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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
November 3, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 17, 2013
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October 28, 1942
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TA q k:t.' ? :o1 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?????????????41........? Card I 411 4 ,4 ., Ilm. . ..? ? , ? ? ? ' ? ' ...., 1 t V ( h eV 44 .i? ''... 10 F.. ?re ?? /41^ - 40_41??":" ??-? ? _ t; ' ,t v114.0, p - = ?1.."?'=,,C-okt,V..17:??,,, ? , 14. ".""""itir""."'"" ' ? '4;4.4114, 4; "*.: " ? " ? : e r? ? ? 2:4 ft.? ' ? ? 01, '0, s , " .0 (11 : ?fj ",.4 : ? , ;411 `^ aPx; !'? ? ? 4 .? - ?-v7...? 4%. l'.*%.1 1. , ? ? -,!?;:":3??? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 11111111111111?11.111110111111=1111111?11.111111M 1111111111111.1111119111111MIIMMIll Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? mienummem ??? ? ? ; 4 r7?4 . ? - 11:t.t;.-,:r;? ,?-?? A t - ? st5 . ;???? 7 4P1:????:ti V; ?? ;.., ? ? r k 7:42; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? mienummem ??? ? ? ; 4 r7?4 . ? - 11:t.t;.-,:r;? ,?-?? A t - ? st5 . ;???? 7 4P1:????:ti V; ?? ;.., ? ? r k 7:42; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 iimminsum 1111111111111111111111111111.111111111=1111111111111111 4????? l?t 'ic/p ?-? t."? ? '' ? 4 / I C a re ? / ?????? -- -- -etym. '4??????????????????? ...???????441.???? it...1?1?41".?????????? ? - ???? A V ???? ? V. # - ? ??????????? .?????.. .S.4144.???40,????? ? .0.4?111114 rt. ????????? _?-???????44*** lid. " Vel 15 a?i".?5 i 5 % "i- r --..,,,,,.. ......? ..?.?,........,........ .,....,,.... :J. s, ,.. ? . . ? , ? tpti - ? ? .;? c:. ' ? ?; ' ;??,.. ? ? ? t, ? ire:1 , a ? r .A641 e;40,1 kr, 4 ??? ';?1? ' .."7-??71t1.? " 4 ? J? ? , - . ,,r,:)..? no. 00/ 4;1 , j , : , '? " r ?i'.,..;;?4.1.,,,t fi, '. ".. r.? ?, 'i ':-.. .3'. - ? !, ,,,,, ;?,P.12,1,-....1 ' A:'-': '.. - ' , ?. ' ? ' ? ' , - ? tS. 4i.lf - " , , ? , ? 4- 4,4 - , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 0-1-000?0001-00011-0000X?1-dCl-V10 L/60/O eSeeiei -10d panaiddv pue Pe!PsseloeCI 4o. .4 A ...??????? WO,' yr ? r,???-f???9? S ?' , ,t...1104Ort ? rit."-K, ? .` 1/ 124 ?-???????sol???-?12P.??????. ? el 47 4).? )1/. f' 0 r;) triP 0-1-000?0001-00011-0000X?1-dCl-V10 L/60/O eSeeiei -10d panaiddv pue Pe!PsseloeCI 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 1.;':;p11f1 Unab-tan purific Irtete October 28th., 1942. CHATEAU FRONTENAC QUEBEC Dear Bill; Thank you very much for your letter of October .22nd. I am returning to the States next week and may follow your suggestion to get in touch with TradVW-Davidson. I knew him years ago slightly and perhaps can get the information I want through him. , , If I could get a few minutes with you I would V-N 'L .. came to Washington. I will telephone you when A I get to New York to see if I can make an aproint- , . 11 , ment. , Warm personal regards. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 -.M4194"fwto.r..ttettt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 sowt-tr;..rntRyttr:Mireartattr. ?1041:14:41y,r1,17,9W,Iet P 441! t?:..2 tr, , 0 i) 1, tap c"'7 .2 W. Brooks* II roettinact quebes, Canada* ............amorirorkir.MOMMOOMM10.011P.111?10 October 224 1942 Dear Joan I hole pure letter, and of course I would be very pleased it its@ wo,uld,, give we es refer* In rellition to thik Ariy_iir'b'orps, I auggent you get in touch with00a-Davisose? ii4e4t4nt Seoretary .of War for Air* fthis Deceirtmeeit** Washington, D.C. 117 I hoar of anitlaing'fior4,0d; rwili let you know. Sincertisyv tt:r ' ????-?,` .44 t -..,.....aoos.441409244P44,?,-.'"''' ? " r'It ,vrt??????.mill J? Dccovan. Director . . , ;e?=.t. t744.1., . ? --;:tt , y , ? ? - .4,10,e? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 JOSEPH W. BROOKS 220 EAST 42"P STREET NEW YORK, N. Y. MURRAY HILL 2 5000 October 19th, 19.2 I am trying to get a job ferrying aircraft for the Government and may have to give the names of several people as references. In the event I apply for a commission in the Army Air Forces, I would like to call on your good graces to give me a helping hand7. In the event you have any close connections with the Army Air Corps, I might ask you to use your influence for an interview. I have been flying in Canada for the past eight months Tor the RCAF on a civilian basis, doing cross-country work in twin-engine bombers. I sometimes feel that, with my past experience as a line officer, and with 15 years of flying, perhaps I should be in operational work. I believe you know my back- ground and qus:Lifications, and if you ha pen to see or hear of anything really interesting in Washington. I would appreciate a line from you. My address will he Chateau Frontenac, City of Quebec, Canada. With warm personal regards, I am, Sincerely, NiNgssua gMamm ?IL Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 < I ? a ? NIA 3 14.11t sr* October 13, 1942 Bear Admiral Harold Traia Savy Deir_rtment Washi;_,,,on, D. C. 4 r rb .1% Dear Admiral Train: I think you should see the attached message which came from our London office today. I understand tnat Brown is an 041 representative at Istanbul. We have had no dealings with him and, of course, know nothing about he subject of the message. I have so notified London. Sincerely, ffildiaraj, Donovan Director 1 1144cAutalikSt~gfettliNtC"4"41*-4.4"."-"'-'"? " - ' ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001:0 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? !4.-2,T1=1.4 irt.94719 4 ? - October 13, 1942 Dear General Strong: think you should see the attached message wnich came from our London cffice.today. I understand that Brown is an MI representative at Istanbul. We have had no dealiv:s nith him and, of course, know nothing about the subject of the message. I have so notified London. William J. Donovan Director ;1st:: .? ? "I. ^r",7*,.."" ? cs Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010003nnni_n ;* c, $ -41! Os.. ? ? ''- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 We/ _ 442,7. I .24.4 A.. ?.... ? .:7;?4-4. ? rys.. 4 ,- ? 74.: - ? .0. ? - ? ? ? '&\. 5?% . ..? . ? -' ' ? .' ? ....hre.-.144,.,:a??, ? : 14(,j?.? r," ?' - ? ??:'"j111?14A? ?C`r'??.? 217.7?.' ? r f.4Z4 ,r,-;,,74.t.????? ? _? 1,?%. c. A 1 ...,,) , ,....V.tie , A i r '1'1'? .it ?4N *4?41:4 %?.i?er-T? il..-ii7er 't;. ;....,:St.... ....k -44. i'0;Z,I?-,1-.., , .4r, ': if4 -. .:.:0;?'-griP.r.,:o.:., :iy,.;t, t-.1 4,.1._.... -,.....?....t. ?._. .. . ' '44, tc.o? ..,1;:, .. ".f.'? Ft-???? Be alflita Ganallt4. Jonn ;? Deane .1-elati IL& taliccre St44,1" Palle Health Buildi: lashirtataa, C:4, rizip r eral Deuue; I think you should 'dee the attached =LT" iticaldon offtce to14v0 I uAderstand that BroA 19 aa C1Irepresentative at Istanbul,. w* hmap ka4 act dwarfs' with his oar' count, kn....$14 uthing Wits: . `....!...-"sch. 4 tfAZ4t.. ' 401 ' ? , (31144are4. ? 1 ? ? . _ 014 ? ? ? .;??-'. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 -1.71 40 ". .4". Prom The Desk Of: Commander John Ford, U.S.N.R. Field Photographic Branch Office of Strategic Services 10 Nov 1942 .there is enclosed copy of letter requesting services of Mr. Guy Bolte Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 xa.nr-t-?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 numummoomm kr 4 `4.4,04 a J'? ? Prom: To (1..)?????????? ?????????...?? ????????????-?- 0 VIE Lat..at f- r e I 11,11-1 t 1 September 1942 The ltreotor of Strategic Servioes. The Chief of Naval Personnel. nal Of ficer-in-Chlirge, Office of Naval Officer Procurement, New York, N. Y. Subject: Boum, Cherie? Guy -- Applicant for ?omission in Class D-V(3), Referemoes (a) Nav-36-711.1 of 16 March 1942. Nnolosure: (A) Copy of ireforintoe (a). I. After thoroughly interviewing the subjeot-named man a* to hit professional Tw1t:rim-111?0 and background, it is recommended lthivit, he .bor 1191.4118i011144 in the runk,Of Lieutenant (junior grade), tli'4.1(.14, to be assigned to*e. ,,Of.ficke, of -Naval .,Operations, Depertmat, for ,.,Airther asaisMOkit with the Field, Ph6tokraphic *melt of the Off toe of Strategia Services as photogrvphic officer tu be * charge of 'a Gamma tatit wubjeet to immediate orders to any 4mstiMtLcn in eonneationW& pita/Or:jai report? of the !current liOntlfct? ? , Nieuwe of thil(urgeney of photographic missions currently br:441:0?. :littioneeit for the ,444at 14-0.14of -Staff, it is requested that Iionsediato action be taken in ifteirociessing of Jr. /Nolte' a commission- :040"itbat- the requirmant thailhe attend the Officers' Training Sehoget 1001inivetic (1)-beenuse of the "iiiiecialised duties to mhioh he 101402:* be Osikigiamit. and (2) beeause time is a vital factor in the wmeOteee.;*f the photo& hie 'ventures being undertaken by this CrOmattation? ad.-0447ml! ar 41r?EttIVAMMOSWitaaariaaafras????? .. ? ?., - WI! ? t???-? ? "? ? "??':-.? rl,z? _ ;or .?-? V.1r4; t_;-? WILLIAM J. DONOVAN Director B. 111, ODININONAM Captain, U.S.N.C.R. ly direction Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified andsvApp,koc!?,9rRlease 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ez. Colonel 711lian J. Donovan DATE: 1.07P '11,4-r 30, I iattaching a copy of notes of a conversation with Ur. Lawrence, who is in charge of bomb ainagc asses$- ment for the Ministry of' Economic -ar'are. I am also in- papers recently pre2ared on this sub- c1u'ii rig copies of two .iect in the Ministry of Economic -:arfare. -There are a number of other documents relatik to this subject that I am having copied now, 3/09/17: and "1'icb I h11 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Conversation with Lawrence MEV regarding receat Within the last few months Lawrence, Col. Vickers and varloas others concerned with this problem have experienced a definite change in their views regarding possibilities of bomb damage. There is now a very strongly held opinion to the effect that bombing may be expected to pro- duce decisive rather than subsidiary effects. About the heaviest tonnage dropped on Germany within eny month is 13,000 - 14,000 tons, of which one fourth is assumed to have landed in the target area. As a rough guess Lawrence mentioned a figure four times this as necessary to produce the results hoped for. This tonnage would on the basis of present possibili- ties be mainly distributed over German urban areas within the radius Londom-Hanover. This observation raises two questions: (1) Is the vulnerable population in this area a sufficient percentage of the total population to ensure that the repercussions would extend pretty much throughout the German economy': (2) What would be the process of social disintegration involved and what sort of evidence of this disintegration would become obvious to In- telligence Services? Lawrence thought that the answer to the first question is definitely yes. The area within practical bombing radius now contaits well over 20 minion aistributed in occupations and in locations inseparably con- nected with the basic network of the Germen economy. It would be impossible , he thinks for disintegration in this area not to extend to other areas. The magnitude of the problem involved in providing relief, strengthening adminis- tration, rebeilding damage, and so forth would constitute such a drain on German resources as to make it impossible to carry on a major war effort. With respect to the second question there are, of course, certain roiigb3y measurable effects such as the death rate calculated on the basis of British experience, damage to buildings readily obsereable by aerial re- connaissance, absenteeism in factories and so forth. Of much greater im- portanee however than these measurable effects would be the breakdown of Geverment controls, administrative machinery, and in general all those social habits which are necessary to the maintenance of an orderly society. laey particular bombing of the weight now contemplated waaLd pre- sumab4 produce haphazard and uncontrolled migration of the population away fromthe bombed areas, wholesale looting, he failure of the relief system to functima adequately and so forth. To a certain extent evidence of sach a process e disintegration would become available in the form of Governmental 'decrests designed tn deal with the situation. SECRET Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Ap roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Lawrence is of e:e opinion t.:.at tc fee:1.4f( cf lef , to function adequately ',mull be one of ti:e not oerio 'ff' f ,'); He cited as an example the sf.tuation in CoveLtry Ter: The day following the Coventr:, ra.if-t cavalcaf:e of re ler vehicles of various sorts descended on ,:oventr:- ireviKn2: feee, c'eiteee-, money and other things necessary to re-establish -loraee ax-: to lak, ee early return to work possible. The result was that .:roduction la ti.e Coventry area returned to normal within a renarkabL:, sloe: ;-paee of tele and morale continued strong. Plymouth on the other hand, "eeing a larger town rather fa_7 moved from other centres of population, had to wait lon3er for r.eip wLth the result that the re-establishment of ordinary conditions cf life ad ordinary attitades was greatly .9rolonzef.. In Germany the cases of Lubec' t and Karlsruhe are illamina:da?;. The relief caravans reached Lubeck the day after the raid which was in March 1942; in Karlsruhe on the other hand which has been recently raided, it took three weeks for adequate relief measures to be applied. It is to be expected that with the increasing rate of bombing adequate relief measIres will be subject to continual greater delay. Medhurst eeports it took 6 weeks to provide adequate relief for Essen. It was agreed that the limitations to the weig_t of bombin a'etaces are principally spacial and weather limitations. It is Lawrence's view that, the latter are more serious. Bombers can be dispatched from a field more rapidly than they can be landed. The landing of bombers from a 1,000 bomber raid presents a very difficult problem even under ideal weather conditions. In a 2,000 bomber raid, if weather conditions turn bad, operational losses on landing might reach very serious proportions. Lawrence thinks that it is probable that daylight precision bomb- tee over Germany would be very difficult if not impossible against German anti-aircraft defences. If it is possible he thinks that the orimare- targe ba should be aircraft plants. The greater the emphasis placed on bombing attazke from England the highter the priority which should be attached to the Lierman aircraft industries as a target. He thinks that the primary object of day- light bombing over Germany will probably be the marking of the tare ed for night attack. He gave as an example the recent raid on :alan. ''he laylight bombers reached the target about five or six o'clock. During the ni3ht a cloud covering existed which would ordinarily have precluded reachin: the target, but fires started in the day time made the city area clearly visible. 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Lawrence's parting comment with rez:ard to the role of boiabl:4:? al$ to the effect that tacticca chaLlges in the use of aircraft are extrr:le:-., rapid. He emphasised it by saying that tYere have been :g.eat.lr tacticFa changes in aircraft in the last three momhs than the tactical chi.J.6c, Ir the use of ships over the last 200 years. This observation, of course, cuts both was. Thc changes may be expected to occur may quickly increase the efficiency oc' -jr atta(:k or it may quickly improve defenctes against air attack. Ledburst said at lunch that a first line strength of 4,000 bombers could easily average 60-70,000 tons of bombs droped In Ozermary per month. he would expect such first line strength to be bi1J.t u2 btfcre the Spring of 1944. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?-? - ft P1 cr,j)itt,,re,?T,17.41!)A 1, '43;4:0A ti - Nr4,7?49.0`43 ? kOrUigrat ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF Thr NIGHT BOMBING OFFEN3 VAECH - SEPT. 1942 SUMMe.RY zi.ND CONCLUSIONS SECRET 1. In this period Bomber Command has ia 85 major raids dropped 13,S.83 tons of H.F. and 11,565 tons of incendiaries on 26 built-up areas containing a populationeof approximately 8.8 million inhabitants and about 2.6 nillion dwellings. The total population is about 83 millions and the total number of daellings at the outbreak of war (17.8 millions) was admitted to be about I'd- millions less than was required to house the population adequately. 2. The devastation of whole sections of built-up areas which results from the tactical methods employed is estimated to have had the following economic effectsk:- I. DIRECT EFFECTS (a) Destruction and damag2_10 dwell/ma. 891000 dwellings are thought to have been demolished and 166,000 damaged so seriously as to have become temporarily uninhabitable; these together represent about 10% of the dwellings in the raided areas and of the total number of dwellings in Germany. The number of persons displaced by such damage is estimated at over 750,000 - about al-% of the .population in the area affected and 1% of the total population. The number actually evacuated for reasons of policy may be and probably is larger. Some cf the displaced persons can probably be rehoused in a proportion of the 166,000 damaged houses when these have been rendered habitable. On the other hand it is estimated that there are a further 127,000 damaged houses which, though .habitable at present, may rapidly become uninhabitable through stress of weather Aimless immediate repairs are carried out. The above estimate takes no account of slightly damaged hodses the mEmber of which may amount :be 1 million. Unless damage to windows, doprs, partitions etc., can be rapidly made goad in such cases, t e stress of living in bl';em during the winter and the consumption of fuel, light etc., will be greatly increased. The alternative acccmmodation which exists in barracks, labour camps eta. is mostly unsuitably located for the housing of industrial workers and is in. any case already largely occupied for military hospitals, housing of P and foreign workers etc. There is ample evidence in administrative measurer of -bre acuteness of the housing, problem which has already been caused. e- :Theso,conolusions are frwariably based on partial information and are there- tore* subject to-wide margims of. error. The assumptioils used are delateratelf comservativoy and include tie assumption that only 25 of the bomb Load Las ii. in Wilt-up areas. gitIrrariaslog,1 ''4.2..rgAl4;;g4LiL. , 1 Declassified and pproved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 e (b) Destruction and dameLe to factories --ekYT er interruntion of public utilitv_services and coenicatioe.e. -ith the methods of attack now empley.:-d such da i-;, tou?;h ii e, oe- curs inciientally and is best regarded as a bens accrai.1, over aod a-eve the nain dividend earned under I(a). It has beenp-,s,ire.'f toe!; tr,e "))1'13 shal', be maximized by the selection as targete "if buLit-up arPas the Largest proportion of war oroduction and essential ineastrj. In vie of the direction of the ma:ur 2r0)ortior of toe attac::, i a probable t'nat steal 2roductian has suffered more severely tean ari ot..er activity. un the basis of damage known to have been i..,flicted on eix steel plants in the Ruhr and Saar, it is estimated -tat e enely hc.s sZfeoed a grosLi loss of 1,250,000 tens of finishe Teel outl)et - ;r, of t-le estimated output of finished iron and steel in Lierlan Europe 1942. The gross loss will be partiallj offset by the o?eni.ez u, o illc steel capacity in Eastern 'erance, but yuire2: to tar dela' in sterti,q:io and naleing available raw material, a net loss, ahich cannot at j.resent be calculated, will undoubtedly renain. Known aajor damage to aircraft works ).s estimated tc 'ave reEe-ted in the loss of production of 60 heavy bombers, 60 dive bombers, 40 fl_:htPrs, and 85 other aircraft. Owing to tne length of the production period, t.le full effects of damage at shipyards and U-boat construction ta;;..e sole tioe to become visible. In view of the loef vulnerabilitj of shipyards to aerie:. a,tack, the effects will not prove to be large, but sone considerable de_ej naj have occurred, as a result af mailor dauage to workseops, at for :lards where approximately 35 U-boats have been under construction or fLttin,-; ?et. The output of A.F.Arls, M.T. and diesel endines for all pur)oics at tLe dumboldt-Deutz factories at Cologne is thought to have .)uffered 10:1:3,, re- ductien over an indefinite period. Serious damage to ti.e edel ,veeks at Russeisheim has interrupted. the production of inportant ql,antities of special motor components required by other asse-n.bly factories ad for 7ehr:lacht spare3. The olAiret of 30 locomotives has been lost through demzeze to works and substantial numbers have also been (estreyed Li railway yards. The cumulative effects of bombin: on industrialxtevioy have bern well illustrated by serious damage to important Leavy engineerin_: and m,Lc:.ine tool facories at Dusseldorf and Duisburg whose services woul-1 undo.Abted2y be re- quired to repair the damage to steelivorks already described. II IARMECT EFFECTS (a) img_gLysailig;t4ime and interruetion of traffic ovemrets due to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001nn1Ynnnl _n ?..omplarowttiMilEtolS,"070 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 woo, 6\. ECRIA - 3 - eral dislocatioal No adequate technique at present exists fur a qaantitatLve assess_(nt cf this factor but there is pA,ntiful evidence of loss of )rodIction fatigue, loas of sleep, absenteeism, increased time spe:-.t 141 trave, and civil defence work, interruption to communications a:id public utility ser- vices etc. It is probable that in heavily raided towns t:.ere has been a gfr,eral ',- cline in output ranging from 10% to 30% and of juration up to 2 month3 af r each heavy attack. Goal mining has probably suffered more severely than any other ill,str7 both on account of the direction of a high pr000rtion of the attack a3ain3t coal-producing areas and c, ag to the particular vulneraOility of 20al to transport dislocation al,absenteeism. Daily output in theuhr-Saar-Aache., fields is reported to have fall:n by 18% and on the assumption that tc.e average duration of the deeline was two months, the loss of output would be 4 millloa tons out of an total of 143 million tons for these districts and 186 million tons for '4:hole of Germany. After heavy attacks rail movements of coal from -ff. Germany to Italy nave fallen by proportions varying from 20% to 40% over periods varying from 2 to 4 weeks. (b) Allocation of manpower and materials to rehabilitatf.on measures. Photographic reconnaissance has shown the reduced ability of the aut?.ori- ties to maks good the growing scale of dama-;e, even to keypoints. It is provisionally estimated that the labour requirements to deal with the scale or housing damage assessed in I(a) may amount to the emploTaent, of 100,00C men for an indefinite period, apart from the labour re,..iaired for internal pairs, repair of factories, commilnications and public utility services, and manufacAare of the materials needed. The reserves of clothing, furniture, household goods etc., accumulate to meet emergenciee have proved wholly insuffiAent and in many cases have them- selves been destroyed. Additional requirements of clothing alone for re- placements aver the past seven months are estimated at 6000/7000 tons (in ter-.s . of yarn) compared with a present annual output (inclading militarj reiuireaents) at250,030/300,000 tons. ?ring to the reduction of the manufacture of con- saapttoa goods in order to release manpower, stocks in the shops have 1)rove:i insufficient even though sales in bombed areas have been restricted entirel:' to authentic air-raid victf.ms. Other expedients such as auction 2aies of looted goods, having also failed to meet the demand, the ,eichswirtschafts- ministertun has now announced that the manufacture of essential consumption goods bill be greatly increased. In ?resert circumstances this can only be achieved at the expense of war production. .1.2. 20.10.42 "1%0 le 411104011 3itiiitsMairkttitars t ..t ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001_n ? 41'r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 -..-GCNCLEG 1.:FT.OTS OF 301131.R OFFI;1;:C71. zr2 ? 1. In the seven montl.s under review Bomber Cloma?-1 earrir? o ".; raids on 26 built-up areas ana dropped 131/83 tons of incendiaries (see Annex for details). 2. The economic effects of the tactical meti-ods of bombint; now emploied, ?7nich result in the devastation of whole lo,iilt-up areas, .ay be elass.fir: Direct Effects (a) Destruction and damagf,e to dwellinz. (b) Destruction and damage to factpries and colmcrea: property and the interruption of )Ub1i til ty ser- vices and communications. IndirectEffects (a) Loss of working time in undamaged factories to general dislocation of economic life. (b) Expenditare of manpower and material in rehabilLtat_on leaslres. The attempts which follow at measurement of these factors, based oE they ate on partial information or deduction from experience in Great Britain, are necessarily subject to wide margins of error; the most conservative of the various possible assumptions have howe-rer always been used. 2. DestrlIction and damage to dwellinga_and dis lacemcnt of population_ Table I estimates housing damage in Germany on the basis of experience in England*; figures of damage in Great Britain for the whole iar period up to July 31st, 1942 have, been added for purposes of comparison:- (?SECE1 ??,? aNNININIONIR Estimate DemolisEed or fit only for demolition Seriously damaged and uninhabitable Damaged & requiring immediate repair -- Slightly damaged ***/ * A paper is available showing tle method of calculation and assun)tion used. The latter include the assumption tvat not more than 25,, of ti.e total bomb llad during the period feLl in a built-up area. TABU of Dwellings Damaged and Persons Displaced may_idAELaRIa_12.4?1_ P.K.(un tc 7/3144.1 No. of dwellings No. of No. of persons London 89,400 268,250 67,07 166,000 498,200 ) )) ) 127,750 ) 359,06 ) ) 2rovinces 71,421 ) ) 51,458,242A- ) ) 1111?1111.1?????????? 4.'40 II 01 015Witio WO I IfteMtineSIOASEMig SO 7.1." Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xnnnni Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 , NOTES:- 0 some of these will probably be rendered i.abitaele again after extensive repairs; in other eases the re-air work necessary will be so great that the work has probably been postponed till tle end or the war. ** without immediate repair, such houses would become uninhabita'lle ender stress of weather. *** No estimate of this category in Germany is yet available but if tre C.1 ; ratio proves applicable the number might be as large as 1 million. The daaage would vary from broken windows and blasted doors to fairly damage. ***4f which 1,250,429 were uslidhtly damaged". The estimated total of 255,000 dwellings demolished Trgri.ty un- inhabitable compares with a total of about 26 million dwellings in the cities attacked and about 17.8 miLlion dwellings in the whole Reich. The estimate of 765,000 persons displaced compares with 8.8 million inhabitants in the cities attacked and a total population of 83 millions (incliding 10 millions in the Armed Forces and 5 million P/7 and foreigners) in the whole of Germany. At the outbreak of war the housing shortage was much more acute in Germany than in England and there was an immediate need for some li million additional dwellings. Substantial spare accommodation of a sort existed in the shape of military barracks, youth camps etc. but this, though sometimes suitable for the housing of evacuated women and children, is for the most part unfavorably situated to be of value in housing industrial workers. aucla of this accommodation is moreover known to have been taken up for rilitary hospiials and for P/7 and foreign workers whose arrival has largely offset the temporary relief to tre housing situation afforded by the calling of men to the colours. That, in these circumstances, the modest damage already inflicted has raised a big housing problem for the authorities is shown by the administra- tive measures which have already been taken. These include:- (a) Compulsory regLstration of empty premises. (b) Reconversion of flats which have become offices and the billeting of the evicted firms in barracks or hutments. (such corversions are now state-subsidized). (c) Compulsory division of large dwellings (also encoufaged by financial assistance) and compulsory sub-letting of empty rows. (d) Erection of "substitute dwellings" (State loans are available for this). ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDp13Xnnnni nrm ESIOr 0111 wseamall Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 -3 (e) Diversion of Youth :ostels for "war tae'ee". :eviction of forein aorkrrs fron .ote_s, aeid move-Kir: into hutmcnte. 06.111.11??? sEcv r 141, .141001011110 ri4 eee' Lr -,-: e Germans are very house-proud and do not take kieeily to 1)1 l'-ieLL; householders are known to have been sent to concentrat:on rael,s 1-trr-at- ment of persons billeted on them. a. Destruction ard dereaee to factories and commerciel ,roeerty and Lntee.--,et.:.ee of eublic utilities and communications. 72.ith the methods of attack now employed such damage re.rezrets e.J.enus accruing over and above the mein dividend of shattered i.olses and di-aced citizens, tholgh it has been ensured that the bonus shall be as 111%2 possible by the selection as targets of built-up areas containin, the lerL,Es pr000rtion of war production and essential industr". The overall effect on German production cannot Ix assessed without ..c- cess to highly secret German official statistics and even then it wcaif! not be easy to disentangle the effects of bombing from tie influence of extrenecee: factors. Owing to the big concentration of attack upon tie heavy ineestry area of the Ruhr, it is probable that steea producticn has suffered more heavily- than any other industry. On the basis of damage * known to have occarred to five steel plants in the Iluhr and one in tle Saar, with a combieec' eapacety million tons of pig iron and 7 million tons of steel per annum, it Ls estilated that the enemy has lost an output of I-4- million tons in terms of fihislr,d steel products from these works. This is cquivalent to 5 of the estimated o-eput of finished iron and steel products of Germaii Europe in 1.42. The ret loss ail] not be as large as tias since in order to offset damage in t e ruhr, idle stfel- works have been restarted in Eastern France, bat tie gross loss cannot wholly be made good by these means owing to the delay in startin-up and I 1t:e organization of fuel and raw material cupplies. Moreover the above est:e-late takes no account of loss of output in the steel industry generally, thrue,:e blackout difficulties and daziping down during air-raid warnings. I. this con- nection, it ie of interest that of the total loss of finished steel productioa by enemy action in Great Britain in 1941 (18 works mere actually hit), 95; :is attribestable to interrleption by warnings and onl: 5% to direct damage. Eo other induetry is likely to have suffered as heavily as this in :-Iro:,)r- tion to its tota: capacity but (apart from tie results of special operations against French factories and the !;1.A.ii. works at augsburg) a number of im- portant itdustrial plants have been severely damaged. Some outstandie.: cidente are:- gmEggI_Iadustrx. The combination of damage to assembly shops end col-)onerts /9....,.ctol.:iitted to have resulted in t,e loss altce:ether months' from aerial recaaaaissance and reliable intellicnce re,eorts, henceforth cze- noted as MR. or (r).) 141.1.10~.111,1 Pfillip,I,VNI4Vaajzzieatzaket takruvi sa144,7 rrte Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001000300n1_n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 output 0 by the Heinkel factories at Rostock. At least an equal effect i:s likely to have been produced by the more recent damage (P.R.) to t:.e Focke n.L.f e..ssembly plants and its satellite factories*. TI-e leser Flugzeugbau, alaD at Bremen, has been reported (I) as suffering a loss of about 167.; of its norvill production ** over six months due to "bottlenecks", which may have been created. in part by the bombing of component factories. This works has since suffered heavy direct damage and will probably lose two months' output. Owing to the length of the production period, the effect, of damage to shipyards inflicted during this period upon the rate of completion of U-boats woad hardly be visible as yet. In view of the low degree of vu:.- nerability of shipyards to aerial attack, the results obtained must ir..eie_tab.Ly be a great deal less in relation to the effort expended than in the ce.se most other targets. Serious damage to workshops is however known to have besn done in the yards at Kiel, (Germania. Werft twice), Emden, Flensburg an. to a smeller extent at Wilhelmshaven.*** Some slowing up in. construction can con- fidently be expected and the delays at Emden and Flensburg may prove substattied. 131,2? jtas_. Both direct damage (P.R.) and general dislocation (I)have produced a substantial loss of output (assessed by one source as 10/15% "for an inaefinite period") by the Eumbold.t-Deutz factories at Cologne (producing itt..P.V? 8,-. LT., and diesel engines for all purposes). Recent information (P.R. and. I) suggests the partial destruction of the most important Opel factory at Russelsheim which, in addition to making army cars, supplied specialized components to a number of other factories assembling lorries and may have been one of the largest suppliers of spare parts to the Wehrmacht. 1.0H...2.29,Arge Damage to the main construction shop at one of the Henschel factories (P.R.) is reported (I) to have caused the loss of production of 30 locomotives; this would be equivalent to 25% of the annual output of this con- cern- (the largest locomotive builder in Germany) in. peace-time but 2-.:?obably does rpt represent more than 10% of the prouamme to which it is now wcrking. The total out for German Europe in 1942 may be 2000-25000 models. M............"?????????????=1.?????Mads=m.4.11.1?1?1????11.1.1..00??????????111. ?????????.? 1.1?Pm?m?Me? The output was estimated Van 1942) at:- He. 60 - 10 per month He.L11 - 20 " He .114. - 10 " He .115 - 10 " He .177 - 5 It * Estimated output per month:- 20 x F.W. 190, 5 x F .W .200, 12 x 189, x P.11, 58. it* tee 'meted output; 30 x Ju. 87 per *month. *** No of -U-boato under construction Fittinf out, tf3r;.1,1eart-shaven 10 Emdett 5 2 Flensburg, 7 f.eIEiermilii. turn) 1 5 HI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0_ ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 , Mill -5- SECK r Other Enoineving. The cumulative effects of heavy and eersistent air-raids are well illustrated by the heavy damage ehich has been inflicted on im- portant heavy engineering aed machine-tool factories in ausselderf neod Duisburg. Among these are sone of the largest ilakers in Gereany * c) ztenl- works equipment whose services would certainly be re-leeired in lakire; gooa t n e'aeage to stealworks described earlier. 4. Loss of '7orking time and interruption of traffic move:qents the to fenerel dislocation. Although plentiful evidence of loss of production due to fatigue, loss of sleep, absenteeism, increased time spent in treveL and civil defence work, interruption to communications and public utility services etc. is available, its expression in quantitative terms presents equal difficulties. , It has been reported (I) that at the time of the heaviest raids on the Ruhr and Saar, daily coal cutput (which is particularly susceptible to transport dislocation and absenteeism) fell by 18%. As tLe duration of the loss Y;as not been reported the overall effect cannot be measured. On the assumption that output suffered this degree of interruption over an average period of two months the total loss of productionwould be 4 million tons out of a total annual ou.:,Imtt of hard coal of 14 _lion tons in the districts concerned and 186 million tons in the whole of uermany. Following the heavy raids on the Ruhr & Rhineland in May and ,Tune, move- ments of coal by various rail routes from Germany to Italy were observed (I) to fall by proportions varying from 20% to 40% over periods varying from 2 weeks to 4 weeks. No otLer industry is likely to have suffered as severely as this. But all industeies in the most heavily raided towns such as Cologne, Darvieldorf, Duisburg, Bremen, Karlsruhe, Lubeck, Rostock, Emden etc., are likely to have suffered a decline in output ranging from 10% to 30% and of duration up to two months after a heavy attack. 5. Allocation of manpower and materials to rehabilitation measuregj. There is clear evidence in photographs that the rate at which damage has been inflicted in tne past seven months has outstripped the repair allocation!: made by the German authorlties. Whereas in the earlier stages of the bomber offensive repairs were executed with'great speed, not only to war factories but al3o to dwellings, work on the repair of even key-points is now seen to proceed more slowly, and damaged premises of law priority may uften not be touched for weeks. Estimates of the scale of labour and raw materials required to deal with damage to hansing as assessed in Para. 3 are not yet complete but there is no doubt that the resources at present available to meet it are entirely inade- quate. Iu a good pre-war year the German building industry constructed about 220,000 dwellings. But by 1042 both A e buildii,d industry aid t:e ?No.11.?????lare IMmemmaimwerwwwwwweemworoworwormesimoomm. * Such er% Demag of Duisburg and Schiess ? Defries of Dusseldorf. V5-10414...m~m,,,,,..w.41y%Jmmiamome 10..? feepeopeemeleeweeleferee"eiteeeeteieeelAeeiieeteiteweeee,,eieee - ' rt"101P0-4-"1-`' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xoonni PrInni idarare.elaer. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 11r 1.A which supply it with raw materials,have been exained o i:ceo.;imeo forces and munitions industries. Even in peace-tie a eeeair eroeramme covering nearly 300,000 houses would be a femieable load on the ineestry, are', the industry now, with reduced resources, has to cope also with tre eriox requirements of damage to war industries anti commureicatioes. 7.3xecrieece in Bath, Exeter, Norwich and York shows that each ton ef bombs droeeef in a built-up area gives rise immediately to a demanci for tle Labeer of 1.;e20 een to work on demolition, clearance, first-aid rcealre ad ev,et,ally eore ,r- eanent repair work to houses alone, and that this '3e-re:Lad mae- eersise :er a matter of months. On this basis, and on the nost'conservative asee)tions of t're efPfseeve percentage of bomb-loads, labour requirenents ie Gereeeiy for similar :ueo:e'e over the past seven months are likely to have exceeded 1G0,000 -len. This cakes no ellowance for the demands on maneower L7or the re:aer of fect,eeie and communications, for interior repair to houses and for tle eanufaceare ee the rae* materials needed. Not the least important aspect of eidespread daaaee to 'tees Ls tie loss of interior fittings, furniture, beddiae, and ot'er he-eseield zoods, clothing both in damaged houses and in shops.* Much of this cannot, nefd not, and will not be replaced. Some stores (utKatastroehenlaeern) had been ac- cumulated in anticipation of vital needs but many of these consistef of re- served stoas in shops and commercial warehouses and bave been destroyed alcne with the rest of the town Moreover manufacture of such articles has been eo severely contracted in order to provide manpower for ?tier purposes that new output is insufficient even to meet normal wear and tear. It is noa clear that the various expedients adopted** have been -mite inadequate to meet even the most vital and immediate needs of air-raid victims, and ahigh Nazi official*** has now admitted that it has been necessary to arrange for greatly in,lreased manufacture of consumption goods immediately. This can of course mile be achieved by the diversion of labour and materials from other ectivities previoesly con- sidered to be of greater importance. /ow. 01.1.10101M.P ymMMmillpw.d.M4Y-MmO1m ???111???????????.????=. * Preliminery investigation of British experience ind-Icates that clothine re- quirements alone may amount (in terms of yarn) to 1 ton per ton of bombs dropped in a built-up area. At a similar rate, German reopirements in the past seven months may have been 6000/7000 tons as compared with a current annual output of yarns for clothing purposes (civil and military) of 250,000 - 300,000 tons. ** e.g. auetion sales of second-hand goods obtained from the clothing collec- 4ons and by looting of the Jews and the Occupied Territories; also the ban on purchases from shops in bombed areas except by authentic air-raid victims. *4* Dr* Lanifried, Secretary of State in the Reichswirtschaftministerium in a speech at Laxemburg as reported by D.N.B. October 12, 1942. wog moosammaniter ".! aLi101: 4 :???? ? a.. For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 VOF .;I1112 UF ECONMIC "TARFaL StFallkY. AID C01,-CLiSiol3 Omar 1. The relative strength of the three teams into -:rich t.e ran aorking population (including lerisoners af war and foreign werkers, i.e.. been or- ganized for total war is now (October :- I. Forces (incl. auxiliaries, 2olice and civil defenco) 11. Munitions (supplying war material to I.) III. Civil Industry (engaged in aaintenance of national economy) .-Lgriculture , Forestry More :essential industriee Less Lssential Industriee e p 2. The German authorities have admitted tat no further transfers from Class III to Classes I or II can now be made. This implies t.1-at Class III ha: now been reduced to the einimum consistent with thc -laintnance of the ere sent ma- effort. This minimum is not static and at is stage of the war maf be expected to increase. 3., The urban working popvlation %roughly .21roups II, IiIb and consti- tute 48% of the total and are divided as to two-thirds between industries engaged in ele5ntaining the national economy aed one-third in the munitions iadustries. 4. Successful night bombing or cities increaees, in a cumulativc proportion of the national resources which must be devoted to the dustries if the national economy is to be secured at the minimm level of efficiency for the maintenance of the war effort. In th continued and increasing bombinz of their industrial cities, the ministration is accordinr!ly faced with the droblem of decf_din: be three following courses of action:- (a) -Ianncr, the civil in- necessary C face of German ad- tween the ro ;LIEE.jt,m allocation of resources to civil industr to fala below the minimum needed to maintain the national economy. TIis noula reduce the endurance of the whole war machine, accelerate the lace at which it would'. otherwise run down, and court --efeat by co-...apse of the homejfront. ofts. tont - ...a:two** *as; eustait414 10C4.44:44a'X'4L7t44;"'44 " "4-" t. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Rnnninnnnrmkr, 4Zag MP, Declassified and Approved ForRease 20...13/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ervmmeseereWPMMtr,Vgl .16 weep vie etieeteeepe-e - , - 2 - (b) To divert an increased proportion of the effort of: tre=7.reorces and the munitions industries 1.o defensive measure in order to hol-2. off the bombers. This could only be at t-re e:e)ense of a ree-iction in the effort devoted to offensive warfare o-tside tee boundaries of the Reich. (c) c11221141ty.baciifrom the civil inclAtries. -ny's ower To divert manpowert Raterials and oroauctive the Armed Forces and munitions industries to This could only be at the expense of the ene. militarj in general. 5. In practice no clear-cut choice of oae alternative at tee expense of tee other two is probable. A fusion, or confusion, of all three is tee no3t outcome, coupled with an increased drive to mobilize the nenpower and eno- ductive resources of occupied and neutral Europe. 3ut the inpoaition epon the enemy of the necessity of adopting any or all of these courses co-ed not fail to hasten the end of the war. 18.10.42. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NIGHT BOMBING AS A IT.CAP'ON OF ECONOMIC WARFAill, 1. The total war effort of the German nation is contributed by three distinct teams* :- (a) The Arme4,Forces wad their auxiliaries (police, civil defence, Todt organization etc.) (b) The Munitions Industriu, engaged in manufacturing war material for (a). (c) The Civil Industritga engaged in the maintenance of the national economy as a whole. The eresent relative siee of the three teams is best shoern by a break- down of tlub allocation of the total working population in Germany (incThding P/W and foreigners) (Table I.) For comparison this also gives the position in May 1959 (before mobilization). ; There is fourth class of non-occupied persons (old people, womea and chi]dren, which: while drawing gooda c.;Id services from the nationai pool for its maintenance, coleallutes nothing to it with the important exception of the housework of *uroccupded" married women. wwm-.0461gerozigattchamftwaperxra...... ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xnnnni Pnnni 1111.111 and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 -3 TABLE 1. ALLOCATION OF WuRKIIZ POnLA2loN (.414 a GLI4, (incl.? r ard May 19 uctobe: 1;42 ,;..2 Millions Iiios I. ARMED FOI.LES., 2.00 5.5 10.0) 24.3 (Incl. police, civil defence, Todt organization, etc.) ???????? II. MUNITIONS. (Metals, Engineering, Chemicals)** 5.43 14.9 6.58 - ^ III. CIVIL INDUSTRIES. 11??????????????????????? (a) Aariculture & Forest Ly 10.62 29.2 i1.62 2E4.0 damlnleft ????????????????,.????????11. ???????M (b) More Essential Industries Lining Ar7ministration & Public 0.E.0 2.2 0.78 \ 1.5 Utilities 2.29 6.3 2.38 5.7 Transport 1.69 4.6 1.65 4.0 Food, Drink & Tobacco 1.66 4.6 1.45 3.5 6.43 17.7 6.26 15.: I?????????? (c) Less Essential Industries Railding, clothing, profes- sions, finance, commerce etc. 11.94 32.8 7.10 17.0 TOTAL OF III. 28.99 77.6 24.98 60.1 GR.:1.1D TOTAL 36.42 100.0 41.56 100.0 ??????????? NOTES : * Including in October 1942, 2 million P/" and 3 million foreigners. The inclusion of the %hole of these industries in Class :I results in a slight over-estimate of this class since ,:art of their pro- duction is still for civil pm.poses but there is no means of es- timating its magnitude. However a pToportion of the persons in Class III are engaged wholly in supplying the Armed Forces. - ; .?" ? Iro,?1).". It , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010003nnni_n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 S 11 Lf-4 2. The German authorities have admitted tiat the fur-tier e the munitions industries (and bi inference the Armed Forces) d ly e3"...""r7dttr(Tfe:; or indirectly upon the recruitment of more foreign workers, (or t:e contracting of of work in Occupied Territories and neutral eoustries)*. This is a tacit admission that Class III has been reduced to the minimum consist,en,, with the maintenace of the wee effort. That this is highly ?robable coul be seen b:r a comparison of the proportions of the total working popuLation in Classes III b and III c with the proportions of the total British wprking population in similar classes. The .sesources available at this stage *A' the war for the Armed Forces and munitions production are ti-erefore :3e fl to consist of the sul?plue available after the very large minimum necess;Lr7 for maintaining the national economy has been provied. This minimum is not static. As economic exhaustion (particularly of capital euipment requirinE replacement)** increases with the progress of the war, so the minimum al- location of resources necessary for the maintenance of the national conomv also tends to increase. That the allocation of manpower to Class III is still nearly as large as at the beginning of the war is due in part Lc t:.e effects of the blockade*** and in part to the reductior in the produetivity of labour.**** Provided that tile growing leaks in tne blockade can se plugged and that the recruitment of suitable foreign labor continues to be as difficult as hitherto, the minimum allocation required for Class III caa be expected, at this stage of the war, to increase. 3. Night bombing, in its present tactical application, operates by tie im- partial devastation of whole built-up areas. The two principal results d are:- (a) loss of productive capacity by direct damage to factories ard com- mercial property and the interruption of public utility services and comm.% cations. (b) loss of man hours and reduction in output in tile factories which re- main undamaged owing to damage to housing and to the general dis- location of the highly complicated services and amenities of urban civilization, the development of which over the past fifty :jeers has * There has been some evidence of an increase in such sub-contracting in re- cent months and the pressure on France to secure additional skilled workers is now n.noricus. ** of the recent greatly increased priority which Gcrmany has given to the manL- facturer of locomotives, rolling stock and machine too s. *** 07 compelling the locking-up of man,.)ower in efforts to ach:_eve ,;reater self- safficieney, of which the addition of 1 million persons to t're numbir of %71.- cUltural workers is the outstanding example. due to the dilution of the labour force Jith women and foreign w)rkers *.zzio productivity is less than the workers they nave substit-Ited, eel to plaim exharation. 0' ignoring human cavnalties abich aro the least siLmificant factor. 3041111004"'""*"- ""*".**^"""""r""""1"494109041411811SSI airotliatriittUgi 141.0441b;g1,1 ..="4,4,(44.)14 woP t.ist,ova;uvr,?:;? ? 5, .? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 I At: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ,ggleevigrammeozIawasfimmoV?.waVettgaf ? ,,er! -. ? 4:f3r, e. 04.-1-ti' 0.t\c'reo4 5 ,?-? flirn II to) kb,?1 I 114.11????? been res?onsibile (largely unnoticed) for TT_C:', Of. e Jr:Cr( j.Z;P :e the productivity of labour. At a certain stage, the effects become cantlatiye x;.c. n -- for instance (b) may often result, in part from ( 0). Since the civil industries form by far tie lar rest section r.f t,e national economy (see Table 1.) the law of averla:es eneeres ti a% the loss cf output from both causes falls ;aost larzely u:on t' ea.- As these industries have now been contracted to the ninieran neces- sary for the maintenance of the national economy, the nee,21 eo - locate additional manpower, material and ,r-oductive capacit: their rehabilitation (and this inol-?.des the rel;air of eama(::(,:? houses)** must now enjoy nearly as Iligh a 2riority as t.c needs of the armed forces and munitions industries. At tLe same time ale raids are operating to reduce the productivity of the rescyirces already engaged in such activities which ;ives rise to e ferftee demand fcr reinforcements. The combined effect is o Lncreasc,, in a cunulative manner the .cronortion of the national resorces must be devoted to the civil industries if the natio: a: econoa is to be secured at the minimum necessary- level f efficic.lc for (.1e maintenexLce of the war effort. 4. In such a situation, the German admihistration is face:: with the )rotlem of deciding between the three following courses of action:- (a) To allzrzLthe allosa:Aon of resources to civil industr7 to fall bez. low the minimum needed to maintain the national economy. This would reduce the endurance of the whole war machine, accelerate the pace at which it would otherwise run down and court defeat by the eel- lapse of the home front. (b) To divert an increa e roeortion of the effcrt of the Armed Fcrees and the munition industries to defensive measures in order to hold off the bombers t This could only be at the ex)ense of a reduction in the Iffort devoted to offensive warfare outside tee boundaries of the Reich. (e) To divert manT;ower materials and )rode.ctive caoacItv back from tl,e ameljorces ami the munitions industries to the civil industries. This could only be at the expense of his military power in zEntral. ? In practice no clear-cut choice of one alternative at the ex-)ense other two is ,)robable. A fusion, or confusion, of all three is !.ie ,lost likelyoutoolle, coupled with an increased drive to mobilize te eeelie ,Fee Ind productire resoarces of occupied and neutral ;'irope. 3ut tl-c irvoeiden the enemy of the neceesitj of adoptilei; any or all of these C.:CAW:36a cou:.c: not fail to aasten the end of the war. .0 rtfi' , ? -? 0.11t - 4.e raPaagftrOtiakei 19KSWPAROPRIAAMS? t ;434044ittitt& 0',Ntt430 , Op' rr:111 _ 114 U. ' 44c A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 . , ? .17 ".. ? 5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 * but, ractice, disocaion of war inaustries as targets, from among the towns tacticall: silitult for atttck containing the hig%.est -srD')ortion of 14r in-lustries. ** in view of the effect of the acute housing sl,ortage spent in travel etc., on -Cele oroductty (PLEASE NOTE that the above two notes are incomplete? ? ; is beca:2sc the original from which this is copied was a carbon copy, ol whic1-1tr ca.:bon had slipped.) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 - .7 - . . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?...t IPA7,1f/Filif rfer'W-;".? r,t-t-,,i.;?ipprttgp r OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES WASHINGTON. D. C. al . foci fig Li sleg-_,..-e;h3. TVS* Uri November 28, 1942 Subject: Assignment of Officer To: The Adjutant General Washington, D. C4 1, It is requested that 1st Lieutenant Edwin David Bonner, 0-461768, Signal Corps, now on duty in the Military Personnel Department, Signal Corps, Roam 3R-287, Pentagon Building, Arlington, Virginia, be transferred to the Office of Strategic Services, Roam 2039, Temporary Building "Q", Wash- ington, D. C. 2. This officer possesses experience and ebility Which are deemed essential in connection with a secret training program being conducted by this officer and his. contemplated duty is communi- cations work: in the field.. The particular assign- ment for which transfer of this officer is requested has been approved b7 the Joint =tad States Chiefs of Staff. 3. It is further requested that this officer report for duty in Washington, D. C., not later than December 6, 1942. 4. Th* assignment of this officer should be *barged against the allotment of commissioned personnel for the Office of Strategic Services epproved by the Joint United States Chiefs of Staff in a memerandum to the Director of Strategic Ser- vim's,. dated November 1, 1942. KidCallallOgi.s1,11k0??????????????e ???? ...eft es ?????????? r ? 40:Akit Wilasm ? oven ectar ? 1' Inalvi?scgsmarstaltraPwrtimiesnemsw........os.,...: - 17 J? ? ? ?* lir ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001:0 1 zi *1` ?A.:, ? I ? ? ? ?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010003000.1: 3,1 ..411)-3A-11% "Vg,]T37:-1 - ;) e4-- 201.-3enner. Alvin D. (11.28-421PO4. let Ind. War Department, L.11.0., Washington, D. C., December 9, Director, Office of Strategic Services, 'Washington, D. WOM.gvvp.psom.4516 1942. To: O. lique?st is basic communieation is not favorably considered as the services of 1st lit. Zdvin D. 3onner are urgently needed in the Office of 04 Chia Signal Officer. , ??? 10100141,00! e 1 '11Ter Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA -RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 0 1/ 5fPk%4 "MI 41WEgift .1?MitIMI eR.Q)41) 4i 4I, 114:member 13, 1942 Silbject ALppointomnt in the taw of the United States, Under this provision. of AR 506-10;, and Paragraph .4110 imatiprendam from the Deputy ,chist of Staff to the Caustiarrig 'aionermilt 4isrvieee of Lapplr. Subject* *Procurement of Officorim Per tbe list of the United States risam civil Life* dated Oat*. bMr 3.14 1912, it La recommended that the following WIWI peral4011 /00 1001/433.tlif4 in the Arla of the United States to the'ems** and rim the duty as indicated boas*: a? Woodrum Wilson Borah 14 Graffiti for *Leh resommemidedt fazAd Lisutenant for aityliith the Wise of Strategio Serviemie, brim& ,prop0.04 sppe: tarnt, is within the pr4curea6 " 441-(- .4sa in Paragraph, 2 or a oint United States .Chtefe t ji01:***..::::to:r of .Strategic Sorvitioatr ftist?for the Office of Strategic vonber 1,. 19414 of sortitairise obaraster of duty: The ed is at a Segret nature in **tweet/on with ? . spark b.1fl .4Stsken by this 01191114 ZatIvOXI 4"teilkj 4Williativo issued by the liroiz2t Unistst.s CbL.ti oft Staff in a letter dtteit Plev`\*ruar :11$4.10 ?The particular dull to which tbie -applismini,411111*-assimed is in the Depart* sent a ,Ileseareh and Analysts,in which department bo has boo* ampleyed and 1441,41 as a civilians Its is the beet **lifted Mali available for the particular assignment for Ithichas appointsont ?AS ,ritila?0441? 1P04111 Ouilifications* This aPPli- , atisrisisir sPeCial ability of a technical 1 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?Bicket,,, , - 4 -- ? VV.: ? an4 protossional naturs qualitiiris his for duty as aaosaissionlit of:1*er* I. ba$ raoolial spools.% saaret itraia ag. abila au aiVI,orsa of this organisamb Wolk. partioaerl$ rSttiog bias for ths position to wash b* via ims asslips111? te * Linguist and a troiriod raparab anlaystoS* is a gradoxts of tug Uolmforsity of Cal, ifornia at Los Angola*. istisra bat yoviariosi Aelitiog ilt.A.a sna PA.% &Voss* 'fba 404 proposal, WOW? be performs& Ibi bia as * sivilian# 11, AN41144kot is sn osployaa of this *Moo and Ea radio tit Cittssatsraipt linital Stotts* 14 birth* lispia* tVi.s organisation is nooassarto to tie 244% r Vaaossairodatit It is rssogsmandad that "Darsod. tilf. 410_.(0S 20400)* bo soaiirati in this ***** I darsoli anao bias not litterforral inttb, Om ssit la aalvelinS ovt bissa1O tatty. rid 411 tail orgenitattort? Or 4ioations Appliasest WOK ClAsiliiiitigHt la Calla$ OA ll tkOt sOltiodulot for ,isluostionio (Sao inalo 4$6) II nod. it iv*glkiii0.00-011.4 tisat *PP1104u2t, 141 ciraer" duty at lie*11:40trit Do C. iiitb. tba OMANI: cif . , at 14 4410 nOloss for **tilt* sittty is attatibitl* ;40,01110d int tha app:tioant eansuOt *Ms LA a, lti)lisat Woosaity* =4.1,? Malta' J. DOnellrial Dir*OilOT t.,-?????? te4f) ? 11-s' = _ , ? :?? ??? ->% a fluat .4T5 rc-i; ,?" kc. s c ????,: ?'?'4??? , ??? ,c-.;??,-: *411: ...-, ? "iltc? ? %, , ',it', ???-?Itre ? ? ".??? 4," .1 ? ? - ;?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 t Ni1:1 +e) C-V 44;-" September 18, 1942 lir. Hamilton Fish Armstrong Foreign, Affairs 45 East Sixtr?fifth. Street New York, New York Thenk you for your letter of September 16 with the enclosure of Dr. Brandt's s.emorandum. I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Brandt last winter and 111411 much impressed by him. I am told that he is probably the ablest expert on European food conditions in this country. / , The Elmnomics Division of thS office has frequently called him in for consultation to tl*eir very great advantuge. The /memorandum on bombing attacks against Germany tail iles as penetrating and thoughtful. The conclusions, u probably know? afe In_ fairly close conformity with zes40 BritisZ find Marie* bombing practice in Europeo ants- of-trierian econbigicep both here and: in ,England, have the conclusioa the Vermin transportation system is most vulnerable?,iiurt of the whole economy. The cszt ries c tittilOon locomotives and trains in Germany 4 1t1$flOt, u well a t sistent attempt to bomb railway IflCtii**, loading yards and to forth, bear this out. The at serious limitation to Dr. Brandt's proposal, se* it, is 'WO its successful operation would require viyWITY d*70.1144t bombing. A large part of this bombing io4bore to take place without fighter protection, with SOY Dm* Largio*setile boxbing to date has only ? ',?,.!?;, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13XOnnni prinninrityprwIn., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 been possible at night, and night bombing ifrecludes the accuracy which is really necessary to 'attaz.lck successfully the kind of objective which Dr. Grandt has in mind. respite this objection Dr. Brmdt's raemorandllas Sede143 to me to be of sufficient importance to deserve the fxalest consideration.. 7, intend, therefore, to put it in the heads of vpur representzttives in London, who are working est targets for the Eighth Air Force.. I think from my talk w_ith, our Air Force, there, that this memorandum would be of greet interest to then. In fact certain of them are teeu on dayligPt bombing. I an very grateful to your for sending Dr. Brandt's isemoramdma to 2e and also for calling my attention to his fortbcoeing article in tile October number of 'Foreign Affair-s.' Sincerely yolrmi, Tinian 3. Donovan Director .4506.6*.. ,00000 kq?,?PAt4iPCiti.a.f....;tjllif;ia...ki..:?igs...-Nw..*,...:4r,-- ? T 6 a 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? otr. 61 e ?I ? The attached say serve as a basis for a reply to Mr. Armstrong. I introduced Brandt to the Colonel last winter and he probably remembers him. am keeping the memorandum to have it copied, and should like to send a copy to Chandler Morse in London. Morse is heeding up a unit...Amervese working an targets for the lighth Air lore.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 41 FOREIGN AFFAIRS AN AMERICAN QUARTERLY REVIEW HAMILTON FISH ANIMITRONO sosT4M September 16, 1942 Colonel Willian J. Donovan Office of Strategic SerVices 25th and E Streets Washington, D. C. Dear Bills AS LAST sixty.rirtm striver NSW YORK CAIL ADOPMeills ardltAFFAISII4 KILW 110*K Karl Brandt, formerly head of the Depart- ment of Agriculture at the University of Berlin and now in the Food Research Institute in California, is one of ay best German friends and one of those whose opinion I value most. He has just sent me a copy of a nemorandua.which he prepared for Milo Perkins at B.E.X. He tells me that Perkins has not even ac- knowledged its receipt and, as the subject seems important, he suggested that I night like to pass it along to one or two other persons in Washington who might read it with profit. I hope you will find it interesting. Your so ever, '"t'-'r ...) 1008. Brandt has an interesting article on German man power in the October issue of FOREIGN AFFAIRS, published today. I think it probably is the most careful analyeis which has been prepared to date - apart, of course, from estimates wh.W2 , presumably are being made by the Army and the Navy. vase.. ? v-le ? ..11, ? ?,. V-44.7r7;-.7. ts,r, iy Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 14:9T.rkeoVt..t.wc-P4 t- Recommenied New Method of Bombing Attacks Against Germany Memorandum by DT. Karl trandt (Economist, Food Research Institute, Stanford University) ? Analysts of Gemanyis power of economic resistance have frocpieutly made the assumption that the German food supplies and the supplies of motor fuel anklubricants are the weakest bastions in her fortress. According to all Information available at present, it is exceedingly doubtful whether there is Meth or any truth in such asertaaptions. Om the *Chard, there is considerable evidence that Germany's vereasonagy is los'Orulnerable and already has had to stand the greatest strain: in its System of transportation, which consists essentially of rail- road* for 4,kelme haul and tha bulk goods with waterways and bighwayv as inferior svpplementAry 'resources. Railroads aro the chief means of kraus- party*** more-so than in the *United States or Great Britain, because they mOo coal as pia which is ab ant. Waterway* are inferior because of the Imperial of frost., and the slowness of shipping. Highway transport is suffering from a.sOotretky of trunks, rubber, and fuel. The German rail- roads with theix services today extend over a large part of tit, European oometinemt. It is highly probable that disturbances or temporary paralysis of aorta* parts of the hea-Vily burdened arterial system would yield a many times greater loos of men, hears in industry and raw materials than tlat which mamba laid idle by direst *ilea upon factories or other targets. Duo to theAremendous industrial war boom great shifts have oc- curred.lutlermeny in the.requir* J of food and fel of the big cities. AiMOk larger proportion of the people are employed today in the main indus- trial centers and have been taken away from the farms. Hence, larger freight 1101,iois ftr provisioning the urban population and supplies of household fuel egoviosomtisa. The war at the distant, Russian front requires a constant flow Cdrwirmaterials Wren from, the Reich, which in turn imposes a heavier bur- daLsa th0 trackage 'rolling stock, and personnel. The statements of German iroported in German newspapers and the comments of reliable foreign Switserland, and Sweden indicate that during the fall Odascaw-- at 1041 and still more so in the spring of 1942, the German railroads *0016" 'sortable to ratin in time the exceedingly heavy assignments of service akipmeits of bulk feed, industrial materials, end arms and ammunition to heat. 11 the spring of 1042, it was seriously discussed in 'German news? Visa the /Web itimietry of Food mould make an effort to shift a large of the potato aOreage frost its present location into the immediate pros- e the MOM eonsmaption centers, especially the Rhineleald and the '*dr to avoid the lack of gplies for many weeks. Potato tam Me* boarifer, mach better into the pattern of farming in !astern Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010003nnni_n k Nt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 IMINIMINIMMNIMMINIMMIN=FIRMJNI Germany than it does in the west, but it is obviously :impossible to is in. addition to the congestion of other urgent shipments many million tons of potatoes in the short period between the harvesting season in September and October and the first killing frost, which frequently comes in the seeoral part of October or earlier. U.The &untested 111.1.14dIssEALL Blizzard According to the experience of loading Germaa railroad officials, as for instance, Dr. Ludwig Homberger (up to 1958 vice-president of the GaTabil Reich Railroad Corporation; now professor at the American lIrd.versity, 'Washington, D. C.), the worst upheaval in the railroad service observed far. over more than 20 years has been caused twice by blizzards, which fel/ over large parte of Germany. - Heavy snows and the alternation of soft temperatures and hardest frost blocked. the switches, caused derailments and endless delays, and hampered the necessary food supplies for the cities for weeks. The greatest efforts made were frustrated by the simultaneous effect of the weather uport all the trackage in the respective areas. *mit of the bashing that hail been applied to Germany by the RAF has, according, to my knowledge, either tried to hit military targets in the indts- trial areas or ports or fortifications directly or, in so far as the trans- portation systam:was the object of bombing raids, the bombs were aimed at freight yards, switches, bridges, or main terminals. Usually such attacks were mode' in long intervals; frmuently targets were hit squarely; but accard- Lug to all reports even. big holes in the railroad bridges overrthe Rhine have been repaired in two days or less., It is suggeste1 that a new method ought to be tried; namely, a method imitating the effects of a blizzard, namely simultaneous blanketing of a whole area by bombing all the feeder lines of rails plus highways with a steady repetition in such :intervals that complete repair is made inpossible for several weeks. III. The Timis. Railroad systems in industrialized countries have a load curve for freight ton-mileage which shows a high seasonal variation similar. to that of the laCtoor load in agriculture. The peak load for urgent freight shippirg is condensed into a period of from 8-10 woke in the fall, covering the mouths at late August, September, October, and early November, and in spring covering the period of late rebruary, March, April, and early Nay. The fall peak is higher them the one in spring. This peak is the result of heavy shipments of grasp nor boots, especially potatoes, fertiliser, and seed grain, and of bmildist matarialt and household winter supplies. In this war, the fall peak is 1144**tuated lor the heavy requirements of the army at the Russian front, iihigaki **St be provided irl.th stockpiles for winter quarters and other materials, the ehipmewit of Which 1,s jeopardised during the frost and snow season. At the boo front shipment' of potatoes and fertilizer are the most urgent ones, home* potatoes nowt to shipped before the heavy frost sets in. Fertilizer it moModed also before freet and snow begin in order to get the fall-sown crops is good condition into tbo winter season. _ 4 1N Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 .w!! ? .srie;' 416, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RIDF13X00001R000_100030001-0 IP It is obvious that bombing attacks will have a such more telling effect if they take place in peak-load periods - preferably in fall. The fall season is particularly advantageous from another anis. AU over Gernaay, as over the nocrthwestern part of the European, continent, the period oalled in the United States 'Indian Summer' is normally favored with the most ideal weather - bright ennushine, ctatulous clouds? starlit nights, that hold especially &ring the latter part of Augtust or September aod often the first two weeke of October. During that period, I know? from my own observation while using the airlines in Germany, that at night the mils are eisible to such an extent that the pilots of commercial airlines use them for orientation at sight. IT. Augairte.....L,CloitAititigs It is suggested that for paralyzing communications a whole indus- trial area (i.e., - the KESISelat Cologne, DUsseldorf district at 1..he Hanover district) should be mapped out for continuous attack, stretching over a pwriod of four to five successive weeks. Instead of flying into the center of the district, the bonbirg planes should attack in dispersion and, if possible, follow up all the mein railroad tracks leading to the area,, trunk as well as branch lines, and parallel highways. The planes should fly at treetop level and drop baths at short intervals on the tracks, is:Larder to creek the rails and pry craters into the road bed at as many consecutive spots as possible up to the main receiviag centers. It is assumed that modern bombing technique permits the use of an appropriate type of delayed- aotion bombs end their accurate placement on the right of way, so that real demsge:can be done. If in addition, bridges, switch-control stations, loco- motivsaheds and others installations can be damaged, the freezing of the freight arteries would be complete. od ,-;...;141AIMMG111.0.1.4111-?Mggseted If it is possible to damage( the tracks of a dozen or more of the , Jelin limo over long stretches with bombs dropped in a pearl-string pattern, it will take srech.nore tine to do the necessary repair work. So far with ,single bomb hits on the tracks repair crews have been moving by emergency -timiliet to the damaged spot. This:procedure would become inpossible if 20 of tracks were blocked by 50 or 40 different bomb craters. The central bomber aseana.t upon the eilitary targets have resulted Jinn concentration of anti-aircraft defences around the factories in the heart of the industrial area. It is very doubtful whether much defense ar- tillery or hear, machine guns are placed along the tracks. Shifting a sew patter* Of attack may -each the defense forces by surprise. Until they hen" heat readjusted, the min reeistance would consist of interceptor planes. X an unable to judge the military feasibility of this type of attack. Al an economist Iwand to point out that a temporary paralyzation of the rail- road diemmadeations of an industrial area during the critical peak-load season :41,7P:t MN Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X0Onni Rnnni flf1(1nr-1.1 n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 iroubi probably affect the enemy's output of war industries, the food supplies of the urban population, and the morals, more serions4 than the direct attack on factories or upon isolated opals in the railroad system. If it can be prevented that the eastern potato suppliee for the winter reach the Ruhr valley district in time before hard frost strikes, tine shortage win be felt all winter long. U. the movements of coal from -CA. Ruhr to the cen- tral and southern priovinces and to Italy axe upset in.r?.3 again the shortage will be felt for many months. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ONE THIRTY-F1VE EAST FORTY-SECOND STREET NEW YORE, N.Y. Colonel William J. Donovan, Office of Strategic Services, Washington,. D.C. covering conditions in France which I have just received from one of my French associates and I am passing it on to you as i feel its contents should be of interest to some of your William IL Brewster. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 IMIMMIMM 1.,110,,,Kr.tagiSIPPAVffritr.t4P"M, - 4,4,44 si NZIEGILANDUM Oil THIS SITUATION 111 PRANCE 1LS 0:111,M111 30th, 1942 imorii.siummiLiiogiggsgiguiLimimerwa. If the change in the situation in France during the first six months of 1942 could be summard.Z*d, it should be described as a new step towards economic debasemeutloilowing a specially severe winter and heavier and heavier consequences of the war. It can now be vett:tied that the 1941 crop, whiCh was expected much more better, was in fact inferior by 25% of the 1939 crop as fax as wheat la concerned, .15% for potatoes and about 30% for who. If after suth a crop it was made possible not to stop the bread distribution* it is, due to the exagerated sating of the' flour, and to a small importation frem Algeria which saved a situation that appeared in lUme as being alarming. Sous campariSaas of ratoiing between francs and other countries are gime. below : (normal weekly iming) g ifickirs (1) Ica w 115 276 oper. day 5 to 580 iik9ML,Vt, frwcup to *04h A942 `F ? allt2m& t400 ?Voil(J31 !.. '269 11:, (4) 280 (V5) /322 - f fUranOValbt stperior to Ifv6noli rationing. Swittzialind 5sa grs 194 * 135 * frksAxp to 1.scent time free up to recent time Iretuos, the common user is not entitled to integral milk. Skil:tam/Dr is scarce. Thee aorta at official rationing are those applied in cities uarnased in thin ccuttry by consumption of farm products. ? come,eivitissooDf this,lac)62:!supplies in the toms, an 000.000e4gctai1i girelne has been noticed. tiggiesaitikito?ilig*.#101.iitiosook~rfogfamitsrfatil::, "1-,fassidwiiirop -tt) m 44 :ark'1yk p 119,4*. To this ration, **lets 40441.1 for youths. POWChsi&-- 8110* April 5th : 400 gra. Osk stho 40-11 Ovith 'to, pat 1101131014111 figure. .4^ , ? ? ? .1 rl , V*-1; 3q* dki4Ostat, ttlAuciWati.d$1/4.40.14Ataltigiftiltdiallif#1*0404014?400."444'4 , (Y. At i.c.. ; 1 , - - ? -, - -,..:-.i !. r 14*.-'' ,LL-:???34 ' i t'...y. ,,,1: . _ 1 '1*.... =1,21I.L114,214. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? The result is to be 1?robably a small improvaineut of the 1942, ervk. But tor the bult of the lahrge Treuch crop, the reduction of ;he salt spaces due to lack of seeds" the decline in the nzaber and strvagrth of Worlaaans-Ilips the lact c5fTritirtil1zera," the scarcity of transport cind fuel, will conduct in 1942442, tOCturlb.er reduction of produets. The prolyects of the food siroduction Aro= acrioulture remain dart if 'Ala DI to laf.iit some time more. ? It ? AS it was previously reported,the index for t-orc4?on. was in Sanuary reduced to 50*of the Sltne 19.. figure. It hzam-Itnst improved since. But indexes are based on big concerns only. Such big concerns have suffered from lack of coal reduction of hydroelectric production d.ue to exceptional dryness, scarcity of raw materiel end paralysis of .the transactions. .Aside from the big concerns, the private home wort developed, same being easier to supply with raw material end be nearer to the customers. Trench industry is retlyning to what it ras IS 1860. The remaining activity is not entirely used for the 'bellelit of ?' -Y 'Self of it wail( that:is to say one aua.rter of the 19Zi aAtivit.y" corresponds toTrench44rpose (rm'inly up-keeping, repairs end. _. -. iiioopereti40 teirkl. - .. ...: 1 e : f . 01. _ 111,01M1 * the. s.bca.b. tar: is not taking into account the lowering the Tgatestrial produotil*_ #:*:.;, to the technical Vegression? =sufficient .0,044keping of the mach,inery anAt:the present" psychological, moral Bud food. CO1011t1401.41this additioteklo0riug can be estimated Iron 20 to zvA. . ek ampagition ts leduatttZ rea5d tixring the fa1l. and chiefly 'during awe) *Later it no impoTtant fact occurs. ? I 6 . A 't ?,, lr-ael end lubricating stocks have consteut14 rc:Iuced. 'airports ete, practically ilia. The following figures may give an idea of the cleartia. of trauspoll, , 2401 et;ASF4tion in Trance : 4 i ., ' 19S7 154'4 ........... .i....f.iir? ..0 0 , CtOns) 0%,0000,000 6 a ,o 20 ,00000 15,00q4, 20,000 \ , 11 P3(;406 60,000 I ii 600 ;WO 111.1 : JO Or, a . 01.5 v 2:5,000 Vooti LOD 1000 cal 450 1.300 Charco (ritcoal-.00 ,000 (Coripre3sed gas 66,000,00 cubl.c mo1,01,-; 8,000 cars' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 The number of cars on service should Motor cars 427,000 Gazogene cars ;Authorized c-:rs including gazogane cars (1 Trucks and ship motors Electric cars bt, c.mpared (1) ?- reclaced every day or stopped from running. Easamala wns further reduced during the first monthL of 1942. Yore MAM are being required to do the se work, ane: ,2..L.c the demand for mAtt to work iu Germany increased. The tri' of F.rollt; workers in Germany was 150,000 a reit months ago. It dropped to around 120,000 on account of returna thidn were not followed by re-deprcures. Newspapers printed in the Occupied Zone state that prcaentli thohnumbqr:of Frouth wqrtere: Ataermany is 170,000; the differerce is teAlps)40e of, prisamsrs ofkays. Aorking on the spot. ,The Germans are ask144* 550,000 more TmitkeirOPeople have no;#erithasiasm to enlist -V0441#411.4 4,49i spite of th131gOrise that has been made to give tack in atetidno, a certain number of *itsonersi of war, mostly peasants. ,f1? A 1 , 0 d rta4 riZei 1913 1929 1939 1939 194C 1940 1940 1941 1942 1942 100 134 83 91 90 3? 64 72 54 59 , Iplous reduction, during the last po the 1.oi cit.trelgW,ears wixe. than af the h4 &1ffii33 havet4et"200,000 freight - *P:*.yinl 010,0,thon; niit'iaking into ac 43-0itiing. very elvrly, and, a ne.7 requeut ? nod, is undoubtedla 1Lok of goods to cars at the time 6 count lazt freight V for 4U,600 f1,16ht rnnalncVt 1-2'*L"rrtiler" - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 4. V46-4, 5.44,t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? - 4 cars and 1,200 engines luis been racentli greseaLe. more and more to a Railzcz.:. tr,,Lasport 00 Hereafter are ziven a few figure& prices, '1r :;e11 as at the COSG of Ilviag : (3asia iadex Ehalalaszlzsa 1959 1340 1941 194k .Augxst DecelLber .Tune Tleckm:ne Tune December 'larch May (estimatea) The above figures are arrive at a true statistical fi :11.t.) consideration, -Alla sup &aerially believed. ? The activity-6i' rise. Since Xanuarj 1942 to say au aavance of 204 and 14,100 (bee exb 4( ? 100 128 167.6' 161.8 172.9 196.0 198.9 200.3 Tre.Lc,) lb 100 i...uGu;? 1').3u) Ret.;,11 109.9 i' .4 143.4 150.9 155.C10 C(,st of - 4.4 liasz lao.1 150.1 153.4 154.4 based on the officia 4.axe d prizes. :o gure, the cff markeZ eLles should transIctions are ncL SC, Lmportat IS it Is 1.e te thb Stock.ExChangeh.s sh7L a new Index vent up from 800 tt, .-sver 1, ), Mintait1t6 howcver bet ? imporL-xnt )00 %tpha.. 16 -eca 1,00C. This rise is to speculation on infltItin, ,Jr et least thtf'dezire of -inveeting-; by all means, .111 the availatle caz,b b? an extensive printing of banknotes. cr. C. * 0 12.`..ralgaLR412,411..92.* Tax retrurzz Va-le ezoming In within a reusoAable rdthrk, .axpei4r 4re Loa oarapaled to 'tait their taxes, by advance qUarter iratalnents, ?7613, 1Dtrare re?iving their tax statemeqs. But the amounts thus 1V9Ak girftVlyitir thty 414en0f- 414 the4, te.pomel necess,..xy f(-2 the -rOaS to draw ressourcebtrom othei- tteans, i.e.: S.4%1 .44"?C 4';',4414:14,44r.4 c.c.s ".; v -.? ? a-cc. %,...!?*-4, ... 44.4' - 4' ?.... , I , ? ,,,, ' ? , ,:. ,? I Atjy," ' ' .? ' 7.,?:F 7. f, ' 4 , ....,,i: ' 7,v ,,., -.' ,.:.-4:,-..)f,-..t.#*; , .. 1 ,:. . '''-? . 4 lit '.',/,,, ; ' ' ?`. 'i'M' ' ' l'' cV=. ' '''4 ' '' j (.. 1'4 . ;:o't"....V.". ?rri..;--4,z--,''12-- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xnnnni prInn4nnr,^^^. ON. S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ",...4tIdazz?Platr.e."',Mnfv? :MVP r' v"""r!!`? ? l? yaukleeeltres, Trseseefer Bonds Governiaent Bonds, i/Banque de Vrancen'e ceelete. The Bankmotes into circulaticn eere 1,70 billion:, et. t.he' erel Deesal7mr 1.94T and ZOO billions at the end of 7eac 194:6, 1.e. ee of 3C vAllions? The rythm of Increase hu e had an upware 43enleney eieee cne To the contrary, the rythm Lf iacrease on the 'Jank deposits es s2-wer. !be difference between the two i tplE Lied er.eunt ef bank notes kept by private nold.ers, mainly in the ceuntry, Idlere difficulties of transport and communioations with banks are great, the increaee .of prices obliging the holder to keep t1Jir ze.eereee :acme, this not teking into account the 1oo11en stock/figs" which ere over full due to the fact that it is almost inpossible to invest money neither tn estates or securities. These considerable emoaate were used uatil recently for ouying Xreasury ,Bonds. She amotent of i5rAle,2 Trea.stery Bolide 7.-aa about 2,Li)illins at, the end of 1941. It is now abcut 30C billions. Banks have used them t. breast a large pirt of their avatleble cash. They also have given .i1.1 faeilities to big firms whim aileoverfloodol with cash. Sueb. firma 14ve,st,the3r cash IlL Trealurr Bo at .sit months, e.t-one-eveter-and-seen at two; Yee,Ps these cemp4nieS e$,T,'Only looking for temporary investilents, and. a01(01,1 leety need immediate Itetuidity, bents have'madev efeey for them difement.s4 .!4t-discount of "aonitif*j,! they have also bound themselves to tzke bat** in ease of need, the bands ;at the iasufWg rate,,on very short notece: 24acult* Tha:danger can beAmtkein ca of cre44t restrein: there will be AR04 F' nit Of bonds on the bee4 ahd on the Banque dV,Yrsiede. The Banque de e' - Yrcace /las therefere deeided to Wire or less shut uirthe open aarket, the g4ht tdAigcount securities et.los4 that. ninety days remaining as ia the east. ',7;result Of hi' j? bring about e serioixs. reductica the sireasUry Bond subSe t- in order to reach sitoe-r.i.a:i-egczy of lenders, the Finenes itei issVad a new toe_ of BOWLS called "Zone d'Iparp.p.e.", at four 'ears maitteit:rp hearing an iniiiirest of :5%. These bonds did. not meet with favor, a hie T yield being obtainable from other bonds. seence-ed: lose tee% Government Bonds is impossible for the tOlo Th Oovisrenwnt foreseeeTT;Xi77Ei7The end of the Jeer, the isauedtb ,Ippoq, heeding; on 2v..tb 4.5 billione to buy back Treasury Bonds or tmAogliAate 44*14.7 exicrOng bou4et. or reimburse part ft the evardraft nth 'tir- UO &*epee. Will tido -0Verat3_b_t1.. be a succpes , nobo tr can tel at tbo present but it eeems :reasonable.. dit settzti:g. _ tietti044. Irimacaa 44t atpot to be natat taut ZnOittiti is' eAreso1!ra1: coivertittg to of its loans, eamely the tiOtItait auclth 4 195kt in a Img terie loan at .3 1/44 par *LtaUoreeratiOne total of which is not exceeding 20 efievOeeed lee 14=040. circles. However, the Minister for rtirieirfai another conversion - more emporta.at - (A 4 SIYI, -*A.a.Ung around 100 billiona. Thoae! conversions it MOO* the Situation. It is to the monetary poce Lien t2 b , - ^ ? Moe. ???44,k+.1%).?i?irwer? _ ,??????????? cco...???????2?????????????? .???????? mitv7,1r-Tri r-F.,r,???.4.?,"r"-"Vr!er"r":"` - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001 onnfInnnh_n \ ti Declassified and A proved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 4 at The .B.ank of make up its Trausury._ avances to increased from : _6- Pranat is mgatly called u,pon by the Government t,f.) ?hos Si;, for payment of the Occupation indminaty, 144 billions end of 1941, to 171 billions in June 1942 (i.e aa incres:Se of 29 billions in five months), which added 4; o thc ad- vances, without interest, are making a grind total of advances of 29ci On the other hand, the current account opened by the Bank of :France to the ReichIcreditkassen, in Which account are deposited every day 300 million francs representing the daily occupation indemnity, i. a. 9 billions month14r1 ahors that its balance, whiah was of 64 1/2 billions end of 1941, has be in la X me 1942. That is to say .that the Germans hae, v drain- :heir account slaw the beginning of the year 10 tillions whiCh were thrown into the circulations at the same time- as the Si billions nonth.1$ , since six months) making a total of : 54 billions, plus 10 billions whioili are absorbed by the a oalation. .2 anknotesJito rICA eS bi ealation (increased from 270 to 3,00- billions, i.e. ir4 not '-'neassiviiili a dupIi cit ion it totp,14 ty of these 64 oi. lions. , , ,; &top' is still cheap at 1.75% at three:months and 3/6% at sight. 4-? '474_11: The demo4rIteica1 situation has not improved. b ancli aeatn statistic up to rcb show the following trend: - Thea birtha ars increasing,, but they are still below those of the AM Period, and more mammas:in Non Occupied Zone that n Occupied one. The, dSq_9114 4470?bempOrtant in Tanuary, less in February and *etch* T4Or.nliahar is, on the whole, approximately 30,% higher than the Immo before the war. It is higher in the Occupi4d Zone and especilly in 240,14t*.I#0,la the, Narl gecupisd Zone. Theparcentace of death of eld,Jrly t0404EWAlly hith. ,L- - , Declassified and A proved For Release 2013/09/17 : 0004:00110r1,100.1.111?410?011*. 44,044.? A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 .11';1?!*,-..:".441301.13,VAVAIMEt,:i VP* e?CmilliatiKtaztOrVa &PIM Irf'? rir?PrIVW,SAVr...M. ?Zr, 2":"Tigr17.?.,"",r4".", ?,,ae ? ? /X 'f 431.04,0e 37,30 it/Xi/Nei. ..A.L41/id1/4403 Ont/Fgle ..-37%tt 3 ?-? P OFFICE OF STRATEGIC / SECRET( eirritOg OF STRATEGIC SPVVICti. INTEROFFICE MEMO FROM: David Bruce TO: Colonel Donovan SUBJECT: DATE: October 16, 1942 The following report was received from Lagos, Nigeria, under date of September 25, 1942, which our African desk grades as HZ, A-1": "General Fitzgerald (USCO West African theater) at Accra stated on September 20th that he is making efforts to remove the OWI men stationed in his territory on the West Coast (at Brazzaville and Lagos.) This was brought to a head recently when Fitzgerald received a harsh razzberry from headquarters in Washington because George Bookman, the OWI man in Brazzaville, has sent a long cable in clear to the effect that our troops had landed in Leopoldville; giving details. Fitzgerald said that he knows nothing about these curious OWI men wandering about in his territory, doing these things without his authority which might easily place him in an embarrassing or even dangerous position. He flew dawn to Lagos and gave Bookman hell but is far from satisfied with the situation." 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 tT,?? A.4 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 miammonemerm,cmorsubmarwmia 114(SMmmurfOrMWM 111011MWMWO.C. 1:-. ? I ' . ....17.11., A '.*: ... ) ^.. .II. ? 1.........0?????????.?46.0.???404.111d1h# .+ Wilha.1.615M14.10010ftftlij /ILV S ' 6 0.111, / A i e leotor k 114US le 4 0. I /4104 ( &ant )/2444l"" DEPARTMENT OF STAE ta.5 /I dr I , WASHINGTON In reply refer to January 25_. 1943 FA 102.91802/881 1141414 1444,41# faI r The Secretary of State presents his compliments to the Director of the Office of Strategic Services and acknowledges the receipt of four letters of December 7, 1942 concerning the assignments to London of Messrs. Albert J. Sloane, Crane C. Brinton, Raymond Rousseau and Robert Blum. The Department of State is pleased to advise that these aesignments have been approved and that appro- priate ins4ructions have been issued to the American Embassy at London. There is enclosed in this connection a copy of the Department's telegram no. 182 of January 8, 1943 to the Embassy at London. Enclosure: To Embassy, London, no. 182, January 8, 1943. NTA,St.,,AT." A Col 41,7A4L. deputefol) it net) OtuaTiot.. *Pa/LA/ /26 410?Ni NAN?. A.' A ??? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 I. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 0 ? a.... Ia./0Z/ uevol ? ?????? ? ? DEPARTMENT OF STATE FA DivIsi?14 ...... ............................ ........ ????????? BUREAU ENCLOSURE TO LETTER DRAFTED ??????????????????.?????????????????????,-1.0? Ce: ay. ADDRESSED TO -e Director of the Office of .......... ...... ? ..... Oa. ............ ................... ???? Strategic Services ? ..noge..6. WW2 - ? .4..0 F. rt frfe ; 1.1 9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? ? ? -.e? k- - , ^ -?,4 ? 'd* ' - ,P?=, .?-, - , DTIB. .? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 , ? ????, ?,'?? ? ; *r-c-ir., sSV - 3 - - ? 1 !. '?-f-'s ,?-?, :..??-?? .-Z ii,..k?I?17- ---, -; ? ., _ . . '?," k'? ?,?'..,....'? . ...': i 1 *i `0 1. ,r.,..? ? .,, ' '''' -> ?.1. .:4'. 3-1:XS - "7- T7Irc-ri.',1-1 Er-2-T ' - = LOITJ0i. - 'a ttl?-?.?-,,, '` ',-;,; '' " ''? '' f-'?'7'' IY,-. .7". ' a ? ,,,, 'r...,. I.ct :,:',X,ra-?.:t? 1- - , r,'-'7. t - = , r? ' ,,ar,c ? ?,..t...,_ ,... L ," ? '-',..'"fL ', ! ,;???? , ; ? ..7 p.....,. .,,, ?4.77 ? f^ icE of S acitioflal ? p la,r,i4t on ? -brat iC ErsonnEl to " e t? Srgxra E ( - ? 4 t , '58.7-`710.011.Ct. -11.03-S.EaU ? - - , -?:?? ? rtobEnt .."'..3111.111 7 e::1,4- ? fj, '--i.ridE3:"."-a.t.c.),o'cl Br int on ha s air Eady a.rr E-.1. - 'a ? :London* L.ssi start Df.',.rEctor of London RsEarCi and s Brcn o. s si s tant pbOtDTaP. S ni or :P1 .o to;_;raollEr P E rs ? ?F--- ? . i-? Va t1 to arr iv E alp Ou t - 'Cvfor. .. ..410a.ri%t,,: --all& Tic as .E at), al.) Ou t - : ? _ ? , ?-You ar c a'athoii Ed. to mat E e'C.,..1.-.LOTIirl::; pa:Tr-101'GS - ?,._, _ ., c.Tanuary 16. ,Januar-7 thE EriEn ? 3, ? P Er La. Eza,' at 46,00 jIthi1. arid .00 outs .1.c1 E ? 2, , ? , .-.?? : 1 ri,:k.-:ita pat al., 11t3 0'.1:.' ,t-.4:: 131111. t Ed St cr.- t Es 1 EX C Ep t , ,,-;.:,?.?? _ . ---ft;:ori17...e.' 3 00Pf ., 6.1.10-rt Ed for tray El ab oar..1 ? ,,, ,. -=-atz z -t' u.rrtiS2,15d3. a.t s pe);:: t of, c os t of trans-:?crts.? @.: ,.., . ,T? -7:?,:sx,pira . b 'I on,? 01 50 clayarr ivr.1 at ? - ..., . ? , 7-$ , _ ?:.-, Erfv:.-shottid I: E. r ail/ C C a to4.009 v7.1' ' ?.- ? .,s... , _ .:- ,-;-..:,,a . ' . r,f9:ii, Ppirt.tort,. and T.'.. lint paP t payr1En7. of 3. c.lai ry . , r!. ? - -^ jimAii;iiii. ? '''' '' -, liki'''"-- ? - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000ionnrinnni_n ? :ivert ?-; .LR,47.4 tak-'?? , It' ;Or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 November 27, 1942 Lt. Colonel R. i Brooker Toronto, Canada Dear Ockaorml Brooker* was delighted to receive your letter of December le* As Iva say, practically a year has gone by during which this organisetiom has had the banefit at your advice and cooperation which, I *mare you has been deeply appreciated. I an convinced that our training propina, due in large measure to your Inspiration and guidance, has wad* rapid strides sand est confident that it will ehOw Mott satisfactory results. I *a glad to ktioatthat you share myenthua- *0 that the program ea a whole meets with your ,? v itis my hope that our association may con* tinuOrot ;ably far its. a1r6ady proven worth but for your in the problems of both war and peace which lie OW. ,c* WM Moat emor41411 season's greetings in which *fur sten joins me, Very sincerely Iroura. Mites 4 Donovan tdrestor ,, ,.. , .fts?terr,rfr 7 ?rnr7:77.'7""Ir r-- . --z-i ? =-,v, r,?F :i. i'?.;.. ' ' ' , c .,,, , I :: ., ,-? . G , V r ?t- ,-.1',4 , Shilit , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001onnrinnn1_n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Till you please prepare a reply to the attached Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL December 18th, 1942. It is now practically a year since I first had the privilege of making contact with your Organisation. During this year we have had at this School members of your Staff undergoing training with us. On behalf of my Instructors and Myself I want to say what a wonder- ful year it has been for us to have had this chance of working together with your people. We have learned a lot from them and have been fortunate in making so many very good and lasting friendships. do not think any better example could be shown than during our joint Courses bore that American and British people can work together, endure the same hardships, make lasting friendships and face the future with the same ideals. For my part it has been a great privilege to me to go a stage further and to have been given the opportunity of helping in the OrganisIng of your own Training Schools. As I reported to you the other day these Schools are now an what I feel is a first-class basis and I have every confidence that with the present Staff of Instructors and personnel in the Training Department that in the course of another month or two, The shall have a training setup which will compare favourably with anything of its kind in the world. It has taken a little time to organise because from the first we have been very /Ichoosey? as to the Staff - particularly of instructors - and have felt it better to be under-staffed with the right people than up to V fC)1 " ? rk,N11'. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 strength with a single dud included. I have played a very small part in all this and the present advanced stage of the Training is entirely due to the keenness, hard work and team spirit displayed by all the Members of the Training Staff. In closing I should like to wish you and all your Staff a Merry Christmas and really big things in the New Year. Colonel W. J. Donovan, Temporary nte Building, Constitution Avenue, WASHINGTON, D. C., U.S.A. 3/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 41, e Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES United States of America American Embassy London December 2, 1942 TO: George Bowden FROU: George O. Pratt From a leader of the Belgian illegal trade union movement who was in Belgium from June 1490 to July 1942, and arrived in London about November 1, I received information that the bombing of transport facilities by American and British air force units had not been as effective as it might be because the targets selected were not the principal or most important ones. For example, attempts would be made to bomb 4 single train or to bomb switch yards or bridges. The bombing of a single train, even though it might cause a wreck, was in- effective because traffic might easily be re-routed. The bombing of smtickyards was similarly ineffective because the number of switching points throughoutlelgium made it comparatively easy to re-route transport with-* minimum of interruption. As far as the boibing of bridges was cancerned, the targets were diffi- Cult to hit squarely and were thus put out of action, if at all, only for a short time. The suggestion was made that if the targets would consist ethe locomotive round, houses, central repair shops and clas- sification yards, there:mould be a much greater effect upon the transport facilities in Belgium. Pursuant to this suggestion, I have requested that my informant prepare for me a brief summary of the location and probable condition of these three types of places, and the attached wport has been_ given to me in response to my request. You 411,note that the report refers to three types of places, first, the bridges rind- viaducts, which, as I-pointed out above, art very difficult to destroy.- You will note also that he 1.4404?Pel*IP41194,4tIVAR*04-5nOtIPW,Ctiiite4.4esstmos two I ' t I , " ???? T. .! . '14" - .."" r SC ? 4 , 'T Declassified and Ap V ? Z,'"C;PP rt4.11q145 a A- L4ei ? ? ;Le!' roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xnnnni , 7C- ueclassified and Ap roved For Release 2013/09/170 ----.-??????????????ftm.....W 4?,I?P?MPMMm?MwnmnillWMM. -2- ? points out that these bridges are situated in congested areas, and I suppose that one thing to be borne in mind in selecting a target is to select one that would cause damage without destroying the house's or lives of a number of people who live immediately adjacent to the target. You will note, however, he does name three bridges, the destruction of which vould block traffice from and to Germany. These are situated near Liege and Namur. My informant then lists fifteen places where round houses are located which he considers the most important of the country, and although as he says, the Germans do not make a practice of leaving their locomotives in the round houses, he indicates that in winter it is difficult not to bring them in for at least a period every twenty-four hours, and that generally speaking, the time between 1 A.M. and 3 A.M. will find the greatest number of locomotives in these round houses. Two central repair shops are named, the destruction of which would have an obvious and serious effect upon transport in Belgium. BN also lists eleven places where the most important classification yards are located, and in talking with me about these classification yards he indicated that trains are made up illssuch yards in the normal fashion, and that these yards were not, in. July, protected to any great extent by anti-air craft batteries. While I suppose that both our air force and the British air force command have excellent bombing target maps, and while 1 suppose that they made elaborate plans for bombing atacks, it is my thought that this information coming as it does not only from a completely trustworthy Belgian source, but from a per- son who himself was on the Board of Directors of the Belgian national railways, may have some weight in the determination of the targets at which we should aim. As my informant put it, it may be more sport to try to bomb a moving train, but the amount of destruction to be accomplished would be much greater if we would undertake to bomb the engines and their round houses, and the freight cars lined up on parallel tracks in classifica- tion yards. Attaohment ''''.*?4?30Wcipteittkpftf.,v-,6,70?V?14104WWEISKINCHZAMaxcEk+59:24?14.144 441"?;..vAi.2 " 4.44.4" "".?'" '1137:!Y rr' Declassified and Ap roved For Release 2013/09/17 : GEORGE O. PRATT ? 4 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 THE UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE WASHINGTON Personal and Confidential February 25, 1942 The Irish Minister, Mr. Brennan, came to see me yesterday. In the course of our conversation he referred to rumors which had reached him that your office and O.F.F. were preparing propaganda for use with the Irish people if the American troops in Northern Ireland undertook to Invade Eire. I had already told the Minister that our troops were stationed in Northern Ireland in the interest of our own security - which would be that of Ireland - and not for purposes of aggression. I told him I had heard no such rumors such as had come to him. He than asked if I had any objection to his call- ing upon you and talking with you. I said I had none whatever and that I was sure you would be glad to see him. I am, consequf ?4-, sending you these lines of explanation so that ...... and when he asks to come to see you, you may know what is in the background. Believe me Very incerely y so \\*1 iskid The HOndirable Iilliam 3. Donovan, Coordinator of Information, Washington, D. C. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ;76z.swirr--c?N-/-v77,71 41:-.4rNIMEt.fr14?.?!:'-.47,9P1.V_ 0128-1 aN.114-nc Subject: Is February, 1942. The Commandant, U. 4. Marine Corps. Lieutenant Colonel William W. Buckleyt Marine Carpal Retired, Navy Yard, Wnshington, D.C. The Commandant. Change of station. 1. You are hereby detached from your present stntion and duties, and will report to The Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department, for duty as the relief of Colonel Joseph T. Smith, Marine Corps. T. HoLcomB Copy to The Chief of Naval Operations, Director of Naval Intelligence, The Quartermasters The Paymaster - 3s 14.001. Butaley - 10. 00/BUCEL19:', W.W. 1st Endorsement 20 February 1942 Washington, D.C. Buckley, Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. 1. Detached. 2. No public quarters were available nor were any assigned you while on duty at this Yard. Geo. Pettength ? 4?4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13XOnnni Prinninritypnrw,4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 0126,-1 AN-114-ac -I'detached from your present station and duties, Naval Operations, Navy Department, for duty as ph T. Smith, Marine Corps. /s/ T. HolcoMb *Val Operations, ,fil40. Intelligence, kiister, bier - 3, ,Buckley - 104 lra "'W,ititr- " I 1 r , ? s;EX? : @ ? ?. tf Conmandant, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. -Lieut. Colonel 161.-W.. -Buckley, Marine Corps, Retired, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. Detached. 2. No public quarters *re available nor were any assigned you while on duty at this Yard. GEO. PETT1MGILL /5/ W. F. Loventhal By direction 2nd 'Endorsement Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. Rsceived at 300 p.m* 20 leebruary 1942. /s/ WILLIAM W. BUCKLEY LtCol., U.S.M.C.,Retsd. Or MP INN ......... r 3rd Endorsement Washington, D.C. February 21, 1942. 1. Reported this date. A/ G. G. MORRISON By direction. ........0.494ep,?w4,,Ammoafe.c.peoss Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Coordinator of Information Coordinator of Information. The Commandant, U.S. larine Corps. Subject: Reported for duty. 1. Reported for duty February U, 194k, i331). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 EDWARD G. BURGHARD NO UTIC Ilt22 725 WATISO t LUC. CALI ro MN IA I just received a letter from the office of the Surgeon stating that at the present time there is no known indication for of an additio,a1 army hospital in this locality. A, thomeand thanks for your prompt effort. Sincerely, 1R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ????????= WASHINGTON I have your note of February 15, enclosing copy of a letter you received from Mr. dward G. Burghard. I will see that the offer of his home site for hospital purposes is brought to the attention of the Surgeon General. Colonel William J. Donovan Coordinator of Information Administration Building Allahimgton, D. C. Declassified and and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 11111,?1411?11=1 February 15, 1942 William J1 DOT101.811 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 , n LW' iNe.,ci 144y--3 r February 15, 1942 the Honore:a* John J. Malay Assistant Secretary of liter lashington, D. C. Dear Teak: Here is a letter frog a ran lityntable fe110. I don't know whetber you would 14-interested. or 110 t dip Donovanaoy '$r tr.7 'NOWA , t- ? Sincerely William J. Donmil -7 rm-T.7^' 7 7 ? t? 402 -4,, t I - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 gDWARDG.BURGHARD PICIUTIC 3, SOX 7 Z S WATSONVILLE. CALI ra SHIA Febr. 8, 1942. Dear Bill: 4.1.,,d4,,A AL ; -64-11 0--aj?-? //0'4? We have recently heard that both the Army and Navy are considering establishing hospital bases out here, and that sites suitable for this purpose are already being investigated. Up to now we had not seriously thought of disposing of our property here, but upr-1 11earing of the above, thought what an ideal spot this plac rould be for hospital purposes. You see, we have a little over 95 acres, situated right on the Bay of Monterey, with woods and private beach. Our house is large enough, and so laid out, that it could immediately be used as an Administration building, and other buildings placed around or near it. If necessary, it could even be used as a temporary hospital, while any other building operations were going on. The property is on the main road leading to Camp McQuaide **Achy by the way, is only a few miles away. A new State Highway is only about 3/4 of a mile from us, and a spurr line of the Southern Pacific Railroad runs right through one end of the property. So you see, transportation facilities are ideal. From a health standpoint I doubt whether a better place could be found. All our guests and friends visiting us call it the Sanatorium, because of the recuperative climate. We also have excellent water, with plenty of it. We originally expected my mother to spend quite some time with us, and as she would have numerous friends visit her, besides other members of our family, we built a rather large house. As usual, things did not work out as we expected, so that the house is really too large for just the two of us. It would be much better for us to have a smaller place, especially during these times, when all our efforts must be put to winning themar. I have made some inquiries as to whom to see, but find that the only thing to do is to go right to headquarters. In the case of the Army that would be General De Witt, but I do not know who is in command of the Navy out here. Not knowing General De Witt or the commanding officer of the Navy, / was wondering whether you would care to send me Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 rivarevigiggeMMErftimoseamt...._ 4.55,115 S ? ? MEM Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ;555, 15. LDWARD G. BURGHARO ROUTE 3, BOX 725 WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA letters of introduction to these officers, or to anyone else in authority. YOu may know of other channels to contact, and any suggestion or help you could give us certainly would be appreciated. As I said before, we feel that this place would be ideal for a hospital, or a place for convalescents; and would therefore like to have the opportunity of offering it for sale to the proper authorities. Perhaps you could look it over yourself for Col. Knox. We certainly would like to see you. Well, Bill, many thanks in advance for anything you can do in this matter. Do give our best to Russ and Jo when you see them. With kindest regards from us both -- lots of good lucks Sincerely, ? tktr....4,0.. 7. r. >4. 4 r r ? 1111 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 1111111 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 maaagmaaa.a.464:411.14aaa4a 44444- a asaa, t EICECUTIVE corn= OF TEM PRESIDENT *ma rose IMERGIENCT IMUDIAMINT WASED/OTOD. D. D. '7) LA,1-Zi January 27, 1942 ? Mr. James Murphy Assistant to the Coordinator Office of Coordinator of Information Washington, D. C. Dear Mr. Murphy: The following information comes fran Mr. Hubert Kletnpeter, friend of Frederick Brisson. Frederick Brisson is the husband of Roealind Russell, the movie actress who has been invited to attend the President's Birthday Ball hero in Washington, and also the son of Carl Brisson, very weU known in the United Kingdom and throughout the Scandinavian countries as an actor. Frederick Brisson has been in radio work for a number cf years and manages the radio work of Herbert Marshall, Leslie Howard, Cary Grant, and others. He 'worked on a London newspaper and was correspondent for the Hollywood Reporter. He also organized the U.S.O. program in connection with the Hollywood Bowl. Mr. Brisson speaks seven languages fluently and is anxious to get connected with the Office of Coordinator of Infbrmation ruling counter propaganda work. Mr. Brisson was highly recommended by James D. Secrest, who is in charge of our regional service. Sincerely yours, Henry M. Paynter Chief, Economics Branch , 0111011,01.11111Nwas...... ? ??? '4"?-S1, a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 . Pagt14__ "" .?,..r."41-1' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 S1". ? Memorandtus: To Colonel William Donovan From Pearl S. Buck It is already known that Japan is making much use /miller propaganda in Asia of the prejudice of white people against peoples of color. What is not so well known is the effect which this propaganda is beginning to have. The strength in Japan's propaganda is the unfortunate fact that it is true that many white people do have 4 strong prejudice against people of color, and that there have been many white persons in China, Japan, Malaya, The Philippines, and India - indeed, in every part where Japan is now using this propaganda, who have been overbearing, arrogant and unjust in the treatment of citizens of those countries. Propaganda strengthens such memory. The Japanese propaganda says, "The white people will hover give you equality because they have never granted equality to any colored race. When you fight at the side of white men you are fighting for their rule over you." Japan cites as arguments: a. England's continued unwillingness to grant even dominion status to India. b. England's colonial attitude toward all colored subjects. c. The discrimination which United States has al- ways had toward colored Americans. 4. The fact that the U. S. nary will not allow colored members except in menial positions, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xonnni Pnnni ssified and Declaroved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 that no colored men are yet in the U. S. airforce, and that in the army colored and white are segregated. Proofs of the effect of this propagandla are to be di,iader.. found among our allies, especially among the younger people. All are seriously troubled by What might be a victorious white imperialism more difficult for them to overthrow in the long run even than Japanese rule. One hears such remarks as this, always spoken in confidential circles, "We had better not allow the Japanese navy to be destroyed - we may need it against the whites." "Even though I hate the Japanese, yet if we had to choose between being a dependency of the Japanese Or of the Americans, we mould choose the Japanese because they have no race prejudice to be a bar to the hope of future equality," "After all, what proof have the hliglish and Americans given us of their real belief in democracy? They are not fight- ing for democracy but for themselves. We must fight for our- "Had we better not keep the strength of japan, which is the only modern nation in Asia, to fight the white modern *tions if? we mnst? If we destroy Japan, what will we do if the - people do not give us the democracy we went?" Such remarks., and there are many of them, dhow a dis- people of Asia interpret as an endeavor to ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Rnnninnryznnrm z Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 cement union between England and the United States alone. The "Union Now" movement itself, Which ex- cludes except in vague terms the democracy of China from the proposed federation of democracoa, Goart.slalostignLAILIO-kralien4knOoinmr4,104rlitille- Wisiimp4.441901 tendency in such important officials as General Wavell to be colonial- minded even toward such leaders as Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. An example quoted was that when Wavell in an interview expressed his thanks to the allies for giving him his command, he omitted mention of China though China has been carrying on the main war against Japan for so long in Asia. It is felt that in Washington, Churchill showed a lack of knowledge of affairs and persons among our allies in Asia and that his interest was not sufficient to help him to know or remember them when told: The end of Churchill's speech when he spoke of England and the United States "walking side by side in majesty" etc. 4his first public speech in Washington, see closing lines) was taken as confirmation of his "Atlantic-mindedness," by people thinking from the viewpoint if Asia. Are44 tendency of newspaper reporters and columnists A 1m-1T Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? ? C. ? Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 .4. to lump the peoples of Asia together under Ghe term *Yellow" or "Oriental." The Chinese especially very strongly object to this, and feel that as they never speak of 'white" or "Occidentals," but always of nations, the peoples of Asia deserve also to be spoken of as nations and not by color or by "Orientals." A very sharp reference was made to this by an important Chinese official when he had just seen the Washington Times- Herald use the terms "those Orientals" a few days ago. 7. It must be taken into account allo that it is inevitable that our severe losses in the Far East have produced a conscious or unconscious rise of surprised feeling among all those who have suffered in some measure from white Imper- ialism in the past. The prestige of the white man in the Far East, until this time based largely on the power of arms, has declined temporarily at least out of proportion to the truth. There is pride even among our allies AAJ that an Asian people imam been able so to deal with a strong western power. Japan is quick to turn this to racial account. She is saying, You see we need not be afraid of the white man." 8. India remains a test case for democracy in Aria. Much depends on the reply given by England ???????... " Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Rnnn1nnmnnni 41. 3 , ft Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 .." -5- through Churchill to the recent request made by fifteen of the leaders of India) all of whom were moderates in politics. Eng- land has a bad record in the minds of Par Eastern peoples, including China. Japan will undoubtedly gain greatly if England continues her present uncompromising attitude toward India. These are the chief facts which are at this moment aiding Japan in her dangerously successful propaganda in Asia, among all peoples. What can we do to counteract this propaganda? .:1 We must must act for ourselves first, mad remember that we have a relation to Asia which is not Rngland's. We face the Pacific as well as the w ?' ',. ,. ..; 1 ?....,,,. ,!....,.. ?;.:1:?, ? ,...4. Atlantic, 4 have not England's dark record in the Far East and we must not now take It upon ourselves by allying ourselves so completely with England that to the people of Asia we seem to be one. Any union which is exclusively white and English-speaking will be an all-out aid to Japan. We aught immediately to assure the Chinese of our determination to keep then with us on an equal basis with England. If the President could speak definitely on this point it would be most valzsblo to us. If China could be wholly re- t043UWWW4.044M6001W3.0~WirorPOOOVAMSCGS64,41.00.01p$81.4 2.tiliMP40121.4,? 1. 1, , ?.?? - .- , g.1,??F is.-7,3,:l.e,,:,., /...; e. ' ....;1'4,-.., . '.r.? .-r-' , ? : .. r ,?....2r',...- ..r,e.:::-C.. , ..... --,.."?-.4 ? ITY'. ?.;',47,..-4 .. ,. ,7"...., . s.11 -, '' ' ? ' , , '";rl , " f, ;,.-* ' - L,t z?-? s. , ` Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 3. assured, then half the dal ger would be g one. But words alone will not reassure. A Chinese said the other day in a confidential con- versation, "It is considered here that our war with Japan is chronic and so we are sent no help. Help is sent to places where war is con- sidered acute. But five hundred planes, which could have been sent to us at any time, but were not, would have made it possible for us now to have attacked the Japanese strongly on the flank." Again: (quoted from a Chinese) "Vie begged that American planes and warships might not be so concentrated as they were in Hawaii and the Philippines. It has been our experience that this present war cannot be fought on the old methods of concentration. Dispersion is the word. But no heed was given, to us or to our experiences, although we have been fighting the Axis longer than anyone has. Now we think with acute regret of those planes which were destroyed within a few hours. We could have won the war with them." Again: (quoted from a Chinese source) "We have put the whole of Free China at tha disposal of the All ior airfields. Dispersed airfields make an inferior airforce able to stand off a 0 superior one. Again: "China has a feeling of :.et-down. She longed for the entry of America Anto the war Ilik Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Ro1)nlnnnlnnnl_n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 mmummum ? :.% A -7. after all these years of struggle. In- stead of having been given any relief) how- ever 7 she is being asked to send soldiers to Burma and Indo-China." Again: "If China does not soon have help she will collapse economically. It has became a pressing problem to Chiang Kai-shek to know how to feed and pay the Chinese army." Again: "The great danger is that England and the United States will fight this war as4Colonial war. But it is not a colonial war. It is a total war, and total war requires political and spiritual values as well as military." Again: "Why does not the United States realize the great strength for the Allies that is in the spirit of the Chinese people? Only the Chinese are fighting a total war in Asia against the Axis. The peo-ples of The Philippines, Malaya, India, are all fighting on soil that is not their own - they fight as colonists of an empire. But China is fighting as America is, for its own country. The real union ought to be between non-imperialistic China and non-Imperialistic America. ,LwGh.:hate,1A441./ Mi4 t"1/..) What action can be taken and taken at once to reassure China first and then the other allies in Asia of our independence and our determination to include them in democracy? - '..44,V1LIk ? ?? , f Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ??"?.-, ? ???????: ? 2...? ? - a. There should be a continuing conference of strateg7 in Washington - not London, for the people of Asia strongly distrust England, but are inclined to and want to trust the United States. At this conference China ought to be represented on completely equal terms with England and the United States. b. Decisions as to allocations of war supplies Should be taken in joint consultation, and care Should be taken that General Wavell does not bring a colonial officer's mind to bear upon the Chinese. c. There is particularly in Washington much draw- ing-room talk against China, end the Chinese know it. People say, "After all, can you trust the Chinese?" "What can the Chinese do?" "Why don't the Chinese do something?" This is unjust talk for the Chinese have been doing a great deal for years, aid have had no help as yet, and it hurts the Chinese. d. The press Should be told that in speaking of not use racial tern nor should any terns be A used which would seem to disparage our allies on racial and geographical grounds. At present the ignorance of newspapermen and columnists is such - even off famous columnists like Walter Lippman - that unwittingly they insult our allies in Asia. Japanjji3ch indlude our allies ali3, they must ? 5NOIMPRAP40~704ithOlogrOft.IPSVW.R.e..fie.a.. r't Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001 nnnfInnri _n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? **tan% a eaaratansosoxpi 1....U1 .E, -9- 41 I. 1,0.4?11a1 t50.4tedigi 41. f. Our generals and military men may be actually as dangerous as they are helpful in winning this war. Today war has to be won through the mind as well as through armies and weapons, The Japanese, like the Germans, are fighting a total war - not merely measuring arms. But many military men, American and English, seem unable to grasp this fact It is natural to them to think in the olit-fashloned terms of weapon against weapons wary against army. There ought to be 2.9221.212 liaison between Wave].]. and Chiang Kai-shek - pplitical as well as military. It is doubtful whether Wavell can do this, and therefore he must be supplemented by others who can help him. China is fighting with full political consciousness but as yet we are not, nor is England. Generals can not seem to under- stand the new war. They think this war will be fought and won by tanks and airplanes only. Military men only know how to stand up to talks and airplanes. Next to China, the Netherlands East Indies are fighting a total war. There are 400,000 Dutch.. men in the Indies who have no home now in Europe. This is the greatest concentration of white forces in Asia. There are only 80,000 Ehglishmen in India. Every use ought to be made of the spiritual force of the Dutch who are T.t rt".7n'l*Tr ? 111 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ???????????????????... - ennstr..14,1,-,... grOltimmoakie#A1 'a t 6. -10- really fighting for freedom. Free men can fight ten times as well as colonials. Australia, so far as I understand it, shows the same potential strengths. This can be con- firmed by a talk with Mr. Caerty, the Australian minister. Finally, the imperative first step, which should be taken at once in order to reassure China, our strongest ally, and to cut the sinews of Japanese propaganda is two-fold - (a) a clear statement made b.j. the President that we are fully awar9(of the importance of the Axis war in the Orieht and that there is no danger of our giving it secondary attention. (b) Immediate help sent to China, even if it \ is only a comparatively small number of airplanes. In closing this memorandum, I must respectfully cal attention to the fallacy of believing that the Axis cal be de- feated if Germany is alone defeated. Germany must be defeati.d, but if Japan is allowed to get her fascist grasp upon Asia, upon the resources and the peoples there, we Amerioans will find an enemy stronger to fight than Germ9ever was, because Japan is an entosymore deeply grounded in fascist thinking than Germanyis4i and one far richer, if victorious, than Germany can be except in her drionas? I mast point out that long before Germany conceived the idea of the Nezi regime, Japan had evolved it completely. Stlay or historical rocords will show clearly the same scheme of Mig4045.1.11iWitge?mismorPowasra????.... - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 eurlocar..a 4,1014.4.1e6 ? ? OF. government, based on force, on contempt of the masses, ot. rejection of democracy, on aggressive warfare, on the use of lies and trickery and propaganda as weapons. as early gs the middle of the sixteenth century this regime began to emerge. Korea alone saw it, for she saw herself as its first victim, as indeed she was. The present world war, of which the first world war was only a stage, may be directly traced to the period in which Japan began her definite aggressive policy by seizing Korea. Today's history only repeats that past event in broken treaties and useless promises. It is interesting to discover the direct relation between Germany and Japan in the development of fascism in Europe. That the relation is direct no one can doubt, and Japan was the primary source. To ignore these facts, to believe that if Germany is defeated we can easily defeat Japan is therefore ignnrance of the most dangerous sort. A Japan victorious in Asia will be not one whit less dangerous to us than a Germany victorious in Europe is to England and to us. Nor would England perhaps be able to give us much help if Japan wore to gain English strongholds in Asia. We must not count upon the loyalty of India, or upon the help of Rusta. The success of Russia in the present war has only augmented the feeling of new power among the peoples of Asia. There are thousands of Asiatics in the Russian army. India particularly is being influenced by Russian successes. Russia 104 a special appeal for Asia today. As for China ; I must call attention to her right to be sailed a democraoyi, perhaps more truly a democracy than we Ittgiand have over been. China has long practiced a real I !, ? 0,4444.14- ./ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ' a a a Man, 1.11MW Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 a ???.???... -12- democracy, though on a plan different f rom the western plan, and it is natural that great distrust is aroused all through h or _ Asia when China solidly included with England and the United et States, where she believes she belongs, appeeerspeeatigiugd.fo. Amte4?01ApufinarearILA.Ase-timaitalkittoolr.mrsimatudsaeialr. When China iimis not put on terms of equality with England and the United States, either actually or in planning, it is worth battleships and bombers to Japan in furnishing proof of what she is telling the peoples of Asia. Japan is trying to make this Irar a race i3.3ue and we Americans ought to do everything we can to cut across race. It would be to our interest to insist that China be given an equality even if she did not altogether in all ways deserve it in order that Japan be proved wrong. But anyone who knows China will not allow that she is undeserving of equality. The weir of defense whereby China has kept Japan from victory for four and a halt, now nearly five years, will one day be written down in history as a masterpiece of strategy in defensive war- fare. Chines democracy is as real as our own, the basic difference being in its form rather than in its effect. It is a decentralized democracy whereas western democracy has al- ways been centralized. I submit therefore, not as my own opinion alone, but and out of as the consensus of opinion of many thoughtful persons in/Asia, persons or various races and nationalities, that the great danger to the UniLted States today is to become identified with England in the minds of tam. peoples of Asia. We have a good record in Asia, eemperatitely speaking. We are not feared there for past imperialisms. Our Altars In Ala* auki be one of great influence mid friendly , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 iimmoms miumummommu r - strength or it may be full of danger. Let us combine our union with England only with an equal union with China,, let us maintain our ow:a policies toward the nations of Aalas and let us demonstrate to the peoples in Asia our determinstion to maintain our independence while we fight with fun strength for democracy for all. ?-? t't ti dr."; tt-tt? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 =El Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ?". / '11 ofe0401.91*-44?0-1-a Ve_Ts*.ta :d Miss Pearl S. Buck 40 last 49th Street New York City Dear is Buck: he your letter about The .Mst 04 West Association. I believe that the of this organization which you are fowling is a aost ulieful one, and that the a:- ? piit1ined4n iolki3entorandum, is 10=4. A 1h311 '$to do mythic*: 004 fukithet tif* AcOjectt'll.,04wii1 be, to recoil,* Wormaltiort about 3rour Fobruar:r '3,, 3.942 3.1 ? r delrIP Sincerely, 'I William J. Donovan -Norm ? ; r?it, -Le " r - - S; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 EMI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 , ?? 1A?qt....:' ? ? ?;;V'r.--- ? ' ? ? ZglesturkrossarimaffraisrararaiggaMBROMMSOMPrimmttitt*min ;716ii:-*Atf,d - 1).0M-Iran i , - , :4 4j??? ? :???..*?....? 2/4/42 I ? ? ? ? ... ? ? k. (Mowing has been. suggested by Ifr. .? k -en as a reply to the attachea letter: * 'AI - b e 1 a. e v e that the purpose of the "East _ aid. West Association" which you are found- itg is a useful one, and that the plan 7thich you have outlined in your memorandum is soilud. I shall be glad to do that I can .tolfurther this project and will be Tleased ,.tty reerire information about your work as , it; 'develops." ...,.???????????????????ro???? MCI P. BAIT111, $rd lit esexp...... ? -62e/7 e v. .11????? -git\t1 7s4oht, P-0 r7 ? tot,,.12 -r oe t Zr. ,, 5 4: 1.1,:o 4 = , t' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? ee. ?ran' -11 *TeIegres - official et% Jw0ary 2v 1942 R1CBDvo WOO VaiiABIlso ?N.4101.4114i1A. IL A 4111,1i (la itthitLi 011 ./e ? ,,e? ?;;O;' Declassified and and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 "lc t.'". Jr ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ^MP oksibt West cAssociAtiori Devoted to mutual knowledge and understanding of the life of the Oriental and the American peoples 4 , X re. PEAR/. S. RI:CR FreAiost CHARLES S. PHARIS Tr/mower Sorrzi of Directors 'MANCHESTER Booby Loots BROMFIELD PEARL S. BUCK MRS. JAMES E. PUGHES HENRY R. Luct Iklm1c.4.7.Er MEAD CLARK H. MINOR JAMES Q. NEWTON RICHARBI. WALSH iiiisirory laird (tit firma& ak) AMMAN J. BARNOM ROBERT M. FIELD CitivErt LArnmottE Lys Ytnuic Gag= M. SrscLiiiie My dear Colonel Donovan: Forty Forty-ninth Street, New York City Tanuary 26, 1942 The Board of Directors of the East and West Association want you to be among the first to know of the founding of this organization, its purpose, and what we hope to accomplish through ite activities. The Bast and West Association, was plianned a long time ago by a small group of persona who are familiar with Far Eastern $391ktiriee. We felt that in our modern world it was increasingly neseSioiry to work for real understanding between the peoples of the jwitit and its west. f /VA We feel that this is now crucial because of the "F.,. Not tonly future peso* but victory itself depends upon underetandiatwtii?oVairoaprose color and race and geogrephy, and aims straight at ?thelheafSt and sands of people. -Stva 16C)44;t Th* enclosed ssemorandum tells of the plans of the org,a4zation,.and the channels we will use in developing its program =ore 'fully. We shall not duplicate the work of any other organization. Cur purpose is not relief; our interests are not nhumenitarian," but broadly herrn. We shall do no research; we an not to collect new inowledge, but to disseminate widely the knowledge we area home. We shall appreciate your inquiries and suggestions and we would like to said you from time to time further inform:IA-ion about our work as it dirrelops. p3B c? )e,4? -," . . t ?71 ? "q? 4 .?"). Sincerely yours. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 1 ?-? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 NEMORANDUM BY PEARL S. BUCK East and West today are one. War has swept the peoples of the world together and whether we are ready for this union or not, we have been forced to it by necessity. The union will continue, whether we rant it or not, mfter the war is over. Not the western peoples alone will make this war, nor will western peoples alone make the peace after the war. For the first time in human history the whole human race must shape the world. It is more essential today than ever, therefore, that the peoples of the East and West understand each other in all possible ways. We must know each other. Our faces, our ways of living, our feelings and thoughts ummt be familiar and comprehensible to each other. But such understanding can only be based upon knowledge and we have not that knowledge. Our allies, the Chinese, are still strange to us, and we are strange to them. Our present enemies, the Japanese, are still less known, and still more strange to us, and we to them. We do not know our own Oriental people, the Filipinos, nor the peoples of India or of Thailand, or of the Netherlands East Indies, nor do they know us. We do not even know very well New Zealand or Australia, those great western islands in the eastern seas, nor even Russia, a continent whose people is more east- ern than wustern. Nor do those know us any better. Outward circumstances have compelled us now to closeness, but inwardly we are still separate because of our ignorance of each other's peoples. Thar? has been some interchange between East and West in the upper ranges of culture, but in the spirit of the times ttis interchange nmat now be between peoples and peoples. For such interchange, there- fore, and for tho now understanding necessary today, the East and West - rafegegrAVIMeitier4114.GrIl 6. .4e - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Aummume ?? a ? 4 - 2 - Association, a non-profit corporation, has boon organized. Its purpose is to help ordinary people on one side Cf the world to know and under- stand ordinary people on the othor side, in terms which ordinery people can grasp. The East and West Association does not duplicate the work of any ousting group. It seeks to use and spread more widely, through varied moans comprehensible to the average person, tho results of the studies and activities of other organizations as wall as of informed individuals. The immeeiate moans, planned so far, of disseminating this human knowledge include: I. Radio programs, nabional, local and ovorseas. 2. The sponsoring of motion pictures, documentary and otherwiso. 3. An authentic illustratod monthly magazine. 4. Organizing in many placcs forums and discussion groups, and supplying study programs to these and other groups. 5. Maintaining an information service and reference library in New -fork. 6. Fostoring the translation of the wr4tings of East and West into their several languages. 7. A monthly news-letter for mentors. The Association will use any and all other possible mediums of exchango between the pooplos of the eastern and thc western world. January, 1942 '?'"-*".0?"?Itioxiktaffl4FAMINERIRSS44EXP?14441aipa~liagiletairatS~al?no:;?aksiolsre044.--- ? 91 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 4 t January -3, 1942 Dear Lir. Nelson,: To enable the Coordinator' of Infornkition to ne?aseat 6ata in visual fora to the President and to persons desimated by his, approval was given by him to the construct:::la ?ind eiip- plug of a building which will be ,3rsted by this arganizetiln. Actual consiruction of the buildinF is tc be =der ?Le di tion of the Public Buildings Administration. Three of th 's foreaost iadustrial designerg gr. R&mo Loewy, 1153, and Mr. "Walter :Corwin T; ne ague, have com-k ed pratimirxery sketchem for tho structure, snd are ntrw om interior arrangements and contents. The Office t rinato is,to be responsible for the ?urehase and idstallation of all equipment., We have now reached the 1pojit of ordering models for the equiptent to be tnStalled. Certain ciporimental lioesesory Wit** as some of thct eqapment is " and conStrUct' speeifioally Tor the building, it consists of m45! anima, el ?trios', ahotogrephic, 'items. In ardor to aeeure delivery on neeessaTy supplies, services, without delay, it is essential, es int lOrojitlIsting as low in the "A" series I would atm 'date your personal assistance in .? 5 Sic eroly, William J. Dow:van oas fteoutive Direotor ead Allooationa Board 0.1W144f5r*,...5 i.. " 4 - ? oim?-^ 1 I \. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 90. gor Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 rt DRAFT January 8, 1942 Dear Mr. Nelson: To enable the Coordinator of Information to present data in visual form to the President and persons designated by him, approval was given by him to the construction and equipping of a Wilding which will be operated by this or- ganization. Actual construction of the building is to be under the direction of the Public Buildings Administration. Three of the dountres foremost industrial designers, Mr. Raymond Loewy, Mr. Benry Dreyfuss, and Mr. Walter Dorwin Teague, have completed preliminary sketches for the structure, and are now working on interior arrangements and contents. The Office of the Coordinator is to be responsible fo-L. the pur- chase and installation of all equipment. We have now reached the point of ordering models for . ......."./... 1.....01600011WM,Ititip VI eirawalsrmagezam wixoppaufw ??,..............?????? ? "i" ;1:- ' '.: '.. ....-.'- i .?,3,'..:????????-',%';"' r'..r....n, "?'`,2 . ? ',":(,).?'',"',., t ? , ' ' ? : , .: :!.?-?..^. ': .:., .? !, ?e?'''`,-, . ? ?' .?-- ?, ?1 ? ? ' i ' . ci? ' --, -ri, ..1' .- ., 22--?r-, ' 7 -,- ' t ."; ' ,'`. 1 4i'r-'' kirpX '-iii'r'',..,1;',"'" - .. ,---,,,,44-; ... r": ??? ? `,. -; ,,y, . ?, ...4.:44.? ' ... ''..,,-...",, "'-,;1-7.00,-;;-.; ifLd-- .-..f,',:f?:".. .-''' ?-.S,I,F.-.-.',..-' --; .. -ffIkj.,,,1 .7 z . t? ----. '?-,,,, ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 mow. ?. - 2 - some of the equipment to be installed. Certain experi- mental work is necessary in addition, as some of the equipment is being designed and constructed specifically for the building. This equipment consists of mechanical, electrical, photographic, and related items. In order to secure delivery on necessary supplies, materials, and services, without delay, it is essential, as you know, to have a project rating as low in the "g series as possible. I would appreciate 31our personal assistance in this matter. 61 Sincerely yours, William J. Donovan Mr. Donald M. Nelson Executive Director Supply, Priorities, and Allocat'on3Board Washington, D. C. t, yr r\?? xr.)0' OrpagatigsSagegPiagagsusessusftsegssfesSISiestsSisusitosesrusia4sda t'S r_7;7rrIgr-" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 ? /11 I t. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100030001-0 lommummummummenomeimemmin - ,dfrAr // g :;.? _ DEC 8 19411 fiye deer Cassel, Donevisit I SIB attaching Ler yter information a copy of sr letter at this date to the Administrator of ths tielierel Work* Avow relative* to the Wilding tor lasir pressettatiat astivitits. Sineerely years, iskjeast ? 01601 P. 110;?& (Eign4d) HAROLD D. SMITH :itkireolgor. ? IN:Maw J., Donors* cieseilsoor icairdwootio ? -,q?-;"' ' Oga titirat'4,4c?44.1eyypsigneys,gryky. ..ltecAdo