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March 1, 1956
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Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 -ow -New INSPECTOR GENERAL'S SURVEY of NEWS HIGHLIGHTS March 1956 Officer Distribution #1 -DCI #2 - IG chrono +3 - IG subject (destroyed 5/26/58) Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 25X1 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Next 3 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 App App U_NCLASSIFIED- ovea ror Keisam,R24E3gteagATTA- "":44990419?19002NS/E1'606 '?....-' CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICIAL ROUTING SLIP TO INITIALS DATE 1 Mr. Richard Helms, COP/DD/P MAR /4 '56 2 3 4 5 FROM INITIALS DATE 1 LBKirkpatrick, IG 4 3 9( AA01 14 Mar 2 ? 421 3 I--- SIGNATURE RETURN DISPATCH FILE ' 1 APPROVAL 1 1 INFORMATION I I I I ACTION I I DIRECT REPLY I J COMMENT I I PREPARATION OF REPLY I I I I CONCURRENCE I I RECOMMENDATION I I Remarks: ?oustrthff For your commenj; and coordination with DD/I. See DCI comment on p.4. LBKirkpatrick Release 200a,1,4919E:NcReDP64-00046g9cONAWROE FORM NO. 30-4 Provious editions may be used. NOV 53 U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 16-885413-2 (40) -0 -0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 ?4aibiTHE CHRIST AN SCIENCE MONITOR RW EIR AN INTERNAT/ONAL DAILY NEWSPAPER Dail Mirror et :LW .11.11 mawnsgov.... ,ouirrrizirmitt .0,4 ? oft ? - ? 1"..S..111 101 0.0.161/ )180A M N 0 0 0 CI) 6 SilON ISDN"' Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-000464g00200120006-0 Pifer The tin Tsrgeognized the r.volutlonai7 government of provisional President Loriardi, in Argentine. The iet, coifing just three days after recogni- tion was sought,. was `Said to be "as fast as was diplomat- ieally and technically Possible." The United States became the tenth government accepting the rev regime. (Page 1, Column 1.1 The Lonardi government made Its peace with the General Con- federation of Labor, long a bulwark of Juan D. Perdn's dic- tatorship in the country. One of six concessions to the labor group was the assurance that General Peron would be guar- a) teed the right of asylum. fp:3.f Terms were announced shortly after the former Pres- ident steamed out of Buenos Air e s harbor, asylum - bound aboard a gunboat of the Para- guayan Government, 13:11 Intent on barring a Perlin cineback, all parties in Argen- tine have announced full sup- port of the provisional govern meat. Demands for full pont -- teal liberty were heard from the Federal Democratic Chris- tian Union. [5:2-3,] Field Marshal Sir John Harding, chief of the imperial General Staff, was appointed Governor of Cyprus and corn- Mender -in- chief of British forces there. (1:11 The United States, moving to forestall a possible like Soviet step, has ,offered to sell arms to Egypt. Strong Israeli pro- tests .are likely. [1:41 Bolivia plans to seek dis- armament in Latin America under the auspices of the Unit- ed Nations, (4:31 . Proceedings at the If. N. s,cheduled for today. Page 2 ? Cambodia declares its freedom of French Union. Page 6 French Premier reiterates silm to keep Algeria. Page 6 ? Malone says Soviet is 30 to 40 years lehind U. S. Page 8 Rumanfans getting more con- sumer goods. - Page 8 = India faces test over plan to tedraw political map. Page 9 Approved For Relea N.Y. Puss stp 26 1955 GOOD *IGO TO EISENHOWIS From all over 'he world have come the messages Of goodwill to- ward President Eisenhower on the occasion of his Illness. We rejoice over the news that he is progressing fatisfactorily and join in the chorus of good wishes for his speedy and complete recovery. Our concern over this sudden ill- ness arose, from the beginning, be- cause of our realization of how much he means to us. Our anxiety is the product of deep devotion and warm affection. We accept grate- fully the physicians' reminder that thousands of men have had similar difficulty and have come back to lead long and useful lives tirreafter. This is what we wish for our Presi- dent. The scope of the messages that have poured into Denver in a con- tinuous stream must be heartening to President Eisenhower. He knows that a whole free world is pulling for him and praying for him and that anything that he suffers in the body is shared in the minds of liter- ally millions of his fellow men. They want his surcease from suffering and his return to his usual joyous and stimulating activities. The range and character of these messages of goodwill, moreover, have a deep significance. It is manifest that President Eisenhower has be- come, in various parts of the world, a symbol for the hopes of a be- wildered end struggling mankind. His has been a fresh voice and fresh approach. He has inspired a new hope and a new confidence. He is the friend not merely to good causes but to all the aspirations for a brighter future in a better world. This is doubly significant when one considers the background from which "General" Eisenhower came into fame and world-wide repute. He was a soldier, the protagonist in North Africa, the liberator of France, the conqueror of the Nazis in Western Europe, the veritable military architect of victory. 'Later on he became the chief organizer and head of the united military es- tablishment In Western Europe. Now it is in an entirely different light that the world sees him. The military man has become, above all, the "man of peace." It is Eisen- sonable accommodations, of a better spirit. of Wed& Confidence, who is the. objeet of Worid-wide concern, Few think of hien now as a military commander, Weever greet his emi- nence has been in that field. He is rather the statesman, the pacifier, the diplomat, the idealist and the friend of peoples everywhere. In justice to President Eisen- hower, however, it. must be empha- sized that he is no exponent of peace at the cost of freedom. He has never ? been. associated with the idea of a surrender. The "man of peace" has Made it plain that what he means is a ?"just and lasting" peace, and that is not the product of compro- mise with this very justice. Thus the anxiety that has been expressed is the, concern over a symbol and an ideal. It is not just Eisenhower the man--however at- tractive the man may bee-who has elicited then enormous messages of goodwill. It is aleo Eisenhower the idea, Eilienhower ,the concept, and and greed hops-1 Will pose a d raise Mem f his , health on the do- Eisenhower His lila variety of P questions. has an obviottio mestie political scene and upon what happens in 1956. It has a bear- ing upon international meetings at almost all levels. It has a bearing on what men are thinking in Lon- don and Paris, in Cairo and Karachi, In Saigon and New Delhi and, by no means least, in Moscow and Peiping. But for the moment the biggest of all the questions is that of his get- thig well as quickly as possible. Obviously he must have a period of rest and recuperation and this may have to be extended, Whar. has hap- pened dramatizes once more the enormous load that is carded by the President. It should point up, once more, the need for modifying some of the functions of responsibility and lightening that load. Those questions, however, are secondary. The important thing now, Is that he has weathered the shock and is doing well. We want that im- provement to continue. We want our President back at his enormous task. And we want him to be well and happy. So when meat of the world joins in saying "Get well, Mr. President" it voices a warm senti- ment that has many aspects. That voice should honor him and en- courage him. He does not need the that the en- 6-0 fhonor but we h aR41121111:1 NMI Wasb. Pest M. roes SP p .2 6 19959000zi?oot000tmv000-ndcw-via 60/ZI./COOZ eseelet1 -10d psiccrici2N6 1955 eliv. Red Nuclear Of Big Famir at Gateau U. S. to Pa*le Talks WASHINGTON, Sept, 25? The United States will publish last Reported isters meet at Geneva'on Oct. fore the Big Four foreign' min- Four conference at Geneva he- the record of last July's Big 27, administration officials said today. Secretary of State Dulles said after the meeting of heads of state In July that the United States planned to pub- ' Bah the record. In response to British objections he explained that only formal papers and ' speeches would be collected. He pointed out, that . most of these already had been made public textually or in summar- ies given to reporters, so that bringing the documents to- gether in a single volume would be mainly a matter of conven- ience. understanding that there Wouldl It is understood that the British Government, on the un- derstanding that there would he no attempt to record formal, private talks of the : heads cif state, as was the ease In the Yalta papers, has with. its objections, ' The. Atomie Energy Com- mission on liaturday reported the Russians .:have set off an- other nuclear explosion, "indi- cating a continuation of their tests of 'nuclear weapons." here is the text of the an- nouncement: "Lewis L. Strauss, chairman of the ,United States Atomic Enerey Commission, stated to- day that another Soviet nu- clear explosion had occurred in recent days, indicating a continuation of their tests of ;nuclear weapons. "Further announcements. I concerning the Soviet test Sc: ries will be made only if some Information of particular inter- est develops." Only lenday,Gen. Thomas White, vice chief of the Mr' Force, told a Pentagon gather- ing of industrial, ?business and professional leaders that the Russians .are perfecting new N.Y. Time* SFP 2 fi 195s AIR DEFENSE STRESSED R. A. F. Chief Is for Closest Teamwork With Allies --- SPdII to MR New VOrk T !mei. LONDON, Sept. 25?Sir Wil- liam Dickson, marshal of the Royal Air Force, emphasized to- day the necessity for the closest cooperation and coordination be- tween the R. A. F., the United States Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force. Sir William, who had just re- turned by plane to London after talks with United States and Ca- nadian air chiefs, said that no special significance should be at- tached to the discussions. He described the operational questions involved in coordina- tion as secret matters. But he added that they obviously cov- ered the cooperation between United States forces in Ileitain and the R. A, F. and between the United States strategic air forces and Britain's bomber command. He said air power was the chief element in the defense of Britain and her allies. atomic 'Weapons and guided inisailes. The Soviets ere carrying out another nuclear .test, White said, "right after the summit conference at Geneva" on peace. Last Aug. 4 the Atomic Com- mission disclosed that Russia had resumed the testing of nu- clear weapons. The announce-A ment then said that the te31.3 began "within. the past. few days" and "this may mean the beginning of a new test series." Prior to that, the last Soviet nuclear explosion tests were reported on Oct. 26, 1954. I The resumption of the Soviet tests has been described by Americafe defense rifficials as an indication that the Russians are continuing the atomic pol- icy laid down by Joseph Stalin, at least for international bar- gaining purposes. N.Y. Times SEP 26 1S.i.!1 DOCTORS FOR FREEDOM World Medical Group Wants No Government Interference VIENNA, Sept. 2S f.,en ? The World Medical Association wound up its ninth general assembly today by reaffirming its stand that doctors should be free of government interference.; The associotion has a mem.' bership of 600,000 physician* in fifty nations, More than &WI delegates from thirty-six West.- era countries took part in six days of discussions in Vienna's City Hall. The assembly unanimoualy approved a motion proposed by the Cuban delegation that said doctors must have "complete autonomy," and be "absolutely Independent of interference from the executive governments." The assembly also approved a motion proposed jointly by the United States and Cuban delega- tions that "national medical associations should be consulted in any proposed social security plan." N.Y. Tinos SEP 2 8_155 la REFUGEES IN TODAY, 199 to Resettle in This State, Bringing Total to 12,900 The Navy transport General Langfitt is scheduled to arrive today with 1,118 refugees from Europe. leader Lubin, Industrial Com- missioner and chairman of the State Committee on Refugees. said 199 of the new group would resettle in New York State. This will swell. to 12,800 the number admitted to the state under the Refugee Relief Act. The refugees, who left :Brem- erhaven, Germany, Sept. 14, ars entering the United States under the law that permits the entry of 209,000 refugees above vitals- ' lished quotns. They have been assured jobs and homes by United States residents, They were aided by the Na- tional' Catholic Welfare Confer- ence, I.utheran Refugee Service, Church World Service, Tolstoy Foundation, United Inas Serv- ice. American Fund for Czech Refugees, United Ukrainian American Relief Committee and ;International Rescue Committee. 2 0-9000Z l?00Z004.117000-179dCIU-VIO 60/Z1?/?00Z aSeeiwod peAwddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 S-1-',!!11,!,!:?F,;?-74-TcH U.S. COMMENT ON ARMS RACE REPORT AWAITED BY SYMINGTON Senator Seeks Defense Department Reaction to Story That Reds Soon May Lead in " Atomic Weapons. By GEORGE IL HALL. 41 Washington Correspondent of the Post-Dispatch. WASHINGTON, Sept, 20 ? Senator Stuart Symington (Demi, Missouri, is awaiting ? comment by the Department of Defense on tureport that Soviet, Russia is Overcoming the United States lead in the aiC-4110111iC weapons race end that Secre- nary of Defense Charles E. Wil- son is seeking cuts in research . and development fund. ? 'lite report appeared yestero 'day hi a column by Joseph Al- ; tom, who quoted conclusions of! a high-level study grime headed im Dr. James R. Killian .Ti'. of the Massachusetts institute of Technology. The secret report was said to be before the Na- tional Security Council. In FriiSC1', Colo., Murray Sny- der, assist ant W hite ltouse preseesecretary, said "the sub- etanfe of the story' that the American lead may become a Soviet lead in the period intitl :to 1965 Is "itlaCCLICale.7 Snyder aid also that the Killian report jhad been submitted to Presto .dent Eisenhower but that an 'Cimluation of it. by Me Presi- dent's staff had .nOt. been com- pleted. A Defense Departnlent .TpOkesman said today there was no official comment on the ' Alsop story. 'It was learned that the Kit- Ban report is classified top se- ; cret and that no congressional committees have received' copies. It is understood that the t report has been made available ; to the Office of Defense Mobil- Jiation in addition to thAMrpare?ae .Recalla June 20 Speech. SOmington, a farmer Secre- tary? of the Air Force and a timeline.. of the Armed Services . - Committee, said he had not ' -.seen the Killian report but list :if ??Alsop ?reflected accurately l thers.conciusions of the doeu- mutt the views expressed to- melded with his own. ?-e The Senator pointed out that last Julie 20 he asserted in a I speceit that the Soviets were ; Well ahead of the United Slates in the development of inter- continental ballistic missiles. He said. that of the five chief cede- , ? gories of air power the Rus- ; starts were ahead in two and ; probably ahead in two others, and that the United States was ? aimed in one. More than a year .ago he expresseit. concern over the -narrowing gap iii the Amer- ' feet lead. .-alSslouirigton noted Alsop had sold Wilson was calling for a entonease Of 3200.000,000 in fir- ", -starch and development fiinda despite the fact that Tvevor Glardner. Al' Force specie/ as- sistant, for reseoreb and de- ??Vnloomenf, had called for an in. crease tif n200,000,000, "Not enough entoliasis .ts be- ing placed ii the intereontitien- tal ballistic missile, the ulti- mate weapon of our time.." 'Sy- mington said. ''This business- as-usual ? approach is serious and Wrote, I predict there ? will he inItterehing inquiry next year as tmtithy there IS a current c?ffort. further to reduce our defense exOenditures while Congress is IRA in sessioni" e?nAnflueneed by Cocktails? 'Symington ? wondered at a press conference he called to discuss a variety of subjects, wItether "a few Russian cocktail parties have led us to gamble that we can now afford the lux- ttryed a second-hest. Air Force." By this he meant, he said, that he Was in favor of itemoved re- ? latinns with Soviet llussia, as typified by the Russian "new , look" in diplomacy. but that ? noticing had occurred to justify the ;United States in "lowering ; -its guard." Symington declined to com- ment on the Presidenaplan for an exchange of military blue- prints with Soviet Russia and Mutual aerial inspection by Rus- sia and the United States to prevent surprise attack. He said ha-would favor anything that -providea foolproof. inspection but did not know how far the President's plan would go in that direction. Comment on Farm Priers. Turning to another subject. Symington said the farm situa- ? tion in Missouri "is unsatisfac- tory" and that if Mr. Eisenhow- er had to run for re-election y he would lose Missouri beoimse of farmers' discontent ?vox. prices. Mr. Eisenhower carried the state by 29,309 votes (itt o The Senator also said the chances for the re-election of Senotor Thomas C. liennings jr..-tDon.l, St. Louis, Would lie Improved next year by the farm situation. No substantial comm. I Fitton to Hennings, whose term expires next year, has devel- oped. Symington will begin a 'lone fall schedule of ispeeettes and ? appearances wills an address at a township meeting in 'tertian Park, University City, Thurs- day night. Ha will be in Columbia, Mir., Sept 7.0; in Kansas Cite Sept. loi 20 and In Chicago Sept. Sit Ile will be in St. Louis for ttio Med Prophet f est t ; ?et. * I. Cartathersville, VIOL I'i' St Louts Oct. 11, in, ilt"...,licsmipta Oct 16, La Kansas 'PrOH Ilk hi Kirkwood Oct. vo. Lamle Oot, 20: la Co- Ann? NI Milli OIL 24i In Kansa. 00 NIL Ar *es lad*- : prudence and Kansas City Oct. 29. St LOWS POST" DISPATCH Tues., Sop+, 20, 1955 PLAN TO DISARM CALLED BIG ISSUE By ALVIN If, GOLDSVEIN A Staff Correspondent of the Post-Dispatch. UNITED NATIONS N.Y? Sept. 20?The tenth annual United Nations Genera! As- sembly opened today with its 60 members hoping for action , conforming to conciliatory East.- West gestures made by Presi- dent Eisenhower anti Russian I Premier BitIgarilo at the recent I 1 Geneva "summit." conference. I There was no doubt in UN'. quarters that the crucial Issue of this Assembly was disarma- ment. The United States, sup- ported by many Western pow- ers, has made known its de- termination to press for ap- proval of the Eisenhower plan to exchange military informa- tion with the Soviet Union and I: to verify the intelligence by '1 mutual air, ground and sea in- ,i spection. Secretary of State John Fos- ter Dulles is expected to em- phasize that position when he gives American policy views Thursday, What rejoinder might he made by Soviet For-, eign Minister 'V. M. Molotov In a scheduled address Friday : has been left in mystery by . ment commission subcommit-1 Russian tactics in the disarrna- tee. ' The subcommittee. w It le hi) yesterday began its fourth i week of discussion behind 12CgaltnaliftW ion of the Eisenhower proposal, beyond statements that it ' Red "careful study." Thus far, questions of Western delegates in the five-nation group. core' posed of the United Steles. Russia, lin-Rain, France and Catiadis have been aliswered by questions, Asks About Zones. in yesterday's exchange, when pressed for replies, Am kndy A. Inobolev said. the So- viet Unloti wanted :to know what President Eisenhower meant at Geneva when he ex- pressed hope that a "minimum" of areas devoted to peoduetion of nuclear weapons and atomic activity would be excluded front inspection, &Motet, asked what specific zones would be "offeboimils" for observers,. Harold 16. Stassen, preside-to Inn adviser on disarmament ef- fairs, saki that the precise de- tails of an inspectiori plan must be worked out after agreement is reached on principle. He added that be would soon reply to previous questions put by Sobolev concerning contemplat- ed Inattention of atomic installa- lifin.a andel" to whether the United States would make the Same Proposition to other na- tions that it made to Russia. Sobolev remarked that Stave sen still hed made no definite comment on Russian demands for reduction of armed forces and for evacuation of military bases On foreign soil. He re- called the Soviet Union recent- ly had reduced its military per- sonnel by 640,000 men and had returned the Potitkala naval base it had occupied since 1947 to Finland. To that Stassen retorted that the disposition of one base by Moscow did not dfitelose a pat- tern, He requested additional details of Soviet activities in other military strongholds in , the Baltic area?were they be- ing decreased or expanded? In itself, the action in Finland was not significant, he asserted. As to reduction of military personnel, he told the subcom- mittee he Was authorized to sub- mit the already published sta- tistics on American armed forces, reduced from war peak of 11,500,000 to 1,400,000 in 1950. With the advent of the Korean police action, they were built to 3,600,000 in 1952 and in 1955 totaled 2,800,000. Although the atoms-for-peace Nan, also advanced by Presto . dent Eisenhower. has been sepo seated by consent from distir- mam'ent discussions, R is bound to be an inaportant part. of the Assembly deliberations. Ac- tually, by exploiting peeeeful uses of atomic energy through International co-operation, the venture has virtually overshad- owed the disarmament debate. By that token ? American spokesmen expressing confi- dence that the Eisenhower plan Cttgitefflrion through inspec?? the problem of COSIt e Se 0-9000Z 1.00Z000t19170 ? t. 146 Z C 0 0 Zs Rolandrjg A.RegAgigthd WM be iseeePted iv Russia, out that the SP it Union 4, dlisapproved the atoms-for-IMMO move but rrversed its *tend when it re- . IjooK, To G aired international *Maim. -Stassen and.'?etilef 'United ? Slates Delegate '. Henry Cabot Lunge Jr. both have deelarea itai. the Assembly will -greet 4 ti) Sisenhower inspection- pro- vt:!eal with such enthusiasm I 'JIM, as in the case of the ; i.orns-for-peaie enterprise, the Soviet Union will be compelled le,' world. opinion to respond. Al; This session, it is supposed this: the nature ? of a proposed atomic control agency and in connection with the U.N. will he outlined. Other issues before the As- scroNy include the ever-threat- ening Arab-Israeli conflict, co- lonial problems concerning par- tictlarly the French-Moroccan tempest, and the vexatious Brit- ish-Greek dispute about Cyprus. Admittance of new members to the U.N., with 14 blocked by Soviet veto and six through failure .to gain Western approv- al, will Also be warmly debated. Nearly- 70 disputed topics are on the Assembly agenda, not the least being the question of charter revision. Decision must hi reached on the proposal for a 00-nation conference to re- view charter provisions with the , aim of strengthening the world organization. It is known-the-United States will favor conducting the re- view, or, at least, will not op- pose it. If action is taken, the United States . will propose eliminating *the veto as an in- strument for excluding new men:Avers if applicants receive thus seven votes essential for acceptance in the 11-nation se- Lcwity council. craitiespnai work in their home eolith i I ,. Material To tle Provided 1 ET . ,,,61,"Since witids evident thatencourage I ctianagement and labor to rely on facts and reason rather than , threats and industrial strife," TEST BY H Cole wrote, "ILO, in conjunction 1LAU with the several states, will have to be prepared to furnish all sorts of factual material and data." Spreading Of Collective The plan proposes that the ILO be ready to prove, by actual ag- -ures, the effects of strikes and Labor-Dealing Prin. *lockouts "for the purpose of demonstrating the consequences ciples Planned of thoughtless use of this type of device: The organization also would Sy OWARD NOnToff provide to any country material H Washington Bureau of .The Sun! of family budgets, cost-of-living Washington, Sept. 22?Whether 'trends, wage rates and wage Soviet Russia's "new look" has trends. any real meaning is about to be The ILO also would assist back- put to a test by the International ward governments in setting up agencies to collect such informa- tion, which is important to sound settlement of labor-management differences. Library Of Agreements It would set up a world refer- ence library of collective-bargain- ing agreements, made in repre- sentative industries in various ?????????????????????...? Labor Organization. That 70-nation subsidiary of the United Nations announced here today the outline of a brand-new plan to spread the principles of collective dealing in labor-man- agement relations throughout the world. Russia and many of her sate- lites are Members of tie likh. countries. ? and, as spch will be called on to It is proposed that most of the take part in the program. pctual Work within the countries' . Press Conference Heldshould be done by nationals of The extent to which they do so, 'those Conntries? The Soviet bloc of states op- according to David A. Morse, dt, will posed the whole idea when it was rector-general of the ILO, e . assembly, gauge the sincerity of their new proposed to the attitude. The ,ILO's new project?un- veiled by Morse in a press con- ference here this afternoon?will he a grand-scale educational and promotional campaign designed to convince backward countries that the best way to peace, pros- perity and democracy is via peace. ful and cooperative labor-manage- ment relations. To lay out the blueprints of its project, the ILO last June en- gaged the services of David L. Cole, former director of. the Fed- eral Mediation and Councilation Service. Today's conference was called to make public for the first time the plans put forward by Mr. Cole. Plans Not Yet Official . And, though it was emphasized that they are not yet the official ILO plans, it was Indicated that they are heartily approved by the ILO director-general, who al- ready has been given authority to go ahead with such a program. Cole recommended that the ILO Brat call in a committee of experts to "draw up" a set of prin- ciples or objectives to govern the program." A center for administering the program should be set up, prefer- ably in Geneva, he said?a center where the field staff can go for advice and instruction or con- sultation, He recommended that the "cen- ter" establish seminars and .courses for nationals of the vial- to pay. nos countries who are to he re- and the Soviet nations were the , only ones that voted against it. ; But Cole believes the "new look" policy may have changed all this. Gives Idea Of Program I personally suspect," he said, "that if the Geneva conference had come first, the vote might have been different." Cole, who was prciaent at to- day's news conference: described Isis conception of the new pro- gram thus: "This would be laigely an edu- cational program seeking to cre- ate the attitude and habit of co- operation, "The ILO would work mainly through the nationals of each 'country. "The objectives would vary with the stage of industrial de- velopment. New Division Proposed "In newly industrialized areas the rudimentary processes of or- ganization and collective dealing would have to be developed: in the advance states concentration would be on consultation and par- ticipation in common efforts by the representatives of all parties In interest and to a large extent on the concern for the interests of the public." The Cole plan proposes the creation of a new division within the ILO to administer the pro- gram. It suggests that the cost of the program be met by the mem- ber States on the basis of ability 4 0-9000MOZ000410000179dati-VI3 60/MCOOZ eseeiNipJ peAwddv Approved For Rase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 N.Y. Ir SEP 20 .w R.A.FALS. MERGER OF BOMBERS EYED ----- British Chief Who Is on Way to Washington May Ask a Joint Command BENatAM1N WEI,LES LoNrioN, Sept, lee-Britain Is; expected. to mealtime:lid shortly to the United States that the two countries- begin studying the possibility of combine-1g their bomber forces itt War ender one command. Preeilmably, necordieg to in- formante here, the supreme come Mand would go. to an American in view of the United eitates euge prepondeennee of air Meier., Britain might be ere titled to a deputy command in view of the nuclear capability the Royal Air Force is maw de-, veloping, it was suggested. Sir- William -Dickson, Marshal! of the leoyal Air Force, gayer the first public hint Of official' British thinking' tonight as he, left by air for Washington, Sirl William., who is chief of the AW Staff, will confer with Gen, Na-1 than F. Twining, Chief of Staff, of the United States Air. Force, sad with senior American wt.. core. Litter tie will visit Canada. "Our bowler force shoe el work With the United .States Strategic Air Command as one force," Sir William sale. "It is essential that the two nuclear forces, Which at ereecnt a iv the Only ones on the Allied eide, Should work SA one," Command, Is Sperso: Air circles here were reluctant ? to discuss the background or the. 'obeeetiVee of Ste visit to Washington. Premature cone. ment, they said, might evoke criticism in. tete Mated States and embarrass Sir William's hosts in the United States.. Air levee General Twining had in- vited Sir William to Washington. However, it can be accepted that there are at least three ma- jor steps that British authorities would like the United States to take to help strengthen the R. A, F. and indirectly the North Atlantic_ Treaty Organization. The first would be to agree to set_ up in Washington a high- ItVel "study group" of a few top- grade American and British Mei experts. Working privately on the nonpolitical, teehnical as- pects of the problem, these ex- perts would examine (1) whether it would be wise to pool the. bombers of the United States' Air Force Pala the Royal Air' Force in wartime and (;) if so, how it should lie done. Britain is now just beginning to develop her nuclear bomApl capability. The first two dozen Vi-ckeni Valiant (our-jet bombers' have been supplied to the bomb- er command and there eventu- ally will be More than 200 of Them under present plans. In addition, the still-stronger AVro Vulcan and :Handley Page Victor bombers are being test- flown. In five years there should be more than 200 of these in equal proportions in the R, A. F. The' British atomic weapons stockpile is slowly growing and development of the hydrogen bomb is well along, Eager to Begin Planning For these reasoue Britain is eager to begin planning at once for eventual coordination of the two major allied bomber forces. Many autlioritiee here point out that Britain is increasingly. vulnerable to thermonuclear at- tack. It cannot be imagined, They say, that the United King- dom* precious nuclear bendier farce?de "deterrent" to war-- can he based or even commanded indefiniteiz within the British ;ales. ? Plana must be worked out now for global coordination with the far-flung United States Air Force, they say ;. the. common use of overseas United States and British air bases must be mapped out and an over-all com- mand, prior to a n emergency, Toted be established in a central place, ? This program calls, in turn, for a second major measure United States-British cooperation in the field of exchanging target infor- mation and in allotting targets between the two great air forces. hitherto th-e. United Statue Air Force has had no need to share lts target plans with the It, A. F. Wrir (4 strict Atiieriein secure yl !laws would, furthermore, have prevented it, though much Amer- ican target . intelligence does come from Britain, Now that these litivs and prac- tices hav-e hen relaxed it is felt here that Britain could eventu- ally take over responsibility for attacking certain targets as her own share in wartime?leaving the United States freer to con- centrate on other more distant or more. nationally important bombing goals. A third way in which the United Skates could help stiffen the It. A. Fes strength and this bolster the Allied front in Europe would be to agree to make available in an emergency nuclear weapons for the R. A.P. Canberra bomber fleets in West Germany. The proposals Sir William is expected to present in Washing- ton are viewed as part. of the process of "deterring" war by "strength-in-being." roved Tilitago l'utibag Tribune September 16, 19SS . . States and Russia. It was 1 II . i agreed that each con n t e v , U ," i ; should furnish information on To LAND j , c MEN rf latirraridt:e=f=ieisii= someone's plane. or trail party i I i ? AT SOUTH POLE I New Vera Tini*o-C.hIcage Tranint Sr.rvirf I BRUSSELS, Belgium, Sept. 177?The American navy hopes to land, a large ,plane at the south pole next January or February to prove the feasibil- ity of flying in the 15 man station projected for that spot. The only men who have ever set foot at. the south pole were the parties of Scott and Amund- sen who raced for that goat in the seasonl of 1911-12, It lies in the most inaccessible region in the world, on a 10,000 foot plateau, isolated by a wall ,of mountains. Rear Adm, Richard E. Byrd has twice flown over the. south pole, but a landing there has; been avoided because of its elevation. The air is so thin' that it was doubted whether a ski equipped plane could take off again. Plan Outposts The Polar station, like other phases of the program, is part of the American contribution to the InternPtional geophysi- cal year, which will coordinate the efforts of 40 nations par- ticipating in that period of 'world-wide scientific observa- tions from 1957 to 1958. In July a meeting was neld in Paris of nations sending ex- peditions to Antarctica, includ- ing Britain, France, the United gets into trouble. Accordingly, the American delegation has drafted a tabu- [ indicates the scope Of the seven projected American outposts on the continent. The American delegation is ! headed by Joseph Kaplan of the University of California in Los Angeles, who is chairman of the United States committee for the international geophysi- cal year. It. includes Rear Adm. George Dufek, who will com- mand the naval forces in the Antarctic. Adm. Byrd is in overall charge. Will Have 15 Men The polar station is to ac- commodate at least 15 men, in- cluding a doctor. Five of the six remaining stations will also have doctors, the exception be- ing the temporary outpost at the foot of the Queen Maude range. The latter is to be manned only as an intermediate radio and rescue station during the long hops over the pole. It is to be occupied in January and February, 1956, and again from October, 1956, to February, 1957. It will probably be near the foot of Beardpore glacier, which was ascended by Scott and Shackleton. If the plane that lands at the pole is unable to get into the air again, men from this sta- tion will have to go up the glacier oia foot and help bring the crew'out. SEP 20 1155 ? .. Atom Edge Claimed iseale power stations and 12 in I Ithe construction of hair large- i BY Rrulsn Leader!*en flilmring . iss Roiteei , which are probably 10 times , fe eels- I ir five years, he said. 1 "W Rb our limited resources.1 Tenttnorden, England !less than those of the United i Ten large-scale nuclear power i State and Russia, we have made ; stations will be built in the 1.iriona',, ifeontl,opeki- titive in world during the next rive years, 1 Sir John -sp?oke at the opening l w1 Sir John 'Cockcroft, director of cotea" school he" in the Britain's Atomic Research Cen- 1 townhere he was was edu- : ter at Harweil, said here. 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Etr,1 ling *sr N.., ' S E P is 5 tern Ulf. Assembly to Provide Test Of Whether Russia Will Abide In Blocking Bids for Entry By sceneva Spirit: Lodge Says By WILLIAM N. 0ATtS i Mr. Masa, et 65. s big und. . 1 , Stair Writer Slugged mgn, thinks the world; N Y A otmiciat ea Pr eiqt t Response to Eisenhower's, Arms Inspection UNITED NATIONS,. . ell ' ',including ell pence-loving coune; organization should be universal ' , Sept. 21.--lihilets Jose Alan, newl iees Aw ne_ , eni e Wi e . e Plan to Be Clue, Ambassador Points f the United Nations charter. . General Assembly by sin unprece- He told newsmen that if the Out?Stress on Results Rather Than Idented . una nimous vote, doeen'tiinienietan-Westetn El 110 over, Pleasant Words.' ;like the way the big Western;1 U. N. pe its s, the charter should; admitting new memneis to the 1 POW Cr ti and Rus els ha/T kept' lbe reviscri NO the U. N. can By PIERRE J. HUSS i certain couneries out of U. N. II come -those countries wench, have been knocking at its doors." UNITED NATIONS, N.Y., Sept. 15 (INS). But Mr. IViaza bee' no intern- copyright. ta:55, in ternitt ',mat News aervirc provide the acid test of whether Russia intends to adhere A, The American people have oreenization. He regards him- self its -"just et small COg in the. views through the international today that the tenth United Nations General Aesembly will organization. of trying to steamroller his MB.ASSADOR HENRY CABOT LODGE jR. made it clear A n ' been justifiably happy once the whecie of this enormous oreand release of our 15 flyers. They int kat Which La called the have seen this recent example ;United Nations of the tremendous Influence United Nations at work. He said he will try to ,guide 1 fluence of As for the atrocities, you will matters so that diplonericy, in ?the open or in secret. is remember that In 1953 we ob- isolate 1 tamed a resounding cendemnas contributionto the cause of; tion by the Assembly of the . atrocious acts against our Unit- llie new preeident of the Ae-, ed Nations soldiers in Korea. sebly 32 bringe rri years of psi in That condemnation still stands. mentary experience to his post.' We will, of course, watch with Ile has served his country as; Interest as the story of the 15 , premier and head of the minis- flyers unfolds. , trice of Justice, Public Education" Results, Not Words. and Interior. He retired from the Q. Has the death of Andrei Chilean Parliament in 1953. He Vishiesky. U.N. delegate, and also le a veteran of the U. N., tIC introduction of milder per- having attended the 1945 omen- sonalities on the Soviet side at ization confeiniece in San Fran- the United Nations, eased your cieco and signed the charter. jots in keeping the initiative for Mr. Mass COD Sidellt these the the free world? .., main issues before the Assem- maonalitles. bly's current 10th session: Dis. uch emphasis on per A. We must not place too No matter who the Soviet rep- armament, peaceful uses of at- resentative is, it is always nee- ;runic energy, and charter reform. Of the future of atomic enerey, essary to stress concrete results rather than pleasant words and he commented: "On the one promises. i hand, it can bring about total The United Nations, the only destruction. But on the other. It t can bring about general happi- ruly world forum, is a place I ness." sincere they are by opening up He is encouraged by such; where the Soviets can show how their whole gystein me and progress as the U.N. has made more, and 5014 heir in solving the problem of colo-; to escape the fate of the locked for nine years because cion. You can be 31tre that Maligns but wants somethi* further, mining: Baruch plan, which was dead- traditional secrecy. and auspi- we will continue to press. them 1 of Soviet opposition? to do just that in the interests "With the powers which II A, 'The United Nations has One yardstick whereby to shown that it can mobilize of peace. have as president, I will do .msn the next General Assembly will Q. Since the tenth birthday best to insure Lhatethe progress measure Soviet performance at world public opinion in favor be the frequency of such "cold this year of the United Nations is more effective, if that is pose 61 just and peaceM proposals in a way which no dietatorehip in San Francisco, has there :stint, at this assembly." war' attacks. The fewer of . them there are the lege time , can afford to ignore. When the been any indication of Increased I 'Although he wrote Chileee so- them United States will have to public support for the United called "Mee law." on abuses of world has fully realized what a blessing the Eisenhower plan Nations?. freedom of the preen Mr. Moza :mend tn rebuttal in accerd- awn with our policy of an.ewer- A. Yes. Public opinion pais immured newsmen he "was alwaye would be, I think that the So- viet Unkin is very unlikely to a defender of the complete free.- frig MI Conanaunist attacks im- .fight against it. this summer have shown that dom of the press," He prom- mediately. . [ Q. h the United Stales sat- 74 per cent of Americans are ised to hold news conferences Q. In the wake of the ''Ge- isfied with the release of ehe"Ave minutes" after seelous re- satisfied with the job that the neva honeymoon," do you think United Nations is doing ?-- the 15 American flyers by Red quests for them. now might be the time for us , China, or will the Assembly be highest percentage of support - to tell the Soviet Union to asked to call the turn on the we have ever had for the United "put up or abut up" on their atrocities and violations of the Nations in this country. The dec tired &she to en ve ou - standing world probiemA ,Geneva codivention =LIM ier leatil-or- hos w 1 is an all-time low. WM400200 120006-0 7pproVectiFocUed GAS% in of. war? U. N. Chief Raps West, Russia, to the "Geneva spirit." Lodge, in a question-and-answer Interview emphasized that It is always necessary to stress concrete results rather than pleasant words and promises." A. vve have already begun . The dynamic chief of the to test the "Geneva spirit in United States delegation at the the meetings of the five-power U.N. urged the Kremlin leaders disarmament subcommittee. This to use the U.N. as a proper group is considering all the world forum and to drop their disarmament proposals made 'traditional secrecy and suspi- by the heads of government at cion." Geneva, including in particular Lodge pointed out release by ,President Eisenhower's "open Red China of American flyers i"Y" inspection plan. and civilians in no way re- ' Against Surprise Attacks. moves Irma the Assembly's rty opening the Soviet Union books the condernealion of the and the United States equally Peiping government for its rec- , to real inspection?exchange of ord atrocities against. help- military blueprints, ocrial pho- less Korean war prisoners, tographys and ground observe- Replies to Questions. tion?we would make a major The Eisenhower Administra- surprise assault impossible and lion spokesmah took time out thus raise front the human race . from his task of preparing for a great burden of anxiety and . next w'eeket Assembly opening the greatest single cause of to answer the questions which Worm tension. follow with his replica: We will see very soon?cer- . I. Bow would YoU distinguish tainly Were the tenth Gen. the prospects for the tenth eral Assembly is over--whether General / ssembly from the As- the Soviet Union is ready to sembly's past "cold war" WS' talk seriously about President Mons? Eisenhower's plan. A. Beginning in January Q. Do you see any pros- 1053 the Soviet. Union has !sects for the Eisenhower. plan tapered off its vitriolic tirades against the United States in the United Nations. Each year since then these attacks have become less frequent. 0-9000Z litagORP4191700Bitteloi*ItiiptileW Komissseeieu JOd peoipiddV Report on Dissrinament Mr. Stamen's report to the President at Denver oil the, progress of the disarma- ment talks Is More optimistic than might have been expected from what is known of the work of the U. N. subcommittee Which has been meeting since Aug. 29. The impression is that things have gone slowly there to the point of stalemate. But Mr. Stamen has had several private meetings with the Soviet representative on the subcommittee, Arkady A. Bobo- lev; these have been secret and appar- ently serious; and )t, is no doubt partly on the basis of these that Mr. Stamen was able to report a good chance that the Soviets will come to accept the President's Geneva plan of inspection and surveillance. The first task, in which Mr. Stamen seems to have succeeded, has been to convince the Russians that the President meant what he said when he made his dramatic proposal. After a period of what looked like incredulity or stupefac- tion, the Rumians have begun to ask questions?quite sensible questions ac- o Back From Oar Present Chinese Policy No sooner had the assembly Of the United Nations got down to business on Tuesday than the Russian dele- gate, Mr. Molotov, introduced his hardy perennial motion that the agenda include consideration of Red China's admission to membership. A vote was taken after a short debate ' and the proposal, as usual, was voted down. The interesting and in a way dis- turbing development was, as our Mr. Paul Ward points out, that the anti. admission vote was reduced and the number of abstentions increased. Our victory was substantial but not overwhelming. It is clear that Rus- sian and Chinese maneuverings dur- ing the past few months have in- creased Communist influence in the United Nations at our expense. For one reason or another, the peoples of other free countries seem not to have grasped the magnitude cording to Mr. Stamen'. If they are going slowly, it is no more so (again according to Mr. Stasseni than this country would do in their situation. This whole question of disarmement, as we have stressed be- fore, is a matter of such gravity, such literally life-and-death importance for any state, that on all sides there must of necessity be a slow probing and a cau- tious advance. The real problem is that the Russians are interested primarily in a quick re- duction of armaments; we are interested primarily, at least for the present, in an alarm system against surprise. The American belief is that, with the fear of surprise eliminated on both sides, prog- ress toward a reduction in the arms bur- den can be made. Though beginning from different points: the two positions are not Irreconcilable. Clarification and negotia- tion are required. If these processes can go forward in the spirit which so far has been preserved, there is reason for such moderate optimism as Mr. Stassen dis- played yesterday. of the issues atstalte. The fact that Great Britain rushed thoughtlessly into diplomatic relations with Red China almost immediltely after the Government of Nationalist China took refuge on Formosa has affected the whole debate since that. time. What is overlooked is that Britain has gained no' substantial advantage since her ill-advised move, unless her retention of Hong Kong be so considered. Instead of winning the friendship of the Chinese Communists, Britain has been snubbed by them officially, and has seers her business confiscat- ed_ and her citizens abused. More- over, Britain was forced by the out- rageous circumstantes to join with the majority of the United Nations Assembly in declaring Red China an aggressor in Korea. For those who are seeking? s clear and succinct account of the develop-1 1 ment of today's situation as to the "tvio Chinas" and the reasons the Vatted States must adhere to its present policy of nonrecognition, we conitnifnd the article in the current edition of Foreign. Affairs by Mr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, whose long years in the State Department, plus his independent studies, have made hini a leading authority on Far East- ern Affairs. It may, be true that after an inter- val the rulers of Red China will urge tfiemselves of their past mis- deeds and fit their policies to the minimum standards set by American policy for recognition. It may be true, also, that our alliance with the For- mosa regime will sometimes prove embarrassing. In the meantime, there is no valid reason why we should abandon the position we have taken and limit the strength and authority of the free peoples in the United Nations. There is even less reason far repeating the British mistake. 8 0-9000Z1?00Z000/00000179dCIU-VIO 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeNood peAwddv -Approved For Reese 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 yew Wash. Ewalag Star Slr-? DAVID LAWRENCE The Era of Noah in World Politics We Now Have Two Koreas, Two Chinas, Two Indo-Chinas and Two Germanys Thts might some day be Called the "new age of Noah," Who took two of everything . Into the Ark. For now there are to be two, germenys, Just as there are two Chinas and ? two. Koreas and two Indo- Chinas. This means a continuance of the two Berlins for a long time to comae For there is, of , course_ to be no attempt at re unification anywhere by the use of force. This was . the , principle first laid down as _American policy by President Eisenhower in his letter, to Syngman Rhee early in 1953. It moue the way to political coercion and infiltration by the Russians, who have no further fear of military pressure. Just ae. there were two ,Polailds one and the Western allies _agreed to . a "coalition" by wheel the Communists got the upper hand, so today the Soviet aim atilt et unifications- Ruseian ,stale-nfor all areas that are divided. Chancellor Adenatier felt he Could no nothing else but agree to, establieh diplomatic rela- tions with the Soviet Union if he was to overcome the crit- letern of his political ?Most- aien,,Bnt the net reealt of his action is to present the World with the possibility of the same experience it has had .with the Soviet Union when- Feland was taken over by the Communists in. Moscow with phony setup. Two Polish governments were converted tato a puppet regime. By establishing two Ger- manys, the Soviets can Play one against the other and can make headway, particularly in West Germany by offering re- union to her at the price of Minnie urn participation in the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- zation. It means a delay In German rearmament. It means opportunities galore for politi- cal propaganda .and infiltra- tion by the Soviets, The change which the Ge- neva Conference made in the .world situation will become apparent 'sooner or later to those Western statesmen who have deluded themselves with the idea that they are dealing with a conciliatory Russia. For not a single goal has been abandoned by the Communists. In fact. "peaceful coexistence" has turned mit to be a propa- ganda achievement of sub- stantial proportions because it has further removed from the world picture any use of Min- tory force .as a deterrent of further aggression and opened the way to aggreseiori by the Communists through so-called peaceful means. The Communists are Pleased that any threat of the use of force in defense against ag- gression now has been aban- doned. They are delighted that Outs in armament are being talked about by some of the Western governments, For it Means that they can conduct their subversive tactics any- where in the world without fear of reprisals of any kind. They are confident that, by releasing group by group the citizens of other countnee whom they have held as hos- tages, the way will be opened to a removal of the trade embar- goes. When the Western nations commit themselves never to use military force unless at- tacked, they have no leverage left in negotiations with the Communists except economic force. When they Surrender this instrument of interna- tional policy also, they 'can- not Prevent aggression or the use of Soviet agents to stir up rebellions in areas where the Western countries now have political strength. With the Near East and North Africa torn apart with local dissension, thus threat- ening the air bases of the Western powers, the cold war Is moving on toward more and more triumphs for the Com-' munists in achieving military objectives, too: Surveying the world scene, the Communists have suc- ceeded in lulling the West into believing that tension will be relaxed and that somehow a peacefu) change is coining looking toward freedom rather than tyranny for those living in subjugation. But there is no evidence ef it. Despite the belief here in Washington that a "two-Ger- many" setup can be utilized to the advantage of the West, the fact remains that the dis- memberment or partition of Germany has become an es- tablished fact by the decision of West Germany to enter into formal diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia., . Strictly speaking, East der- many is still an area occupied by foreign. troops as a result of the victory not just, of Rus- set but of all the allies over Germany, Neither- the western nor the eastern part should have been given art independ- ent status till both were united and a peace treaty with the whole of Germany was signed. But., when the United States, Britain and France decided to admit West Germany into the North Atlantic Treaty Organ- ization and give that country independence, a precedent was created for similar treatment of as Germany Germany by the So- viets. There is now no pressure Upon Moscow to reunite the two because no military or economic force will be used by the West to attain that objec- tive. Hence there is no reason for Moscow to agree to reuni- fication, Partition means a weak Germany ? and that's what the Soviet rulers want. They will have that advantage for a long tone to come, 'Germany's politicians now will begin to debate whether reunion at a price?no help from the West, and depend- ence on Russian.--is better than the indefinite separation of West Germany from the East, but with continued help from America and Western Europe. It doesn't augur well for a free German republic under a sin- gle government for a long, long while. Once upon a time France was divided, w i eh Alsace-Lorraine detached and left in the hands of Germany, and this sowed the seeds of the first World War. Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : 9A-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 0-9000Z 1.00Z000U9V000-41:146.21FMN:ittatiksaW0abA9iiddv CONSTANTINE BROWN We Accept 'Smiles' for Deeds The 'Spirit of Geneva' Is Influencing Thinking of Too Many Prominent Citizens Secretary Dulles is not par- ticularly happy about how the "spirit of Geneva" is Influenc- ing the thinking of sonic prominent Americans who are anxious to accept the Red token. smiles for "deeds." In a conversation with the leader of the American_ farm group, Dr. William D Lambert. after - his -return from the USSR, the Secretary pointed out that this rush to Moscow is weak- ening the resistance to, the Communists in Europe, par- ticularly in Germany and In both_ countries there is now a feeling that since Amer - ica is ready to take the Reds to its bosom the liete :nesinet communism may. have become Pointless.. This sensinien ;s further accentuated by ehe fact that a number of Amer- ican Senators, some of whom had advocated no longer than last spring a break of Amer- ican' diplomatic relatkone ith the Soviet government, have now become strong supporters of co-existence and the other shibboleths the Red prop- eganda has been putting out since Stalin's death. . The Secretary is rePoreed to have _told the spokesman of the farm group who reported to him after it returned from Russia that? whi!e plain John Q. .Citizens arc vieiting the USSR. the itusetans who came here, posing as farmers, were nothing but Soeiee officials ap- pointed by the Kremlin to supervise the work of the Rus- sian peasantry. These Simon Legrees are under Kremlin discipline. The story they will be ordered to tell meg be strictly in accordance Mtn the ? views of the reed propaganda machine. It would be tieeful, indeed, if ordinary Ivan Ivanoviches could come to the United States-on a visit. It would be well worth-while for our Gov- ernment to pay all their ex. pensee. 1Sut. the chances tient they will get exit permits are very remote.. They might re- fuse to return to the Com- munist parediee. Responsible Government analysts yegard the present moves- of the So- viet leaders, which include the harmless permlis to American political flguree and newspa- permen to roam In the USSR, as clever propaganda. It is intended to soften the Ameri- can public. and by implication the administration- on the eve of the foreign ministers' con- at Geneva pext month. The box score prepared by these students of . the Soviet policies shows that the smiles, good words, and toasts from Messrs. Bulganin, Khrusbehey, Mikoean and otheis have pro- duced no tangible deeds . to satisfy the hankering for -- genuine peace on -the part of the free world. The most that the men in Moscow and Pei- ping seem 'willing to do is -to trade the hostages they have been holding for years for some substantial- political and economic advantages. This was shown at the -recent con- ference between - the .West German Chancellor Adenatter and the Kremlin triumvirate. where Messrs. Bulganin and Khrusiechey put the old Euro- pean behind the eight-ball. In exchange for a vague Peernise to liberate about -10 per cent of the German prisoners -of war still held in captivity, the ussrt obtained the much-coy- 10 eted direct diplomatic inter- course with the Bonn Repub- lic and the implicit--though not informal?recognition of "two Germanys." It was a bitter , pill that the 79-year- old German Chancellor had to swallow, but he could not af- ford to reeurn to-Bonn empty. handed in these days of sweet. Clr.5f, and light. Similarly, after nearly two in on t Ii a of negotiations at Geneva between the American Ambassador, U. Alexis John- eon, and Chinese Red Ambas- sador Wang Ping -nen, we . obe lain the liberation on the in. stallment plan of a number of American hostages held in China for in Rile years for, -trading purposes.", - The American diplomat re- ports that the negotiations are proceeding with increasing dif- ficulties. The Chinese envoy is now demanding something in exchange for Peiping's "deeds"! fele wants negotiations leading to the lifting of the unofficial American embargo on trace with Peiping in order to relieve the serious food [Ouse tion in hie country and incl. dentally improve Red. China's present war potential. Neither- the Chinese nor the Soviets have any legal or moral justie: ilcation for holding foreigners In jails and labor camps except that created by themselves as arbitrators. The Russians have declared the Germans "war . criminals" and the Chinese have declared the Americans "spies." The satisfaction in thip country for the liberation of a number of the unfortunate Americans is just and Under- standable. All the same the Communist authorities have shown so far no actual deeds toward the relaxation of the International tension. 0-9000Z1?00Z000A0000-17.9dCltI7V10 60/ZWCOOZ eseeletheY PeAcuddv Atskika*koi. Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 SEP 2k! Nov -West Detente as Europe Sees It Mg ERWIN R. CANN431, Wier of The Oriteitjens Selene, afiviilfor technicarat4010i-On -the-leaUdelean Government, which opens the d,00r .wider to 'dualism in Germany. Just as the domestic Communist parties of Europe are more re- spectable because daef are under the wing of jolly old Bulganin and Khrushchev, so East Germany is now more respectable, no matter how explicitly Chancellor Adenauer and the Bonn Parliament disown it. A question I have asked Europeans is this: If President Eisenhower is getting a lot of credit for his friendly attitude at Geneva, if the United States is no longer taken as a wan ger by those who should know bet- ter, AIM happens when Secretary Dulles &ties' to Geneva on October 27 and begins tie talk and act tough? ? "It. seems quite obvious that Mr. Dulles will have to be a firm and resolute bar- gainer at Geneva. Already many Europeans think he is unnecessarily heavy-handed to- ward the Soviets. Therefore how much free- dorn of action will he have at Geneva? Will he be bargaining from strength or from weakness? The American Government believes, I as told in Washington, that the Soviet Union wants a breathing spell so badly it will be willing to pay a real price for it. Many Europeans with whom I have talked are .not so sure. They think the Russians have far more to gain in an era of civility than we have. There is also a great deal of deep-seated rietitralism. Audit the era of civility has enabled some neutralists to look upon the United States mOrViiiierantly, it has also greatly enhanced .their love affair with the ? Soviet Union. In Britain, certain unexpected and un- official military leaders are advocating the withdrawal of all forces from Germany and the development of a neutral Germany: a Sweden in the center of Europe. This posi- tion is stoutly combated Ify Prime Minister Eden, but it is bound to make some head- way if for no other reason than the need for manpower at home and the sentimental desire to repatriate the troops. It is sheer impudence for anybody to fly from the United States to Europe ,and then s.-less than a week later?pretend to know. mach that is happening- in this complicated continent. I have had a few days in London and a few days in Rome, and that's all. But I can tell you what some well-informed people tell me, and I can give you some general impressions. Everyone I have met has asked me one question: What is the real meaning of our new relations with Russia? What effect has the d?nte had on American policy? And. I have asked them their opinion of the same subject and the effect on the policy of vari- ous European countries. Out of all this let Erie give you some general conclusions: :First, nearly everybody likes?indeed, en- joys?the new atmosphere, although a great many are also very suspicious and dubious. 'Second, domestic Communist parties, like the Communists in Italy, have been given la new respectability. But these domestic Communists have had to shift their party line with speed indecent even for them. ?Third, many Europeans feel they are no longer caught in the line of fire- between the two great world colossi, the United States and the Soviet Union, and this lonied-for freedom has relieved them very much. 'Fourth, many people realize that the Kremlin has not changed its policies much, and see that a hard though by no means one-sided bargain was driven with Chan- cellor Adenauer. ? Fifth, there is less suspicion and mis- understanding toward the United States. Sixth, there is a keen interest in pext year's presidential politics in the United States. Seventh, the Cyprus affair is a tough crisis, with no good solution in sight, and the NATO alliance in the eastern Mediter- ranean is in definite danger. And, finally, the weather has been lovely; In Europe this summer,.so people feel cheer- ful and fine, and in several countries?Brit- ain riotably?despite inflation, the people are living better than they have ever done However this comes out, the fact seemed as a whole before, to me to be that Beitain-L-despite its infla- tionary and foreign exchange crisis--is MI Peoples Want Peace bursting with well-being and at least Britain Rides Business Boom ? Out of all this it is perfectly clear that the new world political atmosphere is a powerful fact, having a great bearing on the policies of many countries and the thinking of everybody. It has probably gone too far. Nearly everybody wants to believe that the Russians have changed. Courtesy is paying big dividends to the Russians. --The very atmosphere of their treatment of chancellor Adenauer the other day, how- ever much we all want to examine his bar- short-term confidence. The battered look has gone out of Britain. The people are actually consuming about 5 per cent more than they did in the 1930's and carrying a great armament burden as well. It is very pleasant. to see the British peo- ple having a good time again, but of course it is on the crest of an inflation wave, and they are consuming more than their balance of payments internationally can really afford. They have to export more. That is Why they have reacted so pain- fully to American decisions such as the re- gain more closely, has left its mark. ject ion of low British bids for the Chief n aWu talidirentMant : ciA9rolDalagoErsoestrgboe1t the hi ing o e merman r on latish bicycles. cont - But let uscome back to lar er matter Jtandirtg _be:Alwyn Ate oakgapieasiasal Europe (Tpip .itoaesrm . tiWil.0040/Tairg MitasyRtukiiii liroRernsallTillieir goy. erntnents to cooperate effectively. o e yprus einarna. see no really good solution. One antiViler''Would be for Britain to retain the small area needed for military base, and then let the people vote on their own future, which would pre- sumably show a big majority for union with Greece. But this would be totally un- satisfactory to the Turks with their ardent minority unless they were otherwise com- pensated. Yet such antipathies Can be lessened, as is illustrated, by the solid growth of trade between Italy and Yugo- slavia following the Trieste settlement last year. But let me tell you whY I am in Rome at all. There is taking place here the fifth convention of the Congress of European- American Associations. There are delegates from 10 European countries, representing organizations such as the Italian-Anierican Association, the Belgian-American, and so on. I am not a delegate but a speaker: I addressed the congress on the subject of the picture of Europe and the Europeans created in the minds of Americans by their newspapers. Raymond Aron, distinguished writer for Le Figaro in Paris, did the same thing in the opposite direction. The delegates to this meeting are not starry-eyed, unquestioning admirers of the United States. They say, and rightly, that 'Europe should never and can never become a satellite of the United States. But they feel that a realistic, down-to-earth under- Negotiation Now Possible A peace offensive is under way,, deter- minedly pressed by the Russians and re- sponded to with grateful alacrity by most of the rest of us. But if we are not fooled into relaxing our alliance and our defensive posture, civility is a gain over hostility. We can at last negotiate. But up to, now, we have very little, evi- dence that the negotiations will or will not lead to satisfactory agreements. The Aus- trian settlement was satisfactory. The Adenauer visit was inconclusive. The re-. lease of American prisoners in China is only partially satisfactory. There is hope that something can be done about dis- armament, but we have a very long and dangerous way to go before these hopes can be turned into reality. An acceptable ultimate agreement on Germany is still remote. Yet, ten years after World War II ended, ten years into the atomic era, we have survived a most dangerous decade of rivalry, suspicion, and local wars. We have moved into the new atmosphere. We have only ourselves to blame if we fail now. Working with our fellow dev6tees of freedom, we must press forward realisti- cally, wisely, bravely. 26-THE WASHINGTON DAILY NEWS, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1955 Agency Kept Busy Spiking Bizarre Rumors ? Red Agitators' Tricks Plague USIA Ph PETER EDSON World-wide communist propa- ganda against the United States is still so full of tricks that a jprincipal job of U. S. Informa- tion Agency posts is to catch up with false rumors and, spike t h ern. At New Delhi, India, early this yeixp one of the native Indian em- pkyes of USIA brought in a typical report that was being spread by word of mouth in one of the nearby provinces. This area had Just been serviced with its first pure, running water tlYstem and its first electric lights,, rapplied by one of the Indian goy- +raiment's new hydro-electric dams. But because of an unusual spell of hot? dry weather, and because the new reservoir hadn't filled up with enough water for adequate irriga- tior, many crops dried up. it MADE SENSE Taking advantage of this situa- tion, communist organizers in the province started a story which to the illiterate Indian natjves made complete sense. "Of course the crops aren't good," said the agitators. "The new water is lifeless. It has :had all, the elec- tricity taken out of it?just like tak- ing the cream- out of milk." This story is typical of a number brought back by Theodore S. Repp- her, president of the Advertising Council, after a trip around the ; world to study USIA operations. Mr. Repplier was given an Eisen. j hower Exchange Fellowship to !study the effectiveness of American informathon programs in combating communist propaganda and infiltra- tion abroad. Visiting 13 countries, Mr. Repplier made special studies in four?Japare India, France and Italy. VILLAGE FAMILY In southern Italy, Mr. Reppller picked up the case of a small village family which was having a run of bad illness. The local Communist Party at once sent around a young girl who volunteered her services free of charge, as maid of all work. The family was most grateful. Soon the girl began to leave the Italian communist newspaper, Unita, around the house. This provoked many political discussions. When the girl left the family a couple of weeks later, they were all converts to communism. One of the worst communist lies which USIA people have had to com- bat this past summer was first planted in the trouble zones of the ,Middle East. It was a story that at the United Nations iPth anniversary- 'celebration in San Francisco last June, "a high functionary of the State Department" had tried to "buy off" the leader of one of the Arab delegations for $10,000,000. In return for this sum, the Arab was supposed to see that his coun- try would align itself with U. S. foreign pa/icy in the Middle East. But according to the commie story, the proud and patriotic Arab refused to be bribed. This lantienlar story has also been 'picked up In Middle as far away from the East as Belgium and Brazil. It defeated its purpose because it was too big a lie to be- lieve. But the more subtle propa- ganda dies hard. 12 0-9000Z1.00Z00011.17000-179dCIU-VIO 60/Z1./?00z aseelwod peAoicldv Approved For Itase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046W200120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 EASTERN EUROPE Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 New N.Y. TINOS SEP 2 fi 1955 'Riling that counts, and that the] mAioNE AssEssis enow how ;to make' ?well." he added. SOVIET'The Stflatot Was impressed by. mormuivho numher o( vonien he saw UM I working in factories. "Women get all covered with grease and ? do the same work as men," he Alter 13,000-Mile JOurnOy, Senator Notes Lags Behind U. S. Ilut Finds Progress By HARRY SCHWASTZ swim Ntw York l'imrek MOSCOW, Sept. 25 TheSo- viet Union is thirty to fifty yeare behind the United States indus- trially, but is making rapid Peng-, MSPI, Senator George. W. Malone' jsaid here today, Be had just re- -turned from an eight-day Jour- 'ney beyond the Ural. Mountable. In fuer trips in the Soviet Uninn since arriving here Aug. 29, the Nevada Republican has Keeled 13,000 miles visiting factories and farms in really areas. -No member of Congress has made a comparable trip for many years. "They have got all the critical materials they need in the Urals, including uranium," Senator Ma- lone said teeny. "I am very much impressed by Hoer ping- rees, They are producing things well, even though.- they prOdliCi!, more slowly, Use more people and nay less wage e than we do. 'They are _like we were thirty to fifty years ago, making great ,pi?ogress as we did then, They !will move faster than we did he- 'cause we hail to invent things they can now use," ; Two Steel Plants Visited The Senator has visited two steel plants, one at Rustavi, in Georgia, and the other at Sven, dlovek, in the Urals, as well as the Volkhov aluminum and cement Omits near Leningrad. He also has visited tractor and farm-machinery plants in Rait- sovelis in the Altai territory. and in Tits,hkent, in central Asia. At the Rubtsovek tractori plant, the Senator was told that daily production was eighty! tractors of fifty-four horsepower. each. These pull large gang: plows, each with five fourteen-I Inch plows. Thirty-five hundredi plows are produced annually at' a near-by farm machinery plant., "These are very good tractors, and pulling those gang plows: they sure Can turn over a lot of ground in a hurry," Mr. Ma-I tone commented. The Senator, an engineer withi thirty-five years' experience,l said he was impressed by the ;quality of steel and aluminum; ;he had seen. "Their blast fur-1 ;nitres may not look like very mulch in some cases, but in IblaSt furnace it is the inside In the -factories he visited women, averaged 35 per cent of all workers. They ranged .from a low of 13 iier cent In one plant to a high of 52 per cent in an- other, Workers' Wages Given Senator Malone said the aver- age wage of workere in the plants he visited was 800 or 850 rubles monthly, with the range from 450 to 3,000 rubles monthly. "The official rate on the ruble is 25 cents, but. the ruble actually represents a good deal Arise in purchasing power.1 "A few top men may rare as minim as 5,000 rubles monthly, with the bonuses they get for overfultilling plane," Mr. Malone said. Liitrzbe:Iiistaies Fergana Val- ley, he declared, "they had more cotton pickers than I thought existed in this part of We would." He was told the valley had more than 2.000,000 acres planted to crops, mainly cotton and corn. The Nevada legislator flew over notch of the virgin land planted this year to grain, He said that the new lands were very dry in many areas and that irrigation was planned. Mr. Malone said he hoped to travel to Vladivostok and leave the Soviet: 'Union for Japan from there, but he expressed doubt that the Soviet Government !would permit this, . Alternatively, he plans a one- day trip to Gorki tomorrow. Then he could leave for Helsinki Wednesday for a visit to Fin- land, after which he plans to go to Warsaw. :Wash. Post SEP. 2 Swap of 2 Boys Offered For Hungarian Refugee Ent ea VIENNA, Austria, Sept. 25 Communist Hugarian frontier officials offered to trade two Austrian boys whq had strayed over the border for a Hungarian who took refuge in Austria yes- terday, the Austrian Ministry of the Interior said today. Soon after the refugee Josef Horvath, cycled into Austria, Hungarian guards asked Aus- trian guards to hand him over. When the Austrians refused, the exchange was offered. The boys strayed into Hungary earlier this month. .N.Y. Times EAST ZONE FREES FLIERS' Two Americans Made Forced Landing in Training Plane WARTHA, Germany, Sept. 25 filel?Two American fliers were returned to West Germany to- day by the Communists after they made a forced landing in the Soviet gone in their T-33 jet. trainer. WO, Louis W. Cueningimin of It Paso; Tex,, and- Sgt. Jean P. Gebler of jersey City; N. 3., were "in good condition and had been well-treated," an Air Force spokesman said, Major Cunningham and Ser- geant Gebler were forced down Friday night In East Germeny alter their radio compass felled and they 'tom their way on a routine training flight. They ran out of gasoline and landed their two-seater jet in a field near .flieenach. Their re- lease was arranged through the United States military IlligNiOn In Potsdam, East Germaey, Their aircraft will be hauled back to the Wcet by tresek to- JnOrrOW. N.Y. Times SEP 2 195E-; YUGOSLAVIA WARNS U. S. Communist Paper Wants No Moves to Make Tie Closer ...-- BELGRADE,Yugoslavia, SePt. 25 Uri- The Yugoslav Commu- nist party newspaper Borba warned the United States today not to try to "re-educate" Yugo- slavia and tie it closer to the United States, Borba', which often speaks for the Government, said "such at- tempts can be not only futile but harmful as well." Borba commented editorially on the forthcoming visit to Bel- grade of Robert D. Murphy, United States Deputy Under Secretary of State. It said Mr. Murphy's visit would provide op- portunities' for pereonal contact and discussion "which have pro- duced 'useful results." Borba said Veg.:oilers agreed with the Ameeican statesmen who suggested that Yugoslavia be allowed to "develop as an, in- dependent country." It chided sections of the Unit- ed States press that "artificial- ly invent differences' between the two, and said all unsettled problems Can be solved. 7 Wash. Post SEP 2 r; 1S5 Prison Doors Open to Man Romanians LONDON, Sept. 25 aff---Conl- munist Romania has decreed a sweeping Amnesty for many Itomaniaes jailed on war crimes, charges, Radio Bucha- rest reported today. The broadcast said the de- cree, following a similar move by Russia, was- issued by the Presidium or the Romanian National Assembly.. The -decree provided fun par- don for persons serving sen- tences up to 10 years for war elinieS, the radio said. Persons senteneed for longer than 10 years "are fully pardoned if they took part in the anti- Ilitlerite war in the operation zone." The broadcast said persons .serving terms longer than 10 'years and Who "did not cormnit murders on their own initia- tive" also were to be pardoned. Sentences of more than 10- ;years for war crimes will be reduced by half, the decree said, But it exempted from the amnesty prisoners who "were members of Fascist govern- ments" during World War IL Radio Bucharest said the de- cree also granted full pardon to persons sentenced up to eve years for "infractions against rho state." Wash. Post SEP 2 6kv-11 New Soviet Minister LONDON. Sept. 25 (41--The Soviet Union today announced the formation of two new Min- istries?for the textile industry and light industry?out of or- ganizations controlled by the Ministry foe Consumer Goods. Moscow radio said Nikita Se- menoyieh Ryzbov was named minister of the Textile !Aldus- iry and Nikolai Nikolavieh Mi- rotvorster, Minister of Light Industry. Wash, Pest SEP 2 47 l'g; Russian Popov Stamps LONDON, Sept. 25 de?Moa- cow radio announced today that Russia vvill shortly issue two new stamps ''to mark the 60th anniversary of the invention of radio by Alexander Popov." Approved For Release 2003112/09: CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 0-9000Z 1.00Z000t1917000-179dC1U-VI3 tobA Posf---Dtgpaide SEP 2 /. ssiais.Reporjed Changing Policy on Slave Labor Camps Lar Scale Release of Prisoners Indicated Shift Said to Have Begun After Strikes. By RICHARD LO'WENTHAL comust. 1955, ths Levin Obestrirsr, Hey, Sept. 21?Evi- dence cf :.he large-scale release of pHs 'leers from several tin- regent Labor camp areas in the Soviet 'Union has been ells- Ousel essre at the Congress for Cultieen Freedom by Joseph Se/censer, German author of a hon: on the labor camps of the Vorkate region. The changes, described by Sciolmer on the basis of Inter- vieine .with Austrians recently releaetil, seem to amount' to a tratatormation of Soviet penal colonies in the Far North and Far elatst. They emem to represent a shift from forced labor In camps to "free" labor, consist- ing partia of released prisoners kept in enforced residence and Perth/ of new deportees and genital,* t,mlunteers. Jails Interviewed. Independent confirmation of this theory was offered to the congress by an American ex- pert, Prof. Herbert Passin, on the been; of interviews with Japanese former prisoners re- cently returned home from the Soviet Innen. The reported reform in the Rennet uf ;nal system seems to have bet un in the spring of 1954 and to be most advanced In the areas where extensive strike. by prisoners hive *c- rusted in the lest two seam _Schemer says abottellep_er s? cent Ise the SOtt.000 prisoners. in the Vorinita region bad been releasee by the time the last of the .Austrians there left last Julie. The Vorkuta strike in July 1053 was the first such strike' of which news reached the outside world. Ines present releases were said to be taking place in line with hitherto unpublished changes in Soviet legislation. Many of, these changes corm- spend to ,lemands made 'beo .the prisoners at the ?time of the verifies prisoners' strikes. The 'changes provide- for re- ef all invalid prisoners and thew known to have been less than 20 years old when they committed "crimes." Re- lease also is being accorded to prisoners who have served two-thir I* nf their sentences. 60/Z 1./COOZ aseeieu .10d peAwddv H.Y. Thugs SEP 2 6 195; CONS S GAIN IN RUMANIA Many individual sentences are being reduced by "commis- lions of revision," sent out by the Soviet Ministry of Justices 'A ruling has been made that every working day In which a prisoner completes the task as- signed will count as three days off his sentence. New offenders are being sentenced to depor- tation rather than to forced labor. Conditions Bettor. At the same time, working and living conditions is the camps have improved consider- ably. Numbers on prieoners' clothing and bars on the win- dows of their lodgings have been abolished. Pay has been } increased said leave from camp I sometimes is granted. One of the motives for the changes appeared to be belated recognition that the old system was wasteful because of the ex-' tremely low productivity of labor it entailed. The changes, Indeed, seem? to have led to in- creased productivity. In addition to Vorkuts, strikes took place In 1953 and 1034 in the Karaganda coal-mining region of Kazakhstan, where prisoners even got hold of arms and the rising finally was crushed only with tanks; in the non-ferrous metal combine of Norilsk in northwest Siberia, where, after an initial defeat, the strike restarted and lasted several months, ending in a massacre; and in the Far East- ern camp area of Taishet as late as last January. State Stores Have Domestic Stoves and Refrigerators, but Prices Seem High 2 IsrP17 de and tutralated to pinOir )0/34 0110100 I &She'd/land stenographer said she earned 300 lek a typesetter ,000 plus bonuses and a sewing- machine operator 900 plus bonuses. A teaster *aid her earnings were 440 lei risontin, while another , a man, said be earned 750. A coal miner said 4c earned ,350 lei a MORO, bu another said rhe received bone-lea for exceeding his quotas and earned 2,000 a month. In terms of averages and working hours, the impression was that it would take a Semi. skilled worker 333 hours to earn the price of a gas range. This would be earning at a higher rate than the salesman who sells the ranges. The semisskilled worker would require 1,868 hours to pay for the gas refrigerator, 200 hours for the 13Man radi and 359 for the bicycle, On the basis of prices in state stores, it would take the semi- skilled worker 171 hpurs to buy his wine a cheap weolen over- coat, forty-one hourg for a pair of work shoes for himself, 148 hours for a cheap woolen sett for himself and 416 hours for a better suit. The impression created was that a substantial number of physicians, writers, engineers and Government officials had higher Incomes. A guide explained also that many Government officials and directors of state enterprises who have automobiles placed at their disposal use them for pleas- ure driving. Otherwise there are virtually no private automobiles. Rumanian economists stressed that in calculating wages coneid- eration must be given to social insurance, medical care and treatment, as well as factory canteens, where workers may purchase meals at nominal prices. Rent also is relatively cheap. One worker said his rent was less than 8 per cent of his income. By JACK RAYMOND sweetie The New York Time& BUCHAREST, Rumania, Sept. 25--A state store was besieged last week by women seeking to examine new gas ranges. One attraction, said the manager, is that the metal containers for the "bottled" gas on which the ranges operate' are more avail- able. They Can be purchased with the *Weal. The manager pointed with pride to the fact that the ranges were a Rumanian product. He maintained that Rumania had been turning them out for ten years. " The manager mentioned other Rumanian - manufactured items In his store: a small gas refrig- erator, also operated on bottled gas; two different small radios, one of them with a short-wave band, and a bicycle. Ail these items were said to be available. The manager said the cost of the articles must not be consid- ered in terms of dollars. The exchange rate is six lei to the dollar, so the 'rice of the gas range Is equivalent to $191.e0, of the refrigerator to $933 of the bicycle to $180 and of the small radios to $10.8 and $173. Average Wages Obaeure The manger said one must consider thii prices in terms of the income of Rumanians, but It appears difficult to calculate the average -Rumanian wage. Three members of the Institute for Economic Restearclt of the Rumanian Academy confesped they did not know it ,and ex- plained they were theoretical economists. They said they were certain statistics could be ob- tained and promised to get them. A salesman In the state store said he earned 400 lei a month. A street-car conductor said that his base pay was 308 lei but that he could get more if he operated his trolley a certain distance without its needing repairs. An unskilled street-paving laborer m Bucharest said he earned 600 lei a month. But one of the ecenomists said this was more than earnings in regular industries because street-paving workers were difficult to find. The economist said hi a own earnings were 3,000 to 4,000 lei a month. A physician in a Bucharest hospital said he got 1,250 lei a month, but it ts known that physicians earn much more in private practice. i 0-9000Z1?00Z0001110000-179dati-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeiewod panoiddv Approved For Rzipse 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Nosy IS. Monitor-- RFP 1 2 Refugees' Broadcasts Crack Iron Curtain Thursdays, she talks on the By Stair Am Arndt 7' ',education of children in other !countries, comparing conditiOns with those ? hi Czechoslovakia iwhere many are obliged to work in factories. On Fridays, her program is Woman a &Moe el The Christf es Scion", wetter There are women's programs over 'Radio Free Europe and women editors who prepare the scripts for listeners in their own !devoted to literature?the liter- countries and give daily broad- ar., works of women al' over casts, the world and books of particu- Two of these are Mrs. Maria lar interest to women. Tundirova. formerly of Prague, Saturdays ahe uses a script and Mrs, Alexandra Stypulkow- which she writes as a converse- ska, formerly of Warsaw. Their tion between two country- programs are 15 i?inutes in women about conditions now length and are given from the and in the days when Czecho- Radio Free Europe station in siovakia was free. Information Munich first in the morning and coming out of the country gives then repeated the evening of her current facts as to what is that day and the morning of the happening so that she keeps her next, lams, if a woman cannot broadcasts up to date, and she listen at one hour, or if the ra- knows .the countrywomen so dio is jammed in order to blur wel! that her interpretation is the broadcast, at one time, then accurate and convincing. she may be able to hear it at Her Sunday broadcasts are another. devoted to meditation and, cur- These programs are the link rent events. . that freedom-loving women in There are about 1,300 persons communist-dominated countries in and around Munich who are have with the free world and connected with Radio Free Eu- Make it possible for them to rope. About half are Germans, learn how conditions actually about 100 are Americans and are for women in free countries, the rest are Central and Eastern , ' Mrs. Turnlirova and Mrs. Sty- European refugees such as Mrs. t putkowska both went. to Berch- Turniirova and Mrs. Stypul- teagaden, Germany, in April for kowska, who write for it or give the meeting of the conference on American Women's Activities, programs. Mrs. Stypulkewska, who has and made broadcasts from there, toiling of the work carried on by programs beamed to Poland Wives of men in the American three times a week, was arrest- Armed' Forces. ed in Warsaw by the Gestapo in 1943 and spent two years in a . Mrs. Turniirovoss_ voice- is. fa- concentration camp. She was saved through the efforts of the Swedish Red Cross and- spent two years in Sweden, then went to England. Her husband, who was an Un- derground loader during World miller to her listeners in her homeland for she was a member ? of parliament in the days of her ? country's freedom as a republic. Although she broadcasts under another name than her own, women of her country know her and they trust her sincerity and the sigenracy of what she tells thenr . Her program on Mondays is for homemakers. She talks of things which arc on the markets in the countries of the West, and gives prices which she obtains from letters that come to her from women in France, the Netherlands, Belgium, England, Norway, Italy, and Germany. Compares Conditions Ori Tuesdays she talks On women and politics in western countries of Europe and in America. She tells of work women are doing, progress they are making, wages they receive, positions they hold in different countries. Wednesdays AIrs. Turnilrova gives a personal talk on any pertinent subject, encouraging the women, and giving them any helpful messages she can. War II, was :one of 16 such Po- lish leaders invited by Marshal Zhukov. Mrs. Styptilkowska told me, to talk about the future of the Polish Government, but when they met they were ar- rested, imprisoned, and tried. The others in the group did not survive but a- note sent by the American Government, ask- ing what had happened to these people, resulted?after six months?in the release of her husband. Be was sent to Poland and then escaped to Western Europe. Stories of Escape Mrs. Stypulkowska has one program on the life of the Po- lish family, based on reports from escapees, from the Com- munist press and from moni- tored broadcasts. They broadcast almost every hour an address of someone liv- Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : ClAtRIDP ' tog abroad., in France, Italy, Sweden and listeners under- stand they can write there-- Our address is almost any- vhere in the Free World," said Stypulkowska. "I don't believe more than one 100 letters from Communist countries to Radio Free Europe gets through, but we have 20 to 30 a month.. We change the ad- dress every few days so by the time all post offices are instruct- ed to be on the watch for the ! old one a new one Ii being used." ' In her program'on the Polish family, Mrs. Stypulkowska uses typical experiences, the rise of prices, coping with the Problems of daily living, the arrest of someone, his escape, and so forth. On 'her second program, she gives a personal talk for women, discussing education, women's activities in Poland and in the free world. This summer the programs have taken the lists eners on a trip around the world, giving them descriptions of conditions in other countries, the interesting life in a western democracy where people have freedom of choice and freedom of movement. Her third program Is devoted to a political speech of live minutes on Such questions as the indoctrination of children, facts about the food situation and high prices, and why things are as they are. Letters of response, dinicult as It is to get them through, keep coming, indicating the value of , the programs to eager listeners on the east side of Freedom.. The refugees preparing these programs work with a zeal born ' of love and appreciation for , freedom, justice, and human rights of which they have once been deprived, and for which they have been ready to give their lives. ? LT. Th000 SF- 2 16 15 REFUGEE TRADE SOUGHT Hungary Offers Two Austrian Children for Mon 'Who Fled VIENNA, Sept. 25 (44 ? A _ Hungarian officer offered to ex- change two Austrian children ' held' in Hungary for a Hungarian refugee who fled to Austria, the Interior Ministry said today. The Hungarian was sent back empty-handed by border officials after he crossed the frontier yes- terday with ten soldiers to pre- sent his proposal. The Hungarian refugee es- caped into Austria on a bicycle early yesterday and has been given asylum, Today Austrian newspapers demanded immediate Goveriunent action to effect the gatilmusaoprat, 0 Information Austrian authorities had received that, Hungary was holding the children. ILL Monitor sEp 0-55 0-9000Zi.00Z000t1917000-179dC1U-VIO 60/Z1./?00z eseeieu Jod peAoiddv Reds Use Exile to Curb Po Better to Poland of Hugon By Paul Weld Henke, emier of the Polish Written for The Christien Science Monitor govei tee -n-exile, represents a first ajbIe success of the two. Under these circumstances Warsaw eevernment's efforts to the relations of each of the two rally dissident Poles at home colossi with Germany must be- et appal est independence, Na"-;iliellUar 4451' and abroad to their new COUXse come of %tat 100freet te tiortal ree seciliation, and, are lingoes Ranke dissenter IFladyslaw Gomulka been haunted by dread of Ger- put at. Poland's own way to many. socialieme" The Cieuttest Conference and Doubts About U.S. ' the character of the man also Judging by remarks whfch the had something to do 'evith his former Premier made at recent return. liet defection brings Cabinet sessions, he reached the home to the West the shattering conclusion that while both effect of tee Geneva Conference Washington and Moscow were upon the morale of the anti- wooing Germany, Moscow was Coternursisi exiles: more interested in supporting Polish refugee spokesmen Poland's territorial integrity think th et it is not so much the than were the Americans whose lessenine of feeling between heavy investments of capital and Washing too and Moscow which good will in Germany made it ' confused their countrymen, but appear likely that they would the conviction that 'United States back Bonn's demand for resto- policy wholeheartedly supports ration of Germany's prewar the comebeck of a powerful and boundaries. poteatially aggressive Germany. It seems; indeed, that mater Hemmer] ea between the po- Poles are far less interested in Utica se stems dominated ,hy the the prospect of a restoration of Atlantic powers and the Soviet their prewar boundaries with Icolossus, even so important a the U.S.S.R. than in the pros- country as Poland no longer can pect of peaceful development I hope to survive with the active within the present borders. Hugo support oil at least one of the Hanke's defection thus seems to ? Pub. Evening Nor SEP 20 1955 -Until Shrimp Whistle ; Nikita Khrushchev, the ebullient thief of the Soviet Communist Party, is h frank man. Speaking at a banquet for the East German Reds in Moscow, he has -bluntly asserted that if anybody in the *est believes that the smiles of Russia's 1;eaders "invOlve abandonment of the $eaching of Marx, Engels and Lenin, he deceives himself poorly. Those who wait for that must wait until a shrimp learns to whistle." Soviet smile s, according to Mr. gletuelachev, reflect a genuine desire to live at peace with the rest of the world, hut they do not mean that the Kremlin Intends to retreat from the idea that the star of capitalism is waning and that cc nmunism is riding the wave of the luiture and will ultimately be triumphant everywhere. And he has declared that Red Russia is supremely confident of Winning that victory, not by resorting to *sr but by proving itself superior in Competition with the West's free-enter- prise system?"the way of the blind," as he calls it. Mr. Khrushchev's views probably are ailared by all other members of the Soviet show that as an aftermath of the Geneva Conference some anti-Communist Poles actually h ve beg tivelr'Ne.. Mast Communist Pa nds prois noimced "nationally oriented policy" started more than a year ago. It was highlighted by a sensational editorial in the De- cember issue of Nave Drogi (New Ways), the Polish equiva- lent of Moscow's Kommunist, at- tacking the methods of the state security police (after Ridio Free Europe had released Josef Swi- atle's disclosures) and severely criticizing distrust shown to former members of the wartime underground Army of Liberation who had proved their "devotion to the people." Leaders Rehabilitated Communist Partrin the U.S.S.R., said in Belgrade that the ex- communication of President TIM had been all the fault of Lautenti P. Betio, Tribtma Ludu held Berta responsible for the of the pwriar yeders ms .Hanke's 'defection. -net only will strengthen the good will of the Warsaw government. It aLso will assist present Com- munist efforts to bring about, a realignment of Peiland's Roman Catholic clergy. The former Premier-in-exile is a member of the Christian Democratic Party and was fictive in the Roman Catholic labor movement in Upper Silesia before the war. Support Lacking Among the Polish anti-Com- munist emigration, Mr. Hanke's return to Warsaw will not make too much of a stir. ,He WU a minor politician who duringthe war was employed is a porter in a ministry of the London government-in-exile. Nor is Mr. Zaleski's Cabinet really repre- sentative of the Polish political emigration. Since the formation, one year , ago, of the Polish Council of Na. tional Unity in London, the Zaleski government-in-exile no longer is supported by the major political parties who thought that there no longer was any need for a President-in-exile (recognized only by Cuba, the Republik of Ireland, the Vatican, and Syria). As a result, Mr. Zaleski had to choose the members of his Cabi- net from among second-string politicians like Hugon Henke, who for one reason or another had left their parties When the Council pf National Unity was formed. - The importance of Mr. Hanke's defection is lessened further by the fact that he was appointed Premier only on Aug. 9, after the return from the United States of his predecessor. At the same time the Warsaw radio and press came out in de- fense of children of kulaks. An- other move ot make the Corti- munist-controlled regime more palatable was the posthumous rehabilitation in Tribune. Ludu on May 1 of five prominent pee- war Communist leaders purged by Moscow hi 1937-1930 as "spies Of Pilstidske" I By restoring the honor of the founders and early leaders of the party, who are widely be- lieved to have been selfless dedicated men and women, the leaders of today tried to, present communism as a homergrown movement. ' The effect of it all was to start under' Communist auspices 'I (and therefore under Moscow's control) the equivalent of a Polish Titoism without a Tito. , It can hardly have been acci- dental that Tributui Ludu's ar- : tiele appeared two weeks before the Soviet state visit to Bet. grade. Just as Ni kite S. ebelfeetirete Sectary .,of the ucollecilve leadership," and Indicate that the Kremlin is as ever to the ideological communized world. F armed. This is a esq_ue th the Old they plainly As dedicated dream of a lied is fore- pictur- about :14.7TTT whistling slitkels, butt l?were would do well to it' constantly in mind and do everything possible to keep on their toes competitively. Anyhow, Mr. Khrushchev merits thanks of a sort for making clear that the USSR, despite- its smiles, has lost none of its appetite for mastery of the globe, politically, eco- nomically and otherwise. 4. 0-9000MOZOOON41000-179dCIU-VP 60/n/?00z aseeietwej peAcucldv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Nem* TEE WASHOGTON POST end TIMES HERALp E5 ? Sunday. September 18, 1955 Mima01.11111. Matter of Fact Yugoslavia Likes Its Marxism Mild. By Stewart Alsop BELGRADE?Yugoslavia is living proof of how far the process of change can go in a Communist. state, once it gets started. All qualified observers agree that some sort of process of change has started also in the Soviet Union. And it is therefore tempting to speculate whether the change in Russia might go as far as it has here. . ? Make no mistake about it. Yugoslavia is a Communist state, and a dictatorship. But It is a very different sort of Communist dic- tatorship than it was seven or eight years ago, when Yugoslavia was threatening Trieste, shooting down American planes and actively supporting the Greek Communist guerillas In those days, according to reliable wit- nesses, the Tito regime was in some ways tougher than Stalin's. The suppression of all vestiges of liberty was as total as in Russia, the secret police was as ruthless, and the life of the people was even more drab. Now, Tito's Yugoslavia presents a startling contrast even to the milder post-Stalin Soviet Union. SOME OF THESE CONTRASTS are trivial, like the fact that the Belgrade newspapers print "Donald Duck" and "Jiggs and Maggie." And yet would it not have a certain political significance if Moscow's leading newspapers suddenly began using, and even paying for, American comic strips? Or take, as another example, the party which Dictator Tito threw the other night for the Greek King and Queen. If the late. King Alexander had been around to haunt the white sugar-candy palace that he built himself here in Belgrade, he would have felt right at home. He would have applauded particularly the impeccable full dress of the Yugoslav officials and the red-on-blue dress uniform of the Yugoslav generals. And he would have been impressed, too, by the elegant amiability displayed toward their royal highnesses by Marshal Tito--who. after all, has spent most of his life plotting the downfall of royal highnesses of all sorts. No such scene could possibly have occurred In the Soviet Union, where even the simple dinner jacket is condemned as a symbol of "bourgeois decadence" and official receptions are about as elegant as a bear-hug. What has been happening here?and what May yet happen in the Soviet Union?is what one astute Western observer calls "the hour- geoisization of Communism." The break with Stalin threw the Yugoslav leaders into close contact with the West, willy-nilly. Certain habits and viewpoints of the West were ale sorbed, by a sort of osmosis, simply because they made life easier and pleasanter. To be sure, there are in Belgrade the same dreariness and drabness which are ap- parently 'inseparable from Communism. But, In sharp contrast to iStoecow. there are pretty girls on the streets, dressed with a certain sense of style. What is no doubt more tumor- tent, there is an atmosphere of casual human easiness here which is still utterly lacking in. Russia. You can have a meal alone with a Yugoslav, official or newspaperman. You can talk with him, argue with him, joke with him, in a wag wholly impossible in Russia. The Yugoslays are even capable of making Jokes about the sacred doctrine. One very high official, asked about the Marxist doctrine of "the withering away of the state," roared with laughter and said: "Well, I'd have to wither away first, and so far I feel all right." Nobody makes ,that kind of joke in the Soviet Actually, the Yugoslav leaders take their own special brand. of Marxist doctrine very seriously indeed?even though, unlike the Russ sians, they are capable of joking about it. Ace cording to the Yugoslays, they discovered in about 1950 that the Russian system of total dictation from the center and ruthless agri- cultural collectivization just didn't work. So they have elaborated their own brand of Marxism. Its catchwords are "decentralise. lion" and "economic democracy." RELIABLE OBSERVERS claim that work. ers in Yugoslav enterprises really do have something to say about their conditions of work and the division of the profits, and that control from the center really is much lighter than in the Russian system. At any rate, the Yugoslays are sure that they %lave invented a new and better kind of Marxist state. One of the ttip Yugoslav offi- cials solemnly told this reporter that "Yugo. slay democratic socialism will mark as great a crossroads in world history as the victory of capitalist democracy over feudalism." The Yugos. lays, as this remark suggests, are perhaps the cockiest people in the world. And by the same token, they are quite sure that, far from Yugoslavia being attracted hack in the Soviet way of doing things, the Soviets' will eventually see the wisdom of emulating the Yugoslays, adopting "decentralization," "economic democracy," dress suits, jokes, arguments among themselves about politics, and all the other aspects of Yugoslav life. Could the Yugoslays perhaps he iight? Could it be that the "bourgeoisisation of Com.' ? nninism," which -has gone so far here, has really begun to get under way in the Soviet Union too? Could the doctrinaire irrationality which has so long threatened the world give way in time to something milder and mellower, something that. could at least be lived with? Here in Belgrade, it looks at least possible, though no mare than remotely possible. Approved For Release 2003/12/09: CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 0-9000Z1?00Z000t1917000179dCIU-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeieu .10d pertOaddnt THE EVENING STAR, WR:shington,, D. einsotr, AlrAPTIMPIER 19, JAM CONSTANTINE BROWN C. Pressure for Trade With Reds Will U. S. Make Another Mistake And Help Foes Build War Potential? The question of trade with the USSR?and possibly with Communist China has be- come a . hotly debated issue among toe-level officials, Since the sweetness-and- light policy wasanitiated by the Russian leaders at Geneva last July there has been strong pressere on the Government to relax its trade restrictions and provide the Communist world with everything it needs' for its people, The pressure comes not only from politicians, who, despite the Kremlin's refusal to offer tangible evidence of goodwill, Prefer to hide their beads in the sand, but also from power- ful industrial and banking centers. Some industrial leaders are surprised when State Depart- ment experts point out that the enslaved peoples have al- moat no purchasing power and. American businessmen could not expect to export any size- able volume of consumers' goods. The deals would be exclu- sively between American pro- ducers and the Red govern- ments. It would be the same kind of trade as existed before the last war between this country and the German Nazi and Japanese Bushido regimes. Our Industrialists are told that the exports which the Soviet and Chinese Commu- nist regimes would seek would be almost exclusively those to strengthen, even indirectly, the Communist war potential, And so long as the Rods do not give any definite evidence by deeds that they have aban- doned their pursuit Of world domination, it would be fool- ish to strengthen them so they could later cut our throats, our diplomatic and military policy makers-believe. We made a similar mistake once before when, in the hope of appeasing Japan's war lust. American concerns were al- lowed to sell her scrap iron, gasoline and airplanes. Planes were cut off first, but the other items were supplied until Oc- tober, 1941. only shortly be- fore Pearl Harbor. When in 1940 Senator Styles Bridges protested 'against ex- porting such materials to a government which had already demonstrated its enmity, he was told that we could place no restrictions on such trade without offending the Tokyo leaders and precipitating a crisis. Before launching into World War 11, Hitler also purchased large quantities of "non-stra- tegic goods" from his intended victims who were? all anxious to deal with Gerntany on the aesumption that a "happy population will be reluctant to go to war." The vulture nations col- lapsed more from economic pressure than military re- verses. Thus the American submarines in the Pacific con- tributed at least as much to the defeat of Japan by cutting off its lines of supply as the A-bombs dropped on Hiro- shima and Nagsaakl.I As a matter of fact the Japanese were almost ready to sur- render late in 1944 because of shortages which were not all strategic materials. A similar situation con- tributed to the defeat and de- moralization of the Germans in both world wars. The allied blockades were at least as much responsible as military and air power for the defeat of cottrageom1 end well-trained armies. Until last February when Soviet Premier Sul geniis launched the new friendly dip. loamy, we were 'compelled to regard the Communists in Europe and Asia as enemies who looked only for a favor- eble chance to Jump us. We limited otie trade with them, but our allies in Europe did not follow the same policy. Under the excuse that they needed outlets for their in- dustrial production, they dealt fairly extensively with both the USSR and Communist China, Now that the Reds have changed their frowns to grins some of our own people .are anxious to unload not only agricultural surpluses but whole factories. These would go to governments which our diplomats and military men regard as inevitable enemies who are merely playing for thine. We are not people to en- gage in preventive wars. But this does not mean that we. should make things easier for the dictators to consolidate and expand their holdings. Superficiel observers such as the legislators who are now visiting the USSR and basking in the Kremlin friendliness are said to be ready to start a drive in Congress in January - to improve relations with the Communist world by extensive trade. This would permit us to dispose of burdensome agri- cultural surpluses even If only -for 10cents on the dollar. 'Those legislators have short memories of how the free ss world built up the military ma- chine of the Japanese and Nazi war lords, WIIII0101111111PME? 0-9000Z1.00Z000t19466)00179dClti-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeietnegeA PeAoiddv . ' ? Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Ayr As tthilak_tack over what?' 1 havt- seen, heard, MA felt, my trip liehind the Iron ' f am increasingly id that all useful tion , and all . worth- Pr? ' leCtimis thardina Into e f u- 414.? ?w i 14icts it?? ?I three cardinal facts folicws: - t contrast today They ea?nre d Eastern rn iEttrc11 "Pe Wisistern aj priiioun" cli. To enter tailSatellite world from and emerge from it 'nerC In Berlin Is to realize that 'COMMUnialn has suffered crirer, the past sevep years a thundering historic defeat. Arestern Europe, for all its fikortcornings and problems and partial failures, is a vast rising pool of human well- being and physical vitality and productiveness. The i water n this pool is pressing against and lapping over the top of the barrier we call the Ins, Curtaillt,i, bariter, ' that that .bu- reaucratic turt ering. 2. Moscow is profoundly Interested in maintaining its military front line along the western frontiers of the satel- lite countries. 3. But to maintain its mili- tary position Moscow may be forced to permit more lati- tude in economic and politi- ea:i systems. A A A The woof of the three cardinal facts and of their combined meaning lies in Poland. Poland is the biggest of the satellite countries. Militarily-, Poland is by far the most im- portant of them all to Moscow and it is today the most re- lir We of them all to Moscow. The corntruntider ts arnied forces and ifs_ Defense Minis- ter is Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, a Soviet mili- tary he.ronf World. War Yet tiie ? governnient in _Poland Jail* most relaxed of the satellite governments In its attitude toward the West. It alone has retained residual contacts with the West. It alone never purged its fringes of all persons who served in the. London, as distinct from the Moscow, ernigree group of the E war period. It astorje -Mit/ tree 404 admitting Western newspapermen. Only in Poland are such visitors received by high officials of the government. And in Poland communism has achieved less a its ideo- logical purpose and fewer of its social goals than in the other satellite countries. If Moscow were interested primarily in the ? success of COMMUlliSM in the satellite countries, it long since would have found itself new agents ? In Poland. Yet the fact is that Moscow seems relatively sat- isfied with the regime in Poland. How does one explain this ? seeming 'contradiction in terms?a satellite govern- ment which has scored the ? highest mark in military loyalty to Moscow, and the lowest marks in communiza- tion of its people and its econ- omy? That Moscow is ,satis-, fled vronM seem to be con- firmed la the fact Olist jklencL 19.4tIv&ittlitilate'ciliiiitry to wawa 740101,07 NW made an expensive, if aesthetically doubtful. gift?the Palace of Culture in Warsaw. A A A 7 - Mare Is, rinabrait, only one Posdble explinititiOn which satisfies all the known facts. Moscow must know a:. well as anyone else that the laws of political and economic gravity will not tolerate a perpetuation of the present state of affairs, in Eastern Eu- rope. The present contrast be- tween Eastern and Western Europe is devastating to the prestige of communism. The high waters of Western re- covery are spilling over the Iron Curtain into the eco- nomic and social swamplands beyond. Nothing can keep them out much longer. If the high waters are not admitted in a controlled flow the dam must burst and 11()Oti mit a whole decade of 14:08.010/ ,121- 111W-kailtany;Wthe:stito.' te of lMte govern- -???,? ? ? ? - z men* except the one in Poland, surviving even a con- trolled flow of high water through the dam. Perhaps the Polish one could, thanks to its own failures. It could still, if it chose, make its peace with the peasants, with the laboring classes, and with the Roman Catholic Church. If it did These things, it would cease to be communist except in name., It could do these things andremain in the good ' graces of Moscow if it con- tinued to be militarily loyal to Moscow. If I "read the signs correctly this, .for better or for worse, is the way the winds are blowing from Moscow across the Polish plains. Poland win be allowed, ipdeed may even be encouraged, to make its economic and social peace with the West at the price of remaining a stanch military , ally of ? the Soviet Union. I Whether Moscow can possibly ! . succeed in such a maneuver is, of course, another matter. Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Approved For R?lase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R003100120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 WESTERN EUROPE CrS. tdooitor SEP 1. 3 19V3 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 111 ? , Bonn- Moscow Tie Rut*. West expeete here and on By eleney 8. Hayward the continent realize that the VoLe,0 or roil: London Newt as.rev.s achievement of a CollillY1kInist The ceeman advice monitor diplomatic triumph of this mag- Landon nitude is far from assured. The initial reaetion on t.his Great Britain and its Western side of the Atlantic, however, European Aliies'are assaying the has been more sober than that Adenauer-Kremlin talks to see, what, if anything, has been lost expressed in Washington. or endangered. Deniers Spotlighted *tele opinion here and on the In the long run, this may continent remains far from prove desirable as a counter to unanimous, some genuine uneas- what many regard as excessive Mess is being manifested. overoptimism that the top-level It stems from the fact that Geneve talks Iasi July somehow mitred that all will he well. _ Western Europe always is sensi- In the face of direct contact nye to moves itivolving the So- between both states viet Uniork and Germany, If the two disagree, that is . and Moscow, it is emphasized ? cause for alarm on this side of anew here that the Westesannot the Atlantic. afford to lag in its efforts to , And if, as was the case when convince West Gertname that its lbest chance for unineation, se. the West German Chancellor conferred with the Soviet lead_ corny, and iticlepende?ce lies ers, certain areas or agreement with the Atlantic Alliance. are reported, that also can be For ir West Germany can be ? considered a reason for appree even partly subverted by the hension in the Western tamp. Kremlin, Europeans know that Agreement between Moscow the Western European Union is and both halves of divided Ger- doomed, end the battle for Eu- many could disturb the delicate rePean security that seemed . balance of power in Europe that won may have to be commenced has been built up through pains- anew. s en taking conferences and years of Scant comfort i tak here that the Communists have been effort by 'Western diplomats. Camera Diaelosed forced to woo West Germany arid abandon some past con- Dr. Konrad Acienatier himself, cepts. Instead, empluisie centers is given high marks for re- on what he West ought to do maining loyal to iii Western to inwet and counteract the ties in the face of heaVy Com- altered Soviet approach now munist pressure and enticement. that it is in elect. Co,neern, nevertheless, is reit , Two Genrninva here that Soviet strategists have Of particular concern is the chalked up bug-run gains. ! virtmil certainty that mine...ins of s,On tile Platter 011: 1113leelatie ordinary Germans will be more a?4)tielle belWeen toe 'IY0 e(41n- pleased at the prisoner return tries, tor example, theinitial 11 , 1r. Adenauer gained than dis- gain may have been pr. Aue" !concerted over the diplomatic re- nauer's in the form of returned Iatiorks he conceded. prisoners?an ernotionel, Per' The summoning. of East Ger- sonaI problem that the German ? leader is too shrewd to ignore. man Communist represe.nta Elves ?An informed body of opinion to Moscow immediately after Dr. ' , I Adenaner's departuve also is re- in the Western camp, however, bolds that. the Kremlin was? g_arded as evidence that the Wash. Daily, l\fmos both K ? w t that rigwo o pay at price f remlin will seek to SEP 2 6 1955 SPY CASE HELD PERIL To U. S.-BIUTI)SH TIES Siorclal to Th,Nvw lark Three. LONDON, Sept.. 25?A Con- servative Member of Parliament described the recent revelations on Donald Maclean and Goy Burgess today as "are astonish- ing story of sustained inepti- tude, Sir Robert Bootbby said the House of Commons would have to decide when it reconvened next month whether it had de- liberately misled for the last; four years. , The Sun Sopt 231955 East, *est Germany Agree On Olympics Munich. Germany, Sept. 22 on, Ski officials of West and East Ger- many said today they have de- cided to send a 39-man team, to ?ttie iff56 Winter Olympic Games to represent all of Germany at Cortina, Italy, East and West Germany failed to agree in l9.2 "As a result, only i athletes from West Germany com- peted at: Oslo. . ? Asserting that. there was lit- tle doubt that the security sere, ices were at fault, he said the ease was "a disastrous story" and one that could go a long way to impair relations with the United States. In an article in the Sunday newspaper The People, Vladimir Petrov, SoViet diplomat who ex- posed espionage in Australia, said today he was convinced that., Maclean's wife, Melinda, knew, of his plan to flee Britain, But Mr. Petrov conceded that con- clusive evidence was lacking. He said that another Soviet diplomat had told him the Soviet secret police sought an oppor- tunity to make contact with her immediately after her husband .vanished, but Met the heads of ? .the secret potice decided it would be toe risky. hold or an Feettnanys. ?' ambassador from Bonn, in order ' Supprt therefore exists fOr that t Gosinenys should cone the contention that if West Ger- ? tinue to exist for tbe present-es many will pay an unexpectedle and in order that both be rePree high price for the return of some ? eented enly ?irk aloscow. thousands of German prisoners Tartital Advantage from Soviet hands, Bone some That, it is painted out au- day might be willing to pay a thoritatively, could make it eas- ? ier at the forthcoming Geney; foreign ministers conference at German unification le argot ? that a European security pee higher price to free 18 million East Germans from a Commu- nist puppet regime. At the moment, optimistic and pessimistic schools, of thought should be established betweet aiming the Western Allies are in the Eastern and Western mill approximate balance on the out- tary alliances, with one Ger ' come of the latest. Moscow talks, , many on each side, Whether the Kremlin is, on the Knowing that the enforce offensive or the defensive is a division of Germany cannot debatable matter. But Soviet en dure indefinitely, the Last the ?woule be in the best tactic; _ - position to develop contacts bt tWeen the West arid East (jet man eapitals at the outset, an to mtluence Germany whe eventually Meanwhile, uniecation nego- tiations could be carried out 1 I independent of tile Western ) powers, ? While facing up to these Po- I policy plainly is on the move? and the momentum built up may prove advantageous at the Octo- ber Geneva sessions unless the West proves just as agile, in- formed sources here warn. s SEP 2'2 lor, West Asked to Protest Soviet Move BON N, Germany, Scut_ 22 . West Germany announced today it has asked I lie Western Big Three in prt)t0141 Iii( SOViCi .Ea I t agFOVIlloIll giving the East (..anarians control of West Berlin's approaches. Chancellor Non Vail A (iellatte thiS move at the start of a long report to parliament tin his re- cent mission to Moscow. Ho also said that West Germany will consider il "an unfriendly act" if any Weistern nations ? establish diplomatic relations w1111 (latannittisa Mast. Germaay. Approved For aease 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046Q90200120006-0 ApprovicaorWAse 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 SEP 9 1955 ??? An Informal News Report Or ?11, SISILYN WILLIAMS, Stan ((wren...4W of The thristiata Selene. Mosttes, q111stybe?bat I Didn't' "Yes, I might have taken a job there. But, somehow, I didn't." Two young German friends of mine were talking about their experiences across the Iron Curtain, in the Soviet zone. They had just returned from a three weeks' vacation there. Both of them were qualified engineers who were spending their last holiday together be- fore "going out into the world." Heinz had gone first with Kurt whose mother lived in Hal le. Heinz said he had heard such conflicting stories about conditions in the eastern zone that he wanted to see for himself. Maybe, be would take a job there for a few years. He had no political bias?capitalism or commu- nism -- it was all the same to him! All he wanted was a good job, which would enable him to have plenty to eat and drink, with something over to enjoy himself. He had been a prisoner of war, In both the Soviet Union Associated Press East German Youth Marches and the United States. All be asked new was to be "left alone to live his own life." Kurt had quite other ideas. What had hap- pened to his family and to the friends of his school days had long decided his attitude. He was staying in the West. But since acrimoni- ous arguments over the past few years did not seem to Influence, Heinz, he said nothing. A A A Together, they rode on borrowed bicycles from Halle via East Berlin to Schwerin and along the Baltic Coast. As they stopped by the wayside or in the villages along the route, they, talked with 111 kinds of people and heard numerous complaints about the bad conditions, and the activities of the local Communist Party organizations ? especially those con- cerned with youth. When they reached the coast, they settled for a few days in one of the workers' holiday resorts. There was no doubt about it. The workers and their families were being housed in the best hotels. They were as well-fed as masses of people can be under such circum- stances. And everybody seemed quite happy. The sea was lovely. The weather could not have been better. No politics could alter that. Yet there was one discordant note. All through the day and well into the evening,' there was a never-ceasing roar of propaganda trom strategic points along the strand and In the town. It never missed you, wherever you were. "I thought I should have escaped it here," one "comrade" confided to Kurt. But nothing of the sort. So I'm leaving tomorrow although there is another week due to me. I've made some excuse to get back. I don't kitow whether ? It is the strange surroundings. But this %la . . Ma' does not seem to be so bad back In Leipzig. Maybe, I have learned to ignore it there!" A A' A It was soon known that Kurt and Heinz were from "the other side." Talks soon developed about the conditions on both sides of the Iron Curtain, and particularly whether that curtain would disappear during the coming months. Nor was it surprising that local "Voice' (peo- ples police) got to know all about them. They were invited to make a call "at their con- venience." When they did call, they were, treated with the greatest courtesy. The purpose of the invi- tation soon turned out to be an offer of work If they would remain in the east zone. The "Vopo" already kriew they were trained 'engi- neers, and told thern that with their qualifica- tions they could ,get interesting, well-paid jobs. Ore if Heinz and Kurt wanted to continue their wartime activities, then the semimilitary peoples police was open to them. They could start with a rank equivalent to that of major, and the chances of promotion were plentiful since the new Soviet zone forces were to be expanded. Former young officers like them- selves were urgently needed. They were the type who could help the fatherland as soon as the "reactionaries" in Bonn were out of the way! Naturally, the two friends replied, they must have time to think it over. But immediately outside in the open air again they decided it would be best to move off lest the friendly offer become compulsory. 45 as Later, they were to find it difficult to get from the east zone to East Berlin. Only by pequading the "Vopo" at the boundary that they were particularly anxious to see the Stalin Allee?the pride of East .German archi- tecture today ? were they allowed to cross over. To Heinz and Kurt, however, this was the way to West Berlin where they could act "normally" once more. - "Maybe, I might have taken a job over there, said Heinz, "but once I heard those loudspeakers' shrill tones, and saw what the 'Vopo' wanted me to do, I realized I was not going to be left alone to live my own life. So off we go tomorrow to our new job at Bochum, in the Rubs." 3 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Approved JO% Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-0006R000200120006-0 ?ftioasoRT 14 waist xaisaatietso ;Ns tiatv* Cmissoci Atarawn paxauss -uoa sou sent qamn. luausdosaA -op It tons azojaq paunsuoa uaaq aneq psnoqs ussaaa sisaps, weal le rug pies si u put/ .uts.tau past, .101 surausoxd mau samvx inoa -sow pue uuag uaantlaq suortet anstuoldlp 2144s11.41alsa W41 jno palulod s! 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S; I d3S 4,:niucii Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200f20006-0 .* ? Approved For Releope 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 CA, ter...16r SEP 8 1955 - I dous a 'Awe ere ?all ris brothern resolttlice passed. 1, vice a of " presiclent,' Charles But The confress heeded the To Exp By Peter Lyne the litopard hadn't yet changed 1 et J b Glut' ful when e tension was easier. Geadst riroeedntatt cr The cohgress finally decided by 4 457,000 to 3,431,000 that Carg1414'441"iett I its spoti even tlatough it wes IL Y. II is 22 1955 Porhornentary Correspondent of The The iN,rnrnunist group in Brit_ cruceovilleInettoolegit eaaetineeanto thweeeretalleeT? railing In other words, it po England alas Trades Union Congress there is to'-be an alleoutseramble has f ailed here?at least for tile for higher wages or a responsible time being?in its bid to exploit approach to the matter by eath the lotion's acute overemplone union cencerned, then the re- ment sititation. sponsibleeptement; of dhe unione This overetnployment situa- Times would be waste of time trying to affiliate as long as Commu- nist- trade unions are not free in the Wentern eense. tion :was given. new emphasis by movement Swami-aid the leftists e-Nial. - - the publieation Sept 8 of Min- by voteOf 5,346,000 to 2.- ;Jr. .'' - e 2" istry of Labor figures indicating that In July there were 473,000 jobs waiting to be gilled in Bri- tain. Employment in the same month reached a record peace- time level of 22,945,000. Unem- ployment, estimated at under 200,0D0, was only .9 per cent of ?I'hus the government of Sir Anthony Eden, officials in White- hall, and businessmen and finan- ciers can breathe more freely again. However, it would be well for an observer here at South- thoye emeloyed. port to warn any British eon- This is the position the Com. sumers and overseas traders inunist Unionists would like to who may be sighing with relief have exploited at this week's , at this point that there is an 87th martial conference of the important cendition which the Trades Union Congress, repre- more responsible trade unionists iterate more- than 8,000,000 insist on.? Prompt. Action Demanded workers. The Communists wanted, to. encourage, a free-for- sat wage scramble. This could wrec:c the British economy. The Cernmunist line of at- tack used to .be that capitalism 'mean inaernraloyrnentn Today the ComMunisnargument, so far as Britain is concerned, is the capitalism is showing that it cannot sand full employment. consenonists Helped ? Britain's present serious over- spending and infiationery diffi- culties have certainty been help- ing she Communists and their associates develop their argu- ment. For the past 12 months, it seems, the British have been too prosperous. They have been living too well. The result is that their balance-of-payments situation with other countries has deteriorated, world con- fidence in the pound sterling has waned, and foliation has Increased rapidly at home. The Ccimmunists -had an un- usually ' favorable: opportunity. Many non - Corninuidets trade unionists when -they hidberribled ? here et, aditeathtiorl this, week wererinney with the Conserve- Jive Party for -Winning this ? yeas genera) election without, so tney, , claimed, disclosing the fun extest of Britain's economic weaknesses in the midst of ap- Pareet plenty and prosperity. ? ? In fact the Communists had one of their best chances ever to exploit the situation. The Coln- It is that the Cohservative government should do some- thing without further delay to steady the 'cost of living and control prices and profits. Oth- erwise the workers have given fair warning that they cannot. be expected to cooperate fully in the antifhilatioriary battle! In voting for membership On the TUC's general council for the coming year, Arthur Homer, Communist secretary of the coal miners and one of most popular of Communist leaders, was once again overwhelmingly defeated. There are 'no Communists on the general council. It appears from this year's conference that the voting power of Communist-dominated trade unions has dwindled to about 400,000 out of the TUC's total voting power of 8,000,000. This is more or less in line with other indications of falling Communist influence. The mem- bership of the British Commu- nist Party in 1955 is given as 33,000. In 1944 it was 47,500, which was its highest totaL Circulation of the London Com- munist Daily Worker news- paper is 10,080. Warning tionelast M.ay there were 17 unist candidates who 33,144 voites. In the 1945 genera/ election, 21 candidates entrant effort was mainly led by- ? polled e102,780 notes. the Communist-controlled Efec- On the morning of Sept. 8, leical Trades Union. ? the TUC discussed whether, in ; Success Achieved view of the easing of tension F between East and West, there The ETU did achieve consid- should be an immediate move enable success when it backed a by the British TUC to get to- resoltitige in favor of a 40-hour , goiter with the government- week ant: drastic cuts In over- controlled soviet trade union time. That resolution was de- movement. feated by a vote of 4,303,000 to 3.684 000 !the Eiritish Pl,1i rice- Approved For Release 2003/109 : IPA S-1 PERONANFRANCO Officially Inspired Comment in Press Notes Lessons in Argentine's Mistakes By CAMILLE M. CIANFARRA Special to The Sew Tort ?Three. MADRID, Sept. 21 Many Spaniards believe that the ousted Peron regime in Argentine was in some aspects similar to the present Government of General- issimo FTEUICISco Franco, The argument heard is that both the regimes were a military dictatorship, that Spain and Ar- ? gentina are overwhelmingly Ro- man Catholic countries and that the internal policies followed by Madrid and Buenos Aires had in common industrialisation and Improvement of sotial4onditions. The views of the poli cal, social and religious groups cdmprising Spanish society this are re- flected In the press.- But, apparently as a result of official directives,mny ews- papers have expressed the hope that Argentina might be spared the back luck of an "inoperating democracy," ab the newspaper Pueblo put it. In other veZreofr- &tally inspired comments are that the best solution/or Argen- tina is another dictatorship. Arriba, which is the organ of the right-wing Falange party,' praises Juan D. Peren's social ' policy. It implicitly deplores the Argentine dictator's fall which, it fears, may leave a Ovoid that could be quickly filled by bolshe- vism." The Falange party con- siders itself the militant anti- Communist force and the cham- pion of Spanish workers' inter- ests. SW-Justification $een One of the aims of the edi- torial means to be to justify the existence of the Falange party as an effective bulwark against communism. Pueblo, which is the spokes- man for Spain's Government- controlled trade unions, insists that under General Pert* the Argentine workers had "attained almost all their objectives." The implicatioh Is that it Is to the !Swinish workers* interest to sup- M-14150.541-1701/109R00020 sh Atomic Plant CALDER, HALL; Engler I, Sept. 21 421.--Some 700 construc- tion workers went on strike to- day at Great Britain's first atomic power station. A spokes- man of ,the British Aconite, Energy Authority said Wino to settle the labor dispute coickly could prevent the 50,800-relo- watt nuclear station from being completed on schedule next year., The strikers are employees of a private contractor building the pLant *fifth is the organ ' of Catholic Action, says that Gen- eral Pereres Major error was his "ideological battle against the church." 'The implied "message" of the editorial is that collabora- tion between church and state is essential to the stability of any regime, including Spain's, and that anti.-clericalism, which is held to be widespread in Spain, is a destructive political factor. ABC, the rnoraerchist daily, feels that the 'excessive power" given by General Penin to the Argentine General Confedera- tion of Labor caused a feeling of "insecurity throughout the coun- try" and that this in turn led to anti-Peranist reaction from the other classes. The iMplied con- clusion is that too much power In the hands of the waiters may lead. to civil strife in any coun- , try, including Spain. 120006-0 . tionitair-900ozi.00z000ti917000-179dciti-vi3 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeieu JOd peAcuddv SEP 1 2 19h5 Morocco for Moroceaus" France Tests Empire Zeal By WW1 D. Hurd Chief of the Paris Metes Burons of The ChrlJtion train, but as soon as tt started, someone pulled the emergency cord. As the train came to a sud- den stop, the men poured out onto the platform. Effort Given Up ? Faris Refusal of 400 French Air Force reservists!, recalled for duty .in .Noith Africa., to board an embarkation train for Mar- seilles Sept. 1I, produced both a turbulent scene at the Gare de Lyon railroad station arid new uneasiness in French and West- ern Allied -military circles. Even while these men were protesting against being used for a repressive solution to the present North African crisis, Mashie Alphonse Suite former rnilitat.y ativiser to the govern- ment on North African policy. was calling for a program of repression, using a St. Mihiel World Wee I celebration to warn the French Government against "yielding too easily"! and !being "dictated to 13Y- Tue." Marshal Jufs implied policy would clearly demand the call- ing up of many more reservists, a doubtful procedure indeed if the temper of these Air Force men is any augury. Six Classes Seen Further, right-wing Gem Pierre Billotte warned a group of other right-wing deputies against being too obdurate re- garding the government's efforts to negotiate a Moroccan settle- ment, He told them their program of order - by - repression-and- only-then-reforms wourd de- mand the calling up and main- taining- under the colors of six ciaserre of reservists. He then asked . them. where France voted get the money to pay for this heavy military burden. The Air Force reservists, who had only just returned to eiviL .life after their regular serdlee, were deeply resentful at this sudden retaking of !MR- tare life. But more important was the fact that their attitude tends to confirm the idea that the average man is not really much interested in the French Empire the politicians so loud- ly demand must .be held. - When this same man in the street let Indochina go so easily, the relatively small but very vocal group of Empire-minded Frenchmen said that it was be- cause Indochina was so far away. "Things will be very dif- ferent in ease there is ever any danger of losing nearby North Africa." they would say.- But the reservists at the Gars de Lyon, when they refused to board the train, circulated around the station shouting: "No recall to Morocco! Morocco for the Moroccans!" Extreme Moroccan nationalists could scarcely have done better. French Air Force Police final- ly herded the reservists onto the Jubilant at their success, they became more vocal than ever., Some 100 moved up to the closed iron grill gates behind which a mass of civilian passengers were waiting, and started pro- testing to the latter about their recall, The Trench civilians Were reported to have completely agreed and supported the soldiers' refusal to leave. The soldiers were herded onto the train once more. Again just as it started, the emergency cord was pulled. By this time, the authorities had become gen- uinely concerned, and can after car of Air Force police, civil police and even the Garde Be- in field uniforms, were bringing reinforcements into the station. By the time the train was stopped the second time, there were about as many police as reservists. Then it was decided to give up the attempt and take the men back to Realer Barracks, where they had originally as- sembled. Marched between masses of police guards, which made thorn look like prisoners, they were loaded into regular French po- lice wagons, called "paniers salade," and shipped back to camp where a sorting out was due to take place. An effort will then be made to reassemble the group and send them to North Africa, pos- sibly by military planes. Two hundred of the 400 reservists who refused to board the train left Paris by air Sept. 12 for Morocco, their original destination, Reuters said. There were no incidents. An Air Force spokesman said most of the other 200 would leave by air later in the day. Some ringleaders were reported held for punishment). Lack of Discipline The conservative Figaro wrung its editorial hands over this event in the lack of die- . cipline and the inability of French officers to control their ! men that it demonstrated. Its closing comment was: It seems that at the echelon where it is the essential currency, the vir- tue of authority has become rare." Many observers feel that this , question of lack of disciplinf is not always confined to the low- :1 ?h. ie. ? ? Science Monitor Annul was Mar- shot Juin', warning at St. Millet against "yielding," in saying that is has "never, in Islamic countries, brought any- thing .but shame and disgrace, ; and would only encourage the loreign consperacy which today :leeks desperately to ruin France's achievements over- ! Military discipline always de- mands that military leaders keep mit ;of -political affairs, yet this in not the line time France's highest rankling Meer has uttered open criticism of French Government policies still in the snaking, From Marshal Juin at St, Mihiel to the striking reservists at the Care de Lyon. the picture of discipline shown Sept. 11 illurninetee a less-known but ex- tremely important facet of the I uncertainty and resulting im- mobiliem dominating the French scene today, LT. Thrit,2 SEP itur ?, 1NANTES IS TIED UPI 1BY 24-11012 gTRIKE1 Walkout Regarded as Part of Move That May Bring New Inflation to France By HAMA) CALLENDER OSteubs) (91.14 New Yea Thsto. PARIS, Sept. 12---A twenty- four-hoer .general strike that tied up the city of Nantes today was seen as part of a. movement that might precipitate another Inflation in France. ! It came when Britain and West Germany likewise faced demands entailing dangers of further general rises in prices, The strike, coming after labor demonstrations leading 10 a lockout in the shipyards, tied up the metal and building Indus. erica chemical and clothing_ far- tones, one oil refinery, the docks the sneer. railway and buses TWenty thousand striking work. era winded to the prefecture 're present their demands. Representatives of the Nantes union called on Premier Edgar Faure today to invoke his aid. At Belfort, in the east of France, the Alsthom Electrical 'Company declared a lockout be. cause of alleged slowdown strikes. At Lorient, in Brittany, the unions have called a general strike, for tomorrow that may in- clude 10,000 workers, But at St.; ! Etienne the metal industry is negotiating with the workers, while In the north the national- izeil! coal induetry has granted a bonus to .vitiners. The French take pride in the fact that France, for once, is in a strong- position, - thanks to -in- (Teased. prodecieon accompanied by approximately stable. prices. But some - econorniets mien that this stability could not sine vive a substantial general wage increase. Writing in Le Figaro. a commentator. Raymond Aron, said the, current labor demands were not an effort to adjust wages to prices but to get for the workers a greeter share of existing prosperity at a time when full. employment gives them added bargaining power. Real wages, measured by pur- ? chasing power, have risen in ? France, The -figures of, the Or- ganization for European ecci- ! now& Cooperation indicate that since 1950 wages have gone! up 69 per cent, while prices of con- sumers' goods have increased 30 per cent. While French prices are- now stable, they remain above 1 he equivalent of -world prices. Hence, substantial rises reseilt- ing from higher wages would entail greater risk for the pres- ent exchange rate of the cur- rency than in other countries. The calling up of reservists and retention oe others under - the colors because of the North 'African crisis mese prove to be another inflationary fee tor, -since it well expand the defense budget and add to the deficit of the general budget. 1 ? jiatet SEP IL 4 1955 TITO'S TRIP DELAYED !Visit to France Pot Off From October to Next Year PARIS, Sept. ill II, i-- The state visit to France of Presi- dent Tito of Yugoslavia has been postponed until !next year, the French Foreign Ministry an- nounceti tonight. Marshal Titp's trip had been planned for late October, of 0. ciabi said, but a crowded inter- national calendar forced post- ponement. French Premier Ed- gar Faure is going to Moscow and the Geneva foreign minis- tem conference shortly. The Foreign Ministry an- nouncement indicated also titat M. Faure was planning a. state visit to Yugoslavia. 0-9000Z1.00Z000t15000-179dC1I-V10 6O/.l./COO Z aseeletbigo pamuddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 L T. Ii T. SEP 2 3 "155 Trump *Gird Thrown A. iirlay. By Macmillan's Statement By DAVID LAWRENCE ? WASHINGTON, Sept. 22.?The ielshful dream that there Isn't going to be any war because it would be too awful has once before been proclaimed as .the basis for world policy by Harold Macmillan, the British Foreign Secretary. But now he adds to it the surprising comment that Western diplomacy is eating a phase in which there will be "negotiation from equality" with Soviet Rus- sia instead of "negotiation. from strength."' This is but another way of saying that the Western powers are accepting in a de- featist mood the status of things as they are and that the gains made through aggression by the Soviets and the Red Chinese are never going to be challenged. Mr. Macmillan adds: "We must rely on moral power. Material strength, though essential, cannot do it alone," But when it is announced that material strength is not even to be potentially put In the balance and that no spirit of resist- ance is to be invoked to encourage oppressed peoples to overthrow their rulers, dictator- ships are bound to remain indefinitely in power. One Dictator Gone Today Argentina has over thrown its dictator. It was the moral influence of the people which gave momentum to the rebte movement, but at the top were men who were ready to A -,-Totiiiir67.4?o?tands here as ?01. itlfgfessar. It took overaThet by armed twee. It became stied with' the Comm- Wet Viet Minh in their effort to take over Indochina by, armed force, Then; following the Indo- china armistice, it turned its military attention to the For- osa area. It intended to take this area by force, and began active military assaults on Its approaches?which assaults, It claimed, were a first step In it,s! new program of military con- I quest." Yet Norway, Sweden and Den- mark cast their ballots in favor of seating this same aggressor, I thus dampening the hopes of the Chinese people that the Nation- alists or some other group might have the moral support of the free world as a whole In seeking liberation. I Moral force is important, but when free nations forsake it on momentous issues, as Norway and Sweden and Denmark did; it produces discouragement for the oppressed and encouragement for the oppressors. In the end violence breaks out in local areas and the little wars become big wars in which all nations be- come Involved. For, unless dee13- risk their lives for freedom. There may be no outward signs of seated grievances are settled, _- they fester and ultimately pro- revolt today in Soviet Russia or --1101betelnelyield to, expediency and, forsake ?,? yoke bloodshed even in a nuclear the er yoke tenets of moral force "mien ap-i pressed pedele moat need their, encouragement, Thus it is stir- prising to see the governments. of Norway, Sweden and Den- i in the countries behind the Iron Curtain, hut the spirit of resist- ance is building up lust the mine. When Secretary Macmil- lan say's the Soviets and the West are negotiating from a Position of "equality," he throws mark voting this week to seat away a trump card in the game i Red China in the United Na- of littoral force, For there Is no lions, equality of position as. between Not so long ago the soldiers, good men and evil men, of, the Western World helped to The American Secretary of liberate Norway and Denmark. State, John Foster Dulles, in his Not so long ago also exiled goy- speech before the United Na- ernrnents of both countries were thins, bilked about the tuture eetablished in London. They era, too, but he wisely said "It were not in control of their own will not be an era of placidity territories. Their peoples would and stagnancy, in the sense that have been astounded If . the the status gine with its manifold United States had 'betas *Ming injustices, is accepted as perma- - nent." President Eisenhower, in to tncolfhlbe and Into _the his recent speecti before the councils' of free nations the quis- ' Atiterican Bar Association, lines of the two Scandinavian pointedly said that ewe mese not countriei which had been over- think of peace as a static eon- run by the enemy. dition in world affairs" and that The votes by India, Burma and "unless there is peaceful change, Indone.sia to seat Red China In there is bound to be .violent the U.N. are understandable be- change.' cause they are tied in closely with Mr. Dullea .eseried out this Soviet Russia and they are being theme in his Thursday speech when he warned Soviet Russia that it would be a mistake to assume that "the Injustice of a divided Germany can be per- petuated without grave risk." Violence can break out when the passions of patriotism burn fiercely in the breasts of me who yearn for freedom. Nation- tion marks around the name of alism Is a deep-seated urge. Th moral force of the world If usually lined up behind peoples who strive to gain their inde- pendence or to regain libertiel stirred up from within by strong Communist parties. But it is shocking to see America's sup- posed friend. Yugoslavia, also voting on the side of Communist Russia to seat Red China, What Dulles Said Secretary Dulles in his speech' at the United Nations put quota.; the Red China government?"the Chinese People's Republic"?and then proceeded to say bluntly: "The record of this Comm- ? fist regime has been an evil one. It fought the United Nations In - Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP61-00046R000200120006-0 01000Z1.00e000t1917000179dCIU-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z eseeleu Jod peAwddv WGsh. Doily P.:Yaw; SEP 2'2 195c Reds' Aims Spelled Out iT doesn't take an expert to foresee A failure of next month's Big Four foreign. ministers' conference at Ge- neva on the key subjects-reunifica- tion of Germany. It only takes the ability to read a speech made by communist boss Nikita Khruslichey to the East Ger- mans last Monday. It spells out the Soviet aim --continued division of Germany and ultimate control of the entire country. Mr. Khrushellev told West Ger- man Chancellor Konrad Adenauer much the same thing earlier this month. is ? ? VOLLOWING are the key points in the Western plan 'A for reunification of Germany and the word? of Mr. Xhrushchev In rejecting Stem in advance of the con- ference: ?The West proposes that a united Germany should be free to choose its alliances, remain in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization' (NATO). Mr. Khrushchev's answer--"Under no circumstances can we agree to a development of events as a result of which the NATO bloc directed against the Soviet Union and the peoples' democracies would be strength- ened. Therefore, we said quite frankly to Herr Ade- nauer: 'Do not demand from us things which we are unable to give you. We cannot cooperate in your plan for the reunification of Germany; we cannot assist NATO, an organization which IS directed against us and against the cause of peace.'" ?The West argues that NATO Is a defensive alli- ance, created because of the Soviet threat, and that it Is In addition a safeguard against renewed German aggression. Mr. Khrushchev's answer---"We know that NATO Day Ns SEP ?'? 1955 Firmer Soviet Hand BONN, Sept. 2Z---Russia' a long- term policy to control Germany has advanced further in the past 10 days titan in the preceding nine years. Only a united, firm Allied policy to stiffen Chancellor Konrad Ade- natter can stop this trend. With Germany, the Kremlin could control Europe and perhaps the world. Ten days ago at the Moscow con- erence, the Kremlin almost de- stroyed any chance of uniting Ger- many as a free nation allied with the West in the foreseeable future. Herr Adenauer, while claiming to represent all Ger- many, Was maneuvered "in the spirit of Geneva" Into a deal for exchange of ambassadors with the Kremlin, which continues to recognize its East German 'satellite. Despite Adenauer denials, this was presumptive ac- ceptance of two Germanys. After having undermined the basis for the free re- unification of Germany planned by Herr Adenauer and the Allies, the Kremlin is now laying the foundation for later merger on communist terms. ? ? ? THAT is the purpose of the "treaty" with the East German puppet regime, granting it alleged sover- eignty to negotiate reunification terms with West., Germany. If Herr Adenauer wants to end partition he must deal in the future with the East German communists. He says he won't. But before he went to Moscow he said he would not By R. H. Sodden! was set tip as a military organization, that NATO has Its supreme commander of the armed forces in Eu- rope, Gen. Alfred Gruenther. Consequently, NATO is not a sports organization; It was not created for pre- paring sports competitions nor for playing football. Everyone knows him .(Gruenther). as a general who trains teams for war and precisely for war against the Soviet Union." *The West refuses to negotiate with the puppet; Red regime in East Germany and West Germany thus far refuses to have any dealings with the East -German Red leaders. Mr. Khrushchev's answers-"How can the hopes of the German people (for reunification) be realized; will the present position remain unchanged forever? To -this question we are answering in a clear and definite way: The Germans themselves must solve this problem, Germans at one table! Nobody can solve the German problem better than the Germane themselves. . . . The solution of this question should he transferred into the hands of the German people." *The West insists that reunification of Germany is urgent, now that 10 years of partition have passed.. Mr. Khrushehey's answer----"For some thne one will have to take Into account the fact that in Germany there are two states: the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic (Communist) Republic." ?The West insists that the first step for reunifica- tion of Germany must be all-German truly free elec- tions. Mr. Khrushchev's answer---"The reunification of Germany should be carried out in such a way as to make the united German state peace-loving and demo- cratic.", (-Peaceful and democratic, communist lingo, mean communist; at Yalta and Potsdam the Soviets.. agreed to establish a "peaceful and demo- cratic" Poland and have insistedsever since that they have.) By Wm!, Denny exchange annbasaadors with the Soviets until they agreed to reunifination. He reversed himself under home political pressure. Price of the Moscow-East German demands for re- unification is well known. Instead of free elections for an all-German government, there must be a feder- ation of the already freely elected Bonn government with the Soviet satellite regime, which represents less than 10 per cent of the East German people. By similar coalitions, the communists "legalized" their control of Poland and Czechoslovakia. The price also includes a delay of West German rearmament until she's separated from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization t NATO). ? ? ? ? THO Bonn is still unwilling to pay either part of this price, such an eventual deal Is less unlikely than 10 days ago. When Herr Adenauer at the start of the Moscow conference stated the Bonn reunification policy he significantly omitted the phrase "free elec- tions" hitherto always Included by him and the Allies as a precondition. In final future bargaining, the Reds would promise free elections after the merger--as in Poland, which means never. As for rearmament, even before the Moscow confer- ence Bonn had gone into shies-motion to delay its 12 divisions for NATO for five or six years instead of the promised two.' And since the Atienauer-Bulganin pact not only the Socialists but many others are demanding modification or even withdrawal from Bonn's NATO commitments. Herr Adenauer opposes such a change, but pressure on him Is increasing. 0-9000Z1.00Z000~00179d01-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z eSeelehil0 peACLIddV Approved For ase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046W0200120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 NEAR EAST, AFRICA Approved For Nese 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 MY, Times P 2 1955 OFFERS ARMS ? TO EGYPT IN MOVE Ito OFFSET SOVIET Cairo Said to Be Interested bui to Want Fiscal Help? Israeli Protest Likely By The Assoelated Pam WASHINGTON, Sept. 25?In a move to offset a Soviet maneu- Ver. ,the 'Jaded States has offered to sell arns to the Egyptian Gov-1 errment? it was reported today. Egypt is ropoited to be keenly intomsted, but has asked the State Department for financial aid to buy the military equip- ment Sht). wants to bolster her atTnvol forces. The American offer is regard- ed as virtually certain to arouse a stron gprotest from Israel,. which regards any attempt to build tip the Arab countries as a' serious threat to her existence. Reports of the Soviet offer of weapons were confirmed three weeks ago by Deputy Premier Genial Salem of Egypt. He said! that if Western countries were not going to fulfill their prom- se,;, Egypt had ,no alternative but. to accept Soviet arms. A roundabout Soviet denial cane taut Wednesday through Jerusalem. The Israeli Foreign Ministry said the Soviet Union declared, in a statement handed Israeli Ambassador Joseph Avi- dor in Moscow Sept. 12, that reports that the Russians had of- feral arms to Arab States are "devoid of any foundation and are nothing but fantasies." -Telefon High hi Area Tension ins high in the Middle East because of repeated bloody clashes between Israeli and Egyptian troops in the Gaza area. The United States offer, sub- mitted after intensive considera- tion within the Eisenhower adninistmtion, is aimed mainly at :keeping Egypt from buying a wide assortment of Soviet arms. Any weapons the United States would provide Egypt, of- ficials emphasized, would be foe strictly defensive purposes and not to encourage aggression agfinst Israel. Israel's armed forms are known to be far bet- ter equipped than those of al- most all the Arab countries combined.. This is a result of Israel's beavy purchases of arms lii Britain, France, Belgium, Italy and Canada. ?11"bilitilleof a-secret Soviet propoilat, to sell arias to the Egyptians have never been made public, but United States offi- cials have learned it included tanks, artillery, jt fighters, naval vesselee-incluuding sub- marines?and. infantry supplies. In order to make it easy for Egypt to pay for this equip- ment, it is understood, Moscow offered to accept Egyptian cot- ton as part of a barter deal. Egypt has large quantities of cotton, but such arrangement with the United States is unlike- ly because of the huge surplus of United States cottoon. Top State and Defense De- partment officials are reportetd to have been seriously alarmed by the Soviet arms offer, They regard it as a major move to increase Middle Eastern turmoil, perhaps by tormenting a full- scale war between Egypt and Israel, Without disclosing what he knew of the Soviet offer, Secre- tary of State Dulles said at a news conference three weeks ago that In effect it violsted the tele _Moscow -had made at N.Y. Thies SEP 2 6 195,) ARMY HEAD NAMED CYPRUS GOVERNOR ?????????????1*.,,rire????? Britain OW Security Need in Appointing Harding By THOMAS P. RONAN swim to The New York Timm LONDON, Sept. 25?Field Marshal Sir John Harding, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, was appointed today as Gov- ernor of Cyprus. He will also be Commander in Chief of the li3ritish forces on the Mediter- ranean island. The importance of the island as a British military base and "the need for concerted action by all security forces" to main- tain law and order were cited as the reasons for the appoint- ment of a high ranking service officer. The Cplonial Office's announce- ment mentioned Britain's obli- gations* as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- tion in citing the importance of the Coma conference. of the Cyprus as a base. Big Far Foreign banisters ta Sir John is to go to Cyprus Improve East-West relations. "very shortly," the announce- Despite the virtual certainty meat said. of provoking Israeli protests, it Since the failure of the recent was learned, the State Depart- ;tendon talks by Britain, Greece meat made its offer recently on and Twiggy, amain has stepped the theory it would be more un- up her efforts etat_np, out portant to the United States se- vioience Crovineieolony. curity to prevent Moecovi from couunandokaritheing mat there moving into the Middle'East a$ to end the haroblege and other a supplier of arms. edIsturbancee atiagslitadt to Urn, Limited IeneUPtuthaser oho adveeetcogimag.,Alte Leland Israel has succeeded in buying with .oreeca, ; only very limited quantities of cosioresoo firoko Down Americaa weapons, some ma- chine guns and spare parts. Th. Conference broke down The United States has made when the Greek doyen:anent in- direct move to meet Israel's appeal- for weapons under the slated that the Islanders be foreign-aid program. nor to meet given the right of self-deterrin- Israel's request for a defense mann- Britain rejected this de- treaty. mand but offered the Cypriotes wit/tilt the un ai!iinci:teodffitatcialsfamiliar a greater measure of aelf-gov- es offer to eminent. Egypt said the quantity of arms offered was small. The declined ; Adoption of the Greek demand would give the Cypriotes the iright to decide whether they ;would become Independent or united with another land. Since SO per rent of the population of Cyprus is Meek It Is acknow- ledged that the latter choice would lead eventually to union with Greece. Turkey, whom the British wrested the island in ISM opposes ite.tudon with Greece but wants it to be- become Independent. The Colosilal Office said Sir Robert Armitage, the present Governor of Cyprus, would take ? up another appointment to be .announced later. Gen. Sir Ger- ald Templar, who was to sue- ; ceed Sir John Harding an Chief lof the Imperial Staff on Nov. 1, !will do so somewhat earlier. to reveal what kind of materiel was involved, but to offset the, Soviet bid it would have to in- choate such heavy equipment as tanks and artillery. - The State Department is understood to have inform Egyptians. that their prospects of receiving' weapons without charge under the foreign-aid pro- gram would depend on a sub- stantial improvement in peace and stability in the Middle East. Some high officials in Premier General Abdo! Nasser's Govern- ment are known to favor accept- ing the Soviet proposal. ? Neer. tVg* Also treated The Conial ol,, ?Mee also an. nourieed that .11 new civilian post of Mindy Gorier:1?r *as being createaend that the appointment would be announced shortly. The deputy is to handle normal ad- Minfatrative work unconnected pearly Measures. r Olin, 151 years old, Is one at Britain's most distinguished soldier. Before becoming Chief of the Imperial General Staff lit 1932, he had been Commander In Chief of the British Army of the Rhine. During World War II he com- manded the Seventh Armored Division at El Vermeil, Egypt, and later XIII Corps of the Cen- tral Mediterranean forces. Sir John has been one of the Chief advisers of the Government on military problems in the Medi- terranean and in the fonuulation of Government policy for that area. Sir Robert Armitage, 48 years. old, has been Governor and Com- mander in Chief of Cyprus for two years. He had held rnother poets irp the colonial service In Kenya and in the Gold Coast. 1 Passive Sesintesee Manned NICOSIA, Cyprus, Sept. 25 (Reuters)?Archbishop Makari- OS, leader of the Cyriote Greek ,Enosis (union with Greece) movement, declared today he would soon proclaim passive re- alstance throughout the island. Re Said it would "be so Intense that it .vvill seriously disrupt the Government machinery." He told 4,000 Cypriote Greeks at Kalopsida, 25 miles southeast of Nicosia, that "the main phew' of the Cyprus struggle will be fought here on the island" fol- lowing failure of the London talks and the United Nations' refusal last week to conaider the annul ? - ? N.Y. TIMM 2 6 '1955 ii0ROCO tERROlti CAUSES UN DEATHS neeein tellart4grlikesnw,es_ RABAT, Aliwooto, gape 25?Terroriat, acts Oat four lives and left thirteen persona wound- ed in Morocco today. A grenade thrown, onto a crowded terrace of a cafe in Fe: wounded thirteen giiropeans. The Incident was reminiscent of A /Janitor act of terrorism In Case- Wane& on July 14. That cost, seven European lives and un- embed the following day a riot by Europeans in which a number of Moroccans were lynched. The four killings all occurred in the native quarters of Casa- blanca. Three cif the victims were Moroccan buabiess men; The fourth was a Moroccan tar-; roriat who had fired on a native policeman and missed. He was kilted when the policeman fired back A French policeman was killed yesterday by a plated shot in Casablanca., Three native police- men were attacked yesterday and one was killed. A Moroccan Approved For Release 2003/12/09 :f1A-RDP64-00046R000/Molitft-mlied* Nat Timti, 0-9000Z1?00Z000t1917000179dCIU-VI3 69/itfanz eSee w -nmas ..10d peAddv SEP 2 6 195r5 INDIA FACES TEST OVER NEWSTATES Commislion to Recommend on Friday That Political Map Bs Redrawn Sy A. M. ROSENTHAL spiclel to The New York Times. NEW DELHI, India, Sept. 25 this week will face the Most important test of national unity genre she achieved inde- pendenesi eight years ago. On Friday a special commis. seen zelteduled to turn in a report calling for the redrawing of the political map of India. It will suggest enlarging some otitis's', making some smaller, wiping out a few allesgether and crea.ting. some new ones. Insteadu of twenty-nine states, the coin. mission will aggest an India with fifteen or sixteen. To Indians this Mane is even more important than, say, the consolidation of Now England into, one unit or the incorpora- tion of Oregon into Caefornia would be to penions in the United States. Not only are polit- ical boundaries and political prestige involved, but also back- grounds, history, religion and language. Advance word about the Mill confidential report makes it clear that some language groups that have been agitating for. years fur states of their own will be bitterly disappointed. New Delhi is keeping an anxious eye out for trouble, especially in Bombay State and the Punjab. Maratha^ Want State The Marathiespeaking popula- tion of Bombay has been de- manding a atate. of its own. Sikhs in the Punjab this sum- mer organized a dramatic mass courting of arrest to push their demands for their own mate. Re- ports are that both demands will be rejected. In Bombay, Communists, who have been backing the demands of the Maratle-speaking people. itt'e talking darkly of trouble ahead and of police "dry runs" in preparation for rioting. Last night the Bombay Gov- ernment issued a statement say- ing it expected the people to "cenduct themselves with the dignity befitting an independent republic.", At the same time the Government warned that "any recourse to unlawful methods will be firmly dealt with and Met adequate measures will be taken in all places to deal with any eventuality." The need to reerganize India politically was felt soon after independence. There was a gen- eral belief among Indian politi- cal leaders that boundaries es- tablished with independence were economically, administratively and linguistically illogical. It was also felt there were too many small states. see minumetrative set-up in a e relation to the central Govern-SEP 2 ( 191i5 ' ? inent wee also complicated. The B and C states, with the A states IRANIAN RED DOOMED . ..... Indian states are divided into A, Delhi. .Accortling to reliable re- Yazdi, Tudeh Party Founder, the* most powerful and the C states virtually ruled by New ports, the new plan will Mimi- . ?.?!e_n,,,,t7t,,Ced to Otratth 2 nate all C class states except the 17'"-`11r-'!"2"17; Ileraene'te Sept. zdi5 Andaman Islands east of Madras fReute") ' '-'r' '?` ?za a , ' In the Indian Ocean. 59 yeare old, founder `of Iran 'a Tudeh (Communed.) party, was 14 Itegional Languages eenteneed to death for treason India is a country of fourteen here today by a secret military regional languages and for al- most every language leaders rose who demanded statehood for the people who spoke it. Theoretically the Government recognizes the contention that the people should be able to tie- derstand tao language of their Government. But the Indian leaders, especiaily Prime Min- ister Jawaharlal Nehru, are afraid that to divide the country strictly on the basis of learguage would accentuate regionalisms-- already a danger to the country and weaken national "nifty. Strong regionalism, in minds of many Indiana, is a step toward separatism and dissolution of the nation. The achicyonenta of-the coiner try in the last eight years have done a great deal toward creat- ing a feeling of Indian nationan Sty, But there are still millions In India who think of themselves first as a Bengali or a Tamil or a Gujerati and secondly as an Indian. As the newspaper Hindu of Madras put it yesterday: kefauver on Way to 41dia "Congressmen [members of the governing Congress parte] feel that at the moment the only chain that binds the country to- gether is the presence of the powerful personality of Mr. Nehru." In (Wowing up its recom- mendations the States Reorgan- ization Commission took into ac- count not "only the languege but also economics, administration and security. Parliament Must Act ?Ler.. Yazie was arrested last Wfarch. He Went underground after the purge of the Tudeh party officers that followed an abortive attempt to overthrow the regime of Gen. EazIollah Za- hedi in 1953. ' He was also linked with the Army plot of last summer to ?waive,* the monarchy, for which WO officers were arrest- ed. Twenty-seven have been ex- ecuted. Dr. Yeah, a former Minister of Health, has the right to ap- peal within ten days. The ulti- mate decision on his case rests ,with Shah Mohammed Riza Pah. ALL Thou SEP 2 6 1i5:5 To become law, the proposals must be approved by Parliament. It is reported here that the Nehru Government will back the recommendations strongly. According to unofficial reports. tinder the new plan there would be four large states whose peo- ple speak Hindi, which the Gov- ernment is pushing as the na- tional language. lJtlar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan Would re- main pretty much as they are. In central India a new Hindi- speaking state is expected to be formed consisting of Madhya Bhapt, Vinditya Pradesh and Bhopal. In the West. Bombay would get the Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad and the Gujerati- speaking region of Saurashtra. with Cutelf added, keeping it a bilingual state. Hyderabad, once largest prince- ly state, would disappear as now constituted. A new state that might call itself Hyderabad or Telengana would be formed to give the Telegueepeaking people a second state of their own na addition to Andhra on the East Coast. In the Jrar South a Kerala- speaking state will be recom- mended to consist of part of Madras and Travancore Cochin. A Kanda-speaking state also may be formed in the South. conmosed of Mysore and Coorg and parts of Madras and Bom- bay. eiril to The Noe York TIme3. KARACHI, Pakistan, Sept, 25 --Semler Estes Kefauver, Dm-a- pt:rat of Tennessee, left for Bom- bay and New Delhi today. Dur- lug his two-day visit he met of-I ficials of Pakistan and of thei United States Embassy for in-1 formal discussions on United! Stettes mititaxy and economic as- sistance, IM.M111.11?10.11. N.Y. Times SEP 2 6 195 Libya Sets Up Soviet Ties TRIPOLI, Libya, Sept. 25 inn --Libya announced today it had !agreed to set up diplomatic rela- tions with the Soviet Union. A IForeign Office communique said the two countries would exchange full Ambassadors under an agree- ment reached in talks between :the Libyan and Soviet envoys in LI Cairo. 0-9000Z1?00Z000tlia900179dati-VI3 60/Z1?/?00Z aseeieuw peAwddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-000461W200120006-0 ca: City Under a Fear The easostbriving Moroccan metropolis is stilled by terror, wide. both rastailusual and Arab dreadbsg sew bursts oi violence. or ass 1.1111111MIRMI CASABLANCA. 0 N the calendar of Moslem Mo- rocco the last Monday of this Au- gust was the festival of Achou- ra, the teeth day after Mohammed's Meccan flight and a traditional time for ahmigiving. The faithful who can sifted it customarily donate up to 2.5 per cent of their cash assets, depend- ing upon the fervor of their piety. On Rue de iStreabourg, Casablanca's native wholesalers street in the European town, inch merchants awaited the usual avalanche of paupers. But the poor., failed to show up. Not a single beggar Wag; willing to abandon the safety of his mud het or tin shack and, In his progress through the city to- ward a letaii?anteed handout, risk being mistaken by police for a political dem- onstrator. , , The 1..ear is terribly mutual. Any hardy Ruropean who still goes to the cinema here looks mechanically under his seat for a nationalist bomb before relaxing. The engine hoods of many parked automobiles are battened down wig looked bicycle chains to block dynimiite depositors from the ignition wires. Every tobacconist keeps a gun under the counter and an inconspicuous Moor squatting apparently half asleep outbid*. the entry to rush any co-reli- gionist desirous of enforcing, the patri- otic boycott against the French ciga- rette monopoly. ' AT first glance, life in European Casablanca does not seem abnormal. There is the hustle and noise of a great city compounded by the terrors of Parisian-style traffic with hair-rah:Ong ? local embellialunents. This seems al- most reassuring. But looking closer you see the Gal- erten Lafayette and Magasins Riunis department stores deserted he broad daylight. Lying on the magnificent beach at Ain-Diab, where a bomb towed from the parapet of the roadway over- head could cause havoc, you notice po- lice jeeps and patrol cars in constant vigilant procession. Stay here a few days and you are bound to hear an explosion. which is not induetrial or see red-trucked ..pompiers screaming by toward a fire which is not accidental. Talk to a local resident who has sent his faratto nervously to France for the summer instead of to the usual charm- ing mourtafr resorts around Yea and he willuev he'd rather eat bard rations at home than dim) la ? restaurant "I dcliit Him crowils 'these day?" He might even Ray, quite seriously. "You can't know. This might be .the day the Moroccan dishwashers get word from Miadqttirters to palace the soup." , . The traffic eop packs a helmet at his waist end a tawny gun over hie ghoul-% der. The bicycle policeman 'trundles a submachine gun across the handlebars or cradled in his. arm like long French bread, Traffic infersections have strong groups of gendarmes armed to the teeth. Thousands of Legionnaires, Garden Mobiles, Moroccan and Sene- galese Thailleurs, and naval com- mandos are barracked at key points throughout and around the city, in- cluding a requisitioned school still dis- playing on the wall a, chalked salute from the departing children: 'Wive Les Vacances." Troops in fun battle kit dominate every exit of the old Medina, Casablanca's teendng medieval native quarter. The Medina curfew is II P. M. In the European city It Is at 11. The palpable mood of fear deepens as darkness falls. Although the start of the last complete film showings have been turned back from 9:45 to 8(30, leaving ample time for pre-curfew rea treat, the cinemas ate almost barren. Except for a few bars which must keep open because they have rent to pay, nocturnal amusements ? are non- existent it is worse than that line in Humphrey 'Bogart's "Casablanca" when the night club owner tells someone to strike up -a song because "Here comes a customer." The real Casablanca's half-dosen tolerable eight clubs are shut lip.. tisht?nad the owner of one of them has just sold his brilliant Jaguar roadster. When the curfew takes hold of the City's throat, a stray cat, journalist or doctor may. sUll be abroad. Nothing else moves in the bleakly blue neon lights of the cavernous streets except security vehicles on their ceaseless rounds. The silence is total. TVs not the ample silence of a sleeping town' in a peaceful countryside but the preesured silence of metal and sione?a silence without contrast or compromise. NO panoplied host beleagueys this city but beyond and within its gates stalk two massive antagonists?a na- tive giant with SAWA0 hearts awak- galas to the auanneansit Ittiej?tleel." d a European Community a a half :minion which equally considers this hind its own. A solution laity coma by compromise ?or by war to the death. As politicians and soldiers each in their . own way seek a settlement, tension here is rising beyond endurance. - In the past two years, 1,233 cases of individual attacks with revolvers, bombs, knives, rocks, fire, rope, dyna- mite and hammer reached police blot- ters. Casablanca suffsred only relative- ly minor disorders on Aug. 20r the second anniversary of the ouster of the pro-Nationalist ex-Sultan Mohammed ben Yousset but the avalanche of riots which butchered eighty-eight European children, women and men in the un- defended countryside, and brought im- measurable but large military retaliter tion, spread livid fear In every Casa- blanca home. Stone by stone an unscalable well is rising between Frenchman and Moroc- can. No Arab. however innocent, can be sure he won't be suddenly seized as a saspected terrorist. No Frenchman, however enlightened, can entirely shrug off the dread that an unidentified shadow in a doorway, or even his own familiar servant, may suddenly appear with an axe in hand. T . AN such an atmosphere it is no sur- prise that Casablanca, until recently a boom city Increasingly preferred by foreign vacationists, should now seem slovied down to a dead halt. The de- luxe fifteen-story Hotel El Mansour (The Magnificent), opened early in 1952, is as moribund as the Moroccan cemetery on which it rises. At this . writing forty=one of its 250 rooms are occupied?thirty-two of them by jour- nalists. The even more deluxe Hotel Marimba (Welcome) next door.?opened In December, 1254, with a skytop res- taurant, underground air terminal, electric eye elevators, radio, television and air conditioning in all 135 rooms-- has exactly thirty-five paying guests. Nine ship cruises scheduled to bring nearly 10,000 (Continued on Page 30) ?tourists is July and -August wire canceled. Personnel of fifteen local tourist bureaus and twenty-one better grade' hotels with 1,210 rooms and swarms of purveyors of rugs. curved daggers, copper plat- ters and babouche lappet* '4Thatkidngi amtest COtlt. 3 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 0-9000Z1?00Z000t1917000-P9dCIU-VI3 60/Z1./COO aseeieu -hod peAwddv too,, are some 4,000 uniformed Ameriearsa attached to the United States air depot at Nouasaeur, only twenty trilled away, who were once a boon it,e Casablanca milk- bar, ielfe, night club, pinball arid jaeseos industries. Amer- ican troops end families living on three A tr Force beiges or near-by cities dispersed around Morocco, have now been ad- viaed to shun French restau- nimbi, theatres,. beaches, buses, trains and public places during the dangerous period ahead. Weeke earlier Americana here were aiready under strictest instructione that the native districts were off limit to them. In 190/, when sixty Preach sailors landed and charged with fixed bayonets to rescue their eoriaidate encircled by rioting baouia tribesmen who had just slaoghtered eight Europeans, Casablanca was only k primitive African port with /.5,000 native inhabitants dosing in the aromatic sun- baked alleys of their walled Medina. Outside the gates etretched a wilderness attrac- tive mainly for hunting wild hoar, ROM such emptiness the French built out in widening semicirelea to create a striking modern city noteworthy for its ingenious an. experi- mentalism. They developed a new Medina for the soaring native population in the far southeastern outskirts of the expanding European town and lately a separate Moroccan housing project farther south. But native labor flocking in from the hinterland won the race against French builders. Canal! lance was defaced in scattered outlying areas by miserable "Bidonvilles? tin- can cities. The total popula- tion is nearly three quarters of a million, of which only one-third is European. Each element rzeliiesi apart but In overlapping and easily accessi- ble districts. This proximity under the present, unfriendly circumstances only adds to the explosive danger. Wage-earning Medina dwell- ers undergo harassment in- side and outside their areas, In the lairopean quarter they are open to French search if they have packages on their bicycle, or if six or eight of them are jammed into one of the half-size cut rate petit taxip that furnish mass Arab transport since .horsedraven tivrev,.7wm. guAlaw.0 oa traffic menace a few years back. The Arab work day in European plants now begins eii; 0:30 A. M, because of the Curfew and enda with a rush homeward' before the troops cline the Medina'. At work or in their own shops within native armee Mo- roccans are uncomfortably ex- posed to Nationalist control during political strikes -- through which 155 full busi- ness days were lost in the last twelve months, Unfortunates vending boycotted French products such as fuel oil, soap and tobacco have been driven out of business altogether. Ninety per cent of Casablanca tobacco shops two years ago were operated by Moors. To- day virtually all have sold out and fled or been murdered, l' MEDINA life in the good old days conimeneed lo the evening. Great thoroughfares like the Boulevards Suer and La Gironde were overrun with night-time strollers, But now native streets after dark are wiped clean of life as if with a monstrous sponge. Private gaiety has been banished with equal rigor. Out of patriotic conviction- or out of patriotic chastbsement -cel- ebrations of all kinds are taboo se long as the ex-Sultan con- tinues exiled. In recent months mild drunks have been stoned to death by indignant youths for daring to tipple while the nation is in mourning. 1 ISLAMIC Morocco has five great festivals annually ac- companied by the sacrifice of lamb, the purchase of new clothes and the exchange of gifts or other amenities. In the past two years not a single holiday has been observed. There are no wedding parties, no naming ceremonials for ba- bies, not even visits to friends and families. As many as 3,000 pilgrims used to voyage to Mecca year- ly. Upon their mass homecom- ing Casiablanca was beflagged and merry. This year only 200 went and are returning furtively now without drumbeat or trumpet peal. Some 4,000 worshipers invariably filled the great Mosque of Sidi Mohammed to capacity on Friday aftetnooris, overflowing into the street.. Now scarcely twenty turn up-- because the blasphemous name of Sultan ben Mouiay Arafa, who replaced ben Youssef, is invoked in prayer. The native economy has been para- lysed on all fronts, from the historic Jamiabir --the walled bordello area, sev- eral acres broad, which the French shut down as a fugitive terrorist hide- out?to banks glutted with unpaid com- mercial paper, Credit has totally dried up. Because of the epidemic of strikes, shopkeepers are as much as eight months behind on rent and the wages of the average native worker have shriveled tO scarcely $250 yearly. ? Between the Morlerns and the French stand 40,000 Jews inhabiting the Menah which is adjacent to and park oi the old Medina. These have no aeceases at all and suffer all the economic and physical buffets of the conflict between the two major antagonists. Whether they obey Arab strike calls or not. their homes and shops are occasionally looted or burned. Elsewhere in Mo- rocco some Jews have even been butchered indiscriminately with Euro peens, jEWISII prospects for personal secu- rity in any Moroccan state with home rule are. dim unless.... -as the more lib- eral Nationalist leaders pledged on paper- the future government of Mo- rocco ia secular and constitutional. Whether an Islamic society which hitherto has known only theocratic rule and a privileged status for domi- nant Moslem religionists can effect such a democratic revolution remains to be seen. Meanwhile, emigration to Israel continues. Within Casablanca's European com- munity, toek there are internal stresses which sometimes spill over bloodily. Moderate Frenchmen have been as- sassinated by counter-terrorists tor pleading the Moroccan cause. Readers of the locel anti-nationalist newspaper, Le Petit Marocain, spit upon readers of the Maroc Presse, which is a spokesman for compromise. The latter's publisher was murdered this summer and its editor twice assaulted. Its home office is now protected by police. THE aims of the colonialist conserv- atives are robustly reflected by "Pre- sence Francaise," an organization claim- ing to represent KO per cent of the European population. Its chief rival Is "Conscience Francaise," a much smaller group of liberals contending that prance must not ignore the legit- imate claims of the Moroccan popu- lation. Paradoxically the most des- perate, moat muscular diehard "French" are non-French settlers, especially Spanish Loyalists taking refuge here from Franco. If Morocco is lost, a Frenchman can always return to France. Where could a Spaniard go? Yet it must fairly be noted that even the French aren't selling out. Prices for villas haven't dropped one franc. An American business group , here shopping for 'a clubhouse was turned down cold when it offered 70,000 francs monthly against the 80,000 asked. Buyers -who have rushed here hunting bargains have departed empty handed. Only a few pensioned oldster who retired to Morocco have returned to France. But they had no deep roots here. The exile who found asylum here or the pied noir.-. -aFrenchman born or long established here-- is not quitting. He has sublime confidence that all will come out right. Folly or faith, this has a touch of grandeur. Only time can reveal whether his courage will be fortified for that generosity of spirit which alone can fruitfully redeem the land he calls his country. 0-9000Z1?00Z000t141000179dCIU-VI3 60/Z1./COO aseeietw peAwddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 We& Evening Star 11_ WhOtlhiited States Does. In Morocco Could Well Be . ? Decisiye in Bringing Peace Be WEER ELLIS The world MSY be shockbd by the excesses of both sides in the cur- rent troubles in French North Africa. Surely, though, no one is ' empriael that they occurred. For a long time it has been *li- nemen, that, unless drastic changes Mr. VC is goo Assesices lawyer with Wh- eless interests is Menem He hes been ? spikiest of that awns for several Two. were made, eruptions were inev- itable. To live in French Morocco In recent years has been to live in an atracephere of steadily mount- ing Validate with violence and deaths daily occurreece. Deepffs the complexity of the in- terests involved, the fundamental probben is staple and door: What Is the role of the natives to be? They ere rapidly growhig in urn- her, tie annual increase in North Africa being about 400,000 permns (180,000 in Morocco alone). The Buildup From the lead standpoint, the thge cress involved are not all in the wane category. Algeria, 'which was deiguered by Prance beginning 41n 1830, has been incorporated into Prance? being a part of metropolitan Prance under the French constitu- tion. (The Algerian rebel, however, re- fuses to woe% the "French" label. and SUMP Algerians if not rebelli- ous, regent bitterly being treated as "seem -class enema." In many wens the Algerian natives are de- prived of the right they theoretical/7 enjoy, through rigged elections, in- timidatkon, eta) Tunisia and Morocco, which Prance took andel' her "protection" in 18$1 and 1912, are not French and do not belong to Prance. They are sovereign states, with relation- ships to Prance defined by inter- national treaties. A Frenchman living in Morocco Is a foreigner there, like e German -living in Prance. Regardless of legal labels. throughout all three areas the rause of conflict is the same: Discontent of the natives with present French domination. Their discontent is by no means con- fined to the political sphere. They resent the fact that for the most Pert their functions should be merely those of "hewers of wood and drew= of water." What is at stake for Prange ltr this conflict is enormity. Her future is a greet power will be vitally affected by it. Furthermore, she must look atter the French- men who now live in North Mini (about 150,000 Odeon& In Algeria out of a told population of 9 lion; about 226.000 in' Tunisia out of 3.7 million; about 300.000 in Morocco out of 9 million). incredible Delay Admittedly, this problem la a dif Scult ohs for Prance. Even so, It seems almost incredible that Prance should have allowed it to reach its present intensity. The explanation lies in the weaknese, the instability of her government (or rather. governments). There is an almost fanatical op- timal= (colons, financial interests super-pottriots, etc.) to France's making any concessions to the do- mande of the North African na- tives. In the case of Tunisia, the government of Mendes-Prance, who seems to be the politician most able to get action, did make concessions ' Last year. and Tunisia has since been relatively calm. (Incidehtally. the Mendes-Francs government later fell on a North African issue). As for Morocco, no concessions have been made. The offers to ne- gotiate made by the deposed Sultan, die Mohammed ben Youssef, were not even answered, and in August, 1983, he was kicked off the throne and exiled. Considerable effort has been made to justify his forcible de- thonement, which was a viola- tion of France's promise ? In the protectorate treaty of Fes (1912) *to respect and protect the Sultan's author's, and person. Sidi Mo- hammed has been pictured as hav- ing been a road lock in the way of France's attempts to bring about necessary reforms. The truth seems to be that he was removed because he stoutly resisted, despite enormous pres- sure, Prince's attempts to en- croach mens Moroccan sovereignty and because his polite, patient anx- iousness to negotiate a new basis for French-Moroccan relationships was embarrassing to the French. The internal reforms which he refused to sign had "jokers'! tucked away in their lengthy Provisions: Par-reaching concessions to the French. Turning Foist The demolition and exile of Sidi Mohammed *es a turning Point for Morocco. As Sultan, he was also /mans (Leader of the Faith- ful). He became in the eyes of the great mass of the Moroccan people not only a hero but also a marten a sort of George Washington and Saint Joan combined. For many of -them his dethronement crystal- lized a determination to resist the Prenc.b. It was only after the dethrone- ment teak**win? burst out in Morocco. The Preach authorities have responded with More force. And Morocco has gone further and further in a vicious circle: repres- sion, resistance, stronger repression, stronger resistance. The Moroccans are in despair and the local French are afraid. Despair and fear breed hatred. Hatred is rampant in Mo- rocco. Unless the vicious circle is broken, the recent eruptions will Prove not to have been the last-- or the worst. French Role Will the French government be able to overcome its paralysis? The situation having reached the extreme stage, the French gov- ernment has opened talks with Moroccan leaders. If one is to judge be what bappaned during die bedo- Anne wag, gem ths motto of the ?Prench'.'might well have been tan bite," Progress4.. Weed. In feet, the egliernm-- ent may topple. At least, though, tile French gov- ernment is trying to do something constructive about the situation. The Mere fact that the talks are occurring is a big step forward. However, one is forced to note this; Even if the government suc- ceeds in carrying through its an- nounced program (new Resident- General, substitution of a Council of the Throne for the puppet Sui- ten, ben Arafat formation of a "representative" Moroccan govern- ment, etc.), it will not yet have really bitten into the problem: What pow- ers is the Moroccan government to have? American Rale What Manila% does may well be decisive in working out a reason- able 'solution which will bring peace to Morocco: That has always been true. And' we are hardly in MY Position to cast donee at the French. Pore however reluctantly we may have acted at times, we have in effect backed Prance In North Africa. In the particular case of Mo- rocco, we have even gone so far in our backing of Prance as to Ignore treaty rights which, if exercised, could have changed for the better the course of events. These rights come from treatise in 111117, 1838, 1880 and 1901. They are still in full force and effect. They include the right to "most- favored-nation treatment," that Is, the right to be treated as favor- ably in Morocco as any able' na- tion such as, for instance, Trance. The most important of the treaties, the Act of Al/edam (1008), &limed not only by the United States and Morocco but also by Prance and other powers was meant to serve as a charter for ? modern Morocco. The Key The treaty established "the triple - principle of the sovereignty and in- Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Cont ? 0-9000Z1?00Z000t1917000179dClti-VI3 60/Z1./COO eseeleti .10d peAcuddv Via* Ey!,Sri'', Star SEP .1 1 Empires Have Been Shaken ?dinendenes of tits Majesty the Sur- tan. the integrity of his domains. and economic liberty without any inequality." in other words, Mo- rocco was not to be the preserve of any V' ne of the powers: Mo- rocco's axestnty, independence and territersn iotegrity were to be respected by sit, with an "open door" policy for trade and com- merce. America, then, has the right to Insist that France respect Mo- ? rocco's sovereanity and keep Mo- rocco's door upen to business, with- out favontiern of the French. This right ha $ herdly been exercised, however. A vigorous insistence on our buil- nees rights inight well have kept France lions enclosing Morocco in the tram Toile, with restrictions which welt etierelY to the advan- tage or the French. When Sidi ltiohernreee ben Youtisef was de- throned by the French, did Amer- ica ?been.? Not at all. No Proms The plot to dethrone the Suiten had been apperent to any discern- mu observer for months before the event. If America had warned France not to do it, had mated that, if France nevertheless went ahead, America would not recognize the new Suiten and would support any complaint to the United Nations, France would hardly have dared such a flagrant violation of her obligations to Morocco and to Amer- ica. At the U. N. which meets this month, America Must take a post- tion on the Moroccan question. In the past we have supported- France. Undotibtedly we will be influenced this time by whether or not France it; making programs toward a real solution. Undountorily also our Policy- makers will keep in mind the fact that in Indo-China we are now try- ing desperately to salvage !some- thing feorn the wreckage of a French colonial regime. V. V. s EP 1 5 19,!6- Egypt to Expand Asia-Africa trade CAIRO, Sept. lb IA!.?The Egslo ban government has formed e company to expand trade with the Askin-Afriran bloc, includ- ing Communist China, Abou Nosseir, Minister for Commerce and Industry, said today. The company will have a cap- ital of 'I.4e0.000 contributed by the Bank Misr, the Agricultural and Co-operative Bank, and other Egyptian concerns. Mr. Nrzseir said the company will aim at implementing the resolution of the Asian-African conference at Bandung calling for closer economic relations! among member nations. Herter agreements will be sought to try; to bring Egypt's foreign tradei into balance. Before by Religious Crises By HOWARD L. DLITILIN Recent outbreaks against French rule in Morocco?partly nationalis- tic and pertly religious?are the latest manifestations of probitiris long plaguing celonial powers. The Moslem Moroccans were out- raged when the French foisted on them a hand-picked Sultans-Wu- lay Arent?following the exile of the nationalist ben Yousael. Ben Youssef is regarded at a true imam or religious leader by the Moroccans. His ouster by the "infidel" French and substitution of a new Sultan who many Mos- kerns are convinced could not legalIY become an Imam. was resented. Religion, of course, was not the only reason for the outbreaks. But the dictated change In Imams rubbed salt in the wounds of colon- ialism. The French troubles recall some of the incidents of 13th and lieth century colonialism. The plight of the British in Northern India in 1067 stemming from similar roots was not easily allayed. A religious dietary restriction sparked the conflagration. A regiment of Sepoy troetic high-caste Hindus for the most part, had. been tamed the then new Enfield muerte-loading rifle. The cartridges contained a greased patch at the top which had to be bitten off and used to help 'ram home the bullet into the rifled barrel. Unwittingly, the British muni- tions makers greased the cartridges with animal fat. To the Hindu such fat is anathema. ' The first big LiareuP occurred at Meerut. 40 miles from Delhi, in Northwest India. A group of Ben0Y11 who had 'refused to practice with the disputed cartridge had been sentenced to long prison terms. At review that day they were made to parade, shackled, in front of the sullen lines of their fellow- native soldiers. ? The Uprising The next day--Sunday.?as Brit- ish soldiers and civilians ordered their carriages for church and white soldiers, on pass, strolled through the bazaar, the crackle of gunfire came from the &pay area. Instantly the bazaar sector arose. Crowds of natives poured into the streets bent on murder and plunder. Europeans were hauled from their carriages and hacked to death on the spot. -A colonel who tried to halt a body of &IVY& was shot dead. Finally, British units went into action and the mutinous troops disappeared under cover of darkness. The mutineers swarmed into Delhi, where other Sepoy troop", admired by Britons, were stationed. The native troops turned against their ?Meer' when they were or- dered to oppose the invaders Scenes of 'Arnett greater than those of Meerut followed. But the greatest tragedy was reserved for the city of Cawnpore, containing a native PoPulaticei of 60,000.! There were English troops .numbering 300 in a total European population of 1,000?and 3,000 Scoff soldiers. When the fighting broke out. the Europeans fortified themselves in the hospital barracks. ' There, soldiers, civilians, women and children held out for three weeks against tile besiegers. But it was a trick that finally made the defenders give up their position. Offered *are passage out of Gavomore by water, they agreed to lay down their arms and out. As they left, a colonel being carried on a litter, was hacked to death by a group of Sem*. His wife was Main also. ? The remainder of the evacuees were led to the waterfront where, as they attempted to push off in boats, a withering fire was rained upon them. Virtually all the men were slain. The women and children, 301 in all, were imprisoned in a two-room building, each room 10 by 20 feet, ? When their captors learned that a British relief column was on the Way. all the captives were slain in one night of incredible butchery. Remember Cownporet The tragedy affected the British as the Alamo had Americans. "Remember Cawnpore" became the rallying cry aa British than* rammed the bayonet home. In their rage and horror, the British gave vent to excesses. Na- tives who were believed to have aided the mutiny were lashed to catuttin murales and blown to hits. Others were hanged front trees and used. as live targets for shoot- ing Parties. But probsbly the cruelist punish- ment devised was that worded ringleaders who were sewn in pig- skin before execution thereby mak- ing certain their sternal damna- tion according to their own un- shakeable belief. Colonial powers have learned s .great deal about other religions since the Indian massacres. The French, in fact, have been careful in Morocco to avoid conflict. with Mohernmedenism. The incident of the deposed /mem, however, shows that serious mistakes still can be Made. ? (;) 0-9000Z1?00Z000A6000-179dCIU-VIO ? 60/Z 1./?00Z asealauwj panoiddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 OZ. ricr SEP 15 1955 on liosiess to Equal Voice, in World Affairs Sought By C. Elizabeth Hunseverth 'Written joy The Christian:Science Monitor Colombo, Ceylon 'j Women must be accorded ! equal rights and opportunities I with men to take their place in ; international organizations and In deliberations on world proh- I.Lerns. This was the conclusion of the I International Alliance of Women ' at its Golden Jubilee Congress here Aug. 1841, ?when a resolu- tion was passed Urging the wom- en of each country to press their respective governments for such rights. Miss Esther Graff of Copen- hagen, former managing director cif a worldwide advertising agency, and president of the Al- liance, told the delegates "equal- 117 of opportunity exists no- where except on paper." . Although the motto of the Al- liance is "Equal rights?equal pcsponsibilities," and the funda- mental aim of the movement, she said, "has always been the development of the individual, irrespective of sex, race, or creed, and the "recognition. of woman as a person," the werld's great need is still equality of opportunity. ? E'qual Moral Standards Equal moral standards, the prevention of traffic in human biiings, and the establishment of equal economic and political rights wr mong subjects of vital international concern which the delegates discussed. Although there . were many veteran workers present from .Australia and the European eountries, a large nitmbee of keen young delegates also rep- resented the so-called under- developed countries of Asia and .Africa. Their needs and ;reports were, given a special place on he program. Picturesque scenes attended the welcome in Colombo of the? , More than 100 women who eahte as delegates to the con- gress, representing 35 countries.? Ceylon's contribution was found in the colorful Oriental decorations of the specious, Pil- lared hail, the attendant drum- mers and Kandyan dancers, the Mtge bras oil lamp of many wicks which was lighted during the ceremony, and the fragrant jasmin garlands offered in turn to each delegate as she re- sponded to the roll call. But the Hags of the nations participat- ing, massed on either side of the steps to the dais, served to remind onlookers that, despite Its Eastern setting, this was truly an internationahgathering. Long History Back of the platform, a little discolored after so many years of honorable service, hung the fringed white silk banner of the original "International Women Suffrage Alliance," planned in the United States in 1902, under the inspiration of Susan B. An- thony and Carrie Chapman Catt, constituted 1n/904 at a congress In Berlin, and subsequently re- named the International Alli- ance of Women. Ceylon's governor general, Sir Oliver Goonetilleke, who with the mayor of Colombo was pres- ent to welcome the distinguished visitors, mentioned their special pleasure in baying with them not only Miss Graff, Danish presi- dent of the Women's Alliande, but two of its three former presi- dents?Mrs. Margery Corbett Ashby of Britain, who had been connected with the movement from its inception and had been president for 23 years, and Dr. Hannah Rydh of Sweden, who had succeeded her in 1946..1952. Greetings Greetings were brought to the congress from Africa by Mrs. Carmel Renner, from Asia by Begum Saida Waheed, from Australia by the veteran Mrs. B. M. Rischbleth, 0.8,E., J.P., from Europe by Miss Marion Reeves, from Latin America by Mrs. Daniela Celcis, and from ? 7 the Middle Feist by Printers Safiyeh Firouz. Mrs. Eelynn Dertinieetgala, president of the affiliated = Ceylon Women's Conferee, and chairman of the congress organizing committee, toldelte delegates: "We appreciate "Yieir eagerness to share with us your advantages. To all women of 0,hr country this is a memorable tilo- fold experience?a widening of horizons, yet a minglinywith tte world in rin tur ." In the same hall, cleared pf its festive trappings and disPlarg a workmanlike simplicity, ,- gates then met daily for -ed- dresses, reports, and grouplith.- cussions on their manyssidellic- tivities, which stemmed fain ewe main standing committees; namely, peace and hurnanAM- time; equal civil 'and pollteka rights; equal economic aghast equal education rights; eivral moral standard. 44' ? Brilliant Speakers Among those invited tsi.:49!4- dress the congress in session vets Dr. Spencer Hatch,? from the United States, who has i completed five years' work fl Ceylon on a UNESCO tipPoint- meat, to establish a Fundementhl Education center in theretnote villages of ceylon's interior. , Another brilliant speaker from the United States was Mita Frieda S. Miller, whose wait nt the government-sponsored Wom- en's Bufeau in Washington.: attui later in helping to form one Ctil similar bees in Japan, was 61 in- terest to countries which are hoping to establish similes., b9- reaus. In addition , to their heaver program, the conference dela- gates were algo invited tee at tend numerous entertaining* in their honor, incl special Golden Jubilee birth party at Colombo's fashions "Eighty Club," and also to On brief tours to see .as moth of the island as possible before they departed. Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046V)200120006-0 *owl Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 FAR EAST Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 NJ. Timm sEp 2 1S5c MOVE ON TO BRING' KOREA ARMY HOME Drucker Says Some Military Leaders Want All Troops Out 'at an Early Date' WASHINGTON, Sept 25 Cie ?Wilber ILL Brucker, Secretary of the Army, said today some United States military leaders felt that all Aanertean troops should be brought home from Korean at "an early date." Mr. Brucker declared he was, opposed to returning them "at this time" but he was going to Korea in three months to ob- serve the situation personally. As of now, he Said, he feels the troops are "serving a worthwhile purpose." Appearing on the National Broadcasting Company's televi- sion "Meet the Press," the Sec- retary also disclosed that an Army program, enlisted man ''in the field" had made the mistake that resulted in false security charges against. Dr. Alfred H. Kelly, Wayne University profes- sor. Professor Kelly was falsely acsi eused of supporting a Comm..; nist -front organization, Mr.' ,Brucker apologized to the De- troit educator after, it had been found that work ori data con- cerning him had been "improp- erly 41 rt d carelessly performed." Mr. Brucker did not further Identify the enlisted man guilty of the error. He said the Army was reviewing; several eases that had occurred in recent months to make 'sure there were no similar slip-ups. Mr: Brucker said all informa- tion available to him indicated that American troops in Korea were in danger of no ipmediate attack from the. Communists. But he 064,1_ BIO Army Always had to be prepared for "whatever may occur." In the future, he mid, he might favor the withdrawal of all troops if South Koreans were properly trained to take their place and other cOoditions war- rant. it. He acknowledged that some United States military leaders felt the troops could be used better elsewhere. Mr. Brucker. also conceded that enlistments in the new Re- serve training program "are not as large as we hoped they would be:" But he said the expected them to pick up the first of next month as the:deadline for start- ing the program neared. In reply to question', Mr.- Brucker said that, at present the Army had no cases of Commun- ists pending. But he said some did involve men accused of Imo-. elating with Communists or Communist sympathizers. , He also said there. had been instances in which men avoided military service by declaring they were Communists when there was some doubt they ac- tually were. But he added that such. draft dodgem were "marked men" in their communities from then on. LI. Theo SEP 2 '9!)S 'CAMBODIA SEVERS TIES WITH FRANCE Declares Her Independepce ?Prince Norodom Takes the Post of Premier PNOIIIPENH, Cambodia, Sept, 25 (UPI The Indochinese King- ' dom of Cambodia formally dee dared her independence from France today after nearly 100 years of association. Prince Nero- dont Sihanouk was named Pre- mier. The Cambodian National .toii- gress, in its first action, severed the kingdotit's last formai ties with Prance by striking from its Constitution all mention of aseo- elation with the French Union. It th'en asked the 33-year-old , Prince, who abdicated from the throne last March, to become Premier. He agreed to take the post for at least three months. The Congress is composed en- tirely of Deputies of Norodom's Socialist Peopies Community, which the new Premier led to victory in the first nation-wide :elections early this month. It :met for the first time today. . The Congressmen voted to re- place the words "Cambodia, au- . i totionious state belonging to the I French Union as an associated reign and with "Cambodia, a sover- eign and independent state." In 1863 France signed a pro- tectorate agreement Waif Cam- bodia and saved it from Siamese domination. The Congress was opened by King Norodom Suramarit, father of the new Premier, in the royal palace. Members of the Government and the entire diplomatic corps attended the session while 40,000 Cambodians massed outside the palace. The decision to sever formal relations with France came as no surprise. PeSit9K Last of 10 Freed By Chinese Reds HONGKONG (Monday), Sept. 26 (INS)?Dilmus T. Kanady of Houston, Tex., the last or 10 Americans the Red Chinese promised to release immedi- ately from imprisonment, ar- rived today in Hongkong. Earlier two others were re- leased. They were identified as Miss Eva Stella Dugas, 62, a Carme- lite nun from Boston known as Sister Theresa, and Mrs. Marcella E. Huizer of Wolcott vile. but. Mrs. iluizer was acoompanied by her husband. LI. Timer. ET MANILA LOOKS ANNAN In ordering az restudy of the eco- nomic plans for the - Philippines, 'Ffresident Magsa.ysay has laid down six principles that should guide the efforts ,of the National Economic Council. They are realistic as well as imaginative. They reject doc- trinaire Socialist concepts and place emphasis on individual initiative and effort. Here is the program OA he out- lined it: Stabilize the value of the peso; abolish the onerous economic controls; balance an economy be- tween agriculture and industry; ef- fect a complete return to the free- enterprise system; provide private enterprise with proper Incentives; make sensible use of Japanese repa- rations in capital goods on s. sound business basis. i All this cannot be accomplished In a "five-year plan." The develop- ment of a "balanced economy," for example, will be difficult when the ' Philippines, must increase agrieul- Hirai exports to obtain the required revenues for essential operations. In this connection the Philippine President has insisted, that increased production is the only proper means of increasing revenues and national wealth. Similarly, Mr, Magsaysay has rejected the idea of devaluation of the peso and states that it wilt continue to be pegged to the dollar. The Philippine President has been winning some significant domestic political victories in recent weeks. The economic antagonists, wrapped up in the facts of productive life, are more formidable than the politi- cal. He .has outlined a program in this field that is sensible. It may .not all be accomplished in a short time, but it represents movement in the right direction. wash. Dr TN. MeA SFR ?I? 1(iq Sandberg Will Spurn. 1Trip to Red China CHICAGO, Sept. 22 Ma? Poet Carl Saindburg discloses lie will turn down an invitation to make a visit to communist China. The 77-year-old poet and biogra- pher of Abraham Lincoln was among six Americans named in a Red Chinese broadcast to attend ft celebration in Peiping next month of the 100th anniversary of the pub- lication of American poet Wall Whitman's "Leaves of Grass," Mr. Sandburg said he had "too much work on hand" to make the trip. Approved For Release 2003/12/4: CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 L. LOUlPOSt---Dispafdt CS* effritillr SEP 2 1 1'it15 0-9000zwoz000t1917000-179dati-vi3 60/ZUCOOZ eSeeleti .10d peAwddv SEP 2 1 1955 Ms Again Punish Shanghai Iii Hunt for Foes of Regime Special. Bong Kong S.hanghai, aormerly one of the world's ;.y,,,!at cosmopolitan cities, is being punished again? for the fourth time since the Chinese Cinainunists came to. power. Its pmulation (which Peking now glees as more than 7,000,- 000) toia.y is being harried and intimidated, to say the least? just as'it was daring the brutal 1951 cam.peign against counter- revolutonaries, and again dur- ing the harsh "3-anti" and "5- anti" campaigns that followed. Now there is a new nation- wide ea mpeign against counter- revoluteonaries, and as it gath- ers imeetus it becomes more and more apparent that the net is large cmi its mesh very fine indeed. As in the least, Shanghai is a special target. For confident as they are, the Chinese Commu- nists always have been uneasy about the nation's largest city. -Population Driven Out Western ideas linger . there still; but, rn.ore than that, Shanghai always- has been an unruly, rather arrogant city, de- fiant oe the stringent controls Peking must impose.. Your true Shanghii resident has -always conside::?ed heinself quite a bit smarter and much more sophis- ticated than ether Chinese. Now the city must pay once By Frank Robertson Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor more for the debonair worldli- marshalled to handle the ness of its past, and for the at- titudes this has produced. It seems safe to assume that a disproportionately high propor- tion of the counterrevolution- aries unearthed during the pres- ent inquisition will be found in Shanghai. But the Peking government is going further than that to tame this now surly metropolis once and for all. It has opened a drive to strip Shanghai of much of its population?and, impor- tance. Early in August the Shanghai Daily News reported that the city's municipal authorities had approved a plan to move 1,000,- 000 of the city's inhabitants to the countryside. Private reports Indicate that the target may be considerably higher than this. One long-time British resi- dent of Shanghai who has just reached Hong Kong said the evacuation had been slowed re- cently because the hardships in- volved had led to a number of, suicides. Miss M. J. Sinclair, an Interior decorator in Shanghai until her firm was closed two years ago, disclosed that up- ward of 30.000 persons a day had been forced to leave the city. Those who have no family In the country are told to stay with friends, and extra trains and river steamers have been touts Pest--DiSpeat SEF 21 MS KOREA ARO INTERPRETER ARRESTED !SEOUL. Sept. 21. (iSP) ? A Korean employed by the United States Army as an Interpreter for the Armistice Commission has beei arrested on charges of spying for the Communists, po- lice saiel today. ' ? They identified him as Kim Sam Yut, who worked as an in- terpreter and translator for the United :Nations armistice team from January 1954 until last Aug. 26 when he was arrested. A U.N. spokesman said Kim sometimes interpreted for American Maj. Gen. Harlan C. Parks, senior U.N. member of the Commission who meets with the Communists at Panmunjom. The spokesman said "We know nothing derogatory about him." N.Y. Tinto exodus, Meanwhile, the Daily News reports that black marketeers are active in Shanghai?and in the People's Park, of all places! Members of one such group have lust been tried as counter- revolutionaries, the paper said, and given prison terms ranging from three to five years. Strict Food Rationing Miss Sinclair testified that there Is much unemployment in Shanghai, and said that food ra- tioning was strict; she received 10 pounds of rice and six ounces of sugar a month. The serious unemployment problem In Shanghai undoubt- edly has contributed to the Peking decision to reduce the city's population. But, from the economic point of view, this would appear to solve little, for the rural areas are known to have less food than the large cities. It appears, then, that the principal motivation is to break up Shanghai as an incorrigible center of unrest. Although Miss Sinclair reported that the evacuation had slowed some- what, other reports of some substance indicate that tho Chi- nese Communists eeentually plan to reduce the population of their Largest city by as Much as half, ERICKUT B TTLE Mother Greets Set-Gescribeci Spy Freed by Chinese Reda SEATTLE, Sept. 25 f/Pa?Wal- ter A. Rickett, former Seattle resident released last week by the Chinese Communists, re- turned home early today. The one-time Marine officer, who said after his release that he had engaged in espionage for the United States, arrived by plane from Honolulu. Greeting him was his mother, Mrs. A. J. Rickett, other reign three and friends and a score of newsmen. His wife, Adele, who was released previously, is in Yonkers, N. Y. He said that Thirteenth Naval District officials "just mentioned to him casually" before he went to China as a Fulbright scholar that they would "like me to keep my eyes open." A Navy spokes- man said it had no record of having discussed espionage with Mr. Rickett. 2 Stil for Hong Kong? Indian,, Dunes Aida Confer. WASHINGTON, Sept, 21 (API ?State Department authorities said yesterday the -last of 39 Chinese students who sought to return to Communist China have left the country. The final three Chinese sailed for Hong Kong and home last Saturday. They were part of a group of 129 Chinese technical students whom immigration officials de- tained, as a result of Chinese Communist participation in the Korean war. While the detainer orders were lifted last April the remaining 90 Chinese techni- cians and students had given no indication they, wish to go bickfto Communist China. The question of India's role In helping Chinese nationals re- turn to Communist China was discussed during the day by Ambassador G. L. Mehta in a 'Ce5riference with two assistant secretaries of state. 7afekta saw Walter Robertson, in charge of Far Eastern af- fairs. and George Allen, head of state's South Asia and Mid- dle East division, to deterinine what steps the Wiled States is ? taking to publicize the oppor- tunity of return of all Chinese irately:ads who desire to exercise each rights. -? Under terms of an agreement reached at Geneva Sept. 10 be- tween the United States and Communist China, India Is to essist Chinese nationals in this country while Britain will help Americans in leaving China. Mehta said that he discussed the details of this arrangement. Be refused to say whether India has .received any requests thus. farefrom Chinese desiring to go home. The ambassador said progress has been made at Geneva and the release of American na- tionals by Communist China "is bound to be helpful." He noted there are two sides to this question and that "if, India can play a useful part it lit-always available." 0-9000Z1?00ZOOOMW000-179dCI1-VI3 60/ZUCOOZ asealawd peAoiddv 13?T Approved For Rektgase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046RQ22200120006-0 TOKYO KYODO IN JAPANESE AND ENGLISH 9/23 (TEXT) TOKYO--THREE MAJOR JAPANESE STEEL FIRMS HAVE REACHED AN AGREEMENT WITH COMMUNIST CHINA FOR THE IMPORT OF 409,000 TONS OF KAILAN COAL IN EXCHANGE FOR 5,040.TON$ OF GALVANIZED SHEET IRON AND OTHER GOODS, THE "NIHON KEIZA" REPORTED TODAY. THE BARTER AGREEMENT WAS REACHED IN NEGOTIATIONS CONDUCTED IN PEKING BY PRESIDENT ICHIRO HATTORI OF THE KEIMEI TRADING COMPANY FOR THE YAWATA -IRON AND STEEL, FUJI IRON AND STEEL, AND NIPPON STEEL TUBE COMPANIES. THE "ECONOMIC JOURNAL" SAID IT WILL BE THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE KOREAN WAR THAT SUCH A LARGE QUANTITY OF KAILAN COAL HAS BEEN IMPORTED. IT ALSO IS THE FIRST TIME THAT STEEL PRODUCTS HAVE BEEN EXPORTED TO COMMUNIST CHINA. ? - ALTHOUGH GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS ARE LISTED AMONG THE BANNED .ITEMS IN TRADE WITH RED CHINA, STEEL CIRCLES AS WELL AS GOVERNMENT SOURCES ARE CONFIDENT THAT THE COORDINATING COMMITTEE FOR EXPORT CONTROL WILL GRANT SPECIAL PERMISSION FOR THE EXPORT OF TUNE ITEM TO CHINA. BESIDES THE 5,000 TONS OF :GALVANIZED IRON SHEETS, COMMUNIST CHINA WAS REPORTED DESIRING OTHER DAMMED ITEMS SUCH AS SHEET METAL, FOR THE KAILAN COAL, IF THE DEAL IS SUCCESSFULLY CONCLUDES, 150,000 TONS OF KAILAN COAL WILL BE IMPORTED BY THE END OF MARCH OF NEXT YEAR. THE REMAINDER WILL BE IMPORTED AT THE RATE OF SOME 30,000 TONS A MOTH FROM APRIL. THE PRICE PER TON WILL BE 54 SHILLINGS, WITH THE FREIGHTAGE FROM CHINWANGTAO TO BE SET AT SOME 4 DOLLARS PER TON. JG 9/23.-.455A 44W. PEKING NCNA IN ENGLISH MORSE TO SOUTHEAST ASIA EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA 1513-9/23 (TEXT) PEKINGTHERE FOLLOWS IS A RESOLUTION PASSED TY THE 22D SITTING OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL PEOPLE'S. CONGRESS RELATING TO THE CONFERMENT OF THE TITLE OF MARSHAL OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUPLIC OF CHINA. IT READS: THE 22D SITTING OF THE STANDING COMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL PEOPLE'S CONGRESS ON SEPTEMPER 23 EXANINED THE PROPOSAL OF CHOU - ENLAI, PREMIER OF THE STATE COUNCIL. IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATIONS ON THE SERVICE OF OFFICERS OF TUE CHINESE PEOPLE'S LIDERATION ARMY IT RESOLVED TC CONFER TEE TI LE OF MARSHAL OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUPLIC OP CHINA ON CHU TE, PNC TE...HUAI, LIN PIAO, LIU POCHENG, HO LUNG, CHEN I, LC JUNG- :WAN, HSU HSIANCCNIEN, NIEH JUNGCHEN, AND YEN CHIE!!....YING. ' EC 9/23-1225P 3 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 at. Lotts Post..-Dispatcit sEp 2119,13-9000Z 1.00Z - - ""- What is a Spy? US., Chinese Views Differ; 3 Freed by Reds Gathered Informa- tion, Gi?e Rise to Question. By KEYES BEECH The Chic:tp AJb Ilews?Post-Disysteh Ratho 1.9a3. tiONG KONG. Sept. 21 HAT is a spy? That question has been tees:Ming foieign observers here in the last week as they listened tie stories; of 10 Ameri- can civil iiians emerging from Red Chinese prisons. Three of the ha?a Fulbrigiht scholar, Catholic priest and a Baptist misatimary?readily ad- mitted they gathered and passed on to tar United States nrsits allies isolltical, economic or military infre mat ion. Fulbright scholar Walter A. Rieke:tit, Seattle, Wash., was most irsistent that he Was a spy. Ai though Ricked showed familiar evidence of Commu- nist brain-washing, his story of spying ectisittes for American naval intetieeisco sounded au- thentic. Admission by Churchmen. - The Rev. Harold W. Riney, of chicago, former rectdr of the Ciitholisi University of Peiping, readily admitted that according to Cematunist defini- tion he was a spy, but not by American definition. The Hetes Levi L. Loviee,rien, Cherry Grove, Oren approttlmatetY- s the Salt,?. thing. None 7of there Men was a fate i time professional spx, although the Communists seem to have done a mod lob of convincing Rickett :hat he was. As a for- mer Malne 'Corns intelligence officer and language expert, Rickett, according to his story, was asked by naval intelligence to "keep his eyes open." He reported to the American consulate and when Americans left China he continued report- ing to the British and Dutch. He ado need he learned no military secrets-- his job was to gather political information, Correspondents r emin ded Rickett that they gathered sim- ilar information, but didn't consider theinse:ves ,spi e s. Rickets said that was different, that he was dealing with offs- clot agencies. Ne Lime fps': Reds.. Unlike Rickett, 'Father Rig- nay had no love .or the Reds. But throigh ahowls*, of more thiniss.1410C..4109 Pother filyptey stilt gath- ered Political and economic in- formation on North China. He sent this information to the Vatican sad passed it on to OSS and Americas newspaper men. Lovegree said that before the Communist takeover he sent military information to his su- periors le the ljelled States Who in turn passed it on to the 000t1917000-179dCIU-VI3 Stafe- Mpartnient. After the Communists came he sent no more information. What does sa this add up to? Certainly, by Communist defi- nition all three men were guilty ? of espionage. Political and economic Intelligente is often just as valuable as military? in- telligence. Nor was any of the three acting out of motives friendly to Comrhunism. On the other hand, much if not most of the Information they gathered could be had by the United States simply by reading newspapers or govern- ment handouts. What is a spy? Apparently it's a matter of definition. 31E. LOUIS 60/Z I?abliZZIga PeACLIddV ? . Freed American Says Navy Told i Him 'To Keep Eyes Open.' ' TOKYO, Sept. 21 (API?Wal- ter A. Rlekett said today that United States naval officers i told him "to keep my eyes open" when he first left for Communist China on ai Ful- bright scholarship. The 34-year-old ex-Marine language officer told reporters that officers at Seattle's Thir- teenth Naval District Headquar- ters gave him; these instruc- tions on the, bolds of his pre- Corps and Intelligence. Rickett arrived in Tokyo to!, day enroute home after more than four years an Red Chinese prisons on charges of espionage. Rickett repeated that he-was guilty. When released at Hong Kong last week, he said he had spied for the United States. Rickett added it is his "firm conviction that the present Cht? nese government has the firm support of the majority of the people. They have done a lot." Of his own activities and im- prisonment, Sicken related! "1 did what I did largely because I thought it was in the interests of the United States." Rickett said he did not see his wife. Adele, while he was Interned. She was arrested as an accessory, then released by Red China last February. United States officials said at the time she appeared to be thoroughly brainwashed. She 'readily admitted she was guilty of spying for the United States, and she praised the Commu- nists. Rickett refused to comment on her statements. Mrs, ita3ntiond Clapper; Back From Far East, Warns RuSsian Propaganda Is Effective: Fear that the free countries of Asia will slip into the Com- munist orbit was expressed here today by Mrs. Raymond Clap- per, widow of the newspaper columnist, who returned re- cently from a tour of the Far I East. Mrs. Clapper, director of the I I,Veshington, D.C., office of the Committee for American Re- mittances to Everywhere, Inc.,1 (CARD, warned that Russia and ' Red China are waging a tre- mendously effective propaganda campaign in Asia. She said the current $200,- 000,000 American assistance program for that part of the world was "quite inadequate" and the American information program cannot be compared to that of Russia, which is spend- ing two billion a year. Mrs. Clapper addressed the Missouri Federation of Wom- en's Clubs at Hotel Sheraton. Through the agency of CARE, the federation has "adopted" ; the village of Bazitpur, near , ,Delhi, India, furnishing -farm 0 tools and other help in meeting , the village's specific needs. 1 Major Effort by Reds. In an interview, Mrs. Clap- I, , per, whose husband was killed ! In a plane crash in the Pacific In 1944, said it was difficult for i ,an American to realize the im- pact of Communist propaganda in Asia unless one had traveled there and seen at first hand the major effort that is being made to woo the people. "I got the feeling," she said, "that there would be no war, but that these countries might go one by one behind the Iron Curtain." ' Communist 'China, she said, ? has succeeded in creating the impression that great economic advances had been made under Communism. She said this ar- gument exploits effectively the burning desire of Asia to 'come, into the Twentieth Cenjury" and enjoy the fruits of modern civilization. "You have to face it," Mrs. Clapper, who is 59 years old, sald, "Communist China is a great power today, and the people of Asia realize that."? Says Japan h Shaky. The most difficult nations for the Communists to take over by infiltration would be India and the Philippine Is- lands, she said. She added that Japan was shaky because of need for trade with Red China, while Viet Nam and Laos also were in precarious positions. Russia has given Red China ! eight times the amount of help 4 that the United States has proffered India since World War II, Mrs. Clapper said. She told of an attractive "Life" size magazine that Russia circulates throughout the Far East, depict-' ing the good life that is possible under Communism. "I don't think we are doing enough," she said emphatically, CARE now is concentrating on India, Pakistan, Viet Nam and Laos, she said, and is a chan- nel by means of which individu- als and organizations in this country may offer direct assist- ance to Asians. 0-9000Z1?00Z000t1W00179dCIU-VI3 6O/Z.I./COOZ aseeieu40 peAcucidv Approved For Wase 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046IZ0200120006-0 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 -WESTERN HEMISPHERE -11* Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : 6114,1ThE04-00046R000200120006-0 ,fte SFP 1; 195) S, REARS .before extending hscogniti?11 t'cl) LoNARDI AGREES gevernment in the harestent Hemisphere. This was done orally! on Saturday by United States LONARDI REGIME; Ambassadors to the other twenty American republics. While declining to claim any record, the State Department of. PERONISLEliViNc ficialsptrthbolemdesal woIrth nth: tecithinoin- calsaid they thought President Lonarties government had been Washington Acts Promptly as served as quickly as any in the[ past. In some caws, as when Token of Goodwill Toward President Fulgencio Batista took power in Cuba, the United States Argentine Insurgents I has hesitated as long as two months before deciding that the new regime qualified for recog- nition. After revoiuntionary changes of government Latin Ameriean BRITAIN ALSO SETS TIE 10 Nations Have Established Relations With Provisional Buenos Aires Government ------- Special io The New York Thnek WASHINGTON, Sept, 25--The United States recognized the revolutionary government of provisional President Eduardo Lonardi of Argentina today. State Department officials said they bad. rushed through the recognition "as fast as was diplomatically and technically possible." The speed was intend- ed to demonstrate United States goodwill toward the new regime. Britain also decided to recog- nize the Lonardi government. fauan D. Peron left Buenos Aires aboard a Paraguayan gunboat for exile. The General Confederation of Labor, one of the main pillars of the PerOn regime, announced that the new goyernment had made concessions to it, including promises to respect its eights. The confederation said the con- fiscated newspaper La Peensa would remain the property of the workers.] In lint announcing the recog- nition, the summer White House at Denver said that "the United States Government looks for- ward to the continuance of the friendly relations Which have ex- isted between the United Stites and Argentina." Naval' Delivers Note Anabamarlor Albert le. Nufer called at the Argentine Foreign Ministry in Buenos Aires this morning, the summer White House said. He presented a note saying that the United Miami ''recognized the new Government headed by Maj. Eduardo Lonardi as the government of the Repub- lic of Argentina_ The United States was the tenth. government to recognize the new Argentine regime. Other governments were able to act more swiftly because they re- sponded automatically to General Lonardra note last Friday morn- ing. The note said his govern- ment was in control of the mom- try, would respect its interna- tional obligations, and would maintain order. The United States makes a practice of at least going through the forms a consulting the other American governments countries usually change their Ambassadors, State Department officials noted. They said that while Ambassador Dr. Hipobto .1. Paz of Argentina had submit- ted his resignation to the new. Government, the State Depart- merit would continue to recog- nize 'him as Ambassador until notified that his resignation had been accepted: One former economic counselor of Argentina's Embassy in Washington, Cesar A. Bunge, who resigned his post during the June 16 rising against the Peren Government, turned up today as Minister of Commerce in the new Argentine Government. He had been waiting in Peru since the failure of the June 16 revolt. London Establishes Ties RPtCliti to The New York Timm LONDON, Sept. 25?The For- eign Office announced ,tonight that the British Government' had decided to accord recogni- tion to the new Argentine Gov- ernment, Italy At Also ROME, Sept. 25 Ill P)--The Forel= Office announced to- night that Italy had recognised the new pronal Government of Argentina. Formosa is Beeogulf ion epeeist tome Ste York ?num TAFEL Formosa, Sept. 25-- The Chinese Nationalist Gov- ernment today extended recog- nition to the provisional Gov- ernment of Argentina. TO LABOR PEACE UniCiteSTh at Supported Peron Announce 6 Concessions From His Successor By EDWARD A. MORROW spew to The New York Titgek BUENOS AIRES, Sept, 25? Gen. Edward Lonardi's new Gov- ernment made peace with organ- izectiabor tonight. in a five-minute nation-wide broadcast Hugo de Pietro, scere-, tary general of the General Con- federation of Labor, announced that the Government had made sis. concessions to his organiza- Lion. The confederation was one; of the main pillars of the ream' regime. The concessions wore.; I gnat PerOn would enjoy Brill guarantees of the right of asylum. .1Thai, all social benefits and collective bargaining agreements would be honored. That the rights of the Gen- eral Confederation of Labor and all its syndicatea would be re, spected, liThat the newspaper La Premia, which was confiscated[ by the Peron regime in 1951 and! made the official organ of the Confederation of Labor, would remain the property of awl workers. Ill.That all stops taken in the provinces against various unions would be reviewed, slThat .no injunction would be issued against the confederation I itself. I Return to Work Urged In the light of the assurances ,the Peroniat labor leader called on ,the nation's workers to ; return to their jobs tomorrow without staging further strikes or violentrdemonstrations, The Government thus appar- ently hopes to. restore complete peace to the nation so that it can recuperate from the civil war and the effects of Peronism. The Government announced to- day that some of Pereres close colleague e had been arrested. The former Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires, Carlos V. Aloe, aid his brothel Vat_ A. Abrahan the new Minister of ', entin Armando, who were cap- Al,- also was retired in October, tured near the- City of Reals- 51 19, when it was found that he tencia while attempting to flee, had been involved in the plan to. La Paraguay were brought back overthrow Peron. I The new Minister of Treasury' I,, Buenos Aires yesterday. A search of their bags din- and Finance. Dr. Eugenio Jose closed 'that they had fled Withr ?mini; well known economist,' 16,000,000 pesos (approximatelyiwas several times approached by 5e,142,000 at the official rate.p.tilc Peron GOVernmeot to defend, and are undisclosed additional' desperate solutions to its eto- sum in dollars. nomic problems, lie has vo- lt also was reported that for. mained a technician- in the nation's central bank: met' Vice President Rear Ad- miral Alberto Teisaire and other - ,high former government officials ,were tinder arrest.. II is believed '?the new Government may at- . tempt to try all who have been -captured for embezzlement of public funds. 'Asettnri far Heron General Peron, who is also re- ported to have a large 'concealed fortune in Swiss and other banks, has escaped this fate Inasmuch as the provisional government has allowed hint to dpart, thus honoring the Latin American conventions of political asylum. In his brief announcement, Senor de Pietro omitted the: lintlal courtesy of calling General' Lonardi "His Excellency." He 'declared he had called upon the firovisional President to clear tin the situation no fat as labor wasi concerned and hadreceived "firm goarentees" on the points eei mentioned. Some observers considered the concessions a severe -setback for the Government. Upon assuming: ipower, General Lollard' hadi ipointed out that he was for the! "free trade unions," which he! -added were, in Ids opinion, "in-; dispensable to the dignity of the! worker." Among the other develop- meats of today the Government! ordered that all Navy men whoi had been dismissd by the PerOrii Government for -having partici-) tinted in the June 16 revolt be: reinstated. On July 17 the Pc-, ronist Government dismi2secti 106 officers of the Navy and' Air Force. News of the Cabinet thati General Lonardi appointed last . night WAS received with enthu- siasm by the press. Although the overawe age of the Cabinet members is 131 years 2 monthsi most of the ministers never bed fore had participated in Argon": tine politics. But all have fliS^.i tingfirished records in their own!' The new Minister of Interior and justice, Dr. Eduardo Busso, 57 years old, is one of the na- tion's outstanchng lawyers. he 1045 he refused to be named to ft.! high professorial post by T'eren1 because "for me it would be in- admissible that ray title to teach law be derived from th'ose who represent the very negation of , that law." Rebel Gee Army Poet The new Minister of Army, 4R- year-old ?Brig, GGen. Leon Justo !Bengoa, was for a long time pro.' fes.sor at the nation's war col- lege. General Bengoa was com- mander of the Third Division of the Army and had promised Army support fee the Navy re- volt of June 16. He then was retired from the Army and sec- retly put under arrest until last week's snecessful uprising. Rear Admiral Teodoro E. Har- twig, the new Minister of the Navy, who studied for a time in the United States was Chief of Staff until he retired in Sept, 28; 1951 tater a tevolution Gen- eral Lenard!, was then planning failed. Air Vice Commodore Ramon Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 4,Ep 2 e BOLIYIAlii CUT IN LATIN ARMS To Ask U.N.. to Back Program for Redur,tion That Would Free Dev.slopment Funds By KATHIE:PM:air altiLAUGHLIN Stte:Ial to TAttkfew York Thug, UNITED NeliTIONS, N.Y., Sept. 25- -?Bolivia plans to propose to- morrow that e :1,1sierntament pro- gram for Letin-American na- tions be launebed under United , Nations filleip:! The program wouid he ee pare te from that under discuseicet by the great powers. Here en Siles-Zuazo, leader of the Beileien delegation, will submit the idea during his sched- uled talk before the General As- semble, probably at the after- noon meeting It is understOod that the poestbiliter of a prcimpt movement toward. reduction of forces and armaments expendi- tures has already been discussed , on a peeliminery basis with sem. oral Le t i n- A. mem i can govern- ments, and that ehe response has been favorable. A major theme lef Sefior Sites- Zuazo's presentation, it was learned tonight.? will be that cuts in arraittnente expenditures would free fends badly needed for the economic advancement of underleviikped countries. He will aim+ I;tress the anti- ? democratic a,seeete of maIntain- ' tog in power by military force regimes that have gained as- cendancy through the use of weapons rather than of ballots. The Bolivimi. 'point of view as reported tonight is that 'valuable time will be Joel: by the Latin- senttel p0.4.113. American touritriee in achieving arms reduction If the start is delayed until ttill major power; have reached nieleement ,on Amen none of the aatiarAalailtiSaStahlica-Paisese automatic erlispe 0 it is empha- sized, the feta" among them would cionceer ,exChtelvely the convendipnal 'tytia of ?14,m13. Within this Ober*, however, the last few yeteia have marked a tendency on the part of some of the smaller Latin-American nations toward *build-up of their armies and tic.unitiors. The Bol- ivian attitude is that some of these aequisitiens have been ex- cessive, end hive stimulated "an aggressive spirit." In this connection, a Latin- American snurie outside the Bol- ivian delegatien commented to- night that the ilem inican Repub- lic had recently placed orders for twenty military planes; that Peru was IS110YM to have built up her armed forces consider- ably recently; and that news dispatches had reported in- stances of similar actions by other countzies in Latin America. Acceleration of Pissu Sought The Bolivian effort le designed. to accelerate the extension of the limitation and reduction of arm- aments in Latin America in the minimum time. To date, attenttyn to limitation of armarnente in the United Na- tions has centered on the closed- door meetings of the disarm.a- ment subcommittee, with the United States, Britain, France, Canada and the Soviet Union participating. Until and unless these "atomic powers" reach agreement on the main points in- 009giValiRnetb2SliCigigialt: program could be successfully undertaken. Currently, the subcommittee has been conthetting at New York headquarters of the orgiud- tion talks held earlier in Lon- don. The area of dispute has narrowed especially since last spring, but with no perceptible progress over the last few weeks. If the regional program spon- sored by Bolivia is favorably re- ceived, a logical sequel might be ? a shriller move in other areas of the world, looking toward limita- tion and reduction on conven- tional armaments and militaty, forces. Sefior Sites-Buse? is expected to empliaiditif liBmorrow fie& nomic advariCat aide in his-own country as a result of the ecm nornic and social revolution headed by President Victor Paz Estenssoro. He was said to have organized the revolution that put Seater Paz Eatenssoro in the Presidential palace, on the basis of a 45 per cent plurality 'of the votes in the preceding election. N.Y. Times SEP 2 f 1955 GEN. PERON SAILS TO LIFE IN EXILE Gunboat Is Transporting Him to a Haven in Paraguay? Heavy Guard on Pier By TAD SZVECI , Special to The New York Times, BUENOS AIRES, Sept, 25? Gen. Juan D. Peren left i Argen- tina for exile in Paraguay -this afternoon. He sailed aboard the Para- guayan gunboat Paraguay at .5:30 P. -M., the sixth day after having been overthrown by a military revolution. The former President was ex- pected to reach Asuncion, the Paraguayan capital, Thursday at the end of a 900-mile trip up the Parana and Paraguay Riv- ers. He was accompanied by his aide de camp, Maj, Jos?gnacio Ciaiceta. The Associated Press report- ed that the Humaita, a sis- ter ship of the Paraguay, was under orders to meet the Para- guay and take General Peildll to Asuncion. It was not known tonight what General Pereres long-range Plane were, but it. was understood that the safe conduct granted hint by the provisional governing& of President Eduardo Lonardi placed no restrictions on' his ul- timate destination. Argentine Ship Is Escort An Argentine Navy torpedo boat escorted the Paraguay out of her berth at a downtown dock in Buenos Aires harbor. The sun was setting over the capital, where General Peron had been President for nine years. A detachment of Argentine Marines, bayonets on their rifles, formed a semicircle on the pier to prevent anyone from ap- proaching as the gray 700-ton gunboat eased out into the stream. Permission for General PeriOn's departure had been given to Paraguayan Ambassador Juan R. Chavez. At the same time, the Government offered the oust- 60/rIft-Pooi ?spaiiti Jod,peAwddv Argentines Sett a Poittical Truce Among the Anti-Peronist Parties By SAM rorz BREWER Nteeelal to The BUENOS AIRES, Sept. 25?A ? political truce among anti-Peron- ist parties is expected while they work together to bar a come- back by Gen. Juan D. Perin and his supporters. Many sources have stressed the unanimity of these parties in their determination to end Peronism in Argentina once and for all. All the parties have has- tened to announce their full sup- port of the provisional Govern- ment headed by President Eduardo Lonardi. Their success may depend on their ability to keep factional ambitions in the background. All the larger parties split into fac- tions during the years of the Perin dictatorship. Immediate Action' Urged Some political leaders are calling for immediate restora- tion of full political liberty. The Federal Democratic Christian Union issued a statement today urging "immediate and equali- tarian political liberty that will permit, within limits, the action and proselytizing . of parties vehose principles and methods respect the juridical order." The Democratic Prpgressive party has announced its faith in President Lonardi's intent to re- store "authentic social justice and effective democracy." The party's national executive board added: "To achieve these aims the provisional Government will have the support, without impa- tience, of the Democratic Pro- gressive party, which is conscious of the task that confronts it [the Government] and of the gravity and importance of the moments New York Times. through which the country is liv- ing." Persons active in the move- ment that brought down the Peron dictatorship have warned that patience will be necessary and that full liberty of action cannot be restored immediately. Pride in Unanimity Noted On ll sides there is pride in the unanimity of action achieved by various groups in carrying out the revolution. It is asserted repeatedly that all contributed to the movement without seeking a leading role for one party. Mili- tary men directed the action but knew they had the parties behind them, it was said. The Peronist party still is the strongest in Argentina, in the opinion of observers here. If completely free elections were held in the near future, the Peronistp probably would win. There was great Itnd spon- taneous rejoicing over General Perdn's downfall. That does not mean his movement has no sup- port. A considerable part of the population gained more than it lost by the Peron dictatorship. What it lost in freedom of criti- cism it made up in material ben- efits and in power, exptessed through the mob, Firm declarations by Presi- dent Lonardi that his Govern- ment would not take away from the workers the benefits given them by the Peronist "social justice" program have helped to reassure the public. The dec- larations will not pacitfy the thousands who benefited by their position as cogs in the Peronist political machine, It will take many months to die- mantle that machine. ed dictator every guarantee arid] form of protection. Earlier in the day General Perin went on deck for a bit of ? exercise. His view of Buenos Aires was limited to docks, ships, piers and a corner of the city's skyline. Before his departure, General Peren could look from his cabin onto aie pier patrolled by khaki- dad and helmeted Argentine sol- diersr carrying rifles and sub- machine guns. He could see the windowless walls of grain eleva- tors rising high above the pier and the iron legs of huge cranes. The whole length of the long piee ens guarded by soldiers, sailors gra 'Air Force officers, who allowed amen te a reporter after careful and repeated. scru-, !tiny of special Artier Ministry !credo) tie is. 1 Two soldiers stood guard on the pier end of the narrow, rick-' sty, -Wooden gangplank running from :the stern of the ship. Two Paraguayan sailors wearing navy blue winter jackets and caps and holding rifles stood at the head of the gangplank. Aboard the gunboat small groups of sailors drilled on deck. No One Allowed Aboard The captain, Lieut. Comdr. Cesar E. Chrtese, had strict orders not to allow anybody aboard except Ambassador Cha- vez and Paraguayan Embassy personnel. In accordance with international law governing the right of asylum, General Peron remained incommunicado. For this reason Commando' Cortes refused even to relay to General Perhn a request for an interview. The Paraguayans felt such an interview might jeopardize the right of asylum. 0-9000Z I?00Z000A1000179datl-VIO 60/MCOOZ aseeietked peAwddv C.S. Monitor SEP 2 1 1955 Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 Nor Argentine Regime Faces Huge Task Buenos Aires The takeover by a provisional Argentine Government under peace agreements between loy- alist and rebel generals provides the opportunity for restoration of normal, conditions in that South American republic. The new government, how- ever, faces major economic and political problems. The complete capitulation of the pro-Peren Army forces to the rebel demands and the naming of Maj. Gen, Eduardo Lonartila rebel commander in the provi- sional rebel capital of Cordoba, as provisional President marks the formal end 'of the Peron regime. The former President is still In "exile" aboard a Paraguayar gunboat in Buenos Aires harbor although rebel leaders have de- manded that he be seized. interim Solution Setting up of a provisional government, largely composed of the military, is the expected in- terim solution to the vacuum left with the disappearance of the pampa dictator . from supreme power. Even Argentine liberals have admitted that a firm hand of order and autho?rity will be necessary for several months until conditions stabilize suffi- ciently for elections and a return to constitutional government. General Lonardl is little known outside Argentina. He re- tired voluntarily from the Army in 1951 after writing a letter protesting the plan-slater aban- doned?to designate Eva Peron as Vice-President, according to the Assopiated Press. no was ac- tive in a short-lived revolution in 1951, and in 1952 was included in a group reported under arrest for plotting ? against General PerOn. He began his Army career In 1914 and rose to command of the Third Army. He also served as military attache in Chile at one time. . 'His provisional government will bear a heavy responsibility ?that of leading the battle-torn, long-oppressed, divided Argen- tine people back to stable condi- tions of life. It is expected that, perhaps with some gradualness, demo- cratic ways will be restored.. In the few days the rebels were in control in COrdoba, they an- nounced freedom of the press and of religion. It is likely that La Prensn, fammes Buenos Aires newspaper taken over by General Peron, will be returned to the Gaines Paz family, its owners before confiscation. General Peron': seizure of this outstanding daily created an international furor. EXikee to Return Hundreds of exiles from General Peones tyranny in Uruguay, the United States, and other nations of the hemisphere no doubt will soon return to take up normal lives in Argen- tine society. At the same time, other Ar- gentines who held high position in the Peren government will seek salictuary on foreign soil. Already Palmists have been knocking on foreign embassy doors in Buenos Aires. Prison gates will swing wide for anti-Peronistas. Already it has been announced that two leaders at the June 16 revolt are to be freed. They are Admiral Anibal 0. Olivieri, former Mini- ster of the Nave. and Rear Ad- By Robert M. Hallett Latin-American Editor of The Christian Science Monitor Others jailed in cannection 'with! that revolt are scheduled to be! freed. Among problems- faced by the , provisional government are the following: Inflation. During the Peron Tom, Sept. 20, 1955 St LOUIS POST-DISPATCH regime, and at least partly due r rgentmes, Used to I3emg Bossed to' his policies, living costs have ? ? ? risen rapidly and consistently. Prior to the Peron era. Argen- thee prices had been so stable we re ? I bronze plaques placed outside that, many stores listed prices on by reron, Wonder What's Ahead' their doors. Pacification. A meane must be found to weld o single people out of the divstions, tensions. and rivalries left in the wake of the Peron regime. In pauticular that element among the laboring classes that followed General Peron must be made to feel it has a stake hi the new Argen- tine, or will have to be sup- pressed if It rises. liteations with foreign business Interests. Throughout much of his regime General Perdn had been anti-United States_ and Conducted a vicious "anti- imperialist" campaign. Suddenly In m1d-1953 he did a turnabout and became friendly with the United States. Thereafter he courted new American business interests, although other com- panies that had been in the country for **long time com- plained that their treatment had not improved much. Worsening economic conditions apparently motivated hia switch. The new government must ,evoive is-giolley toward foreign _enterprises. There are Indica- .tions thet-flie 'fiew government may not be quite as cordial as General Peron during the last two years of his tenure. Marty Army officers are traditionally nationalist to the core and op- pose the influxof foreign enter- preneurs. Yet at the same time the gov- ernment must face the economic realities. Economic machinery has been in low gear since the poor harvest two or three years ago. President Peron never was able to bring the country back to normal prosperity. And where can the Argentines get -money to keep their eco- nomic wheels turning' except from the United States? This consideration may tend to moderate anti-United States sentiment among certain ele- ments of the Army. The contract between the Peron government and the Standard OR Company of Cali- fornia for oil exploration and exploitation in the southern part. of the country Is bound to be seriously questioned in the new Argenlina. Even General Perlin was having difficulty forcing through the necessary authori- zation. A Per_Tie Arc Confused, Uncertain of Future, Will Have to Learn Art of Self-Government. By BRUCE HENDERSON BUENOS AIRES, Sept. 20 (AP?A. labor leader ran his finger across his neck. "What happens now?" be said. A young Argentine girl said, "the little things count so much. Those little fears we were fight- ing against." - These were fragments of the reaction which ran through this capital last night and today, after the downfall of Juan Do- mingo Peron, Argentina's self, styled "leader." What fears were the rebels fighting? T h e young anti- Peronista girl spoke seriously: Vie couldn't say what we thought for fear of being arrest- ed. You were afraid of going to jail, and staying there indef &Wein You spoke in whispers, em' not at all. ; 'And when you went ? abroad you were embarrassed. You were an Argentine, and he was your president. It was 11 stigma we carried. Those are what you might call the little things that are so important in life." out of windows lining the streets. Militant groups broke into Peronista precinct .headquarters scattered around the city and ripped pictures of Peron and his late wife, -Era, from the walls. Although Peroras supporters ; -were not in sight, his influence was not completely gone. , Argentina had known Peron, and only Peron,' for all these years. His pientres and his words would not be torn down in a day. Argentines, untutored in guid- ing their own political fortunes, must learn the ways of sea-goy- _eminent anew. In a nation still tied to the past, tile first few hours of the future were con- fused and beset by doubt and uncertainty. K.Y. Thies SEP:a c Who will grasp the loose reins? ? What new road will this NEW EFFORT IN STRIKE richest of Latin lands take? Crowds laughed at the cold, slashing rain. Some, bareheaded, they skipped through rain pud- dies, kissing and embracing, u ; waving flags in damp but tri- umphant parades. The blue and white flag of Argentina broke ! ??????????????? Costa Rion Seeking to Prevent Banana Walkout's Spread Spec WA to 110 New VW( Uwe" COSTA RICA, Sept. 25---As the San. Jose CcriimuniSt? pro- moted banana workers' strike entered its third week, the La- bor Ministry made a fresh ef- fort to prevent its spread. Reil leaders have threatened to carry it to the main United Fruit Com- pany production area of Grain), Labor Minister Otto Pallas, called a conference tomorrow with United Fruit officials and two worker-, representatives. Although one of the latter be- longs to the communist-domi- nated Banana Workers Federa- tion. Senor teethes said they would not attend as minion offi- cials. He hopes to avoid having the company sign a pact with the Commimist-run group, a pos-t sibility that. has been a stumb- ling block to settlement since the strike began. Tho workers demand higher wages. job security for union officiate and improved housing conditions. The company eon. cedes the latter but has offered a wage increase smaller than demanded and insists on a three- year contract, which the workers have refused an .far. rig ral Samuel Toranz% tiltron. ? ea For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 ST. 1..0U1S POST-DATCH T. ceepoDmoz000tap000-ndcw-via 60/Z1./COOZ eseeieu Jod peAwddv Per Naked Up Many Ideas, From' Mussolini, Liked to Talk To Clowds From a Balcony . Was Skilliul at Playing Off Opposing ' Elements Against Each Other, Then Destro3ring Both ? Wrecked Argen- tina's Economy. The writer, formerly United Press general manager for SonA Meeeica, lived in Buenos Aires for 12 years and' knew Peron wen. He is now vice president and assistant general manager of United Press. Ey THOMAS R. CURRAN NEW YORK, Sept. 20 (UP). J UAN D.' PERON picked up many of his political ideas, from Benito Mussolini, He liked to make speeches from a balcony to his followers massed in the streets below. Peron watched Mussolini in action when he was Argentine military attache in Rome. He listened and learned. He became a politician in uniferin, Like Mussolini, Peron is a great talker, and he had a knack rf idling his listeners exactly what, he thought they wanted to hear. Whiti"ff Once when Guy Ray. United that a ninfeinildret-eliange the editorial volley of the lead- States counselor to Argentina, big United States nevespapers reproached him for an anti- if it really wanted to ? - American speech Peron said: "You mast always keep in mind Peron was very skillful at playing off opposing elements the people I'm talking to." Peon is handsome in a florid against each other and eventu- way, lei !recentally liquidating both. years he kept His entrance on the political his hair jet-black by the use of dye. He is husky in build, tend- scene was due to the revolution Ing to pudginess. of the Argentine Army in 1943. He Is a spores enthusiast. But despite that he set out to do everything he could to. cut During ithestudent days he had down the power of the army. seen an outstarding boxer and The big Campo de Mayo just swordsman and when he took over Argentina he sponsored outside Buenos Aires w`as cc- everything that favored the develop:nent of :sports in the schools. Whenever visiting American business men called on Peron he had a set speech for them. First he thanked them for giv- ing him some of their valuable time. Then* he kid he didn't want to meddle in the internal affairs of other countries, but he would like! to suggest that the United States quit ?making overly generous loans to Latin American countries. "If the United States lends them millions of dollars," Peron would any, "these South Amer- ican conatries lose incentive to produce wealth for themselves. Quit lending them money! Make them go to work them- selves!" The average business man from the United States thought that wan very sound, indeed and was inclined to consider Peron a misunderstood or mis- represented figure. What was overlooked, was that Peron him- self got a $.14000,000 loan from Uncle Sam in 1951 al- though he irsisted it was not a loan but a "credit.' Clidrolled Press. Peron had absolutely no con- ception of- a free press. , He knew that after he had confis- cated the great independent newspaper La Prensa nothing was printed iri Argentina that was contrary to Ws wishes. He - couldn't understand why the same thing won't true else- where.- One United Stales Ambassa- dor after another would be met with Peron's request to "do somethin,g''' about the un- friendly .sttitude of the Ameri- can newspapers: toward his regime. He couldn't believe often he would run the pro- jector himself. He also had a flair for prac- tical jokes. The governor of the province of BUenos Aires, Carlos Aloe, got too close to a swimming pool. Peron shoved !Aloe in, clothes and all, and ! howled with laughter. Before his first election when he had some time to kill he picked up the telephone directory and started calling names at ran- dom, urging them to vote for Tarnhorini, the candidate run- ning against him. He was de- lighted with the reaction of many Argentines who resented being polled politically over the phone. Rote of Evils. Many people in the United States had the idea that Evita, Peron's vigorous wife who died three years ago, was the more dominant personality of the two. I do not agree. I think that she had great Influence over Peron, but I also think that he used her for his own purposes ?often to do dirty work he didn't want to take the respon- sibility for himself. ' Peron prided himself on be- ing "the first worker of Argen- tina." All the official news- papers printed daily a schedule of his work day, invariably starting off with the fact that he arrived at his office at 6:20 a.m. Once when a delegation of American labor leaders were In Buenos Aires Peron invited them to a meeting at 8 cm. 'and was irked when they re- plied that that was too early. Part of the secret of his early show-up, however, was that he went to his office with his clothes put on over his pa- jamas. At the office he would bathe, be shaved, read the morning papers and have break- fast before his first appoint- duced sharply in number of de- . Peron's regime wrecked the tachments and armament. The economy of the country, spend- naval air base at Punto del ing all that had been -accumu- indio rarely had enough gasoo lated before he took ovet and , all the income during his ad- ministration. If rumor? are con , rect, much of the deposits non, machine guns, trucks and ! placed in the pension fond for tanks assigned to the various the future also were spent, First regiments. Also he screened through his brother-In-law and carefully the officers and set later through his brother-In- up an elaborate spy system to law's associate, Jorge AAtonio, watch over them. Peron was supposed to be in on Helped Communists. the pay-offs of almost all the line to mount a full scale at- tack against the capital city. He limited- the number of can- had a dozen or so talks with Peron during th,e time I was assigned to Buenos Aires. On most of the visits I found him smiling and amiable and trying to convince me that he was a great lover of the United States. He also insisted he was strongly anti - Communist. He would make references to the strength ! Of the and Chile and then point out that in Argentina he had cut down their force to almost noth- ing. Actually, the Communists gained in strength under Peron because his campaigns of pro- moting class hatred fitted per- fectly into their strategy. He told me last year that he had weakened the Communist party "not with my speeches but by giving them. something." By that he referred to the wave of pay increases he put through by Government decree which had won the votes of the workers. Peron had several hobbies. One was riding fast motorbikes. He built a special concrete track at the presidential country resi- dence for motorcycles and en- joyed spending weekends with 17- and 18-year-old girl stud- ents from a student federation of secondary schools which he created. Another hobby was the I special showings of movies. important business done by the Argentine state. Diesel locomotives could not be bought for the railroads which Peron nationalized. Frozen meat could not be said to Peru or carpet wool to the United States without Peron getting some share of the take, He is supposed to have a large fortune staked away in Switzerland. 4 0-9000Z 1.00Z000t1c000-179dCIU-VIO 60/Z 1./COOZ eseeietvod peAwddv Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 woe Nor Wash.- Daily News sFp --- 7, Banana Union is Seized in Central America U. S. Fruit Firm Is Latest to Feel Hot Breath of Reds By EDWARD TO9ILINSON winces tor Sertyps Howard Newaparlete PUERTO ARMUELLES, Panama, Sept. 22?The communists have struck again in Cen- tral America. This time the blow has fallen on the Costa Rican-Panamanian frontier, only a few hours' drive over the Pan American Highway from the Panama Canal. As in Guatemala, honduras and elsewhere, the giant United Fruit co., symbol- of the "im- perialist Yankee," is their im- mediate whipping boy. They have seized the biggest banana Workers union, and have shut down operations of the Costa Rican side of the company's vast Chiriqui plantations that straddle the border between these two coun- tries. I flew Into this banana port from the Canal Zone to find local officials end heads of the fruit company on the Panananian side worried about the poasibility of the Red menace spreading into their territory. NO INTEREST So far the workers in Panama have shown no particular interest in the agitation in the neighboring fields. I flew on up o Cogito, center of the largest plantations in Costa Rica and the principal producing area In Central America; There union leaders are completing plans for an- other wholesale walkout. Their agents and goons are going from house to house-- calling upon the 11.000 employes tt sign strike pledges?or else. All doubt? that this present move- d'inent against the big American firm la communist has been removed by the Costa Rican Goverimient itself. President JoseleIgueres, in a wide- ly published written statement, has called the strike leaders "known communists." He further charges that Isaias Marchena, ringmaster of the movement, has traveled several limes to Moscow and the Iron Cur- tain countries. Only a year ago last June the Figueres regime negotiated ? new labor contract with the firm that Is not due to expire until next Sep- tember. Minimum wages, already the highest in the republic, were upped 20 per cent. NO CHEEKS So far practically nothing has been done .to check the flow of this Red tide. It is steadily sweep- ing -on vitthout effective opposition. The president 'has said he does not approve of the strike build up. He thinks it will be a bad thing for the economy of the country. The Communist Party was out - !awed several years ago. Yet the labor courts and the other govern- ment agencies concerned have ap- proved all the legal procedures that smart communist lawyers have pro- posed in their efforts to strangle the United Fruit Co. Some of the worst Red agitators are aliens----Nicaraguan exiles and Honduran Nationals. But no move has been made to deport them. The most notable Costa Rican apostle of Moscow is Manuel Mora. In 1945 Senor Figueres headed a revolution which overthrew Presi- dent Teodoro Plead?, because that government was dominated by Mr. Mora. Back in the country, this tinregen- crated Red is now issuing flaming' communist manifestos. In fact, he is the brains of the whole move- ment. His brother is chief lawyer for the communist union leaders. SURPRISE Now comes another surprise. The GRIT, the inter-American regional organization of workers which is an avowed anti-communist setup suppoked by the American Federa- tion of Labor, the CIO. and Miter 5 U. S. unions, has given the strike leaders a big boost. In one breath, the OBIT "repudi- ates all Intermingling of corn. munists In the labor .problema of Costa Rica." In the next it criticizes the company and gives its official. endorsement to the present. strike. What worries Canal and .military officials on thq Isthmus Is the fact that the course of the communist labor disturbances in Cent rat Amer- ica has been steadily southward to- ward our vital waterway. First in Guatemala, then lion. duras, and skipping Nicaragua, it has leaped all the way across Costa Rica to the very frontier of Panama. CONFIDENT Optimists, in their progress thru the maze of- diplomatic and social events in the salubrious Costa Rican capital of San Jose?remote from the scene of the present crisis sure that the government will be able to handle the creeping threat to the country's "democratic re- gime." Realists down here in the steam- ing lowland-s. who feel the hot breath of the Red monster on their necks, wonder if Costa Rica will become another Guatemala before the "democratic regime" wakes up and acts with vigor. (From San Jose, President Fl- gueres yesterday predicted an early strike settlement. Ills high hopes were shared by United Fruit Co. Labor Minister Otto Fallaa worked out an offer with the fruit vont- pariy. The terms, including a 12 per cent progressive wage increase, were printed on flysheeta and dis- tributed from Vanes over the ha- mama plantations in the frontier areas.) Approved For Release 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046R000200120006-0 0-9000Z l.00Z000t1917000-179dCltl-VIO 60/Z I/COOZ aseeieu JoA panoiddv THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. THURSDAY, SEPTSAIDERSLMs& .CONSTANT1NE BROWN Lessons Peron Never Learned Our Volatile Latin Neighbors Will Permit Dictatorship, but Tyrannies?Neer The overthrow of Argen- tina's dictator, Gen. Juan Peron, points up again a cu- rious fact abotit South Ameri? can political philosophies: Dic- tatorships are permissible, but tyrannies, never. All Latin 'America. since the successful revolutions of the 19th century broke the colonial ties with Spain, has become more or less aceus- turned to the "caudille prin- ciple of de facto rule. Despite the existence of elaborate and often very progressive consti- tutions modeled on that of the United States in the best dem- ocratic tradition, the institu- tions of democracy and rep- resentative government have been more often honored in the breach than in the . ob- servance, With Indian, mestizo and mixed populations largely il- literate. it is not surprising that strong men have been able to assert and maintain power for Andefinite periods in most Latin American repub- lics. They seldom need to take the trouble to alter the basic constitutional law of the na- tion, relying rather on a series of expedient "suspensions" of constitutional guarantees which lend a dubieus but ef- fective legality to the estab- lishment of outright dictator- ships. Latin America's educated 'classes acquiesce in this sys- tem, as apparently do the masses of the populations. 'But they do not easily bow to the lash of tyranny when it is ex- ercised without due restraint. The line between dictatorship and tyranny, of course, is a tine one Indeed, But the dis- tinction can be found in the methods the dictatorship em- ploys on a general scale. Ruth- lessness toward the avowed po- litical enemies of the regime may be taken for granted, but suppression and repression of the national life has in the past, sooner or later, gotten the dictator into trouble. Gen. Peron seems to have overlooked these facts during the past few years, particu- larly since the death of his resourceful wife and codieta- tor, Evita. His popularity in Argentina has, in the past, been based largely on the Peronista - dominated General Confederation of Labor. Emu- lating most of the dictators of the modern world who have gone before him. Peron used the weapon of the general strike to force dissident ele- ments to their knees. The use of organized labor for political purposes has been one of the most disturbing manifestations of the. 20th- century political scene. When any dictator clinches control of the labor organization in Wash. D y News SEP - _ GIVE LA PRENSA BACK TIME wounds, all heels; even Peron couldn't escape. And now comes the time to heal the wounds this cynical adventurer in dema- gogy inflicted on his country's dignity and reputation. The world is cheering the men who tossed him out, but the cheers all have a codicil The job is only half done. The question now is, whether Argentina is in for more dictatorship, or whether the men who ousted him intend to set their country back on the path of freedom and repre- sentative government, according to its constitution. The world would like to be reassured. Nothing' more quickly would gain the confidence of the free governments and free peoples in the good intentions of the provisional government now in control, than to read that the newspaper La Prensa of Buenos Aires had been returned to its distinguished publisher, Alberto Gainza Paz, whose name has come to symbolize press freedom the world over. his country, his power to bring the economy of the nation shuddering to R standstill be- comes a terrifying weapon against which even the armed' fotees are comparatively help- less. But ? in Argentina, Gen. Peron lost effective control of the COT. He lost it, not be- cause he had any immediate rival for the affections and loyalties of the "descamisa- dos," but because he became tyrannical in his methods and lost the support of his key followers. In such a situation, the always restless elements of the army, navy and air force saw their chance to act. It is, of course, highly un- likely. that Argentina will now enjoy truly democratic rule because Peron is gone. In- stead, there will almost cerss tainly be de facto rule, within the facade of constitutional government, by a junta of the armed forces. Until another strong man emerges head and shoulder above his colleagues, the junta will rule as a com- mittee. When the new caudillo does appear, Argentines will hope that he will recall the experiences of many of his ..predecessors and refrain from Overt acts of tyranny while ex- ercising his diptatorial powers. Only thus can he expect to remain in power with the acquiescence, if not the ap- proval of the population, and only thus can he head off the ambitous military leaders eager for Rower. Stealing La Prensa probably was Peron's stupidest Mistake. From that moment he lost what chance of continental leadership he may have dreamed of, for all free men everywhere turned their backs on him, The international cry of shock and out- rage was evidence that he had done more damage to his own regime than all the rest of its evil behavior. For La Prensa was a great international newspaper known for its responsibility, decency, truth and honor. Handing it back to its rightful ownership and peignitting it to publish freely will be a dramatic and welcome token that polit- ical decency is being re-established. Merely returning stolen property, there- fore, will win worldwide approval, good will and patience for the men in charge of Argentina's affairs during the troubled days ahead.. For it will mean telling the truth no longer is a -crime in Argentina. It sv11 mean the new leaders believe the peGpie have a right to know and express honest opinion?and that right is insep- arable from liberty and self-government. 0-9000Z1?00Z000t144000-P9c1CIU-VIO 60/Z t/?00z aseele846d peAoiddv Approved For Re,Apse 2003/12/09 : CIA-RDP64-00046Rty3200120006-0 C.S. Monitor SEP 2 1 1955 Paths Ahead for Argentina The overthrow of President Juan D. Perim in Argentina creates an opportunity fbr revival of civil rights and human liberties in an important area of the globe where they have been long suppressed. Whether events will take at once that pleas- ing direction is yet to be seen. Argentines have shown, interest- ingly, that it is possible to depose a personally ambitious and cynical dic- tator without outside intervention or prolonged civil war?but only after . his rule had run a long and 'limb but eventually disintegrating course. Peron rode to power on a mixture of social revolution, fascist methods, and church favor. Ills downfall fol- lowed when industrialization had perhaps been overdone, labor union- ism had been warped into political puppetry, and he attempted to re- verse some of the privileges he had accorded to Roman Catholicism as a state religion. For the very near future it is alto- gether likely and natural that a mili- tary junta will have to exercise the powers of government. That pattern has been seen in Egypt, with results that are encouraging as to internal economic reform though disturbing in some external manifestations. In Latin America there are two recent precedents, neither of which is attractive. One is the stiff rule of Venezuela by a military clique under President Perez Jimenez; the other is the increasingly repressive control of Colombia by President Rojas Pinilla. It is not impossible that an- other military or political strong man may emerge in Argentina before more democratic ways are restored. But there are several encouraging factors in the Argentine situition. There ? is an, old and strong liberal tradition in that republic on the pampas. There are indications that the Navy and Army officers who led the' revolt considered themselves more as trustees for civil power than as aspirants to it. What is most to he desired is that the military will pave the way as soon as possible for election of a truly representative parliamentary government with civilian leaders. Under such a program there would no doubt be a rather feverish period of reorganization of political parties. The old Radical Party, in power until the early 1940's and still the chief opposition to Peronisrn, is divided into two wings. The con- servative Democratic Party also is a factor. Peronistas may not entirely disappear, though. the Argentine Labor Party is a more authentic movement. A new Christian Demo- cratic Party along the lines of simi- lar parties in Europe is possible. Of major interest is what will happen on the church-state issue. Clericalists presumably will have a strong voice in the new revolution- ary councils; but: there is also a strong anticlerical tradition which may still resist Roman Catholic in- struction in the state schools. The chief question for the moment it the broad one of whether Argen- tina will move toward true democ- racy or some new kind of oligarchy? Let us hope the trend will be clearly toward the building of a balanced modern nation in which the rights of citizens, such as freedom of speech, freedom of enterprise, and religious liberty, are fully respected. 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