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November 16, 2016
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October 18, 1957
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Approved For Release 20.00/05/22 : CFA-'RDP60-00346Rb00200040022-2 G/Ia23a 18 October 1957 SOVIET GAPA$I TIES IN GEODES THROUGH . 7 A. Conclusions and Story Geodetic operations within the USSR are jointly planned and controlled by two organizations - one civil (GUGK) and one military (VTU) - which have cosple substructures scattered throughout the country. In the past,, geodetic educational inastitutiona .ham turned out an abundant steer of engineers and' theoreticians, . and today the USSR has no lack of con tent geodetic personnel capable of carrying on all essential tasks., First- oder hori.sonta control covers at least two-thirds of the area of the country, The Soviets claim to have the potential capability for aiding over 10. ,000 standard control; atations per yew.. In 19282-45, the horizontal not was readjusted to the now asovskiy ellipsoid; currently the not is again undergoing readjustment, partly because of the conversion of the European satellite nets to the Soviet date The Soviets havea strong interest in establishing connections be Wean their datum and both the European Datum and the North Aneri can Dater,, It is believed that the requirements of the ICBM program for accurate positioning between widely ' separa d points on the earth's s face has given great tuss to the oreti , g assy and graviiuetry, The Soviets will undoubtedly exploit the artificial earth satellite for geodetic purposes in order to gain more precise knowledge of the. parameters of the earth' a size and shape. They are not likely to change their policy of s ithholding es- sential., geodetic data and topographic maps from the rest of the world long as present political tensions continue. Approved For Release 2000/05/22 : CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022"2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2. Bo. Organization. Planni Basic: .arveying? and mapping of the country at large is centralized in the Chief Adrnnistratioi of Geodesy and Cartography (co on?y referred to as GUGK, abbreviated from tote Russian form of its name), which works in concert with the Military Topographic Administration (VTU) of the Aiy General Staff and probably also with the Hydrographic Administration. Other surveying aid marring ttnlt?a function as parts of i xdividual ministries, administrations, or trusts; but all are: subject to the centralized plane., programs, specifications., and supervision worked out Jointly by GUGK and VTU. GUGK is a, closely integrated urgar .zation Including,, in addition. to the conventional technical and adra1nistrat'ive units, many functional divisions. One policy making body, the Collegliim, , reviews the research activities of the organization and formulates Its.research programsa Another, the Council,, coordinates the activities of the various government organizations (including the Military) engaged in 'c6r?tographi,c.. and geodetic work. Among the divisions of GUGK are a central archives for the custody of all data; a unit that publishes geodetic and car ogrephie literature; a certra1 research institute; and a factory for the production of geodetic an(., other napping instruments. GUGK also maintains 12 aerial -photographic and geodetic ea abiishments and 12 cartographic plants for the analysis., compilation, and printing of topographic snaps.. The organization of VTU also includes many different divisions--a production service (VTS); a faculty for advanced geodesy at the Engineering Academy; as scientific research institute; an Approved For Release 2000/05/22x,:"Cq4-Rpp90-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/12 CIA- P60-00346R000200040022-2 instrment production plant; 12 topographic units; 7 geodetic units; 3 aerial ahotographic units; 12 geodetic and cartographic units; and a field training and testing camp. C : ent and AdequV4 tof Present and Future Research Facilities /aRmprh.wnwraahenxrnnwvrt+cotW J.xuw gnu. artvvr4m exvrvLY*'m.rvtao.-M.4yeM:owv?mcint..:.'saM'we+..vrti+?:v., Research in geodesy and cartography is carried out, in many i*jtitutions throughout the USSR. In the past 10 yearn., great impetus his been given to geodetic research by problems- arising; in connection with (1) the appli' tion of aerial. photography to crapping,, (2) the testing of new electronic surveying methods, and (3) the anticipated geodetic rains to be derived through the use of artificial earth satellites. The Central Scientific Research Institute of Geodesy, Aerial Surveying and Cartography (TsNIIGAiK ), located in Noecow, ~ is a huge complex organization devoted to all phases of geodetic research. The Soviet Academy of Sciences also has research institutes scattered throughout the USER, the greatest cone etuGrat7.ons of which are. around Moscow and Leningrad. Recent reports indicate that a special Institute of 1?1atheinatics (under the Academy of Sciences) has been established in Moscow and'"' . doing all the theore,Li ca.J. yrcrk connected with the orbits of artificial earth satellitesm The Soviets are quick to create nr- institutes for work on specific. prots.j_erms that do not fit into the existing organization. Current research raciliities in geodesy appear to be entirely adequate to handle the heavy load of further read justinent of existing control, Yong with the many new asi ro.geodetic; investigations occasioned by the orbitting of an artificial earth satellite. Approved For Release 2000/05/22 !-CNA .RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 ?ua7 ity~ 4 ua.raf;rtt x r_txd Effective-, ;:a.on of M aipowe. Soviet geodesy today engages a vast number of Taorkers (estimated at 155000 to 20, ) representing all levels of training and experience from field work through abstract theoretical research. During the past 140 years.. strong govea?, rient support, has attracted many young people to geodesy as a life profession. Tb xceptional ; tudeixts are givers special encourage, en.. and inducement to develop their capabilities to the utmost. The number of women performing laboratory tasks and. even surve,ring in the field is surprisingly urge. The established training _vystear appears to be providing sufficient znipover to meet the current need for geodesists since high--ieve? Soviet sources have i..t di.catec' that there is no lads of competent geodetic p:,r conr_el in the USSR today. Soviet theoreticians working on the .figs. re of the enr`bh and on. ravi n tra c problems are recognized throughout the world ?ae being among the topmost authorities in their profession. in no othexr ns.t A.on does there sew ?to be such avid interest in advancing geodetic and greork-Lationai theory to.z eet the cha11 nge of determining still more pa eci ely the, values oZ' 'tae par'arymet ers .thich relate to the size and shape of the earth. Soviet Ob_tect1vb'v n M A'or Ac:r~ 7 evth rs ' rend ~ e _` IISIIr,, re The Soviets are currently cxt.e din g _ ILAr3t-order horizontal control from the ma.ilna easttctwes1 riot, in the southern pw-i- of Siberia. northward along the pra.r ipal river vaj.1Ays to uxre Arctic. The ultimate objective is ccuplete caverage of the USSR. More than t" a thi ?de of the wcoa of the USSR In now provided -alt h Approved For Release 2000/05/22,,: -CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22: - P60-00346R000200040022-2 i s .'order control and standard tri x ,atio ?t',atione (first- and second-order)- now ntmber more than 320,000. Cvnlrol in the remaining uansurveyed part of Siberia can be established at any tin within the next 10 years as the need for it arises. The Soviets claim to have the instr ur nts and manpower required to add more than 10,000 new triangulation stations per year. As it now stands the Soviet net is the most recent and one of the largest of the world! s principal horizontal control, Hats. It represents a major theoretical and practical geodetic achievement., accomplished wry largely within the last 10 years. Soviet horizontal control. was readjusted in 1942..5 and rra.s referenced to the new x`raso,*skiy ellipsoid by a new projection method for the transfer of points from the_ earth! s surface to the ellipsoid. Relative positioning accuracy between widely separated points is estimated at 1:10O,O00. Another general readjustment of first order control is appare-ntly now in progress and should be completed within a year or two. 2. Krasovski. IIMaid The Kraaovskiy ellipsoids adopted for the Soviet Union in 19146, fits the vast area of the USSR much better than the Bessel ellipsoid,, iihich was abandoned. The calculation of the now ellipsoid was accompl shed by the Soviet before World '?T x7 n, They had e: ined the question of the earth e s triaxiality and iecid . that the biaxial ellipsoid approxinsted the geoid closely enough for practical purpose,,. The Soviets ar?c keeping a very watchful eye upon all geodetic work elsewhere in the world that night contribute to a refinement in the values for the earth's semi-major axis and flattening. In tale years i ediately dead., the range of uncertainty connected with those values Approved For Release 2000/05/22 A-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 : CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 -should be narrowed, A variety, of new celestial methad which are now ;eb.tae will provide the geodesist rlt 63 oert wears of approach probiara. The Soviets, howt erp. arparently he ee no sp 'c:f ":]. varita ge over the Wort in. the application of celestial ethods to "'he erniaration of a better "best fitting elipav .d. " C org poi Nets. of European Satellites The integration of the geodctic nrYos of the Duropean Satellites ,-.t;h the geodetic system of the USSRR has been in progress since 1952. C on piste integration by 3-9.59-60 is a rua.. or Soviet objective,. ;:cast of the .'We a.d work had already been done. The whole Sot ie Bloc f n. H 4 eapc t il.I '_us h referenced to a s i ngie geodetic -datum with h initial o ?' `t, at h Ikovo in the USS io This cormersion to _-, unified sy e i l , v --introduced i..a in the geodetic coord3i .tce of ac;ntrol. points throughout e e l..te areas,. Maps that follow Soviet cartographic stand ed ; cad b& .,c~i on the new coordiniates are now being prepared, Fcx r East Me topographic series at 1:25,O0is almost; eao i ;ed. s ithougII e x aee?sion to the het geodetic sys,L ,erra satisfies the ~~ di c to need _? n- riterrupted large-scale map coverage of the European Bloc arena., a C z =r,2 o more rigorous mathematical readilistar:ent of the' SOV02,C)c -:a'-?g ever :,ontrsol. is definitely planned and pr obaV; y will be carried .x4 during the next, 10 trear'd b Lama Aon ?ritto the Euro se Pate a--ii the cst blishie of a sin? 'Le datu3. for :ovhIoc areas In eastern iir?ope, the Tray became clear for a oS blc *~?F7& t e co a.ee2E,C tion ;. .Fri sae recently readj teed European l) tua;ii wee,; of the, iron Curtain, l a ~; e ~. p ;e od 3 sty are thoroughly f i' vdth -',be readjust-mm"':, of the Approved For Release 2000/05 P60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/A' P60-003 68000200040022-2 25X1X4 'European Datum that has been carried out by US and treat German geodesists. The new European Dattrnt has been generally accepted by. the countries involved, although it is realized that there are compromising inaccuracies in some of the older triangulation nets. Uestern Europe now has a unified geodetic system to which the Soviets can make a theoretical tie. We believe that a major objective of the Soviets is the resolving of the differences between the two datums in order to obtain relative geodetic positions of far--removed points on both sides of the Iron Curtain. The geodetic positioning accuracy required for the loanching of intermediate- aid long-range missiles to all parts of Eurol a can be secured only after a connection is made between the two datums. 5. Bert Strait Connection For many years, the Soviets have dreamed of a connection between the Soviet and North American datums across the Bering Strait. It seems probable that the Soviets already have made a preliminary connection by aerial photography, or they may covertly have made direct observations. ~~~~~~~Wndicated that by about 1960 the Soviets would be interested in making the connection jointly with the United States. A tie across the strait would improve the relative positioning accuracy of Soviet launchings against US targets. Any joint USS1JSSf operation to make the Bering Strait geodetic connection would be distinctly to the advantage to the USSR unless an agreement is made for the exchange of the first-order control data covering areas extending several hundred miles on either side of the strait. are consider Soviet, interest in the Bering Strait connection an indication Sovi firat--'order control now extends to the strait or will within a that/ few years. Approved For Release 2000/05/22 CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 ..`C' c.t al eartkA satellite spa :. 'a~ 3 la d ed f -oom the CIS,, on October 19V was the first o.: axle.f a do, Z.h saatel .tea 9h.: rthe So s g w:. ,' attcwu t to launch for s ciei tifi~ p~: poses during ?z 9 A ~ ` S a s ~ " ' ? : ' m ' ? L~i.?J ...5 G Qby ica Year. So Carp the 3av ic'- l i ve not v erre 1 hd the nature of Pny gravity ex):c: S e is to do ten air ctly the v ,::~viati_on s in iha earth l s exterior gravity field, that they might ?attenipt h r ~ a ~ rr the r : , : . a of a satellite. They are confident h vver3 that the t.ti rrth ~;. tellite will eventually aovide a weans of Bete zi ng the gravity a r F~:; z and .fratte .ng of V,e earth. We beUe : 1,. t the study of date,, 1ite orbits -AU-, indeed., eventually lead to geodetic gains . n~; ri n ;tee ear .h ' s gravity field., At, pre sort the prob:.e seems to bw . ro "s c first., the satellite mist be established in a nearly ' e circ.;uia :' o 'bih-preferably several thousand miles above the earth ssur9i`'ace d u cu be trackable by optical or other rffaar m; second, ma ccura e, da t ninatio:ns of the ;,at sl ,i.ta4 s position ant be made from 6a.C'_4.onc. all over the ear ,h so thit a precise orbit o-er a oeiect Period of time can be comTiated? It is f om the anaLyd s of the precif3e?y c+ =rrthx d orbit that local. gravity anon .es and the earth7n- flattening can be ,b~?,ained. The critical operation i.-, the ti in - anr` accuracy of a ob r rrtti.ori of the ?sate .l1te?s position. Since Sovivll. c; 0se'vat'tonsy a i wnp are lin .ted to a network of - ation , itbin the "ins oviet Bloc $ the S o viet would have to rely upon obser ati one f ;r ~aa ,_ c a~a chiefly from -,-he United States ae t throughout the word. ?_v e believe that i prove sre at in t v w reP.Lativ i dionia of 'm he f .'?. a ~;ca..At: nefr ho o _ c;or~ ~a , n o the worlds Wtll lfr on Approved For Release 2000/05/22-: CIA-RRDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 : CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 of ? eode tie g to bet ri xc'~d from r h ateo .t e ' .- be a a: ish(id by simu .t rieo a obo At ?ont? of the P'; fro ?CY'1+ .+. -~_e ?; a: :, ra w Deepite U, ~uec. Sov raluct ~ a t e i n t , plwnv) ~ g of earth Sat llite pb. b or geo . AC r ~ ~ a x SS}L w ll derive no e r 2oodcb .mac gem that, t ` ssx ls> emv h t x',`ioe?i,...:Yse m. is d3'ar.?.r'a the m- 10 - :Caen Qdmn M. is hem o f geodetic - o g r e & i in Co i ni Ch nay .e d gmLjmmat from the USSR a Bast rang has neon sent into the tree.. ?a'Vin o:a the u el op m ens of u ? ",11M, and level. Undoubt? d fashioned alter the Sm ?iet pattem. will be developed w vw- :utall: re t in de able geodetic control lbr Chi : . Th. ; a r i e t d a t x ill in time embrace the greater pmt of the Asl acyA, FIe i.c pereo a be be ch ff cd b&yyeen Cory, .t.3SR and, the o1e letic operation in C14-ma is probably m-Aer o c .Thh; 4ik by trap Soviet gecdeeiit e The Soviets have -m s t o ion to considerable depth inside Gem& in ~a:A,ta~:eya~oa o'r ofe ar 'border,, . eny other oo y, the Soviet Union ? e the k re de xr, ggr .ty courage of the co?atry to o'ddo deflection end idal heights V x est bl it A o .f' horisontai ecnty s .a t in placed upon etet.Ui by o methocd t% : rite Approved For Release 2000/ CiA--RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05P60-003468000200040022-2 of the de .eetion angle at the initial P01a. The program calling for i gravity obE a at-I n per 1,000 equ e k ,lo titers, or a total Of W "M than 20,000 observations the USSR., has long been eo 1 t - vity c of the Soviet, Unions therefore,. is worm and a: p ete- `l oueand of obawr 4cmi have so been nade at, a with pendulwa ape' ran i'A to a of the Venice Neinea type. Gravity analysis a .des one method o}? dete m.i ing the l atten ing, of the earth, provided rep a atative data f'r all over the atimh are avallable. The Soviets are e g g vit data where sr obse atia are awn to have been made. Soviet political? l dip h yor, regard gravity data to having rid l itm g1go-Afioan ce. Co .equently, Soviet. scientists who inditiduaUy favor an xcha e o such data m: th the. Weet are mxpletely ov ti i t , and no a axe release outside the USSR. b seem a pro"oablo that within a f are2' o od* now der de - velo ; o will faci ,tate gnieker and more accurate deter-minatione of ~Vity at sea. The Sovi.bta are known to v rag on app tus for a c x x,. 7a ?a to and they also are considering 'a ae ;sib . ty of enaiw gravity In a . i ee4. The variation of gravity vmith altitude t be abate in conjunction with the flight of long-range ' ' ietic - i-Msi.IPs.' The Soviets have w-de ua gravity da aatior through cut the A: tic. area and at present are Including gravity Vrasurmlients .t s e ?t l IGY oh m.!iw ado taken In Antarctica. Approved For Release 2000/05/22 4 (I A.-RDP60-00346R0002-00040022-2 Approved For Release 2000/05/22 : CIA-RDP60-00346R000200040022-2 TOGtO Stet geodosi ,s have studied the use of e1 ?tav--opt a. a app ,t ;Coe diel awo measurer-ant in dhacking thee sides of the horizont91 eoi'brol note Their trod of a _odu .ting light w mu by parallel K e r r C i c fors is AmU ar to that eip1o by the Bargst Faara g odiieter, but they have made some od is atioo? which peceivit mea.; a wn'ws to be taken in the 'brierrLness of day. In 195.43 Sovi. vos . on the i .oeity of light in v c 7ield a vvlua of X99.o793n9 ? 100 W860, which is o t 10 ; /o higher thm the avere-.90 of sctra 1 recent det4rndn, ,ions by western observe ?go 1,70 tbeliwiv that the eaj% i ediateiy ahead., the Soviets w M r e to tile utwgt the d v 1o n t . of o1 t ; c and opia i a. par t i for distance ureae a as n 0*03. -ial 014-i ry to a7W prosent 11 jor read ju ent Of theirl-first-order not,, 10- ISOVICt PoAio7- Of Withholding Geodetic Data .f..naq.6rNRra*c