for measuring v described in literature satisfy rather the demand of maximum efficiency. Figure 2, in which the top curve represents the integral efficiency to fission neutrons Tn (t) = f x (E, 0) X F (E, t) dE, indicates that this demand does not coin- 0 CONCLUSIONS The methods described in this article have been developed for studies of fission-neutron spectra. The range of problems that can be solved with their help can be greatly expanded. For example, a 41r detector sim- ilar to the one described here has been used to separate prompt and delayed fission neutrons and (y, f) and (y, n) neutrons [101. Although macroscopic spectrometers are most effective in situations when the energy distribution can be represented in an easily parameterized form, their application is not at all limited to such cases. In the gen- eral case, the problem is solved using a group description of the distributions and reduces to a solution of a system of linear equations with experimentally determined left sides M. LITERATURE CITED 1. A. Hanson and J. McKibben, Phys. Rev., 72, 673 (1974). 2. Kh. D. Androsenko and G. N. Smirenkin, Prib. Tekh. Eksp., 5 64 (1962). 3. R. Bramblett, R. Ewing, and T. Bonner, Nucl. Instr. Methods, 9 1 (1960). 4. V. I. Bol'shov et al., Preprint FEI-578, Obninsk (1975). 5. Z. A. Aleksandrova et al., Preprint FL-866, Obninsk (1978). 6. V. I. Bol'shov et al., in: Proc. of the Conf. on Neutron Physics [in Russian], TsNITatominform, part 4 (1977), p. 290. T. V. L Bol'shov et al., Preprint FEI-865, Obninsk (1978). 8. I. E. Bocharova, L. I. Prokhorova, and G. N. Smirenkin, in: Nuclear Constants [in Russian], TsNllatom- inform, Moscow (1974), p. 7. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 9. V. L Bol'shov et al., in: Proc. of the Conf. on Neutron Physics [in Russian], TsNllatominform, part 3, Moscow (1977), p 284. 10. J. Caldwell and E. Dowdy,. NueL Sci. Eng., 53' 767 (19.75)';. B. Berman and S. Fultz, Rev. Mod.. Phys., 47, 713 (1975). ANALYSIS OF THE RELIABILITY OF. RADIOCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH ELECTRON ACCELERATORS V. M. Eshnyaskin and Yu., D. 1{ozl:ov UDC 21.384.6:541.15 The reliability of radiochemical plants must be calculated at an early design stage [1=3]. The reliability of such plants significantly affects their economy during operation. Besides radiation physics parameters, the design of radiochemical plants requires the knowledge of the reliability of their units and elements. Calculations of structural reliability are now an integral part of design in various fields of engineering, e.g., in reactor design [4].' The aim of this paper is the calculation of the reliability of component units of planned radiochemical plants with high-current electron accelerators and the evaluation of plant reliability as a whole. Since such plants are complex systems designed for long operating times, their reliability should be calculated in several stages [3]. The reliability of electron accelerators, radiochemical apparatus, and other technological and auxiliary equipment is calculated first. After the reliability indicators of these units have been analyzed and evaluated, the reliability of the radiochemical plant as a whole is calculated. The reliability of units composed of many components and linked by complex functional relations is calculated by the Monte Carlo method [1]. The com- binatorial method [3, 4] is used to calculate the reliability of less complex units. To analyze the reliability of radiochemical plants the latter are arbitrarily divided into individual units or elements in accordance with the following principles : the failure of an element causes breakdown of the entire plant; an element is a relatively independent functional or structural unit; The number of elements in a plant should be minimal (if, e.g., the reliability indicators of both a plant unit and of its individual components are known, the calculations should be based on the entire unit) ; . if no reliability data are available, elements and units are combined if possible into one or two larger functional units whose reliability indicators are specified as a set of values for the given range of possible mag- nitudes. The reliability of each unit is calculated for all assumed values. The reliability of radiochemical plants is analyzed with the aid of functional block diagrams of radio- chemical apparatus and accelerators that specify the effect of failure of an element (unit) on the reliability of apparatus or accelerator. To simplify the problem it is desirable to consider systems with instantaneous recovery in which the times of failure and recovery coincide [5]. An algorithm and program are designed for models with instan- taneous recovery which compute the probability of no-failure operation P(t),, the failure flow parameter w(t),, the mathematical expectation of the number of failures in time t H(t), and mean time between failures T [5]. Simulation of the operational process of a radiochemical plant with an electron accelerator consists in the following. The plant operation is considered either during its entire operating time or only during the principal operation period. The chosen operating time is split into intervals At and the flow of recovery of failed ele- ments is implemented with the aid of random numbers. The duration of time intervals (At) should not be too long, on the one hand, so that typical variations of the flow are not smoothed, and not too short, on the other hand, so that insignificant properties of the flow are not manifested. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 176-179, September, 1979. Original article sub- mitted June 26, 1978; revision submitted February 5, 1979. 0038-631X/79/4703- 0726$07.50 ?1'980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Fig. 1.. Schematic drawing of radiochemical plant with electron accelerator : 1) high- voltage generator; 2) high-voltage cable; 3) vacuum system; 4) irradiator; 5) radiochemical apparatus, (conveyer) ; 6) gas supply system. It is known [61 that the input data on which an algorithm is based are the failure rate and the failure flow parameter (for nonrepairable and repairable units respectively) when the failure distribution is assumed to be exponential, and the mean time between failures, the time to failure, and dispersion when the assumed failure distribution is normal or lognormal. It has been shown in [71 that failures of the cathode subassembly, the vacuum system, and the exit window have an exponential and normal distribution. The probability of no-failure operation.of these units has the form P (t) = e" F (T - t/v), (1) where t is the operating time, h; 1, failure rate due to transient defects, 1/h; T, time between failures due to wear, h; and v, dispersion of the distribution of times between failures due to wear. In simulation, the failures of elements and units caused by transient defects and wear are assumed to be a superposition of two parts: one with normally distributed and the other with exponentially distributed failures. Since the failures are independent, the exponential and normal parts are simulated separately. The model con- siders flows of failures of all units that enter into the failure flow of the radiochemical plant as a whole. Thus, mathematical simulation consists of the following steps : repeated application of an algorithm describing the probabilistic model of the investigated process in individual units of the radiochemical plant; statistical processing of the obtained results and their analysis; calculation of the reliability of radiochemical apparatus, the electron accelerator, and of the plant as a whole (if necessary) ; setting up tables and graphs with recommendations as to the calculation of reliability of other similar units. As an example of the application of the above technique consider the analysis of the reliability of a radio- chemical plant with a high-current electron accelerator used for processing lumped (unmixed) systems. The radiation section consists of the electron accelerator, the radiochemical apparatus, and auxiliary equipment* (Fig. 1). The kinetic energy of accelerated electrons is 0.08 pJ and the total irradiator current behind the exit win- dow is about 50 mA. The high-voltage transformed [81 connected by a cable to the irradiator operates in a gas *The reliability of only the radiation section of the plant is discussed. The technological equipment is the topic of another article. TABLE 1. Reliability Parameters of Radio- chemical Plant with an Electron Accelerator Reliability parameter Unit w (t), 1/h T, h High-voltage generator 1,7.10-3 600 4,2"10-4 2400 Gas supply system 18,8.10-5 5300. 5,3.105 18000 Irradiator 4,6.19-5 21650 3,9.10-5 25500 Conveyer 43.10-4 3000 3:3.10 4 f Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 P(t) 1,0 0 500 1000 1500 1000 250t1 t I Fig. 2 H(t) 50 50! 40 30 20 10 I . i I I I- 1 1000 2000 3000 4000 t,h Fig. 3 Fig. 2. Probability of no4ailure operation of certain units of the accelerator and con= veyer: 1) irradiator; 2) gas system; 3) conveyer; 4) generator. Fig. 3. Mathematical expectation of the number of failures H(t) in time t of the radio chemical plant with electron accelerator. medium (electric gas). To take into account the reliability of operation of individual (smaller) components, the irradiator has been arbitrarily divided into four sections: the cathode subassembly, the vacuum system, the exit window, and the scanning system. The irradiator is located in a special radiation shield which can be dis- mounted in parts for servicing. From the point of view of construction and number of components, the control console is similar to that of a typical radiochemical plant with an accelerator "Electron-311 whose reliability has been analyzed before in [7]. The conveyer is an electromechanical subassembly placed in an individual radiation shield. Its task is to transport in and out products to and out of the irradiation zone and consists of driving and tension drums, electric motor, various clutches, reducing gears, sprockets, chains, etc. All elements of the plant and irradiator within the shield are in some measure affected by the action of electron and bremsstrahlung radiations and ozone. Thus, in analyzing the reliability of these units we have taken into account the possible radiation effects on these elements. For .this we have calculated the y radiation exposure dose rate for various parts of the structure within the biological shield. Using the data on radiation resistance of the materials and instruments [9] of which the radiochemical plant and irradiator are constructed, we have analyzed their usefulness for the given operating conditions and tentatively estimated the useful life of these elements equal to the time during which the allowable dose is absorbed. The maximum and minimum failure rates for the components of the high-voltage generator, the gas sup- ply system, and the radiochemical apparatus (conveyer) have been adopted from data published in [4, 10-191i Table 1 lists the calculated reliability indicators of these units from which the curves of the probability of no- failure operation shown in Fig. 2 have been plotted. To evaluate the reliability of the plant as a whole, the results where supplemented by the reliability indicators of the cathode subassembly, the exit window, and the control console (Table 2) published before for "Electron-3" radiochemical plant [7, 18]. The data in Tables 1 and 2 have been used as a basis for calculating the reliability indicators of the plant; operating time to failure, the mathematical expectation of failure in time t, and the failure rate under steady- state operating conditions. Considering the accuracy of statistical data used for calculating the 'reliability indi- TABLE 2. Reliability Parameters of Certain Accelerator Components Reliability parameter unit' h (t), tih oat). i/h T. Cathode subassembly 5;9.10-9 - 170 i,0.10-; 1000. Vacuum system - 5,9.10-4 2000 Exit window 1,0.10-2 100 7,0.10-9 150 Control console - 8,3.10-4 1200 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 cators, the failure rate parameter of the system as whole was found to be 0.3 to 1.3 ? 10-' per hour,: The cal- culations were carried out by repeating the algorithm 1000 times with a time-to-failure error of about 3 h. The dependence of the mathematical expectation of the number of failures on operating time is shown in Fig. 3. The figure indicates that 25 failures can be expected to occur in the system in 2000 h and 63 failures, in 5000 h. Thus, we have for the first time applied the method of mathematical simulation to the evaluation of the reliability of electrochemical plants at the design stage. The reliability indicators of component units of the plant and of the plant and electron accelerator as a whole have been calculated a priori. The results can be used for comparing the quantitative reliability indicators of individual units and (if necessary) for taking mea- sures to improve their reliability. The obtained data can also be used for calculating the necessary margin of safety and for scheduling preventive maintenance of individual units or plants as a whole. LITERATURE CITED 1. V. M. Kshnyaskii et al., in: Proc. of All-Union Conf. on the Application of Particle Accelerators in the National Economy [in Russian], Vol. 1, Izd. NIIEFA, Leningrad (1976), p. 232. 2. V. M. Kshnyaskii, Yu. D. Kozlov, and L. V. Popova, in: Abstracts of Papers of the All-Union Scientific Engineering Seminar on the Application of High Power Sources of Ionizing Radiation in Radiation Engi- neering {in Russian], VNIIRT (1976), p. 126. 3. Yu. D. Kozlov, K. L Nikulin, and Yu. S. Titkov, Calculation of Parameters and Design of Radiochemical Plants with Electron Accelerators (Handbook) [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1976). 4. A. L Kiemin, Engineering Probability Calculations in Nuclear Reactor Design [in Russian], Atomizdat (1973). 5. L. G. Gorskii, Statistical Algorithms for Reliability Calculations [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1970). 6. B. P. Kredentser et al., Solving Reliability and Maintenance Problems with General-Purpose Digital Com- puters [in Russian], Sov. Radio, Moscow (1967). 7. Yu. D. Kozlov, At. Energ., 39, No. 4, 280 (1975). 8. E. A. Abramyan and V. A. Gaponov, At. Energ., 20, No, 5, 385 (1966). 9. N. A. Sidorov and V. K. Knyazev (editors), Radiation Resistance of Construction Materials in Radiation Engineering (Handbook) [in Russian], Sov. Radio, Moscow (1976). 10. A. M. Polovko, Principles of the Theory of Reliability [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1964). 11. B. S. Sot-skov, Methodical Instructions and Reference Data for Calculating the Reliability of Components and Systems [in Russian], Moscow Aviation Institute {1964). 12. B. S. Sot-skov, Principles of the Theory and Calculation of the Reliability of Components and Systems in Automation and Computers [in Russian], Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow (1970). 13. V. V. Akulov et al., see Ref. [1], p. 115. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 NEW BOOKS E. P. Anan'ev ATOMIC PLANTS IN POWER ENGINEERING* Reviewed by Yu. I. Koryakin Monographs published by Atomizdat, which cover the various aspects of nuclear power engineering, go out of print quite rapidly indicating the growing interest to nuclear power industry. The reviewed book will help in satisfying this interest. The book treats its subject on various levels and cannot be simply characterized. Nevertheless, one can distinguish two special features : 1) the material is based on experience gained in the Soviet Union and 2) the main stress is on advanced nuclear power technology. Both these qualities are attractive and important espec- ially in conditions of intensive nuclear power plant construction. Another important topic of the book is radiation safety which can be provided by a set of measures which are consistently .and with deep insight presented by .the author. The author focuses his attention on channel and vessel reactors. Their evolution,. present state, and .tech.- nological problems concerning such reactors are the main subjects of seven (out of eight) chapters of the :book. 'The author notes that large-scale solutions of problems make it possible to achieve new technological and :eco- nomical levels of operation with these.reactor types (especially with channel reactors), while on the other hand generating new technological problems. The author makes an attempt to estimate the scale and significance of certain socioeconomical factors associated with the development of nuclear power engineering. Unfortunately., this subject is barely touched upon. In view of its importance, the subject attracts widespread attention and heated discussions. Certain inaccuracies in the treatment ;of reactor physics must be mentioned. Possibly, they result from the .attempt of the author to simplify :the discussion and make it intelligible to less trained -readers. The book leaves ;a favorable "impression. Notwithstanding certain min or weak .points, .the ;book is a valu- :able addition to .the shelf of nuclear :power literature. *Atomizdat, Moscow (1978), 190 pp., 1 ruble 70 kopecks. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, p. 179,. September, 1979. 0038-631X/79/4703-0730$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR EVALUATION OF THE SELECTIVITY OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTOR-FUEL RECOVERY ON THE BASIS V.~ A. Lebedev UDC 669.536.7 The separation factors of uranium and rare earths, uranium and zirconium, uranium and plutonium, and uranium and thorium have been determined from thermodynamic data. The elements listed above have similar oxidation-reduction potentials in chloride melts and thus determine the efficiency of electrochemical recovery of reactor fuel. The separation factor Q was calculated from the expression [1] 1g Q = (n-m) FED- mFE2 -nFEi +lg yt ? (1) 4.575 T 72 where E*,.Ez are relative standard potentials Met/Mel , Me2/Mem+ [2, 31; y1, y2 are the activity factors of Mel and e2 in a liquid metal electrode [4]. If n=m, the separation factor is independent of the melt potential E. For n ;e m the calculations were made for two-phase (L+compound) melts of electropositive metal (Me2) with a 1 mole % concentration of its ions in the electrolyte (co. The comparative efficiency of various solvents salts used in separation was evaluated from Ig Q/Q'= nF (E, -Er-Er?Er), (2) 4.575 T The error in log Q estimated from Eq. (1) is t (0.3 to 0.6) and from Eq. (2), t (0.2 to 0.4). The initial data and the obtained results are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The separation factor of uranium and lanthanum increases regularly when the solvents are light metals located higher and to the right in the periodic system. The factor is close to one for thallium electrodes, 10_102 TABLE 1. Separation Factors of Mei and Mee in Liquid Metal Me-KCI melt-LiCl System Containing Me1+ and Mem+ Ions 1gQ=A+BT-1+nm Igc2 A I -B Zn 5,05 12475 2,44 3685 2,14 586 750 535 Cd 4,16 9738 3,03 885 0,66 523 20 15 Al 01 3 9892 3,84 7505 -1,30 6994 5.105 Ga , 4,72 13333 1,38 4984 2,87 1023 1,4.10+ 8.103 In 73 2 9508 2,36 2033 -0,10 1901 189 63 TI , 2 36 8153 0,49 -2678 1,40 -1455 0,4 0,9 Sn , 4 26 13377 1,97 4546 1,82 545 318 232 Pb , 07 -0 6618 2,97 2360 -3,51 5118 770 41 Bi , 94 0 11158 1,05 4328 -0,53 2546 400 92 Zn , 5 38 9770 2,44 3635 -t,03 2489 107 25 Cd , 4,44 6354 3,03 885 -2,61 3105 19 .3 Al 26 3 9050 3,84 7505 -4,60 7029 270 Bi , 40 1 8284 1,05 4328 -3,67 4618 121 9 U3+ Zr4+ Zn * , 0,56 0,374 7,66 10164 -2,26 8150 2.108 2.108 Th4+ U3+ Zn* 4,78 9511 0,79 0,559 -0,03 -213 0,10 0,11 A1* 83 3 9470 0,65 0,307 -1,20 3002 14 Ga* , 29 2 8710 0,53 0,195 0,33 822 5 3 In* , 77 0 3850 0,43 0,256 -2,52 2028 0,24 0,10 Sn * , 0,46 6459 0,67 0,288 -2,60 3123 4,4 0,8 Pb* 1,14 ? 3620 0,41 0,253 -2 , 74 2457 0,5 0,1 Sb * -0,02 9830 0,82 0,226 -1,24 2773 8 Bi* 1,33 7430 0,475 0,157 -0,11 901, 2,8 1,4 *The column log yU shows for these systems the coefficients of the equations E2=A+ B 10-8 T [4], where E2 is the emf between the metal and its two-phase (L+compound) melt. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 180-181, September, 1979. Original article sub- mitted February 13, 1978. 0038-631X/79/4703-0731$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 731 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 TABLE 2. Ratio of Separation Factors of the Elements Mel and Me2 Obtained with KCl-NaCI Melt "(Q) and Other Solvent Salts (Q') el + M Mem+ =A+ B?T M e0l E = A +,B4 ig Q/Q' = A + B?T-1 Q/Q' -A B?104 -A 1 B-104 A B 1000 1100 [ Ua+ Zr4+ LiCI NaCI 2,83 6,0 2,40 6,0 --------------- 0,30 -1227 (1 12 0 5 NaC1-KCI 2,99 3;01 6,7 6,6 2,58 2 66 6,7 -6,8 0,30 0 00 -907 0 0 , 0,25 , 0,30 KCl SCI 10 3,12 7,1 , 2,82 -7,7 , -0,61 , 0 756 1,0 1 4 1,0 1 2 pu3+ U3+ C I 3,18 346 , 7,4 9,4 2,;88 283 7,7 6 0 -0,14 1 06 756 907 , 4,2 , 3,5 NaCI 'LiC1-KC1 3 ,60 . 3 57 9;8 9 7 2,99 2 84 , 6,7 5 4 , 0,61 605 1,4 1,0 1,7 1,6 NaCI-KC KCI , -3,58 , 9,3 , 3,01 , '6,6 -2,42 0,00 -2420 00 0 1,0 1 0 0,6 1 0 CsCI 3,76 3;87 10,8 11 6 3,12 . 3 18 7,1 7 4 1,51 27 2 , 1059 , 2,8 , 3,6 Th44 U3+ Ti CI N 2,90 , 6,0 , 2,83 , 6,0 , 0,40 1815 202 2,8 4 0 4,2 3 9 aCI LiCI-KCI 2,98 3;00 5,9 6 0 2,99 2 84 6,7 5 4 -1,21 1 6 1815 , 3,4 , 2,8 NaCI-KCI K 3,09 , 6,4 , 3,01 , 66 , 1 0,00 -1613 0 00 1,2 1 0 1,4 1 0 C1 CsCI 3,17 3,25 6,7 6 9 3,42 3 18 7,1 7 4 -0,40 0 6 , 605 , 1,5 , 1,4 , , , - , 1 202 0,4 11,4 for cadmium, lead, and indium electrodes, 102 103 for bismuth and zinc electrodes, and 104 105 for gallium and alumlinum electrodes. Considering the results of separation of rare-earth metals with liquid metal electrodes [1, 51, one should expect that the separation factors of uranium and cerium `(neodymium, praseodymium) will be -similar to, of uranium and dysprosium (erbium, yttrium) by 1 order of magnitude greater than, and of uranium and samarium (ytterbium) by 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than, the separation factors of uranium and lan- thanum. The separation factor of uranium and plutonium varies within 2 orders of magnitude depending on the nature of the liquid metal solvents employed, increasing in the order Cd, Zn, Bi, and Al and reaching 102 103 for aluminum electrodes. Zinc electrodes are efficient separators for uranium and zirconium. With zinc, indium, and lead elec- trodes one should expect enrichment of the metal phase with thorium, and of the KCI-NaCI melt with uranium. No significant separation of these elements should be expected with tin and bismuth electrodes. Preferential accumulation of uranium should be observed on gallium, antimony, and aluminum electrodes. Selection -of the liquid metal solvent makes it possible to change the separation factor of uranium and thorium within more than 2 -orders of magnitude. Less marked is the effect of the solvent salt on the selectivity of electrochemical processes in the liquid metal-salt system (see Table 2). The effect becomes appreciable only when the ions of elements being .separated have markedly different z/r parameters. For example, in the solvent series from lithium chloride to cesium chloride, the separation factors of uranium and zirconium decrease, and of thorium and uranium in- crease by more than 1 order of magnitude as a result of more intense complexing in the salt melt and stronger complexing bonds of Zr4+ (z/r = 4.88) and Th4+ (4.21) in comparison with U3+ (2.88) ions. Higher temperatures, as a rule, reduce the selectivity, particularly with bismuth (Pu-U) and zinc (U-Zn) electrodes. It is interesting to compare the electrochemical separation factors of elements in metal-salt systems with those obtainable in well-known separation processes (e.g., by extraction). The separation factors of ions of the above-considered elements by extraction of 0.3 M by tertiary amine solutions out of 2 M H.NOare as fol- lows [6) : 4 for U4+/Th4+, 2 for Th4+/U(V1), 103 for Pu4+/U(VIJ,, 102 for Pu4+/U4+, 4.104 for U4+/Sni3 ? 57. 103 for U(Vi)/Sm3+, 4.104 for U4+/Zr4+, 3 ? 103 for U(Vl)/`Zr4+, It IS seen that the selectivity of electrochemical pro- cesses in -liquid metal-salt systems is similar to that of extraction by organic solvents. The above results indicate the possibility in principle of separation of uranium from fission products,, plutonium, and thorium by electrochemical methods, and the considerable effect of the nature of metal solvent salts and temperature on the process selectivity. LITERATURE CITED 1. V. A. Lebedev et al., Zh. Fiz. Khim?, 46, No. 9, 2356 (1972). 2. M. V. Smirnov, Electrode Potentials in Molten Chlorides [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1973). 3. V. I. Silin and 0. V. Skiba, Preprint NIIAR P-118, Dimitrovgrad (1971). 4. V. A. Lebedev, At. Energ., 41, No. 1, 33 (1976). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 5. A. V. Kovalevskii, V. A. Lebedev, and L F. Nichkov, Tsvetnye Met., No. 11, 45 (1973). 6. Oke.W. Hultgren, in: Reprocessing of Power Reactor Fuels [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1972), p. 103. DETERMINATION OF NEUTRON AND RADIATION COMPONENTS OF ENERGY RELEASE IN BORON-CONTAINING RODS USING GRAY CHAMBERS V. P. Polionov, Yu. G. Pashkin, and Yu. A. Prokhorov UDC 621.039.562.24 Well-known methods based on reaction speed and calorimetric measurements were used to determine the energy release in boron-containing -fuel rods in the PF-4F8 critical assembly [1-3] in which the ionization method using a Gray chamber was also tested. Unlike the methods used in [1, 2], the ionization method makes it possible to find the neutron and radiation components of energy release which is important for design pur- poses. The method is quite simple and. provides reliable results with an acceptable accuracy. Its sensitivity is approximately 10 times the sensitivity of the calorimetric method [2] and amounts to ^-10-7 W/g for natural boron. . The determination of energy release in boron-containing material is based on the well-known Bragg-Gray principle [4] which establishes the relation between the measured ionization of a gas confined in a cavity of a solid body and the release of energy in the walls of the body. The energy release per unit volume of the medium is given by ,z sot AU (C6+ Cini) K1, (1) Q=Wfsagas tVceN where W is the average energy of ion pair production in gas; f, ratio of stopping powers of the chamber mater- ial and the gas per electron; nsol and ngas, number of electrons per unit volume of the solid body and the gas, respectively; AU, change of chamber potential during irradiation time t with a power N; Cc and Cmi,,capacity of the chamber and the measuring instrument, respectively; Vc,. chamber volume.; e, electron charge; 77, ion collection efficiency in the gas gap of the chamber; and K, an extrapolation factor described below. The term DU(Cmi +Cc)/t is henceforth called the chamber current. Measurements were conducted with plane-parallel chambers. The gas gap was formed between the faces of two boron carbide cylinders 20 mm in diameter which are a part of the boron rod. The chamber is fitted with a device for varying and monitoring the gas_ gap. If a chamber with a gas gap S is placed in a reactor radiation field, the current 16 flowing in it is given by I6=Ia+IL1+IB,C+Ie+I1k, (2) where I?, ILi, and IB,C are neutron components due, respectively, to the products of (n, a) reactions in 10B and to recoil nuclei of boron and carbon produced by their interaction with neutrons, the latter component being negligible in comparison with the first one; Is is the radiation current component measured with a special boron carbide chamber in which the gas cavity is shielded by an aluminum foil from the (n, a) reaction products, and Ilk is aleakage current determined in the absence of reactor radiation and found to amount to only 3% in our conditions. For a "zero" gas gap, for which Eq. (1) is true, the chamber current components differ from currents flowing in the chamber with a finite gas gap for the following reasons : the Bragg-Gray condition [4] that the fraction of particles entering the gas gap with a residual range less than the gap length is negligible is not com- pletely satisfied; the neutron flux on the inner surfaces of chamber electrodes increases in the presence of a gas gap; an edge effect takes place in which a fraction of charged particles, mainly from the edges of elec- trodes, emerges at an angle to the chamber axis and leaves the sensitive volume of the chamber without fully Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, p. 182, September, 1979. Original article submitted April 17, 1978. 0038-631X/79/4703-0733$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation . 733 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 TABLE 1. Energy Release in Boron Rod Measured by Different Methods Energy release, 104 W/g neutron component total energy release Ratio of reaction speeds [1] Calorimetric [2] Ionization 1.43.+0.16 1.43:1: 0.1 spending their energy. These effects diminish with decreasing gas gap and vanish completely in a "zero" gap. In this case, the chamber current satisfies all conditions of the Bragg-Gray equation [4]. To find the chamber current at "zero" gap, we have subtracted from the currents obtained with 0.07 and 0.5 mm gas, gaps the radiation current component and the leakage current at these gaps. Then, we have deter- mined the parameter x in expression (3) which describes the current-in a plane-parallel chamber due to a par- ticles and lithium nuclei taking into account the gas gap dimensions expressed in a particle track lengths: I~{ 1L1 2 a./J+11LiJ 2 11+1n IT (3) where k is the ratio of track lengths of a particles and lithium nuclei. This expression has been obtained for a small gap assuming an isotropic angular distribution of reaction products : helium and lithium nuclei. Next we have determined the neutron component of the chamber current for a "zero" gap which is 1.13 times the c{irrent for a 0.07-mm gap. The obtained data are listed in Table 1. The results confirm that the measurements are correct and indicate the possibility of using the ionization method for measuring the energy release components in boron rods in low-power critical assemblies with an accuracy acceptable for practical purposes. The method is quite simple and easy to implement. The reactor power was measured by the frequency method by S. A. Morozov to whom the authors express their gratitude. LITERATURE CITED 1. V. A. Kuznetsov et al., At. Energ., No. 5, 926 (1972). 2. A.S. Zhilkin et al., At. Energ., 42, No. 6, 502 (1977). 3. A. L Mogil'ner et al., At. Energ., 24, No. 1, 42 (1968). 4. J. Hein and H. Brownell (editors), Radiation Dosimetry [Russian translation], IL, Moscow (1958). 5. A. L Mogil'ner et al., Preprint FL-98, Obninsk (1967). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 PHOTOPRODUCTION OF NEUTRONS IN A THICK LEAD TARGET V. I. Noga, Yu. N. Ranyuk, UDC 621.384.64.038.624:539.125.5.03 and Yu. N. Telegin The purpose of the paper is a study of the yield of neutrons from a thick lead target bombarded by 230- and 1200-MeV electrons in linear accelerators of the Physicotechnical Instutute of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The experiment was staged as follows. A beam of electrons hit a lead target in the form of a 0.2- to 8-cm-thick cylinder with a diameter. of 2.5 cm. Neutrons were counted by the method of radioactive indicators [1]. Neutron detectors (aluminum samples) in the form of 0.5-cm-thick disks 3 cm in diameter were placed at a distance of 15 cm around the lead target at definite angles with respect to the electron beam direc- tion. The activity induced by the 27A1(n, p)27Mg reaction was measured with a y spectrometer consisting of a Ge(Li) detector and a "Langur" spectrometer. The spectrometer was connected to an M-6000 digital computer which recorded and processed the spectra. The various reactions of neutron-nuclei interaction used for neutron detection by the method of induced activity result in the production of radioactive nuclides. Most suitable for this purpose under conditions of y background are (n, p) reactions for which the background process is the photoproduction (y, 7r+). Since the photoproduction process is about 140 MeV, y quanta do not contribute to the measured activity below this energy, while for Ey>140 MeV their contribution is negligible because of the small photoproduction cross sections of it mesons as compared with the (n, p) reaction cross section. However, the use of (n, p) reactions leads to practical difficulties associated with the need of a monoisotopic detectors. The 27A1(n, p)2 7A% reaction used by us is one of the most suitable reactions for practical applications. The angular distributions of neutron yield obtained for different target thickness and electron energies are nearly isotropic indicating that evaporation is the main neutron production mechanism. The integral neu- tron flux was calculated from w- 3 ? 6 00 000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 L,y, CM Fig. 1. Neutron yield fn as a func- tion of target thickness lpb at 230 (0) and 1200 MeV (O). Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 183-184, September, 1979. Original article sub mitted June 26, 1978. 0038-631X/79/4703- 0735$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 735 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 0 500 1000 E0, MeV Fig. 2. Neutron yield fn as a func- tion of electron energy Eo under saturation. conditions : results of [3, 4] (0), our results (0); calculated in [5], calculated in [6]. where k is a factor accounting for neutrons with an energy below the reaction threshold, and R is an activation integral (cm2/sr ? electron) [1]. The neutron production cross section was described by the single-step function j0 for En < .Qef ; an(En) = `aef for En ~> Qef , where Qef and. aef are, respectively, the effective threshold and the effective threshold cross section. In our case Qef=4 MeV and aef=30 mb. To find k the neutron spectrum was represented by the expression s(p (En) -En exp En/T), where En is the neutron kinetic energy and T is a constant. The constant T was calculated from experimental data on the spectrum of neutrons from a tantalum target obtained for a maximum bremstrahlung beam energy of 140 MeV [3]. The estimated error of fn is f 30%. Absorption of neutrons in the lead target was neglected. Data shown in Fig. 1 as well as similar results of other works [4] indicate that the behavior of fn(lpb)is the same for different electron energies E0 and is characterized by the fact that neutron yield saturation begins at a certain target thickness. The minimum target thickness 1min corresponding to saturation depends on E0. The thickness lmin shifts toward greater thickness with increasing E0. This must be taken into-account in selecting optimum target dimensions for a given initial energy. Of special interest is the dependence of neutron yield on electron energy since there is a practical possi- bility to vary this yield in particular when the accelerators employed have a high upper energy limit. Figure. 2 shows the available calculated and experimental data concerning the dependence of the yield of neutrons from a lead target on E0. To within an acceptable error the results obtained in [5] agree with experimental results. The results calculated -in [6] are considerably lower than other data. It can be assumed that the discrepancy is a result of the fact that the processes leading to neutron production were not fully accounted for. This is parti- cularly important at energies exceeding the pion photoproduction threshold. LITERATURE CITED 1. E. A. Kramer-Ageev, V. S. Troshin, and E. G. Tikhonov, Activation Methods of Neutron Spectrometry [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1976). 2. C. Burgart et al., Nucl. Sci. Eng., 42, 421 (1970). 3. R. Alsmiller and M. Moran, Nucl. Instrum. Methods, 48, 109 (1967), 4. W. Barber and W. George, Phys. Rev., 116, 1551 (1959). 5. W. Swanson, SLAC-PUB-2042 (1977). 6. J. Levinger, Nucleonics, 6 No. 5 (1950). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATING FISSION P~ROD,-UCTS CONCENTRATION. AND. ENERGY RELEASE IN CIRCULATING NUCLEAR FUEL L. I. Medvedovskii, E. S. Stariz.nyi, V. A. Ch.e.r-:kashin, V. A. Rudoi, and K. I. Ste.panova UDC 621.039.55 The solution of certain problems associated with the design and application of uranium radioactive loops requires calculation of fission products concentration and of the three-dimensional distribution of -y- and /3- radiation energy release and its spectral composition in circulating nuclear fuel. Methods and results for cal- culating these characteristics in nuclear reactors with noncirculating fuel have been published in severalworks [1-3]. Design works, as a rule, do not take into account isomeric transitions, direct generation of nuclides in chains, and burnup of active nuclides. We have designed a mathematical model of the accumulation of fission products in circulating nuclear fuel. and devised a method for calculating the radiation characteristics ofura- nium radioactive loops (distribution of the power of .y and. (3 radiation and their spectral composition in the uranium radioactive channel). This mathematical model can also be employed for calculating the radiation characteristics of fission products in pulsed reactors, in which burnup of fission products is especially high, and in nuclear.reactors with fixed fuel. Consider all possible transmutations of fission product nuclei. A nucleus (including isomers) can be gen- erated directly in fission, as a result of neutron capture by an isotope of lower mass, as a result of decay of its Fig. 1. Initial (a) and linearized (b).chains (O,.isomer; .40, ground state) : a: 1) (1-asi-4j-(31-1j) Al-ijAi 1j; 2) a +iAi-ij+iAi_ +i. 3) .1-.j42~Ai- +2;4) o11j+2 Ai-1j+2; 5) (1-aij+i)Xij+iAij+i; 6) aij+1. Xij+1Aij+1; RijXijAii; 8) y1j-iZf!; b: 1) X3i-1j-2Ai-ij-2; 2) X21-ij-i Ai-j-1;-3) Xii-jAi-j; 4) vi-ij+ltAi-1j+i; 5) Yij-iEf I. Translated from Atomnaya Ener.giya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 184-186, September, 1979. Original article sub- mitted July 17, 1978;. revision submitted January 25, 1979. 0038.-531X/'79/4703-,0737$07.50 ?.1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 737 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 10-5 101 102 103 104 105 Time after instataneous fission Fig. 2. Comparison of results obtained by the proposed method with experimental data: CQ data- [21, 0) data. [41, V) data [5], ?) data [6], --y our results. isomer (if the nucleus is not an isomer), and as a result of decay of an isobar and of an isomer of isobar with smaller nuclear charges. The generated nucleus can capture a neutron, pass into a ground state (if the nucleus is an isomer), into an isobar next in the chain, and into an isomer of the isobar next in the chain. All these pro- cesses are reflected in the following system of differential equations : dAsj/dt = yjjZJm-~1JAjj-a, /DAti-F at,-i~,J-jAzJ-i+ I +aii-1, , Aii-i+piiXiAti+at-lJAt-1i; dA;jfdt=Uii EJcD-XiiAii-aiiDAii+(1-al-i- ~ii-i)~'ii-iAi5_1 +(1-atJ-1) XjJ-1At,-1+ ai-1J@Ai-Sir (1) where Ai is the concentration of the j-th nucleus in the i-th chain; yij, probability of output in fission; Ef, nuclear fuel fission macro cross section; 4), thermal neutron flux density; 7Lij, decay constant; of , neutron cap- ture micro cross section; Cr and (3, probability coefficients :(Fig. la); quantities marked with strotes corre- spond to isomers. To simplify the solution let us arrange isomers with ground states in one chain numerating them so that a nucleus with a higher number cannot turn into a nucleus with a lower number; transitions take place between nuclei with numbers differing by not more:than three. The concentration Aij of isotope (i, j) in the mixture can then be -described by a single equation (see Fig. 1b) : dAij/dt=YtJ-AtjAtj+Pi-1J+A1-1J+?st1-sA1j-s +'siJ-2AiJ-z+21jj-1At,-1; (2) Au (0) = B1J+ y iJ=y11X1D; Ptj=atjD; AtJ=X1J+PiJ; 3 4iJ-k=XtJ-kati-k J; 7, aiJJ+k=1. Here aijj+k is the probability of transition of nucleus (I, j) into the nucleus (i, j + k). Since nuclear fuel in a uranium radioactive loop enters the neutron field periodically, for each elementary volume we have ( t ) f 0t is averaged for the whole population and takes account of all i possible effects leading to the death of an individual. If, for each effect individually, the sensitivity is defined by the quantity x,i, then the total sensitivity to a given agent can be found from the relation x =Y xt . (12) tIn Soviet literature, there is no generally accepted equivalent for the conversion of the English term "dose commitment." The term "expected dose," which is used sometimes, clearly is ambiguous. Therefore, by analogy with the mathematical expectation, it is proposed to denote "dose commitment" as dose expectation. In this case, the probable nature of this quantity is emphasized, and also its difference from the actual absorbed dose. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 The relations considered are valid in the case of linearity of the risk-exposure relation. However, even in the case of nonlinear relations, different sections of the risk-exposure curves can be approximated by straight lines and their relations can be used. The proposed methodology also allows the introduction of uniformity into the quantitative description of the phenomena of synergism and the mutual suppression of certain agents simultaneously affecting the popula- tion. For example, if on the average there are first and second agents, the combined effect of which is non- additive, the..following expression can be written for the effective dimensionless exposure E: E_co (Xi, X2) [X1/x1+k2/x2]? (13) The numerical value of the coefficient w is greater than unity in the case of synergism and less than unity in the case of mutual depression. Obviously, the quantity E should serve as the basic normalization and can be used for comparing all types of practical worker, where there exists a risk of death of the individual. In this case, data about vc are es- sential for the most different agents. They can be obtained partially on the basis of analysis of the published data; however, special purposeful investigations are required to a considerable degree for this, in the first place experiments on animals, and also natural hygienic investigations, including a study of the environment and the health of staff and-population. It can be verified that the most complete information necessary for quantitative estimates and forecasts, are in the field of radiation hygiene [7]. The dose-effect relation for chemical carcinogens has been studied very inadequately [6]. Data which might be used for quantitative estimates of the effect in the case of combined action are still few. Numerous gaps in the available data indicate the direction of the immediate investigations which will be necessary for a correct .estimate of the effect of the environment on man in the actual conditions of the combined effect of many agents. LITERATURE CITED 1. Radiation Protection [Russian translation], Atomizdat, Moscow (Publication 26 ICRP) (1978). 2. Standards of Radiation Safety [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (NRB-76) (1978). 3. V. Lyscov, "Comparative evaluation of risks from physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens in the environment, ".in: Seventh International Biophysics Congress, September 3-9, 1978, Kyoto. 4. NKDAR Report United Nations 1977 [in Russian], New York (1978). 5, Science, 187, 503 (1975). 6. V. A. Knizhnikov, Gig. Sanit., No. 3, 96 (1975). 7. E. I. Vorob'ev et al., At. Energ., 43, No. 5, 374 (1977). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 ESTIMATE O_F DOPPLER BROADENING OF RESONANCES V. V. Kolesov and A..A. Luk'yanov UDC 539. . The effect of the thermal motion of the nuclei of a medium on the form of the energy dependence of neutron cross sections in the resonance region must be taken into account in the analysis of neutron spec- troscopy data and in estimates of nuclear temperature effects in reactors. The problem consists in the transformation of the cross section a(E t), determined theoretically in the center of mass system as a function of the energy of the relative motion of the neutron and the nucleus E 1, to the laboratory system where the neutron energy is E ; a(E)= 1 a(E')F(E-E')dE'. (1) The distribution function F(E - E 1) characterizes the statistical spread of the energy E I resulting from the thermal motion of the nuclei of the medium. Usually the gas model approximation is used, where F (E-E') dE' _ (1/ 1/rzA) exp[-(E-E')2/A2] dE (2) Here A= 21M/ (A +1) is the so-called Doppler width and kr is the average energy of thermal motion of the atoms [1, 210 The energy structure of cross sections at resonances is determined by the superposition of the known functions [1]: exp [-(z-y)2t21 dy; 1/n 1-f-y' X(x, ~)= C exp-(x-y)2t21" ydy, 1+y2 where x = (E - E 7,)2/ rX, t r7,/24, and r is the resonance width. These functions have been well studied, detailed tables of them exist, and descriptions of algorithms and numerical calculation programs are available [1-4]. The functions It and X are widely used in the analysis of neutron cross sections in the region of resolved levels, and also in the study of resonance effects in nuclear reactors [2]. However, the necessity of turning to numerical calculations even for qualitative estimates of the Doppler broadening of resonances frequently 'leads to considerable complications. Thus, in existing programs for seeking resonance parameters from ex- perimental data, up to 90% of the machine time is consumed in calculating the functions ' and X. The integral representation of these functions makes the construction of the solutions of the transport equation for resonance neutrons difficult even In the simplest problems. For rough estimates of effects related to the Doppler broadening of resonances it is convenient to have rational approximations of the functions i and X obtained by using a distribution function of the Lorentz form [5] in (1): F (E-E') dE'=(A/2-1) dE'l [(E-E')2+42/41, (4) where 0 is the characteristic width of the distribution at half-height. By averaging (1) we obtain approximate expressions for the Doppler functions: '(x, F)=(1+6)/[x2+(1 H--b)21; j (X, t)=x/1x2+(1+6)21, where 6 =0/ r [5]. Relations between A- and A are established by comparing specific integral combinations of the Doppler functions. Thus, from the equality of the integrals of the squares of these functions it follows that Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 205-206, September, 1979. Original article submitted November 20, 1978. 770 0038-531X/ 79/4703- 0770$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Fig. 1. Exact ( ) and approximate (---) functions for calculating Doppler broadening of.a resonance for various values of t; a) the functions T and'; b) the functions X and X. The results of a numerical solution of this transcendental equation can be represented by the approximate relation 6-1=t [2.5+2t+~(0.t+t) (0.12+b)]. Figure 1 shows that the general qualitative agreement of the exact and approximate functions improves with increasing Various integral characteristics of cross sections in the resonance region are of practical interest. These include transmissions averaged over the resonances as.,a function of sample, thickness (exp[-nv]) , average cross sections measured with filtered beams (aaexp[-na]), and effective resonance integrals. Thus, the temperature dependence of the effective integral of an isolated resonance is characterized by the self-shielding factor x1 r 'dx n J 1?a(Tcos2cp-xsin2p)' where q is the phase of the potential scattering, a = u?/vp is the ratio of the cross section at the resonance maximum to the potential cross section of the medium per nucleus of the resonance absorber [2]. When using approximation (5) this integral is calculated as K;t~1l/(1+1+Scosz(p) (1-1+Ssin?cp ). A comparison of the results of numerical calculations of the integrals (8) given in [4] with our results (9) yields the approximate relation: 6-1=~(2.5-j- 2C+ [(1+acos 2(p) C](0.i+010.12+6)), which when used in E q. (9) reproduces the values of the integrals with an error of less than - 3% over the whole range of the parameters. The result of averaging a resonance cross section with the distribution function (4) is equivalent to the ordinary Breit-Wigner formula, where taking account of Doppler broadening appears only in the redefinition of the total width (F-=r+2~). This enables. one to obtain simple analytic expressions for the estimation and parametrization of the temperature dependences of various integral characteristics of cross sections used in- reactor physics applications. The fundamental criterion of the accuracy of the approximation must be a com- parison with the data of integral experiments, since calculations with the integral Doppler functions are gener- ally approximate per se. LITERATURE CITED 1. H. A. Bethe, Rev. Mod. Phys., 9', 69 (1937). 2. A. A. Luk'yanov, Slowing Down and Absorption of Resonance Neutrons [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1974). - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 3. V. N. Faddeeva and N. M. Terent'ev, Tables of Values of the Probability Integral of Complex Argument (in Russian], Gostekhteorizdat, Moscow (1954). 4. L. P. A bagyan et al., Bulletin of the Nuclear Data Information Center. Propagation of Resonance Neu- trons in Homogeneous Media. Theory and Special Functions [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1968). 5. A..A. Lukfyanov, Structure of Neutron Cross Sections [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1978). NEUTRON RESONANCES OF 247Cm IN THE ENERGY RANGE T. S. Belanova, A. G. Kolesov, A. V. Klinov, S. N. Nikol'skii, V. A. Poruchikov, V. N. Nefedov, V. S. Artamonov, R. N. Ivanov, and S. M. Kalebin UDC 621.039.556 The neutron resonance parameters of 247Cm were calculated on the SM -2 reactor from the transmission of a sample of curium, which was measured by the time-of-flight method. The neutron pulse was shaped by a mechanical selector with three rotors, suspended in a magnetic field [1]. The best resolution on the flight base of 91.7 m amounted to 120 nsec/m. The sample for investigation was made from powder, calcined at a temperature of 900-1100?C, of the stable oxide of curium (Cm20a with a known oxygen content. Included in the impurities were 243Am and 240Pu; the latter is built-up in the sample as a result of the decay of 244Cm. The maximum 247Cm content at the time of measurement amounted to 0.64.10-4 atom/b. The content of inert impurities, with the exception of oxygen, did not exceed 3%. The transmission was measured in the neutron energy range of 0.5-20 MeV with a statisti- cal error on the resonance limbs of 1-2%. The neutron background did not exceed 2% of the effect. The neutron resonance parameters were calculated by the shape method according to the Bright-Wigner single-level formula [1]. As the neutron resonance parameters of 244Cm, 245Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 243Am, and 240Pu are well known [2-6], the 247Cm resonances could be identified in the measured transmission and their parameters were calculated (see Table 1). In [3, 5, 6], the 247Cm resonances with energies of 1.247, 3.19, and 18,1 eV were erroneously ascribed to 2451Cm. The neutron resonance with an energy of 2.919 eV was not previously detected. Only 5 neutron resonances of 7Cm were identified with large values of 2grn, because the 247Cm content in the sample was low (1.7 mg) and the resonances of this isotope were identified on the background of the large number of resonances of 244Cm, 24sCm, 241Cm, 24$Cm, 24Am, and 240Pu located in the energy region being investigated. Eo, eV r. MeV 2a rn, MeV 1,247+0,05 74?4 0,56?0,09 2,919+0,010 70+30 0,10?0,04 3,189T0,010 103?6 1, 0?0,1 9,55?0,03 166+60 0,91?0,33 18,1?0,1 210?170 3,7?1,5 LITERATURE CITED 1. T. S. Belanova et al., Preprint, Scientific-Research Institute of Nuclear Radiation P-6 (272) [inRussian Dimitrovgrad (1976). 2. Neutron Cross Sections, BNL-325, Third Edition, Vol. 1 (1973). 3. T. S. Belanova et al., At. Energ., 42, No. 1, 52 (1977). Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol, 47, No. 3, pp. 206-207, September, 1979. Original article submitted December 12, 1978. 772 0038-531X/79/4703-0772$07,50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 4. - R. W. Benjamin et al., Nucl. Sci. Eng., 55, No. 4, 440 (1974). 5. T. S. Belanova et al., Preprint, Scientific-Research Institute of Nuclear Radiation P-13 (307) [in Russian], Dimitrovgrad (1977). 6. T. S. Belanova et al., Proceedings of the Conference on "Neutron Physics," TsNltatominform, Moscow, Pt. 3, 224 (1976). 773 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 CONFERENCES, MEETINGS, SEMINARS SOVIET-BRITISH SEMINAR ON FAST REACTORS- R. P. Baklushin At the Seminar on nExperience in the Design, Experimental Development, and Operation of the Basic Plant for Fast Sodium Reactors," the British specialists presented 17 reports on the construction of units and plant for the newly designed commercial CFR reactor and on the various material-behavior problems. The Soviet specialists participating in the Seminar, visited nuclear centers at Risley, Harwell, and Dounraey, and also the PFR, operating at a power of 20 MW (thermal) and with a nominal capacity of 600 MW. The nominal thermal capacity was achieved in February 1977, but the electrical output was below the design output as a consequence of one of the intermediate steam superheaters and certain.of the regenerative water preheaters (mixing type) being switched off, and also because the vacuum in the condenser was below the calculated value. The reactor, in addition to the generation of electric power, is used for testing fuel elements, plant, and com- ponents of the CFR reactor. In the last 2 years, the PFR frequently has operated at only 66% of its power be- cause of these investigations. There were no cases of failure of the regular fuel elements and the burnup was 5%. There were 6 experimental cassettes with fuel elements in the core, and after 6 months there were two' cases of fuel element failure among them. In January 1979, after this failure, the power was reduced to 66%. The burnup of the experimental fuel elements then in the reactor, amounted to 9%, but in general it reached 22%. In the week before the arrival of the delegation, a leak appeared in the evaporator of the second steam generator, which was the reason for further reduction of power. Although the leaks in the steam-superheaters of stainless steel attracted the most attention of the specialists, and after which cracking occurred in conse- quence of alkaline corrosion, these leaks amounted in all to two or three out of 15. Others were observed in the evaporators at the site of the tube weld with the tube plate because of corrosion pitting in the zone of the welded seam from the water side. i Great attention was paid to the reprocessing of PFR fuel (plutonium dioxide). The British specialists consider that they have solved this problem. In the summer of 1979 at Dounraey, it is proposed to start up a facility which has been designed for the reprocessing of all the fuel unloaded from the PFR. On this same area, it is planned in the future to manufacture fuel element assemblies from the reprocessed fuel, and thus to close the fuel cycle. The decision to construct a nuclear power station with a C FR has not been taken and the area has not been assigned. The reasons for this were named as the reserves of petroleum discovered in the North Sea and the opposition of the protectors of the environment. It is expected that the construction of the nuclear power station will be started in 1984. The following problems were discussed in more detail. In the core of the CFR, three types of control and safety rods are distributed: 19 control rods (these are the burnup compensators) and 9 scram rods -main and auxiliary. The design of the control and scram rods is conventional. Their actuators are located above the core on rotatable plugs. The main interest is the auxiliary group of scram rods. It is not connected mechanically with the rotatable plugs, but can provide pro- tection of the reactor during fuel recharging. The rods are retained above the core by the action of a stream of sodium, fed into the guiding sleeve from below by special electromagnetic pumps. The rods are divided into three groups, with three in each group, and fed with an individual pump. When the pump is switched off, the rods fall downwards under the action of their own mass with a velocity of 0.4 m/sec. On falling into the core, the three rods inject a reactivity of -1.12% Ak/k. The geometry of the sleeve and the rod is such that in the. case of erroneous switch-on of the pump, the latter remains in the lower position. In the upper portion, in which it is retained by hydraulic forces, it is returned by a special pickup mechanism. After switching on the pumps, the pickups are disengaged from the rods and raised upwards. For the scram system, a special electromagnetic pump was developed and tested; it has a winding of copper strands surrounded by a magnesite insulation and a winding of stainless steel. The pump can be oper- ated when immersed in sodium at 600?C. It was designed so that its central part with the electrical winding could be withdrawn from its channel, in the event of the occurrence of a failure. The diameter of the central part of the pump of different stub-size varies from 32 to 300 mm, and the flow-rate correspondingly from 0.4 to 50 liter/sec, 7 714 Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 208-213, September, 1979. 0038-531X/79/4703-0774$07.50?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 The fuel recharging system of the CFR has significant differences from the PFR fuel recharging system. Fuel element assemblies are withdrawn from the core by three mechanisms of the "direct" type (without panto- graphs). They are lined-up with the fuel element assemblies by three rotatable plugs. The change of design is explained by the tendency to increase the reliability and the service life of the mechanisms, and also not to withdraw them from the sodium after recharging. Two of the recharging mechanisms have been designed for the fuel element assemblies (in order to speed up the process, they operate together), and the third is for recharging the sleeves with the control and safety rods which, in order to eliminate errors, have other gripping devices. The heat capacity of the recharging container, filled with sodium, has been chosen so that the. tem- perature of the fuel element cladding in the most stressed fuel element assembly is not raised above 650?C. In the case of delay, the container is cooled additionally by blowing with argon. The pump of the CFR primary circuit is two-stage, and it has been calculated on a flow-rate of 10,500 m 3/h with a pressure head of 928 kN/m2, and an operating temperature range of 200-370?C, but may be 500?C for a short time. The extraction part of the pump has a length of more than 15 m. The drum rests on two bearings: the lower is hydrostatic, fed with sodium from the pressure head of the pump; the upper is an oil bearing, radially axial. The drum sealing, as it has been suggested, will be mechanical, lubricated with oil and friction pairs, based on flat rings. Each pump is provided with a cut-off valve, for which there are no requirements for fast closure or 100% leak-tightness. The arrangement of the valve, together with the pump, allows the diameter of the reactor vessel to be reduced significantly. The power supply of the pump is fed from a separate motor-generator and variation of the speed of rotation is effected by varying the frequency of'the ac supply. The range of control is 20-100%. In the case of deenergizing of the facility, auxiliary motors are provided, fed from accumulator banks and they ensure a 10% sodium flow rate. It is proposed to develop the design of the pump and of the individual components on test-rigs. In par- ticular, a transparent-1/4-scale model has been provided for, test-rigs for developing the upper and lower bearings, sealing, cut-off valve, etc. The problem of full-scale tests of the pumps in sodium, however, has not been resolved. Many British specialists assume that it will be sufficient to conduct these tests on water, as was done for the PFR. The intermediate heat-exchanger of CFR has 4280 tubes with an outside diameter of 22.2 mm and an effective length of 7.1 m, arranged in concentric circles and fixed into two flat tubular plates. The sodium in the primary circuit flows in the tubes, and the sodium of the secondary circuit flows in the intertube space. It has been assumed that this ensures smaller hydraulic losses in the primary circuit and a more reliable operation in transition temperature conditions. The tubular plates are supported by the jackets and the tubes are made flexible, which makes the structure insensitive to the flow and temperature distribution between individual tubes. A gap is also provided, which is necessary for stopping the sodium supply of the primary circuit through the intermediate heat-exchanger, when the loop of the secondary circuit is switched off. The CFR steam generator has partial recirculation (the moisture, content of the steam at the outlet from the evaporator is 10%). The concept of the recessed tube bundle with U-shaped tubes has been retained. The most important changes with respect to the PFR concern the choice of structural material. In the evaporators- and superheaters Kh9M1 steel is used (stainless steel in the superheaters finally was rejected). The tempera- ture of the live steam consequently is assumed to be 490?C. The British specialists assume that leaks in the PFR steam generators are due, to a considerable degree, to the design of the sealing subassembly of the tubes in the tube plates, which has been made too inflexible and has residual stresses which promote corrosion cracking. In the CFR steam generators, the tubes are secured with thermal couplings. A secondary sodium steam generator was rejected in CFR. It will be effected with live steam. Work is proceeding in Great Britain on instruments for facilities with sodium coolant. In particular, an ultrasonic instrument for the inspection of components above the surface of the sodium was demonstrated on a water test-rig. At the end of 1979, it is proposed to test the instrument in the PFR. Several new sodium test-rigs have been built, The HTSL test-rig, introduced in 1978, makes it possible to simulate thermal shocks with a rate of up to 25 degC /sec (from 600 to 400?C over 8 sec). The volume of sodium is 21.m3 and it is calculated on a temperature of up to 700?C and a flow rate of up to 320 ms/h. The SCTR test-rig, with a sodium volume of 40 m3, has 7 working vessel-receptacles with a diameter of 0.6-1.1 m and with a length of 3.3-26 m. It is designed for testing various subsasemblies and mechanisms in static sodium. It is also proposed to in- vestigate on it the weldability of fuel element assemblies in sodium, the wear of tubes, etc. On the "Super NOAH" test-rig, interstitial flows (400 g/sec) are being simulated in tube bundles with ideal geometry, for studying leakage of water into the sodium in steam generators. Temperature processes at the site of the leak are being investigated, secondary leaks have been simulated and also the burning of tubes with defects with a diameter of up to 20 mm. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Considerable attention in Great Britain is being paid to the behavior of structural materials under rea- listic conditions. In the reports devoted to the behavior of stainless steel 316 under conditions of high temper- ature and stress, the results are described of investigations of the process of formation and development of cracks. In other reports, the results were given of investigations'of the corrosion of Kh2M and Kh9M steel for steam generators. The meeting of the British and Soviet specialists confirmed that there are many problems presenting mutual scientific-technical interest. On May 17-19, 1979, a conference was held in Baku, of the Bureau of the Commission on Hydrogen Power Generation of the Academy of Sciences of the SSSR, together with the Scientific Council on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaidzhan SSR. About 100 people attended from the institutes of the Republic and organizations of other cities. The purpose of the Conference was formulated by M. A. Topchibashov, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the AzSSR, who mentioned the active par- ticipation of the scientists of the Republic in solving the important and many-sided hydrogen problem. The position and significance of the hydrogen problem in the development of power generation in the long- term was highlighted in a report by Academician M. A. Styrikovich. Hydrogen and its derivatives are emerging first and foremost as an intermediate energy-carrier in industry, municipal-everyday heat supply, and the direct combustion of fuel. For these purposes, at the present time in the world about two-thirds of the fuel being extracted is burned up. Despite the mass production of hydrogen being a matter for the more distant future, it is essential to solve the hydrogen problem even now. In the situation expected in the long-term, the question is not about the orientation in this or other energy source or energy-carrier, but about their optimum combination, including the user factor. The main attention in the report of M. A. Styrikovich was paid to the fuel-power situation in the world and its special features in the Soviet Union. It was noted that the practically inexhaustibility of the already widely used atomic energy and, in the future, possibly thermonuclear energy, will ensure the feasibility of the further .growth of energy consumption. The increase of consumption, complicated by the "demographic explosion" of the last decades, will be limited by the negative secondary effects of power development, including in the first place the disturbance of the ecological equilibrium, created by excessive load on the environment. The speaker defined certain determining factors in the forecasts of power development - the population increase, reserves and resources of the various types of energy, the importance of nuclear power forecasting especially in the long-term, and also the tonality of the forecasts being compiled, as in recent years dark predictions concerning the power future have been frequent abroad. There is no basis for this, although the gradual slowing down of the power increase can be expected with a high probability. Under these conditions, the forecasting in quite a large time depth, up to the end of the 21st century will acquire considerable im- portance. The duration of the development of power technology, computed as tens of years (e.g., nuclear power), and the great technological and invested inertia of the power generation branches and of the infrastructure will now require such endeavors, M. A. Styrikovich noted that Soviet and foreign investigations invariably will have- an effect on the dominating role of nuclear power generation, despite the several complex and increasing nega- tive factors accompanying its development. They are mainly due to the external fuel cycle. The essence of the hydrogen problem, combining a different power generation technology including nuclear, was recounted by V. A. Legasov, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the SSSR. He indicated the fundamental position on which is based the complex of work on hydrogen power generation in the Soviet Union. Hydrogen cannot be and must not be considered as a source of primary energy, but only as a factor of energy economy, and its optimum utilization. No alternative to hydrogen can be seen as yet in the solution of this problem (taking account not only of molecular hydrogen, but also its different forms - atomic, liquid, and chemically combined). The possession of the technology for the production of hydrogen will require a long time, and a delay in its utilization will strongly affect the future requirement for power. Its methods of production are indifferent to the sources of power, but are sensitive to temperature. The participationof nuclear power in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 production is possibly twofold: electrolysis and high-temperature thermochemistry. Plasma electrolysis is Interesting, by which hydrogen can be obtained in a nonequilibrium oscillatory process of the reaction of CO2 and H2O at 500?C . The process of direct production is interesting, although it is difficult to achieve from the point of view of radiation safety, due to the radiation output. Here, the interaction of radiation with the mole- cule of water is used. The speaker gave estimates of the possible scale of hydrogen production by nuclear methods, the structures of the consumption of hydrocarbons obtained by these methods, in future hydrogen power generation. In order to solve the hydrogen problem, considerable work will be necessary, for which a program has been compiled by the Academy of Sciences of the SSSR and the State Committee for Science and Technology, and contains scientific-technical problems of the production and utilization of hydrogen. A following group of reports, made by scientists of the Academy of Sciences of the A zSSR, concerned the different sides of the activity of the institutes of the Republics in solving the problem. This activity, defined in the report by M. I. Rustamov, rests on the petrochemical production base of the Republic, and starts from its potentialities, specific properties and requirement. About 100 people are participating in the investigations, work is proceeding in the direction of hydrogen production in different cycles, from hydrogen-containing gases using biological methods, by the creation of thermal and solar energy sources, photochemical decomposition of water, the use of synthesizers, and by the membrane method of separation (pure hydrogen N 70%). The prob- lem consists in the utilization of hydrogen-containing incidental and waste gases of the petroleum extraction and petrochemical industries. The large number of windy and sunny days in the Republic (180-200 and 300 days per year) justify the work on wind and solar power facilities, a description of which was given in the report by M. Ya. Bekirov. A photoelectric hydrogen facility with a silicon solar battery and an electrolyzer with a power of 100 W and a hydrogen output of 3 liter /h, a wind-powered facility of 24O W with an output of 7 liter/h, etc. have been con- structed. The photochemical and combined methods of decomposition of water were the theme of the report by N. Z. Muradov. Photocatalyzers (dyestuffs) allow up to 30% of the visible region of the solar light spectrum to be used. Combined methods are being investigated with the use of light, thermal, and electric power. Pref- erence is being given to the iodine and iron-chlorine cycles. The former allows a photochemical process to be used for the decomposition of water, and the second is based on the use of hydrochloric acid, which is a waste product of industry. The content of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing gases of the waste products of the petrochemical processes was the theme of the report by E. I. Pryanikov. The wastes from catalytic thermal cracking are a multitonnage supply for the production of hydrogen. It is an important element in the intensifi- cation of the reprocessing of petroleum and complex utilization in petrochemistry (report of I. I. Sidoruk). The membrane technique of separating hydrogen and the technology of production of improved membranes, developed in Azerbaidzhan, was the topic of the report by R. S. Alimardanov. The report of V. R. Rustamov was devoted to the radiolysis of water vapor in the presence of solid catalytic compounds - zeolytes. A report on the work of the Second Universal Conference on Hydrogen Power Generation (Zurich, 1978) was given by S. P. Malyshenko. The consideration of the reports, discussion, and decision taken reflected the urgency and importance of the problem as a whole, as well as the work being carried out in the Azerbaidzhan SSR. SECOND CONFERENCE OF THE CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR THE ISOTOPES OF THE ACTINIDE ELEMENTS From April. 30 to May 5 1979 at Cadarache (France), two international conferences were held, convened by the IAEA. The first of these was a conference of two groups united by a program of coordinated investiga- tions, and the second was a conference on nuclear data for the actinides. The two groups, within the framework of the program of coordinated investigations, were formed after the First Conference on Nuclear Data for the Actinides (Federal Republic of Germany, November 1975) and they monitor the state of nuclear data. One of the groups is occupied with the status of nuclear data and the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 comparison of estimates of the cross sections in reactions with neutrons, and the second is occupied with the status of the measured and estimated values of nuclear data concerning decay. The last meeting of these groups took place in Mid-1978 in Vienna. As a result, recommended estimated values of nuclear data were worked out and distributed both for reactions with neutrons and for the decay of isotopes of the actinide ele- ments. At the meeting of the first group (on neutron data), 15 specialists participated from 10 countries (Belgium, Great Britain, Israel, India, Italy, Soviet Union, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, and Japan). The state of work was considered at the Meeting, on the estimation of cross sections, the degree of their overlap, methods of circulation and exchange of data, and also the methodology for comparing the different estimates. At the Meeting of the second group, 10 specialists participated from 7 countries (Belgium, Great Britain, Soviet Union, USA, France, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan). Reports were presented on the measurement and estimation of nuclear data on decay during the time elapsed since the last Conference in Vienna. The estimation of nuclear data was discussed, their presentation on magnetic tapes, and also their circulation and exchange. As a result, tables were compiled of recommended values, in which data were in- cluded about the half-lives, relative probability of spontaneous fission, the absolute value of the intensity of selected a and y transitions, and also the most intense L - x emission. At the second meeting of the Consultative Group on Nuclear Data for the Actinides, 36 specialists from 10 countries participated. The Conference was organized by the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA and, just as the first Conference at Carlsruhe, called upon specialists occupied with estimates of nuclear data and the direct measurements of the constants, to assemble together with the nuclear data users. The work of the Conference proceeded in accordance with this program. In Section A reports were heard on the requirements for nuclear data for standard U and U-Pu thermal and fast reactors and for reactors with alternative fuel cycles. The speakers of Section B reported on the status of nuclear data (both decay and cross section), the estimation of these data and the mutual comparison of the estimates. In addition, several reports were pre- sented on the measurement, estimation of data for specific isotopes, and the methodology of compiling the estimates. On one of the days, the participants of the Conference divided into two working groups, the problem of which was to discuss in more detail the status of the computed data, to compare them with the requirements formulated in the reports, to work out general recommendations for future work within the framework of the program of coordinated research, and specifically on the measurement and estimation of data for individual isotopes. One of the working groups discussed neutron data and the second discussed decay data. Tables were then compiled reflecting the current state of accuracy of the nuclear data and comparing them with the accuracy required for calculations in the various branches of nuclear technology and also in geology, medicine, cosmo- chronology, etc. Isotopes were noted for which data needed for the calculations were totally or partially absent. The last session was devoted to the reports of the representatives of the working groups, the acceptance of general recommendations of the Conference and the special recommendations of the working groups. Of the general recommendations, the following may be mentioned: international activity on the measurement and assessment of nuclear data for the actinides has been approved; it is proposed that IAEA organize the next meeting after 4 years, assuming this period to be the optimum for reviewing the current state of nuclear data and for carrying out the necessary assessments; it is proposed that meetings of the groups on the Program of Coordinated Research should take place every year. It is recommended that the next meeting take place in June 1980 in Vienna, before or after the meeting of the International Commission on Nuclear Data; the issue of the journal "Actinide Newsletter," prepared by S. Raman (USA, Oakridge), was supported, was accepted as useful, and it was suggested that it is issued annually. The Conference showed that at the present time, work on the measurement, collection and assessment of nuclear data for the actinides has acquired a considerable spread in all the developed countries, and the main attention was paid to the broad international collaboration within the framework of the IAEA. This is demon- strated, on the one hand, by the requirements for nuclear data in solving problems of nuclear power generation and technology, and certain applied problems, and on the other hand, international cooperation will allow access to the entire collection of data, thereby saving considerable material resources of each individual government. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 L. P. Zavyaltskii The Seminar took place in Sweden in March 1979. Its program included the attendance of the Institute of Glass at Veksho, Control of Geological Services at Upsalla, the Geological Testing Ground at Finshen, the bituminizing workshop at the *Forsmark" nuclear power station, and the organization for the Planning of Nuclear Safety in Stockholm. In Sweden, before obtaining governmental approval on the operation of an installed nuclear power station, it is necessary to present and defend the plan for the final burial of either the radioactive waste from the fuel element regeneration, or from spent fuel elements. At present there are 6 operating nuclear power stations and 6 under construction in the country. The "Forsmark" nuclear power station has not delivered under load, as there is no decision on the startup, although one unit of 900 MW (electric) was installed in 1977, construction of the second unit has been completed, and the area for the third unit with a capacity of 1040 MW (electric) has been reserved. In order to work out a standard plan for the final burial of waste or spent fuel elements, an organization was set up in 1976 on the Planning of Nuclear Safety (KBS), under the aegis of the National Council for the Treatment of Radioactive Wastes. Swedish industrial firms, institutes, and universities are working under contract to it, and also foreign organizations and companies, including from the USA, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1978 the efforts of the Swedish and foreign specialists resulted in the develop- ment of a plan for the final burial of spent (nonregenerated) fuel and the vitrefied wastes from fuel regenera- tion. At present in Sweden, both these concepts are being studied as alternatives. The right of the ultimate decision on the choice of the method of burial rests with the Governmental Committee on Radioactive Waste. The first plan, entitled "Treatment of spent nuclear fuel and the final burial of vitrefied waste of high- level activity," consists of five volumes under the following headings: General Situation; Geology: Storage Vaults; Safety Analysis; and Review of Foreign Work. At the present time the KBS has an agreement with the French firm COGEMA for the regeneration of Swedish spent nuclear fuel in the 1980s. After regeneration of the fuel, it is proposed to store the wastes in. the form of vitrefied blocks for 10 years in France, in chrome-nickel steel containers, after reduction of the release of heat to 1000 W per container, to transport to Sweden, where they will be stored for 30 years with air cooling until the heat release is less than 525 W per container, in a specially constructed intermediate storage vault at a depth of 30 m. The intermediate storage vault has been calculated on 9000 containers, which corresponds to a quantity of waste from the regeneration of spent fuel from 13 Swedish nuclear power stations during 30 years. The Design of the intermediate storage vault is similar to the design of the storage vault at Marcoule. After a total of 40 years of storage, the vitrefied blocks will be finally buried in lead-titanium capsules at a depth of 500 m, in tunnels, at the bottom of which at a distance from one another of 4 m will be sited boreholes with a depth of 5 m. After loading in the containers the boreholes and tunnels will be filled with a mixture of quartz sand and bentonite. According to laboratory investigations, the service life of the container with unlimited contact with water is estimated at 30,000 years. In the case of final burial at 500 m, the contact of the container with water is estimated at 0.2 liter/ma per year, and the service life is estimated at 60,000 years. The requirements are given in the plan for the transportation systems and the intermediate and final storage vaults, and a long-term forecast is given of the radiation safety during storage in hard rock. The second plan "Treatment and Final Burial of Nonregenerated Spent Nuclear Fuel" issued in two vol- umes is considered as an alternative to the first plan. It is proposed that the regenerated fuel assemblies after intermediate storage during 40 years, should be placed in final burial in hard rock. The assemblies will be encapsulated in copper containers (diameter, 770 mm; height, 4700 mm; and wall thickness, 200 mm), lined inside with lead. The total mass of the container is 20 tons, including 2 tons of fuel, 2.5 tons of lead, and 15.5 tons of copper. The total number of containers is 9000. The encapsulation of fuel elements in canisters of aluminum oxide, obtained by hot isostatic pressing at 1350?C and a pressure of 100 MPa, is also being studied. The length of the proposed canister is 3 in, diameter 0.5 in, and mass 2 tons. They will be manufactured in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 the high-pressure laboratory of the firm ASEA in Robertsford. The canister will hold 144 BWR fuel elements or 174 PWR fuel elements, twisted in the shape of a flat spiral. It is proposed that final burial be conducted just as in the first plan, but the boreholes for the copper containers are stipulated to' be cased with pressed bentonite blocks. As in the first plan, the amount of spent fuel in the container is analyzed here, the starting data are given for the design and description of the storage vault, the properties of the canister materials and the buffer ma- terials, and an analysis of safety is given. At the presen time, the program of scientific-research and experimental-design work of KBS is drawn up for 10 years and includes field geophysical, geochemical, and hydrogeological investigations; a study of vitrefied wastes and spent fuel; safety analysis; work at an experimental station in the Strir pit (Dallarn) at a depth of 400 m, and also economic studies and design work. The high scientific-technical study by Swedish specialists should be mentioned, of problems associated with the final burial of highly active waste. The basis of the plans rests on 120 reports on scientific-research work. NATIONAL CONFERENCE IN THE USA ON CHARGED- PARTICLE ACCELERATORS Yu. M. Ado and I. N. Semenyushkin The National Conference on Charged-Particle Accelerators in the USA, held once or twice a year, at- tracted the attention of a considerable number of scientists and specialists associated with the development and improvement of accelerators, as well as with their use for physics and applied research. The last con- ference took place on March 12-14, 1979 in San Francisco. About 900 specialists, including about 170 from other countries, participated in its work. At the two plenary and 12 sectional sessions, more than 250 reports were presented on the broad problem of accelerator science and technology. The use of accelerators for ap- plied purposes was assigned an important place in the work of the Conference. One of the principal trends of work on functioning proton accelerators is to increase the intensity of the accelerated particle beams. A large number of reports was concerned with studies of the dynamics of particles in accelerators under conditions of the powerful effect of the inherent electromagnetic field of the beam. For example, in the CERN reports, the correction of the principal quadratic betatron resonances and structural resonance in an 800-MeV booster which was carried out successfully were discussed; also the resistance wall instability of betatron oscillations in a 28-GeV accelerator with an intensity of 1.2 protons per cycle, the strong instability of the "head-tail" type in a 400-GeV accelerator, and the beam instability caused by parasitic oscillation modes in accelerating resonators. The operation of this accelerator with an intensity of 2.1013 protons per cycle has been assured by the suppression of these effects. It should be mentioned that the proton energy was successfully increased up to 500 GeV for a short time. It will be possible to operate it at an energy of 450 GeV. The reports of the specialists of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) concerning the use of negative hydrogen ions for recharge injection into a booster created interest. The use of recharge in- jection has allowed the intensity of the main accelerator to be increased up to 3.9.10!3 protons per pulse (design for 5.1013). In the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) the acceleration of polarized protons is being studied in a 33-GeV accelerator. It is assumed to be possible to maintain 70% of the polarizations up to 23 GeV and 50% up to 26 GeV with an intensity of 1012 protons per pulse. The cost of the work is estimated at 2.9 million dollars. Included in the designs of large accelerator facilities that are being built at the present time are the DOUBLER (FNAL) accelerator with an energy of 1000 GeV (with completion in 1982) and the ISABELLE (BNL) facility with colliding proton beams of 400 x 400 GeV and with an emittance of up to 1035 cm-2. sec-1 (completion in 1986). At CERN it is planned to obtain by 1982, proton-antiproton colliding beams of 270 x 270 GeV and with an emittance of about 1050 CM-2, sec-1 in a 400-GeV operating accelerator. The antiprotons will be stored up in a special annular storage ring, using stochastic cooling. The specialists of FNAL also presented reports about plans for proton-antiproton beams, but using electronic cooling. The designs of the DOUBLER and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 ISABE LIE facilities are based on the use of superconducting magnets. After prolonged model investigations at BNL and FNA L, working specimens of the magnets have been developed and at the present time a study of them is being conducted at FNA L with a beam of particles. Great interest was created by the report of the operation of the PETRA facility (Federal Republic of Germany), with colliding electron-positron beams of 19 x 19 GeV and the plans for its development. Doubling of the hf power in 1981 will permit the particle energy to be increased up to 23 GeV, and conversion at the end of the 1980s to superconducting resonators should increase the energy to 30 GeV. The large facilities also include the PEP facility (USA, Stanford) for colliding electron-positron beams of 19 X 19 GeV. The first ex- periments with the beam are planned for October 1979. The normal system for producing colliding a+e- beams with an energy of 100 GeV and higher becomes complicated and expensive. The cost of the design for colliding a+e- beams with an energy of - 80 GeV is estimated at - 1 million Swiss francs. An alternative conventional scheme for this energy might be linear colliding beam systems, a study of which is being conducted at certain USA centers and in other countries. Reports were presented at the Conference on the various aspects of the generation of intense pulsed beams and of a study of the process of collective particle acceleration. The study of the behavior of a nuclear substance in extreme conditions, the study of multibaryon inter- action, and also the prospects of using ion beams for medical -biological and applied purposes all stimulated the interest which is appearing in many large-scale physics centers of the world for the production of beams of heavy ions with high energy. Today, in five centers (Dubna, Berkeley, Saclay, Darmstadt, and Tokyo) there are, or are planned, heavy-ion accelerators with an energy in excess of 1 GeV/nucleon. The characteristics of an ion accelerator at this energy is determined mainly by the multicharged ion sources, the efficiency of the ion acceleration system with a low energy, etc. This was reflected in the reports presented at the Con- ference on this topic. Progress has been achieved by the French specialists working on an electron-beam source of multicharged ions of the Dontz type. With a current density of - 105 A/cm2 and an ionization time of 6-10 msec at the source outlet 5.109 ions of N 7+ and 3.109 ions of A r11+ and Art 7+ are obtained. It is pro- posed that by the end of 1979, the source will be functioning on the Saturn-U accelerator. A heavy-ion accel- erator complex, the design of which is being developed by JINR and the I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, is intended for the production of a record ion energy of up to 4.5 GeV/nucleon. As the ion source in the first, stage, the cryogenic electron-beam source, which is already functioning in the synchrophasotron will be used. In the next few years, It is planned to bring to completion the NUMATRON project (Japan). The ac- celerator complex is designed for the production of ion beams up to uranium, with an energy of 1.27 GeV/nu- cleon and an intensity of 109 ions/sec. The ions will be accelerated successively in three linear Wideroe ac- celerators, in two Alvarez linear accelerators with gradual increase of the charge of the ions, due to stripping on special targets, and two synchrotrons. In order to produce the high intensity of the accelerated particles, it is proposed to carry out multireversible injection in the first synchrotron during buildup of the beam. Part of the reports was devoted to the high-powered 35-MeV deuteron accelerator, with a continuous beam current of 100 mA, being developed at Los Alamos. It is proposed to use this accelerator as a neutron genera- tor (1015 neutrons/cm2 ? sec) for testing the structural materials of a thermonuclear reactor. Special attention during the development of the accelerator system is being paid to reducing the beam losses to values which are characteristic for operating linear accelerators. For the initial part of the accelerator, it is proposed to use a structure with spatially uniform focusing. It is proposed to develop a high-powered linear accelerator under project PYGMY (proton energy 650 MeV, average current 100 ?A). The initial part of the accelerator is designed on the use of variable-phase focusing. Small-sized lenses in permanent magnets of rare-earth alloys will be used for the drift tubes. The accelerating structure of the end part of the accelerator will provide a high rate of acceleration - 6 MeV/m. Great interest was created by a report presented by specialists of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Soviet Union) concerning the accelerating structure of a linear accelerator with spatially uniform and quadrupolar focusing. The completion of these projects will be an important step in the development of accelerator technology. A large number of reports was devoted to the generation and utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) in - electron cyclic accelerator-storage devices. Interest in the use of synchrotron radiation in biology, crystallog- raphy, microscopy, etc, is increasing. By 1979 in the USA, about 260 proposals for experiments were con- tributed from - 100 establishments in the USA and other countries. Abroad, beams of synchrotron radiation have been produced in 13 accelerator facilities and before 1981 their number will increase to 30. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 One of,the most important fields in science and technology, where accelerators can find extensive appli- cation and may determine the direction of future development, -is that of nuclear power generation, using nuclear fission and thermonuclear fusion. Great attention was paid to these problems at the Conference. According to the calculations of the BNL specialists, the use of high-powered proton linear accelerators with an energy of - 1 GeV for turning out nuclear fuel (119Pu and 233[7) will prove to be suitable for the provision- of reactor fuel. Certain laboratories- in the USA (Sandia, Berkeley, Livermore) presented reports on high- powered electron accelerators and heavy-ion accelerators designed for thermonuclear fusion. Medical-biological research is occupying an ever-increasing position in the use of accelerators. At the Berkeley and Los Alamos laboratories, the Fermi Laboratory and others, particle beams already are being used for therapeutic purposes. The Committee for Radiooncological Research has formulated a program for the future development of medical -biological research and the application for therapy of different particles (neutrons, protons, heavy-ions, and 7r mesons), including the construction of special accelerators for these purposes. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS A. B. Kaidalov . The. Tenth Spring Symposium on High Energy Physics, organized annually by physicists of the Karl Marx University, Leipzig, was held in March 1979 at Bermsgrun (German Democratic Republic). About 30 physi- cists, the majority of whom were from the University of Leipzig and the Institute of High Energy Physics, Zeiten, participated in its work. Physicists from other countries were invited to the Symposium to lecture on the most urgent problems of the physics of elementary particles. Professor Renard (France) read a course of lectures on the.various phenomena arising during a+e-.annihilataon. It is well known that in this field ex- 'tremely important results have been obtained in recent years - the discovery of new particles , 4", X, y, and y 1, having unusual properties and consisting of quarks of new types (c, b), the discovery of the new heavy ,r -lepton, and indications have been obtained of the existence of quark and gluon jets, etc. In the lectures the possibilities for the experimental observation of the intermediate Z?-boson were discussed in detail; the Z?- boson is predicted in the gauge theory of the weak and electromagnetic Weinberg-Salem interaction in the colliding a+e beams with an energy of about 100 GeV in the center of mass system, currently being planned. The reports of the German physicists (K. Hansen, G. Wetzig, and S. Ritter) were devoted to the study of the different aspects of formation of hadrons in a+e- interactions. Great attention is being paid at the present time to the verification of the Salem -Weinberg model by the investigation of neutral currents. It is well known that recently effects of nonconservation of p-parity in neutral currents have been observed. The possibilities of further investigation of the properties of weak interactions in scattering processes of leptons by nucleons and deuterons were discussed in the reports of G. Motz and T. Raiman. A. B. Kaidalov (Soviet Union) delivered lectures on the application of the dispersion rules of sums in the physics of elementary particles. By means of this method, an indication can be obtained of the possibility of existence of exothermic baryon resonances with large isospins. Considerable attention at the Symposium was paid to the theoretical investigation of the interaction of quarks and gluons on the basis of quantum chromodynamics. Quantum chromodynamics is an asymptotically free theory, and therefore at a small distance (large imparted momenta), the theory perturbations can be used. Part of the reports was devoted to the consequences of quantum chromodynamics for processes with large imparted momenta (G. Perlit, R. Kirschner, A. Schiller, and I. Kripfhantz). Problems were considered, associated with violation of scaling in deep inelastic processes, with the existence of processes of the forma- tion of several jets in a+e- annihilation processes and the formation of hadrons with large transverse mementa during collisions of hadrons, andwiththe calculation of the Drell-Yan process. The general method of calcu- lating quark and gluon jets was also discussed within the scope of the quantum field theory. Problems associated with the possible experiments on the hadron accelerators being planned, with an energy of about 500 GeV in the center of mass system, were discussed in the report by G. Ranft. Both con- ventional investigations of the total interaction cross sections, two-particle processes and reactions of multiple particle formation, and also processes with large imparted momenta and reactions of the formation of new particles were considered. The Symposium was well-organized and was conducted successfully. Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 213-214, September, 1979. 0038-531X/ 79/4703- 0783 $07.50C) 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation 783 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 FIFTH MEETING OF THE COMBINED SOVIET -CANADIAN WORKING GROUP ON COLLABORATION IN THE FIELD OF POWER GENERATION M. B. Agranovich .The Conference, held within the framework of the long-term program of economic, industrial, and scien- tific-technical collaboration between the Soviet Union and Canada, took place on May 11-18, 1979 in Moscow. The delegation of Soviet engineers was led by the Deputy Minister of Power and Electrification of the Soviet Union N. A. Lopatin, and the Canadian delegation was led by the General Director of the Division of Foreign Projects of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce of Canada, F. Petri. In the course of the meeting of the Working Group, reports of the sides were heard on the state and prospects for the development of power generation in the Soviet Union and Canada, and the role of nuclear power stations in the power generation of both countries. An exchange of opinions took place on the subjects and form of future cooperation, which were of mutual interest. The Working Group discussed the proposals of the Soviet and Canadian specialists for the conduct of future work and affirmed the program of collaboration in 1979-1981 in the fields of planning, construction, and operation of hydrotechnical plants in severe climatic conditions, forecasting the state of the plane and reliability of nuclear power stations with channel type re- actors, the use of cheap electric power for the production of hydrogen as a fuel and a chemical raw material, and other problems of electric power generation. In the minutes, signed by the delegations, it was noted that the joint activity of the specialists of both countries will allow a significant contribution to be made to solving the problems of the more efficient pro- duction and consumption of electric power, and thereby will assist the economy of the power resources. FIRST MEETING OF THE JOINT SOVIET - FRENCH WORKING GROUP ON COLLABORATION IN THE FIELD OF ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION M. B. Agranovich The Meeting took place on May 24-31, 1979, in Moscow. In accordance with the subjects defined by the agreement between the governments of the Soviet Union and France of October 17, 1975, the possibilities were considered for collaboration in 1979-1980 in the following directions: planning, construction, and operation of hydrotechnical plants, State Regional Electric Power Stations and nuclear power stations with fast reactors. Understanding was reached concerning the exchange of information on the operation of nuclear power stations, the use of nuclear power stations for the supply of heat, and problems associated with earthquakes. At the suggestion of the Soviet delegation, new topics were included in the program of collaboration: "Theoretical developments and experimental research in the field of solar power facilities" and "Hydrogen power generation." In the course of the Meeting of the Working Group, the reports of the sides were heard concerning the state and prospects of development of power generation in the Soviet Union and France. A meeting took place between the leader of the French delegation of the Director of the Board of Gas, Electricity, and Coal of the Minister of Industry of France, I. Kupin and the Minister of Power and Electrifica- tion of the Soviet Union P. S. Neporozhnii. The sides emphasized that the creation of the Working Group is an important stage in the development of cooperation between the Soviet Union and France and will contribute to the more efficient development of power generation in both countries. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 FIRST MOSCOW KURCHATOV LECTURE I. A. Reformatskii The First Moscow Kurchatov Lecture was-conducted on May 13, 1979, at the Moscow Palace. of Culture "Moskvorech." The organizers of the lectures - the Moscow City and Krasnogvardeisk Regional Organization of the company "Znanie," Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy - invited scholars of the senior classes, teachers of the Vocational and Technical School and students in order to talk to them about the eminent Soviet scientist, organizer of the Soviet Nuclear industry, Academician I. V. Kurchatov, and about the development of modern physics and the scientific trends along which specialists are trained in the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. The opening lecturer, Prorector A. G. Zaluzhnyi, presented the assembled colleagues of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, who had worked with Igor Vasiltevich, and also two scientific workers of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, who had arrived in order to take part in the lectures. "The Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is the creation of Academician I. V. Kurchatov," said the Prorector of the ME PI in the address on the work of V. V. Khromov - "And now we are striving to train spec- ialists, capable of creatively developing the ideas and trends put forward by Kurchatov." The talk by Hero of Socialist Labor, State Prize Laureate V. S. Emel!yanov, who had occasion to work with I. V. Kurchatov for almost 15 years was interesting and lively. He sketched a bright image of the scientist and organizer, having been able in extremely short periods and under conditions of the difficult war years, to create friendly and energetic staff who, already in December 1946 had achieved the startup of the first nuclear reactor in Europe and Asia, and in 1949 tested the atomic weapon. The address of State Prize Laureate, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR I. V. Savel'ev, was devoted to the style of work of I. V. Kurchatov for the education of scientific workers of the higher grades. "I was indebted to I. V. Kurchatov in many respects in my Doctorate dissertation," he said - "Kurchatov not only showed that I had sufficient material for the dissertation, but also assisted in its rapid formulation and consolidation." Yu. V. Sivintsev and I. A. Reformatskii devoted addressed to the work of I. V. Kurchatov with young sci- entific workers, gave recollections of how Igor Vasil 'evich valued the opinion of his colleagues irrespective of rank, supporting their initiative and independence in scientific work. An exhibition was mounted in the foyer of the Palace of Culture, devoted to the life of I. V. Kurchatov. In many photographs, Igor Vasil'evich was portrayed with friends and comrades, scientists, and statesmen. The works of I. V. Kurchatov were displayed on the stands, recollections of him and archive material about the establishment of Soviet nuclear physics. The voice of I. V. Kurchatov resounded at the lectures, addressing the Twenty-First Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1959, and speaking about the plans and aims of Soviet physicists, and the documentary film "The Atomic Flame" was shown, devoted to the life and activities of the emiment Soviet scientist. A welcoming telegram was received at the First Moscow Kurchatov Lectures from the President of the Academy of Sciences of the SSSR, Academician A. P. Aleksandrov. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 NEW BOOKS Kh. Wong BASIC FORMULAS AND DATA ON HEAT EXCHANGE FOR ENGINEERS* The book is a short handbook on the calculation of heat transfer in different heat-exchange devices. With the deficiency of reference literature, the issue of this publication undoubtedly is useful. The book consists of 7 chapters, tables, and appendices. In the first chapter, which is the introduction, general data about heat transfer are explained. The second chapter is devoted to thermal conductivity. Here, the author introduces a new concept of the heat-transfer parameter - a quantity which is the reciprocal of the thermal resistance. Tables of heat-transfer parameters .are given for important cases. In the third chapter, where convective heat exchange is considered, a large number of formulas are contained relating to free motion, flow in channels and superficial flow around objects. In the fourth chapter, the basic laws and methods of calculating thermal radiation are given. The fifth chapter contains, brief data on boiling and condensation processes. Unfortunately, little attention is paid to the calculation of crisis. In the sixth chapter, which con- siders methods of calculating heat exchangers, there are data about heat-exchange intensification. The seventh chapter is devoted to heat transfer in engineering structures. The recommended formulas in the majority of cases are reduced to thematic tables with clear designa- tions, which considerably facilitates finding the formulas. A list of symbols and definitions of technical terms is appended to every chapter. The book is provided with an alphabetical index. Numerical data are given in the SI system. The advantage of the handbook consists in the extensive coverage of many divisions of heat transfer. However, its drawbacks also are partly connected with this. The handbook is brief in content, and therefore it is difficult to criticize the publication for what is not in it. All the formulas and data are taken from foreign publications. The author,- obviously, is not sufficiently familiar with the latest publications of Soviet journals and monographs. In every case these data have not been reflected in the handbook, and therefore in certain cases the author has included obsolete data. A preface to the handbook should have been given by the trans- lators and editors, and a note or small addition should have been made at the necessary places. This concerns especially the sections associated with nuclear power generating facilities. There are no data in the handbook about the calculation of heat transfer and crisis in bundles of rods, i.e., those types of channels which are most widely used in nuclear power-generating facilities. At the same time, the calculation of certain exothermic channel configurations could have been omitted. Also, tables of Bessel functions and error functions could have been omitted without detriment. Unfortunately, during translation, terms and symbols accepted by the Soviet Union at the present time have not been preserved everywhere. For example, ? Is on p. 53 is called the rate of diffusion and on p. 54 (quite correctly) it is called the kinematic coefficient of viscosity. In certain cases different symbols are not so harmless as may be indicated and could lead to misunder- standings. For example, is (p. 48) denotes the surface temperature, although in Soviet literature it is taken to denote the saturation temperature. This is all the more disappointing, as on p. 50 the surface temperature is denoted further by tcT. In Table 6.4 Q denotes the power (or output) and Qm denotes the mass flow rate. Therefore, when using the handbook additional increased attention must be paid to the symbols in general, and to one and the same quantity in its different sections in particular. On the whole, .the publication can be welcomed. The handbook is useful to engineers who are involved with heat-transfer calculations. *Atomizdat, Moscow, 212 pp., 1 ruble, 20 kopecks (1979). Translated from Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 215-216, September, 1979. 786 0038-531X/ 79/4703-0786$07.50 ?1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 I: I. Malashinina and I. I. S.idorova TRAINING EQUIPMENT FOR NUCLEAR POWER STATION OPERATORS* Reviewed by S. G. Muradyan The development of. nuclear power generation is a multiplicity of problems, one of which is the manning of nuclear power stations which have been brought on stream, with highly qualified operative and operating personnel.. The increase of the unit capacities of the power units of nuclear power stations, the assurance of their safe and accident-free operation imposes rigid demands on the level of their training.. The training of a large number of specialists with a high level of professional knowledge, skills and experience is possible in scientific-training centers, equipped with the most up-to-date technical means of teaching, in particular trai,ni:ng equipment. In recent years, publications on the training of staff for nuclear power stations are being encountered even more frequently. Therefore, the book under review pays particular attention to the generalized accumu- lation of experience in the development of training equipment for nuclear power station operators. The authors have attempted to comprehensively highlight the problems arising in the development of training equipment, and in the majority of cases they have successfully formulated the problems and have suggested specific routes and methods for their solution. In this respect, the material of the third, fourth, and seventh chapters is the most valuable. The instruction on the training equipment includes not only adequate reproductions of the processes taking place in power unit systems, but also a multiplicity of problems from the fields of en- gineering psychology, programmed training procedures and assessments of the extent of training of staff. These problems are highlighted in general form in the book and specific work programs are given for their solution. But, just as the authors correctly remark, the introduction into educational training centers of training equipment still does not resolve the training of staff. In addition to the training equipment at these centers, there should. be the means for theoretical and practical training (dialogic systems of training and control, educational television systems, technological system simulators and nuclear power station plant mock-ups), and also modern educational-methodological information of a general and specialized nature. Up-to-date technical facilities will provide high efficiency of training and thanks to the application of programmed training methods, the time in training staff has been shortened significantly. However, despite the intensification of the training process, costs in training have a tendency to increase. There are larger costs' also on the setting-up of teaching-training centers. Taking account of the high cost of training nuclear power station staff, the suggestion of the authors concerning the devising of unified requirements for the characteristics and qualifications of operative staff is well-timed. In this connection, we consider it advan- tageous to devise unified requirements for both the organization of the teaching process, and also for the special features of?technical training means and models of the technological nuclear power station power-unit systems. *Atomizdat, Moscow (1979),. 152 pp:, I ruble, 50 kopecks. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 G. M. Fradkin (Editor) RADIOISOTOPE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER*- Reviewed by A. A. E f r e m o v The book is devoted to the scientific-technical basis and engineering problems of the creation of radio- isotope sources of electric power. Radioisotopic power generation is at the junction of several fields of science and technology, and the information given is many-sided. It highlights the problems of nuclear physics and technology, the conversion of radioactive decay energy into electric power, thermotechnology, and, finally, purely- electrical problems. The book comprises three parts. The first is devoted to the basic physics concepts of radioactive decay, methods of production of radioisotopes, calculation and measurement of their heat release, and radiation shielding. Nonthermal and thermal methods of energy conversion are considered. The main attention is paid to the thermoelectric method, as the most. developed. An approach to the thermophysical calculation of the isotope source as a whole is explained. The information in the second part of the book, concerning engineering problems, refers to thermoelectric systems. In this section, a selection of design solutions are considered, and also the designing and testing of thermoelectric converters, thermal insulation of the cladding, and other structural components. The following are described: radiation safety during manufacture, transportation and operation, reliability of radioisotope thermoelectric power sources, and also devices for matching the electri- cal parameters of the source with the consumer of the electric power. Power sources of millimicrowatt capacity are assigned to a subsection. Finally, in the last part of the book, designs are described and data are given about the operation of thermoelectric power sources using Ce, Sr, C s, Co, and Pm. Numerical relations, structural and technological features of thermoemitting radioisotope sources of heat are given and also data on nuclear batteries. The book touches upon many aspects of the construction and operation of radioisotope power sources. In many sections, quite comprehensive numerical and reference data are contained, which are based on recent achievements in this field. In this respect, it will be undoubtedly of interest and will be useful to readers who are interested for the first time in these problems, and also specialists working in this field. Nevertheless, the book is not devoid of deficiencies. In particular, not all the information in the book is discussed at the same level. Thus, the chapter associated with the design of radioisotope thermoelectric power sources, which is mainly descriptive contains no reference information, which is so essential for design- ing. There is insufficiently specific data in the section on the thermophysical calculation of a radioisotope thermoelectric power source. There is no section related with the general classification of isotopic sources of electric power according to different types of criteria, which could be usefully located in the first intro- ductory chapter or in the introduction. It is fair to mention, however, that a partial classification is given in the book, e.g., on conversion systems. In its content, the chapters on thermoemission sources of heat and nuclear batteries is somewhat out of place in the third part of the book, and they could have been included in the first part of the book. Finally, the most important deficiency is associated with the calculation of thermal batteries. It is re- grettable that this concerns the problem which is most completely highlighted. The authors of the book have explained the state of the problem at the level of calculation of thermoelements with variable properties, i.e., thermogenerators with a given temperature of the junctions, and have not given the results of the calculation of thermoelectric generators with a specified temperature of the medium, of thermogenerators operating under space conditions, and also with the constant supply of heat. The omission is even more vexing, as the source, where these problems.are discussed, is given in the bibliography of the book being reviewed, but not in con- nection with the problem being considered and not in the same section, and with a totally different approach. As a result, the procedure of the calculation given by the authors suffers obvious defects: there is no proper optimization of the electrical and thermal conditions of thermal batteries, the adequacy of the conditions of *Atomizdat, Moscow, 304 pp., 3 rubles, 20 kopecks (1978). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 maximum efficiency and maximum power are stated erroneously, and convective or radiative heat exchange with the surrounding medium is not taken into account (only the case of conductive heat exchange is considered). On the whole, and despite deficiencies, the issue of this book should be recognized as useful. This es- pecially concerns its part where the practical problems of constructing isotopic sources of electric power ,.are .skillfully highlighted. Probably, it may be hoped that in the event of a reissue of the book, the authors WI: take account of :these comments. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 from CO(11ULTAf1TI BUREAU A. nEw JouRnAL Programming "and,-Computer" Software, A cover-to-cover translation of Programmirovanie Editor: N. N. Govorun This new journal provides authoritative and up-to-date, reports-"on current progress in programming and the use of com- puters. By publishing papers ranging from theoretical ,research to practical results,.this bimonthly will be essential to a wide circle of specialists. It features results of vital research in the following directions: logical problems 61 programming; applied theory of algorithms; and control of computational processes ? program organization; programming methods connected with the idiosyncrasies of input languages, hardware, and problem classes; and parallel programming ? operating systems; programming systems; programmer aids; software systems; data-control systems; 10 systems; and subroutine libraries. Subscription: Volume 6, 1980 (6 issues) $115.00 Random Titles from this Journal PROGRAMMING THEORY Structure of an Information System-N.-4. Krinitskii, V. N. Krinitskii, and D. A. The Active Set of Program Pages atd Its Behavior-V. P. Kutepov Estimate of the Efficiency of Replacement Algorithms ,Yu. A. Stoyan Stepanchenko Method and Algorithm for Checking Group Items in the- Machine Processing of Economic Information-G. L.' Livshin Parallelization of the Past Fourier Transform Algorithm i'n Encephalogram Spectrum Analysis-V. S.'Medovyi and V. D., Trush - COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND SYSTEM PROGRAMMING Increasing the Efficienpy of Object Programs by Changing the Initial Grammar of the Programming Language-S. Ya. Vilenkin and S. M. Movshovich - a A Metalanguage, a Translation Scheme, and Syntactic. Analysis in, a. System for Constructing Highly Effective' Translators-M: I. Belyakov and L. G. Natanson - Tabular Information Output System-V. D. Prachenko, V. P. Semik, N. D. Tyutvina, and K. A. Chizhov Questions in the Creation of Software for Terminal Devices-V. A.. Kitov , SEND FOR FREE EXAMINATION COPY PLENUM PUBLISHING CORPORATION '227 West 17th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011 In United Kingdom: Black Arrow House 2 Chandos Road, London NW10 6N R England . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2 NEW. 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Volume 6, 1980 (6 issues) .................$145.00' LITHUANIAN MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL Litovskii Matematicheskii Sbornik \ Y An international medium for the rapid publication of the latest developments in mathematics, this quarterly keeps western scientists abreast of both practical and theoretical configurations. Among the many areas reported on in depth are the generalized Green's function, the Monte Carlo method, the "innovation theorem," and' the Martin- -gale problem. ' Volume 20, 1980 (4 issues) ................ $175.00. PROGRAMMING AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE Programmirovanie . Reports on current progress in programming and the use of computers. 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PLENUM PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 227 West 17th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011 In United Kingdom: Black Arrow House, 2 Chandos.Road, London NW10 6NR, England Prices slightly higher outside the U.S. Prices subject to change without notice. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/02/15: CIA-RDP10-02196R000800020003-2