Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 3, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 17, 2013
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
November 4, 1944
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9.pdf17.74 MB
Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? I /, -1;34`1.- -;;;"??:.? ? ? 4,4 ? i? ?. A - ' ? ? ? , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Although gsgwasiant fritifite is the source of this report it was perraissablo to reveal his name in P. P. Re:port /161 as this account has already been published. It was lisa, permittedthowevert that he should 'r.+.e connected With the Jesuit orii,r of tbich he is a Priest. The following comment is therefore secret: OMMEEL Fraisse who belongs to the Jesuit order, affirmed that Doilnicans and Xeenits were the first and most important in the under - (rood,* He ineisted,as welOie Guetet, (source of speeial black report aoro 01 on the revolution in the spirits, which has come to fall maturity ih.Ma%nis. There is no doubt that this tendency is rapidly becoming P a paitical force in Pr3nce. If the principles for post-war order are owttliniod elear4en...'dirach,,by,thei victorious Anglo-Saxon powers so as to Casrente, thepar/vanes of the aim &boys political divisions, then Ude tendency can be orderly progress. Otherwise it may bring a rapid wyncentration. ..auvik.ctiFfs_trafitIrliite50 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 p ?i;?11,1 irriNerwyepv.olesatgototr,,,,orib.Snd, ? ? ? ? jito_stgimadajoirt wa$ Chief of the Adenistrative Seritzes of the IlAgeng Franotiss de Press** (attached to the Governor G3rera1 at, Algiers) upto, 1941. Having disagreed with certain policiel, was than shifted to .another post. He is politically in s. medima position between Pebainiste and De Gaulliste. ! ? ? -.. .4.,- ,1.? .1 ... ', ? ? ? ''ff..'el'' , , ? ,...? i..? ' / i . ? 4-,Azirl ., . . ? 4. ,. . ,.. , ...,..-?,,,,,-411,? ,,,,..,t ?i, -4, . . . . ? f...1.1-V? ... f ? 1-. ' ? . . * . 11- '. 'Ts ;?1 ------ .., ,,. , , ? . ? ' . ;..-?t7.4641..' , 4,-? tr:tif . s: ..;?.;:jr.'.- ;?,.4..,-"1-3 ir__,.4. 1...;44'4,64.,-V, ?A. . . . . ? ? . . . . , -. ,..0.1 ? 4. , _ .7.4.,.., ._., .? .....; or, 41.,,,,.....,a ,:- ?Ili .. 4 ? I ? . .. ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 isember of the Congregation of the Child Jesus, living at the Ileasa Generalizias, 10 Via Bancompagni, Bone, is well kaolin under her pen name, Augusta L. Francis. informed Roman journalist, she was, up to the time of the war? corms- rola* for the ',Catholic Times" in London, and has contributed articles fro* ti to time to several American pt)blications. is an American by birth. , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 The some of the Pope' s reaction to criticies .the rreath Bishops is rissaliaviiist, Minister from Canada to the French Olovernment. Re le highly esteem as a Catholic, both in his own comity,' and abroad and was received in a private audience by the Pope soon after the liberation a Rome. The author was told about the interview when he delivered a mossuge from the Joeists in Canada reetrdinti the Genera s,..mn.The General apparently condemned the BLOW, for 3Aok ot 04.44gence and courage* -the the affirmation regatding ths possible resipa- , V." of French Bisho'ps imaslaitiggs, on* of the 1*.nding rrench Istealsetnals of Mortb ixtrian 004 sines 19t8t hie been Professor ConstitsilrpVt at?the Alttero University and more recently ; Assn of his 111104-* 001.i abott forty-five years of age, marriem, with esliirea children mid bas independent teens* lie decided for purely ideaItitie ratios., Christian anti pi9,triotic, to pp_rtieipate .1* the pOliticel struggle and run fo-: elootion in the new French 1004110ot. nobreft, pi kir that the eouree.of the affirmtioa teas me.de 40104eis flo Menthon, Corassissioner ;ustice. This informstion was Aut'hor Ane 1;t? Algiers. 'end vets apparently not taken Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 The source of the information regarding the appointsout and the Pope* reasons for soaking it is the Reverand Taste, O. P?, Settilirtary of the Biblical CoLesion. Ile is a close collaborator of Timatrand and has been, for twenty years, an itiMBt friend of sad author. Roumania. Usti saw Bishop Itt.iPin at a magnificent slipper *en in his ,havier f Roomit, His formation pegardixtg the Popes reason ? ?Cr' 1003211 the sL-Pit9A**aCttiutke to him from a reliable source whose ? Tist***10 Mot exam. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ., .., ,. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 .....,. . ? 4fP Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 !.. I , F.r I ? and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 . q? , ,74I79' _ ' ; ? ' P'4???? . I f ??* ? 1 ? I'. ? ? J-1 : ,?? - '11? ???? 4 4.1514'4 ?Z? ?1. ?? '11,1 ? ? ;44, ????? ' ' 4 ? ? ? ? ? ? . ?. I 1? ????,,t ? ? ? . ? , ? .1 ? 'I . ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? . ? .t' ? ' . . ???4 ? ? . ? ? ? ? ) ? . ? rz-k, t. ?%?-?? --------------- Hitler ? he ocinfided that the p..1Ans (exposed above) for a GOXIMAZ1 IDosisommealth, were worked out in detail and would have been submitted to the Allies as soon as Hitler was killed. Happily, the group was obi* to destroy the documents before Stauffenb erg and other memberg of the fiviap were :caught, toztured and ki.l.led. Von Braun seems to belong to the *MO group, but it is not known yet if von Weissacker does. The preparations for this series of talks have been very Azatito4eittefs, 1irt0iir of confidence at dardinal Viiseraads, ..? , -r. . I ? . 4 _ . 4* Bliwiiik- after leingait?Htiosia in 1325. ,' (Hie father, Prince Astimpliy, ;Oast diplomat, rsgetred a visa throuoh foreign diplomatic ? -4- lie -coati thus gradually cultivate friendship of vozt . . 1' !!?* --,--- ! ihmikotai lors vatian international Catholic Agency work#. , -.1 , -,Q- .4,e-,,, - ? ? ,.. ? . i .,,r 'f.; ?... .. .. is itoicitsday in ah-iihiCh . he had contact.. Von Braun showed g ., ., . .. ,.414 .c4 . -aria IA& -he mint04-zi,re contacts with Catholics and began ,,. ..?.? ..,-, ,:--,:p,.: 4 , ' ":', vg, 4 ,,- - z ?-, .2 '.. , ' . , ?)'' i: '14!:'.'1.C.:';4. ,, , -? ' -1'. ;'7 ;,; ' . .. , !:;r1R.IrlifiWag-' - .- ?+i -..7 ? 1 ?;Y ? r ",.'r - ; e 4 , . ?i eld400114 ? 11014; in Rome. Von Braun askedt miestimg for so to 000 this gentleman?* Obolensky In a,following talk (before the audience eith 01 hope you will enc3ceed in making an appoint- 00A-mami, ttatus and name of agency. Thus Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved_ For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 amimminiammma ANNA, 1,17" ? ' .; ? s? , ? 1 .1,.t, i: ' , , ? . ':. -. . 1 ? ; ''''.- ?. ..: . : 1 ? ? , ? . ??? ? , b t ? l'. . t'... i4? . - -- 1 1 ? l' '' 1.- ? , .arrraiirw ?Ist ?? d *amaranth has good ociataots who knew of my visits to the Vatican . . "blot bad beeu?very quiet before .4be audience with the Popo. (It was after the first slated article in "13. Qnotidienon hammer, so that ii possible that he all have guessed, try reading this article, tbat the. work was the sane ae the agency described in general terns by 'Oholow040 The appointetnt was made for Sunday, at twelve in, the 'toxfl. as there were no napleitees then. Arriving at Santo Ilarthe House '' the Itetirari 'We foreig4*Olomata iii'., the police refused to let 4 3., . .*; *:-..- ' .- 44.:-.- ? .. r . irt.... ftlhalpia/gr, who:illat_t #;11paciail paper wara;able to get through. ?-(t:141VIN4-i4n; 't to alk. for,:i....Cfspeoial ,permit iron the State Searetarkste !,:i., ;? ' ?..ttitak' 114,,,nenik-,? '''''ti ? intiont. in St. ,teterle and re vent tip 4$,- -_ -.;-.4,. ,.., ? ?,_. ., ?,,,, ! , _,1_, i _ ?,_ 4 .7?4 r ? :i? Vtl. U*ire _,.: .._ : *, ..? , . st, spot* vbrare we Gonad talk, *ay io? .. ., ,$, , ?? imattilikatiil, Itt:**Offiliciaing likur, could not be tnrited of the P? I. : ,r,, ?FL, ix-nratting,4144**.r. Area, teasel is very desi.rous ..)g har5.xtg more :;,:t r :. 's ; ? v., ' '?? ?4.4',' -',.-'; ... --:' .v.). i' '. t.tr_-. c, ;'' .- 51,??,, --,, --,:: tlignial '40i)t4rit'. ' TO ikiVe2 'him' -haps that I would find tine next Seek. i?,$, ?.--.:- ? , . 1.- ..,.., ? ,.., '1. -4(,'', ' ? tS..n, ? ' ''' ' '4'4- s 01,0*/1 kr 0 I Mil v0 g k WOO yesterday end told his of our talk. The come- r 3-.,.- : - ? .;._ .. . ,,,., . , . - . .?? ....- ..- ,. ...,... :ti ? . ' * .:- ;,t?'' ' ' '---.- 4 ., 4..:, , _?-,,,,,5_,, ' ' .;41C14.4.1111:1100,001 an, Ten Itraun is 4hitt I raise chary/ i ,k$,_,.- ?? .. ,i.f., I :Liso ti.Oraleind. all;loiliiiind their enewers, but that I an pre. . ,., ? !, ikl. -?? A'.:1, f''' '' . - , iiii:'istiorlitlit is. the oiipOilitr of the German peoples ,:f ::? , ,. ,.; , -`4?,'ft, . y -;-, ?li-,?;; : ,A,--- n`??, C I ;A ? t.. ..1-:?.0..:#t* 2410114111 C; 1:::00.1arillij 11.1144 theinpression that von ? ? .? ,,.. ...,,..-.-....,4 `-- ? -, ., , ?2 r; g ????? ' ..? :di- A ? '. ''' . 4.4' -r italt .iollaiarant Olt *atter from the. begirning . It is very ?Oratf:-?.11rait I is joilt a leader of CO. , . r r1X4,14 ...' .' ? - - I 4".. t ? ? . ? ', / . .r , ? . ? . ,, 4 , ; . ' ,. . '-? .. ' :fi Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? . M .-41:aigirr4jiagErfindi'iMigZ. '0, ? 7.4104. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ??????? I ?01 ZEM SECRET talks confirm that even in the fag. of catastrophiss, the erman junkeT\Ass has not acquired the necessary attitude to be G a peaceful element. The first conditions: to admit faults and give up exaggerated prhave not been fulfilled. ear that pen-Germanism, the claim that It is also c biological sitallaritAse not abandoned. The LAM to stir up new wars. Evf threats of what will hap. et make the basis of a state, is also nalistic aims, if not uprooted, are cure plans. It_ becomes .0414 in, this period of defeat, there are still if Vie Allies do not fulfill German-made Lilies are fimm4 determin, ports, so that ancient, non *Mon emu be revived. As feel the international authc pa ofitte**al Les 4or Germany itt Utica that there is no Gerinal imidividpias ro!st ;ewured t that the Germans must feel that'the to divide Germany, as a nation, into tionalistic and nom-militaristie tra- roans are admittedly servile, they must ity is a de7?ided master and that neither 4If can ever be re-established. On con- downt4 condittons and ti b(,..z!Ntaiso. They mat lar, ho 'Niter a *prong 4erman Iba t itesired ,1* ? ? e, 4 4';; ' ? - ?`11;i:\ ?"' mbloicr in the center of Europe, Gernen t the Allies will favor for them also opportunity to ,..taia personal ever, that t'ae: vin never find trux er. It must be admItted th-u brutal means Hitler and tne; ,dpo miO4. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? ??.., ?"7-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 I. ? r.7 ? use, but it cannot be overlooked that thoy in their desire fur nationalistic aim, an lu au, an ersatz for happiness. It is the Gomm streesth whid4 ineiritsbily brings aggression ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Solaro* of.matikrial fUrsiiitil, in this report is kiagjAmirjamabatit Werion editor of th*- prima service Vides* rhich beat/ago to tlua Congregatton. of shopaganda,iridei!la He has lived in Rome sire* 195t and is OM of the persons o, up. until the sod of 1942, aads up to bklt-et.odostst -trtps ,a year to visit Bishops end bring their isoosages to lkootoi. A feLl report arl the activities of MOnsignor Shonhofer accost. Poldipit our special black report #10:, Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Fatter Marsil of the Congregation of African Missions of Cardinal Lavergerie (Peres Blanes), is the only Father left at the Residence for apostolate in the Casbah, Arab slum in Algiers. The four other rittir,rs are in ;tha.army. Matron:0*U the letnguage of the Arabs and has so vire . the confidence by ,iiedical asitatance and the help of roll- WO. Sisters, that he cenAntior t Arab homes, and even the Moshe?. , 4.4 ? ? Itts troops of scouts are now pki,nlittr because the Muesulaen, who are 141107 'oonithekAossnat, try to ponvert the boys to Catholicism. 4 "rf6t4,.. gs gimes lama and Fraogial education with excellent resulte. se. ? 3/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 SOURCES OPSPEXI.A.A.MRAP011 # 11 a) Mainly clerical persons not only Monsignori, but Parish Priests and Church Assistants. The Superior of the Irish Community of Illemente (Fr. Dowdall) gave precise detatas about the conmunists in the vicinity of his church. He told of fervent Catholics who refused to sign tho meMberalip card and who came to report. about the threats of communistic propaganda. b) Along the various informants was M.W. who receives clerical students from all over liberated Italy and interrogates them about conditions in their respectift cities. M. W. spoke of specific eases in Siena and Cosenza. e-d) Stories were tolkby .Parish Priests in Naples and iithI and also byarious lay collaborators. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Pc' r-yrpo 4 Th3 source of this information is 1122101gratijapjaer, , German editor of the mission press service "FIC.es", which br-lougs 4.40 the congreption of "Propaganda. Fidel". After three telits with lisgr. Shonhoffer, it is now possible to sketch the German situation. Father Shorthoffert in Raze si.nce1952, is cane of the Agents who, up to the end of 1942, went to Germany up to a half-a-dozen tives a. year, visited bishops and brought thetr -aes..i.ages to Rome. He has been arrested by the Gestapo once, but nothing, vas ratnd on lats. Re is one of the most sincerely anti-Nazi C-ermitns one, CBT1 find. tie says that formerly (up to 1936 and 1937) a itfiLority of German bishops wers, inclined to take 'Nazi rale meekly so a .., to try' to save some remnants of liberty'. Cardinal Bertram is the rLost representative of the-se.' (Tor details see ,regular reports #52, August 20, 194.2, #67A Oztob.er 29, 1942 and tr's Decerber 14, 14342). Only a small liaimb'er fol.1.0Wed the calsborkt_pnist Bishol) von Bernina of Osnabrouck, wtio,liae. much'eritioized ty lite collegu.es fa:: his political conts (ftectlitent eitaire at Goerings).:and membership in the Prussian States' 'esitIneil., The leaders ix otopOsition to Nazism are von Preysing (tier1Pr)t ArahbishoPe of Vreiburg, liairtz? Eichsta6t, Wurzburg. Bishop Wort.01140 has been-wery,:.coure:,geous but has recent7q seemed to be bacirAng out* , Vogr. thoOoffer attiibutes this to pia house-arrest isteceih hindiced him greatly. Cardinal itaulhaber is generally COAT8- itfrit4f ilIt 1.14,440.4*-.10rches. but sometimes rather feeble in nis Chapter swiatinglik. 1400.6hLisheffer teld stories hoe, on several o?ceasionst he refuted ttipkta-ki,irtrong pre.otical measures ave.inst Na7I1- - Arristirterinee it Chur_Chltottters and next day everybody wae, ourprised ' 'at-his strongly worded discouree. The German:bishops once had a meesanger ask the Pope (tiuS nt) why he did net speak more openly against Nazism. The AinOierieds *it is up to you to do this for you knor haw far Pope kotA' tlin ti are Ole responsibility and consequences, while the Pape ? .:400-., Vej:ct always fear that his words will bring upon German Cato- .,,,.. '-eilio:s irefferingS which they are perhaps not able to bear." . ,.. irsilear , Th .e Pc). ii extremely 'tell informed on the situation f...n :sals /stria. SlIonboffer. 'Not only are there several channels it '0a$,!i001,1-i ArtfOrli&ACin but base Frotestants succeed in giving him 1401**Abitt.;"'NO is prude4,in haSing no personal talks ifith Fos, or-to4;forigutol Int4 qverything is passed an to him. His opposition stOthetl$W0s* is as decided as his o-fection for the GPrMan 9eople. lather 6honboffer told him a story of how Hitler, haviyq, recatled , . . s. ecillikorstionist Catholic auxiliery bishop, had reriotrked to Ftn b.46. eitters - liwe ow use th,ts man"? The convent came fro:n 6.3. to a GOstape guard who told a priest, who told Fidler S. honhof!'er) . The Pope sid* one comment:far what?" The tone was of trofound coutooft. escRET, ba) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Tho German clergy uas a system of information on Nazi crimes which may prove very useful after the var. Msgr. Neuhausheler, head of the Cathedral Chapter, had an elaborate card system with records of tlw main Nazi injustices. His arrest wax due to the discover( of this, as also the arrest of the head of the B-trlin Cha;ter. It is very likely that copies of these cards will have been kept in a safe place. . !other Shonhofferconfirms that Cardinal Innitzer re- -eel/14 severe reladke_froOhe,Pope after his action of collibora- tionisit'ead that he As aot ver( reserved ahd e4en sometimes sharp in, opposition* Father Shonhaffer a Bavarian. Hie! family lives in St#,:crenberg, near ifiunghAt.0 ; -SECRET ? 44. v 4?10?1111111111i j Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SEPVICFS INTEROFFICE MEMO TCh FROM' SuasEa. Lt. 2. Z. Putzell Ferdinand L. Mayer Attached report With reference to paragraph one of the attached msmorandum to General Donovan fro Mi. Hughes, on further eansIderation and discussion between the New York office and myself it has boon thought wiser not to do any regular dissem- ination of special black report No. 7. Copies, thereftre? will not be forwarded to the Reporting Board. "4- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES SEC TARIA620 FIFTH AVENUE F?F NEW YORK. N. Y. 4 1410/ 1944 NOV 6 AM 10 22 SE We spoke, in Washington, about the Black memorandum on which the General had written an endlrsement. I am return ing the original herewith for your confidential records. I enclose. likewise, a formal memorandum dealing, actually, with the same subject, addressed to the General, and destined for Special Funds after he has endorsed In case the General asks, you may my that we are in touch with Rodrigo, and both Wilson and this office will explain to him all the details, according to the General's Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: Cl IP 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 We i bolbea 11 c!' 4? p (now called Black) about ? left here abo August 1st :1 and 14i140 in Lisbon ten days later, word having been sent in adv-aelp to gus, who came over to Lisbon to meet him. Defeo already had a representative there, but he has now engaged a new man who has begun to send in reports. We are not prepared to evaluate this service but would draw attention to one report received here late in September and forwarded to Belie under date of September 28 as "P. P. Report" No. 6. The eubstance of the report was that the Portuguese Government wen prepe,ring an expeditionary corps to be sent to Timor to occupy the Portuguese zone when the Japs abandoned it. He added that the Portuguese Government would avoid a declaration of war on account of their inability to defend Macao. The expeditionary oorpe would establish headquarters in Mozambique. Recent re- ports from Lisbon seem now to attest the accuracy of the fore- goisg. Defeo sent us, else from Lisbon, a report of an inter- view with Dino Grandi and his conclusions on Salazar and con- on the present situation in Portugal. Defeo arrived in Algiers at the end of August, from which point he sent us several memoranda dealing with the Catholic representation in the French Provisional Government there and probable attitude that mould be taken toward certain ethos' French Collaborationist Bishops. He established a working arrangement with two or three of his friends there who eouId deliver certain material to Matthews through a cut-aut. On, Beptember 5th, he arrived in Naples and was taken on to Rose, where he met Ricca and Glavin. He established idagiar with his Dominican colleagues in Rome. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ??? I , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? c,.-...mtlgfifftintRVWESMOttosetS-'14. iltalitEMSOMMit*Mtmt NelwmotstoPreaaroo - - t -4 ? r :44* ?74 -ta4V e 2 SECRET Previous to his arrival, Hugh Wilson had spoken with Glavin and Rodrigo to impress on them the importance of this opportunity and to ask for their cooperation in dealings with Black. He has been in Rome continaouely since that date and has sent in thirty or more reports, some of which have not, as yet, been received. Those which are at hand vary in interest and importance, and those which seem to be outstanding are being processed as rapidly as possible, to be forwarded to the General for his personal use. Cthers dealing with the Intricacies of Italian politics will be routed through Mayer to Brerman for further dissemination. Black is anxious to proceed to Paris, Switzerland and Brussels to re-establish, in Brussels, his old central office. howeve?, feel that he should be persuaded to remain in Rome for a further period, primarily to collect additional information and also to make sure his permanent group will function satis- factorily. He has engaged two helpers and a sum of $1800 has been authorised to pay them agreed amounts for one year; they will work under the general supervision of the head of the Angelicum. We feel, also, that it is Lost important to bring him into contact withlturns who knows him well and is desirous of certain collaboration with Black. Le his original plan, Black wished to return to New York about tlio middle of January. It seems to us a mistakb, since be is more valuable it Europe and also because passage home is difficult and it would be even more complicated to arrange a second visit to the Continent for him. On the other hand, we have no authorization of funds for expenses after January. It seems to us that he can reach certain personages otherwise difficult to approach, and that he is energetic in obtaining information and thoughtful in his comment. He should be of much value in respect to the problem of Germany and Cath- olic influences there. A benevolent outsider supplied him with 45000. for this trip; ond to set up small offices at Lisbon and. Boise. The Lisbon anti loge ogponditurea hay:. however, been taken over by our 'mitts thole. Mros, nimeelf, requi:es about 4500. a month for travel, liv- b4, telegram, etc. Of course, in the meantime, it has been easly logical to continuo our basil, payments to the C. I. P. net- wotk, but I have oonstentliy warned them that these might be termi- aided at witless. I figure that if we had some kind of an annual budget to rely on, we could continue a regular payment here in New Y01144 apowst%t lower thin our present one, and supply the necessary amoniatetoDeffeql, oaktypg un* whol9 operation some such total es 425000. It 40korows.??84.???=are?litio1amoitovotimp....? '_ , ? . ,;?. F. R. D. . 6.4121412..}, 41,4FJ ?tt^k,,,? oksMt4'. , - - ,t3.? LIF 2 %rt.' r ?:, 11. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Ronn1nnnannn1 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? ? r. John C. Lughes Executive Office Your memorandum of 4 lovesber G,ft)neral Donovan approves disseMination of thAl. special BlaA reports to 110 as outlined in your meacrandum to me of 4 401/1011be1. _ . ' ? 4-, ? ? E. J. Putzell Jr. Lieutenant (4.g.), USNR ASSiStallt Executive ?Meer - Declassified and Aooroved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R0-00100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES aQ FIFTH AVENUE Cr/CF Ai A I NEW YORK 20, N.Y. Wt * reform.s to the Brutal Sleek reports, shish ars delivered to you to be headed to amoral Donovan, Seib's*** sad I feel that these would be of very groat in- terest to Sallee at this partioular time. As you probebly kaew, Dulles* etas here, expressed great ilaterest in sat- Ws with laid' these reports deal and asked us to keep hiss supplied with, notorial relating to sUbjeets of this sort* $ine*, hoover, those 'postal Sleek reports are bow lag oast to Oesersl Doeevaa for disseuinatioa, we hesitate hero to rests espies to OlIes, eltAmort his impress per - *1114411i? 1PerbilIM be has already thought of doiag this. If sato and if be approves, we osa arrange to have dupli- Otos of these reports out, by poach. to Dulles, to be wpm' demlyilybas6 la ease this is dome, it would be our totmetime to cued this without amities of the scare*, as Wise Imam nadir weaselly ead it 'mold be initfloisat for Nix to loess that they eteie fres his. an you please skim& this with General Disavow', eas ihes let se be his wishes in the natter? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP1 _Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK, N. Y. Ass I understand it, General Donovan had the intention of showing certain of the "Special black reports" to a few people in the high echelon; It would be natural for them to ask ques- tions as to the reliability of our informant. I, therefore, inclose a brief Biography which could be the answer to that question* Thin description of this informant explains, I hope, how it is that be can reach sources in definitely authoriative positions. If it is found desirable to name his original sources in writing, / hope it may be found possible to place such names on smalls separate sheet, with a request that it be destroyed. TO BE ACCESSIONED d For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? = rt r 4 X L. ? a j '1444 r-tv-- ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 m ? ? xtte m e ? e 'itsiziPtiostaf?mov?v steexwent tollerm's 4 .? 1/6 ??I .1^4,? -AP ' X????45' ? co% Rev. Felix A. korlion is a Belgian national and a piesber of the Dominican order. Re is fluent in half a dozen languages, an easy writar and speaker, and abounding in vitality. His work as a teacher in Bei.- gills expanded rapidly with the founding of WC. I. P. " * in Breda-Bruseels in 1957. Within two years this information service was servicing 1,500 papers througAout 50 countries. The C. I. P. is a foimdation dedicated to the development of the Pro Deo movement for the penetration of reli- gious ideas into public opinion. "We Catholics all know that there are men of good will who are not members of the Catholic Church. It is the task of reaching these others that the Center of Information Pro Deo is founded*. With the invasion of1Belgium 1211bl 1940, Father Morlion, with part of the staff, moved to Poitiers and thence to Lisbon. (His associate, Dr. Raabe% was captured and died in an S. S. prison in Berlin.) In Lisbon in July, a new 'network was set up and in Septeiber 1941, in New York. The new service first caught the attention of leading Catholics, but it own ire, commendation from many non-Catholics, leaders of national re- news. BIshopir and archbishops and colleges have subscribed. Its special news items and backgrourid information have been utilized by the metro- polite:a press and by agencies cf the Government. It now reaches out to Canada ( in Trench), to W , and Urugmy ( in Spanish) and in Curacao pertly in "English and partly in Dutch. father Morlion is now occupied with reestablishing the C. I. P. OlivarS in itelit Trance, and Belgium. His work of reconstruction, while primarily for religious purposes, carries also the message of practical NOT TO BE ACCESSIONED ----t-??77e 41, r ? ? ? ? ?Z:-; 7. ?r''fIrge-?6 r"""?-* ' "-T? ' ? _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001 1-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 democracy as he has seen it operating in the United States. His purposes given him ready access to statesmen and leaders of the Church. ' Declassified andA ro ed For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Following notes are the conclusions of the examinations made by Father Delos, 0. P., during his work of the last six months. They were gathered during three confidential talks which were very complete because of the close personal relations between this writer and Father Delo. Ha is one of the most famous French writers on international affairs, was also one of the main speakers at the "Semaines socialesw in France, highlights of French Catholic political and social life before the war. He has been, for may years, professor of international affairs at the University of Lille, and participated in most of the international Catholic conferences in Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Austria, England, etc. Having left France shortly after the capitula- tion, he became professor at the School of Social and Political Scien- ces, now faculty of the University Laval, Quebec. In a telegram, Francis de Menthon, Commissioner of Justice (and personal friend of Delos), asked him to accept a mission to help in the study of met war problems. After two or three months, in Algiers, he was appointed 'ecclesiastical consultor' at the French delegation in Rome. He had a private audience with the Pope who estimates him greatly. His conclusions are those of a specially s:ble theologian, with balanced practical judgment and a keen political sense. His opinion carries weight at the Vatican, and also in the circles of the French government. In the attached memorandum, Father Delos is called S. t' - t ttc-atatit?-?,.: . t ,e. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xoonni Pnnni tIrmArvin 4 rs Declassified and Approved For Release rg Herewith the most recent Keck reports of an especiolly interesting caracter. We would appreei;;%e your letting us know wbat distri .tion you make in regard to these reports. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/ P13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 hh: .,to correspond with number in To column. Y4-iteet under **oh (tenement. ,Aleed To column. 660k murk insufficient, before further enould=be indicated in Comments P11440 to Registry. itt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 L Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 The source of this report and the author of the Appendices is Moaiqor loots (Amoral of the "Premonstratensos" (lorbertine Order). (See Special Report lo. 63). It is now clear that Monsignor !loots is one of the best informed poisons about the Vatican policies. He told this writer haw he has several good friends, both in the section of Monsignor Mo4tini1 and of Monsieor Tardimi (Soorstaries of State), who are two of the most trusted collaborators and who tell him what is going on. As head of an important,/ Order, of a study-house of religion, nembor of the Superior Counoil of the Pontifical Association of $t. Peter for the indiginous Clergy (be represents Belgium) and Consultor of the Congregation of Religious, be is very often in oontaot with high Vatican Confirning sources of this report are Father Shonhcfer and Father &abr. 6007., as well as on 'easel. As shown in the final paragraph of this report (first section), von, Iassol does not trust von Braun. As reported in Special Report No. 14, von XI/mei had stated that von Braun would be present when this writor net bin. Von Braun was not present; perhaps it was not a mistake on the part of von Iessel but because he wanted it SO. Tho *Sortain person" named by this writer as the Catholio emissary Imo Males,. This is the person also referred to as the "other contacts" who, with, the eniosorios of the General Staff told Monc...12...sj_ioots that von Brcun WS* not trustworthy. The use* of the Protestant emissary Vie Danova (name may art be ~root as writer was not oertain it was heard correctly and did not wish to inetet). Tether Loibor is the person who talked with the Protestant emissary. -t ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA RDP13X00001R .00 onunn Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 '...7,t0W-t'64.471Art _4 Fraa a particularly well.informed source the following was learned about the relations between the Vatican and Russia: The source was nervous about the case of the Flynn mission reported in the papers and said this harmed Roosevelt, wham he considcred to be too much of a politioian giving travel facilities to those who get Ma votes. He added that he thought the favorable attitude of Roosevelt towards the Vatican was mostly political: to have the Catholic votes. He said Flynn was not a statesman, but a politician, and probably a doubtful ens. (This is reported only so that the report may be tamplet? and objective: it is the persoztal opinion of the source of this report, but probably re- flects re-actions of sass* groups An Vatican circles, probably not leading The *cure* said that, according to his latest information (last week) mese of the most important' Foople at the Vatican are in favor of establishing some relations with Russia, as this is the second power of the world and mu no longer be ignored. Re was told by this writer that an important Cardinal bad told hist that one of the persons referred to as fay- orabte. to Russia, is opposed to treating with Russia. This information dat tram seven 1 weeks ago and the source said that there was no doubt but that hts must have cheagard his mind. He says that these persons are trying hard theta trim that beginning, the Pope has been very personal in the direction anci Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13Xnnnnia.? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 of Vatican policy and that it is very rare he listens to advice. The source confirms what has been r sported by this writer several tines that the daily influences on the Pope are from the re.actionaries and those who are not considered particularly intelligent. The source says the Pope is a hard worker, a Holy am, but doubts if he is really very intelligent. Be says next Vatican people feared his election to the Papacy and that he is not popular. He says the Pop. is more probably the type of *first of the class* who is diligent, with minute care for details, but he thinks not flexible nor with 'broad views. It is probably the points regarding Russia reported in Special Report No. 65 were part of an effort of one of the Pope's closest associates to bring the Pope to consider treating with Russia, but which was Tho source said that the current view is the Vatican was that Voleri would be made State Secretary: Monsignor Valeri has the sow oharacter as the Pope and will have no opinions of his own, executing with ninate care, ar the Pope does, the different pre-established natters. Mas*dgeor 'Wert was completely formed by the Pope when he was State Beare- taxis, mad was one of kis closest helpers. When the news first was received that do Gaulle would not accept Monsignor Valeri as Nunoio, the Pope was very espy. No told the soure? *this is a personal affront to me". The source ewe that not, however, relations with France are very good. De Gaulle has as it ilea, Idisit he has no grudge against Monsigaorleri, and knows he Otedi correctly, but he could not make an exception for the Nuncio when all MN." diplomats aoereditiod to Viohy, had to leave. Monsignor Ronoallimust be slain a very good impression. lawn there was a New Tsar's reoeption, the Aiihairsador was standing alone as Diplomats were not used to considering at-inccifund and Approved For Release 09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 a Communist as a Diplomat. Monsignor Roncalli went straight to him to greet him in a friendly manner. It seems the Russian Ambassador shaved he was pleased with this, and the episode is making the raunds in Vatican circles. The source says that if Monsignor Valeri is made Secretary of State, this will not be considered an offense by the French Government. COMMENT: In this information from the source, this writer has stressed not what is his personal opinion, but what this writer knows is confirmed by many other "echoes". It must be remarked that the rather formal, legal way of considering things (not very open for new situations) ix counter. balanced in the Pope by his innate prudence. As in the case of de Gaulle, mon-clerical persons who have unflinching attitudes, end by seeing their action accepted, when the Pope realistically sees he cannot stop it. It is probable the Pope will be willing to discuss matters with Russia when he realistically sees it is imprudent to carry on a purely negative attitude. S. OOMMENTs Tb. adjective "intelligent" seams to be used almost exclusively to mean "having political awareness". * * * * * * * * * * Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP1 3X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 The attached documents (Appendix 1 and 2) are copies of reports made at the request of French Intelligence which works in Rome through the Embassy (the author says that other intekligence services also work through Embassies), Copies have also been given to the Vatican (Secre- tariat of State). The au.hor saw the notes written by it in the margin which were, according to him, notes of approval, The Pope also sees these notes, and they are then kept in the archives of the Secretariat of State. The author of these documents, who holds many offices and is very close to the Vatican, (during the ear when Rome was Fascist dominated, and also under the German occupation), VAS in regular contact with Allied Intelligens, and gave thcm many documents regarding political affairs, He *lee anaggled documents through to Spain and Portugal for Allied statesmen. Es gemers,..4 gave a copy to the Seoretariat of State (they knew and approved his being in contact with Allied intelligence), The first paragraph of Appendix I ox)resses the personal opinion of the author, which he says is accepted at the Vatican. The rest is a summary of the douses* made by the anti4it1er organisation of the General Stat r in 10412* The author says this organisation started an a counter-espionage group of U. Gemeral Staffs they did not trust the information given them by the Jasi esplemage groups and made their awn organisations, sucoeeding also in spying MU. Yowl Gestapo. Es confirms that this group consisted of a close collabo- - Ar,nrmipri For Release 2013/09/ . CIA- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ration between German Catholics and Protestants, among which the predominant The author of the attached documents says the heed of the counter-espionage was A. Canaria, and he does not know if it is the same group for which General Beck was responsible. Es did not give the names of persons with whom he talked, but when this writer pronounced the IMMO of a certain person as the Catholic emissary* tile impression received was that this was one of the men the source had seen, Re then asked if this writer knew the Protestant emissary who, is stated, came on official mission to Rome but never saw the Pope, although the Priest to whom they talked reported all talks to the Pope. Regarding Appendix II, the author insisted that the Pope is not favorable to dismemberment of Germany, and certainly not to the creation of *kin*lend State, Re says the Vatican is convinced that. German unity is so strong that breaking up the country will create grave troubles. Appendices III and TV were made in the beginning of March, 1945 (this writer 4441 not stress the question of whom they were made for; the im- pressien? however, was that they also were for the same French personality). The CU re. ways that the Pope is very active in this German question (he stresses that this Pepe is, mainly, busy with political questions and confirms that he dees the work aeot the eretatesi Secretary himself, and decided alone very often against the advice of the State Secretariat). The source says that he is adenelet, en keeping Gersuusy as a unit, as it is the only hope of securing Europe legthism" liolehroist domination. He says that the cession of Eastern Prussia, the wart/her, sad parts of SiThsia to New Poland, however, is not opposed by the fejleto The soareisf says that, up to two years ego, there was a current in the iretioao favoring the eenetitmtillos of a Catholic State, comprising Austria. and 411, .0101111111111111k Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA RDP13X00001R000100n7tnnni Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 1117abria. He says, however, this is no longer current and that, in general* the leaders (including the Pope) do not favor the idea of & Confessional State beaus* then the errors of this State are attributed to the Church. The scnroe says that pitmBrUn is a very dangerous Nazi-party van and that this had been told to hi* by the Germans themselves* (This writer inferred that it was the emissaries of the General Staff and other contacts sito told him this). The same people must have told him that von 'Kassel is a trust-worthy muni. Although officially von Braun and von teasel s.re in good re- lalamet?" von teasel does not trust von Braun. Declassified and Approved For Re Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 In imposing the peace, it should certainly be strong but, at the sans tine, just and tolerable for the vanquished, and not, as after Versailles, the immediate motive for another war. Let us then put amide all sentiments Of lOrimigiranos ( I do not say of the proper punishment of the guilty), and of all exaggeratod nationalism. Let us keep in mind that the Germans constitute a people of approximately 70 millions, limited, industrious, disciplined tc., excess, hails% the saes language, an identical culture and development, a factor with vizi& it is absolutely necessary to reckon in Europe as much for the well-being at the interested countries themselves as for that of the Germans. It is not possible to suppress this people, nor to discount them, nor to persuade them to give up the desire of repining the upper hand after an indeterminate lapse of time, perhaps brief, and to re-unite in the event that the territory is divided up In the hope, alsole'sly vain, that this will make it easier to dominate the easiquerodt In this, one should be realistic, not idealistic. It would ohain the Germans, not suffocate thee. It would raise up again in Germany, the warped methods of education, the ideas f superiority soeb to those of Segel and liestohe, its too centralized, organised, and its Milteristis spirita It is sufficient to consider those points to persuade tbet the results ounnot be obtained by force, and even less by force aloask. I put aside, at this nowento the necessary suppression of their twit:s- triae and areassente, to speak of that which will make a, true work of interior Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/ 7 : IA-RD 0 01Rnnni nnn Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 reform and re-education. In truth, that work is not easy but possible, and in this respect, it is well to give, as an example, one of the numerous interior refcerms which the Holy See constantly makes in religious and eohleeiastical institutions. In these oases a representation of/Visitors or Inspectors are sent to discover the trouble and the reasons and then to dictate what measures are to be taken, the changes to be made under the higher supervision of the Inspector, the measures and this is of primary importance - to be successful, mil* be executed, not by outside elements, but by interior forces, the better or the lees bad who are well-disposed and capable of carrying out this lork. This being granted, an official plan made three years ago by a Grum officer who is entirely intelligent, wise and prudent, and attached to the GOMA General Staff. This plan makes known the intentions of large sections of the German population all opposed to the Nests and made up of Protestants and of Cetholies. In this connection it is helpful to reutexk that the collabora- ties between Protestants and Catholics in Germany has been truly admirable and lwetherly in the struggle against Nazism, especially during the entire war. Here Von is the projects Everything whisk Germany has conquered by her aggression, all that is net Germany, should be taken tram her, and arrangement for oxchsuige of ilhe miniertty grotps in the mixed population should be made. fesismy should be taken from under the influenoe of Berlin, of Preietemiam mat of militarism, by a federated organisation of "Lander", or difforest Somas territories autonomous or miserly so, like the Urited States et jimertese Pruett& should be divided into 5, 4, or 5 *Lander", with Berlin ieeleitot and replaced by a new federal capital in the center of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010004nnni_a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Germany, like Washington in the Utited nate.. Then a Federal Charter like that of the United States with the same guarantees, and a Federal Court (to insure against) unjust measures or eventual law of oppression or injustice of police force is not made up of non-commissioned officers as happened after the lest erarik for these under officers form the unyielding frame-work of the Gera= The federated States should have a proper constitution, a parli- most, representative at the capital and in the federal parliment; they could be mobiles, monarchies or principalities, but the re-making of a German Empire &toad be forbidden. Complete elimination of all members of the Gestapo and of the 1611.04 if necessary by executing them, or by deportation. It should be stated bare that, for two year* now, members have been enlisted from the military re.. orate, some voluntarily, others against their will, in the 8.8, Moreover, theft are two 8. 8. Divisional one constitutes the army police, the other is I. will make, they say, the reform; the Allies will be successful tat-asking it asly if they do not allow it to be imposed by an outsider. /bete is no doubt that the project contains much of advantage; it is slew* lb* pay me possible for arriving at the desired end. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X 7,t'? .z? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 C SECRET SPECIAL REPORT NO 81 REPORT MADE ?OR FRENCH DTELLIGENCE REGARDING POSTWAR TREATMENT OF GRANT IN ROME 1942 Tory justly, in France and even in England, it is said that the A:Imre frostier :should be the Rhine. The idea is, without doubt, excellent, but where would you send the truly German populations of the Saar, the Palatinate, and the Rhinolane One can say that they are anti-Prussian, for the most part, but they are sincere Germans. An annexation to another country would them, so it seems, be a tremendous error* Let us keep in mind the pas-cl What moult. be the result if they united in an autonomous territory - a State feder- stet with Trance, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg? Would it organise and gu;ml that terrtitory during the three long years without barring a return to the ot tiermanit Mass deportation of the populations would be unhappy, unjust, Di the event of annexation, in every oases the errors made by Italy Tool and thee* made by other nations should be avoided: in no way suAda O. culture., the language,, the religion, or the customs of the people Lorglikile Jetta. 1019 the disposition of the population for the most part tuts against the French because of imprudence committed in the points * * * * * * * * *5* Ilk Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 A The opinion of the Holy See is, without doubt, that Germany, from the torritoilal viewpoint, should retain what she ha& before the war, understanding by this taint this does not include conquests or results of the Anschluss *brought about by Hitler. Thus, not separation of the Rhineland nor a, new terri- torial organisation of Southern Germany nor Austria re-united to Germanle but en Avistria restored to independence with the chance of living; a federated system in Germany only. The talk of General de Gaulle does not seen to have I ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R00010 00 -9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ' ? The personal position of lionh...=tear...i jt aa remains what is formerly was. A former intimate collaborator of the Holy Father in Germany, he has con- tinued, to be a personal friend of the Pope who sees him very often and for what he is am authoritative voice. He oertain17 has a great influence. From the point of view of the reconstruction of Germany, he shares the Vatican ideas previously exposed. As for Austria, he pretends that she can either re-unite herself with Germany, or remain separated according to her own will. He is of the opinions 1) That Catholios should abstain from the negotiations for the peace. 2) That, at the end of the war, Catholics will find themselves re- not grasped as they vere before Hitler, s regime. 1tonsijnor_ Xmas has/had, up to now, Oemsmniastica with the Gerson Ambassador to the Vatican, avoiding, moreover, fin ssisk as possible* relations with the other Germans (reoently he has entered late a little content with the Ambassador). Ambassador von Weizsacker, a man ast the tenser Gerson regime* is highly esteemed at the Vatican. His counsellor, 10111,10104, has never been a member of the.lasi party ft cm which he has separated Smasilt dearly; be is also well esteemed. The Secretary, Baron Brim is s party, sad does not merit confidence; he has been in Rome since 11145 eat is known to have gained the good graces of the Vatican epis- Simms the Noir lather was Nuncio at Munich, he has maintained as his Declassified and Ap?roved For Release 2013/09/17: ClA-RDP13OOQO1Rinnn rt"'"??? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? personal secretary and collaborator, Father Imiber, German Jesuit, most heedot by the Holy Father; besides him there are also one or two German Jisuitiii. Szvertbeless, the Holy Father has such fixed opinions on the subject of Gr.. many that their influence on him will diminish only with difficulty; this is in conformity with the aharacter of the Holy Father. It is clear that the Holy lather loves Germany, where he worked for twelve years and where, in his omm, words, he met an excellent Catholic population. But it would be false to say that he loves Germany above everything or that he could love it more than Preacoe The Holy Father is very Latin. j. ? 127-11R- 1.) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OSS Fero Ntfl 't;JI ', ? , t , , , _ ,i '.,.,?: , ,,, ' ,,:,. 1., ! i S..: :$441, b, , . Y0.1: -- ' ? 1..L..............., , .Z. . ?;:1:4.,:z.:?;,,4, . Afteitiboa .are the...Blew-lc Secie$ 44,,,,:,,,,,,,...,4, i,fr ,xv,;P: ?, Y ? , .??,,,, s,, ,. 4 . 4 .. ioh , ereUsoribea on the, . , -,,,,.?.? ....,?,-...- ?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 .V.1., " fiA?r4 W..% ...tt?' ? 0:: . A 1 IV:4 ,c.., Malor General William J. Donovan Terdinand L. Mayer Attached special Black report O. 14 The attached. special Black report No. 14 Was received this 'morning from the New or Office. It bas 'been so edited that tb.e in.dividual through ilif011latiOrt Caine Will Ilot be revealed. Tor your versonal information Blackts 40taiptiou bis source is conta.inedtn tb.e Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 " Declassified and Approved For Re Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 of Ti bad_ b... *lied, by a concentration, camp guard, to model _ is eathiMiral- la lamas -diMtg? he had, thought this a wild exaggeration. iiiiiiiiig ,silipeked the case" he found it to be correct. A 1.0400 likerWiew with tie illernsignor disclosed how, in noir-4metancent. the .reitsoms for *the imprisonment and torture of 00***;:k0444 ,priesto "ri--4110k /UAW and far-fetched. rather 1 - '--:( - ,..,.i'f:i5..,4. !,:;,,. .!''' ::iiii? ;.z? :?,(414t0M0,;i.ihe ,flii:robi600:iiiilag. ( diocrout iih, Thin PIIP*14 was dnanding t:,*.,,,--- ,4-,7,- - ? ? Wilhould be lay people and members or ouipiflti* ,. , , ,-....-,:.,----4.,,,,, A lows took over and '6 1:r 1 `-' 0 ) . .. i:. 1 - ? ' -424* ro- later imprisoned because ? ,.4, ' as ik, straw we. Declassified and Aooroved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 4:441 f ; . 4.1 ? 1 I i ? r-Isliv,2 '''' i.":" 4P -g'''' .. , ,, -14:TraSi` 0 ', ti -tr, ? it-ssv.'"1--. -,1- ...? I ..... . 4flt qpiNfigairiti . 1 I 41 0. .0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 1 Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 L. The intelligent younger Arabs are very embittered about practical discrimination. ThecrAically they are equal, but in fact they cannot rise to higher posts in the Army and the Administration, even *hemtbey are capable and honest. The mill- tary-7.1iscipline has been the best moral education for Arabs up to now. Their religion allows all moral faults except inhospitality. 2 Racial hatred., Anti-Frendh ana still more, anti-Semitic, eawa "bI. German, propaganda, is still growing. French authorities, It is ignorant or the l4i4e, seem to be insufficiently informPd. reported that 'Rene Capitar_t., Commissioner of Education, attended congress of Uussulmen chieftains recently, at Tettgini, and the rebel agitator leader "Tarhalt Abbas" had the whole assembly sing revolutionary ,4ndependen0e songs in his presence. Their political is rising more and more, and a secret traffic in arms is ,beitatingtetter organised. There is no fear of immediote danger, ,ZAWKWis inadvisable to make any concessions at this time as the Aldbet are evidently not ripe for self-government. The only men who really on the respect of Mussulmen GenOrs1 Weygand. He knew how to be very sever,, and Mussulmen Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Ap?roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 like a man who can show himself a "Great Chief". He snowed respect ? Petain was conoiderod in a favorable light, more or less, because he was the "Marshall", and because of the anti-Semitic laws. The latest Governors and also Catroux are considered by Mussulmen to be feeble and ignorant of their problems. I. 40, Declassified and Ap?roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040 - L ueclassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 - CoNFIDENTIAL 4r --bdvseer , 1$4624, jue'sjik juz - ft Injingloe0axen countrW as well aa in otrt' :lized demo- ;,cracierele such-ast;aqa,udinavia, Holland, Belgium and Switzerland, it is clear that communism is not a real danger but a bogey. In Itely theta is no poseible doubt that communiem is a real danger. The concrete revolutionary program of socio-communism (both parties are intimately linked) has an immense appeal to the poorer classes is 1091,p41 **redo Pf,I#t4 signs., including the sale of newsmen. Take the Communiit* paper for inst^nce: daily paper of the Communist Party, has a eirculation of about 60,000. The sales in Rome are between 50,000 to 55,000; in the provinces about 10,000, and the rest are given away. If the Communists should obtain a majority and dominete the government, there is serious fear that they will introduce dictatorship. This fear is based on the brutal dicteLurial methods they are using; a) for gathering memberships. In Rome, impressive proofs were given to show how communist propagandists go from house to house to demand signatures on communist membership cards. Threats aro often added, and in some cases, the propagandist is armed. Large numbers of poor and ignorant people sign in ordee. to avoid trouble. Reports from the country show the erme phenomenon happene there and even many small factory owners join the party, convinced that communism will win anyhow. b) Whore communist mayors or officials hay? been appoint- ed/ they are quasi-dictetoeial in trying to avoid the growth of other parties. Meeting aro broken up, pos- ters forbidden, etc. c) in Italy, communism does not produce, with brutality, greater efficiency, but only eith bruthiity, anarchy. Numeroue cases are quoted of mob ctIn; violently. People who live in the country are often awalconvd by abate at night; the proprietorc iinv to defnnd their goods against -obbers or excited be1,43. Italian communism, though officielly rospectlul of religion, is showing siena of reeurring hnti-claricfaism. Many aeries about communist mobs threptentee priests, making anti-religious inscripLlons, etc., have been checked. d) ????? y n..? we .40.-y 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-PnED1,w`^ 1, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 These facts do not produce the conclusion that freedom should be suppressed in Italy for communists, but do indicate that a strong executive power is necessary to safeguard the essential 'Inman rights and principles of democracy, if necessary, against the claims of an excited proletarian majority. rtSdeSitt Further studies on this subject are being made. Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 I and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 + yia?N,_Rerverk 06,4406_- October 26, 1944) CIA-RDP13X00001R00 14' " CONFIDENTIAL. GERMAN CATHOLIC RESISTANCE TO TJ NAZIS Typical stories of solid resistance of German Catholics to Nazi totalitarianism were told in an interview by a German priest who has, for several years, visited bishops and clergymen regularly on special missions. His name and Whereabouts may not be revealed for obvious moons. Although no arms are available for offensive action against Nazism, the ideological opposition is systematical and undoubtedly considered very dangerous by the Nazi Masters. The best proof of this is that the arrest of priests ie steadily mounting. More than two hundred priests are known to have died in concentration eampe. Sonetimes their ashes are sent to relatives; eometImes no news at all is, available and the news of death leaks out through guards at the concentration camp. More than three hundred priests are now in those- concentration camps. Among them is Msgr. Neuhausheler, head of the Cathedral Chapter at Munchen (and right hand man of Cardinal Faulhaba0. To Judge about the numerical importance of these arrests it is necessary to remark that most of the younger priests are in the army so that the fact that 300 cases of opposition were grave enough to compel the Gestapo to act, is a sign of widespread resistance. That the Gestapo is reluctant, for political reasons, to imprison priests, and more still, bishops, is oh9n by the following episode: bishop Ehrenborg Ot Wurzburg had defied certain Nazi regulations and the Gestapo recurred to an o13 trick used before on Cardinal Pouhabert Cardinal innitzer and others: they staged a popular demoustretion against him with the aim of frightening him. The masses, spetly imparted from outside, had shouted menaces and thrown atones for some time 'before the Geotapo entered the Bishop's palace to takA him *todorr. protection. The Bishop opened the balcony window and cried to the peoidok- *God be praised the Gestapo is finally taking a bishop sonee4 The arestapo chief then ntarted backing out and nothing ha7- paned' the OeWtapo has orders to avoid at ell twice, ma4ing mertyrs. In one ease the Nazi methods succeeded in drivtn6 , bishop from his diocsfet JihapSproll of Rotteriburg is still not allowed b-,ck, and is 1$ving as an ill man neer Munchen. .? .*"." %-? -1; . . ; 41. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : an. - r W-77:77 - I. ? ? 7 't,? ? f ? ? h r : 11. e?4 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 iiii-4414401Aeg*4- (SepteMber 11, 1944) 41,41Affit-F CONFIDENTIAL Er' #p Mt, DARO.241._2_,Wigans c DjimuLszaulazumumillA 11.11 Commandant Lemoine, second to the Chief of the "Mavis" 341, the now famous Colonel Bayard, arrived by plane in Rome today/ having left Lyon yesterday and bringing an authentic account of the powth of the "SudAst". R.1 means "Resistance lere region" and grompe,the departments of Drape, Jura, Ain, Rhone, Savona et Loire, Savoie, Saute Savoie, 'eery, Ardeche and Vercors. The Maquie of L.35 which has now come intoVe open as French Force of the Interior, countiv4Gi000 men, divided irea great number of small groups which Ao**01,- supplied systematically, although irregularly, with Amer- Jean arm. SOmetiles seventy planes came over from Algiers, London, ONtirtgandy; sometimes only one dropped it fifteen parachute supplies. Owkparichute alone generally Drought fifteen containers with machine gun's, ehmechine:guni4-boMbe or the most appreciated ammunition,- the Implastice, smell sticks ofvery powerful explosive. The Maquis A41,haVie disrupted the Garman communications that the Allied troops which were tehodetled t4,frrive at Atberieux in sixty days got there In seventeen days. ' When the American troops had encircled Lyons on Saturday, SepteMber 2nd, the *quits entered the town in stolen motor care and tanks and managed to subdue the stubborn German resietance in the toWno Arms had also been taken from hidden depots organized at the ***it of the Trench capitulation and a great part of the FFI was elabiliCin the-French uniforms Which had also been kept for D-day. Commamdant Lemoine bears his assumed name truthfully 4 Othe name signifies, he is a monk of one of the great old orders. ,0 moor the founders of the now famous illegal "Cahiere du 71/4gnage Chritien" of which he brought to Rome the last issue (July printad in 180,090 copies and also the last issue (No. 10) of Pr*Meaie dui Tesoie00110 Chreti#h"', Voisakr edition printed * coPies. He collaborated in the foundation St %mai* tit Seveyet and of 1941. The leader of the group 1.1rer whose real name may now be known: La Vatelle dtOsia, French ifftes, tither of seven children who organised the first armed bands tbi-kivitaits# LaValletta was taken prisoner by the Germano, but iiampodi toigns from the train which was to take him to nrison. He 4604$1.4 to IteirtAt Afrt through Spain and ir now back in France, P; 47+4. eRe114.1klit.f...0.4pre .."1.1M1r11,1,01.11, 4 ee, nrb-? ?-71-fle-!` .4444. ?1?0 ? 4.1 ^. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA RDP13 e F. f- 1 17 ? t I .?? I. 1 1 I ' ? 44 11??? ? c.4-, 1??????????? -? ? tF r't t-r ? ? ? ? 2.4Nitf- ?.,.?-o? 4 hPOPt",^ ? A ?-? , , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? Pnr0414412thre?..,.? -....**J4N.11**-3,43,4046105Wmos. ? ?????% , - ? ? , CONFIDENTIAL member of the Staff of general Cachet, who leads the French Foltes of the Exterior in Southern France, as General Koenig does in the Paris region. Similar armed groups of other provinces were united in the RA of the Southeast region by Colondl Bayard who is still leading the FPI groups there. Commandant Lemoine who was a reserve officer before the war was regularly mobilized by mandate of General Pe Gaulle after having served "illegally* for some time. He travelled Several times in various disguises to Paris, Belgium, Switzerland for contact work and led military operations during the lost five months. Hi, 'worked also with the president of the "Maavements Unis de la Resistance* orgaLized at Lyon (Allem). The Communists who are organ- ized'apart have their delegate's at all the central headquarters and though working efficiently, refuse to be meMbers of the "United Movement of Resistancei" receiving their orders only from their dele- 'gates. It is typical that 'the present general leader of the FFI 'BUd$t asirell ae the iV4tiatorLavallette dlOsia, and "Alban" the President of the LyoWtroap of the United Movement of Resistance siviola, as GeorgosAidaUlti-iptesident of the General Council of Besietance in Paris, are fevvent Catholics. It is touching to hear that:the leader of-the:ILI IfigudEetft, Colonel "'Bayard" received Holy 06mmun4on frote,thehends gelds second Commandant Lemoine every day 104/A-spent together iticthe Algae. Commandant Lemoine is now back in France, having left by plane one day after arrival. The' roecife.4f,the FFX who have been partly instructed by' the officers paraebOted to them, or coming from tne regular army, are unanimous in the 44tre to carry the fight into Germany. Their tale* of GerMan atrocity are convincing. The cooperation of Catholis 411Ma,nomr-Catbolios Is splendid for even the non-Catholics feel that 'the potrlorqo sicit*vee have deeper roots in the revived Christian tra4?tian otII-ranee. Thit,i4formation bole been received from an unusually 4reliAbleHand well4eormed source in Rome. ^ ,t ? SI toi.V14- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 41- -4041. - ???? 4.- ? T411,?.' ? 1 A ? ,A? ? ? ?? ? ? t ??11. 3 4 ? 4i1 a e kroi ,ica`4,9 ;ta. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Ver Y4: fitc C>4?P`r? CONFIDENTIAL tszt. 1-12 14 A In a4Cordance with the wishes of Our Holy 'Father ?ins 7.1, of holy memory, to restrict itself in the beginning to a purely reli- gious character, the Vatican Radio still has its original experimental nature. In its very functioning it proves the general inadequacy of its equipment to serve as authoritative and effective instrument for spreading tb.e,wards of the Hoty,,rather througlout the world, as is so eseenti4 to do, especially is this chaotic period when so many men hale loft their consciences. Supplied with six short-save lengths and a single trans- mitter,. it is set up to broadeast its news in successive transcriptions in'brder to, cover the. surfe.oe of the civilimed world; hampered by atMoSpheric diaturtiances" by differences in time and by interference trcirother ste.tienst it is not able to use I% group of air-waves sigma- To the laek Oatransmitters must be added the lack of medium tatiepOU$11. waves which- eblige Radios Vatican& to ask Radio Vs.sionale for relay towers . ?_ . So, as not to eseixidet from its broadcasts of universal interest, part or Italy, /ranee,',Germany, and of the Balkan countries, and all of SVitaterland and Austria; a serious if not humiliating relationship of depemdeMoe, and one diplomatically exploited by the former Fascist GOV8r11-? mei* beeause it was not always of the same interest., father rilippo, SoccOrsis, director of the Radio Vatice.na' ed*thla diecouraging state of inferiority which in the future aireadr in the preeent,,' Stan have most serious consequences, has 11 i. tiodit'lt an Oblocti of salial Scruple, and with very sharply-worded memo- iiiamda :Out with 'detailed and precise plans, has denounced the danger to 14400.1stideleftithdritiest Aiming thein to foresee it. 'IVA uxtent request has remained a dead letter; in this *WI toner& of grave international anxiety, Radio Vaticancl can and should perfarO Et porsOaatie work of propaganda on behalf of justice and peace, et:toted.* errors and misunderstandings, dispelling doubts, defining tuiti ttbariatting costaenc, situations of people and of nntions, spurring poopis on to work, togiting them to order, instilling in them the spirit Of -sierifiee - end instead., it is silenced; even thrlt little, emaciated Maletic Skeleton whidh gave it a reason for existin.3 has been sup- proseedf for reasons not justified In the eyes of all. Is thls due to 00000.41autIousuees? r - pprov _ ? .1MOMMEM4 d For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 L Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 This tremendous work, discontinued becaiase of the Office of Inf:mmationt is not such as to exclude absolutely an organic program, even though it be circumscribed. There is a feeling of running into the obstacle of absurd and deplorable incomprehension on the part of a narrow group of opponents 'Oho are either blind or unconscious. The Catholic Radio Center Ws, eine? its foundation, been concerned with the, technical inadequacies of Radio Vaticana, and has carried on an active work of trtoPelAnda, both among Italian Catholics it,d with the Papal Seeretary 'oState, to find suitable moral aud finan- cial **int to overcome the 1i:ore-mentioned deficiencies. Rio Eminence Colima; Levitrenp,,ilthdip of Palermo, President of the Cardinal's Com- mission for pirliction of Italian Catholic Action, having been informed ok.plti*Atttert'Agade hiMself _our spokesman before the Holy Father and met with arm interest; eindo'_ in consequence of this first meeting, the muse iffered by the _Church of Sant Eugenio to the Holy Father on the ssi of his -jubilee Witt. defignated, by the committee, for Radio Ifiticsie* and this contrlitratj,on was the first to the fund necessary for re'p74Fs to the, it:trait!' :z.e#:#4.ng.eguipment and for new installations - tae.erogfk of *Mph gas ,jiiiit.4*.ted at the time, by the Reverend Father Soccori#4 at 20,0004-000:144,-,that sum today, if Italian money does i4t'uidergo further dev4Witions, would ha-v to be maltiplie4 by ten. If it were possible for America, through the local Catholic or through direct intervention on the part of authoritative Com- 4 to voice its Condern over these limitations of Radio Vaticana ? dfldrik, for effective facilities for broadcasting programs which e abet. liiiiIdasat. apt reOplid with enthusiasm by Catholics in non- Cstbolie we TioP14.;tieve-.044.4esUrance that our efforts would not ui* ith further Altecles:,42*._ dangerous deferments. For it is *ithitt*oediuts wave-lengths so necessary, at the pr*e time, to the40dietribiitiOn of *AVO -lengths, almady secretly AnglOrAmeri0*n authorities. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013 ? ? - Declassed and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ferft.r. \ Octolar-TerZ.1944) A H It. `7=.;..ASIMEtaii ? QA IV N T CONFIDENTIAL The Catholic Radio Center was established by the CardiLal's ComMission for the Direction of Italian Catholic Action (founded by the Holy Father), in May 1940, with the aim of morally and spiritually influencing, by direct and indirect means, the national radio programs, wt&th had been monopolized by the Government and used exclusively for 7044 political, cultural, informational, educational and military pro0aganda after that Party pined its foothold, and especially from the -time of its conquest of tile; ;mpire, radio=prograinueven the most harmless 4ae, for example, programs of Chamber music) had in some way to comply with the absurd rsgaations set up by Ministerial functionaries placed in charge of program revision, and had also to meet with the approval of the heads orthe various institutions of the totalitarian State: G.I.L.; 1:4141.1614 schools; etet regulatione which, Go one may easily realize, soaghtblindlx to exalt power-drunk and rapacious military nationalism. 4104Ahis could notibut 1404'0 fatal inuring of morals and of reli- es.* The broadcast of Sunday Mass, the Utopia comment (controlled), a few plays with relikioue themes during the periods of the major Church tenets, and a few selections of liturgical music occasionally included in regular concert programs, should have satisfied (according to the Fascist directors) all the spiritual needs of a Catholic people, and Silenced their scruplos in that carectioni /*At this situation arose the necessity of influencing the grape, not. wits the negative system of destructive criticism, of polemics* at recrimination and protests, but with the activity 0,intelagent and wise coIlaboration,Which would interect liriteners swilthtsh would prow" at the same time accejltable to those in chirge riient AU*, But -to Obtain ouch a form of collaboration, without having WM% previous4 enrolled in the Fascist Pnrty? or without offering the guarantees of blind Obedience which were exacted (by which no one, royally reesollo oomId be presented over the micrnphone unlmes his name, ~them/ his text, were approved by the huthorized section of the Wisistry el Popular Culture) was almost impossible - especially in 1,10W of the foot that the Catholic Radio Center was careful to select ft.'sollaborators from among those artists and scholars who had pre- in the race of dictatorship, their faith in independence and cUieirfiTI, hope that the prople would return to normality ? after a hank struggle). -16 t ? ?7`. . ? ? .g7 Declassified and Approved F? e 13/09 . CIA-RDP13Xonnn1PnnnifIrtriAntin4 0.1 .7 Arr?, 1 41; gr-P :I\ 1:11 s+. rt, -` _ ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 rr.F5-.r0 ....w.f..... ? &port #8. -continueg) ..2 ? ? ssr. ? =to ? CONFIDENTIAL Nevertheless, drawing on the faithful friendship of certain functionaries of the E.I.A.R. (Italian Committee for Radio Auditions), the Catholic Radio Center succeeded in securing a?proval for a modest schedule which, from year to year, was improved and developed; 1) Monthly broadcasts of organ concerts of sacred music, polyphonic ane Gregorian; 2) Periodic commemorations of saints; 5) Notices of activities at abbeys, Basilicas, Catacombs, etc; 4) Inclusion, in the regular schedule of radio-drama of plays by Catholic authors chosen by the Catholic Radio Center and of plays on sacred themes or basically spirit- ual, chosen by the Catholic Radio Center. All this wal; grante4 no. The requests for talks on higher religious and liturgical culture were adatantly refused, as were those requests for catechetical lessonn, for a fifteen minute Mission program, (informative broadcasts OL k the activities of missionaries throughout the world with backgrounds of song. and musics dialogue presentations of carefully authentieatcl opisedes, anecdotes, etc.) The colleborati?began in OctOber 1940, six months after the orgmmismtiom of the Cathotic Radio Center. The names of the chosen coraWboreters were 04334 gOrded, even thOUgh they were religious - tho may moos to *hostas granted the right of exclusion from the hisciet Party ple4e* without being suspected of subversive activities. Very few laymen were found suitable, and, in any case, thsty itertilesio4 the right of reading directly over the microphone but had to hroadealit through moans of an authorized "reader ff - a specialist itholimmiolOblytHrobbed tAe 'most significant passage.; of their intended eto althoUgh relationships with representatives of the General Governing:Board of the E./..A.R. preserved an appearance of car41aittfr end corrIctness, contacts with the technical under-staff were eharaittf#244 by brusquanesa and animosity. Each one of these Ow* seOcepod ti* taaustre privilege of his professional capacity and OA, the 40ctretutry of the Catholic Radio Center should limit mstivitl. to acting as intermediary between the religious authori- ties of the places from 'Lich were to be broadcast radio adaptations 4reaCred 400useuts, vin to them (these techninians) the liberty Of Interporang the the4600 from the historical, artistic and liturgical attriette* This 'we asking a bit too much. rrs tr,t, orinccifipri and Approved For Release :OP sr*.4 ? IA. RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 kleit ? 7 ? ? - r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 dirob-14121*-1911412814) The Secretary of the Catholic Radio Center, of anything but a conaliatixtg temp -eratiout in religious anti artistic matters, knowing Mal the organic inospacit/ and the culturel insufficiency of these #ttila ersOng, roosters, held firmly to his rights of spiritual and Sitkistic sure, :Tirisor, and the first broadcasb which, was to be made from tba lower Chapel itif St. Peter's on June 29, 1941, vas called off rattler them have it go over the air Wily bandied. The second, which was made from the underground Basilica of Sest Clements in Baas, turned out like a militaryoperation between two opposing, eraties. But the Secretary a tits Catholic Radio Center gained his ;Oita. The program director of the E.I.L.R., confronted with con- Otruttion ;Coble** exiting from thearchitectural differences of build- WO cit -I a r 10 as tames born to ,iiik:At that he was a bit confused; he bad; to exehantik Wnedcastinii studio of the republican era for a catacomb, ,, ., YAW of; 1110- 31010,410:040.00 waxed hie; he was completely iiiiiiim.* -, froomid, ,04-cOrtiiiikil::. 'third osiSry which, told a the introgenaimist4Ost of the Sa1ntec:e0 was non.pluntod by writings in thin 60004400 1040m,iftlitit)000i)net. CleolAy tafluenoed by the toib 047A4.00*!1.011of Si100Yiil anCOOthodiun he oaracterizel those 110,04itionNorravi by .*4 11 ,-SlatiaAtirittOry as haying pale blue - --Gat*, '1A-7?titiliiitig 100034 ir****ii'Matitiiii ?.:,. . ,_ Thi e finia ei**.,rstcffime all his objections. He calmed tF4dei .i. . , 'blot teams that he found. hi:oaf to biSii s *Aura equipment was lac in -ona (pas, why not admit it) even In The 1iefille49.11;1114qh the 'broadcast of that documentary drama ste:piroOt anaeigh, sad as a rieult of that fact, in .40114 thelan ..t4n Stations mobs from the 13e,silica of an althOu4 he did not think it o,:.portune TAOS* HIS face, that the fol3.0wing gem be included cttylet?o00101mt) in an serlior tyroadcaet from the cats- gtoori intinast tin the Aippion like, he had added, without &litho- . of sauto; itssiAt lose, prey for use'. iS :fitt tp tflb SOU& tbik% the good man was frott Viterbo; perhaps ttiltextto0,400 forth, patroness Saint of be countryside of bie 0444 101,130 oversight, the 1Patber5 of the Church had 0 LU 4061.4 tor* Declassified and App v ;f-41f- ? -4F- : ? 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 nat ? ??? t ? t ? 71' Declassified and Approved For R / 7. Xis.. is lilA us C.tr4114.1...ttt ttt (Las.12autiffsantutuagt) sr., ? e.t. . ? -g....-40) NF1DFNTIAL In this atmosphire of happily won cooperation, the organized collaboration of the Catholic Radio Center was progressing rerplarly when an unforeseen event took place on May P8, 1943. The Secretary of the Catholic lIndio Center was arrested by the Fascist police, accused of subversive underground activities and sentensid by the Special Tribunal to Political imprisonment. The Secretary of the Catholic Radio Center boasts now of having made the accusation legal through an authentic underground work of anti-Fascist propaganda and organized spreading an attitude of defeat- ism towards the Italian war. It wee the only useful way for a man such as he to occupy fruitfully the free time which was at he disposal in prison. During his stay in the .Roman prison of Regina Coen, the Catholic Radio Center's radio schedule, in collaboration with the E.I.A.R., continued to be broadcast regularly, thanks to its having been very well planned. The famous and now hittoric sidly 25, 19450 restored Italy to the free Italians and the SeStetary of the Catholic "Radio Center to liberty. Zr. the periO4 from July 26 to September 8, 1945, relationships 'between VI* Catholic Radio'Cidter and the E.I.A.R. became most friendly, and,, after the momentary confiiion natural in such crises, n study of thie?programe in need armlet careful -consideration, especially those dirleted to boys and young men, was earried on between the Catholic Radio Center and the directing officer of this program division, with mutual satisfaction. . On Sept,Mber 8th, everything stopped. In the collapse of the tuition *II promising projects for the future were destroyed. The WAX ormed iiitoRadio Remo, became a German stronghold with Useist lioim Our collaboration would have been, It is sufficient to say, *Get 1004oXis, but it would have signified collaboration with the enemy, eittO? of the repOblic, and serving the *Om end worse Fascism. The order" and thecedvice of the Italian Catholic Action lertdorm !Or? ms slemys oeutious and prudentt act according to oneortunity, in Osbert possible say. 11 ? - ? ...I:74 PR:74 14.14.1e..;44, ? A?t4,?? , ? imm!ori ??;Lt?I`?41-91? , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001 R000100040001-9 4.? ? r- ? ??? - ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 151-1.41WriSPI?RYit-44.r.**- ( .311:01. 13:17F4T ? -5.. (?ak. Report #8-continutd) CONFIDENTIAL Of opportunities, the Secretary of the Catholic Radio Center from September 8th on, found only one: immediately to resume his anti- Fascist and anti-German work, participating actively in the most danger- ous but stimulating plans of the Underground Resistmce Front movement of which he was one of the first initiators, organizing, controlling, arming and assisting one of the largest partisan groups of Rome: thAt of the district of Monte Mario. The office of the Catholic Radio Center, in Via Stazione San Pietro No. 5, became the "quartier generale" of the partisam group of Monte Mario, and, in view of the futility of attempting to produce radio programs under current conditions, its Jecretary studied plans of sabo- tage and counter-espionage; organized the G.A.P. (Active Partisans Groups) of that area, assistance to disbanded soldiers, and the hiding of Auglo- American prisoners-of-war loblo were escaping from concentration camps. Among the many activities carried on by the asari Partisan group (nAmed after the Secretary of the Catholic Radio Center who was its leader), the group Whih later became the head of the Coordination Center of the Partisan Bands of Monte Mario - one activity was parti- cularly close to the heart of its leader: the radio situation in ROI*. Nothing would have been more natural. The Germoos took over, destroyed and dismantled all the local radio-sending statiOns !Cad threatened the buildings and the equipment rooms. It was necessa* to resort to a most daring act of anti-sabotage and of retrieval* It was too late to intervene by means of the short-wave station Of Prsto Smeraldo (Rome II), whose dismantled equipment had already been harried on to Hazen?. There followed the work of dismanteling the long-wave sending 004pment of Mont. livio (Bose III), done by disarmed Austrian soldiers Supifir4agia t.y German S.S. um. nth lalip of two resolute Signal Corps officers stationed atireat ikast* Mario, we were successful in carrying off, In an almost manner, sight large,valves and the complete nucleus of three reoeilOing stations with radio dials; but the rvoinder of the 410044044' tOalosed. until it reached the railroad station of Porta S. Padle, Mims impoeetble to recover, due to the last-minute failure of a key group whit& *as terrorized from acting because of intensified mitehfulnollo on the part of the German S.S. P 1A14'. ???? r - ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 , ? ? '1. .2?21: p. - 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ???????cama?s? ?????t1i4~....11?16 ...11800./N1*???? ? '???:?-?-?-??????? 4?? .40,0 lk,?{14A.4? ? ?????? -6- Instal Egsatilraitl) CONFIDENTIAL Meanwhile, at the medium-wave station of Banta PaloMba (Roel), in collaboration with the engineer Blasucci of the E.I.A.11. end hia techniciaria, a work of sabotage was successfully begun in attempt to destroy anti-tank mines hidden, by the thousands, in the installations; a band of fiftey men magnificently armed, under a navy lieutenont was prepared for action coordinated with the advance operations of the Amer- ican Are. The delay of the liberation offensive permitted the Gt/rmans to discover the plane to render the mines uaeless and all was lost. The Secretary of the Catholic Radio Center went to the radio station of Santa Rose ails. Storta, noar Rome (most powerful sending and receiving military station, then controlled by the navy) taking with bi.tatwo-prtitall leaders fro be Italian navy; he organized a band of 04'otiars among the Italian personnel impressed by the Germans into the Al..3miLnqi5.ng, and. gave -them the task of destroying thirty-six giott:;t4:0 ante installed in the equipment chambers of that monumental woik tot' whOh the. 4overnment had engaged the talents of the most bril- 1.10A taUaist?liittimPtdp,, thm.'best possible kind of specialized labor, alit had spent 12406),000 lire - and which the enemy wanted to destroy. The'ffork .4!loring been begun, the Secretary of the Catholic Radio Osnter ail.iowed,Atitobp carried to its conclusion by the navy parti- O0a grotip comMar*Trifiate Captain Gomel, now head of the Marine Miniotery in the Cabinet.' Commander Gomel was a man who knew what he was doing: the wttoks succeeded perfectly. All thirty-six mines were sabotaged and the station 'ems dived. kt Mout* Mario, the military radio-receiving station of Via Malirp VIM &t ted, again at the instance ot the Secretary of the Cath- olic Rodio Centex us- head of the zonal partisan movement, and it flit S hidden1 Eight receiving stations complete with antennae and radio ales, *42'0 ttUtt saved from German vandalism and from the creed of the raifciat t:optilWAcana. On April 18, 1944, betrayed by an officer of his group, the eetrettiry of the Catholic Radio Center was arrested for the secc.nri timp Ist his offico which was invaded by a band of thirty police while he was in the full owing of his anti-Fascist activities. gr4. - OOP Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0 1 ,v4:7;1 1 ? ? _ ?tf 1/44. ......-=rixyrsarttmer011.... 4 3 Declassified and A proved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 A .0 CONFIDENTIAL t Five chaiges were brought against hilsby his accusers, proved and shown: it only remained to await more or less aurimary execution. And he awaited it with a spirit and a strength of sytd which on his the admiration of his companions of adventure and misadventure, after having constantly made sport of and confused his prosecutors. The accelerated march of the Allied arwies for the liberation of Rose saved his skin and led him once again to his family and his work. Now, the American Control of Radio Rome, the deficiency of equipment, the lack of sufficient electrical energy, contribute te hin- dering a speedy resumption of collaborative activities. Actually, a request for collaboration is in progress, through present tentativie schedule: I) A, weekly fifteen minutes tn maintain contacts with the Catholic Action organizations of the North of Italy; to give courage to parish-priests who are aiding and shel- tering petViote; to re-awaken in the people the mystical religious firior of the great Crusades; to urge the Bishops to inteneify the work of moral, spiritual and material asetatance among the most unfortunate people; to encourage,rengiOus institutions to continue their protection f patriots in the countryside and in the jouptaint; 2) Resumption of broadcasts of mystical and spiritual plays; 5) PUblishing labor news; 4) Publishing news about the destruction. ItikAsericats placed in charge of the programs of Radio ROMA are aiding the artswer; to the question ot a weekly program fur inclusion lAigpipmogrlel of 'IlIeslia cosibattes they prefer not to answer. is have great hopes for the future, and abevs all we are not distouralgood$ God and ourselves; our cause is a holy one. .111. 0100m.11111110 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDID.Mnnnni qv. -; ? ? I. A ;, ? 1"1 ki.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ,;."4:-."." ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and App v ;"*-: isr-1.4T? irtine-dito 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 .4.. Talks with anti-Nasi members of the :unker class whose mimeo mer not, for obvious reasons, be disclosed, allow us to sketch ? state of mind which is now certainly widespread in Germany. junker circles violently reject the accusation that the wars of 1870-1914 were caused by the Germans. They say that not so mnah the economic and other material climes of the Vergailles treaty offendod them, but the accusation in the treaty that they were cul- pable. Ther left the pall.? refutations of this to demagogues and kept silart in the conviction that tho general international situation and not German provocation was the cause of the war of 1914. They were eure of reestablishing German honor br peaceful means. When Hitler teak over power they thoughts the fool will crash in six weeks. When thie did net happen, they then thought it was a matter of six months, or two years. They say the most dangerous support to Hitler was given by Ingland refiling to act against him after Rhineland, Saar de-mili.- lorisation, etc. They AT the aims of the greater German Reich (including Austria. and Oudontenland) are those of the great majority of Germans; mismweftha Austrians and Sudetenlanders. They say Alsace is not really dersant And desire it rssain with France, for the Alsatians always have Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 iS44&-ta"..:N.1 .WM44. r.ti".--r'r...:77 insisted that German unity is strong in the people and that the people would rebel against divieion. they admit the opposition between Bavaria and Pruseia, Baden and Wurtemberg, etc., but say th...t it is only natural for brothers to quarrel as long as they are together, but unite when anyone dares try to divide the house. Our spokesmen absolutely denied that the German people feel theme-- selves superior to others and claim this is a Nazi propaganda theme. Thor sq the youth is not indoctrinated by Nazism and that this can be explained by the fret that the youth is naturally against those who are in authority. They claim that the Lutheran Zunkers have now close relations with the Catholics in common re- SiStense, and that the Lutherans often go to Catholic mass and vice "WU. One theme of conversation seems to be common in these circles* it is not dogma that mettere, but the common norme of a deemat and bappr life. They Weep that the auffertngs of the German people. are unimaginable and that the terror wielded by the Gestapo is even wore* than can be described. ?WY insist that their class, and the miOrity of the Germs people, has a "socialist faith" which is the belief that all een 100 be OVIA ibat is necessary for a docent life through planned eeenony. Ai tbe lasts have already expropriated, or control most of the proper*, liberalietio capitalism is already a thillg of the past. tor fear Communist brutalities more than anything also and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001 R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 a longing for the other side, for France, When they are incorporated spokesmen say that German-speaking Swiss, LuxeMburgers, re not to be considered as Germans either. These Junker groups claim they have made three efforts to oust Hitler, the last of which was the attempt on Hitler's life made by von Stauffenberg. They say that their plans for a German ?Common- wealth* have been worked out. This would not bs on the basis of a federation, and would not include the reestablishment of the King of Bavaria and other prime.. It would include the general establishment of popular rule by elections, first of village, then county authorities, Prussia (including Brandenburg, East Prussia, Silesia) Hanover (including Hamburg, Kiel, Schlesing Holstein) They suggest that two years after the war, a plebescite should decide If Austria is to join the German Commonwealth. They insist that the German democracy would not be parlimentarian, but authoritarian, as the Germans are servile, like to obey, and want a Fuehrer. They Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000i oonzionni_a say they would coLlaborate with Anglo-Saxons if these occupy the whole of Germany with an international control. 231121211egi$ Wel stress was laid in this talk on the point of inter-' nation1 control of Germany. The Junker Spokesman said that if the Allies carried through the plan of having one part of Germany occupied by the Bolsheviks and the other parts by English and Americans, then the Anglo-Saxons would find refusal to collaborate also in the parts occupied by them. The reason for this, he said, is that the Germans act as one people and will not admit that Prussia be subjected. to the Bolsheviks. Re strongl,y advocated a joint Allied Committee for the control of the whole of 001110.1V ? )Ie gave me the impression that there aro official talks of junkor groups in this direction, and that he desires to enlist public opinion agencies in this direction. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 I. November 27, 1944 3 r General 'William J. Donovan Tot Trost John C. Rugbes I am sending you as special black report No. 15, the semorandust herewith enclosed. It has been so edited that the individnathrolmOilebou this information came will not be re- veal/ad, and it is suitible for normal dissemination. Copies are, therefore, being forwarded to Mr. Ferdinand L. Mayer for proper distribution. For yet= personal information, I quote Black's des- cription of his source as follows, so that you may knot to whom be talked am this bubject. The name of the source, which is not revealed in the following sunoary, you will find in the enclosed sealed envelope* *Source of Rosie Report #47 (dur Black No. 15) dated November 2, 19441 Thie *aerial wee furnished by a German prlest who had bean in and out of\Germany on frequent missions =Ail the ond of 1942. Ha is in constant contact with persons who have 0093310043.01113 in Germany and from wham & oteedy flow of material is expected. One of these is a personal friend of the faaily of Staaferoberg, the officer who made the attempt on Ritlart s 15.fe. The sesibors a this family were highlyconsidered in Cburch circles and tato= knowledge that they have been fontirely wiped out through marder by the Nazis is being quietly' circulated. I'm scare. says that an important GeTnen archbishapp as sal as most other bishops, excepting only those in lawaria, fear Colo:nig* more than anYth.ing. Re says they bold that, if the is no solid hope for a demo- cratic reconstruction of Germary, the bourgeoisie, having tows, troletarian, will help in violent Coisamist re- volutions. Our source svidently expresses the minds Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 /0--) r 'tut of the Bishops when he says they will accept Allied Americangnglish authorities readily and will be pre- pared to oe of use to them. Asked if they would admit a division of Germany, he replied that he was sure they would not take any decided action to defend German unity. Then the statement was made by this writer, who is himself a Bavarian, that a suppression of the nitional-Pangerman reality was the best way to obtain rehabilitation for individuals from the Bavarian--Rheinland sections but not German-national, he admitted that Bavaria felt strongly for autonomy. COMMENT: There seems no doubt that the Bishops have the intention of being favorable to the Allies when they occupy Germany and of being a factor in hindering the development of a resentment mentality." rAa-, , Declassified and Approved For Release 201 3/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 c fialientielitttalsaiinvratimaluveavegeoposivprreors,s-,-vc..1...,.. -e; ct.4e!44-"ereiglaalitft )1:m91111E2a el"ks NOT TA BE ACCUrbtlINED OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. SECRET November 25, 1944. To: Brigadier General William .7. Lonovan Front John sC Hrethea Subject: pja2k1,.... black..reaszztag21.24 Y 73 1- I am sending you herewith, as special black report No. 12, the attached memorandum. It has been so edited that the individual through whom thiu information came, will not be revealed and it is suitable for normal dissemination. Copies are therefore being forwarded to Mr. Ferdinant L. Mayer for proper distribution. For your personal information, I quote Mack's description of his source which you will find in the enclosed sealed envelope. ... , 1. , ..;,,. ?,,,,, , i.-o?it,RosropmostnivAetiofoosseriowswiski, atosioAbiamwr,100411040-- ' 4aiiit*Kilitli 1.3;1?'44;11?4-444.'4,16'.-12 ... - = ,4-. ?,. ,1-t.? i- ??? , IF. ,,,... ' - i ..- ---???:,..t,.,-; .,, 1- - ''?:: ). '-"' tz, :??1 N Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? ItMeMakerlba, osinexpoodegetkfigetkaterifttrweN-Ipm-**,-.-. -a_Ast. ..irvoalP.S.INCAOR40.14,,Wt NOT TC3E ACCESSIONED OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. EMMA November 24, 1944 y -732. To: Brigadier General William J. Donovan From: John C. Hughes Subject: AutakilaolluiLmsattill. I am sending you, as special black report No. 11, the attached memorandum. It has been so edited that the in- dividuals through whom this information came, will not be re- vealed and it is suitable for normal distribution. Copies are therefore being forwarded to Mr. Ferdinand Mayer for proper dissemination. For your personal information, I ouote Black's descriptions of his various sources which you will find in the enclosed sealed envelope. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 NOT BE ACCESSIONED OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. Brigadier General Villiam J. Donovan I am sending you, as special black report No. 10, the attached memorandum. It has been L:o editnd thnt the in- dividual th-ough whom this Information came, will not be revealed and it is itable for normal distribution. Copies are therefore being forwhrded to Mr. Ferdinand Mayer for proper dissemination. For your personal information, I quote Black's des- oription of his source wliich you will find in the enclosed sealed envelope. ? A , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 _ ? . ??? It ? Z-L"f2;.-s , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 NOT r OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES SECRE1. 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. t?CCES,:.110z4p,:?3 Novecil.,61- no, 1944 3 0 / Tot Brigadier General William J. Donovan From: John C. Hughes SUbject: S ec I am sending you, as special black report No. 9, the memorandum herewith enclosed. It has been so edited that the individual, through whorl:this information Caine, will not be re- vealed, and it is suitable for normal distribution. Copies are, therefore, being forwarded to Mr. Ferdinand L. Mayer for proper .dissemination. For your personal information, aription of his source as follows, so that you may know to whom he talked on this sUbSeett "Source of Rome Report No. 14 (our Black No. 9) dated frog:Rome SepteMber 11th, 1944, but delayed in transmittal to this office. I quote Bla ck's des- These anecdotes and facts come from tom Guetet, a French priest of the Benedictine Order who, before the war, belonged to the St. Jerome Monastery near Rome. kfter capitulation of France, he joined the "Charitiers de la JUsnesee which were meant to maintain the sound spirit and good health of French youth. When this organisation became co3laborati0nist and even helped In sending French youth to Germany, he started working in, the underground. He represents the current French resistance opinion in complaining that the Americans do not permit the battle against the Germans. He admits that, although the Maquis forces have qualities of daring and exceptional persistruce, they lack in di:leinline and are inclined to follow personally chosen lelders who disagree among themselves and may cause aiv5sion. Oustet who Is responsible for military affnire was accompanied in his mission by Father Fraisse of the Jesuit Order, commandant of the Maquis R.1 in charge of political contact/0p propaganda, etc., Ind by a Secretary and ft chauffeur (two students from Grenoble twenty and twenty-three years of age). All four are La French military clothes with the arMhand of FFI. k. ? ? ?ro.: C48N.rar, , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ?o'??? ?;?=* ? .?? f ....* 2' 5 1 ?-r \ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 AelPflUtletzsmeadeges...... VUOQ30411252PINVeii oat Ivourtnose..e.hirorwe:t41.4711e4.1 "The FFI refuses to join the 1414 (French Forces of the Exterior). They say these are professional soldiers (employees) and conscripts. The spirit of FFI is rather impatient and revolutionary. As they are the heroes for the French people, it would seem necessary for American authorities not to risk new psychological oppositions such as are developed in French and Italian circles. The solution might be to allow the small groups of FFI who have always existed separately, to participate in separate companies in further battles, and to place them sl that they cannot form one block of opposition. They are stubborn and will not give in, in what they consider rightful claims of existing separately: they would be dangerous if left to foster bitterness among the population that admires them." ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA- RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 - 1 ta, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 2*, 73,4 44 - II tr ?' ? , I ? 1 ,t? ? ? EIMU201 , :* r fr Vat eV" 5,5 o NOT TEtIE ACCESSIONED rck If e dst.c. OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. SECRET 17 November 1944 X $7af4)-7 To: Brigadier General William J. Donovan From: John C. Hughes ,Z7:4-.4/. Subject: Snecial black retort No, S. I am sending you, as special black report No. 8, the memoranda herewith enclosed. It has been so edited that the indi- viduals, through whom the information came, will not be revealed, and it is suitable for normal dissemination. Copies are, therefore, being forwarded to Mr. Ferdinand Mayer for proper distribution. For your personal information, I quote Black's description of his sources as follows, so that you may know the various indivi- duals he talked to on this subject: "Sources of Rome Report No. 57 (our Black No. 8) sent from Rome undated but an aplroximate date would be October 12th. (R. i37 B-I) (R. #57 - 1-2) Enrico asari has defended, during Fascist domination, the idea that re-action against Fascist domination of the radio was nscessary as even the preachers on the radio were chosen so as to give a Fascist tinge to religious talks. The Cardinals Piazza (Venice), Nasalli-Rocca (Bologna) and Lavitrano (Palermo), members of the Cardinal's Commission for Italian Catholic Action, accepted to sponsor this. Basari, who ia very daring and ingenious, succeeded La organ- izing non-Fascist transmissions, and, as seen by B-1 (attached) worked successfully with the Underground. His Catholic Radio Center is now financed by the Catholic Action Center (Centro Catolico Ciuimatographico) which, with the fila "Pastor Angelicus" made a substantial profit. hitibaLleggatil Director, with whom I had three talks, hopes that he will receive more freedom from the State Secretariate after the war; now he is Obliged "to say nothing even when Radio Vatican speaks". The RV short waves cannot be ,.s... ?- - --?-::?.:,. '-'- :? . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 i ? 'Or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 heard in Italy, Spain or Southern France: and he hopes the peace conference will allow the Vatican some medium waves although thls is given only to a national State. He argues riFhtly that if the liberty of the Vatican to broadcast is accepted, the concession of the efficient means (medium waves) to do this must follow.* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R000loon4nnni Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 e To ?roma Subjects NOT TOE ACCES,SIONED OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES j4,0ii Af 630 FIFTH AVENUE NSW YORK, N. Y. SECRET November 2, 1944 X X 72/ Brigadier Geiteral William eT4 Donovan John C. Hughes p!oie Pk reorr No as sending you, as special black report No. 7, the memorandum herewith enclosed. It has been no edited that the indi- viduals, through whom the information came, will not be revealed, and it is suitable for normal dissemination. Copies are, therefore, being formarolood to the Reporting *Board. For your personal information, I quote Black's description of his sources as followo? so that you may know the various individuals he talked to on this subjoins "Sources of Rome Report No. 55 (our Black No. 7) sent from Rome fttober 12th. Sources of the proofs regarding the non-existence of tract.- -jos (discussions) between the ?atican and Russia are, (1) Tr. Vanlutsem, Acting Superior of the Collegium Russicum, and man of confidence of Cardinal Tisserand, who said that the Oope answered definitely "No" to the Cardinal's question in a private audience regarding the rumors that talks with Russia had been initiated, about ten days ago. (2) rather Penitenti, Italian priest who, after having been deeply impressed by the religious spirit of Russians whom be knew as Chaplain in occupied Russian territories, is now preparing (with the sympathy of the Congregation of "Propaganda Tide"), a society for promotion of contacts between all Chris- tians, mainly the Orthodox, Who received from Acting Secretary Montini, the answer that there were no tractations with Russia - about three weeks ago. Having checked with about ten other good sources, among whom are Comilla, Giordani, Msgr. Fontanelle, Andreotti, Giant, Yost., Creusen, Ba#, who would probably have known if there was apr question of Vatican "rapprochement" with Russia, the negative seems reasonably sure. In a long audience with Cardinal Pimeardo, who, as Prefect of the Congregation of Studios, has bi-monthly audience with the Pope, the attitude on Russia appeared absolutely unchanged". , roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDID13Xnnnrm Drww-14 A en. 1.741,????-..,% ? ee7liater, a IN??? 'We re, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 _ k Po hnorti 07, (R. $5 and R. 58) (OctOber 19, 1944) CONFIDENTIAL The following ie a summary of reports from a reliable and intelligarnt observer on the topic - Very authoritative ecurcen in the Vatican are insistent that, up to the present, (October 1, 1944), no "traotations" (diecuenione?) have taen place between the Vatican and Ruenia. Even those individual priest* who, deeply impreseed by the underlying religious quality ih the lOsnians, are seeking contact with Orthodox Christiana, agree that, thus ter, there is 40 question of a "rapprochement" between the Vatican and NUsela. As illustrative of the difficulties in the way of such progrees, they recount the statemente or Metakeivich, the Soviet representative in its immediately after the liberation. In anewer to the inquiry "What are you planning to do with the Catholics of Wolhynia ani Galania?", the Soviet representative *aid, "They will become Orthodox". In further discussion, he 411141914 detailed knowIedge of the localities in question. and of the Ablate Church. He asserted that there would be no persecution of the Oath- 4404 but indicated that there would he obstacles to provent thc forming of enclaves of Catholicism within the Soviet territories. He smimnrized Ulm position by stating that Russia was finding its way and that he did set know whetbor it would he atheistic or Orthodox,. "but ehtholtoism ts not for Aunts*. egt..."??? ?,????????? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13k00001RnnninnnAnnni 41, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 rwvio BE ACCf OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. 'T. SECRET I cnclose herewith a further special black report (No. '.!), setting forth the conclusions of an important Vatican fsgure on the French political situation. In the memorandum, for security reasons, I have merely called him "S". His name and a description of him are contained in thi envelope attached to this memorandum. The "Comments of the Author" on page two of the. meaorandum are the comments of Black. A further collection of reports have now been re- ceived and are being processed. I shall send the most significant and secret ones to you by this same method. Others of a more routine mature will be given wider dissemination through normal sr channels. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ?Z".ift. 1Z; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 1.4 DonoViin - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP135(00001R. 000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Cardinal Tisserand who is President of the Biblical Cossission and head of the Congregation of Oriental Rights. He is the only' for- eign Cardinal in Ross; is French (but not a French Bishop), and has many enemies because of his ontspoken character, but is highly es- teemed because of his great reputation as a scholar. He has been an outspoken anti-collaborationist and his contemplated visit to France is bound to have repercussions. 3/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ' tr? t tt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 , o'N el\ Fringial_11121LLejarti lo. VI (#24) At -.53.-f e Ad.Y Undated (probably about the end of Sept- eibar) Conclusions on S holds that it would be imprudent to form any definite opinion on the new French political tendencies and their respective force, as only tentative political formation can be observed. He forecasts that the Government as it is now, is not stable and can be overthrown very very soon. It is true that progressive Catholics now hold many import- ant levers of command, but this may be followed by an anti-Catholic re- action. For this reason, the plane for a new constitution have not been worked out, as their presentation now might call for contrary re- actions which would prejudice the future. The school question is bound tobe a hard struggle; the atheist and anti-clerical tradition of the last 100 years is still strong. Spontaneous oppositions against the materialistic spirit of the university was already strong before the wars, and has increased during the war. It is better to await the end of the pendulum movement - left-right-left- etc. - for the next two to six years before risking the proposal of important constitutional changes. Itt this moment, there is a certain unity for a program of reali- sation, Which would give the state far greater control over economic life. The Christian democratics are as radical as the socialists and, at the moment, more radical than the Communists. S has experienced that the Communists always oppose anossacia measures of social action because their application would harm the "revolutionary potential" in France. He sec the policy of Communists is to maintain enough popu- lar unrest and dissatisfaction to allow them to appeal to the masses for the overthrow of the existing regime. They feel that if a coalition of parties (among which the Christian Democrats assume dynamic leader- ship) realises sObstantially a new structure of social justice, then their claim of being the "only savior" will be proven unjust. has the impression that fear for triumph of Communist policies dominates the Pope's ideas. He is most concerned how to counteract this menace and the central part of his discourse of September 1st stresses the economico-social reforms which should take away from the CoMmunists the reasons for their revolutionary appeal. He uses some Sharp expres444 regarding capitalism "Capitalism, if based on erro- neous conceptions and assuming an unlimited right over property with- out any subordination to the common good, the Church has condemned as Contrary to the natural law". ? zr?er 7S.e.0% 3446---4"1 ANA, a1e - *d. 2,1A 7 Declassified and Ap roved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001Rnnn1nnnA nnn ? fa- "mt ?=r- 911 ???? L:?-?"'" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 geRWRII,Nrometagotesteem - 2 - 11 This does not mean, says Sp thqt the Pope can be expected to come out for democracy and for the Allied cause. The Pope envisages democracy from( a purely religious angle as a form of supernatural charity, tending to give to each human being, the conditions of life which are favorable to his spiritual development. S thinks that when Pius XII is convinced, in conscience. that a measure must be taken, he will disregard all opposition of his environ- ment and be energetic. He admiti that it is rather rare that the taking of an attitude towards political situations should become a question of conscience for him, as he always sees pro and contra of each politicel attitude. The second "leitmotif" of the Pope's preoccupation at this moment is the hunger and suffering of the Italian people. Pius XII attaches less importance to the political reconstruction of Italy than to the speedy intervention to procure food, clothing, housing for the suffering Italians. 22111421A1-9..LIM_AUth2r These conclusions (in the opinion of this writer) which are only tentative, present an important aspect. All Allied approaches to the Pope should be very carefully studied in their moral implications. Whatever proposal or demand would seem to be purely political and which would interest Vatican diplomats, would not appeal to Pius XII. As most Allied proposals have deep moral implications, the care with which theme implications are given their full value might decide the reception or rejticetion of the proposals. %,? 4`c w. FORt' Declassified and A diummir"-- proved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001nnunnni _a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK, N. Y. Here is a further report for the General, similar to the one I sent you under date of the 24th of October. Would you b6 kind enough to hand it to him and he will determine wh&t, disposition will be made of it. 3/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 rtn. W.67 4.40. c. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 '1,4r 10141 p- OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK 20, N.Y. SECRET Ot.)1)er 27, 1944 MEMORANDUM TO: Brigadier General William J. Donovan FROM: John C. Hughes SUBJECT:_ILSeca1baclertNo.5 The attached memorandum on the State Secretariat of the Vatican is, I believe, harmless enough to receive reasonable dissemination, t'ut our friend Black added a few items which I think should be reserved for you. They are as follows: He had a conversation with Mgr. Fontenelle, who is a Canon of St. Peteii,a Frenchman, and a friend of Maritain. Mgr. Fontenelle has frequent private audiences and knows the Vatican e1i. He stated that, in his opinion, the Pope is deeply concerned about Italy and somewhat pessimistic over the strength of Commu- nism, which he believes would lead to Anarchy.in Italy and elsewhere. The Pope is also badly informed on Russia, and It is improbable that there are any actual Vatican npgotia- tions with Russia. However, the Pope shows some signs of doubtfulness, and it is not impossible that he will revise his opinion on Russia. Two years ago he still said "I do not know which is worse, Stalir or Hitler". Now, he speaks in the sense that Hitler is worse. However, he doas not protest against some of the German crimes for diplomatic reasons, believing that he had succeeded in stopping some of the harshest Gorman measures and not wishing to imperil that achievement by speaking. The same dignitary had seen Cardinal Villeneuve soon after his arrival, and while he describes the Cardinal as broad-minded and pro-Ally, he believes that he is trying to plead on behalf of the collaborationist CardinAls of France. The Cardinal told Mgr. Fontenelle that cardinal Gerlier had, immediately after the liberation, issued a Pastoral Letter telling the faithful to recognize the De 7 ?s* ;10 .1.. 41mmime, 4-- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 ? CIA-RDP13X00001R00010004onni _ - ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Gaulle government and to oboy it, but added to it "you must not be absorbed by 10. (Blalk says that this should not be accepted without checking, as it comes third hand.) I take it that you will consider my covering memorandum as c'or yourself and not for circulation with the attached documelt. Ntr"0"44217!: ? ? s...?1.7-'4!!,?'""'" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 A reliable and well informed observer has sent word from Rome that, at the present time, it is un- likely that a new Secretary of State will be appointed in the Ibtican, very soon. The Pope has an enormous capacity for work and has been doing the work of the State Secretariat him- self. He has all matters in his hands and no important letter goes out without his seeing it. Emphasis is placed on the exceptional spiritual and intellectual superiority of the Pope - "There is no man second to him". A candidate for the office is stated to be Mgr. Montini. He is very reserved and a great admirer and follower of the Pope, democratic minded, but very Mor. prudent. He is not believed capable of presenting in- dependent decisions. Another candid&te is Mgr. Tardini, who is more energetic. In November of last year, this same source pre- pared a memorandum on the policy making machinery of the Vatican, which is perhaps worth includinp in Con- nection with the foregoing. f-t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13*00001R0001000:10001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 November 4th, 1943 Having brought up-to-date our former ext)eriences w'ts consultation of highly placed persons in different countrles, we can present the following summary of the present machinery responsible fsr Vatican policies. Some of the persons conaulted nea recent confirmation on some points and some have been et the Vatican during the war. This summary is made with the aim of sketching the way in rhich reliable information regarding the present Vatican policies can be obtained. The S? Congregaion:J and the .Secratarilske of State. During the reign of Pius XI, it could be said Lhat the Sacred Congregations and State Secretariate were not really policy shaping. Pius XI made it clear to his advisers that he :studied imyortant matters personally and made his own decisions. This procedure, vhich is not traditional, was atoppd by Pius XII. It is known that the present Pope, altherugh very clear in his Ldeas? 1; rather timid and i,re- fers not to impose pre:tical decisions. It MI be said that the decisions regarding Vatican policy are nor made by the following Sacred Congregations. I. I. e 5ad di! .0 s tio for e traordina a! which handles particularly matt i's concerning Concor- dats and civil 10#? It comprises the Fontifical Commission for Rultiia. Normally, it is headed by the Cardinal, ,,scretaty of State, as its matters have to be submitted through the Secretary of Etate. Cardinal Magliono, rho is recognized as the great practical organiser in international affairs and is on of tie Cardinals known to be pro-dem:.,cratic (natably ihsn he aerved as nuncio in Paris, la the Prefect of tnis organization. Cardinal Pizzardo, who has been prom- inent in anti-derrooratic intrigues for mcre than fiftesn years, is assumed to be still influential La this eaturoigation. 2. o in Con ea o chooaes bishops and a 4in...atrators and handles matters concernine :11 dioossaa shiCh do not bulong to mission territor'FF. The secretary is Cnrdinnl Raba. This Csrdin.cd ie one 4 .1 4-1. ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 of those whlse polidlea art the least knoTn. SECRET 3. - he.art* eAlr?L,L.8-111LO treats matter4-Peiltaining to ',hose dioceses wnich do not follow the Latin Rite. The ,iecretary, Cardinal Tieserant end one of the most influential members, Cardiva; Levitrano are known to have pro- democratic leanings. 4. .Co atio fo Pte11011212-0: eiTh tree e matters pertaining to missions. The Prefect, Cardinal Fuamosoni-DuondI? was formerly apostolic delegate in the United States. 5. The Sacred Coongregation of,Rites deal, only with liturgical matters but the dynamic character of its Prefect, Cardinal Salotti has given it a certain policy-Shaping value through declarations of the Cardinal, first strongly democratic, for a time strongly Italian nationalists, and since 19..,0 re- affirming certain pro-democratic tendencies. 6. 2a,..11 ationthe Jjg1 Qfie deals lath the teething of faith and morals. It very rarely touches policies. The secretary, MaichettiAklvaggiani, is very Italian- 7, ilit.gitizid fairiegatlanh Araillittiek. althOekstrietly it deals only with diacip e haactmEskuSed recently for ideological policlea in issuing a, lilt of Anti-racist and Lntl- tatelitarlan thi,ses to-,be taught. (1938) The active secretaryr4Sgr, P,Uffini, is known to be pro- demecra0C4,-' Th* other Congrotikiont (Sacraments, Council, Reli- gio Pasilica of St. Peter) have no policy4ahaping influence. ea is officially an executive Office Omar* the hancery, the Datary and the ffqietfver,,,it is in fact becoming more and IkreAplicposhaping under the influence of Cardinal Ono 40.pf the preitent,under-aocretary? Msgr. who it now very cross to the Pope. Xi u derdrest*Torroliie. ind 4id=vals in 'he Congre- now generally _consist of exceptionally byskdprlldent ecclesiastics. Pius XII, although very illo*ing * reasonable independence, hos mairtained a tt,c?A - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 7.F i .1 r L I ? 1.. 1.10A ;-1.? ? ??????. -t? s ? 1,; ?,."" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ??.- "Ndvember 4th, 143 SECRET certain standard of unity among the leaders of the Congregations. The tradition that Vatican officials give no signs of their real attitudes towards policies has been strengthened. Vatican officials never give out secrets. Cardinal Maglione is more difficult to approach than his predecessors. When Rome is liberated, no change may be foreseen in the extreme secretive- ness of Vatican officials, Reliable information on Vatican tendencies can only be built up through the following approaches. 1. I_AL.A2xliheCoul The official Consultors do not give any information but each Congregation has semi-official Consultors 'ho can cseak mnre freely. There are semi-official Consultors for questions dealing with specific countries. So for instence, Msgr. Fontenelli, is semi-official for French questions and other Monsign,res or Professors are consulted on German, inglish snd American cuestIons. There are also semi-official Consultors on the legal questiona (prefessors of the Appolinart) on social and precise political questions etc. Themperions cannot tell %hat the precise Vatican policy is but if for a cer- tain time they go on defending a certain theses without Suddenly- atOpping, there are serious chances that these theses represent a Vatican policy. 2. ProcarOors.of Nigious Order*. They have tO go around-vev much for practical affairs and know all the4totrA#0.and gossip of the Vatican. It piecing toOthOtA14.14 Checking their informa- tion, the key to Ortain problems can be found. 3,ast,AritiLA.../..tAteLatioo_di,ei,j2.1.1errst_ziELS0 ,...idiarlaiS214suciaRos?.04 At the occasion of their visits to Vatican offices in connection 1 with their motbers or students belonging to different countries, it ie often possible to asla-cencluaionsfrom precise :reactions. So for .inetnnee, wiIkdifferent experiences made in ar- 11110001414,tostimad:Sseitinailit or. students to dif- fOreat CoUntrieilsitis -Often possible to mak* ' COncluSione on the relation between the Vatican ? sea thdae, Countries. The members and students from mmtofeoliptrIgo living in Rene are also ex- soursst,of infOrOation, mainly, if they *eve1ror4441T to other countries, as is the case of Cal*in professors rho teach half a year in, ROM. and the other half in balamanca. ,--e?nciPr?rs'??-?'..777:17. r - ?-_' ? ?111101111101 '? 41 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Ap roved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 4. Catholic Action lgadere of Italy. They avoid politics and are in general definitely a-politiml. In bringing up certain topics and studying the more or less severe reactions, it is possible to con- clude negatively which policies are not fa,,ored by the Vatican. 5. ienL_vsAe_z.L_L.Ljmfa?TheVatf.canlntPucci. Since about 1919, Msgr. Pucci has had nearly the monopoly of Vatican news items. Correspcndents know that they could not get information at the State Secretatite or other Vatican sources but that they could bid at the highest price from Msgr. Pucci. The reason for this was that the brother of Msgr. Pucci had made a bank- ruptcy of several million liras which Msgr. Pucci had accepted to repay, saving the honor of the family. Prompted by humanitarian feelings, Vatican authorities had come to accept th;14.- monopoly in the same of news. "hen opposition in news circles ran high against Msgr. Pucci, Cardinal Pacelli, then Secretariate of State, was too good hearted to impose a drastic measure. His successor as Secretary of State, Cardinal Maglione, who is much harder in character stopped this monopoly in 1939, but Msgr. Pucci is still the main source of news. The news obtainable from Msgr. Pucci is mainly straight ecclesiastical news giving no indication of Vatican policies.: Msgr. Pucci has been very friendly with Fascist officiels and if he changes his attitude after the occupatiof Rome, his statements will have to be prudently weighed. 6. lleLniguatgmfollame. Founded in the time of the conflict between the Vatican and the Italian govern- s/tont, the Osservatore has become less and less an ex- pression of Vatican policies in recent years. The director, Collet Della Torre, now ailing, has been for years an eloquent writer without, however, touching practical pialcies! He receives no instructions from the Vatican tbd even when he submits questions or drafts, he rarely niceties * definite answer. He does not actually direct tbeotendeicies of the Osservatore. Professor Guido Gowan*, who bap been writing for about ten years the AJmorirtarit column in "Osservatore Romano" (formerly %eta, Diurna"), does not submit his articles ? 4=4?:?..74,4/ nnri Annroved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 1 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ??4 /-?????,, -5- Novae, r 4te, 1943 SECRET (there is no censor appoieted to tne Oaaerv-t're becelse this would mean that the Vatican se?umes a c(rtnin res- poneibility for its contents). In personal telke, Guido Gonella hate oft4n proved to have a staunchly democrat e In compoing the theses he prints gith those np expresses in private conversation, certain indlcatidins or rthat the Vatican permits can be gathered. 7. layilut.coAlgt. Thin review of the Jefe,t4 Fathers expresser( the nearest thing to that may be called "the Papal thought." The review01121711als, may be considered authoritative, eithough the writers eave ine:de information, their articles are generelly rather abstract and only through prolonged contacts vith Liese wr'tere can concrete conclusions on ;recticel policiee be reached. 8. belksjelt.cep.a. At its found:Won, Vaticann was absolutely unefficiel. In tie case of Cardinal Innitzer f.nd other case, brosd- casts of Radio Vaticana have been puLlicly disavoped by the Vatican. since the ear, Radio Vaticena has be- come more or less an expreevion of certain idees -hidh the Vatican could not express efficielly. After a period of great prudence, Radio Vaticana has (since '42) attacked rather openly the Nazi tenets throaen news comments and sermons. On April 11, 1q43, a new program (for Russia) was stArted, for the first time vith the statement that it had, been organized at the request of Hie Holiness thel.,Pope. This may indicate a further step in using Radio Vaticana for the "semieofficirl" expreaSion of Vatican policies. Radio Vatican at the start had no budget for news and the General of the Jesuits supplied the funds. Father Sokorei, E.J. present technical director, is strongly pro-fascist and has hindered American Jesuit Fathers eho were organizing the news coverage. The organization of Radio Vaticare at this moment is not clearly deVned and there are th4pOraerbilitias to fop this ebennerfOrbetterVaformation. Ae% i? 2.. :8 WI 5- IS . -atigga.0001W+1.4%.M ia41.6.10r4rt-'" cnr Reiease 2013/09/17 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 r ? OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 24 October 1944 This is the report for the General which I spoke about to you on the telephone. The General wants it to be handed to him and I understand that he will determine what disposition of it will be ',1!"4:','"bz.,-1-f.s-wgmeo*Aewermimagswitosovielowww0Waliatawiliagagzetwediseetetiyair.-,41a't ."1"- ? - " P.:- - ? 11 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES 630 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK. N. Y. Brigadier General William J. Donovan John O. Hughes On Saturday afternoon, Fred Dolbeare and I showed you a report which had just come in from Bone, and you requested a copy of it. The report has been rewritten in a more legible form, brokert down as to sUbjects? and is enclosed herewith. You will note that I have labelled it "Special black report No. 1, 2, 5 and 4". I shall use similar hmaings for further reports received through this same ahannel, and routed directly to you in view of their seereey and importance. In the enclosed sealed envelope is the name of the "dial :shod informant" or "source", which I did not wlba to include in the report for security reasono, _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 . 4.41.Arme?gpmaier, iellVV0451.900 My source holds that the nearly exclusive Ltelian recruit- ing of nuncios, apostolic delegates, cufia-monsiguori, must cease principally for the reason that Italian tradition does not comp- prise habits of honesty and straight-forwardness. He points out that the other extreme would oe worse: if a nuncio to France had to be French, etc. He holds an Amorioan nuncios for instance, ohoula be in France, a Belgian in Go:many, etc. He stresses the great difficulties of the change. For lAshops who have to send priests to Rome to be trained for this work, are inclined not to send the best, whom they need, and even the beat are Rossibly not so good in their development as young priests in Ataly, since they are in a foreign country. The pressure for now-Italian nuncios should corns from bishops and also from governments. Declassified and and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ?,11i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 No. In (in) r' Theksw1Laxclhumta, - SECRET My source is convinced that the Russians have not approach- ed the Pope and that the Pope still holds that he must not make any opening. The reports of the only priest in Russia, corres- ponding with the Vatican, (the American Assumptionist, Father Braun), were still very pessimistic at the beginning of the war. They were interrupted for a time. Now they have started coming through again, they are still more pessimistic. Father Braun holds the leaders of Russia have not changed their ideas and cannot be trusted. My source has tried to change this impression by communi- cating the results of his investigations, but is convinced that the conviction of the Pope is firmly rooted that the Russian Government has no intention of allowing any liberty, and intends to pursue the suppression of religion. My source is firmly con- vinced, since the beginning of the Russian revolution, that Ruesia will undergo the same evolution as France. He renarked that they copied the very methods of gradual suppression of the Church as the French revolution: first suppress convents, then exact oaths of fidelity for secular priests, etc. He thinks that what happened in France after ten years (Napoleon's oppor- tunistic concordat) is bound to happen after twenty or thirty years in Russia. He says he has proofs that the Russian people will come back to religion very quickly as soon as freedom is obtained. Ne quotes the following examples: Hungarian chaplains (and four of his men, of the Russicum: whom he managed to send with the Italian armies) reported that when they communicated that mass would be said, the Russians flocked from afar - sometimes 6,000 assisted at mass. The Russian prisoners were found to be rarely anti-religious: about sixty percent of the rural districts have learned their prayers in the family - in the cities, much less* In Odessa none of the churches have been destroyed by the Soviets, but they were mostly converted into places for archives, and were well kept. All the church properties, instruments, books, etc., had been carefully kept by the faithful who were not molested. In Galicia, also, the Russians have not destroyed churches, but the Archbishop Szepticky fears the taxes are too high to continue to be paid. atlaits03e14660?KoNAIWOMEWNWINIgoSostr-so-.~og.,,.....-. - f ? I- -'=-7 Ly?T?rrIVACi For Release 2013/09/17 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 ? .1",),F? ? t 1 _ P- :14 Skr ii? ' 41 , ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 Katig,"44e*Ainfil.:4.1. 11. - 2 - Igs...41111.112.111.1milaugs0 t""? SECRET My source holds that the new tendency of tolerance towards religion, as well as private property, eterted as early as 1954 (although there were still two owitebbaco.e of persecution). My source complains bitterly that he had livoived no literature from America for five years, and ev61 e Ace the liberation, only a few copies of TIME (which he appreeititao and subscribed to before the war). He has relied mostly on Switzerland. He is going to get me his copy of the latest book of Piccard, *La Fin (Pune Revolution". The novelist,who left Russia only recently, described the three kinds, of Russians; the old-guard atheists, the people who kept their faith, and the young generation that is honest, moral, and begtns to think that what they really need most in religion. He says that reports from Odessa, for instance, showed that there was nearly no prostitution - an honest and truthful social life; that the Germane, Italians and Rumanians introduced perversions. He concluded that the Americans, like the Ruesians, are a naturally honest and moral people, and that the great tragedy is that too many European Catholics are not honest. lb, Cale 02...211-1f40.10-4.2-Ank,,MI A certain day, last year, my source received the visit of one of the young priests at the "Russicum*, Father Petchanor. This young Russian, educated in the Baltics, a convert, said he could not give his superior the reason for his frequent 713its in town, and thus had difficultiee. He explained how the superior, a Spaniard, who has the communist bogey complex in the highest degree, would not admit the reason for his visits: he was hiding Russian soldiers who had escaped from the Nazi labor battalions in Italy. My source arranged the matter by appointing a Belgian Father to give the young Russian priest the necessary permission, and warning the superior of this measure. Father Petchanor Showed mnrvellons organisational qualities and was soon helped by an older Russian priest, Father Serge Obolensky, son of one of the great Russian families. The main hiding place was the ? consulate, or legation, or a house that had been abandoned. The Italian Vico-consul who had to take care of the building, pilrformed these duties in picking flowers in the garden every day. Re remarked nothing unusual and was thus extremely sure prised,on the day of the liberation of Rome, to find the worde USSR on the door, and an armed guard with the red Soviet arm- band, posted before the entrance. When he went inside, he found sixty Agssian soldiers there with a priest in their midst. He started protesting, but Father Petohanor explained that they had saved the house from being requisitioned by the Allies, and soon the Consul was serving them the best champagne. When the repre- sentatives of Moscow cerived9 they found n Russian committee of liberation formed: it took some time beSbre they got usoe. to the 404 1 .....neaopsit,a,solbiftokbeicy..0.1.1?MpOlaiMmeg:rotONI0t.....H11-4.4}KOMNIANCOVII06.1101,10410,10,,Paq.~, - 4". 44amit*:- 41'6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 h._ : - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 - t's? - 5 - .4. 411.1?141,1-..-J el.#0e.P.t100.31501.4. SECRET priest whom all the soldiers revered. Now they are so friendly that my source fears that Father Petchanor may give them too much information. My source had contributed funds to feed the Russian soldiers, and the Pope personally made a gift for this purpose. On the first day of the liberation, sixty soldiers with red USSR armbands, led by Father Petchanorpmarched through the streets for the audience at the Vatican. They created a sensation, and were much impressed by the Pope's amiability. Note: The reports in the American press, saying a 'pope" (Russian Orthodox priest) led them, are thus incorrect. In fact, the Russian Orthodox priest refused to hide the soldiers out of fear of reprisals and hid one a few days before the liberation when there was no doubt the Germans were clearing out. The tal. ofVagy;L the An Author t e My source had asked the Pope if he could ask Begomolov for information on the Catholic churches in occupied Poland. He received permission to do so orally, but not to make the request in writing. He missed a few opportunities to see Begoaolov in meetings and talk about the matter unobtrusively. He then had a friend ask the question for him, and the rather curt answer was that my source could ask the question in writ- ing. My source is determined to enter into relations with Begomolov, and the following little incident may help: The Russian minister made an official visit to my source on the first days of his arrival. My source showed him his library; also the old slavic books on liturgy. The Consul was interested and read some prayers out of the book to show he knew the languag?-(the liturgical language differs from the present Russian and this proves that the Minister had received a good religious education). My source then gave him, upon de- parture, a couple of reprints of his articles published in an American Quarterly. He described, when presenting the last article on wrhe Action of Ultra-violet Rays for the Restoration of Old Paintings", how he had made a little scientific discovery. The Minister then became enthusiestic and exclaimed: "A Cardinal who is a pioneer in Science!" My source was a chemist before he became a priest, and showed the Minister his elaborate scien- tific library, My source is convinced that if the Russian leaders can come out of their isolation and see the Western World as It is, there will be great changes. He accepts my conclusion that the best policy is to multip4 the contacts 30 that the division between the, sectarian and isolated old-guard, and the open-minded and moderate groups, should develop into a permanent political bal- ance. ? ?-?-????? 41. ? I "-ans..ctt. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R0001nna4nnni_a ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/17: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100040001-9 IThe Pope is not sufficiently informed on Russia. Various channels should sUbmit reports to him on the people - he reads everything he receives from a good source. 7-FA.:93tV:5