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March 29, 2005
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January 1, 1953
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Approved Forbease 2005/04/21 CIA-RDP64-006540200010001-9 SECRET Approved For Release. 2005/09 -IDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For vase 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 O fA IZATIOML CFN"I L T ELLJ0i v;C AC: " srcdz *d under the headin ; of n: tior:=1 intelli ence xaulc h< ~ tc, tc l src hen ive in order to qualif;/. if, on the other hand, 'cover" were to bi taken in the sense of "related to," Mien alrost any intelligence subject of arty importance world be eli";ible. ,`s "national into li ence" was actuall--.7 developed over the next two fir.-r3 ; he tendency was toward the 1 tier interprets- tior- arcs another reason for the "t iiscellaneouaness" of which the ~ Vlles " iittee was later to complain. ` lai ' erector was to "t%rodtice" national Jilt r-114-6-ence but he was enjoined to seek the al.d of` others in prodrein: it. ie could ask the .4,4 encies to contribute the material for national estimates he o~sosc , or he could get part or all of the material from his own organization. If he decided to prcduce "national in tell i.,,,ence" without seekin,_: any rc _ crt or the _: very ntIa security struc ,ure, -:? ch as the h iieral ' u f. . o^ Investigation, which r , direct r 1`UoL,s!ip to the seven fore r~intelligence agencies throu h its me the r 5-A-D on the Intelligence lidvisory Committee. tlso participating were certain other agencies w rich had dnr;iestic secctri.t f ,ire )onsibilities; and numerous "no~-defense" me cs, ~i ch P s3 for examples the Inter .or are g ;riculture Depart- menu `4,,il hh were contributing particular chapters to the ;^ti ca l i.ntelli I;encc Survey; and the Library of -on tress s ric the S-i-J fi h- scn?_an l;r,_ titutian, which served as channels for cullectir.-. -Ind indcx n >ei-tain trees of foreitm :li;;lications of intelli,=ctnce merest. ?"here were fran,;r ' overnment agencies which h:-,d ,artir ular types o? research, ad;ninistrntive, or teci.n .cal skills and resources to contriibute to oarticular intelli,~,ence rf: J^ets. !or 1-c ny le, some 15 non-intelli ;ence agencies were workin;7 on economic intelli- gence, rrr of 19550-51;1 and some 25 aagencies, in scientific and tech- polo ical intelli;enee. 2 `till other particirating ;rou_ s were loo ted d irifitr: ?.i.vG7_y outside the Government. For extr.m 71~:, there w,~"r:- the vprious ?-)rivate research or;aanizations w .th which 1,-T1 / survey of the Government's economic intelli ;ence :rogrants and activities, about May 1951; issued as1 ; -22 ( ecr?t); cop filed in under headin;~ "1 Ai ? t'r. 2__ra hic or.^anizational chart and procedural flow c' rig. -en. John } anI --uric `ra~etson;>, Jr. (in =state), *Fnd e.r:lled fors the consolidation of national intelligence production 'unctions `. n r new connc onen_t in to be :l. t e lid the "na tionr:l po ri ""his new group wi to consist of two >s jor ataf"s: one for the production of erti aatt.:e, the "ration. l ertixrrites staff'" (sthila.r to wia t the Gilles Jteport trnpbsed); ez:ll.i, nce production--the National intelligence Surveys`--presumably because the ',!IS program was not a controversial issue. The '1a ;ruder- =rmstrong plan also provided for the then-dormant Intelligence Advisory Committee to be activated as the inter-ag=ency coordinating committee for estimates. The IAC was to be responsible, the plan said, for reconciling conflicts in intelligence opinion, anion; the contributing departments, in the drafts of estimates and in other national intelligence :products ae,sembled and disseminated by C:I.A. it had been this one organizational detail of inter-agency committee procedures, in the "national intelligence group" plan of May-July 1950, on which the Hillenkoetter administration had seized, late in July 19 0, to reject the plan in its entirety* whatever the merits of the detailed charters of the proposed estimates and indications staffs, or the, merits of grouping these two closely related staffs under a single chief of a "national intelligence group" in CIA, they were not =mentioned or discussed at all in the -irector +s reply to the :state and Defense Departments, dated "?U13,-y 26, 1950. Instead, CIA's comments, and its objection to the whole plan, were directed entirely at the issue of preserving the 11 39 Approved For Release 2005/04/2jVRIEiP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foreease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006540200010001-9 Director's individual prerogatives and his independence of judgment and decision in Jroducin finished national intelligence. 4th these cow-innts, It was challenging the implied threat to CIA that the IntelliE;ence advisory Committee, together with the departmental intelligence chiefs assembled in that Committee, would reply ce the lrector's int?ividual responsibility with their own "collective responsibility." C:L''s rejection of the entire plan on this single issue was re carded as one of "good tactics", it was said later. CIA felt ;justified in "going to the other extreme" and invoking "old issues," according to a later recollection by one of the principal staff officers who had advised Hillenkoetter on the preparation of his reply in July 1950.1 'T'here followed almost im ediately, however, in lu,-,ust rand early -September 1950, a reversal of CI=:.'s position toward the pro- posed "national intelligence group". A series of negotiations and ccnveraations with the Defense and State Departments was followed by apparently complete inter-agency areement.2 Thus, after the rejection of July 26, the State apartment sent a modified version l,?istoricel Staff interview with Lawrence S. Houston, _~IA Creneral 'counsel, AAu.;. 19, 1953, in o/DCi/i S files. 2bee .iistorical Staff interviews with Brig. Gen. John lla_ ruder, Nov. 18, 1952, and with Lawrence ,i. Houston, April 21, 1953, July 23, 1953, and Aug. . 19, 1953, in C/DCI/HS files. II i0 Approved For Release 2005/04ggR TP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foreease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00650200010001-9 of the plan to Hillenkoetter, on August 141 and "shortly thereafter" ruder (in the defense Department) discussed the revision with him ersof a r. Jillenkoetter and his staff in turn undertook a further revision, and that revision was then passed on to Magruder by Hillenkoetter. ill t lis happened, evidently, within a single week. " n Ju,_Nst 21, 1950, there was e' further CIA-Defense meetin y to discuss JTt Is revision, whereupon still another draft, and possibly other subsequent revisions, were.prepared, again this time in ,'-, what sopears to be the final draft, representing CAP is agreed position, is an undated, printed copy of the revised organi- zational plan for a "national intelligence group," sent by CIA to i agruder on September 13, 1550, along with 20 extra copies to circulate among Defense Department intelligence officials. Throughout this series of revisions, CIA's essential changes in the "national intelligence group" plan were chiefly i'r the direction of rewordin the controversial phrases about the inter-a -;envy coordination job of the Intelligence Advisory Committee.1 The CIA-approved revision reasserted, seriatim, that that Com^iittee, was indeed, as its very name indicated, "advisory" (only) in the lEased on a collation of the original draft of the "national intelligence group" plan, dated May 1, 1950, and the latest draft that has been seen, undated but probably about mid-September 1950. A copy of the latter draft (Secret, numbered . 2-5676), attached t.o a memo by Jackson, Oct. 3, 1950, to Smith, is in O/DCI/`:i, filed under " ' %==s'-I Ti 141 Approved For Release 2005/04/-` . P64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foreease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00650200010001-9 scope of its z'u thorn; . The finil draft implied, furthor Tors, that the would not become ter ~" l board of review for intelli- d.rectcr's immediate staff. 1The .':.Ales a: vey ^rou 's re_: rt of 1919 contained no recom- mendations for additional Deputy Directors. .it did, however, propose a centr?lized rdministrative OJivision, whose ;juris- diction was essentially similar to that accomplished under the De )uty director for 'dhinistrati_on, Ps est bilshed in December 1950 (see below); but there was no sub,sestion that the chief of the ' d-ainistrative Division woiild have the status of a Deputy Director. Likewise, the Defense-State clan for a 11178t.ional Tnt:lli_gence Ironp't, in July 1 550 (see above), did not call for a new Deputy Director to head that roup, :_:lthou ;h the re-? rouping of estirnatin~y- Pnd current intelligence in such a Troup was achieved, in effect, by the establishment of the De,iuty Director for Intelli ;once in cianuary 1952 (see below). 21he foaitions of cnc %xecutive had been vacant since lay 1A9 and June 1950. Since June 7, 1950, Lyle T. Shannon, Ueputy h ecu- tive, Traci ueen serving as ,"ctin_; Exec-utive. ( .e firer 1. rder ado. 30, Secrewt, June 7, 1550, in ciA records Center.) I6 SECRET, Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For*ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 General Smith" and his new 7)eputy Director, William H. Jackson seen to have determined on r4rrganisi ng the :?irector' a office soon after they took office, in the direction of delegating responsibili- ties to a number of additional principal assistants. By dovember 1950, the establishment of three new "functional" deputy Directors, in partic:lar, was under considerations (1) a Deputy Director for ?T!/ who would supervise not only the new Office of National stimates but also the other offices that were participating in the production of finished intelligence and in the enersl S tth'a appointment as :)ireetor of Central intelhi ence had been rumored in the public press early in July 1990, and on July 26, he was publicly and officially mentioned as a can- di da to (along with William 'Foster) by the White House press secretary. Other candidates besides Smith and Foster mentioned in the press (but not by the White House) were: David K. 1. Druce (July .3); William J. Donovan (July 19 and Aug. 18); and Dean Rusk (Aug. 18). Smith's nomination was sent by President Truman to the Senate on Aug. 18; he was confirmed on Aug. 28; and he took office on Oct. T, 1950. (See press-clipping file on CIA, July-'dec. 1950, in CIA Library.) 11 47 Approved For Release 2005/0: CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Forease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 related activity of inter-agency intelligence coordination; (2) a Deputy Director for Operations (1)1)/a),, who would supervise the two offices concerned with clandestine operations (0 0 and as well as the overt operations office (00); and (3) a Deputy Director for Ac'ginistration (13 ,-/A), who would replace the CIA IIxecutive and supervise all the administrative-support components in the /gency, both overt end covert.1 Of these three proposed f-tnetional Deputies, the latter two were estblished almost immediately, in December 1950 and January 1951, while the other was never established at all. -hat was at first considered as the AD/4), however, was obviously reborn as the DL/I, a year later. In their actual development, in 1951 and 1952, these three positions varied in aocne details from the plans consicered by General Siith In November 1950, both in their titles and in the jurisdictional lines among them, but the end result was that, by 1952, the Agency's many operatin. units were, with few exceptions, divided into three major groups of components under three co-equal Deputy Directors, essentially according to the pattern devised in November 1950. 1.5ee, for example, proposed CIA organization chart, undated (about Nov. 1950), and proposed chart for a separate "Deputy Director for National Estimates" (Nov. E, 1950), both unclassified, in T D/G files. II 48 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 First of all, the .,III Executive was replaced bb} the Deputy Director for Administration (DD/A), on December 1, 1950.1 Murray kcLonRel, who recently had fi ned .,31A and was seryin.,,,1, traditional ,-osition of `4xecutivcI since October 16,2 was appointee to the new post of Its and he served there until '4ri1 1951, when he was replaced by aialter R. Wolf,, 3 The LW/A was initially iven jurisdiction over the Pgency's entire group of administrative support staffs, both overt and covert, including those that had formerly been the "special responsibility of the CIA Executive, those that had functioned separately, and those (Jake the new training office) which were still in the planning stage. Subsequently, the tainin; (Tice and certain other supporting staff's were exempted from DD/A. supervision, but in general the pattern of centralized support activities, with overt and covert aspects compartmented, was developed and maintained in 1951 and 1952.4 lGenerai Order ho. 38 (Secret), Dec. 1, 1950. 21bid. `4cConnel had been announced as the new ixecutive on Oct. 16, 1950, replacing Lyle T. Shannon, who had been acting c:ecutive during Oeneral Smith's first days in "Its as well as under Admiral Hillenkoetter. In this shift, Shannon resumed his re;;ular position of Deputy i'xecutive, which he had held since January 1949. Later (Dec. 1, 1950), Shannon was named "Assistant D!=/P for Administration"* on the staff of the DD/A. (ee :hapter X. below.) ` olf had none to CIS! two months earlier, on Feb. 16, 1951, as ",:special Assistant" to the DCI; and he replaced .ctcGonnel as DD/A on April 1, 1951. in an unusual shift, fcConnel switched jobs with him and became a "special assistant" to the Ed on -pri1 1. 1951. See General Order No. 43, Feb. 1~, 1951 (Secret), and dotice 14-51, larch 23, 1951 (:;ecr t); both among records of 24ana:;ement Staff, in CIA ecords '.;enter? hSee Chapt@r X, below. ZI 49 Approved For Release 2005/04/~~QB-~IP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For .ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00650200010001-9 Tinder another Deputy, first called the Deputy Director for `)perations (DD/O)1 and later (January 4, 1951) renamed the D-epui,7 i`.irf-etor for Tflane 2 Wows grouped the three cor'i oncnts which nonduotc the agency's field operations: CEO ?nd for clandes- tine ones: ;, o, s; rnd %, for overt operations. .lien -. Dulles was appointed to this r :, ty irv ctoazship ,3 end he served i n, that position until Piig .0 uet 1951, when #:e succ?eaed Jackson as senior reetputy?-Deputy Director or '>entrel Intelli` ence.4 In this move, ' rx nk G. Isner, :"ssistnnt irector of C`'; became b'nd a few months later, in March 1912, the Office of Operetions*,aae sepnrnted from his juris- cict .on,,5 thus leaving the ,roup to be concerned almost exclu- si . el.y with, clandestine matters. ' he first reference to the new office of DD/Operations, in the Agency directives used in this study, was on Dec. 1, 1950, when the position, still vacant, wps listed, not yet on a formal chart but in a list of key officials, in General Order No. 38 (?ecru); copy in 0//Hs files. 2General Order No. 140, Jan. f:, 1951 (Secret). 37,1r. Tulles' appointment as D.D/P, was announced within I2 by General Order ido. 40 (Secret), Jan. L, 1951. The first public reference to his appointment was on Dec. 16, 1950, when Drew earso ~ reported that Dulles is "now" with .1. (See press clippings relating to July-Dec. 1950, in OLP Library.) 4The appointment of 4r. Dulles as DL CI, the departure of Jackson, and the re-assignment of ' isner as DD/P were all announced in Notice 53-51 (Secret), ug. 23, 1951. Jackson was retained as "Special Assistant and Senior 6onsultant to the CI." (Ibid.) 5The relocation of 00 from D4J/=` to 13D/I was formally announced on Feb. 2E, 1952, effective 'farch 1, 1952. See i'otice 26-52 (Secret), Feb. 28, 1952, among records of Nana:-ment Staff in +~ecords :enter. II 50 Approved For Release 2005/0 ~'K'.I t P64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Forrlease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-0065000200010001-9 The establishment of a third funct ional Deputy for overseeing the several intelligence production and coordination offices, as plrnned in November 1950, was postponed. Insted, those offices, including, the three new production offices establish~:c late in 1950 and early 1951, become the special interest of the senior Deputy Director, $illism H. Jackson, during the ten months from October 1950 to r:u.rist 1951 when he served in that position.1 During that time Jackson r1s0 remained, of course, general Smith's principal Deputy for the entire Agency. In actual practice, however, he devoted his major attention to the Agency's intelligence production and coordination activities in particular,2 and so there appeared to be 1(}n Au? ust 22, 1950, when Smith's nomination as 1)01 was pending in the Senate, the swashing;ton Post had asserted cate;oricelly that Jackson would be named Deputy Director. Jackson was pre- viously unknown to Smith personally, so Jackson lrter said in a press interview (published j,)ec. 18, 1950). Averill Harriman, a member of the 'White House staff, "had a hand" in Jackson's selection as deputy Director, so Arthur Krock stated in the New York Times in fugust 1950. It was also Harriman who had "urged" General Smith on President Truman, eccordinx; to another press report (Aug. 18). See press clippings rel2ting to July-Dec. 1950, in ?IA Library. Jackson's appointment was announced within CIA on Oct. 7, 1950. See General Order No. 34 (unclassified), among records of Management Staff, in CI itecords Center. 2Althouh Jackson was formally shown, on most organization charts, aseputy Director for the Agency, by duly 1951 he atpeared on one informal listing as supervising; only the four oroc'uction offices (O r', 001, t il,', and OSI) 2nd COD and OIC. (See CIA !e elation No. 5-11 (,Secret),, July 2, 1951.) Jackson did not, of course, i?nore the agency's covert activities entirely. In the spring of 1951 he conducted a survey of sOPC, for exa=aple. (Filed in 0/iJC1/ f'?. ) II 51 d For Release 2005/04- ClA UP64-00654A000200010001-9' Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 no ;pressing nee(.7.1, s'ssaistenta, irlst trick was the senior, t~e;iztsal-?,g in January 1951 it not earlier. eneraal ri ih announced, et his atarf conference on January , 191>1, that "his staff headed by 'tr. Kirkpatrick could be compared to the s ecretary of the `:lonersl ta't in a mtilitery heedquerters."" (see "Cl- staff conference, minutes, in "? ~- - , _f in ae nllitary cca epnd hee; d uerters. tile apparently did not, however, refer in particular to the duties of his three i`oputyr Erectors. (Ibid.) II 55 Approved For Release 2005/0 EC@E DP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006540200010001-9 Stanley J. =roan, :?:asistjnt to DOI (replccin Hansen), September 1952 to date 4i1liam H. Jackson, Special Assistant and Senior Consultant to DCI, tguet 1951 to date (not on continuous active duty, August 1951-February 1953) Eiobert R. Lon:;, Assistant to DCI, January 1952 to may 1952 or later Kenneth :. ')iniger, Assistant to DCI, January 1952 to ;day 1952 or later Robert D. H. Harvey,, Assistant to DCI, January 1952 to 'fay 1952 or later Dtuart Redden, Inspector General, January 1952 to about ':(arch 1953 (date of departure not announced) Lillian hristensen, Administrative Assistant to z;CI (various titles), before October 1950 to date Helen ". Santmyers, head of D=GI's Fxeeutive egistry, before October 1950 to date. Assistants to DD/Administrations 1950-19532 Lyle T. Shannon, Assistant DD/A and other titles, November 1950 to July 1952 John E. O'Gara., Assistant DD/A for covert administration, January 1951 to about July 1952; special assistant after August 1, 1952 (date of departure from this position not announced) Lawrence K. White, Assistant 1)1)/A., January 1952 to July 1, 1953 (when he became DD/A) John x. Ramsey, Special Assistant to DD/A, January 1952 to about April 1952 10n Jan. 29, 19510 the D1CI announced to the AD's "that a His- torical Branch was to be organized, probably in OIC," with the following functions; (1) writing "the history of CIA"; (2) pre- paring "any annual reports that were required"; (3) "handling arW official addresses made by representatives of the .Agency"; and (Ia) supervising "arw necessary dealings with the press." (SC-M-7. Jan. 29, 1951, Secret, in O/DCI/ER.) Subsequently these functions were assigned, instead, to the Director's office. In 'tPy 1951 Col. ~~hester B. Hansen was appointed to one of several new positions of Assistant to the Director, with two major responsibilities: (1) "to compile a history of ,IA"; :r?d (2) to "coordinate presentations made by various CIA officials to other Government agencies."(SC-M..18, May lit, 1951, Secret, in O/DCI/-t.) A third responsibility (press relations) was assigned to him shortly thereafter. In September 1952 he was succeeded by ;ol. Stanley J. Grogan. II 56 Approved For Release 2005/lRIRDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00650200010001-9 Ernest . a i.ttman, $peciai Assistant to DD/.~', abet March i 52 to about May 19$2 Lewis S. Thompson, ice. Assistant to Dr;/A,, about. march 1952 to about May 1952. Lssistants to DI)/Plans 1951-19531 , James R. Hunt, various titles, March 1951 to about July 1-495 including Chief of Operations, March to about July 3.952 Thomas W. Braden, Assistant to DD/ 1951 to at Jul- 1951 or later Loftus E. Becker, Assistant to DT~/?, July to about ? cember 1951 Ian E. Kirkpatrick, Chief of Operations, about July-October 1952 dchard Helms, Chief Of Operations, about October 1952 to date obert Taylor, ?31rf t'sne, about `arch-July 1952 Kilbourne Johnston, Chief of tans, about i oust-October 1952 JFSrnand i. Balmer, Chief of Plans, about :%ctober 1952 to date Charles V. Hulick, 1xecutive Officer, about March-July 1952 John . O'Gara, Assistant if)/? for Administration, about July 1952 (see also under above) Assistants to DD/Intelligence, 1952-1953: "ichard D. Drain, Executive Officer, March-October 1952 C. Frank Stone III, Executive Officer, October 1952 to early (7) 1953 Meredith P. Davidson, Assistant to DD/I, arch 1952 to May 1952 or later Florence T. M. Johnson, Assistant to DD/I, about z?zay 1952 ievid " . Hassell, Assistant to 1))/I, about lay 1952 to about May 1953 (date of departure from 0/DCI to about 1953, not announced) Eu ene Wilhelm , Special Assistant to L /Z for t'.cat nistration, November 1952 to date General =inith and A r. Jackson gave their principal immediate attention to improving the Agency's external relationships, a subject which apparently dominated the briefings that they had been given, in August and September 1950, by various key staff officers in :,IA. 1 lase, for exa;nple, memo by i rescott ? hilds, head of CUTS '5, Sept. 1, 1950 (,'secret), in 0/DCI/}iS files. ZZ 57 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foroease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006540200010001-9 It was evident, in their first weeks on duty in October and November 1950s that they intended taro-establish CIA's position of leadersh in the iovernmentfs intelligence organisation, and to re-assert the D-.rector's responsibilities and prerogatives as coordinator of that de;;=ntral.ized or_anization. They also uw ertook to reiterate (as 'dmiral =iill.enkoetter himself had done, in his last weeks) CIA's independence from control either by the State or Defense ,epartments,, with respect to the direction, of CIJ's foreign operations and the internal management and administration of its affairs. Snith and Jackson proceeded cautiously and conservatively, nevertheless, and did not push aggressively in the direction of immediately taking on new functions or new pro,;rams for the i.,ency to handle. Instead, they appeared ready, and even eager? to withdraw CUP from any debatable types of functions and prograaa, especially in certain fields of intelligence research and production, which might disturb what the National Security Council had called the "dominant interest" of the departments,1 Thus, Jackson evidently spent much of his time, until late in 1950, in negotiating what in effect was a "treaty of peace's with the State Department+s intelligence office, in the fields of 35t;LO No. 3, Jan. 13, 19418 (Secret). II 58 3EURET Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 Discussion of 'unction: of the central l,nt lii ence f ;encv . .": (not classified) E). 7, in filed under " .'l . . "'. u i .larr views eE ei z red also in the Dulles I urve r group+s 1949 reeport, of which Jackson was oo"author, pared for Matter Lippre-nnn, about ;Oct. 1950p entitled " 3 )ce, for + xu 1e, various talks, by Jackson before : r''s ; ncy Orientation onterencee5 ee cially in Deb.-June 1551, recorded O discs (i earet), in OIR Miles; and his undated. ;aiaer, evidently 1952. ;sea ) apter .7; below. 2;`,erker^as ne.otiations with Defense, unlike Jackson's off-the'-record di.scueRions with =tats on"jaltticnlef and "economic" research, , took the Fora of hadin; a special ad roc ~~nittee of the 1"' which surveyed the Covern! ent's "ecietntttic end tacisnioal" intelligence reeeareh and production programs, in February-July W. '; ric / strong, 4r. (Booth are in filed under ";?sate ',:apartment.") Jackson bad mentioned q number of ties, between ova ber 1.50 9,,4d January 1;51,, that he was acetin frequently with =Ute officials. ('Fee staff conference :;inutes, 19503-1951, in file in O/DCI/ ...: ; 4an ?t letter to 'rrsetrong. Feb. 1, 1951, cited at -ee, which eludes to "'extensive discussions"; and t,. 8 kirkp$tricka5 zer o, Dec. 11,=, " nctione of the `.office of ' asearch ends eports?'. ) cretary of , tate; end (2) ' i?IGI to -Etatess intelligence chief, to the Mate iepsrtment, both dated F8b. 1, 151: (1) ,{CI to The ?g re nta were eventually c nfir need in two. letters by 59 SECRET led "political' a ?ecks +t ,ear later rt t.' , ; ' rersse a pa "t: sit b, whic of scientific ence. rly, Loftus reble a roewsent :hdr.w rro vert*ie fields too Moves illustrate what se;eried to 4, c f: ~s -r l -oltey--to avoid what Jackson had referred to (many t Vs -In 1;610 "' nc l 51) as "needless d on" ;rd "unneceaewry competition" w 1,th the e .tablished tilt iligance a ,en eiesj ane to make the fvl"eat U! (. whenever possible, t f existin agencies and resources Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foreease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 Revival of the Intellii nee Advisory ::oemittee The principal inter-agency discussion ;roue: the Intelligence dvisory L;ommittee (i .C), was immediately revi.vad, in October 1950, after h.ving virtually #-trophied (luring the previous six -,,nonths. At his first meeting frith the IR.C on October 20, Smith announced that he intnded to put the committee to work, both as a forum for discussing inter-agency problems and jurisdictional conflicts and, -pore particularly, as a sort of final board of review for t; ?S -n drafts of national intelligence estimates intended for the National :security Council.1 This was exactly what the Dulles -survey Group had urged, in 19149,2 and what the State and Defense lepartments had reiterated more recently, in July 1950.3 So important was the IAC, in the See ",dough draft" and final version of minutes of i.,"' meeting, Oct. 20, 1950 (,secret), both in O/L I/HHS files. 2,ee Dulles "report, pp. 1114, 61, previously cited. 3The State-Defense plan for a "national intelligence -roup" (previously discussed, above) called for the IIC to "a-vise" on estimating at both the planning and review stages; but expected the I/,C, on such occasions, to be made up of departmental "representatives" rather than the departmental intelligence chiefs themselves. in fact, under this plan even the e tairtman (the DCI) would yield the chair to "his representative" (presumably someone from his estimates staff in when an estimate was on the agenda. To the Julies Group in 19149, on the other hand, there was no question that the DCI and the departmental chiefs would make up the normal working membership of the I/ C. iI 60 Approved For Release 2005/OGREEDP64-OO654AOOO2OOO1OOO1-9 Approved For ease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 opinion of the Director's of-'ice, that,J*akson himself took personal A. charge of preparing the IAC agenda, in OCtcber and early i/ovember 1950, rather than Ie?ve it to the Agency's established coordination staff, which up to that time had provided the TIC Secretariat. Once that staff was reor anized, however, as 'a r-anam.ed Office of Intelli- Bence Coordination, and once Jackson secretariat was re-established. had'ctqnfidence in it, the IP Wring the next two years, up to February 1953, the Intelli- gence Advisory Committee was convened almst &.hundred times, nearly every week on the average l In ad.'ition to General Sri t.h, who normally presided, Jackson, Dul es,~ liener, ^.nd (later) Becker each also attended from time to time, and one of them normally presided when the DCI was ab;-gent. Various Assistant Directors, to,ether with other key iembeas of their staffs, also -attended on occasion, as non-voting, re_.r-asentatives from CIA, to ciscuss specific inter-agency matters in their pa-ticultr fields. Both CIA officials and the departmental intelligence chiefs a uarently took the lA.G seriousl., judging from the re;;ular attendance 1See itC minutes 11C-MM-l to VC-4-96, for the period Oct. 20, 1950, to Feb. 19, 1953 (variously Secret and Top Secret), filed as follows s Ii``.C-M-l in O/LCI/Hb; 11 0-4-2 to 5, in ON Z; and PC,-.,4-6 to 110-.4-96, in O/1)CI/E R. II 61 SECRET Approved For Release 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For lease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-0065000200010001-9 of most of them between 1950 P td 1953.1 In their deliberations, which are well s tmaar?ized an; even ocdaeionally quoted in the minutes, the I' C reviewed a lc r: a number of estimates drafted b ziP, although Oil's new chief of estimating who also now had an estimates review board in his cwn cffiee,was skeptical at first at the "ability of the I0`0 . . . to keep pace with such a high level group" as his own "high powered esti?t=s board."2 The LEO, besides The chin es in I ,C membership and attendance for the entire period October 1950-February 1953 are as follows, reconstructed from 1 minutes, cited above. State: -ark trmstron', Jr., for entire period; Fisher Howe, his deputy, appeared in his )lace from time to time. ,taj. Ewen. A.R. Boiling, X3-2, October 1950-May 19521 -rig. men. John 'Weckerling, acting 0-2, ~4ay-July 1952; Col. C.B. Coverdale, acting G-2, July=!august 1952; Maj. Wren. R.C. Partridge, 0-2, from ?u,. 1b, 1952, on. ;ear .'d-m. Felix L., Johnson, t /^tave1 intelli Bence, October 1950-June 1952; Hear Adm. U chard F. Stout, actin-; DXI, June-December 1952; Rear Adm. Carl F. spe, , from December 1952, on. Air Force: Maj. Gen. Charles cabell., li/Intelligence, October 1950?obout November 1951, ' aj. zSen. John A. Sanford, from November 1951, on. Joint Staff: Brig. Gen. Vernon F. Megee, Deputy Director for Intelligence, October 1950-July 1951 (with gal. H.H. Bassett frequently acting for him); Brig. 'yen. R.C. Partridge, July 1951-July 1952; brig. Gen. Edward H. Porter, from August 1952, on. FBI: Victor Keay, Meffert W. Kuhrtz, and others, acting for the Director of the F 113I. Atomic Energy Commissions Dr. Walter F. Colby, D/:intelligence for entire period. Chairman: Lt. Gen. W. Bedell Smith, DCI, with Jackson, Dulles, disner, or Becker usually serving in his absence. 2Comments by ~filliam L. Langer, AD/NE, not "publicly" at one of the IlC meetings, hut at a T31: staff conference an Jan. 2, 1951 Secret, in s/nCi/Ei?). See Chapter IX, below. II 62 Approved For Release 2005/04/2 1164-OO654AOOO2OOO1OOO1-9 Approved ForSease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 25X6 d: iscusnlr ? cortrovers:i.rl and. o Weer at etantivt points in many estizzettes, also becrae "a bocy t:.dvtce Sind conss*tsl an a wide van other inter-agency w roblsnts; anc it reac?fed or rati#" ud an -inn o" them. I., of the major .ubjocts I with collection and ;.troduetton ; r orities anc ".>o ~Reiriratjou decision II one, documents, and ;prisoners of war; and wine assi Mment of coordinatlon responsibilities at overseas 11custs.2 The Ili( also r exA;1t lee ; the question of intelligence j risdictiu, , over captured tn. toward the new orth 'tlantic Treaty is %hrese wa,? used by '&j. Gen. Charles P. who was Force member of the T PC in i tith's time and who later, in Aril 1953, succeeded ,allen W. Dulles as -.eouty Lirector of ;entrrl :fntellitence. (See Historical Staff interview with . 17, 1953, in O/DCI jit5 files.) fecordin ; to ",Gat this intterview, %abell had wanted the f"AG to be "advisory" 1esns to the than to the National : ecurity Gouncii, and, furthernore, to control estimating aceordin=.* to its "own procedures." ee n-nnerdix helms., f-,r list of ZAr flee minutes, l95 -19 3, previously cited, and the numerous studies and other proposed action "docuaents" (numbered it thvi stJle 1950-1953, which were formally sub'iitted to the L C members and discussed in subsequent l," G meetin ps. ?.t" these -1: papers (variously secret ,,n}t'erence) that 4 't would have thrt,e ,r?-nci;aal Nnctions, w & he listed i.ri the following order; (1) and wistel- l.i,te c no i~; nter'!1i"e:lce; (2) the `a*p .vision i Torn rly In ); -w -id (3) t l ;u Lion l .Intelligence urvey (r;1su for eriy C2o would Wridle "any other tervtees } a~ ditton . , . An xre uf` co,t on concern ttt y .ei? at be directed by the t:tl ClrA 7 4'ecur?sty 4uacil," so i2ckstln said. (See 'ecr*t, 66 Approved For Release 2005/04/2 c164-00654A000200010001-9 Approved For lease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 ce eurvoye was one. K'enn',,th '. Knowles char. ..,,e of this ucttvity since 1947 eerv ' r:+;f r'icsussly rsic " mall;-esnce "kivi.lrion dnjrin~! General ertia ;-ci , ,': fir Lion. urn aen ral ; rtithes time the I=Sistant tine in odors Basbtitt, r 13j 19'50, to J!.tr;ua ry 1551 to March 17, 1952;2 r tsp.: , ar J , ;;, . s f roae ir~rch 17, 1Y52 to brumxy , i9 3.- 3. f n ti on of ,roducir ; nirrArt tntcl1i once, previously t iiocst?d to 0 : : 3 r~ess erted as a naibi l.i-tt aL out "s v* :F er l>a+3,4 rind ways rliocated or January 15, 191 to the nfnw1y eetat,lished t"fice of u rars,t Tr}t+el2;?ernces This ";ffice reprt= e~r:tcsd a 1Theoe'ore isabbitt t$a redesign tec3 on Nov. 13, 1950, by er 37 (`'eoret?. io r::raounoenrnt c ba de;erture fmi nor the effective date of his de arture, has*ve been ~c nc. ,;r. wns r~till in how vE r, sts lmte as :ec. 7, 1950, when ~z a : e a,ri into'.; i . nee re e?nta t i,or to the C. 'lip 6 . -1C) (" c cre-t 7, 1 50, . n , /~....:. 2 .io for t, repsrs.te anno nce nt of ` 11.l ikan l s R p:: pint nt no hr s teen found* is name was x nnouuzacod on .an. LO 1951, when It a ,~,ared (mlvn:; with other o.ffici50, z. id then as sdjst`nt :]irector of,the successor i'Uffico of , ..ecial ervices", Lroni late love bur 1550 to about rnu9r ' ;, i9 1;2 Kin r n Douglass, Who served as As. istant ii..rectur of the .iffice of ,l-,ecial -crvices, January It tc, 1951, and then as assistant dxector of the Office of Ourrent Intelligence, fro:i January 15, 1951 to Jul; 12, 1952;3 and Huntington Sheldon, his successor as +ssistant Director of uCI, from Jul. 12, 1952, on.4 luee _,ihcpter Il below. 2On ,raig's appointments, see General Order No. 31 (Secret), u.;. 7, 1550, General Order No. 38 (Secret), Dec. 1, 1950, and :mineral Order No, 140 (,Secret), Jan. 4, 1951, all anon:, records of '?anagement Staff, in CIA Records enter. 3:n Dou ;lass t appointment, see General. iirder No. 40 (Secret), Jan. 1,, 1951; anu on his departure, see Notice P-12-52 (:Secret), duly 10, 1552. From sometime late in December 1950 to Jan. 2, 1951, Douglass was referred to as a "consultant*,' to the (Sec, for exa: l s, and 3, Secret, in U/i I/ rv . ) ,in 'iheidon's appointment, see btice P-12-52 (6ecret), July 10, 1952, cited above.. He had joined CCh the month before, is June 1952. (See biographic state=sent in 01T. course outline for agency Ueien'hation ..;onference, Nov. 1952, ~onfidenntial, in files.) IT 88 E ~ K-T64-00654A.000200010001-9 Approved For Release 2005/04/22- Approved Foreease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 ,what y have seemed like surprising abruptness in the reor-genisatio.. V ' ,J t nets I intelligence functions after General [M caiw can duty secras actui11 to. have been a m--' er v" :Lain;. in defense of the speed with whic'h'the current reo~ ,'r: z -tiara was occurring, 'qtr. Jackson told the Assistant .:A.rectora, in a staff conference in December 1950,1 that two approaches F.~d te`.r considered by -pith and himself in the fall of 19501 a series of ;radual chan~jes to be extended over the ollowing ei hteen noLths, which: would have been "less demoralizing than a rapid change," or an "izamediate reor,anization." The latter, he said, was decided on, "in view of the international situation."2 Jackson did not reveal what the factors were in the "international situation." 1 temarks by '~dilliam H. Jackson at Di,.i $ s staff conference on Dec. 18, 1950, 6C-M-1, (Secret).. in 0/iC1/ . 2lbid. These minutes (numbered S?- -1) were evidently- the first of she formally kept minutes of General Smith's frequent conferences with his Assistant rectors. No earlier minutes, before Dec. 1C, 1950, have thus far been found, which bear on the historically significant preceding ten weeks, Cctober-December 1950, when General Smith's F.dministration of IA was launched and when most of his basic or- nizational decisions seem to have tc'en made. 11 89 Approved For Release 2005/04/k .- '64-00654A000200010001-9 Approved Foroease 2005/04/21 : CIA-RDP64-006500200010001-9 Even cursory observation of the world situation at the end of 1950 and the be inn:in, o ? 1951, howeve, leaves no doubt of the great pressure that was necessarily felt by the intelligence P,pparatus of the U. S. Government to contribute all it could with the rreatest possitle speed. It could well have seemed to those with the respon- sibility that nothin,: could Justifiably be _2ostponed. In the words of Pa contemporary document intended for the resident, the director of his Budget Bureau, and a few "cleared" members of the Senate and louse of =-epresentatives: the situation with respect to "national intelligence" under the circumstances of 1950-51 was described as follows: "The recent outbreak of hostilities in Korea has made it necessary for the t~,,.ency to intensify its estimates of Soviet intentions around the entire periphery of the >oviet orbit. In addition to the normal surveillance of indications of Soviet preparations for its own mili- t