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Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55,Q0001AO00100070011-7 CPYRGHT satisfied with the pro,sress mado to date. It seems apnroprtate to offer the caution, the-efore, that our problem cannot properly be defined as one of developing a now science of foreign societies. There cannot be one social science for the stub of one's own country, and a different one for the study of other natio;-`s, The task should properly be etatec tot an one of aaaekin our methods of research gore adequate for the study of foreign societies, but of tmprovtng our coneept .l tools and methodological equipment to make us ore effective in the study of &a society, X should likwe, therefore, to point out some Aaaaal features concern* and perhaas as evidene of the fact th.--t they are to nressaenttf; a s('ctologistle point of view in this symposium T feel compelled to begin by stating a matter of general principle. This session m.y be taken as evidence that .meriean social scientists feel the study of foreign cultures to be a problem of increasing contributing to the understanding of social systeno as such, keeping Alex inkeles Harvard University 38 Quincy Street of the soetologist's orientation which suit him to the tas?> o the framework of this symposium only to the extent that my Sal illustrative mr ertal will to drawn from experten interdiset- pltnaary research in the study of the Soviet Union. * Paper read at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Society, December, 1949, at a joint session with the American Political Science Association. This is a first draft, which will be considerably revised before) publication, and the reader Is urged to keep this fact in mind. Critical comments will be appreciated. itized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001 A000100070011-7 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP5540001AO00100070011-7 CPYRGHT wee sociologist who takes institutions as his data can, I believe, ms e a st l contribution to the eanderstan prime re* onsi bility for studyiu ; the t,roducttOn and dis- society through what may, for purposes of diseusssion here, distinguished as three different foci of research. to the first -)lace, the sociologist was. enrich the investi- gaatton of protless or areaat legitt:ately re-rd.ed as the chief concern of disci; lute other thait sociology, Certainly the econo- tribution of goods and services, and he has the oczireptual work and the research at hods to deal most effectively with such phone national incomee baste elements in his ductivo unit ca able of turctint ou' which the economist takes as the process of -ireductioo and. distribution may be invested h4th Important social measln&n for the individuals who participate in those -rocesses. The factory is not merely a per day, and emo 5n 7,%%y automobiles but is also a social organivation in 7tad with values affect by the participants. pie, the eiye of the labor force and the facto Abet cant m, z,ross national output, and central problems in the a f any economy. it would be setting up a straw Zan to pretend .that our ocono+mists have not cor=e a long wag *oa the type of eeono-mll.e thinking whit operated as if the behaviour of labor cou under the same general theory which acco .ted for the moment of raw materials in the marett ut it is not inaaroprite Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-Q,Q001A000100070011-7 CPYRGHT labor supply and itaR disetributio*l among the var! tress that awnj the 00ACitionse which significantly affect they economy and between different occupations are social are not systematically treated to most :systsrnss of eoonos tc analysise. To illustrate this point wee may not* recent Soviet a rteetace with the problems of recruiting workers for industry. In 1940 the Soviet goverment Instituted, and continues in force today, a systeea of state labor reserves based on an annual draft of about half a s tl,lton youths between the ages of l4+ and 17. 'The youths so aaobill ssd are train rid in lnduetr' al and craft schools, anc upon eoapletton of their t designs correct are oblige by the that At waq In large d.el ree neceseary to `or four ye .rs at an sntsrArt st. alyse# s of this sure has cal to youth off the farms, which enjoy a labor slurplus, and into industrial production, and it has also this reluctance of the rural youth to enter industry is related to ltv'n,g conditions in the crowded Industrial centers, wid so on. rtt; si i fi ca etly +'snou h this analysts did not deal with the that there is apparently no neeessi ty to draft ervice as white collar employees in offices and traado occupations In the urban centers, yet the t.acreeassr in the store of such o ccupa- tonal categories has been rot ly proportional to the increase in the site of the industrial labor force. Nor is the difficulty to resolved in torus of differential wages, since the pay of we Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-Q0001A000100070011-7 CPYRGHT of average skill to geanerally hither than that for comparable skill grades in the employee category, b ei# o.T i3itation It +s, of course, in the differential gtiki" I pl ac-,ed by $k viet yo itaas upon brain or white collar as age.inst pbyeteal or industrial work. rai atenee of such sentiments in Soviet society. presum- ably a workers' state, has entered into here, but it interesting history which ca.},not be priats to note that such eoe-tal sentiments consetitute data which the sociologist is sensitive to, has been tradition ylly concerned wia, and is particularly well equipped to str r.('T ?urtber ore, sociological anilysis a servo (' as an is,rnrt snt ad unct to stand=z,rd economic s es not only in connection with this ,)articular srobleasz of the ;rmbolte significance which certain statuses to the oectu,ttona the members of any ooctety*, but equally in the treatment of other social aspects of the productive process such a the patterzxing of tnter-personal rely.ttons in work grout:.ase, the reltition of informal group patterns to the formal structure of authtrl biltty in the plant, Aid so on. one of this to to suggest that the sociologist can rep ;ace the economist in the analyst* of ratio al escor:cis? es. rr th t ho stands equal to him It does atroz ?ly argue that tang account of tile. forces to the econonte realm with which the sot olo, ticularly r?oncerned. not only .d.e to the depth of oi 1`1, of the $eOnr:--:mt.e behc.Ttour of W. but actually may contribute Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55- ,0001AO00100070011--7 CPYRGHT to more effective ec nom c analysis as such. A second ohaaee of the sorielojiet'e contribution to the un.esr- staanding of any society derivoe from hi certain areas of social life riot oyster atlcalty t' aatea br any of trues other dtaeci;plina s, with the posEtble ex Ieptlon Aspeets of any society shook as the site and qua,?t insti tuttonp like the family, and phenomena like ' ry and researc :adequate workin ; grasp of any social s stes is possible which does .iot take account of theme elements and attempt to integrate then into the total schenc of analysis, it would seem obvious, for ample, standing of Chinese society is not possible for any individual who to not equipped or prepared to treat systematically the singularly important influence of the fanil in China. Similarly, the soci.oloa ;tst t s long standing concern with the phenomenon of social stratification makes him a strong card date for a major role In any effort to analyse a haste society such as that found in India. Cues again the sociologist's potential contribution say be highlighted by an ersaaa?ple drawn from research Soviet Dion. A6 fune ental t roblem in aseeesing the political etrengtle and veaknes?es of the Soviet rega that it enforces rigid restrictions on the expression of pubile sentiment to the extent that there to serious question thropology. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized - Appr .ved For Release : CIA-RDP55-0?0001A000100070011--~- CPYRGHT political scientists as to whether the leaders ay not be to isolated the feelings & ad eentime:utta of the population as to be unable to calculate the degree of popular support or o-?..positton which r be met by an government vesture. ociclogist. -,:s a result of his concern with the social rolr of mars communication is able to provide at Least a partial investigation of the flow of mass eommunte&tion qutc lj hi ?,hli:L:ts the crucial role in Soviet eoc#.ety of the several mi llio:i ; olsheevi1 agitators through whom the regi e i s able to maintain fairly cons t :r-,t = n i att. to co taet with the rank ;~anad file of the pcpulatio.. By er :ttting what for Sovt$t 7eondittone it a relatively free atmosphere of discussion in the daily sesssions conducted by the agitator with the workers in his shop or farm brigade, o then coll.atiz the reacts c ns of the population which the sgttai ter to thus able to coil which he passes up through the }warty hierarchy to the natiorxal tment of propegana3.a and agitation, the leaders are able to Mintatn a reasonably effective mechanism for determining the :stets of popular senttaeent on many iseueas, A third, and probrtibly the most important, feature of the sociology of institutions which is significantly related to the understanding of social systems i ;aa Vhat has erme to be known as structural-fuactio.ral analysis. 3toted in its siszpleest terms this approach assumes that the particular i:istitutic .s and Institutional eub..sy stems in & AY society are not indepondeait entities Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized - Appjroved For Release : CIA-RDP5510001AO00100070011-7 CPYRGHT any tyrs of f ! ly system, &- may bR freely combined vi th -hoar ~~:a*,fi any kind of occu,rational system. It asesureaa the eombinatlon of in any social system is not simply a product of hietort.. cal accident or the chance imraet Of culture diffusion, sition to such pri iciples, it statoo that the i.nstitutlous in a~ r society are meaningfully related; w tole fors a that the various el ie ats tore operate to support or facilitate the fuaeationt4 ifl nt change# in any one institution na be expected to force ad u: tment or to create dislocation in others and hence to the functionfn of the total structure. In arsti ciTmti on of repeated ett ti ci seta and r si eundersta id.tu, on these points it is nece>; sary to state that this fora ul? tinn. does not at all necessarily ignore the problems of el sec uilibrium in social systems. On the eontrnry, it prov'_clee P. theoretical fr s-- work for treating ^ueh diaec;suilibricar, unfortun> teiy called "social pathclo y*, in terms of the lack of integration between the elenente of the total stricture and the eoa:requeut strains on individuals in the performance of their roles I tions and institutional sub-systems. 11ett;- necessarily constitute a clod defense of any ex'istinc, status quo. Indeed, it provides a sore adequate basis for consideration of planned social chafe by bj,j. institutional forces might act to frustrate such programs in-so-far as t ielr did not tap e Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 -8- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-Q0001AO00100070011-7 CPYRGHT account Of the facts of the tnter.?rs *dese of the com ronents e5 t' the total structure. The most obvious advantage of such an approach to goo' lies to the fact that it focuse on the social system as a whole. rather than concentrating on discrete elements or aspects. addition, ;t f-%etlitatAe avotdw.ce of monistic tnterpre tat tons of tents in one realm of Ioriat life Which 4-n fact are giro,. foundly affected by forces operating in other the system. It serves, furthermore, to nintstsee the tendency towards theories h by u n tdeaaltett a tee over..rationali stir exm by what it tie effect an abandonment of scientific analysis through resort to such t seem.. t ally+ t retteal concepts an the "force" of history and the sirmsrutabtiity"' of human nature. A brief example drawn from the history of Soviet serial development is again aporcpriate at this point. t.cting according to what w-.s at leapt one log teal interpreetatict of Marxist-Leninist doctrine, Soviet leaderq adopted, in the early years of the regime, a radical series of miss ures concerning the school and the family. ools standard curricula w y by parties :attn? in grsup pro largely abandoned and sub- oing, pre-Vann; for life in visiting factories, a-*d on. The structure Of authority in the school Vas completely revamped, the conduct of the clasp largely entrusted to the ;aupils Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 jects such as aari thmette were de..eriphast sed, the reigning assuu ti oa Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55- O001A000100070011-7 CPYRGHT Ives through the agency of the Taw Communist the teaeber given little over the pails and in many respects sub1ected to their authority. In regard. to the fa: not only were legalised free abortion dam of divorce per:aitted. but the child wa neouraged etion the authority of his parents, and indeed was v'ewod as being competent to i:nstruet and if neae8raX7 to control them by resort to den'unciaE on before the authorities. In the early uadniddle thirties there began a marked shift away from there policies in -zvtet law and practice. curricula were reintroduced, the te authority an& even ally absolute free- cho+s l 9.ras restored to given control over the cells of tie loua ist League itself; discipline, order, aaad respect for author- ity became the standard and predominant emphases in the Soviet educational process. J ,elated chances toot place, to attitude towards the foam l,y. Not only were measur strengthen the family by eliminating free abortion and sharply restricting access to divorce, but the fa'l.y was reinterpreted as a=pillar on which the nation rested and the parents were re.s4efi,s as -partners of the state on whom it had devolved responsibility for bringing up loyal, disciplined, hard-working citizens. e mared sh i ft s in Soviet variously interpreted as products principle by the regiae a s leaders, and as the coax letely uxaoxeeptional exercise by the state of its right to curb social abuses h3f'ul to Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 S. p Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Its citiu$ns- -in+s, . v? %-fi rzrst morel Y put , the question o ne s trap back u to wh th y e leads b rsfldo aes Marxist nrin+ i ale d , z: ?e caud raises the n., q tes$1or~ of why 'a ate oats coa t s er, suited to the society's reec3.s o*' eat later to be deftneci aq js1rj.iri.nU*, tt to e! ested Ireran that a structural. functi03a 1 s" raac.,h ea-tly factltta,tes derscts di a a:udvlet Policy, if ti" s 01croentn w,,,4^,% a ehen es in 113 Gasen to take oitly one for i 6lustratx.crra in the interval, betarperr the adoption of ttr r r_ he - vwen t1 e8 +"Uid the b*yinn"'& of the 144j or s:r;i#'te 4 ~ aa 44 policy In ties thirties eerte,in crUeial c?es took place #Z, st ruetur e 04' Sovi st eCac iet.r_ established - -0-"maLLQa was and agricultural Production was recr ,njZo4 on a new leis of lar a sea" eallective units extez,sire IY worked by sr aehi ne ?addi . ation. the svtet regilae bed huildi n u'cxe seal+r n?eehani red armed fore** in arsticipaticr, uc iri.nent M' li taxi. srtr lesa. The Soviet anion+s iaicittstr7 its 2at*, a scaale Mechanized tore and its 1 l =tart' l?ro, r , partidularrl.r un 'er the condi- ticns of fareed d erelo pcaAnt which a raateri,,d Unst, amble of ,_-_., ~~ease,vet to .ruthorit 3s?. t the eaxl4r ;"cavl,et sclool, +cyate a and the sure}sect f ;,'.ly had encoura, ei devs~lcaiament of e parsra lity whta distxueted authority, reacted ne ative to dine '0l1ne, -rsd ind eed trel :eved to the rirture of tt rani the de :.ands Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 Sanitized -Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 CPYRGHT of both. The changoq introdtced into the pattern of Soviet education and the legal and social status of the fare' ly tun thus be Most meantnd;fu;lly understood as an attempt on the part rf the t-r.attcnee loaders to adapt those institutions to the newly defined ncede of the society for the the eftton of a different attitude tcwards authority during the process of socialisation - ' the future cittren*. on prevented here certainly doe not begtr to e e l st of the types of contribution whf.eh scciolo + can e, vs to a ,general social science effort to understaneF foreign e5octeties. tt has, for ee-?saole, b4en Imp enible to give proper weight to the importance of sociological exa.rience in the study of ecctsl change, to the potential usefulness of the methods and findings tar branches of the field such as U e sociology of religion and of to the ai>plicasbiltty of the Modest arsenal of fief : techuaiq,eas of empirical research ti.t tch has been developed. in the last two decades. bar was the material preeen ft ntandet to serve as a the sociological a lysis of social syste as. That tusk well beyond the scope of t !s discussion, and e?,would soon involve us with problems such as the inter-relations of ottvationa1 patterns and socia structure, and others of the c" fficulties fao4 n contemporary sociological theory sad research. Certainly the view presented hero - and t=`.s is perhaps worth stressing because of former met eunderstandings -- does not press aayr claim for sotiolo* as noma kind of "queen bees" of the social sciences for which the other disciplines are necessary but distinctly Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55-00001AO00100070011-7 -1.2- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP55.-90001A000100070011-7 CPYRGHT secondary workers. ther, the ba pAc ftesum,tton on rh*ch theee eoar? eents have been based Is th%t an adequate une.*rStanding social system, at least go long as we remain some inteegra,ted social science, de?aends an our ability and willin nees to utilize the ieen1tar contri bvtione of e The crucial cri tenon r:auet disci i.tnee. be the defin tion of the problem. the basic question .... How can we insure that the contribution discipline which eould enrich the analysis will not be neglected? - .and, Peconca3rtlya -- ' htoh 61901 1the ie beet equipped to t=at the team with th most effectively uti?i^e the contribution of th ther die?-t requires humility on the -.rt of the reproeent t d eci clines in recognt^.ing thy: limits on the the in(tytdual own field, -me frankrne