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pproved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A0001060 TR RM 0-512a PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE: MILITARY ASPECTS Selected and Annotated Bibliography OFFICE OF TRAINING Document No. 110 CHANGE in C1asg. (:] ' `*-C DECI;ASSIFIED CIaS3. C-t"; D TO: TS S C D+A V -lno, 4 Apr 77 Au?th: Date. 4 _ by.. ?L TR RE FLRENCE MANUAL 0-512a SEPTEMBER 1954 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 wA r pproved. For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 S E-C-R E-T Introduction Entries in Part I are classified. In this publication classified material is considered to be any item which carries the classification of Restricted, Confidential, or Secrete Top Secret material is not included. The section is composed of bibliographies, documents and government publications, Approved For Release 2000/08/1 Ef57-00259A000100090010-9 Y iApproved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 S-E-C-R-E-T Introduction Table of Contents P,ibliographie s Documents and Government Publications Effects R O O O O O O . 6 O 7 O 0 0 0 0 O 0 O 0 O O O. 0 0 0 0 O 0 O Instruction a a o 0 o u o o a a 0 o, Mechanical Methods. 0 2,3 a 495,6 Military Instruction. 0 a , o Nature and Theory of POW. o a Tactical and Strategic. World- War I . O O O O 6 O J O O World War II . o 0 0 0 0 Author-Title Index o (98,7,10 11,12 0 0 0 0 o o 12,13,14 0 0 0 0 0 0 s a 14,15,16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 . . 0 . 0 0 . 16 0 0 o a o a 17,18,19 i Approved For Release 2000/08/11- I -RfP57-00259A000100090010-9 25X1A Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11}~ECFp~57-00259A000100090010-9 b, Library Collections Library of Congress Catalog. Central Intelligence Library Catalog. Armv Library Catalopa Pentagon. G-2 Intelligence Document Catalog, Pentagon. State Department Cataloee CIA/OTR Library Catalog. iii Approved For Release 2000/08/1 1I 57-00259A000100090010-9 25X1A Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Next 18 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 TR RM 0-512b ~TSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE: MILITARY ASPECTS Selected and Annotated Bibliography OFFICE OF TRAINING TR REFERENCE MANUAL O-512b SEPTE IDES'. 1954 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 PART II. Introduction Entries in Part II are unclassified,, Books. documents and Government publications art!) included: Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 ,,.. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART IIII~ Introduction Bibliographies Books Effects . , . . . , . . . It . , . It . . . . It R . . r . . . 5 . . . It . ? . . . . 4,5 Mechanical Methods, w. . . s . 41 a It . Military Instruction. Nature and Theory of P.W. . IF ? , . . Tactical and Strategic. World War I World War II . . . . . . . . . ., . .. . Documents and Government Publications Effects . . . . . .. . . . m ~. 13 Mechanical Methods. 13,14 Military Instruction, . . . 14,15 Nature and Theory of P.W. . . ? . . . . Tactical and Strategic, , ? . n x 4 . 15,16 . } ,r a A R . 4 16,17 World War II. . . . a , , ? Periodicals Effects . . It It . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . 18,19 Korean War. , . . , a s . . w a , . . . . . . . . , ? 19,20 Mechanical Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . a 20,21,22,23,24 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 .-Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II Military Instruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,25,26 Nature and Theory ofP.W. . . . , 26,27,2$ Tactical and Strategic. . . . . 28029230 World War I . .. . . . . . . : 30 World War II . . . . 30013,32 AUTHOR-TITLE INDEX. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,34,35,36,37, 38,39,40 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE; t 7ILITARY ASPECTS PART II 1. CHUBAK, Benjamin. Bibliography of Morale. N. Bergen, N.J. 191,14 34 pp. (Mimeographed. N.P.) List of 625 items published between 1937 and 1914. This is a revision of a list issued in 1913 by the War Service Committee of The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. COFFEY, Lt. Cols. J.I. ?'Psychological Warfare Bibliography." Term Papers and Book Reports. Washington: Georgetown University Graduate School., 1953. V.P. A review of a number of books on psychological warfare deal with the following topics: effects of propaganda pn psychological reactions of the human beings; human attitudes toward war and peace; public opinion and propaganda in US; use of propaganda versus individualism; usefulness of the social sciences in improving hiznen affairs and relations between nations; military application psychological warfare., and its techniques; and psychological warfare operations in the Western European ampaign during World War II. 3, FARAGO, Ladislas, ed. German. Psychological Warfare; Survey and Bibliography.. New York C o :-axnittee for National Morale. 1946 4. GASIOROWSKI, Janusz,, BibiographiE. De Psychologie Militaire. Warsaw : Glo ma Ksiegarnia Wo j skowa., 1.938. .779 pp. Prepared for the Societe Polonaise des Sciences Militaires, Section Psychologique., by a PoBch Army general trained in psychology? Lists 6382 books and journal articles (approx. 1800 German, 1600 French, 900 Russian 800 English and Americans and 1200 in other 1an.guagcoj.. Titles are in the original languages., the introduction in French and Polish, the brief annotations in Polish. Has an alphabetic index of journals examined; an alphabetic subject index; a listing of all item numbers grouped alphabetically by country of origin; and an alphabetic author index of Polish authcrs only. 5. GILBERT, Harry T. Bibliography on Psychological Warfare. Oct,. 1949. 12 pp. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010.9 Bibliographies 6. MNER, Daniel Sykewar. New York: G. W. Stewart, 1949. A bibliography of books, documents (Allied and German), and articles are 1is:ed on pages 347-399. 7. "Psychological Warfare in Support of Military Operations." Iashington: Dept. of Stat3. 1951. 25 pp. A bibliography of selected materials with annotations. 8. SCHERKE, Feliz, and Vitztium, Ursula. Eds. Bibliographie der ieistigen Kriegfuhrung. Bernard and Graefe, 1938. 98 pp. A bibliography of books and articles on psychological warfare with emphasis on the activities of Britain, France and Germany during World War I. Also lists general works, works on the psychology of propaganda, and materials on the national psychology of the th'ee countries. Author index. 9, SMITH, Bruce Lannes; L.assiell, Darold D.; and Casey, Ralph D. Propaganda, Communication, and Public Opinion: A Comprehensive leference Guide, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1946. 1,35 pp. This Guide, one of tie most detailed existing reference works in the field, is a sequ:l to PrcDa annda and Promotional Activities: An Annotated Bibliojz?achy, 1935. Part I, The Science of Mass Communication, consists of four essays by the authors, on mass communication channels, content, specialists, and effects. Part II is an elaborately structured annotated bibliography of over 2500 books, articles, monographs, etc., published between 1934 and 1943. Exceptionally detailed combined author and subject index, (The present work is designed as a continuation of this book in the International political sphere only). 10. SMITH, Chitra M. International Communication and Political Warfare - An Annotated Bibliography. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, Cat. 1952. 508 pp. This bibliography of unclassified references was prepared by contract with the RAAD Corporation. It concentrates on materials dealing with international propaganda and communication, citing works on internal propaganda only when they are of more than general relevance to international politics. It does not deal with non-political -ropagandc and promotional activities. There nre 1659 annotated entries. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-0(5,qj90010-9 -a STANFORD UNIVEMITY. The Hoover Library and InstitLr:be, Stanford University, California. The library has large holding of documentary materials on propaganda in World War IT. According to Daniel Lerner, the Institute's Director of 1-:search, these include "probably the most valu^ble collection in the world on the Psychological W.rfare Division, SHAEF, and other components of propaganda in World War II." The holdings also includes material from the archives of the former German Propagr;nda 11Ministry. 12. STMERS, Robert C. ed. rmerica's Weapons of Psychological Warfare. New York: Wilson, 1951. bibliography of books, _,,),--)mph lets, documents and periodicals is listed on pages 198-2O6. 13. tW'OOLBERT, Robert Gale. Foreign Affairs Bibliography: A Selected and Annotated List of. Books on International Relations, 1932-1942. New York: Harpers, 1945. 705 pp. A sequel to Foreign Affairs Bibliography, 1919-1932 published by the Council in 1933. gists nearly 10,000 titles in 36 languages, about 75% of which appeared in the quarterly bibliographies in Foreign Affairs. It was compiled by a University of Denver history professor and veteran bibliographer .in the field covered by this compilation. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A00010009001099 Effect4. 14. JYNIS, Irving. Air War ard Emotional Stress: Psychological Studies of Bombing and Civilian Defense. New York: McGraw-Hill., l' 51, 280 pp. A RAND Corporation Reeearch Study, "undertaken in order to evaluate the psycholopical effects of air warfare and to indicate the nature of problems in this field which may arise in planning the defenEe of the United States against air attack." Part I,: Reactions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Part II.: Effects of Air War; Part III.: Psychological Aspects of Civilian Defense. 8'?.-page bibliography. Index. 15. SUMMERS, Robert C. ed. lmerica' s Weapons of Psychological 14. irf are. SEE # 53. lb, TAYLOR, Edmond. Strategy of Terror. SEE # 22. Instruction 17. HJ-RTER, D. Lincoln, and Jotn Sullivan. Propaganda Handbook. Philadelnhia: Twentieth Century, 1953. 440 pp. Defines and illustrates the technique of propaganda so that the layman can detect them when used by others. Demonstrates how techniques can be adapted by the layman to his own requirements. 18. BORNSTEIN, Joseph, and Pau R. Milton. Action Against the Enemy's M:_nd. Indianapolis: BobbE- Merrill, 1942. 294 PP. A discussion of psychological warfare, for the layman, focussed on American problems zrnd needs in the early part of World War II. Book I by Bornstein de~scribes?,he organizations, principles and methods of German psytthologica_L var'irre. Book II by Milton deals with conditions in American society that tend to cause vulnerability to Axis propaganda. The final chapters deal with American psyeholorica:. warfare. 1.9. H'JMMEL, William, and Keith Huntress. The Analysis of Propaganda. N,'w York: William Sloane ilssociates, Inc.,' 1949, 222 pp. An introduction to propaganda analysis, either for student or teacher use. -4- Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 1M14giease 2000/08/11: CIA-RDP57-002500100090010-9 20. K/M,IINS, B. F. Basic Propaganda. Los Angeles: Houlgato House, . 1951. 21. LINEBARGER, Paul M. A. Psychological Warfare. SE # 54 22. TAYLOR, Edmond. Strategy of Terror. New York: Houghton, 1942. 279 pp. .Technique of psychological warfare., and the effect on those who are on the receiving end. 23. U. S. Fifth Army. Functions or the Fifth Array Combat Propaganda Team. SEE // 75 Mechanical Methods 24. HtNSI (Jean Jacques Waltz), and E. Tonnelat. "Across Enemy Lines." Divisional Interpreters of.the Officiers Reserve Corns, French ~rmy0 19/44. 92 pp. An account of a three year offensive against German morale, translated by Cpl. Roger Starr, MOTE. Story of a. French non- com who, after observing a, poorly written leaflet that would not affect enemy morale, but only bring ridicule, writes a leaflet which goes through channels, and brings the author to the War Office in Paris. I-IASKETYNE, Jasper. Magic--Top Secret. London: Stanley Paul, 1949. 191 pp. r, theat-ri_c..T magician, i?1I() was eallod upon by the British govornnorrt "to mob-i.lizc ,',.e world cf mmric OF ainrt Hitler" Burin,; ,'orl.c' Una- 1', r ;1 t , his e7pr-:x':~_ ncos in inventa.n~},, plrinrtin. i si_nr. l~ r *e ~c l c ''. ,ar i jri :r c Y 11 As or 'tt .ci ed t" ti -e }.01ra1.. ng"neors, Ye 'C'c b i d` .nd fr btenecl the ene.;,.y tr:i_t,i devices 111 1. r5 duru;y guns, tank , -:.pan, :;na sub:a rines; disguised a.zrl'i_elds, harbors, rind batt l aships; "invi,sibl.e" iircraft, explosive coal, faked poisoned rats, 1 rtifi.cial smoke, nd edible maps. MilitRr7 Instruction 26. HUSEN, Torsten. Militar Psykologi. (Military Psychology) Stockholm.: Seelig, 1.941. 9,': pp. Discussion of the use of psychology in primitive and modern warfare. Includes sections on the use of fifth columns, school teaching, and German culture for propaganda purposes, and propaganda in the two World Wars. Compares the use of psychological warfare in Europe and in America. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 - 5- Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010119 Nilitaiy Instruction (cont'd) Books 27. Lf S!JEIL, Harold D. Propaganda Technique in the World War. Landon: Kegan Paul, 1927. 229 pp. An account of the propaganda programs of the European War. Chanter VII reviews tYe techniques of combat propaganda employed by both the Illies and the Central Powers and the achievements of each. Chapters VIII and IX discuss the conditions and method of propaganda and the results obtained from the various types of psychological warfare campaigns. 28, N,'TIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. Psychology for the Armed Services. (Edited by Edwin G. Boring for the Committee on a Textbook of ft litary Psychology.) Wastington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 045. 533 pp. This textbook and handbook of psychology for general use by members of the 3trmed Services was prepared with the collabor- ation of many specialists. Aires to outline "the military and naval applications of psychological principles" more fully than its predecessor, s c} olony for the Feting Man (191+3 ). Chapters on motivntior and morale, leadership, rumor, panic and mobs, asses-sing opinion, propaganda and psychological warfare, and differences among the peoples of the world. 29. STMONEIT, Uax. Wehrpsyehclogie. Berlin: Bernard and Graefe, 1'fl3. 161 pp. & basic German textbook of military psychology written by the scientific director of the High Command's Central Psychological Laboratory. 29A. SCHR.AMM, Wilbur. et al 1 he Nature of Psychological Warfare. Chevy Chase, Md.: John Hopkins Univ., January 1953. 288 pp. This book is a genera:. introduction to the principles and practice of psychological warfare. Nature and Theory of P.W. 30. KILIJARVI, Thorsten V. I Kern World Politics. New York: Crowell, 1045. 852 pp. 7 -says by 28 eontribir:ors on the background and trends of international politic:;. Includes chapters on the press, psychological warfare, international espionage and fifth columns, and internat:onal movements. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 _r. d1. tWa'hAh 2b00-48)11: CIA-RDP57-00259P000100090010-9 31. KISHLER, John P. , et al. Rumor, A Review of the Literature. New York: Dunlap, 1952. 121 pp. A compendium of information on rumor, giving the origin, uses, diffusion, effects on human behavior, and utilization of rumors in arf are. 32. TE 3JIER, Daniel, ed. Prop aga:~:rda in i ar and Crisis. New York: George U. Stewart, 1951. 500 .~~p. The most convenient existing collection of writings on psychological warfare by ;oeial scientists, publicists, intelli- gence and communication s-oecialists, etc. "Several items were prepared especially for this volume; others are declassified war documents here printed for the first time. A substantial number are reprinted from the learned journals and from specialized volumes designed to reach only small professional groups. Several items were taken :'rom current publications." The 27 papers by 21.4 authors and co-authors are organized into 4 parts: I. "The Twentieth Century Background"; II. "Policy, Intelli- gence and Propaganda"; III. "The Organization of Purpose and Persons"; and IV. "The !']valuation of Propaganda Effects." 33. MCKINZIE, Vernon. Here Lies Goebbols. London: Joseph, 1940. 319 pp. A survey of propaganda from Bismarck to Goebbels, analyzing in detail the propaganda machine of the Third Reich, its technique and effectiveness. 34. S+1VA, George, Pseud, War Without Guns; the Psychological Front. London: Faber, 1943. 156 pp. All phases of psychological warfare considered. Final chapter is Planned National Psychology. 35. SPEIER, Hans. Social Order and the Risks of War: Papers in Political Sociology. New York: George U. Stewart, 1952. 497 pp. Collection of papers written over a twenty-year period by a noted social scientist. Part IV. (pp. 323-455) consists of nine important papers on Political 1?arfare, including "War aims in PoliticalUarfare," '"'Re-education'--The U.S. Policy," and "Psychological Warfare Reconsidered." 36. STEED, Wickham. The Fifth Arm. London: Constable and Co., 1949 162 pp. Essay by a prominent British nublic:ist on the nature and role of propaganda. Chapter headings: I. A War of Faiths; II. The Fifth Amy in 191.5; III. German Propaganda Before Hitler; IV. German Propaganda under Hitler; V. The Work in Hand; and VI. The Weapon of the Mind. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : IA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010- "actic-,l and Strategic 37. LPORT, Gordon W., and Lec Postman., The Psychology of Rumor. Now York: Holt, 1947. 24, pp. :i comprehensive treatnont of rumor by two Harvard psychologists. Includes a discussion of the nature and origins of rumor; the psychological involved in its dissemination; its analysis and control;rnd the role of rumor in propaganda and opinion for_iation. Bgsed largely on experimental studies of wartime rumors, and tie experiences of the OWI and of "rumor clinics." 3`'. B ~:R , t , Edward '.J, Truth is our Weapon. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1.953. 355 pp. The importance of nsyc hologica:! warfare; ocmraunist propaganda tactics; and the contention that an international campaign of truth - when linked with firm, diplomatic, economic and military politics - can yield Last returns. The faltering progress of international nersuasion as conducted by the US Information Service and other propaganda agencies; lessons learned from the exnoriment; and guide: f -or the future, such as: (1) first r=ate executives; (2) !residential support and liaison at all levels; and (3) tactical direction on the scene rather than in :1nshinpton. 39, B~~I'lOV, I. Ia, 0 Iazyke gitatora. (On the Agitator's Language. "nscow, 1948. 55 pp. 14 handbook r'or nropaatndists in the Soviet JLrmed Forces. It 'cals with the method o" nrenaring a political lecture, the selection of material, the languagE to be used, and methods of 1e1ivery. to. C. f30LL, Wallace. Persuac.e or Perish, Boston: Houghton, 1949. 12 up. The strategy and timing of propaganda in relation to military operations. An evalutition of ,he British and American coopera t'.on in this field during the war. Al. 37 LINGER, Harold. The A:d.s or- the Air. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1043. 318) pp. Chicago Sun solumnist -rives an account of German, Japanese, and Italian radio uropag?na3a, 1939-1943, based partly on OWI monitoring ''ecords. Contains a chapter each on Soviet, American, and British wartime broadcasts. Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 :. i"Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Tactical and Strategic (cont1d) /.2. FELLERS, Bonner. Thought I it Against the Kremlin. Chicago: Henry Regnory Co., 1949. it. pp. The necessity of offensive action in psychological warfare, d3. FRIEDGOOD, Harry B. On the Psycho-Military Nature of Soviet Aggression, with Specific Proposals for a Pro-Democratic Psychological. Counteroffensive. Los Angeles: University of California, 1.951 110 pp. (Unpublished; dittoed) Memorandum by an associate clinical professor of medicine. Part I. "The Pattern and Operational Strategy of Modern Psychological Warfare as Practised by the USSR"; Part II. "Problems Confront- ing; the Democracies in their Search for an ...Approach to the Task of i outral .zing anal Destroying, the USSR's Psychological attack"; Part III. "Specific Proposals... "A Psychiatrically Oriented Expose." 4 . FUI...T..EI.I, John F. Maj. Gen. He,! to Defeat Russia. London: Eyre and Spotti swoode, 1.951. 16 pp. A British General presents a psychological and military program, based on the psychological offensive. His suggestions include establishment of a central western organ of information and propaganda, and stimulation of resistance movements and the "potential Tito_idm" which he says exists in all Russian- controlled countries. 45. GOSS, H:i_lton P. Civilian Morale Under Aerial Bombardment.. 1914- 1939. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: 1.948. 296 pp. 1. Air University Libraries, Documentary Research Division. A detailed, docvxi.onted account of .aerial warfare from the Italo- Ttnrk?sh war through the Spanish Civil War, designed to assess "reactions of civilian populations." Concludes that no one "could safely say that ma--s bomb?xdnent of civilians would either stiffen or break the will. to resist." 46. HOIE, Henry Reed, Black M::i.i1, New York: Raders Book Service, Inc., 1914. 89 pp, Before Pearl Harbor, subversive groups in the U.S. used direct mail and the congros,sionnI franking privilege for political propaganda purposes. A direct mail advertising expert here describes their activities. -9- Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A000100090010-9 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : CIA-RDP57-00259A00010009001019 Tactic