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Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress." Article II, section 2, of the Constitution further prescribes that "the President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and 'Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States." Still further, article VI of the Constitu- tion prescribes that, "this Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land;" The first act of Congress under the Constitution relating to the Army was the act of 1789 which con- tinued in being the Army created by the earlier Continental Congress. In 1792 the Congress passed the Militia Act which re- mained law until passage of the National Defense Act 124 years later. The U.S. Military Academy was established at West Point, N.Y., on March 18, 1802, with a class of 10 cadets and a faculty staff of 5 officers. Several wars later, in 1857, Secre- tary of War John B. Floyd recognized the need of an Army General Staff but neither he nor his successors could gain acceptance of the idea until Secretary of War Elihu Root created the Army War College in 1900 and paved the way for the General Staff measures of 1903. Passage of the National Defense Act of 1916 reduced the Army General Staff from 36 officers to 19, leaving only 9 staff officers for coordinating work. At the outbreak of World War I, the strength of the German General Staff was 850; the French staff, 664; the English staff, 232. The 1916 act also standardized and converted the militia into the National Guard and provided for a Re- serve Corps. Also about this time another important change in national policy began to take form. This change, through the succeeding decades, affected in major pro- portions the Army's organization structure, size, and disposition. On April 2, 1917, President Wilson in a World War I message to the Congress said in part, "The world must be made safe for democracy. * * * civ- ilization itself seeming to be in the balance." This departure in concept from that of George Washington who, in his farewell ad- dress counseled against involvement in Euro- pean affairs and permanent alliances, forced a projection of the Army's organization on the continent of Europe and laid the ground- work for the next generation of politico- military planners. Based on World War I experience, a re- organization of the War. Department and the Army was effected by passage of the act of June 4, 1920, amending the National De- fense Act of 1916. This act divided the ter- ritory of the United States into nine corps areas and created three oversea departments to which were allotted specific troops. The staff at all levels was organized on identical functional lines. The Air Corps became a separate arm, chemical warfare a separate service, the tank corps was absorbed by the infantry. The Army school system was im- proved and the Army Industrial College (now Armed Forces Industrial College) was estab- lished in 1924. The Officer Reserve Corps and the Reserve officers training program was firmly established. In addition, the act provided the General Staff with the planning function (to present plans for the mobiliza- tion of the Nation and Its resources in an emergency), and with responsibility for in- vestigating and reporting on efficiency of the Army of the United States and its state of preparation for military operations and the rendering of professional aid and assistance to the Secretary of War and the Chief of Staff. The General Staff was organized in five major divisions; personnel, intelligence, operations and training, supply (labeled Gl, 02, G3, and G4, respectively) and a War Plans Division known as WPD, a mobild di- vision designed to move into the field as the nucleus of a headquarters staff of an expedi- tionary force. Unfortunately, the act of 1920 was not clear on the division of responsibility. The control exercised by the General Staff over the supply arms and services was shared with the Assistant Secretary of War (now Under Secretary). The Assistant Secretary was held responsible for the development of plans for industrial mobilization as well as the supervision of the procurement of all military supplies. Chiefs of supply branches reported to the Assistant Secretary on all procurement matters. A tentative distinc- tion was drawn between the military and civilian aspects of the supply problem, with 04 handling the former and the Assistant Secretary the later. However, by 1941 there were more than 1,200 people in the office of the Assistant Secretary and the ability to coordinate successfully was increasingly im- paired. In addition to the 04 supply problem, an- other general difficulty was created by the large number of commands reporting to the Chief of Staff. The rather extraordinarily wide span of control of the Chief of Staff was further complicated by congressional acts that rapidly increased appropriations and the size of the Army. In 1934-35 the appropriation for the Army had dropped to $277 million and the enlisted strength had been reduced to 118,000 men. Seven years later it bounced up to where 101/2 million men and women would find service with the Army and appropriations of billions of dol- lars would be made. Except for its civil functions-harbor dredging, flood control, Civilian Consefva- tion Camps, etc.-the' Army's work in the mid-thirties was more theoretical than ap- plied. At the outbreak of World War II the Chief of Staff had to deal personally, or through the General Staff, with 40 differ- ent major commands and 350 smaller ones. These difficulties, coupled with the in- adequacy of the WPD which had been designed for a "one front" operation and the problem of the relation of the Air Force to the existing structure which had been constant since 1920, led to the reorganization of February 28, 1942. By Executive order of the President on that date, the Army of the United States was divided into three great commands under the Chief of Staff: Army Ground Forces, Army Air Forces, and Army Service of Supply Forces, later desig- nated Army Service Forces. Thus, after 40 years of wrangling over the administrative functions of the General Staff, the principle of coordination over a large group of subordinates operating agen- cies was abandoned in favor of the principle of decentralizing to three major commands the responsibility for supervision. It is also important to note, because of subsequent organizational impacts, that President Roosevelt, in his 1941 message to Congress, spelled out his famous "four freedoms" (of speech, of worship, from want, from fear) as American ideals in terms of responsibility "everywhere in the world." Later in 1945 the President also said, "We have learned that we cannot live alone, at peace; that our own well-being is dependent upon the well-being of other nations far away." Thus the rupture, started by Wilson and the League of Nations in the 140-year policy of no "entangling alliances," was completed on June 26, 1945, with the signing of the Charter of the United Nations. Thus, also, the signing of the various treaties and agree- ments stemming from the covenants of the Charter has created a "supreme law of the A6665 land," and the commitments for which place their own unique requirements on the Army and the way the Army is organized. The Army's proverbial seesawing between the extremes of the famines of peace and, the plenties of war have come to an end, at least for the foreseeable future. A more or less stable Army organizational require- ment has evolved in order that American principles may be maintained "everywhere in the world" and that "the world may be made safe for democracy." Reduction of the Army to peacetime size, such as occurred after every war prior to the Korean war is a thing of the past. No longer can the risks encouraged by military weak- nesses be afforded by the United States, or by its allies in the free world. A strong active Army constantly reorganiz- ing to meet the day-to-day advances of tech- nological advancements, is now a permanent fixture of our national policy. At the same time, neither can an Army of extravagances, such as historically evolved out of the emer- gency wholesale recruitment, procurement and an unlimited purse, be condoned. In its stead every segment and entity of the Army's organization must be constantly weighed in light of its continuing contribu- tion to combat effectiveness, Effective man- agement must go hand in hand with combat effectiveness. Combat effectiveness must relate to the nature of the war being fought. Past conflicts have depended on physical force to destroy men and render them hors de combat. Today the war is fought in the minds of man, to destroy their wills and reduce them to slavery. In such a war the entire population must be united in positive thought and action. Americans are born or have by their own free will become members of one organiza- tion-the United States of America. Americans affirm but one loyalty above all-the sacred contract that made us one, under God. Americans pledge their loyalty to the flag which stands for all that the Con- stitution has brought into being. The officials of our Federal Govern- ment, in their oath of office, swear to support and defend this Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic. The Constitution is the contract that grants them office and, in the event of infidelity to its terms, excludes them from official status. The Constitution is the essence of the principle of civilian control. The National Lottery of Yugoslavia EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PAUL A. FINO OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, August 24, 1961 Mr. FINO. Mr. Speaker, I should like to acquaint the Members of this House with the national lottery of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia is one of only three Com- munist nations utilizing the lottery de- vice. It is perhaps noteworthy that the three Communist nations using lot- teries, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czech- oslovakia, are the three nations in the past most heavily subjected to Western influences. The more stringent Com- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 A6666 munist nations will have no part of lot- teries. The gross receipts of the Yugoslav national lottery came to $20 million in 1960., The net income to the state in that year was $5 million. The bulk of the money is used to assist orphanages, hospitals, and other institutions. Of the nations of Europe and the Americas, only the United States, Can- ada, and most Communist countries do not operate lotteries. The two great na- tions of North America are in rare com- pany. /10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 EISIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX stitutions and ideas accepted by most Ameri- cans as the very fabric of our society, what will they conclude? Will they not begin to falter in whatever hopes for fulfillment of their dreams our system may have aroused Support of Foreign Aid SPEECH OF HON. JACK WESTLAND OF WASHINGTON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Activities of the John Birch Society Friday, August 18, .1961 The House In Committee of the Whole EXTENSION OF REMARKS House on the State of the Union had under of consideration the bill (H.R. 8400) to pro- mote: the foreign policy, security, and gen- HON. FRANK CHURCH eral welfare of the United states by assist- ing ;peoples of the world in their efforts to- OF IDAHO ward. economic and social development and IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES internal and external security, and for other Thursday, August 24, 1961 purposes. Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, the Mr. WESTLAND. Mr. Chairman, the activities of the John Birch Society have Mutual Security Act of 1961 has been come under considerable scrutiny of late, passed by this body 287 to 140. I was or the h t d and certainly a more thorough under- standing of its operations is a public need. It is encouraging to note that the weekly "grassroots" press of the Nation is giving attention to exposing the so- ciety, and I am pleased that one of the outstanding; newspapers of Idaho, the Rexburg Standard, has commented on the Birchers' recently publicized essay contest. I would 'like unanimous consent that the editorial in the Standard of August 15 be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BLOW AT INSTITUTIONS The John Birch Society has by its "per- sonal villification" of Chief Justice Warren, aroused the wrath of the American Bar As- sociation. That group's anger is wholly justified, and should be echoed among the general public. For the Birchers, in an- nouncing that they will sponsor an under- graduate essay contest on reasons for War- ren's impeachment, have sought to besmirch the Supreme Court. Whitney North, president of the bar as- sociation, delivered at its national conven- tion a speech critical of the Birch Society's action. His remarks were roundly applauded by the convention delegates, who represent lawyers in all parts of the United States. The Birch Society's conduct, said Seymour, is leading ignorant people into "disrespect for our institutions which maintain liberty under law."' Actually, the activities of the John Birch group and other radicals of the far right fringe go deeper than that. They give aid and comfort to our enemies in the world ideological struggle in which the United States and our allies are engaged. It takes no seer to understand what we are witnessing-a global rebellion of the op- pressed, the so-called "revolution of rising expectations" Both we and the Communists pose as their champtions. Millions are wavering between two choices-our way of life and that to which the Kremlin pays a cynical lip service. When these desperate people hear, from within America, vicious rantings against in- one of thoseMembers w o vo e bill. Also, I was one of the Members who voted for all amendments that called for reductions which, I believe, would have trimmed unnecessary fat from the program. These amendments included a out of $50 million from the development grant authorization, the reduction by $181 million of the authorization for the President's supporting assistance fund, a reduction of $50 million in the Presi- dent's contingency fund, and the dele- tion of the provision of $25 million for loans to small farmers in friendly for- eign nations. In each case the amend- ments were rejected. Mr. Chairman, the people of the dis- trict I represent generally support the mutual security program. This year 80 percent of those who answered my ques- tionnaire said that they favor continu- ation by the United States of its mutual security program of economic and mili- tary assistance to countries outside the Soviet bloc. I have received a few let- ters, however, that ask why it is neces- sary to assist foreign nations when we could use the money for other purposes here at home. I believe that these are people who do not understand that about 80 percent of the money we spend for foreign aid is spent in this country, not abroad. This money is used to purchase Amer- ican goods such as machinery, timber products, cement, 106-millimeter recoil- less rifle shells, fishery products, as well as milk, Cheese, and other farm prod- ucts. The Items I have cited as exam- ples, Mr. Speaker, are all commodities that are produced in my own district. These are American-made products that provide employment and wages for Americans. When we send products to other countries, we are not only helping those nations, but are also helping our- selves. Another point concerns the benefits of the program in terms of the military Augu$$t 24 support we receive. Many of the na- tions that receive aid from us maintain military forces which make a vital con- tribution. to our mutual defenses. If we were forced to maintain an Army large enough to replace the armies of our friends, the costs would be much greater than the costs of this program. So, Mr. Chairman, I believe the mu- tual security program works two ways. It helps our friends and it helps us. This is why I: have supported it in the past and vote for it today. EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. GEORGE M. RHODES of PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Puesday, August 15, 1961 Mr. RHODES of :Pennsylvania. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my re- marks I include an interesting and timely editorial which recently appeared in the South Omaha Sun, of Omaha, Nebr.: THE PATRIOTS We hear patriotism is declining in this country, and we don't believe it for a minute. It seems to us that Americans are as patriotic as they ever were. Certainly their response to Khrushchev's contrived crisis over Berlin leaves little to be desired. Except for a few frenetic souls who apparently long to see H-bombs bursting in air, most of the Ameri- can people have been going about their busi- ness soberly, determined to see this thing through, as they have seen through other crises, and ready to make whatever sacrifices may be necessary for the national welfare. If there are any "apostles of appeasement among us, their number is scanty and their voices have been conspicuously silent. We have seen pointed suggestions that there are sinister, unnamed individuals, in the White House and the State Department, who are eager to throw in the sponge to communism. We think such charges are rubbish. In recent days the American people have been revealing their patriotism in manifold ways. We think of the Freedom Riders, risk- ing life and limb for the ideals of brother- hood and equality. We think of the young men and women responding to the Peace Corpe; of business leaders-as in Omaha-- going out and doing things for the better- ment of their communities; of union men-- as in Chicago-fearlessly tossing out the thugs controlling their local. We talk to people every day-teachers and preachers and parents and politicians, Boy Scouts, farmers, waitresses, social workers? soldiers, postrien, diplomats, doctors, lawyers, mer- chants, chlefs--and we haven't seer.L any sign that their love of this country has diminished one iota. Pa~riotism is not--as some seem to think-- a matter of proclaiming one's own adoration of -the flag while derogating that of one's fellow citizens. The true patriot doesn't wear his stars and stripes upon his sleeve; he doesn't say-or think---what he and he alone, or his group and his group alone, is the only reliable keeper of the sacred flame. Patriot- ism is of the deed, not merely the word; of attitudes, not attitudinizing; of a healthy discontent with things as they are end a resolve to do better, not the smug refusal to countenance criticism cr change, not standing pat on dogma, not sitting tight on the status quo. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 A6824 ApprovedCFMR"gWM3L1 Wii 6ii116-RDn$PPMIIR000200110007- 4ugust.29 national situation, will be made public to- morrow, at least nobody is talking about price controls. If the need for a balanced budget in prosperous times has been dismissed as a Republican myth-the evidence on this point Isn't conclusive yet-the need to keep American products competitively priced in world markets has been accepted by this administration as it was by the last. The regulated industries, filled with dread of the unknown, facing strange commission- ers and reorganized commissions, have nev- ertheless found that the Government un- derstands some of their problems. The overall picture is almost indescribably mixed. The future is even more questionable than the past. Uncounted study groups, inter- agency committees and task forces are now at work drafting plans for the solution of nearly every imaginable problem facing the world, the country, and business. Deadlines have been set, mostly in the neighborhood of next Septelpber and Octo- ber, with the objective of permitting time for White House study and formulation of concrete proposals to be sent to Congress in January. The real shape of the administra- tion's attitude toward business will become known then-but there are already a wealth of clues-among the inconsistencies. Journal of Commerce Examines Kennedy Economic Programs-IV EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 29, 1961 Mr. CURTIS of Missouri. Mr. Speaker, the second article in Eileen Shanahan's series on the economic pro- grams of the New Frontier discussed Kennedy and organized labor. This article follows: KENNEDY DISAPPOINTING LABOR (By Eileen Shanahan) WASHINGTON.-Organized labor is perhaps even more disappointed in the Kennedy ad- ministration than business is. It had such high hopes. The dissatisfaction rests on two grounds: Many labor leaders feel the administration has stopped with half measures to solve the unemployment problem and shown too great a disposition to compromise on minimum wage, social security and other legislation. UNION FEAR Even closer to home, many union chiefs increasingly fear that the administration can't be relied on to show up in their corner when collective bargaining breaks down. Key administration officials will privately agree-some of them with considerable pride-that the latter complaint has merit. No automatic assumption that the union is right and the management wrong charac- terizes Arthur J. Goldberg, Labor Depart- ment, they say. Stories are told to reinforce this point: tales of Secretary Goldberg "chewing out" Labor Leader Joe Curran in the course of the maritime strike; of the Secretary's flat refusal of a union plea to intervene before Vie Civil Aeronautics Board to help striking Southern Airways pilots get their jobs bacR, with prestrike seniority. CASE HISTORY One interesting case history revolves around the strike of workers at Hanford, Wash., atomic installation, which is operated for the Government by General Electric. The Government's special atomic labor panel investigated the dispute and proposed a new contract which went against the union on key issues, including union se- curity provisions, but which also included a wage package which GE felt broke the pat- tern it had established in its settlements elsewhere. GE resisted but finally, in the face of Government pressure not to prolong a strike involving the national security, agreed to sign. The next word which came to the Labor Department was from the union-which asked for just one more little item in the package. Secretary Goldberg reportedly hit the roof; told the union he was not yielding to any such pressures; that it could either go back to work on the recommended terms or read his public 1Yenunciation in the next day's newspapers. It worked. SIGNIFICANT SHIFT The Goldberg lieutenants who tell this story feel that the Secretary's firm drawing of the line precisely where an "impartial" board drew it represents a significant de- parture from the labor practices of the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, when union pressure for just one more little thing was frequently successful, The story, however, also illustrates another point-one which has business badly wor- ried. When Government gets into labor dis- putes, the settlement almost invariably gets more expensive. Just how extensively this administration intends to inject itself into labor-manage- ment troubles is not altogether clear. Even some of Arthur Goldberg's firm friends and admirers express a fear that the Secretary simply enjoys dramatically boarding an air- plane and flying off to a distant city to settle a strike by sheer personal forcefulness. The Goldberg "settlements" to date do not reveal very much. Both the tugboat and airlines workers merely agreed to go back to work pending resolution of the complex questions over work rules which had pre- cipitated their strikes. If the proof of the pudding is in the eating these puddings are still being cooked. SHOCKED THE UNIONS The Government's resort to a Taft-Hartley injunction in the maritime strike shocked the unions as much as it dismayed the management-aware, as they are, that by the time the 80-day injunction runs out, the pressure will be on for deliveries of fuel oil for fall heating. That Intervention was a matter of some controversy within the administration, but Mr. Goldberg was reportedly able to con- vince the President with a statistical argu- ment: All but a handful of the strikes which have been halted over the years by Taft- Hartley Act injunction have been settled be- fore the end of the 80 days. The great question ahead-which may set the pattern for the future years of the Ken- nedy administration-is whether there will be Government intervention if the current auto industry negotiations break down. Mr. Goldberg's own. words on the subject are contradictory. On the one hand, he has said that "we cannot * * * have a shutdown in the auto- mobile Industry." On the other, that "I do not believe * * * that the public interest is served by issuing appeals to * * * an industry and a union which have pursued a constructive path of cooperation without a work stoppage of consequence for more than a decade." A final major-and still open-question is the future role of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Relations. There are widespread fears that this tri- partite group will be thrust directly Into labor disputes, the great prestige of its indi- vidual industry, labor and public members used to dictate specific contract settlements. Officialdom on all sides denies this. What the Committee is supposed to be doing is work out answers to the most funda- mental sort of labor-management problems. How to handle automation, how to keep American goods competitively priced, and so on. If the Committee does stay together and produce some reports, the union or manage- ment which refuses to follow its guidelines may be unable to escape public pillorying. And every effort is being made to see that the group does continue to function. Most of its meetings are held right in the White House; the President himself is brought in to participate; briefings have been given not only on international economic problems but the world military and political situation, too. Every effort is being made to emphasize the Issues which should unite, rather than divide American labor and management. Journal of Commerce Examines Kennedy Economic Programs-V EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 29, 1961 Mr. CURTIS of Missouri. Mr. Speak- er, in the July 26 article, the third of the Journal of Commerce series, the approach of the Kennedy administration to the question of antitrust enforcement. This article is set out below : KENNEDY STIFFENING TRUST POLICY (By Eileen Shanahan) WASHINGTON.-The Kennedy administra- tion is obviously attempting to establish even more rigorous standards of antitrust enforcement than those which prevailed dur- ing the Eisenhower years. Yet there are conflicts among its per- sonalities and Inconsistencies in its approach which makes one wonder whether it will achieve its own objectives. SEEKS TO SPLIT UP FIRMS Assistant Attorney General Lee Loevinger, head of the Justice Department's Antitrust Division, wants to stress major antitrust cases of a structural nature-splitting up big companies and diffusing their power in the marketplace. But Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and his Deputy, Byron White-Mr. Loevin- ger's bosses-have privately let it be known that they would like to concentrate on crim- inal price-fixing cases, even small regional ones, with the objective of putting some more businessmen in jail. The Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission are moving In precisely opposite directions on the subject of consent decrees. The attempt by the Justice Department to prohibit price cutting by major electrical companies-to protect small firms in the field from the dangers of competition-has terrified classical antitrusters who feel their objective should be to force more competi- tion, not less. PERSONNEL PROBLEM In addition, a serious personnel problem has developed In the Justice Department's Antitrust Division, where 30 or 40 young lawyers plus the Division's top career man have resigned since Mr. Loevinger took over. The reasons for the exodus are not al- together clear-the former first assistant, W. Wallace Kirkpatrick, is loyally saying Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 196;1 Approved For PeM(~~f1A0Y.: JIW4B%W "fR00110007-5 while, I urge all Americans to write Senator THURMOND for information on the official gagging of the military. I urge all Americans to write their own Representatives urging support of a resolu- tion which Senator THuaMOND Introduced in the Senate on August 4, 1961 (S. Res. 191). Senate Resolution 191 asks for an investiga- tion, by the Senate Armed Services Commit- tee, "of the use of military personnel and facilities to arouse the public to the menace of the cold war." I most particularly urge that all Americans who care about their own country write their elected representatives (in their State capitals and in Washington), demanding that they do something to reinstate and ex- onerate Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker who was crucified, for being a patriot, by the very scurviest of scurvy leftwing forces. WHO Is DAN SMOOT? Dan Smoot was born in Missouri. Reared in Texas, he attended SMU in Dallas, taking B.A. and M.A. degrees from that university in 1938 and 1940. In 1941, he joined the faculty at Harvard as a teaching fellow in English, doing gradu- ate work for the degree of doctor of philos- ophy in the field of American civilization. In 1942, he took leave of absence from Harvard in order to join the FBI. At the close of the war, he stayed in the FBI, rather than return to Harvard. He served a4 an FBI agent in all parts of the Nation, handling all kinds of assign- ments. But for 3% years, he worked exclu- sively on Communist investigations in the industrial Midwest. For 2 years following that, he was on FBI headquarters staff in Washington, as an administrative assistant to J. Edgar Hoover. After 911/a years in the FBI, Smoot resigned to help start the Facts Forum movement in Dallas. As the radio and television com- mentator for "Facts Forum," Smoot, for al- most 4 years spoke to a national audience giving both sides of great controversial issues. In July 1955, he resigned and started his own independent program, in order to give only one side--the side that uses funda- mental American principles as a yardstick for measuring all important issues. If you believe that Dan Smoot is provid- ing effective tools for those who want to think and talk and write on the side of free- dom, you can help immensely by subscribing and encouraging others to subscribe, to thq- Dan Smoot report. Journal of Commerce Examines Kennedy Economic Programs-I EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 29, 1961 Mr. CURTIS of Missouri. Mr. Speak- er, the New York Journal of Commerce recently presented 10 feature reports from Washington which examined the economic proposals of the Kennedy administration.. This publication per- formed a useful public service by pub- lishing this series which looked into many aspects of the administration programs which, when taken together, present a much more meaningful pic- ture than when these are viewed in- dividually. I hope the New York Jour- nal of Commerce will repeat this series periodically-on a 90- or 180-day basis- and will present new facts and figures as they come to light. A real search for facts about the Kennedy pro- posals is much needed if sound think- ing is to predominate and unwise pro- posals are to be exposed and defeated. The writer of this series, Miss Eileen Shanahan, deserves much credit for her hard work, initiative and follow- through in preparing this series. She did her work in a scholarly fashion, and her careful research has again earned her the respect of her readers. In view of the often sloppy press re- porting which goes on regarding so many of the economic problems and proposals facing us, Miss Shanahan was fair and independent. Without doubt she displeased readers on both the ex- treme right and extreme left, but to many of us she produced a meaningful series and this deserves recognition. This series will be presented in sep- arate insertions throughout the RECORD of today and tomorrow. Journal of Commerce Examines Kennedy Economic Programs--II EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 29, 1961 Mr. CURTIS of Missouri. Mr. Speak- er, the New York Journal of Commerce series on the Kennedy economic pro- grams was kicked off by an editorial in which the editors of the Journal ex- plained the basis of their interest and an outline of what they hoped to do, It appears below: WHITHER NEW FRONTIER? The Kennedy administration started out 6 months, ago in a manner which most busi- nessmen found reassuring. The new Presi- dent began his term with an absolute com- mitment not to devaluate the dollar; the widely anticipated break between the admin- istration and the Federal Reserve System did not occur; John Kenneth Galbraith went to India, not Washington; Mr. Kennedy's first mention of taxes was a promise to aid busi- ness investment via tax relief. The hopes of the business community were high. They are not so high any longer. The Federal budget is rising even beyond the new administration's own estimates; the old Democratic pattern of Government inter- vention. in labor disputes seems to be on the way back in; a group of America's most prominent big businessmen find that they just cannot get along with the new Secretary of Commerce. Has the administration really made a dra- matic left turn? Eileen Shanahan of the Journal of Commerce Washington staff finds that the answer to this question is yes- and no. In a series of 10 articles which begin today, she takes first, a general look at administra- tion policies and then, In subsequent articles, analyzes major areas of Government activity of direct Interest to business, labor policy, A6823 antitrust, taxes and the budget, direct regu- lation of business, welfare programs and what they coda, money management, land and power programs, and International economic policies. Journal of Commerce Examines Kennedy Economic Programs-III EX:TEN'SION OF REMARKS OF HON. LAURENCE CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN TILL HC)USE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 29, 1961 Mr. CURTIS of Missouri. Mr. Speaker, on July 24. the New York Journal of Commerce carried the first of Miss Eileen Shanahan's articles in the series on the economic programs of the new administration. Entitled "Kennedy Eludes Label," it appears as follows: POLICY LINE ZIGZAGS--KENNEDY ELUDES LABEL--SHAPE OF STAND ON BUSINESS IS TAKIN(; FORM (By Eileen Shanahan) WASHINGTON.-"The administration has avoided extreme economic views * '" * it has in no way shown hostility to business .enterprise '" *-* and the economic moves actually taken by the administration have been more prudent than some of its rhetoric." BURNS' WORDS The words are those of Arthur F. Burns, economic adviser to former President Eisen- hower. 'rhe administration he was describ- ing was, of course, the present one--John F. Kennedy's New Frontier. Dr. Burns calm summati.on--which came, incidentally, as the filial paragraph of a lengthy article criticizing administration economic policies-would not stand uncon- tested in any gathering of businessmen or those who represent them in Washington. It would, however, find rather widespread acceptance. The problem is one of comparisons. It goes without saying, and without argument, that the :Kennedy administration is to the left of the, Eisenhower administration on vir- tually every issue. What is not so clear is that it may be to the right of the Truman and Roosevelt administrations in some significant and surprising areas--labor policy, for one. If the administration is more to the left than most, businessmen would wish, it may also be less to the left than they feared it might be. MUTED HOSTILITY There is a muted undertone of hostility to big bt-.sinesii to be found in Washington today. But there is not a single Govern- ment official anywhere in the Capital who publicly describes profits as unnecessary or evil. It is tree that the administration has jast pushed through Congress the most enor- mous housing bill in history. But it is also true that, it never even advocated a vast public works spending program to cure the late recession. The banking community is deeply upset over the administrations unprecedented and poseibly unlawful blocking of bank mergers 'ay administrative fiat. But it is well satisfied with the administration's han- dling, to date, of the problem of financing the vast Government debt. If Government spending is going r-- where but up-and the bad news on just how much further up, in view of the inter- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 A6822 Approves 'TR ?5SKC '0 1 (ORTA4:~ BDM 8000200110007-51ugust -29 the paper's managers resented General Walker's emphasis on patriotism, decency, and truth. Every Issue of Overseas Weekly carries large pictures of seminude (or completely nude) girls in poses so suggestive as to be pornographic. Captions accompanying the pictures have the same flavor. One Issue of Overseas Weekly carried a full story on the publication of a "Ladies Directory," listing (for American servicemen) the names and addresses of prostitutes in the Soho district of London. Another presented a long and lurid review of the autobiography of a European prostitute. Confidential information from soldiers in the 24th-who admire General Walker and despite the scurvy little rag which they call the Oversexed Weekly-indicates that the old woman, who is president and executive editor of Overseas Weekly, herself enjoys the nude and seminude girlie pictures which habitually adorn her paper, and that her office staff is composed of odd-looking women with similar tastes. Bob Jones, formerly in the U.S. Air Force, is now Munich correspondent for Overseas Weekly. In August 1960, a claim was filed against Jones by the 7th Army Support Com- mand for taking unauthorized photographs of the Rhine Army Ordnance Depot. Jones is now allowed on U.S. military installations only under escort. There is some indication that Wince Mul- hahey, sports editor of Overseas Weekly, is an alcoholic. Harold Melahn, secretary-treasurer of Overseas Weekly, was a delegate to the Com- munist world youth festival at Prague in 1947. A 24th Division officer in Munich, who was a public information officer in the 5th Corps from 1955-58, says that Overseas Weekly employees generally associate with known Communists and habitually attend parties where they can meet military per- sonnel who handle classified information. The Overseas Weekly characters had a specific reason for hating General Walker, too. Shortly after General Walker took com- mand of the 24th, he found out that Sieg- fried Naujocks, ace reporter for Overseas Weekly, was snooping around headquarters trying to find a pipeline for obtaining mili- tary secrets. Naujocks was also trying to damage troop morale, by spreading gossip among the troops that General Walker was mentally ill. Walker had Naujocks barred from all mili- tary installations of the 24th Division. John Dornberg, news editor of Overseas- Weekly, threatened General Walker with retaliation. Naujocks is a Pole, living in West Ger- many on a German passport. During the days of Hitler, Naujocks worked for the Nazi's Ministry of Propaganda. Late in World War II, he was shipped to the eastern front to fight against the Communists. His subsequent political views, as revealed in his writings, do not indicate that he hated Com- munists, however. Naujocks and John Dornberg wrote the Overseas Weekly article which ruined Gen- eral Walker's career. Shortly afterward, the Macmillan Co., 60, Fifth Avenue, New York City, published a book by Dornberg. The book is entitled "Schizophrenic Germany". It is filled with the "hate-Germans" propaganda which the Communist conspiracy has been spewing out all over the world-from the American press coverage of the Eichmann trial in Israel, to the disgusting spate of anti-German films and commentaries saturating television in the United States. The Communists hate and fear Germany, because they recognize it as the only nation of Europe capable of resisting communism. Hence, all Communist and pro-Communist propaganda concerning Germany-including Dornberg's Schizophrenic Germany-is de- signed to keep Germany disarmed and di- vided so that it can never again become a bulwark against communism. General Walker said: "We have Communists and we have Over- seas Weekly. Neither is one of God's bless- ings to the American people or their soldier sons overseas. Immoral, unscrupulous, cor- rupt, and destructive. are terms which could be applied to either. If the costs of the bad effects of Overseas Weekly could be ac- counted in dollars, it would be in terms of hundreds of millions of dollars without in- cluding all the benefits to the enemy." An Army Times editorial, on the Walker case, contains these comments: "We don't think much of the Overseas Weekly. Called the Oversexed Weekly by the troops, it has been termed 'subversive to the command * * * since it carries news cal- culated to destroy unit loyalty, smear non- commissioned leaders, and assist anti- American forces * * * by portraying the American soldier as rowdy, disorderly, dis- honest, and immoral.' " WHAT DO WE CARE? A most disturbing aspect of the Walker case is the general apathy of the American people and of the Congress. A semiliterate, leftwing rag called a newspaper can instigate the public humiliation of a fine American general; and the public seems not to care; and only a handful of Congressmen and Senators even raise their voices. In the Senate of Texas-General Walker's home State-a resolution was passed (May 23, 1961) expressing support of General Walker and pleading with the Defense De- partment to reinstate him as commander of the 24th Division. One Texas senator who voted against this resolution-Culp Krueger-said : "What business is it of ours?" What business, indeed. What happened to General Walker should be the burning concern of every decent American who loves liberty and justice. In the National Congress, STROM THUR- MOND in the Senate and DALE ALFORD in the House have fought insistently in defense of General Walker. They have been joined, somewhat, by men like BRUCE ALGER, O. CLARK FISHER, STYLES BRIDGES, CHARLES GOODELL, KARL MUNDT. A few columnists and commentators like Paul Harvey, Fulton Lewis, Jr., and George Sokolsky have taken up the cudgels for General Walker. But, by and large, the American Congress, the public, and the press, have indifferently per- mitted the pro-Communist leftwing to hu- miliate, and wreck the career of, one of our finest soldiers-for being an effective patriot. SINISTER CONNECTIONS There is much more to the Walker case and related events than meets the eye. For example, the Overseas Weekly accusation that General Walker's problue program was a John Birch Society project 'a charge which the Army investigation proved false) was originally made on April 9-at precisely the time when the leftwing attack on the John Birch Society was at its peak. Oddly enough, however, the news about the Overseas Weekly's attack on Walker did not really capture attention in the United States until the week of April 17. What else happened that week? At dawn on Monday, April 17, 1961, an assortment of eight old boats, some of them barely seaworthy slipped into the Bay of Pigs, which is surrounded by the Zapata Swamp on the southwestern shore of Cuba. Aboard the vessels were 1,300 Cubans who wanted to liberate their homeland from Communist dictatorship. Castro forces were waiting for them, obviously well-informed of all their plans. Shore guns raked the ships, immediately destroying the old vessel which was the invaders' communications center. Castro tanks, expertly manned, oc- cupied all the roads through the great swamp. And Castro planes quickly destroyed the air cover for the little force of invaders and began strafing them on the beaches. There was no geenral uprising of anti- Castro patriots throughout Cuba as the in- vaders had hoped, because the American managers of the affair had refused to alert the Cuban underground which exists in every hamlet and city of Cuba. Without the promised support of American air and naval craft; without the promised guns, tanks, and ammunition; without the ex- pected support of their own people in Cuba, the invaders were trapped on the beaches of the Bay of Pigs, most of them murdered there or taken captive to be paraded igno- minously through Havana and later disposed of. The fatal blow to the Cuban patriots try- ing to free their homeland was the failure to alert the Cuban underground. Who de- livered that blow, and what does that have to do with the Overseas Weekly attacking General Walker in Germany? Gene Bernald, 126 Millard Avenue, Philipse Manor, Tarryton, N.Y., is a director of the International Media Co., which publishes Overseas Weekly. Bernald is also a partici- pating operator of Radio Swan-a powerful transmitter, on Greater Swan Island, an American possession in the western Carib- bean Sea, just north of Honduras. Radio Swan is licensed for commercial purposes but devotes much of its time to political broadcast beamed to populations throughout Central America. Radio Swan is one of the stations which saturated that area with anti- Trujillo propaganda (Trujillo was an anti- Communist ruler of the Dominican Repub- lic, who was friendly to the United States, but whom the Eisenhower administration repudiated and ruined, at the instigation of Betancourt, President of Venezuela, who is widely believed to be a Communist). Radio Swan justifies its political broad- casts by saying it fights "isms" of all kinds in Central'America, whether of the Castro or of the Trujillo variety. The anti-Communist Cubans who tried to recapture their country from Communist Castro in April 1961, gave Radio Swan a key role to play. Radio Swan was supposed to broadcast a signal in code to .alert the Cuban underground so that an uprising in Cuba could support the invasion attempt. The signal was never broadcast. It is generally believed throughout Central America that Radio Swan, though managed as a private business by such people as Gene Bernald, is actually a CIA (Central Intelli- gence Agency) operation and that it was built with U.S. tax money. A COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN There is much more which is sinister and profoundly dangerous to America. Senator STROM THURMOND, Democrat, of South Caro- lina, has been waging a gallant fight (with practically no support in the Congress, little in the press) against the gagging of all anti- Communist patriots in the Armed Forces of America. The Walker case is merely one aspect of this great issue. Indeed, Senator THURMOND has shown that General Walker was used as a whipping boy to scare other Armed Forces patriots into silence. The most startling revelation which Sena- tor THURMOND has made is that the attack on anti-Communist patriotism in the Amer- ican Armed Forces was ordered and initi- ated by the Communist Party and that Sen- ator J. WILLIAM FULDRIGHT, Democrat, of Arkansas, played the leading role in pro- moting this particular campaign. In a later issue of this report, we will look more deeply into the Fulbright affair which Senator THURMOND brought to light. Mean- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1916 Approved For RtMtIRiC- 4B0R0110007-5 is not yet 52. He is at the peak of his career as a combat-hardened officer. And the little, soft, spineless parasites of the liberal left have got him. Thirty years as a first-class fighting man. And what price glory?" When General Walker arrived in Germany in late 1969, he took steps immediately to set up a program that would condition the men of the 24th Division as American fight- Ing men: a vigorous program to condition the men physically; to educate them in the political fundamentals which form the bed- rock of their own society; to acquaint them with the atheistic and barbarous philosophy of communism-socialism; to discipline them in proper behavior as men, so that their presence in Europe would create good will rather than hatred for America; and, above all, to keep the troops constantly reminded that they are creatures of God dependent upon and answerable to Him, and, under Him, responsible for themselves and for their treatment of others. Here are a few excerpts from the official directives which established General Walk- er's problue program for the 24th Infantry Division : "To educate military personnel and their dependents in the technique of Communist infiltration, subversion, and propaganda, in influencing legal governments, seizing pow- er, then ruling through brutality and fear. "To instruct military personnel and their dependents in the recognition of overt and covert Communist methodology in their at- tempt to subvert military morale, esprit, prestige, and leadership. "To appraise military personnel, and their dependents, of their personal stake in Amer- ican political philosophy, the American con- cept of individual rights and freedoms, and the demand for individual belief, sacrifice, and honor. "To motivate military personnel and their dependents in adherence to American moral forces and the precepts of individual dignity, the preciousness- of every human soul, and the obligations of the conscientious citizen to his God, to his country, and to himself. "Tb inform military personnel and their dependents of the power of the American citizen as a unique political force, to study the structure of local, State, and national political organizations, to review methods of assessing issues and candidates, to examine the techniques of Socialist-Communist ac- tion, and to note how the American citizen can exert his power in the fight for freedom. "To indoctrinate military personnel in those aspects of body, mind, and spirit which have a material bearing on morale and mis- sion in the 24th Infantry Division, to exam- ine physiological and psychological factors which affect individual, unit, and division efficiency ? s ? to create military environ- ment which will produce tough-fibered, ag- gressive, disciplined, and spiritually moti- vated fighters for freedom." The problue program was remarkably effec- tive. After it was initiated, chapel attend- ance among men of the 24th Infantry Divi- sion increased eightfold; morale conspicu- ously improved; reenlistments exceeded the record of any other American oversea mili- tary organization; and the number of "inci- dents" creating tensions between Americans and the local population decreased until the 24th had the best record in the U.S. Army. Even Europeans recognized that General Walker had the only division of American troops who were physically, morally, and psychologically ready for combat with Soviet troops, if the necessity arose. General Walker's success was so spectacu- lar that he should have been commended and promoted In rank with a mission to in- stitute the problue program in all units and branches of all our armed services throughout the world. In fact, the Army high command had already recognized the man's superior ac- complishment, by arranging a promotion for him. In April 1961, General Walker was preparing to leave the 24th. He was return- ing to his home State, Texas, with a promo- tion in assignment, to command the 8th Corps. But on April 9, 1961, the Overseas Weekly editorially complained that General Walker's troop-information program was a John Birch Society project and alleged that the general, in a speech to a PTA group, had called Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Edward R. Murrow, and two or three similar persons "pinkos." On April 14, General Walker denied the news- paper charges. On April 1B, President Kennedy-ignoring the general's denial and accepting Overseas Weekly's charges at face value--fired General Walker from his com- mand, canceled his scheduled promotion, and assigned him to a minor role at U.S. Army headquarters in Heidelberg, Germany, pending "investigation of the charges against him." On May 31, 1961, the Army disbanded Gen- eral Walker's problue program--12 days be- fore announcing that the investigation of the general had been completed. The Army still denies that it killed the problue pro- gram; but I have the story In the words of Sp4 Ashland F. Burchwell, ex-research clerk of the Special Warfare Section (problue section) of the 24th Division. Private Burchwell wrote an "Obituary to Problue," which he sent to me and several other pub- lishers In the United States. In his cover letter to me, Mr. Burchwell said:: "They got Walker; but, what is worse, they got the problue program too. On May 31, we were told to close up shop. Typewriters, which, 8 short months ago, had joined you in a campaign to free America once more, are now silent. The Special Warfare Section is now a memory. "Use the enclosure as you see fit " ? ? use my name, if you wish-or tag it with the names of all Americans who believe in free- dom and are appalled at the great amount of Communist Influence in the United States." The! enclosure was Private Burchwell's "Obituary to Problue." Here are abbrevi- ated excerpts from it: "Thursday, 31 May 1961, will go on the calendars in Moscow as a victory for world communism. To some people, it may seem a minor victory, but to those who know, the ramifications of this defeat for America may be so far reaching, that in days to come, it may be mourned by the slaves of a Commu- nist world as 'the day freedom lost the war.' "Ten o'clock in the morning, 31 May 1961, the problue program of the 24th Division was disbanded. "What a pity! How frightening that a publication such as the Overseas Weekly should wield such influence over the actions of free men as to force the downfall of a program whose only vice was the teaching of Americanism to Americans. "How is it that a nation, and the army of that nation, can comply so completely with the wishes of their enemy? "Problue: For God and Country. Pro- blue: Dedicated to developing American- ism. Problue: Voice of freemen speaking. Problue, now In exile, outcast by the witch- head of ignorance, and destroyed by the death's-head of communism. Why? "Sixteen thousand men, were not only beginning to understand their obligations as citizens of the greatest Republic in his- tory, but were also beginning to act on those obligations and appreciate their right to believe and act on their ideals. Sixteen thousand men were beginning to realize the vastness of the battle they were fighting, and the enormity of the war they were in. "But now? An article by a paper of doubtful, to say the least, quality and mor- als, and all the truths taught by problue, become lies. All that was real and sure, A6821 only hours ago, is now false. All that was black is miraculously now white. All that was gocd, now had. For 16,000 disillusioned men, these are the results of the destruction -- of problue. "We now see the outcome of what happens when some men do good and are not sup- ported by all good men. "Where do we, the men who tried to up- hold and teach the obligations of liberty, go now? What will tomorrow bring for those who were deeply engaged in the fight against communism? One, you -already know of: he was a general, with a fine war record, who believed in the ideals he had fought in two wars to preserve. He was relieved of com- mand and publicly humiliated. As for my- self, I will. probably go to a line unit, where I can be watched and not be able to spread my 'blasphemous lies' that communism is evil. My boss will go back to his old job as a first sergeant where he too may be watched.. Two will be returned to their units where they will serve, respectively, as a clerk and a radio operator. The rest of the office will be scattered throughout the di- vision filling slots where they cannot con- tinue with the fight against communism on an organized basis. "But what of 16,000 men who are still wondering just exactly what did happen? And what of 160 million Americans who are left with the. impression that we were witch- hunting and that there is no real threat after all? Who will take the place of the pro- blue program in teaching the men in uni- form w'sat they are supposed to be doing? "Me? As a private soldier in the service of the United States and one time member of the 'notorious' Special Warfare Section, as an American who did not lay aside the role of citizen when I assumed the role of sol- dier, I must continue my search for a battle- field where I can again join the fight against communism. "But what of you? One of the 160 million free Americans who may,, or may not, un- derstand what has happened?" On June 12, 1961, the Secretary of the Army announced that Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker had been admonished for taking injudicious actions and for making deroga- tory public statements about prominent Americans. Being orally "admonished" rather than formally court-martialed, General 'Walker has no recourse or appeal. THE OVERSEAS %EEKLY The Overseas Weekly is a small, privately owned, newspaper established May 14, 1950. It is published abroad, for American service- men in Europe, by the InternationalMedia Co., 380 Lexington Avenue, New York City. Overseas Weekly was incorporated at Wil- mington, Del., on February 20, 1952. The articles of incorporation list Marion von Rospach as president; Anthony Biacone as vice president; Harold Melahn as secretary treasurer; and John Dornberg as news editor. In 1953, Lt. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, then commanding general of the Army in Europe, banned Overseas Weekly as unfit for Ameri- can servicemen. Later, the Army permitted the paper on Army newsstands again. . U.S. Congressmen DALE ALFORD Democrate of Arkansas, calls Overseas Weekly at "sal- cious, overseas pink sheet' which habitually features "half-nude show girls-pictures of a type most American newspapers would decline to print." That is a polite way of calling the thing what it is: a filthy, pro-Communist rag which peddles pornography to capture the attention of soldiers, and which generally (whether wittingly or not) promotes the Communist line in all its serious editorial efforts. A glance at any issue of Overseas Weekly, and a glimpse at the personal history of people connected with it. will reveal why Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 Approved F Wk 2MN111RE PBAP"fqJ00200110007-5 temporary illness; and persons in stranded Long and loud arguments have gone on for ployed are only lightly or temporarily in the communities or occupations who have been years about the proper classification of cer- labor market as compared with those who discouraged in their search for work because tain borderline groups, but the general struc- have been full-time, year-round workers for of the unavailability of jobs. Note that this ture has proved to be useful. many years? definition does not limit the unemployed to We recognize also that these concepts What is needed in connection with the those who are disemployed"-that is, who alone do not meet every need for informs- unemployment problem is not to reject the have been laid off from jobs. tion about how our working force is being statistics we now have but to provide for The most clearly defined type of unem- utilized or how well the economy is func- more detail and more meaningful break- ployed is the year-round, full-time worker tioning in providing the right kinds of em- downs, so that the data would be more use- who lxas held a job in the past and who is ployment opportunities to the right people. ful for public policy decisions. looking for one at present. This would most But they do provide a measure of the num- likely be a male worker, perhaps a head of her of people who have at least some form of THE PURPOSE Or STATISTICS a family, between 20 and 65 years of age; employment, and a measure of the number but it could include a single woman, a mar- of jobseekers who have not been able to A man either has a jpl or . does not. Pied woman, or a teenager. locate what is to them a suitable job as of a If not, has u a job to is employed. If he does Some people think that teenagers should given period of time. not, he is unemployed. be left out of the unemployed. In the month The unemployment rate. The doubts of ber If you merely want are compare the the of June 1961, there were 2.5 million young- some people concerning our concepts and number bpeh who who ah working with the sters under age 20 who came out of school definitions arise from their serious concern d who are not, this presents a a minimum looking for work. Some were looking for per-' about the effect on public opinion of the un- and adequate definition with a mni mum of manent jobs; others were interested only in employment rate, which is the ratio of the fuWiedges. temporary summer jobs. Altogether, about unemployed to the labor force (employed Wth such a definition, you can then use 1.6 million found jobs and the remaining plus unemployed). standard sampling techniques which will 900,000 were still looking for work by the We publish two rates for total unemploy- atio you a pwhole oo the eon with ena r- situ- of the month. The sharp June rise in ment: One, the actual for the month; two, onable the whole population within a reas- middle ea can the total unemployment figure for the Na- the seasonally adjusted, which eliminates the see fro margin s error. This, as you can tion as a whole was fully explained by this wide seasonal variations. In July 1981, they see this the article by basic approach of his group. were almost the same-7.0 and 6.9-but they Bureau this page, is the bthe approach of m- These These teenagers, especially those who have can differ quite widely. Y Bureau to measuring the Nation's unem- worked before, do raise a conceptual We in the Department of Labor have con- But ployment rwi ls also problem. In one European country no per- tinually Insisted that analysis of the unem- Labor you w Statistics does notice make the Bureau son is considered as unemployed unless he ployment problem should not be confined to modification in one majo- or she has previously held a job. However, the overall rates. We regularly publish cep- employment. in the simple person Is looking n un- or believe that our method is the sounder one. arate figures and rates for men, for women, b, he is Unless a person n mploe for We count as employed those who got jobs. for teenagers, by age groups, by marital a job, not counted statistical unemployed. Why leave out those who didn't? status, etc. It is also possible to shift some Now in a purely A housewife ense this is In my judgment these figures supply a groups and to calculate rates on different rather producing incol. wifwho the co- useful picture of the labor market. We combinations of employed and unemployed. nomic sense income is happy she is the seer always tabulate these teenagers separately Unemployment policies. But all these estate-certainly as however hp much oas the with her house- in every month of the year, so that those classifications and reclassifications, valuable wife in the same he work. using the unemployment statistics as a guide as they are, do not quite get to the heart of wife in les saBureau ho wants distinc- can can allow for this group. Also, we seasonally the controversy. A key issue has been raised Nonetheless, the Buramakes the istinc- adjust the unemployment rates, so that this by people who question whether persons who tion for a very good reason. summer bulge can be discounted in economic don't really need a job should be counted As Mr. Clague explains, de, "the were deter- measure- analysis. among the unemployed. mints which have been devised were deter-to be What should we do with elderly persons In statistical terms, this Is not a practical mined by tg public purpose l and pensions? There are at present al- suggestion. Statistical surveys cannot sup- that is, to gi ve us somthe e useful and relevant most 12% million men and women drawing the country. county about would be tatic state social security security benefits. Under the law, such would l ortake a social question ac- Investigation of cy. It would housewives-as statistically all curate persons are permitted to earn up to $1,200 the family to determine that. as chi ou to and count old happy people--as unempwell per year without loss of benefits. Many of Even in concept this is not the way to state but its would patently ridiculous. Such these are counted- among the 3 million men the issue. Need has no necessary connection ant u wbe patently re public Such and women over age 65 who are employed, with unemployment, or with employment. a figure would that serve the public purpose almost almost 900,000 of them ii part-time jobs. At There are many millions of persons holding intended; for that purpose it would mis- our figures show that the number in jobs in this country who don't really need inform. this age group seeking work is about 150,000, them. And surely there must be hundreds of This been raised a directly a the pl econce that but this amounts to less than 3 percent of thousands of unemployed who could get have been loym n many people They the total unemployed. However, we publish along without a job. But in a free economy the unemployment statistics. They have the figures for this group every month, so jobs are not allocated on a basis of need. good otdist to do with They ask Me. er the is a that they can be subtracted from the total Even in referring the unemployed to jobs, ghowever That ask whether etva the the unemployment figures. the Employment Service puts its primary public, however accurate, are relevant to the Questions are frequently raised about the emphasis on qualifications and ability. public purpose to our house ethod of counting women, particularly But people who raise the question of need The teenager at our houis unemployed; married women. Should they be counted as in connection with unemployment are think- no question about it. The economy did not unemployed if they are only secondary wage ing primarily of the social and economic provide a job that met the specifications, work? earners or are looking for only part-time policies for dealing with unemployment. An which included acceptable hours, proximity unemployed worker seeking a job constitutes Mr. home, and relationship If sob to training. found, But married women make up about one- a labor market fact; but what the Nation employment Clague awould u If a job had been found, fifth of all the unemployed persons in this should do about It if he doesn't find a job there is job fbr a have jobseeker, by one; country, and more than half of all employed is an entirely different matter. y increased by o n't should if women. Almost three-fifths of our increase While statistical surveys cannot measure unemployment be increased by one? in employment during the decade of the such factors as individual or family need, Still, the fact is that this unit of unem- fifties was accounted for by married women. some additional and more detailed classifica- ployment Is not of the same order as the unit We can no longer think of them as a sec- tions might be helpful as guides to public of unemployment created by an unemployed ondary or unimportant part of our labor policy. For example, Congress has provided steelworker who must support not only him- supply. funds to the Bureau of Employment Security self but a wife and family, although mathe- According to our latest study, the vast to make intensive surveys of the workers matically a unit is a unit. majority of unemployed married women- drawing temporary extended unemployment The unemployed steelworker, especially over 80 percent-are looking for full-time compensation. These studies will throw light when his numbers are multiplied, is an eco- jobs (we do not now collect these figures upon that particular group of long-term nomic fact to trouble all thoughtful people. every month, but may do so in the future). unemployed. Thus, of the approximately 900,000 married The Bureau uts to equate ated teenager may any ste father, women who were unemployed in March 1961, ping some studies next winter sonsthis plan- e char- b bu u equate this unit w any dicu ous only about 150,000 were looking for part-time acteristics of the unemployed to obtain more It measure with the steelworker is ridiculous. can actually serve the public purpose ill jobs. Omission of this group would have information in depth concerning the degree by misleading ding everybody as to the true state e little effect on the count of unemployed and of attachment of various classes of workers of our economic condition. probably no effect on the trend. in the labor force. In my diffulty Is encountered in In summary, we know that with these the limitations in our statistics jstc snIsnournlack areas. a Wee have, for example, more than 12 broad concepts we include many different of knowledge of the patterns of labor mar- million people who are retired and draw so- kinds of persons with many different degrees ket participation by the unemployed over a cial security. Some of them also work; some of job attachments or jobseeking aspirations, period of years. How many of the unem- would like to work but haven't found the Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 00Q715 ---August 29 Approved For,ReIpas& QMTIDf1 Q ?r0lA ?669+ QI?0200 tl+^4 kind of job that meets their particular cir- cumstances. In the same way as the teen- ager, they are statistical units to be counted. Now we all think of unemployment as a bad thing, which in the case of the steel- worker it is. Yet actually one of our public purposes is to create a society in which some people don't work. A depressed or backward society is one in which teenagers, housewives, and old people must work to survive. By counting as unemployed those who are impelled to work not out of need but for some other reason-and who can afford to be selective in taking a job-we not only distort our view of economic troubles but we actually obscure one of the very good things about our society. Mr. Clague himself realizes this, for he has lately begun segregating teenager and retired unemployment. But they are still included in the total figure, so that when somebody says our unemployment rate is 7 percent, or whatever, the Irrelevant is lumped with the relevant, the good with the bad. What, then, do we really want to meas- ure? Certainly not just the number of peo- ple who don't have jobs, nor even those hit at the ' Ishameless" cynicism by which the Soviet, posing as foe of colonialism, used Tunisia's grievance against France as a ve- hicle for anti-Western propaganda. While France has freed many colonies t?6 become sovereign nations since World WAX II, Stevenson reminded the U.N. Genal Assembly the Soviet has not freed an inch of captive territory, but instead has greedily grabbed for more. Millions of peopl who were free 16 years ago are Soviet 'slaves today. ,Poland, Hungary, East Gernyany are just a few examples. Attacking the Soviet as the wc~st colo- nialist power in the world is a line Jo be used more consistently than only in an,pccasional U.N. debate. This is the big truth which Mr. K. can't bear to hear. When the Soviet talks about ~alonialism, let us not pussyfoot for fear pf offending to carry the banner of self- for the most downtrodden col CoN,9 ES5IONAL RECORD, a fine, brief bi- mond News-Leader. Here are excerptsfrom it : .He was born in Center Point, Tex., in 1909. He grew up tall and straight, a boy 6 feet 3, wlio' loved horses and soldiering. He finished at West Point in 1931. "He was at Schofield Barracks in Hawaii when the Germans went into Poland. Brought back to the States, he participated in the swift transformation of the old horse- drawn unit:; into sleek mechanized divisions. But he had. qualities too vital to be squan- dered in artillery logistics. "Commando. That was his art. He be- came commanding officer of an outfit de- ceptively known as the First Special Service Force, a crack team of Canadian and Amer- ican soldiers unafraid of hand-to-hand combat. "He had to learn to use a parachute. `How do you put this thing on'? he asked a sergeant. And 5 minutes later, he jumped. "He and his men fought their way up the talian Peninsula. Anzio; the Aleutians; ki fighting in Norway--and a string' of What Price Glory?-Maj. den. Walker ecorati0n3 to show for it. Edwin A. "Briefly, peacetime again. Then came orea: command of an infantry regiment, the exhausting, maddening business of fight- ing an enemy but never quite defeating without jobs who might like to have one if the job suits them. The relevent question is how many people whose livelihood de- pends upon having jobs are unable to find i them. This is the statistic that measures a part of our economic health in a meaning- ful way. It begs the question to argue this statistic can't be found because the bureau can't judge whether the unemployed person is needy. The bureau doesn't have to know whether that unemployed steelworker is needy in the sense of being without money to buy groceries.. His earnings are the sup- port of himself and others and this is what makes his unemployment a meaningful fact. But this is precisely the statistic for which you will have to burrow deep to find amid the present array of numbers. We are still presented with an unemployment index as if it meant what it plainly doesn't, because the bureau persists in counting as the same thing things that aren't the same thing at all. If this isn't the cause of all the misunder- standing about the present unemployment statistics it certainly abets it. And there- fore, it seems to us, however accurate they are, Mr. Clague:'s statistics do not yet best serve the public purpose. EXTENSION OF REMARKS him." of Walker was on the ground and in com- mand at the battle of Heartbreak Ridge in HON. L. MENDEL RIVERS Korea. Like all good commanders, die; but hassuf- oF SOUTH CAROLINA heartbreak which he brought away from IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Korea was the spectacle of American youth, Tuesday, August 29, 1961 reared in the insipid environment of a flab- by, materialistic liberalism-young Amer- Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. icans who had not the slightest notion what Speaker, under leave to extend my re- they were fighting for and who succumbed marks, I would like to insert in the Ap- to enemy brainwashing, because they knew pendix of the RECORD an article written nothing about the great ideals on which by Dan Smoot entitled "What Price their owr. society was founded. In the early fall of 1959, General Walker Glory." was orde:'edl to Western Germany as com- Mr. Speaker, I do not know Dan Smoot, mander of the 24th Infantry Division. Here, nor do I necessarily concur in his writ- in the language of the Pichmond News- ings or in the contents of his report. Leader, is what he found and what he did However, when it comes to a report on there: he foun the same softness, the Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker, of which elessne , that hundreds of other I know to be factual and parts of which same "There h e professional soldiers have found in young- I feel :in my heart must be factual, it is sters raised on the milktoast liberalism that my duty and responsibility to place it in passes for education these clays. the RECORD so that it will be available to "So, he began to talk tcugh about com- the American people, that they may conceals and, whatin is, and how the enemy ible, come to their own conclusions, falsehood. He spoke to his 'mops of gullgauzy safe at home in soft chairs, Speaker, we cannot appeal an ad- delicate men Mr , . Keep at It monishment as this report states, and polishing their fingernails and coughing d dmonish- t t lan uage ron g a t EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON.. CLYDE DOYLE to the American people. Since he has _ OF VAL-11-11 an _ -.---, _ IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES those who represent large segments of barrassing. His object was to give his troops , August 29,1961 the American people who will take his a new rand vital approach toward antimm- Tuesday, case to the people in spite of forces who munism--a positive approach toward the Mr. DOYLE. Mr. Speaker, by rea- would obstruct such effort to bring these defeat of Communist subversion of the son of unanimous consent heretofore facts to light. The American people have American way of life. granted me so to do, I call your atten- reached the crossroads in their maturity "All this appeared in a paper known as the Overseas; Weekly-with sxieers, and'. con- as a Nation. The signposts stand before Overseas; little quotes out of context,. and a in the Los Angeles Examiner on last us. We can go down the road to ruin, self -righteous editorial along with it. Thursday, August 24, 1961: or we can go up the road to survival. "General Walker then was called on the KEEP AT IT However, let the American people choose carpet by the commanding general of the As Nikita Khrushchev demonstrated in which road' they prefer. They are old 7th Army. He was asked for a full explana- tantrums directed against former President enough to accept good news or bad news. The New York Herald Tribune also tion. Eisenhower and President Kennedy, his weak But--give America the news-to this him imign in a eeditions. Boit r al, ripublished b also in and tender spot is the Soviet's colonial em- they are entitled. une: 'It is repugnant to both the American pnd Any mention om the munism t nsm touches the ches te WHAT PRICE GLORY?-MAJ. GEN. EDwxx A. military and civil heritage to use Army under the chains of co m - authority in an attempt to shape the politi- quick. (By`Dan Smoot) cal thi-iking of enlisted :men: U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Gen. Edwin Anderson Walker, sol- Hampshi e, has Rlinserted einto Republican, dier,Iwas suspended from his command. He exposingethessoredspot nntheoRed sk nay He of New Senator g ly a s gen General Walker receive an ment. it would have been far better for "He spoke bluntly of these influential s the Nation if he had been court-mar- pele, tile an -an be beastly le creed is that we must n ver tialed and could have presented his case g_ +, a t-crl _ the shrill and- mocking men Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16448 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION IN WAGE RATES BASED ON SEX Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. President, on behalf of myself and the Senator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], I introduce a bill to eliminate discrimination-based on sex-in wage rates where men and women are performing comparable work for the same employer. Such discrimination has long been recognized as detrimental to both the American economy and the social life of the country. It goes without saying that an em- ployer who engages in such practices enjoys an unfair advantage over his competitors who do not discriminate. It is also obvious that lower wage rates for women lower both the purchasing power and living standards of the Amer- ican worker. Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg has provided us with an explanatory statement of the bill and a section-by- section analysis. I ask unanimous consent, that follow- ing my remarks, there be printed in the RECORD, the bill itself, Secretary Gold- berg's letter to Vice President JOHNSON, the explanatory statement, and the sec- tion-by-section analysis. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill will be received and appropriately re- ferred; and, without objection, the bill, letter, explanatory statement, and sec- tion-by-section analysis will be printed in the RECORD. The bill (S. 2494) to prohibit discrimi- nation on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in com- merce or in the production of goods for commerce and to provide for the restitu- tion of wages lost by employees by reason of any such discrimination, introduced by Mr. McNAMARA (for himself and Mr. MORSE), was received, read twice by its title, referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, and ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress, That this Act may be cited as the "Equal Pay Act of 1961." DECLARATION OF PURPOSE SEC. 2. (a) The Congress hereby finds that the existence in industries engaged in com- merce or in the production of goods for com- merce of wage differentials based on sex- (1) depresses wages and living standards for employees necessary for their health and efficiency; (2) prevents the maximum utilization of the available labor resources; (3) tends to cause labor disputes, thereby brudening, affecting, and obstructing com- merce; (4) burdens commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce; and (5) constitutes an unfair method of com- petition. (b) It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act, through exercise by Congress of its power to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations, to correct the conditions above referred to in such industries. DEFINITIONS SEC. 3. When used in this Act- (a) "Person" means an individual, part- nership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons. (b) "Commerce" means trade, commerce, transportation, transmission, or communica- tion among the several States or between any State and any place outside thereof. (c) "Goods" means goods (including ships and marine equipment), wares, products, commodities, merchandise, or articles or subjects of commerce of any character, or any part or ingredient thereof, but does not include goods after their delivery into the actual physical possession of the ultimate consumer thereof other than a producer, manufacturer, or processor thereof. (d) "Produced" means produced, manu- factured, mined, handled, or in any other manner worked on in any State; and for the purposes of this Act an employer shall be deemed to have been engaged in the production of goods if such employee was employed in producing, manufacturing, mining, handling, transporting, or in any other manner working on such goods, or in any closely related process or occupation di- rectly essential to the production thereof, in any State. (e) "Employ" includes to suffer or permit to work. (f) "Employer" includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State, or any labor organization (other than when acting as an employer), or anyone acting in the capacity of officer or agent of such labor organization. (g) "Employee" includes any individual employed by an employer. (h) "Wage" paid to any employee in- cludes the reasonable cost, as determined by the Secretary, to the employer of furn- ishing such employee with board, lodging, or other facilities, if such board, lodging, or other facilities are customarily furnished by such employer to his employees: Pro- vided, That the Secretary is authorized to determine the fair value of such board, lodging, or other facilities for defined classes of employees and in defined areas, based on average cost to the em- ployer or to groups of employers similarly situated, or average value to groups of em- ployees, or other appropriate measures of fair value. Such evaluations, where ap- plicable and pertinent, shall be used in lieu of actual measure of cost in determining the wage paid to any employee. PROHIBITION OF WAGE RATE DIFFERENTIAL BASED ON SEX SEC. 4. No employer having employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce shall discriminate, in any place of employment in which his employees are so engaged, between em- ployees on the basis of sex by paying wages to any employee at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to any employee of the opposite sex for work of comparable character on jobs the performance of which requires comparable skills, except where such payment is made pursuant to a seniority or merit increase system which does not discriminate on the basis of sex. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT SEC. 5. (a) The Secretary of Labor- (1) shall prescribe such regulations and rules as he deems necessary and appropriate for the administration of this Act, including regulations to provide standards for deter- mining work of a comparable character on jobs the performance of which requires com- parable skills; (2) may investigate and gather data re- garding the wages, hours, and other condi- tions and practices of employment in any in- dustry subject to this Act, and may enter and inspect such places and such records (and make such transcriptions thereof), question such employees, and investigate such facts, conditions, practices, and-mat- ters as he may deem necessary or appro1 priate to determine whether any person has violated any provision of this Act, or which may aid in the enforcement of the provi- sions of this Act; (3) if a violation is found to exist, the Sec- retary may, before taking further action hereunder, by informal methods of confer- ence, conciliation, and persuasion, endeavor to eliminate discriminatory wage practices and to secure restitution of wages which an employee would have received had the em- ployee been paid at the rate paid the oppo- site sex as required by this Act; (4) may enter and serve upon any em- ployer found by the Secretary, after notice and hearing in conformity with sections 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the Administrative, Pro- cedure Act, to be engaged in or to have en- gaged in any violation of section 4 of this Act, an order requiring such employer (A) to cease and desist from such violation, and (B) to pay to each employee who has been adversely affected a sum equal to the amount of the wages due such employee at the rate paid to an employee of the opposite sex, plus an additional equal amount as liquidated damages; and (5) may enter and serve upon any em- ployer found by the Secretary, after notice and hearing as provided in paragraph (4) hereof, to have discharged or otherwise dis- criminated against any employee on account of any action taken by such employee to in- voke, enforce, or assist in any manner in the enforcement of the provisions of section 4 of this Act, an order requiring such employer to reinstate such employee, or to remove such discrimination, and to pay to such employee a sum equal to the amount of the wages of which such employee has been deprived by reason of such discharge or other discrimination plus an additional equal amount as liquidated damages. (b) For the purposes of any investigation conducted under paragraph (2) of section 5(a) of this Act, the provisions of section 307 (relating to the attendance of wit- nesses and the production of books, papers, and documents) of the Federal Power Act of June 10, 1920 (16 U.S.C. 825f), shall be ap- plicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Labor or any offi- cers designated by him. (c) The Secretary shall have power to pe- tition any United States District Court, within the jurisdiction of which the viola- tion of this Act occurred or such person re- sides or transacts business, for the enforce- ment of any order issued under this section and for appropriate temporary relief or re- straining order, and shall file in the court the record in the proceedings. Upon filing of such petition, the court shall cause notice thereof to be served upon such person, and thereupon shall have jurisdiction of the pro- ceeding, and shall have power to grant such temporary relief and restraining order as it deems just and proper, and to make and enter a decree enforcing, modifying, and en- forcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in part the order of the Secretary. No objection that has not been urged before the Secretary or hearing officer, shall be con- sidered by the court, unless the failure or neglect to urge such objection shall be ex- cused because of extraordinary circum- stances. The findings of the Secretary with respect to questions of fact if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole shall be conclusive. If either party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the fail- ure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before the Secretary or hearing officer, the court may order such additional evidence Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 16447 s eceeeded by outthinking the enemy, hitting the foe where the defenses or beaches were thought unsuitable for.P'.lied attack. TWENTY MONTHS IN KOREA He spent 20 months in the Korean con- flict as regimental commander, deputy chief of prisoner of war affairs, senior adviser to the crack Republic of Korea 1st Corps. One of his toughest assignments was being commander of the 101st Airborne Division in 1957 at Little Rock. In 1959, when Walker took over command in Germany of the 24th Infantry Division, he electrified it with moral, patriotic, indi- vidualistic leadership. I visited this division in 1959, and covered Exercise Wintershield last February when the entire NATO ground force held war games under Gen. Bruce Clark. who wrote the report on Walker for President Kennedy. Walker's speeches to his soldiers often de- scribed the 24th as "Mari to man, man to leader, man to God." Chapel attendance in- creased eightfold since he took over the di- vision, and this God-and-country officer distributes hand cards listing 10 basic free- doms and 10 basic responsibilities, with this summation: "Freedom plus responsibilities equals liberty." Removal from command is a shattering experience for a general officer, from which all the pieces can never be reassembled. General Eisenhower refused thus to humil- iate George Patton in front of his men, even after Patton slapped a hospitalized soldier. When we remember that pink) generals, during the McCarthy era, were promoted, the torrent of criticism aimed at General Walker suggests some frightening conclusions. I have a file full of documentation on Gen- eral Walker and I find nothing in that file to indicate any but the most patriotic motives and objectives. I urge a prompt congressional probe of the incident, in question and I urge Americans to prod their Congressmen to the end that this investigation will be full and fair. And watch where the self-appointed cham- pions of civil rights show up at this show- down. Will they stand up for the rights of a man whose only possible crime is too much anxiety for the security of his country? It will be interesting to see who will go to bat for Ted Walker. [From the New York Journal American, Aug. 15, 1961] BEING A PATRIOT IS HIS. ONLY CRIME (By George E. Sokolsky) Contrived phrases often give false weights to ideas. I recently came across the phase, right-wing fundamentalism in "Commen- tary." No matter how much one analyzes the phrase, it means nothing. It is just three words thrown together. In the controversy between Senators F'uL- BRIGHT and THURMOND over the case of Gen- eral Walker, the argument runs that the General is guilty of having taught right- wing patriotism. Was it intended that he should advocate left-wing doctrines? Or was he not to give his troops any ideological treatment? I have before me a copy of the problue program which is the matter in controversy. The objectives of the program are clearly stated. On the subject of communism, the program provides: "(1). To orient military personnel, depend- ents and friends in the scope of world com- munism by studying the philosophies, ob- jectives, and imperialistic expansion of communism. "(2) To educate military personnel andl +r.e;- Avv.nn Ann+c i? +hn naramiiitarv tanh- the power of the American citizen as a unique political force, to study the structure of local, State and National political organi- zations, to review methods of assessing issues and candidates, to examine the techniques of Socialist-Communist action, and recog- nize how the American citizens can exert his power in the fight for freedom. "(4) Morale and mission: To indoctrinate military personnel in those espects of body, mind and spirit, which have a material bear- ing on morale and mission in the 24th. In- fantry Division: To examine physiological and psycrological factors which effect [sic] individual, unit, and division efficiency, i.e., morbidity; serious incidents, courts-martial, and board, action rates; to create a military environment which will produce tough, ag- gressive, disciplined and spiritually moti- vated fighters for.freedom." For this, e. general of the Army is relieved of his position? As a matter of fact, this is precisely what every American should be taught in the public schools., Actually, when I went to school, there were courses in civics which were similar to these. Then the program deals with NATO: "(1) Agreement of forces: To give mili- tary personnel and their dependents a work- ing knowledge of the purpose and objectives of NATO, to review reciprocal legal obliga- tions and areas of responsibility, to identify NATO as a, disciplined force for freedom. and to note the accomplishment of NATO mem- bers in halting Communist aggression." I cannot give the entire program in this space allotted to me, but I have not found a word or ;phrase in this problue program to which anyone can object but an enemy of the United States. So what is the fuss about? Secretary of Defense McNamara has got himself involved in a situation which he really does not understand. It is suggested [From Human Events, June 2, 1961 ] WHO WILL GO TO BAT FOR GENERAL WALKER? (By Paul Harvey) It used to be that Communists were the daring ones. A Communist; had to be so dedicated that he would risk the slings and arrows of out- rageous fortune to espouse his convictions in public. Any Communist who ventured away from Bughouse Square to proclaim his Red "ism" in any respectable forum was castigated, socially ostracized, disemployed or perhaps stoned. We have changed. Time has stood still; we have changed. The Communist has learned to use our own Constitution as a bulletproof vest. Today the Reds and Pinks are out in the open proclaiming their godless religion and waving a Red flag or a mongrel one from the rooftops, and with such effectiveness and in such high places, that American patriots are now on the defensive. Today the, loyal American is being de- famed, demoted, discharged, destroyed if he militantly defends the American "ism" against all its enemies, foreign and domestic. Maj. Gen. "Ted" Walker is such a man. West Point 1931, much decorated since, he .was CO of our 24th Infantry in Germany when President Kennedy yanked that com- mand out from under him last April. Why? Because General Walker had been criti- cized by a slier.;emongering, girlie-stripping scandal sheet called the Overseas Weekly. (GI's call it the "Oversexed Weekly.") One glance at this smutty, semiliterate, left-wing tabloid would rot your socks. Yet on the word of this publication, once banned by our Army as unfit for American service- men, General Walker was embarrassed, sus- pended, and may be disgraced. His "sin"? General Walker, an informed authority on the Communist conspiracy, had brought to the attention of his troops the publications most competent to alert them to the weapons and tactics of our enemy. Any American. who gets his teeth in Khru- shchev's trousers gets hurt. That Overseas Weekly rag launched a tirade of abuse, alleg- ing General Walker was "brainwashing" the men of his command, consorting with "su- perpatriots," and recommending publications of the John Birch Society. The sky fell down. President Kennedy removed General Wal- ker from command "pending investigation." and propaganda in influencing legal govern- ments, seizing power, then ruling through brutality and fear. "(3) To instruct military personnel and their dependents in the recognition of overt and covert Communist methodology in the Communist attempt to subvert military morals, esprit, prestige, and leadership." If we are at war with communism, as both President Kennedy and Nikita Khru- shchev have made clear enough, what is objectionable in telling our troops; what com- munism is and how it works? Now let us have a look at what the pro- gram has to say about American citizenship: "(1) Origins of American culture: To ap- praise military personnel and their depend- ents of their personal stake in American po- litical philosophy and American concept of individual rights and freedoms, the free en- terprise system. and the necessity for indi- vidual belief, sacrifice, and honor. "(2) The American military moral herit- age: To motivate military personnel and their dependents in adherence to American moral values and the precepts of individual dignity, the preciousness of every human soul, and the obligation of the conscientious citizen to his God, to his country, to himself and to others. 11(3) Politics, United States: To inform military personnel and their dependents of that the objection to this program came from Senator FULBRIGHT, who does grasp the essence cf communism. He knows what Marxism Is and he is not a Marxist. If he is responsible for the Defense Secretary's atti- tude, the public is entitled to an explana- tion. A general of the Army is, in effect, cashiered for being a patriot. Secretary Mc- Namara is 'too competent a man to be in- volved in this sort of thing. Only a congres- sional pu'alic hearing of General Walker and the problue program will quiet the outrage / which toe many citizens feel.. 114L11\I.JI2V 11V1\ V1' L-1VL111t/j\I'~a ROUTINE BUSINESS By unanimous consent, the following additional routine business was trans- acted: ADDITIONAL BILLS INTRODUCED The following additional bills were introduced, read the first time, and, by unanimous consent, the second time, and referred. as indicated: By Mr. ELLENDER (for himself and Mr. STENNIS) (by request) : S. 2493. A. bill to facilitate the adenints- trative operations of the Department of Agri- culture; to the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. By Mr. McNAMARA (for himself and Mr. MORSE) : S. 2494. A, bill to prohibit discrimination on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce and to provir:e for the restitutkon of wages lost by employees by reason of any such discrim- ination; to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. (See the remarks of Mr. MCNAMARA when he introduced the above bill, which appear under a separate heading.) Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B.00346R000200110007-5 16446 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE August 30 [From the Indianapolis (Ind.) News, May 19, 1961] WALKER SMEAR CONDUCTED DY LURID WEEKLY (By Fulton Lewis Jr.) Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker is a genuine war hero, decorated many times for his bat- tleline experience at Anzio, Cassino and Heartbreak Hill. As commander of the 24th Infantry Divi- sion in Germany, he has proved a superb administrator. All sources report that the performance of his troops is excellent, their morale high, their reenlistment percentage the highest of any division in Europe. And yet today Ted Walker stands removed from his post, thanks to an article in a sensationalist European publication called the Overseas Weekly. The American press has given the story passing notice, picked up the Overseas Week- ly charge that Walker indoctrinated his troops with the teachings of the controver- sial John Birch Society. What the press did not report is that the Overseas Weekly is no ordinary publication, but a lurid rag that specializes in stories of sex and crime. Notorious for its treatment of the news, the publication has won the nickname the "Oversexed Weekly." Typical headlines will illustrate the type of story the Overseas Weekly specializes in: "Seven GI's Attacked Girl, 15"; "Wife Slay- ing Not Murder"; "Bamberg Citizens Groan- ing About New GI Incidents"; "Pvt. Off Hook on Rape Rap." Once removed by Army brass from service newsstands for being almost lewd and porno- graphic, the Overseas Weekly has changed little. The paper's charge that Gen. Walker was a front for the John Birch Society resulted in his immediate suspension, however. To his defense sprang at least one unexpected individual. Congressman DALE ALFORD of Little Rock, Ark., was a bitter critic of the "armed in- vasion" of his city by U.S. troops enforcing school integration 4 years ago. Those para- troopers were under Walker's command. In a speech on the House floor, however, Alford attacked Walker's suspension as entirely un- justified. To date there has been no outside corro- boration of the charges found in the Over- seas Weekly. These charges centered on General Walker's "Pro-Blue" educational program, designed to teach the American soldier the values of U.S. citizenship and the evils inherent in the Communist threat. Critics charge that the general called his program "Pro-Blue" to link it with the so- called Blue Book of the John Birch Society. The allegation is patently ridiculous. The name was selected as a positive alternative to the negative concept of "anti-Red." Recognized, responsible books on commu- nism were recommended reading. Lectures to troops on American history and problems were scheduled. Carrying out the program was an Army major who had never even heard of the John Birch Society much less the charges made in the Overseas Weekly. [From the San Antonio (Tex.) Light, May 16,1961] WAS THE GENERAL GUILTY OF LOYALTY? (By George E. Sokolsky) Having read of Gen. Edwin A. Walker's troubles, I thought it might be well to have a look at the Overseas Weekly which was re- sponsible for the fracas. The newspaper accused the general, in effect, of brainwash- ing American troops with American doc- trines. I got two copies of this newspaper which says that it is "a touch of home * * * away from home." So, it is full of pictures of bos- omy girls. On page 3, I came upon the Gen- eral Walker story. The newspaper asserts that the general is to be investigated because the Overseas Weekly accused him of exposing American troops "to the philosophy of the controversial John Birch Society." The weekly Itself reports, that General Walker had referred to it as immoral, unscrupulous, corrupt, and destructive. Men may differ as to policies and ideas, but no law forbids anyone from joining the John Birch Society or from advocating its policies. This organization does not propose to overthrow the American Government by force and violence. The Issue of the Over- seas Weekly at which I am looking gives the impression that membership in this society is a crime of sorts. THE EDITORIAL VIEWPOINT In an editorial, the editor of the Overseas Weekly says: "The issue is not whether or not the John Birch Society is dangerous, controversial or even ridiculous. That is a decision for the proper authorities-the Congress, the Attor- ney General and the public-to make. "The issue is whether or not the philosophy of any political group should be disseminated by a military commander." The principle set forth by this newspaper is embodied in this sentence: "We don't pretend to know how to operate militarily and we have never thought we had a right to dictate the thought of others. No man has a right to do harm to another hu- man being." This is utter nonsense. This country is engaged in war with the Soviet Universal State. This country is doctrinally opposed to communism. Every Communist is an enemy of the United States. It is the func- tion of every official of the United States to dig out those who advocate communism and to drive them out of the Armed Forces. The assumption therefore that a man has a right to any opinion is nonsense. A man may not advocate treason. He may not advocate the overthrow of our Government by force and violence or by any other means. TONE OF THE NEWSPAPER The theory that the editors of the Over- seas Weekly may say what they please, but not the general responsible for the physical, mental, and moral being of the troops, is nonsense. The tone of the paper may best be de- scribed by two pictures on page 28 of a Ger- man girl hardly clothed. The caption reads: "Angelika Gesemann, Miss Hesse of 1960, is an aspiring 21-year-old actress whose favorite pastimes are traveling and meeting wealthy men. Sound coldblooded? Well * ? ?" Is this news from home? In another issue on page 1 is a photo- graph, captioned: "She's lovely, young, and single." In this issue, General Walker's crimes seem to be that he is pro-American. This is a quotation: "General Walker said that communism has infiltrated every institution in the United States in an open attempt to over- throw our way of life. Problue is designed to acquaint every man in the command with the Communist threat and the vital role each man must play in its defeat ? ? ? the Communists and fellow travelers ? ? ? are all around us working for our destruction." AN INVESTIGATION NEEDED The Overseas Weekly states its purpose in this instance: "But it is the responsibility of this news- paper to bring to public attention any Gov- ernment official in uniform who uses his power and authority, or Government means of communication to influence or dictate the beliefs of subordinates. "It is furthermore our responsibility to point out officials who propagate beliefs in direct opposition to those upheld by the duly elected leaders. "These points, we believe, are important in considering the situation at the 24th Infantry Division." Who has set this newspaper up as an agency to monitor the thinking and the expression of thought of officers in the American army?. Surely this episode calls for an investigation by a congressional com- mittee to discover what really happened in the Walker Incident. Was the general com- mitting an offense or was he persecuted for loyalty? [From the San Antonio (Tex.) News, June 14, 19611 WHAT'S TRUTH ABOUT WALKER BESMIRCHERS? (By Holmes Alexander) WASHINGTON.-It was on June 6, the 17th anniversary of D-Day, that the Kennedy administration made a smart aleck, uncalled- for, but perhaps indicative, crack about Maj. Gen. Edwin (Ted) Walker, who was banished to the New Frontier doghouse for something often called extreme nationalism. In a Pentagon press conference on that proud date, Deputy Defense Secretary Ros- well L. Gilpatric was asked if General Walker might be transferred to a post in Texas. Gilpatric: "Considering recent events in Texas, maybe he would be very welcome." Afterward, the Deputy Secretary con- firmed the obvious by saying he referred to the recent Texas Senate election won by a Republican, JOHN TOWER of Wichita Falls. Not only is TOWER a Republican, but a self- styled conservative Republican, hence a rightwinger, hence guilty by association of some connection with the John Birch So- ciety (JBS)-ergo, General Walker, a believer in the pro-Americanism of JBS, would be welcome in the torrid of benighted State of Texas, Walker's birthplace in 1909. (The Army this week rebuked General Walker for labeling as pinks or Communists former President Truman, other leading Democrats, and segments of the U.S. press and radio-TV industries. However, the Army said the 24th Infantry Division's troop in- formation program put into effect by Walker "was not attributable to any program of the John Birch Society." The general's assign- ment to command the 8th Corps at Austin was canceled.) FAIR GAME IN WASHINGTON A politician who trips over his tongue is fair game in Washington, but I bet there was more to Gilpatric's crack than that. If the American people get a full report on the Central Intelligence Agency, a lot of un- expected things, including the truth about the enemies who besmirched Walker, will jump out. of the box. There is this anecdote which will serve as a signpost to Walker's "extreme nation- alism." A staff officer was commenting on a map which showed Communist countries in red, neutralist countries in white, Amer- ica and her allies in blue. The officer said the map showed why the free world should be anti-Red. Walker responded: "That's defensive thinking. We're problue." During his entire career, Walker has been the affirmative type. After West Point grad- uation in 1931, he played polo as long as the Field Artillery supplied the mounts. At the outbreak of World War II, he volun- teered for extrahazardous duty and trained with a Canadian group for "special" action in ski, mountain, amphibious and airborne fighting. As a regimental commander in this special force, he served in the Aleutians, and later in Italy, France, Germany, and N "way. One of his big days was when his American-Canadian force broke the Nazis' position at Majo Hump, preceding the fa- mous battle of Cassino. Here in Italy, later in the invasion of southern France, Walker Approved For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE It is our future that is at stake. Our decisions and actions in 1960 will shape the national destiny, and so, our personal lives, for years to come-and, perhaps, for genera- tions of Americans yet unborn. These are high stakes indeed. And each one of us is personally involved in the out- come-win or lose. The destiny of America is what you and I make it. Therefore, without presuming to "edu- cate"-for you are all educated men, but with the hope of exciting further and grow- ing interest in these responsibilities, we have touched on a number of subjects which bear on this problem of morale and mission in the 24th Infantry Division. During the preceding five hours of "Citizenship in Service,', we have exposed to many ideas, and perhaps, to some new thoughts. In this presentation was con- tained much abbreviated material, ranging from American origins to communism and medicine; from national affairs to the per- sonal factors or individual health. You may recall that at the very beginning of this instruction, a better word might be 'orientation"-at the beginning, we lis- tened to a review of comparative world economics. This record should not be a matter of self- satisfaction to Americans. On the contrary, our good fortune must become an incentive to protect this rich, full life from the angers which threaten it, both internal and external. Our strongest defense against internal at- tack, it was pointed out, is our active sup- port of Constitutional rights and privileges. (stop) Action. Traveling spot to wings and fol- low action as mock-up of U.S. Declaration of Independence Is marched on stage and placed on tripod. SPEAKER. We citizens in uniform, must be capable of defending and explaining our democratic principles. And we must seek a revival of our strength in the foundations which are the bed-rock of our republic. Among these principles, and the common denominator of our code of liberty and law under God, is the conscientious individual. You and I must be sensitive to our rights and obligations, and to our responsibilities, to make freedom work. We then considered the ten freedoms guar- anteed by our Bill of Rights and noted that for every freedom, there is a corresponding responsibility. Action: Traveling spot to wings and follow action on charts "freedoms"-"responsibili- ties"-as curtain opens all the way. SPEAKER. Of course, any people in the world can legislate these freedoms. But, it is impossible to legislate the responsibilities. This we must demand of ourselves. During this same period we learned more about the external threat to our peace and security-the imperialistic Rims of Commu- nist Russia-and we saw how 20 million card- carrying Red fanatics have enslaved over 800 million people. Action: Traveling spot on wings and fol- low action as chart "Soviet expansion since 1939" is marched on stage and placed in tri- pod. SPEAKER. This is the obvious reason, why we must cultivate friendship and coopera- tion among our fellow NATO allies, and the civilian populations of these NATO coun- tries. We then examined, some of the techniques and tactics of the Oommunists-not to direct hate against the Russian people, certainly, for they are paying the terrible price of Com- munism as slaves of the Red dictators-but rather to expose the Communist conspiracy for what it is; a plan to take over the entire world. Action: Traveling spot to wings and fol- low action as character in Soviet officer uni- form walks to center stage, faces audience, fires blank pistol, spits out: "We will bury you!", walks off. SPEAKER. It should be perfectly clear that we are in a war. It is a total war. It is a war for the minds and the souls of men. It is a psychological war that sometimes breaks out into a shooting war-but it, is still war. In understanding this psychological war we must keep in mind the brainwashing techniques used by the Communists on American prisoners in Korea-and how you and I can fight this kind of attack, in peace and war, by believing in our God, in our country, and in ourselves. Later in this 5-hour study, we tried to gain a better perspective of America, and what it means to be an American, by recall- ing the causes for liberty in America, by hearing again the words of the men who breathed life into the infant nation. Action: Traveling spot on wings and fol- low action as character in period costume walk to center stage, faces audience, enun- ciates: "During the American Revolution it was learned that the talent for great re- sponsibility did not differ from that which was necessary for the proper discharge of ordinary business in civil society." Retires. SPEAKER. Yes. We know that the Ameri- can cause of Freedom is internal, that it is based on Belief, Sacrifice, and Honor. We cannot bargain for Freedom, or receive it as a gift, or attain it by indelent security. Free- dom can only be won. Sometimes with anguish, often with blood, always with sacri- fice. And Freedom is never won eternally. The warfare is continuous and each generation must fight for it as though the battle had just been joined. Freedom costs something. The spirit of Washington assures us that you and I cannot escape such sacrifice. Action: Traveling spot on wings. Follow action as figure in period dress walks to center stage, faces audience, and says: "Be united. Be American." Walks off. SPEAKER. But-the grave issues facing our nation and the very serious civic responsi- bilities you and I share, are not the only problems facing us today. Many of our dif- ficulties, and much of the anguish and frustrations which divide our efforts, con- plicate our lives, and dilute the strength of Americans are much closer to our daily activities. We know now, or we should know, that right here at home in the Twenty-fourth Infantry Division, which is, of course, our military home, that there are deep seeded signs of moral laxity and character erosion. We have learned that, during 1969, this division recorded three thousand seven hun- dred fifty-nine cases of maladjustment. And, maladjustment you know, is the end re- sult of moral laxity. In other words, over one fourth of the men in this command were involved in serious incidents, were absent without leave, were separated from the service as "unde- sirable", became psychoneurotic, or were court-martialed for crimes and violation of Army regulations while in the service of their country. Action: Traveling spot on wings and fol- low action as 12' figure "injured soldier tagged with incidents" is marched on stage by white jacketed medical technicians, and placed in tripod. SPEAKER. In addition, this division had over fifty-five thousand men on sick call- that's four times the strength of the entire command-during the same twelve month period. All of these examples are vital indicators of individual morale, unit morale, and com- bat efficiency. And every commander ex- 16445 amines these rates in his own unit; with serious concern. For the success of his mis- sion, and the lives of the men under his care, depend on the morals, and the effi- ciency, of every member in his unit. They literally do. So, we've got to do something about our morals in the service-and in the Twenty- fourth Infantry Division. One approach to this problem of morals, as was shown in a preceding lecture, is a better knowledge of the processes of intelli- gence, the needs and goals of the individ- ual-his :motivation, and t:he factors of stress to whic'.a we are all exposed in the Army. Most of all we must recognize that each of us has a God-given intelligence, that we possess the most highly developed intellect of all creatures on earth, and that because of this boon, we can control our instincts, and guide our drives into socially acceptable, constructive channels. We are, in fact, masters of our fate in service. Our actions and our attitudes are impor- tant to our career, in and out of the Army, and vital to the survival of American democracy. Morality is a weapon! And finally, we must be concerned with our personal health. Arid why? Why is the health of soldiers a point of concern to us? Because, again in 1959, it was found that we had nearly thirty-five thousand medical cases, and over eight thousand surgical cases, listed for this command. This is astonishing! It also raises some doubt about our ability to execute our NATO mission should the balloon go up. Now, a :reduction in these alarming mor- bidity figures requires some knowledge of the human body, and how it functions. Therefore, during the final period of in- struction, we were exposed to a short course in anatomy. Action: Traveling spot on wings and fol- low action as 10 foot anatomical manikin (organs) is rolled on stage by white jack- eted medical technician. SPEAKr:R. And, during this course, we learned something about the causes of dis- eases and infections in man and how you and I can avoid these diseases. We also learned something about the ef- fects of venereal diseases, and drugs, and alcohol, on the human system, and how and why these ravaging social problems can and must be controlled. In short, we learned how we can live a happier and longer life by avoiding the ma- jor medical and surgical hazards incident to military service. Action.: Music, "Army Goes Rolling Along," up softly to background. Curtain closes. Follow spot off. SPEAI?:Ea,: Now, these are the things that we are concerned about. And they are all interrelated, for we cannot have a strong, moral nation unless we have strong, moral citizens. This is perfectly obvious. The American soldier therefore, has a dynamic, a vital, and a significant role in the defense of American liberty-as a war- rior-and as a voting, responsible citizen. We must not fail in our fundamental duty of citizenship in service. You must correct moral laxity In yours- selves. You must nurture a belief in America. And you must understand your political importance and act intelligently to :further the cause of liberty. For you are the seed of tomorrow. Action: Music "Army Goes Rolling Along" up to bridge. Instructor spot off. House lights on. Speaker retires. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16444 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 fects on the digestive system. Mental de- terioration, emaciation, and general rapid decline of the processes results. The vic- tim of drug addiction soon loses interest in all activity ouside his drug-induced dream world. His body becomes incapable of normal functioning, including the male sex drive; assimilation of food; and ability to sleep. All on. INSTRUCTOR. Once addiction is established the victim is no longer his own master. If the supply of drugs is interrupted, the ad- dict becomes virtually insane and will sink to crime to satisfy his craving. Every dope addict is a potential criminal10 Disease, alcohol, and drugs account for much misery in the service. However, these are not the only hazards which affects mem- bers of the 24th Infantry Division. Another serious cause of broken bodies is accidents (pause). Action: As instructor says, "Another seri- ous cause", onstage assistant exposes sub- title: "Effect of accidents," and chart No. 9, Division surgical cases 1959; total surgical cases 1959, 8,033; surgical cases due to in- juries, 4,548; motor vehicle accidents, 1,285; injuries due to automobile accidents, 561; deaths due to automobile accidents, 14; total deaths, all causes, l719 0. Travel spot on. Instructor. Here are some interesting fig- ures secured from the Office of the Division Surgeon. During 1959 a total of 8,003 sur- gical cases were recorded in the 24th Infan- try Division. Of this total, 4,548 inen of the division were injured in accidents. While of course, most of these injuries were not serious, all too many of them were major injuries, and the vast majority of them could have been prevented by following simple rules of safety. If this rate continues into 1960 your chances of becoming a surgical case are about one in two; and of being hurt in an accident about one in three. These are not very good odds. The profession of soldiering has many oc- cupational hazards. These dangers are com- pounded by carelessness, horseplay, and crim- inal negligence. An example of this is the number of motor vehicle accidents reported by the Division Provost Marshal last year: 1,285 vehicular accidents resulting in 561 injuries, and 14 deathsl0 Action: As instructors says, "-and 14 deaths", off-stage manager plays sound- track automobile crash. Dummy fitted with rubber moulage wounds, dripping blood, swathed in bandages, is trundled on stage on wheeled surgical litter by medical corpsman dressed in whites. "Digger O'Dell" charac- ter, clasping tombstone, head bowed, fol- lows. Follow spot on action. INSTRUCTOR: It is significant to note that during investigation of these 1,410 vehicle ac- cidents, private and military, it was revealed that in 119 cases, liquor was a contributing factor (pause). Horseplay and criminal negligence added to this alarming picture of agony, disfigure- ment, and death. (stop) Action: As instructor says, "-disfigure- ment and death", off-stage manager fires 'shot', screams. Soldier 'victim' staggers on- stage, wearing face wound moulage dripping blood. Faces audience, exposes wounld, staggers off. Second soldier, pistol hanging at side, follows, faces audience, intones, "I didn't know it was loaded", walks off. Fol- low spot on action. Then off. 13 Textbook of Healthful Living, Howard S. Diehl, p. 209, 213. 14 Morbidity Report, 1959, Surgeon, 24th Inf. Div. 16 Accident Report, 1959, Provost Marshal, 24th Inf. Div. 10 Accident Report, 1959, Provost Marshal, 24th Inf. Div. Curtain closes. INSTRUCTOR. During the last hour we have attempted to show you how you can live longer and live a happier life in service by avoiding the major medical and surgical hazards incident to the military profession. We have seen the tremendous strides made in military medicine. We have examined the human body and so gained a better understanding of its care. We have noted the diseases most common in the 24th Infantry Division, and have dis- cussed means by which we can protect our- selves from these diseases. We have noted the effects on the body of drugs and alcohol so that the dangers associated with these agents should be clear to all. And we know the terrible price accidents have exacted from our people. Application of this knowledge toward achieving a happier and a better life is now up to each of us individually, to you and me. Action: Instructor exits. House lights on. Script: Concluding address, 25 minutes. Stage setting: Curtain closed. Podium and light, right stage. National and unit colors, standards center stage. Three empty tripods on stage. Two 15-inch charts, "Free- dom," "Responsibilities," stand at each end of stage. Action: Curtain opens two-thirds. Trav- eling spot on colors. Instructor enters. In- structor spot on. SPEAKER. Did you know that nearly 28 million living Americans have served in the United States Military Forces since World War II? (Pause.) And, do you know that each year an addi- tional 300,000 veterans return to civilian life after service in uniform? (Pause.) Now, when we consider the large number of Americans currently in our Army, Navy, and Air Force, we can see that nearly 17 percent of the total U.S. population are, or have been, members of the military service. Think of it. Seventeen percent of all Americans. And this figure actually repre- sents about 30 percent of American voters, have had their attitudes and ideas influ- enced and, perhaps, even molded, by their military experience. The critical point here, of course, is that these associations, this discipline in the ideas of honor, duty, country, or the rejec- tion of these concepts, will continue to affect our attitudes for the rest of our lives. Let's put the record straight right at the beginning. You and I, as part of this military- oriented group, have an important voice in the social and political structure of the United States of America. Whether that voice contributes to a con- structive, growing American culture, or whether we become a negative or destructive influence in American affairs, will depend on our maturity and good judgment. If we do elect to become positive members of this Republic-and this fact applies in service, too, we can be a part of America's promis- ing future and ultimately exert a great effect' on the course of world history. This is a pretty big responsibility, you may say. Well, of course it is, and that's why we're talking about these things today. But why this sudden Interest in the citi- zenship status of the American GI? Well- this is a fair question. And to answer it we must recall recent American history. We all know that not too long ago the demand for intelligent and informed soldier- citizen was considered, if it was considered at all, with little urgency. And these re- sponsibilities were often given secondary importance by the veteran. We know, for example, that during the period prior to World War II the numerical strength, and therefore, the political im- portance of the soldier and the former soldier, was relatively minor In comparison to total national population-and in relation to so-called political blocks, such as farmer, labor, and government worker blocks. This Is not true today. Two wars, World War II and Korea, and the large peace-time military forces which followed, has produced an important soldier- citizen body within the American electorate. Today the soldier, and the veteran, hold greater political prestige than at any time in American history-except for the years immediately after the Civil War. Our modern soldier-citizens are vital, vig- orous, and vocal. And we claim Increasing interest in local, regional, and national af- fairs. This, then, is why there is a sudden in- terest in the American GI. And, this is why you and I must continue to develop civic maturity, moral responsibility, and political competency while in service-so that these values may serve our Nation, and ourselves, during the critical years ahead. And, if you don't think that we are in for a hard fight during the next few years, just re- member the Communist boast, "We will bury you," said Mr. K. So, if we are to analyze and act on today's pressing issues-if we are going to avoid the "grave" being prepared for us by the dicta- tors of this world, then we've got to know our goal, and point our efforts toward this goal. We must know the origins of our moral and political heritage, and identify our- selves with these principles. We must rec- ognize the enemy forces, internal and ex- ternal, which would destroy this legacy, and understand how we can apply our total strength to defend and preserve these rights so dearly won. And we've got to do it now. It's perfectly obvious that training sol- diers for responsible citizenship is no less important than training citizens in the art of combat. Each of these qualities is vital for the survival of our republic. And, be- cause training is a primary function of the Army-in peace and war-our leaders are alert to the train requirement in civic train- ing, in fact, is a part of all Army training. Military training, itself, is an important civic duty. Information talks, character guidance lec- tures, commander's hours-and special pro- grams like this "Citizenship in Service Pro- gram"-all are designed to broaden the civic interest and moral precepts of the man in uniform. And, to inform him of his rights and obligations in our free society. This type of instruction is intended to provide a continuing background of Information so that we may better discharge our military duties by understanding our mission, our country, and ourselves. These are very realistic and purposeful aims. They are based on the sound prin- ciple that the American soldier fights well when convinced that his cause is right. And poorly when his motivation Is weak or ill defined. We know that unit, clan and Individual morale are very important to success in battle-any kind of battle. And, we also know that morale is built on belief and con- viction. In other words, we must know why we fight. Why? Because, given the situation in the world today we are not entitled to concentrate our energies on our private af- fairs confident that our national interests are secure. Tranquil devotion to individual liberty, to our own narrow self-interests, will not assure our victory over the chal- lenge of Russian aggression. We cannot afford to devote our energies to transient values, or "go fishing", expecting someone else to keep store for us in our absence. This attitude, this goal of private interest, is an unworthy one for a people who have a major role in human affairs. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE we can see that the danger of infection can, be reduced by controlling ventilation, by personal hygiene, and by proper care in food handling. Action: As Instructor says, "all respiratory infections", on-stage assistant exposes chart No. 6: "Control of Respiratory Diseases." (a) Controlled ventilation. (b) Personal hy- giene. (c) Care in food handling. Travel spot on. INSTRUCTOR. Eye, ear, nose and throat in- fections like upper respiratory Infections, can also, in large measure be prevented by cleanliness and good personal hygiene. Mild infections of the eye, called con- junctivitis, and which may accompany colds, usually clear up with simple treat- ment. The more severe infections require prompt medical attention. All infections of the eye can be spread by means of hands, towels, and other physical means .8 Digestive tract infections, in many in- stances can be traced to the social environ- ment. The possibility of contaminated water and food is always present in European communities. Meat and meat products may contain the germs which will cause disease. Flies, dogs, cats, mice, rats and human car- ries may serve as sources of such contamin- ation (pause). Action: As instructor says, "Digestive tract infection," on-stage assistant exposes chart #7: CONTROL OF DIGESTIVE TRACT IN- FECTIONS: a. Avoid indigenous food, b. ob- serve personal hygiene. Travel spot on. INsTRucTos. As a rule food infections oc- cur only when enormous quantities of the germs are consumed. Thorough cooking and boiling destroys these germs. Consequently, the foods most likely to cause trouble are those in which the germs have had a chance to multiply and which have not been thor- oughly cooked just before serving. Hashes, meat salads, custards and dairy products which have been handled or prepared some hours before use are the foods most fre- quently involved. The more serious infec- tions contracted through food and drink include typhoid fever, dysentery, streptococ- etc infections and various parasitic diseases such as tapeworm. The European practices of using night soil, or untreated human feces as a fertilizer, mul- tiplies the possibility of intestinal tract in- fections when eating indigenous or locally produced products. This Is particularly true of uncooked vegetables, as In salads. There are no uniform milk pasteurization laws in Germany or in most other European countries. Likewise there are no standard water purification regulations in Germany, or again in most other European countries. You may ask, if all this is true why aren't all Germans and. other Europeans sick much of the time. The answer is that our bodies become adapted to those things we are used to and Europeans, brought up from child- hood with these foods are relatively immune to the diseases they may carry. We, however, coming from a country where strict pure food laws are used, we are not used to the germs in these foods and are very liable to become ill. All milk, water and uncooked, or only partly cooked, vegetables and meats on the economy should be avoided insofar as pos- sible. This of course includes dishes made with milk or cream Including ice cream, pas- try fillings, whipped cream, etc. (Pause.) The most important points in maintaining the health of the skin are those same factors which are important for maintaining the health of the rest of the body. Adequate rest, exercise, proper diet, and cleanliness. And now a word about venereal diseases. The tragedy of the venereal disease vic- tim Is that venereal disease is preventable. 8 Textbook of Healthful Living, Howard S. Diehl, p. 309. Yet, many soldiers contract the diseases as- sociated with sex. Modern medicine provides the means to eradicate these diseases from human society. Military medicine also pro- vides the means to cure venereal disease if the illness is noted promptly, and treat- ment initiated early (stop). Action: As instructor says, "--treatment initiated early," soldier patient, In hospital gown, holding gown up to reveal bare rear, runs from left wings across stage, yelling, "NOI NO!" followed by a medic in white laboratory gown, holding 3 foot hypodermic syringe, saying, "Now, this won't hurt a hit!" Follow spot on action. INSTRUCTOR. As we can see, treatment for venereal disease may not always be pleasant, but, it is a cure. Prevention of venereal disease is a more desirable course than cure. And prevention of venereal disease may be enhanced by a knowledge of its causes. Syphilis and gonorrhea are the two prin- cipal diseases included under the term vene- real disease. Syphilis is caused by a living organism called the treponima pallidum, or the spiro- chete of syphilis. Infection is usually acquired through sexual intercourse or, con- genitally, from one's parents. At certain stages it is transmissible through kissing or by contact with objects recently contami- nated with discharges from an infected person. The first stage of syphilis, called a "chan- cre," is a local sore, relatively painless, at the point of infection. This sore usually appears 12 to 40 days after exposure. The disappearance of the chancre, which occurs in a short time with or without treatment is frequently mistaken by the patient for the end of the disease. Unless . adequate treatment has been given, however, the dis- appearance of this sore signifies only that the disease has now progressed to its second, and more serious stage. Though there is no vaccine which will confer 'immunity to syphilis this is one of the diseases over which we could have com- plete control. We know its cause and how it is transmitted. We have a simple test to aid in Its diagnosis. We have an effective cure. And, we have the means to prevent its spread. Yet this disease will continue to be a major cause of illness and disability until you and I make intelligent application of the control measures which science has made available to us. Gonorrhea is another venereal disease caused by a specific germ. Like syphilis, gonorrhea is usually contracted through sexual Intercourse with a person who has the disease, although it, too, may be trans- mitted by towels or toilet articles used by the infected person. The gonorrhea germ, called the gonococ- cus, sets up an Infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract. This causes a yellowish discharge from the genital or- gans of both the male and the female. After several weeks-the discharge tends to stop even without treatment but, as with syphilis, this does not mean that the dis- ease is cured, but rather that the disease has burrowed deeper into the body and bacteria. continue to live in the deeper parts of the reproductive tract. In the male an abscess may develop later in the prostate gland and the germs may be discharged during sexual intercourse, even though no symptoms have been present for weeks, or months or even years. This disease never "cures itself." It must be properly and adequately treated. Gonorrhea responds well to treatment with certain antibiotics. But such treatment must be administered under competent medical supervision. Self-treatment or the ministrations of the quack and faker who promises quick and cheap cures lead almost invariably to seri- ous complications .9 Venereal Infections can :lead to sterility, Insanity, and deformity in the offspring of the infected, parents. There is no question but that sex will be with us for a long time. However, there is no need to expose your body to the scars of venereal disease. You and I can live- a little more intelligently and protect our- selves, our families, and any children we expect to have in the future, from the ravages and the curse of venereal infection. Now, let's speak about other agents that affect the body. Many of us abuse our bodies by knowingly subjecting it to harm- ful substances. Two of these harmful sub- stances are alcohol and drugs. (stop) Action: As instructor says, "alcohol and drugs," on-stage assistant exposes subtitle "Effect of Alcohol and Drugs." Soldier "MP" enters stage from left wings drags `happy warrior,' waving bottle and singing "Aid Lang Syne" in cracked voice, across stage and into opposite wings. Follow spot on ac= tion. INSTRUCTOR. Alcohol is a poison to living tissue. In concentrated solutions it will de- story plant, bacterial, and animal life. Even small amounts of alcohol produce definite and measurable effects upon the body. The chief of these is the depression upon the nervous system. Larger quantities of alco- hol paralyzes one nerve center after another and eventually lead to unconsciousness and even death.. The latter stages are identical with those seen in ether anesthesia; this can well be understood if one realizes that ether is a very volatile and active derivative of alcohol. Nervous control and motor coordination are definitely reduced by alcohol. Grim evi- dence of this is the large number of auto- mobile accidents which occur to drivers who have been In fact, of some eleven hundred privately owned vehicle accidents occurring in the Division last year ten per cent or one hun- dred fourteen Involved alcoho1?1 Action: Med Tech enters, on-stage as- sistant exposes actuary chart No. 8: "Death Rates versus Alcohol." Moderate drinkers, 18 per cent higher; intemperate drinkers, 150 per cent iLigher; steady drinkers, 86 per cent higher. Travel spot on chart, then Med Tech (both). MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. Alcohol also has a material bearing on the length of life. The combined experience of forty-three American life insurance companies over a period of twenty-five years shows that the death rate among "very moderate" drinkers is eighteen per cent higher, than the rate among insured lives generally. Fifty per cent higher among those who had a history of past intemperance, And eighty-six per cent higher among steady but so-called "mod- erate drinkers". There is frequently a relationship between alcoholism and drug addiction. The first step is the use of barbiturates to alleviate the "hangover" from alcohol. The next step is an increase in dosage and dependence up- on the barbiturates. Add lotion may stop here or It may be transferred to stronger narcotics, such as veronal, opium, or mor- phine. Literally narcotics are drugs which prcduce sleep. All of them are habit forming. All of them attack the nervous system of the body producing hallucinations with side ef- U Textbook of. Healthful Living, Howard S. Diehl, pp. 9:16-419. 11 Textbook of Healthful Living, Howard S. Diehl, pp. 199-200. "Accident Reports, Provost Marshal, 24th Inf Div, 1959. 13 Textbook of Healthful Living, Howard S. Diehl. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16442 . CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 is epithelial or covering tissue and serves to Bones also contribute to the body in other exposes chart No. 4, "Aids to Control or Cure protect the underlying structure of the body. ways. For example, red cells, which carry Disease: Vaccines Toxolds Chemicals Anti- Action: As medical technician says, "un- oxygen in the blood, are manufactured in Biotics." Follow spot on. derlying structure of the body", on-stage the bone marrow. MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. Also, the toxin, or assistant walks to manikin, removes top ply- This skeletal system is very rugged but poison or a disease may be rendered non- wood sheet exposing second plywood body bones will break and splinter (pause) if care- toxic by chemical treatment. Immunizing outline with major body organs shown. lessness or accident places too great a weight agents prepared in this way are called tox- Technician points as presentation continues. or pressure on the system (stop). olds. MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. Next in the line of Action: As medical technician says, "Break Another treatment of disease Is by the the body building processes we find organs. and splinter," offstage manager breaks bass- administration of a chemical compound, such Organs are composed of tissues working to- wood splint into microphone, screams. On- as sulfa drug. This kind of treatment is gether for a specific purpose. For example, stage assistant moves manikin offstage. called chemotherapy. the stomach is an organ comprising muscle Medical technician retires. Onstage assist A new medical weapon are the antibiotics. tissue, epithelial tissue, and nervous tissue. ant returns to charts. Instructor returns to, These substances are obtained from other liv- These tissues all work together to aid in the podium. Follow spot off, instructor spot, and ing organisms especially fungi, molds and digestion of food. Next are body systems. podium light on. bacteria 6 (stop). Body systems are a number of organs bound INSTRUCTOR. This, then, is the splendid, Action: Spot off. Med tech 'exists. In- together to carry out a process necessary to rugged sensitive mechanism which you and I structor spot on. the body. For example, the digestive sys- inhabit and which must be protected against INSTRUCTOR. The natural protective meas- tem, which includes the stomach, the small damage, by disease or injury, if we are to en- ures of the body, assisted by the adminis- and large intestine, the liver, the gall blad- joy our life to the fullest and discharge our tration of vaccines, toxoids, chemicals, and der, and the pancreas, among others, all duties in service. It would seem to be little antibiotics, have given us excellent defense work together so that nutrient material can short of insanity to permit this body to take against most of the killer-diseases. Why, be broken down, modified, and distributed in chemical poisons and disease agents, or then did we have 35,000 medical cases in the throughout the body. to invite damage through careless acts. Yet, Division last year? Other systems of the body carry out you and I permit these things to happen to The "why" of these 35,000 medical cases equally vital roles. The circulatory system, our bodies daily. Fortunately, there are a may be revealed by noting three contribut- comprising the heart, veins, and arteries, number of defensive measures which the ing factors (pause). carries blood to all parts of the body and body can take against these dangers. Action: As instructor says, "Why these delivers food and oxygen to the individual These defense mechanisms in our bodies 35,000 medical cases", on-stage assistant ex- cells. Without food and oxygen the cells work silently and we are normally not aware poses chart No. 6: "Some causes of Disease in would die. of their actions. But in order that these Soldiers." (a) No immunity to all diseases. The heart is perhaps the major organ of nature safeguards shall serve their purposes (b) Social environment. (c) Ignorance of the circulatory system. The heart is a pump most effectively all body processes must be health safeguards. Follow spot on. which begins its action the moment you are maintained at prime efficiency. When the INSTRUCTOR. First, medical science does not born and does not cease until death. No general health is undermined a way is opened confer immunity to every type of disease machine built by man will run so long with- for invasion by disease .4 (pause). out a breakdown. In the circulatory system, Since the body does work actively against Second, the military organization does not in addition to the heart, are three different disease, why is it that our morbidity records control the social environment to which the types of blood vessels to carry the blood. reflect such a high incidence of sickness in soldier is exposed, what he does, where he Upon absorbing oxygen in Its travels through men of the 24th Infantry Division? goes and who he associates with on his off- the lungs, the blood is next pumped by the Before we explore the "why" let's identify duty time (pause). heart into the arteries which distribute the the "what." What causes disease in man And, third, the soldier does not observe blood to all organs, extremities, and tissues (pause). all the safeguards to health which are avail- of the body. Next, very small division of Action: As instructor says, "What causes able to him (pause). the circulatory system, called capillaries, disease in man." on-stage assistant exposes Now, social environment and health safe- bring the life fluid to the individual cells and chart No. 3: "Disease-Causing Agents: Bac- guards are two matters that the individual tissues. As the blood follows this course teria Fungi Protozoa Viruses." Follow spot can control. Attention to these two points through the body it also absorbs the liquid on. will reduce the importance of the first rea- wastes from the cells. When the blood INSTRUCTOR. Man is constantly liable to at- son. Therefore, by living more intelligently passes through the kidneys, this waste is tack by many lower forms of life such as you and I can avoid becoming a medical bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The statistic this year. the body filtered yra as from the urineblood and eliminated from body itself, as we have pointed out, is capable A primary y When of putting up a defense against most of the requirement in the defense When the blood upstes through the small against disease 1s, of course, a healthy body. intestines, it picks the digested food ma- disease-causing agents. Proper diet, sufficient rest, adequate ever- terial, which the intestines has absorbed, and These defenses of the body against various case and moderation in all things, will help distributes this food throughout the body. disease-producing organisms depend upon the body achieve a normal balance of the the activity of the living cells which act in Another system which are concerned body processes. is the nervous system. The e nervous system various ways to protect the body against Now let's check 5 of these 6 types of medi- enables us to be aware of our environment disease. Some body cells protect the body by eating or ingesting bacteria (stop). cal cases which caused the highest number and to react to it. This section is accom- Action: As Instructor says, "-ingesting of illnesses namely; URI, BENT, Digestive pushed through the five senses, commanded bacteria," a cartoon drawing of a fleeing bac- tract, infections, skin infections, and V.D., by the brain and the spinal cord. The brain teria and pursuing cell on a 5 by 5 placard, and see what we can do to avoid these interprets what is going on around us and is walked across stage. Medical technician diseases. decides how we will react to a given situa- enters. Instructors spot off. Instructor Acute upper respiratory infections are now tion. Two types of nerves, the sensory nerves stand by, follow spot on action, then switch partly controlled by vaccines. "Flu shots", and the motor nerves, act in this system. to technician. which are required annually for all mili- the sensory nerves carry impulses to the MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. Other cells of the tary personnel, provide good protection. brain and spinal cord; the motor nerves body produce and liberate chemical sub- There is, however, as yet no good immuni- carry impulses from the brain to activate the stances which neutralize or destroy disease zation against the common cold. Colds muscles of the body. agents. These substances are called anti- themselves are never fatal. Their great Action: On-stage assistant removes second bodies and are made to order by the body danger lies in the complications which may manikin layer exposing body outlines and cells. Each antibody protects against only arise from them, such as pneumonia, ear, skeletal system. one disease. Thus the antibody which pro- and sinus infections. .MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. This is the frame- vides immunity against smallpox has no ef- Colds are caused by a filterable virus and work of the body-the skeletal system. Two fect on any other disease agent. Medical may be minimized by the practice of sim- hundred and six bones comprise the skeletal science has found many aids which control ple hygienic measures. Such measures in- system. They support the body, protect the or cure infections in man. Some of these clude thorough washing of the hands be- soft parts, give the mucles leverage so that aids are natural, others are synthetic. For fore meals and after contact with objects the body can move, and provide form for example, immunity to a disease may be con- likely to contain Infection material; by keep- the body. Without bones the body would be ferred artificially, as Is done in the Army. ing the hands away from the nose and a shapeless mass. The soldier can be injected or inoculated mouth; by avoiding direct contact or expos- Certain of these bones protect vital parts with bacteria which have been killed by heat ure to persons with colds? of the body. The cranium protects the brain or chemical means. Such preparations of All respiratory infections are transmitted from damage and the vertebral column sim- dead bacteria are called vaccines 6 (pause). from one person to another by circulating ilarly protects the spinal cord. In the chest Action: As Instructor says, "-dead bac- air and by direct or indirect contact. Thus area the heart and lungs are afforded pro- teria are called vaccines" on-stage assistant tection by the sternum and 12 pairs of ribs. Body movement is accomplished by mus- 6 "The Living Body," Best & Taylor, pp. cle tissue acting on the long bones such as 4 "The Living Body," Best & Taylor. 240-242. the humerus, the radius, the ulna, the G "The Living Body," Best & Taylor, p. 233- 7 Textbook of Healthful Living, Howard S femur, the tibia, and the fibula. 234. Diehl, p Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 Lesson plan: third 2-ho urblock. 'Stage property CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 1. Hospital laboratory gowns (2). 2. Three foot hypodermic syringe. 3. MP uniform. 4. Record--automobile crash sound effect. 6. Wheeled surgical litter. 6. Auto crash casualty--dummy. 7. Tombstone. 8. Moulage--gunshot wound, face. 9. Simulated shotgun. 10. Blank pistol. Costumes: 1. Toy soldier: Shako, red coat, striped pants. 2. Hospital gown (1). 3. Hospital laboratory gown (1). 4. Stovepipe hat and cloak. (B) True and false test forms. PA system, podium light. (C) Podium, podium light, instructor spot- light, follow spotlight, public address system, unit and national colors. Charts: 1. U.S. Declaration of Independence. 2. Freedom & Responsibilities. 3. Soviet Expansion Since 1939. 4. Injured soldier-incidents. 5. Anatomical manikin. Costumes : 1. Russian officer uniform. 2. Revolutionary War period dress-(2). 8. Hospital laboratory gown (1). Stage property: 1. Blank pistol. 2. Record-"Army Goes Rolling Along Personnel: (A) Instructor, on-stage as- sistant, medical technicians, back stage man- ager, two spotlight operators. Actors: 1. Toy soldier. 2. Hospital patient. 3. Inebriated soldier and MP. 4. "Digger O'Dell." 6. Gun shot soldier and "friend." (B) Instructor, four Assistant Instructors. (C) Instructor, back-stage manager, 2 assistant instructors, 2 spotlight operators. Script: "Care and Maintenance of the Hu- man Machine." Copy, 4,500 words, 43 min- utes. Six - skits, 1- minute each, 6 minutes. One manikin action, 1 minute, Total time, 50 minutes. Stage setting: Assistant and charts cen- ter stage. Action: Curtain opens. Instructor to po- dium. Instructor spot on. INSTRUCTOR. During this period we are go- ing to discuss health-specifically, your health. And the reason we are going to discuss your health is that illness destroys the ef- fectiveness of the Armed Forces, undermines morale and places an enormous burden on medical facilities. Now, you may ask, does health and na- tional welfare have anything to do with me? It certainly does 1 Each one of us is sworn to protect America's interests overseas. To do this you and I must be prepared at all times for possible physical action in a com- bat-type situation. At the present time each one of you is presumed to be healthy. The purpose of the instruction to follow is to help keep you that way-so we have called this period, "Care and Maintenance of the Human Ma- chine" (stop). Action: As instructor says, "Care and maintenance," onstage assistant exposes subject title. Follow spot on action. Skit actor wearing "toy soldier" uniform marches stiffly on stage from wings as offstage manager provides "mechanical" sound effects with ratchet noisemaker. "Toy soldier" faces toward audience, salutes with jerky move- ment, marches back to wings. INSTRUCTOR. Now, soldiers aren't machines. Not can the human body be accurately com- pared to a machine. However, this thought is a convenient one for illustration. Now, what about our Army health record? (pause). Action: As instructor says "What about-". onstage assistant exposes subtitle "The Army Health Record." Follow spot on. INSTRUCTOR. Among our own Armed Forces reports show a remarkably low incidence of illness during the Second War World and the war in Korea. For the first time in history no serious epidemics of disease occurred in mili- tary training camps. The result of improved health programs is less illness among our military forces than ever before. In the care of combat casualties, too, the Army record is very good. Only 4.5 percent of the wounded men who received medical care died during the Second World War as compared to 8 percent during the First World War. During the war in Korea this mortality was further reduced to 2.3 percent. As you see, the health record of the Army is excellent and getting better all the time. But let's just look at the 24th Division health record for 1959 (pause). Action: As instructor says, "-health rec- ord for 1.959," on-stage assistant exposes sub- title. "The Division Health Record" and bar graph chart No. 2: "Total Medical Cases, 1959, 24th Infantry Division: 34,811." Follow spot on. INSTRUCTOR. This chart reveals that dur- ing 1959 there were 34,811 medical cases re- corded in this division. This figure repre- sents members of this command who were sick and required care by division medical personnel. Statistically this means that, based on an average division population of about 14,000 people there were two and a half times as many medical cases as there were men in the division. This is astonishing. It also means that your chance of becom- ing a medical statistic during the coming year are pretty good-unless we can do something to change the causes (pause). While it is true that today's soldier is un- likely to fall before the killer diseases of years past, this fact does not imply that you and I will remain- free of all disease. You may wonder, at this point "What type of casualty am I likely to become in this game of medical roulette?" Maybe we can identify the factors of highest probability (pause). Action: When instructor says "factors of highest probability," on-stage assistant un- masks seven medical case categories shown by bar-graph (chart No. 2) "Total Division Cases." Follow spot on. Upper respiratory---------------.._- 6,494 Eye, ear, nose, throat ---------------- 4,827 Skin infections- --------------------- 3,507 Venereal disease -------------------- 1,440 Diarrhea and digestive tract infec- tions-?-------------.------------.-- 1.440 Neuropsychiatric---------------- ..__ 970 Other medical cases----------------- 16,133 INSTRUCTOR. Here are the types of disease which struck down division men last year. Take a look at them; would you care to se- lect your disease now? As you can see, the medical cases which caused the greatest loss in manpower and money in the division in 1959 were respira- tory infections; diseases of the eye, ear, nose, and throat; intestinal diseases; diseases of the skin; venereal disease; and neuropsy- chiatric or mental diseases. Of the six diseases listed here, upper res- piratory disease accounted for the greatest number of cases. Over 6,000 acute respira- tory cases required medical care. Next most common classification was eye, ear, nose and throat diseases: nearly 5,000 cases treated. Skin conditions, over 3,500 cases were third most serious cause for time lost. 16441 tions, over 11,400 cases; and neuropsychiatric diseases, :about 1,000 cases. It's important to note that 85 other diseases, or types of diseases, too numerous to list on this chart, accounted for about 18,000 additional medical cases in the divi- sion during the period. Put another way, the 6 diseases listed on the bar-graph accounted for over 19,000 cases, or 86 per cent of all medical cases in the division last year, while: 85 other types totaled only 16,000, or 44 per Cent. Can you see anything else on this chart? It's certaanly significant that six types of diseases accounted for over half of the medi- cal cases in the 24th Infantry Division. But what else is revealed by this list? It is this--rnost of the diseases listed un- der these six categories, with possible excep- tion of neuropsychiatric diseases, could have been avoided by more intelligent hving on the part of personnel in the Division. A closer attention to the "Care and Main- tenance of the Human Machine", might have effectively reduced these somewhat gloomy statistics. That's something to think: about, isn't it? The Army has made great progress in eliminating or controlling the diseases which formerly scourged military :forces. Yet we are confronted with these morbidity figures which indicate that the health of this com- mand is ;:rot too good, or at least, not as good as we would like it to be. Now, let's add this up and see what it means to us personally-to You and me.. Since health is a personal matter perhaps there is a course of action that you and I can take to reduce the risk of contracting these disease. Of first Interest should be a better knowl- edge of oiur bodies--and how they function. Let's examine homo sapiens, that's the scientific name for man, remembering that we're talking about you, and you and you (pointing to members of the audience). (Pause.) Action: As instructor says, "-you and you", medical technician, dressed in labora- tory whites, enters from left wings, rolling caster-mounted? 10-foot plywood manikin. Halts midway to center stage, fixes lapel microphone to jacket and faces audience. Follow spot on manikin and technician. On- stage assistant exposes subtitle: "Structure of the Body." INsTRucvoR. This Is "Joe"--bigger than. life and twice as ugly. Joe, assisted by Special- ist -- its going to illustrate some of the vital functions of the human body. Now, Joe is made of wood and paint. But even so, he is several times more costly than the body you. are wearing today. In fact, t:he chemicals comprising your body can be purchased in any good pharma- ceutical hcu e for about 98 cents. Action: Medical technician slaps sign, "For Sale-=98 cents" on manikin. INSTRUCToR.:However, each of you probably values his body at a higher figure. And because you dc--and because the Army does, too, let's learn more about protecting this valuable mechanism. Specialist ----, if you please (stop). Action: Instructor retires. Instructor spot and podium light off. MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. The body is basically composed of cells which are sometimes called 'body building blocks'. These Cells are the basic structural units for many types of body parts. The cells themselves are composed of protoplasm, a soft, jelly-like substance which has been called the basic of life. There are four different types of cells: epithelial or covering cells; connective cells; muscle cells and nerve cells. When large numiners of the same type of cells join together they form tissues. Therefore there are four different types of tissues which bear Then came venereal disease, over 1,400 the same names as the four types-of cells cases; diarrhea and digestive tract infec- which forr,a them. For example, the skin Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 But, there are other effects, perhaps more far-reaching and lasting than a stretch in the guard house. These might be called the social aspects of misbehavior. We know that some soldiers believe that escape from responsibility in service can be achieved through premeditated acts designed to secure an "undesirable" discharge by 208 or 209 board action. Others are mislead into certain acts prej- udicial to the service in the belief that an "undesirable" discharge is a quick and rela- tively painless solution to a temporary in- convenience in military service. Let's look at some of these incidents of discharge and then judge whether this is a wise course of action (pause). Action: Follow spot on chart. On-stage assistant exposes chart No. 9: Incidents of Discharge: Benefit Undosir- able Bad conduct Dis- honor- able ARMY Death gratuity ----------- Yes (?)__ No ------ No. Muster-out pay ----------- No ------ No______ No. Accrued leave pay-------- ld h h No ------ N No______ N No. N o ----_ ouse Transfer of Burial in national ceme- o______ No ------ o______ No______ o. No. tery. VETERANS, ADMINISTRATION Dependents compensa- tion-------------------- Yes (?) No------ No. Pension--------- ____ Yes (?)__ No______ No. Vocational rehabilitation- Yes(1)__ No-. ---- No. Educational training----- Yes(?)__ No______ No. Loans-------------------- Yes (?)-- No------ No. Unemployment compen- Yes (7)_. No______ No. sation. - Special housing ----------- - Yes (?)__ No______ No. Hospitalization___________ Yes (?)__ No______ No. Out-patient care__________ Yes (?)__ No______ No. Death compensation------ Yes (7)__ No______ No. Burial expenses___________ Yes (?)__ No ------ No. Burial flag________________ Yes(?)__ No______ No. Farm loans_______________ Yes (?)__ Yes (?)__ No. Housing preference------- Yes (?)__ Yes (?)__ No. Homestead_______________ No ...... No______ No. Civil service______________ No______ No______ No. Reemployment benefits-- No______ No______ No. Unemployment compen- Yes (?)__ No______ No. sation. Naturalization___ No No______ No. Social security____________ Yes (?)__ No____ IVo. INSTRUCTOR. There are more than 40 ben- efits accruing to the individual by a suc- cessful completion of military service. These are direct advantages gained by service in uniform. We have listed 25 representative cate- gories of these benefits on this chart to show some of the positive advantages of re- entering civilian life with an unblemished Army record. These listed benefits include only Army, Veterans' Administration and Federal agency benefits directed by public law. Numerous State benefits and other, less well-defined benefits, such as social prestige and self-satisfaction, are not considered here. As you see, most of these benefits are lost or compromised by an undesirable, bad conduct, or dishonorable discharge. Most of these benefits are real, out of the pocket considerations, or have a material bearing on future civilian success, and apply whether a man has 2 or 20 years service when he is discharged. A person discharged as "undesirable" may retain some of these benefits but, as indi- cated by the question mark, this eligibility is dependent upon a review of the facts surrounding the discharge. It does not take much "power of reason" to see that such a provision effectively limits the individual in many critical areas of health, business, and housing opportunities. A further material loss to the military lawbreaker is embodied in the 68th statute of the Congressional Record. This amendment to the United States Code is known as the Hiss Act. It directs that U.S. military personnel who have been convicted of a felony shall forfeit all retirement benefits. An example of the effect of the Hiss Act is the soldier who is court-martialed for an illegal dependent travel claim. That soldier, if convicted, will have surrendered all rights to retirement pay (pause). It is pertinent that we understand Ger- man Law, as well as Military law, for here in Germany we are subject to both. On 5 May, 1955 the Occupation of Western Germany was terminated. On this date the Federal Republic of Germany regained its full sovereignty and the Bonn Convention en- tered into full force. Among the provisions of the Convention is the following: (pause) Action: Instr spot off. Follow spot to stage left. Asst enters, reads proclamation. ASSISTANT. The members of the Forces shall observe German Law, and the. author- ities of the Forces shall undertake and be responsible for the enforcement of German Law against them, except as otherwise pro- vided in the present or in another applicable convention or agreement. Action: Follow spot off. Inst light on podium. INSTRUCTOR. This document is known as the "Agreement on the Statutes of Forces in Germany." Subject to the provisions of the agreement German courts and authorities jurisdiction over members of the United States Army in noncriminal proceedings. Although we are not subject to the juris- diction of German criminal courts, members of the U.S. Forces may be sued in German civil courts by fellow members of the U.S. Forces, by German Nationals, and by citizens of other countries. Futher, service of process is effected by and through military channels. The type of cases so handled include paternity cases, automobile accidents, and alleged breech of contract (pause). Action: Follow spot to stage left. Pick up 4 x 4 walk across cartoon, fraulein carry- ing `baby' chasing soldier, cross to stage right. INSTRUCTOR. Soldier may be sued in Ger- man courts in paternity cases and the process, including judgment, will be served on them through their commander. Action may be taken by German authorities to en- force paternity judgments in the same man- ner as they would enforce judgment in other types of cases. III the same manner, U.S. soldiers are liable for damage incurred in automobile accidents and may be brought to German courts for suits arising out of such accidents. The large majority of suits brought by German firms and individuals against mem- bers of the U.S. forces are result of an alleged failure to honor contracts. These oral or written contracts usually involve financing obligations, installment purchases, automobile rentals, apartment leases and other credit arrangements. Because of the ease by which German Nationals can begin suit in these matters members of the U.S. forces who default on contracts are fre- quently sued immediately upon such default, even where the amount is small (pause). These are some of the considerations effecting our social activities. There is also the military aspect of mis- behavior. Military aspects of misbehavior are prescribed under the Military Code of Justice. The procedures, authority, responsibilities, and actions taken under the code are spelled out in some 140 articles. The articles gov- ern the legal aspects of Army service and comprise the basic law for soldiers. The subject is too voluminous to discuss here. Sufficient to state that fact is pre- ferred over fiction when making decisions involving our personal careers. The facts are available in the U.S. Manual for Courts-Martial (stop). Action: Instructor spot off. Follow spot on prisoner carrying placard-"Don't Be a Chump." Guard with shotgun follows. Cross to stage right. INSTRUCTOR. During the last 50 minutes we have discussed and learned three things (pause). Action: Follow spot on chart "Power of Reason, Master of Fate, Successful Career." INSTRUCTOR. We know that each of us has a God-given intelligence by which we can make considered decisions. We know that many factors influence our decisionmaking faculties. By understanding these factors we can better control them. We also know that our future in service is mot a matter of blind chance. We, alone, are the master of our fate. What we make of our lives in the 24th Infantry Division, and in Europe, depends on our sound judgment and our mental attitudes. And, third, we know that a successful career in service and in civilian life can be ours by recognizing certain rules of behavior, and by avoiding paths which lead to dead- ends (pause). Action: Assistant returns 12-foot figure of injured soldier. Spot on figure to end. INSTRUCTOR. Whether you and I become dead-end statistics like this figure or develop a fuller, richer life through our experience in service will be pretty, much up to us indi- vidually. Action: Curtain closes, instructor and fol- low spots off. Instructor retires. House lights on. Lesson plan: Third 2-hour block of instruction. Subject and duration: (A) "Care and Maintenance of the Human Machine" (script attached), 50 minutes. (B) End-of-course Test (form attached), 25 minutes. (C) Concluding address (script attached), 25 minutes. Place: Theater. References: (A) "Textbook of Healthful Living," How- ard S. Diehl; "The Living Body," Best and Taylor; "Morbidity Reports," 24th Inf. Div., 1959, Surg.; "Traffic Accident Reports," 24th Inf. Div., 1959 P.M. (B) Preceding instruction. (C) Preceding references and instruction. Type of instruction: (A) Lecture, skits, visual illustrations. (B) Audience participation. (C) Lecture, visual illustrations. Instructional aids: (A) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system (2 mikes). Charts : 1. Care and Maintenance and subtitles, 5 by 6. 2. Division Medical Cases, 1959, 5 by 6. 3. For sale, 98 cents, 1 by 2. 4. Disease Causing Agents, 5 by 6. 5. Cartoon, fleeing bacteria and cell, 5 by 6. 6. Aids to Control Disease, 5 by 6. 7. Causes of Disease in Soldiers, 5 by 6. 8. Control of Respiratory Disease, 5 by 6. 9. Control of Digestive Tract Infections, 5 by 6. 10. Death Rates v. Alcohol, 5 by 6. 11. Division Surgical Cases, 1959, 5 by 6. Illustrations: 1. Human, male figure, three layers of plywood-(a) body; (b) organs; (c) skeletal system in color; 10 feet high. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE (3) Rank and Promotion. (4) Discipline. 3(5) Ideology. (6) Fear. (7) Group Influ- ence. Follow spot to chart. INSTRUCTOR. There are certain know areas which present serious disrupting influences on individual motivation in service. These points might be called "Factors of Stress in the Army". First, on joining the Army, a man loses his most important emotional anchors, his home and family, his friends, his job. He is given little choice in his disposition. This strange, uncomfortable, new environment re- quires adjustment on the part of the individual. Job assignment is the commonest cause of dissatisfaction, and consequently, of mal- adjustment in the Army. The individual, and his superior, must be aware of this factor and take positive action to achieve a compatible job assignment. Such job as- signment must be made with a realistic un- derstanding of the Army and unit mission. Rank and promotion indicate training and special qualifications. As such they are im- portant in recognition for experience and ability. Inequalities are bound to occur in the Army but knowledge of promotion cri- teria, availability of promotions and an un- derstanding bf what is required to achieve promotional status, will help to set a stable, mental pattern. Military discipline, the Army way of work- ing together, may be onerous to some, but the necessity of discipline and how discipline creates a combat team, is a basic require- ment. Inculcation of discipline leads to success in battle and Is a driving force which en- ables the individual soldier to assume un- comfortable, and sometimes, dangerous re- sponsibilities. The morale stiffner of dis- cipline provides this response. Most persons entering the service will be confronted with a conflict in ideology. All of our previous teaching at home, at school, and in church, conditioned us to respect life. Now, suddenly, we must learn to kill. In fact, we ourselves may be killed. Justification for these new concepts are best arrived at by identifying our love for home, respect for our leaders, and concern for our "buddies", with our military mission. The emotional stimulus for fighting rests also in an understanding of "why we fight". Fear, a normal response during periods of danger, is not a sign of cowardice. It is an automatic mechanism of the mind acting to protect the body. Controlled fear is useful, for we all would soon be dead without a sense of fear. But, we must develop an internal force that is stronger than our fear; pride in our unit, patriotism, loyalty to friends, and conviction in our mission, contribute to our successful fight against fear. Action dispells.fear, -as does the realization that we must face ourselves, our family, and our country if we succumb to fear. The final factor of stress in service that we shall consider is the group influence. Since we train as a team, and in relatively large numbers working together, it may hap- pen, that under stress, the group may re- spond like sheep. Mass hysteria in combat, or blind following of bad examples in our daily lives, are typical examples of the ef- fects of group influence. On the other hand, group influence can be beneficial by directing the individual toward more effective results. This, of course, depends on intelligence and guid- ance (pause). Are there any signs, which we can observe in the individual, and in the unit, that show when motivation is not in adjustment with the stresses of military service? You bet there are (pause). Action: An examination of this chart No. 7, "Signs of Maladjustment": (1) Early signs, (a) Lack of interest, (b) response through Fear, (c) poor inspection records, (d) attitudes; (2) late signs, (a) AWOL rate, (b) sick report, (c) company punishment, (d) guard house cases. INSTRUCTOR. An examination of this chart, shows a remarkable relation to the list of 24th Infantry "incidents" that we saw at the beginning of this talk, doesn't it? There is no use in belaboring this point for it is quite obvious that, matching the indicators noted on this chart with the sta- tistical figures shown by the injured soldier seen earlier in our discussion, we have a problem. And it is for this very reason that we are studying cases of human behavior today (pause). Action: Follow spot off. Soldier chart re- moved. INSTRUCTOR. As we noted in our study of the brain, man can channel basic instincts into constructive and socially desirable ac- tions. Therefore anti-social behavior, as il- lustrated in rates of Incidents, is the volun- tary relinquishing this control. The maladjusted individual is one who has permitted his intelligence to be superseded by emotion and has placed himself at the mercy of his animal instinct and the less developed centers of the mind. Now, what should we do to avoid falling into the classification of maladjusted? Frankly, there is no single "cure-all" for stresses in the service any more than there is a "cure-all" for personal problems in civil- ian life. Life itself is a series of continuing problems, and our ability to meet these prob- lems, and surmount them, is the mark of maturity. However, there are some guides which we may consider as particularly important dur- ing our service in the Army, and in this Di- vision. (stop) Action: Follow spot on Med Tech, stage left. Inst spot off. TECHNICIAN. In a nut-shell-Morale. Mo- rale may be positive or negative. High mo- rale is a composite attitude comprising de- termination, fight, confidence, ideological conviction, and beliefs. High morale is marked by individual and unit resistance to threats, to conquering of handicaps, and by surmounting obstacles. How wall the Indi- vidual and his unit achieve these objectives will depend on how well informed are the members of the unit and the degree of in- dividual job proficiency. Confidence, achieved through training, in the use of weapons and equipment. Confi- dence in taking care of ones self, and con- fidence in success are prerequisites to sound morale. Equally important is sound confi- dence in the Army and in leadership. Each man on. the team must have satis- faction in his job and mission and must know that the unit is backing him, and that his contribution to the unit is known and ap- preciated. Therefore, some guides to maintaining good morale, In the individual and in the unit, are understanding of unit mission and the job of the individual. The soldier must keep himself informed. He must fight rum- ors and avoid "time killing." Activity, both physical and mental, is an excellent antidote for sagging morale. Be active in recreation and physical, intellectual, cultural, and spiritual pursuits. And, when the mental stress of personal problems are beyond the capacity or means of the individual, these problems should be taken to persons in au- thority who can help resolve them. Seek guidance, morally and spiritually, and air complaints with superiors. Remember that your problems are not unique in human ex- perience. And because they are not, the Army has anticipated them and has provided agencies through which the individual can seek guidance. These agencies include the Chaplain, Medical Officer, Special Service Of- ficer, Classification Officer, Red Cross, and Legal Assistance Officer. The military chain of command, from squad leader to commanding general, share the responsibility of creating and maintain- ing sound morale, and, therefore, have a vested interest in resolving problems which are detrimental to morale. (stop) Action: Follow spot off. Instructor spot on podium. INSTRUCTOR. Now, in the last several min- utes we h.ave established two general pre- cepts. First we have identified the brain as the central control of all mental and physical activity. We have seen, to some degree, how the brain functions and that man possesses the most highly developed central nervous system of all the creatures on earth. We can agree that you and I have intelligence and the power of reason and, so, can mate- rially influence our own destinies by con- scious acts. We are, in fact, masters of our fate. Second:y, we have explored human be- havior and ?individual personality. We know there are basic drives which motivate the individual personality. And we know that there are factors of stress in service which influence these basic drives. Having now become amateur psychologists we are new ready to apply this knowledge to our military careers and our personal lives (stop) . Action: Soldier in cap and gown runs down aisle to instructor, yelling and waving his hande.' Follow spot picks up action and follows to stage where diploma (Graduate Amateur Psychologist) is presented. Grad- uate walks. off, follow spot off. INSTRUCTOR. Knowing that we have the power of reason, we can now understand. that adjustment to military life is closely associ- ated with morale. And morale, to a great degree, is based on information (pause). Action: Follow spot picks up chart No. 8 entitled "Information, Information, Infor- mation, Information, Information." INSTRUCTOR. Do you suppose that we might combine this power of reason, and knowledge of - human behavior, with information so as to improve morale? Can we change the mental hazards of military service so that such problems as NP cases, courts-maxtial, board actioris, AWOL's, serious incidents, and deaths will be eliminated from this Division? Can you and I erase the sorry spector of the sick and injured 24th Infantry Division figure we saw at the beginnring of this talk? No. Of course not. We know that the pattern of human be- havior will produce future personal catas- trophy, and that many soldiers in this Divi- sion will, within the next twelve months, be- come statistics in one or more areas of morale disentegration. However--you and I can prevent our per- sonal in?rolvement in a dead-end career. We can control our own destiny in the serv- ice. And, by so doing, we will have reduced the over-all Division statistical rates for 1960. This is certainly a desired aim, isn't it? Well, let's try it. Let's see if information and mature judgement can have a-bearing on our present and future service. Let's try in- formatiorl as a, guide to success (pause). There are. of course, many, obvious results of poor personal decision in the Army (stop). Action: Follow spot to stage left. Pick up action of wild soldier, running across stage shooting gun. Two ",medics" capture soldier and hustle him off stage. Put on helmet. INSTauc;roR. This is one end to malad- justment in. military service. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16438 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 cialist , assisted by Specialist will explain the various parts of the brain, and describe a few of the functions of these parts. Specialist , if you please (stop) Action: Remove model of soldier and in- structor light and podium light off. In- structor retires. TECHNICIAN. The outstanding fact about our knowledge of the human brain is that we, know quite a bit about it. We know, for example, that the processes of the brain can be compared to an electrical system. In fact, the Impulses of the central nervous system, whether these impluses be conscious or unconscious, or physical or mental, are the result of tiny but measurable electric charges. Since mental activity gen- erates electric energy, it is certain that, like an electric generator and wiring system, the better the system the better the results. Action: Assistant technician points out and indicates areas of the brain with pointer as discourse continues. MEDICAL TECHNICIAN. The brain is that part of the nervous system enclosed by the skull. It consists of the cerebrum, the mid- brain, pons, medulla oblongata, and the cerebellum. It is believed that the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum, pons, midbrain and the cerebrum represent progressive evolution of the central nervous system over millions of years. The first four areas of the brain are more rudimentary in structure and are organs of crude consciousness and centers of primitive emotions. In successively higher levels of animals development these centers exert less and less direct influence on the animal. In mammals, which include dogs, apes, and man, these rudimentary organs are far ex- ceeded in prominence by the cerebrum, al- though they still retain important functions. In the brain of man the cerebrum has achieved its highest development which we perceive as intellect and the power of reason. The cerebru, with which we are most con- cerned, is divided incompletely into two halves so that in appearance it might be compared to a walnut. The most highly developed function of the nervous system, memory, intelligence, moral sense, and the centers for sight, hearing, smell, taste, and general body sensations, are seated in the cerebral hemispheres. For convenience of description each half of the cerebrum is divided into four parts called lobes. The frontal lobe is situated in front of the deep cleft called the fissure of Rolando. The parietal lobe lies behind the fissure of Rolando. The occipital lobe forms the posterior section of the cerebrum. The temporal lobe forms the lower portion of the right and left sides of the brain. A complicated layer of brain cells, called cortex, covers both cerebral hemispheres. This layer of cells is about one fourth of an inch thick in the human brain and is the seat of intelligence and higher mental functions. In lower animals this specialized layer of cells is rudimentary, microscopically thin, or entirely absent. A band of cortex in front of the fissure of Rolando controls the voluntary movements of the body. Therefore this area is called the motor area. The muscles of one side of the body are controlled by the motor area of the opposite side of the brain. This area has been mapped out during brain opera- tions so that many. of the points in the motor area have been identified with certain mus- cles of the body. Situated in front of the motor area is the so-called premotor area. This part of the brain exerts influence over the motor area, combining localized movement into more complicated acts; for example, coordinating thought and speech. The parietal lobe, behind the fissure of Rolando, is sensory in function. There sensations of touch, warmth, and coolness, and of muscular movements, are preceived and interpreted. Like the motor area this part of the brain has been mapped out point by point by electrical stimulation through openings in the brain skull. The patients were conscious and able to describe the sensations aroused. The temporal lobe is the region for the perception of sound. This acoustic area on each side of the brain receives impulses from both ears so that the destruction of one side will not destroy hearing in either ear, al- though it might impair hearing in both ears. The occipital lobe is the area for vision. This part of the brain receives impulses from the two retinas of the eyes and inter- pret these visual impressions, integrating the signals with other sensations. The function of the remaining, and greater part of the frontal cortex is not well known. It was once thought that the frontal lobe was the seat of intelligence. It is now believed.that no special region or center for intelligence exists. Intelligence, it is now believed, depends upon the cortex as a whole. That Is, upon the degree of the various sensory areas and the richness of the association paths through which these areas are interconnected (stop). Action: Medical technician and assistant wheel training aid off stage. Instructor re- turns to podium. Follow spot off and instructor spot on. Podium light on. INSTRUCTOR. The brain is a most remark- able instrument. In man the cerebral cortex is highly developed enabling you and I to control, regulate, and channelize the basic instincts of animal origin. In lower animal forms this refinement is rudimentary or lack- ing entirely so that the animal is controlled by the lower centers of emotion and crude consciousness. You and I can sublimate these basic drives and instincts, and an animal cannot. All living things have a brain, or a brain like organ. The frog brain, for example, has all the parts that are associated with the human brain, although it is somewhat dis- similar in form. But if a frog brain were to be increased to human size and somehow fitted into a human skull that unfortunate man would be an utter moron, an intellec- tual and social idiot. Action: On-stage assistant exposes frog- man chart. Follow spot on chart. INSTRUCTOR. NOW, you and I are not hu- man-like frogs. Quite the contrary. We possess a superb instrument of preception and reason. But, with some of us-at some time- some function or influence disrupts or mis- directs this power of reason and we are con- fronted with a self-destructive situation of our own making-a courts-martial for instance. What are these factors which cloud our power of reason? To answer this question we should know something about human behavior, emotional reactions, and attitudes (pause). To understand human behavior me must assume that there exists two parts of the human personality. One, a conscious mind which controls voluntary activity of brain and body, and two, an unconscious or sub- conscious mind, of powerful impulses and drives, and which is difficult to control. The conscious mind may be compared to the cerebrum, or most highly developed portion of the brain. And the unconscious mind may be identified with the more rudimentary parts of the brain, as was shown in our illus- tration of the human brain (stop). Action: Instructor spot off. Follow spot on medical technician at stage left. TECHNICIAN. You and I link these two parts, conscious and unconscious, many times each day. The process of linking these two minds is called a technique of the per- sonality. For example, we rationalize exces- sive drinking, or justify our failures by other mental gymnastics. We explain our loves and our hates through rationalization. We also transfer emotion from one person to another by a technique called displace- ment. A soldier, for example may unknow- ingly identify his officer with his father and act accordingly. Another way the brain links these two minds is by conversion. We convert strong emotional feelings into physical symptoms, such as going on sick call with a severe belly ache just prior to a field exercise. We also project our own defects or im- pulses to others as in accusing a fellow sol- dier of cowardice or blaming others for our own mistakes. Another unconscious method used to link the two minds is identification. We un- knowingly copy the mannerisms of another by process of self-identification, as in men- tally comparing ourselves with the hero of a movie, or in borrowing strength from a leader in battle (stop). Action: Follow spot off. Instructor spot on right stage. INSTRUCTOR. There are the mental mecha- nisms by which the individual personality connects the two minds. These techniques are used quite unknowingly and without conscious effort on the part of the individual. In the well adjusted individual his con- scious personality keeps his unconscious per- sonality under control. This control is guided by certain human controls or needs called motivation. (pause) Action: On-stage assistant exposes Chart No. 5: Motivation (1) Security, (2) Grati- fication, (3) Conviction, (4) Recognization, (5) Confidence-in skill and equipment, (6) Physical Conditioning. Follow spot on chart. INSTRUCTOR. These needs, or motivation precepts, are major factors in determining human behavior. An individual must feel secure to be well adjusted. He must feel secure in his job, in his relation with associates, and in the sources of his affections. When these are threatened by such things as trouble at home, ridicule by "buddies," or by uncer- tainty In a new assignment, the individual begins to develop symptoms of maladjust- ment. To be mentally well, to be a whole man, a soldier must find gratification in his job and in his environment. Without such satisfac- tion he does his work poorly and is bored with his associates dyad with his environ- ment. The individual must be convinced of the purpose and importance of his job. He must believe that what he is doing has significance and that his mission is worthwhile. Every man needs recognition by co-work- ers and by superiors. He requires evidence that his worth and contribution to the com- mon effort is understood and appreciated. Confidence is skill and equipment are major stabilizing factors in personal adjust- ment. The soldier must be confident in his capacity to do his work. In the Army this confidence is arrived at by training so that the man feels "superior" in the use of weapons and instruments. And Physical Conditioning. In some cases physical condition is secondary to the mental state, but, in the Army, physical condition- ing is of essential importance for good men- tal health. Every man must observe the rules of personal hygiene. This includes conditioning, rest, food, and clothing. Poor physical condition seriously effects the men- tal state (pause). Having identified Personality Structure, Mental Mechanisms, and Motivation, let us now relate these factors to conditions of stress peculiar to the Army. Action: On-stage assistant exposes Chart No. 6: "Factors of Stress in the Army": (1) Situation on Joining. (2) Job Assignment. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE The American cause of freedom is based upon a belief in the sovereignty of God and the preciousness of the individual soul. And next to belief comes sacrifice. What are we willing to give today for the preserva- tion of our freedom? We cannot buy it, you know. There is no shop which has It on sale. We cannot bargain for it at any trade mart in the world, or receive it as a gift, or attain it by indolent security. Freedom can only be won. Sometimes with anguish, often with blood, always with sacrifice. Nor Is it ever won eternally. The warfare is continuous and each generation comes to the front to fight for it as though the battle had just been joined. Freedom costs something. The spirit of Washington assures us that we cannot escape such sacrifice. Now, finally, there Is honor. Do we really understand its place in the American dream? Do we really recognize that the preservation of our freedom is dependent upon the. stout morality of each genera- tion? The very success of our democracy is founded upon the integrity of those of us who enjoy it. Remove morality and you re- move freedom, for freedom is subject to morality as a seed is dependent upon the soil in which it is planted. Honor is a shield to character, a spur to courage, and a whip to justice. That is why we must be concerned with whatever weakens our national morality. That is why we must defend our liberties on the battleground of integrity. Never forget that nations die when moral laxity becomes the seed of death in their national character. Just so, our national liberty rests upon our national honor. And our national hon- or will rest upon the honor of our individual citizens. True patriotism Is inborn. And true free- dom depends upon belief, and sacrifice, and honor as its bulwarks.' Our first President cautioned Americans to live by these principles. On the eve of his departure from public office President Washington addressed his fellow citizens in a farewell letter published in September 1796. In it he explained the course he had taken as President, set forth some political precepts which he believed the country should follow, and insisted upon the duty of patriotism. "Be united," he said, "Be Amer- ican." Action: Backstage voice enunciates lines over public address system: "The unity of government which constitutes you one peo- ple Is also now dear to you. it is justly so, for It Is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth, as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batter- ies of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cor- dial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; dis- countenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned, and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alien- a "The Bulwarks of Freedom," Bishop R.A. Brown, 1959. ate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link the various parts. "It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule indeed extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon at- tempts to shake the foundation of the fab- ric? Promote, then, as an object of pri- mary importance, institutions for general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened." 10 Action: Travel spot off. Curtain closes. INSTRUCTOR. At the beginning of this presentation it was stated that we would examine the origins of American faith in freedom and the cause for patriotism. We asked whether patriotism and personal mo- rality have anything in common. In the succeeding period we traced the formative stages of our heritage, and more important, examined the character of the individual men, the collective spirit which made this heritage possible. We have found that the freedoms and liberties which we enjoy today were founded by men not unlike ourselves. But, we have learned that these men were patriotically motivated. The patriots of yesterday were men of social conscience. They were men whose sense of belief, sacrifice, and honor transcended personal ambition, personal gain, or personal glory. The founders 'of our Republic were men of vision; they were patriots of personal morality. You, too, must be motivated by these same virtues, for you are the seed of to- morrow. Freedom In America, with liberty for all, will stand or crumble by your acts and at- titudes. Action: Instructor spot off. Instructor retires.. House lights on. Script: "Adjustment to Military Service." Copy, 4,000 words, 35 minutes. Six skits, action, 1 minute each, 6 minutes. Eight charts, action 1 minute each, 8 minutes. Training aid, action, 1 minute. Total in- struction time, 50 minutes. Stage setting: Mounted "Soldier" and "In- cidents of Discharge" Illustrations on 12-foot easel, and mounted charts on 13-foot easel, center stage, left and right, rear. On-stage assistant with pointer standing by. Lighted podium with microphone right of center stage forward. All training aids masked. Curtain closed. Instructor spot. and follow spot standing by. Action: Curtain opens, stage dark. In- structor enters from right wings, walks to podium, being picked up by instructor spot (flesh). INSTRUCTOR. During this period we are going to talk about the Army, and this divi- sion too. Now, this should come as no surprise. But, most important we are going to talk about you. We will talk about you and the Army, and the effect the Army and this divi- sion, may have on you. The title of this talk Is "Adjustment to Military Service" and during this period we are going to discuss three things: first, the psychological aspects of the Army; second, social aspects of mishavior; andthird,mili- tary aspects of misbehavior (pause). Action: Follow spot on. On-stage assist- ant exposes soldier chart, 12 foot figure of combat-ready Infantryman. INSTRUCTOR. Here we have a figure of a sharp, combat-ready soldier representing 14,000 men of the 24th Infantry Division. 10 Heritage of America, Commage & Nevins, p. 211. 16437 Splenc.i.d chap. Well groomed, in full pos- session cf his faculties, and firm of purpose. This representative figure might be you at the beginning of any 12-month ;period (pause). Action: On-stage assistant exposes illus- tration t2, same figure reversed now wrecked by sickness and injury. Tags indicate dam- age: 970 NP cases, 234 serious incidents, 1,908 courts-martial, 360 board actions, 287 AWOL's, 17 deaths, 65,000 sick calls. INSTarcrroa. And here, again representing you, is this same 24th Infantry Division figure twelve months later. Now wrecked by 970 NP cases. Reputation blackened by 234 Se- rious Incidents. Limbs broken by 1,908 Courts-Martial. Crippled by 360 Board Ac- tions. Damaged by 287 AWOL's. Heart-sick through 17 deaths, and combat-health in- jured by 515,000 sick calls, These figures you see on the tags are actual cases Involving men of the 24th Infantry Division during the year 1959, a twelve month period. Yes. But these things happen to other people you say. Don't be too sure. Here are the adds of these things happening to you. (pause) Action: Traveling spot to chart #3: Odds against the individual: Neuropsychiatric Odds: 1 to 14, Serious Incident Odds: 1 to 60, Courts-Martial Odds: 1 to 7, Board Ac- tion Odds: 1 to 39, AWOL Odds: 1 to 50, Death Odds: 1 to 875, Sick Call Odds: 4 to 1. INSTRUCTOR. If we extend these same rates into 1960 these could be your chances of becoming involved in an unpleasant, pain- ful, or perhaps fatal experience. Your chances of becoming a psychiatric case are about one to fourteen. Of being a party to a Serious Incident, one in which both you and the government are compromised, about one in sixty-one. That you will be a defendant in some kind of a courts-martial Is higher: one to ten. That you will end your military career through separation from the service by 208 or 209 board action: one to thirty-nine. Your odd.s of going AWOL are about one to seventy-two. And of being killed during the next twelve months, probably in an automobile acci- dent, are a remote, but possible, one to eight hundred seventy-five. Your chances of going on sick-call how- ever, are so high that It is almost certain you will see your unit medical officer at least once during the next twelve months. The odd;;: four to one. Action: Follow spot off. INSTRUCTOR. In a most personal way, these figures are not statistics a,t all. Each. inci- dent represents a man in uniform who has suffered some kind. of harm or damage while in this command. One of the listed incidents could represent you in 10130, unless we can modify the causes for these incidents. Now, in nearly every case of AWOL, courts- martial, board action, serious incident, psy- choneurosis, Yes! and even sick call, some mental aberation, some fault in the individ- ual mental process, brought that person to grief and sometimes, to a forced and painful readjustment. Since we can correlate many of our statis- tics to mental attitudes perhaps we should know more about the center of mental proc- ess, the human brain, for the brain is the controlling organ of the mind and body (pause). Action: Medical technician and assistant, in whites, enter from wings, left, rolling eight-foot mock-up of the human brain. Two views, top and side: cerebrum, mid- brain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum. Indicated: frontal lobe, fissue of Rolando, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe. Follow spot on brain (flesh). INSTRUCTOR. This is a mock-up of the human brain, the center of Intellect. Spe- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16436 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty tume enters center stage. Blue spot on. God. I know not what course others may Speaks lines with French accent: take, but as for me, give me liberty or give "Soon I came in sight of the camp. My me death." 4 Blackout. imagination had pictured an army with uni- Figure retires. Instructor spot on. forms, the glitter of arms and standards, in Travel spot on, short, military pomp of all sorts. Instead INSTRUCTOR. Even as Patrick Henry spoke of the imposing spectacle I expected, I saw, in Virginia a few militiamen at Cambridge, grouped together or standing alone, a few soldiers destined to become the core of the militiamen, poorly clad, and for the most Continental Army, were facing British fire part without shoes many of them badly with steel bayonets. armed. And so the die was cast for liberty and "In passing through the camp I also no- Washington became its executor (pause). ticed soldiers wearing cotton nightcaps Just 22 years after his fatefil meeting under their hats, and some having for cloaks with the French commander, George Wash- or greatcoats coarse woolen blankets, exactly ington was nominated to command the like those provided for the patients in our fledgling army of independence then fighting French hospitals. in New England territory. "I learned afterwards that these men were In the words of John Adams, member of the officers and generals." the Continental Congress who made the Action: Blackout. Figure exists. In- nomination, this is how Colonel Washington structor and travel spot on. became the "Father of His Country", in June, INSTRUCTOR. That this band of ragged men 1775. This is John Adams speaking (stop). should perservere and win is the incredible Action: Instructor spot, travel spot off, triumph of spirit over adversity-the success figure in period costume enters center stage. of courage in the cause of freedom. Blue spot on. Speaks lines: "Full of anxie- And win they did (pause). ties concerning the confusion, and appre- There is a deep-seeded instinct in all of us hending daily that we should hear very dis- which revolts against slavery of every sort tressing news from Boston, I walked with Mr. and searches for liberty. In many instances Samuel Adams in the State House yard for this dream has remained a dream. It has a little exercise and fresh air, before the been viewed as unattainable, a utopia at hour of Congress, and there represented to the end of the rainbow, because those who him the various dangers that surrounded dreamed it did not possess the necessary us. "I am determined this morning," I said, qualifications to transform their dream into "to make a direct motion that Congress reality. In a few instances It has been made should adopt the Army before Boston, and a fact, but thereafter liberty has been tar- appoint Colonel Washington commander of nished by misuse and lost again because the it." Accordingly, when Congress had assem- people did not perservere. Yet, whenever bled, I rose in my place and in as short a people have coupled their dream of freedom speech as the subject would permit, repre- with belief, and sacrifice, and honor, democ- sented the state of the Colonies, the un- racy has been born and brought to ripe certainty in the minds of the people, their maturity. great expectation and anxiety, the distress Such an enterprise has, of course, required of the Army, the danger of its dissolution, a special people. Not just any people, you the difficulty of collecting another, and the understand, but a peculiar people who were probability that the British Army would take willing to risk everything in order to create advantage of our delays, march out of Bos- and maintain their vision of freedom. ton, and spread desolation as far as they In our case it took Cavaliers who could could go. I concluded with a motion that sacrifice their private fortunes in England Congress would adopt the Army at Cambridge for the privilege of independence in a strange and appoint a general. I had no hesitation land. It took individual heroes who would to declare that I had but one gentleman in boldly ask, "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, mind for that important command, and that as to be purchased at the price of chains was a gentleman from Virginia who was and liberty?" 4 among us and very well known to all of us, By this Instinct for liberty, and the will a gentleman whose skill and experience as to make the dream a reality, the continental an officer, whose independent fortune and patriots carried the war and achieved vic- great talents, and excellent universal char- tory. (Pause.) acter, would command the approbation of When Cornwallis, in the summer of 1781, all America, and unite the cordial exertions placed his army at the end of the Virginia of all the Colonies better than any other Peninsula, Washington saw the opportunity. person in the Union, Mr. Washington." s By rapid movements the French and Amer- Action: Blackout. Figure retires. In- ican land forces were united before Yorktown, structor and travel spot on. while the French Navy closed the Chesa- INSTRUCTOR. The appointment of Washing- peake. ton as Commander in Chief of the Conti- The capitulation of Cornwallis meant the nental Army, and the succeeding declaration downfall of the British Ministry and the end of the 13 States for independence on July 4, of the war. 1776, was but the prelude to a 5 year struggle Following the defeat of the British Ameri- of freedom, can pride and patriotism in the first flush of Americans were a mass of husbandmen, mer- chants, mechanics, and fishermen, but the necessities of the country gave a spring to the active powers of the inhabitants, and set them thinking, speaking, and acting in a line far beyond that to which they had been accustomed. This displayed itself in a variety of ways. It was found that the talents for great sta- tions did not differ in kind, but only in degree, from those which were necessary for the proper discharge of the ordinary business of civil society. The great bulk of those who were the active instruments of carrying on the revolution were self- made, industrious men. These, who by their own exertions had established, or laid a foundation for establishing, personal in- dependence, were most generally trusted, and most successfully employed in estab- lishing that of their country. In these times of action, classical education was found of less service than good natural parts, guided by commonsense and sound judgment? Action: Blackout. Figure retires. In- structor spot and travel spot on. INSTRUCTOR. And here we have arrived at the crux of our subject. Liberty and free- dom are achieved and maintained by in- dividuals of personal independence guided by commonsense and sound judgment. The patriots of historical America, then, were men of moral sensibilities who employed these virtues for their country. Yes, It took a special class of men; men who transformed themselves from a mass of farmers, merchants, mechanics, and fish- ermen Into a disciplined army of patriots. It took a special class of men to establish as a fact what less sturdy people would hold only as a dream. It still does. David Ramsay, speaking in 1789, pointed up the force of patriotism In words that are just as meaningful today. A patriot is a man of social conscience who springs to the service of his country in time of need. A patriot is a man motivated by the ideals of freedom and liberty. A patriot is a man of ardor who experiences a vast expansion of the mind in service to his fellow citizens. Our forefathers, in short, were men of personal morality who carved a great nation out of the wilderness by the strength of their personal will. They dedicated their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, to transform their dream into reality. Not all of them, of course. There were some who, with selfishness and indifference, thwarted the others at every turn. But there were enough men of good faith, enough men of personal morality, to build firmly, and to protect the infant Nation against attacks from without and within. These virtues are no less vital today. This is why we remind ourselves that the security and defense of our inherited liber- ties depend on our willingness to believe in them now, to sacrifice for them today, and Five years of bitter war lay ahead. Five secure independence rose to a high pitch. to protect them with our own sacred honor. years of privation, suffering, and death. David Ramsay, a South Carolina physician, Subtract a modern belief, a modern sacri- And 5 years of defeat, too, before the hope who had performed patriotic service in the fice, a modern virtue and the Constitution was to become a reality. Revolution and had been exiled during the becomes a useless scrap of yellow paper. Sub- What do you suppose these American period of British conquest, had this to say tract them and the American dream be- patriots looked like? Were these soldiers about the war. (Stop.) comes a nightmare. supermen to fight so long and so fiercely for Action: Instructor spot and travel spot True patriotism is a condition of the soul, an ideal? off. Figure in period costume enters, center and heart and mind. We have a vivid description of Washing- stage. Blue spot on. The bulwarks of freedom are internal. ton's army written by one of them, a French "The American Revolution, on the one Freedom is not the right to do what we volunteer named Chevalier de Pontgibaud. hand, brought forth great vices; but on the want, it is the power to do what we ought. Pontgibaud joined Washington's fragmen- other hand, it called forth many virtues, and Freedom Is not personal license, it is social tary army at Valley Forge in November 1777. gave occasion for the display of abilities responsibility. This was his impression (stop). which, but for that event, would have been Causes are built on belief; on belief in Action: Instructor and travel spot off. lost to the world. When the war began, the something higher than ourselves and beyond Figure wearing "Continental uniform" cos- ourselves; in belief which is boldly pro- ""Heritage of America," Commager & claimed and realistically lived. 4 William Wirt, "Life of Patrick Henry." Nevins, p. 169. 5 Heritage of America, Commager & Nevins, T The Bulwarks of Freedom, Bishop R. A. Heritage of America, Commage & Nevins, p. 144. Brown, 1959. p. 186. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 6. Factors of Stress in the Army, 5 by 6. 7. Signs of Maladjustment, 5 by 6. 8. Information, 5 by 6. 9. Incidents of Discharge, 5 by 10. 10. Graduate Amateur Psychologist, 5 by 2. 11. Cartoon, Fraulein and baby. 12. Don't be a Chump, 5 by 2. 13. Power of Reason, 5 by 6. Stage property: 1. Blank pistol. 2. Hospital technician. gowns (2). 3. "Graduate" cap and gown. 4. Guardhouse prisoner uniform. 5. "MP" guard uniform, armband. 6. Simulated shotgun. Personnel : (A) Instructor, backstage manager, two spotlight operators. Actors: (1) George Washington, (2) Pat- rick Henry, (3) John Adams, (4) Chevalier de Pontgibaud, (5) David Ramsey. (B) Instructor, onstage assistant, medi- cal Technician assistant instructor, back- stage manager? two spotlight operators. Actors: (1) Psychology graduate, (2) Hell- raising soldier and two medical technicians, (3) Guardhouse prisoner and guard. Script: "Patriotism and Personal Moral- ity": Copy, 4,1500 words, 36 minutes. Two skits, 7 minutes each, 14 minutes. Total time, 50 minutes. Stage setting: Podium, light, microphone, right stage, front. Subject title, front of podium: "Patriotism and Personal Moral- ity." Easel, reproduction of U.S. Constitu- tion. U.S. colors, division colors, center stage. Action: Curtain opens, travel spot on col- ors. Instructor enters, salutes colors, ex- poses subject title. Instructor spot on. INSTRUCTOR. During this period we shall discuss national unity. We will examine the cause for love of country and the ori- gins of American faith in freedom. In brief-we will talk about patriotism and personal morality. But, we are not going to talk about the "fife and drum;," or of a flag inscribed, "Don't Tread on Me," or even about the Alamo. These historical footnotes are a part of the American heritage, it is true. However, let us instead determine if patriotism and per- sonal morality have anyting in common and if these appeals have more substance than a Fourth of July speech or a reenlist- ment talk. A patriot, it is said, is one who loves and supports his government. or country. Now, when we speak of love we are talk- ing about an attitude of mind. Love can only be a condition of a moral being. Love, in the masculine sense, is an expression of intelligence, of conscientious morality, and of social responsibility. Patriotism, there- fore, transcends personal gain, or glory, or ambition. Patriotism is a term for the high- est order of the mind. Patriotism is a quality of emotion, too. For a patriot 1:; motivated by conviction, by faith in a cause. And, because patriotism comprises both emotional and mental as- pects, we employ symbols to stimulate or to express patriotism. In America we think of patriotic symbols such as the flag or the Constitution. These symbols are, of course, material aspects of our love of country. But symbols detached from their spiritual and historical context have little significance. Let us recall, instead the origins of Ameri- can patriotism and view our heritage through the men who created the symbols that we cherish today. Our principles of faith and conviction are not casual standards. American patriotism is a living force generated by men of high moral character; patriots who committed their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor that you and I might perpetuate a legacy of freedom. These patriots were men who had a sense of duty beyond self. And, the paramount symbol of this legacy is the U.S. Constitution. It should be remembered that the Con- stitution was not formulated in a few days. After the Declaration of Independence the 13 States framed constitutions of their own from which many important provisions were borrowed by the Constitutional Convention and made a part of our fundamental law? So it was in this background of historical precedent that, 173 years ago, 55 dedicated men met in Philadelphia and contrived a statement of principle which became the bedrock of our Republic. These patriots chose to declare and estab- lish an institution of free men in the New World. The resulting document, the Con- stitution of the United States, adopted July 2, 1788, prescribed the American system of supreme law in a 52-word preamble and 7 articles. The spirit of the Constitution is illustrated by the wording of the preamble: (stop). Action: Backstage voice enunciates pre- amble over public address system: "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general wel- fare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." INsTRucros. A further definition of rights and freedoms was adopted in 1.790 through the addition of the first 10 amendments. But, the adoption of the Constitution did not mark the origin of America's heritage, or the beginning of American patriotism. Rather, the Constitution was an assertion of accomplished fact. Americans had won the War of Independence some 7 years before the Constitution was adopted. The opening of the North American con- tinent, the planting of new colonies in the New World, and the struggle of European countries for control over this new territory had long preceded the document of perfect union. Upon the emergence of the English as the supreme power in what is now the eastern portion of North America, colonists of European stock could look back on a his- tory of human endeavor that was 169 years old. All of these factors shaped the American temper and political philosophy and ulti- mately, the Constitution. What, then, were the events that precipi- tated a revolution against the English crown? And what kind of men were the idealists, the people of towering will, who created a new nation in the wilderness? First, we must remember, the history of the Nation was created by her citizens. And much of the color, drama, and adventure of this history was recorded by actual partici- pants and observers. Thousands of vivid narratives have been written by the soldiers, the statesmen, the merchants, and the edu- cators who were the builders of our Nation. Perhaps we can begin to grasp the stature of these pioneers, Presidents, and politicians by listening to their hopes, and despairs, the joys and sorrows they experienced. Per- haps their words will convey an indication of the moral character which shaped a na- tion (pause). Our search for the origins of American faith In freedom must begin prior to the Declaration of Independence. We must note the early cause for love of country. George Washington must be our first choice in the procession of American giants. Not the George Washington who forced a British surrender at Yorktown in 1781. No, our Washington is a young English-commis- sioned major who, in the winter of 1753- I The Constitution of the United States, Thomas J. Norton. 54, was dgstlned to mark the beginning of the Seven Years' War in America; the war which decided that an English and not a French civilization would dominate the con- tinent. And what does Major Washington say of this event? Here are his words (stop). Action: Instructor spot and travel spot off. Figure in period British military dress moves to center stage. Blue travel spot on. Delivers Washington's lines, "I was commise,io:ned and appointed by the Hon- orable Robert Dinwiddle, :Esquire, Governor of Virginia, to visit and deliver a letter to the commandant of the French forces on the Ohio River. We arrived at Venago on the fourth of December where we found the the French colors hoisted. at a house from which they had driven Mr.. John Frazier, an English subject. I immediately repaired to it to know where the commander resided. There were three officers there, one of whom informed me that he had the command of the Ohio but that there was a general officer at the near fort where he advised me to ap- ply for an answer. They told me that it was their absolute design to take possession of the Ohio, and by God, they would do it. On the evening of the 15ah. I was inquiring of the commander by what authority he had made prisoners of several of our English subjects. He told me that the country belonged to them; that no Englishman had a right to trade upon these waters; and that he had orders to make every person prisoner who attempted it on the Ohio, or the waters of it." 2 INSTRUCroa. Leaving Fort Le Boeuf the young major of Virginia militia brought back valuable information about the French intentions and strength. A little later Washington, promoted to lieutenant colonel, was enlisting and drilling men for service against these French tres- passers. One of the greatest American careers had fully opened (pause). Washington served in the British forces throughout the war with France. Tem- pered, hardened, and experienced in military art, he retired as a colonel. As the war years receded relations between the cor..tinentals and George the Third rapidly worsened culminating with the de- struction of the King's taxed tea in Boston Harbor on December 17, 1773. The punitive acts of British Parliament against the Province of Massachusetts fol- lowing the Boston Tea Party resulted in the adoption of a plan for a General Congress of the Colonies which met in Philadelphia in September 17 74. And in Virginia, Patrick Henry uttered the clan.>ic phrase, "Give Mme liberty or give me deato;" (stop). Action: Instructor spot, travel spot off. Figure in period costume enters center. Blue spot on. Speaks Patrick Henry lines: "If we wish to be free; if we mean to pre- serve inviolate these inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending; if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged our- selves never to abandon until the glorious subject of our contest shall be obtained- we must fight. I repeat it, sir, we must fight. An appeal to arms, and to the God of hosts, in all that is left to us * * * It is vain, air, to extenuate the matter, The gentlemen may cry, "Peace, peace." But there is no peace. The war has actually be- gun. The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms. Our brethren are al- ready in the field. Why stand we here idle? What is It thatthe gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear or peace so sweet; as to be purchased at the price 2 The Heritage of America, Commager & Nevins, p. 113. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16434 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 whether that was why he undertook to colla- borate with the enemy. But I do know that it didn't work. It didn't work for anybody. And it never has. And you know American history. If you go back and read about Benedict Arnold, it's one of the best examples of just how it never works. He died in disgrace in England among the very people he helped. This is the inevitable end of the guy who wants to make a deal. Well, the next point in the Code of Con- duct is equally an ethical one. It says you'll keep faith with fellow Americans. You won't do anything or say anything to hurt them. And why? Why do we say this? Everybody knows you can't hurt other Americans. You get court-martialed for it, or arrested. Well, there were incidents, a number of them in Korea, in which somebody would kill somebody else, another prisoner. There was a case in New York last year, tried and convicted of murder, a man who had thrown two other men out of a hut. Now, the facts were that the hut was in the mountains of North Korea. They were pris- oners. The two men had diarrhea, a severe dysentery. And they were smelling up the hut. So the fellow threw them out. Now the fact is that it was 30? below zero outside the hut, so the two men died almost imme- diately. Well, we didn't put this point in the Code of Conduct to try and correct the behavior of that inhuman character who threw the two sick men out of a hut. We know no words are going to change him at all. Any large enough group of people contains some characters like that. What we're worried about is, the 40 other American soldiers who were in the hut at the time. Because when we asked them about the incident we would say, "Soldier, did you see that man throw those two sick men out of your hut?" "Oh, yes, sir," they would say. "Well, what were you doing at the time?" "Well, I was huddling together there with the rest of the guys, trying to keep warm. It was the only way you could keep warm." "Oh, then you knew it would destroy these men to throw them out?" "Well sure." "Well, what were you doing about it?" "I wasn't doing anything except trying to keep warm" "Well, why-didn't you do something about it soldier?" "Because," the answer would come, "it wasn't any of my business." Keep faith with your fellow Americans. That's why it is in the code. This sort of thing happened more than one time. Another point in the code of conduct says something about what we are doing with leadership. And it's the most blistering com- ment upon the quality of leadership among us. And I mean leadership at the foreman level, at the squad leader level, at the gun crew level. at the supermarket level. Be- cause now the code of conduct finds it neces- sary to say to Americans, "Soldier, if you are captured by the enemy, and if you're the senior man, take command. And if you're not the senior man, support and back up the man who is." "Because," we tell them, "your life depends upon it." And it literally does. In combat or cap- tivity, under any kinds of stress. And yet, authority seems to be in disre- pute and leadership is undertaken on the basis of popularity contests now, and where- as you might run a unit all right in a State- side camp-by being popular, by getting peo- ple to do what you want because you treat them right, if they treat you right, we find it doesn't work when that same nice guy, that everybody calls by his first name, tells the rest of his men that they are going to charge up a hill and take a machine gun nest. Because all the other fellows in his unit look at him and figure "Well, he's an awfully nice guy, but this is strictly his prob- lem." He is not a leader. And this happened in Korea. We saw kids die-literally become ill and die-because specifically they abandoned the principles of leadership or did not follow adequate leadership. Or did not give leader- ship their support. Not in some blind ultra- militaristic fashion, but intelligent support. Some kids did assert their individuality sometimes. Like the kid who was drinking rice paddy water. Do you know what they fertilize rice paddles with? Well, he was drinking the water. And the senior person came up to him and I don't remember if it was a colonel or a sergeant, but some equally high rank, and said to him, "Soldier, don't drink that water. You have been told that ever since you left the States. It has got human waste in it. You'll catch disease. It'll make you sick, and you'll die" The soldier, who had been told this pos- sibly a hundred times, and who could smell the water for himself, simply finished drink- ing the water, and looked up at the sergeant or colonel, or whatever he was, and said: "Buster, you just run along. You are nothing but a damn prisoner like me. You can't tell me what to do." And, gentlemen, this is a terrible mistake. As that kid found out. So something has to be done about lead- ership, in the shops, in school, in the Boy Scouts-that's where it starts. Then we have the point about name, rank, and service number. Let's have a word about that. In Korea it was demonstrated, as it has been in every war in our history, that for the overwhelming majority of prisoners, the best defense the soldier has is to behave like a soldier, and give only his name, rank, and service number. It is the man who talks that is singled out for interminable abuse. The man who talked the least got along the best. Now, if they're going to single out an indi- vidual and torture him, we don't expect him to stand up to name, rank, and service num- ber. That's ridiculous. But in this initial sorting, in the initial picking out of who you are going to use, every intelligence agency on earth picks out the man who is anxious. And they pick him out because his anxiety shows. Because he talks. So this is what we are trying to teach. And finally we say to the soldier, "Don't do anything or say anything to hurt the United States of America." Why? We know that people don't go around and spout off against the United States of America. But how about the kid who wrote the big lie about Pittsburgh? And how about the kids who recorded tape recordings so that their moth- ers could hear their voices and know they were still all right, when the price for this was belittling something about the Korean war, and the slaughter of innocent civilians, something about the Chinese Peoples Volun- teers, and how well they were being treated? That's quite a price to let your mommy hear your voice. It was a price fully used by the Commu- nists. Those things have been reproduced all over the world. So we have to say it in the code of con- duct. Now these are our problems. We are try- ing to overcome them within the service, using the code of conduct as a point of departure in other kinds of training. But we need a tremendous amount of help. And we need the help a long time before a man gets into the military service. Action: Instructor spot off. Assistant in- structor retires. Instructor returns, in- structor light on. INspauc roR We have seen and heard about this ever-present conspiracy and evil weapon from men who know it exists, and ho0v it is being used against us. They have given us much food for thought. They have told us in their different ways and varied fields, that we must first believe in a superior being, then in ourselves, and in our history and heritage. We must constantly be on the alert for these devises used by our enemies that are pitfalls that will lead us down the road to our own destruction, which will make us slaves to the Communists who will then gov- ern our world. We have a lot to think about, and to be on the lookout for and to act upon. There are many areas that need rebuilding, but lest we forget, our first realization must be it will take all of us to defeat this enemy who is at our front as well as our back doors. Any psychological attack can be defeated by spotting it, isolating it, and then by crushing it in public indignation. I believe like all true Americans, lovers of liberty, that in this mental war we have far less to fear from the fallout, and much more to fear from the danger of the ever- present sellout. We must never lose our will to resist, whether this resistence be physical or men- tal. We must diligently keep the watch over our inhereted freedoms, that were so dearly paid for by our forefathers. In conclusion let me leave you with this thought. A great American, Daniel Webster, said, "Eternal vigilence is the price of lib- erty." Your liberty demands your vigilence. Action: Instructor light off. Instructor retires. House lights one senior instructor enters. Instructor light on. Dismisses class. Lesson plan: Second 2-hour block of in- struction. Subject and duration: (A) "Patriotism" and "Personal Morality" (script attached), 50 minutes. (B) "Adjustment to Military Service" (script attached), 50 minutes, Place: Theater. References: (A) "The Heritage of America," Heath & Co.; "Our Flag," DD pamphlet No. 5-8; "The Bulwarks of Freedom," Bishop RA Brown. (B) "Lecture Outlines for Enlisted Men on Personal Adjustment Problems," WD Tech Bul, TB Med 21; "Lecture Outlines for Of- ficers on Personnel Adjustment Problems," WD Dept Tech Bul TB Med 12; "The Living Body," Best & Taylor; "Adjustment to Mili- tary Life," Basic Tug Talk No. 1; Chart, "Incidents of Discharge, Army," Fort Belvoir; Hiss Act, 68th Stat. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, September 1, 1959; Status of Forces in Ger- many, Bonn Convention; Convention of Rights & Obligations, Germany; Discussion of German Jurisdiction, SJA 24th Div.; Uni- form Code of Military Justice, Col. F. B. Wiener; Manual for Courts Martial, United States, 1951. Type of instruction: (A) Lecture, skits, visual and audio illus- trations. (B) Lecture, skits, visual illustrations. Instructional aids: (A) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system, 2 mikes, national and unit colors, chart, U.S. Declaration. Costumes: (1) British Army uniform (one); (2) Period dress, U.S. Revolution (three); (3) U.S. Rev- olution Army uniform (one). (B) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system. Charts: 1. Combat-ready soldier & reverse side (soldier injured by "incidents"), 5 by 12. 2. Odds Against the Individual, 5 by 6. 3. Mockup of human brain, 6 by 8 (board mounted). 4. Cartoon, frogman, 5 by 6. 5. Motivation, 5 by 6. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 ments alone can be considered brainwashing, ,any more than an apple can be called an apple pie. Other ingredients have to be added, and a cooking process gone through. So it is brainwashing, with indoctrination or atrocities, or any other single ingredient." INSTRUCTOR. We have seen how these various ingredients of dialectical materialism mixed with summit talks, plus the constant threat of war, plus coexistence, have been carefully put together by the conspirators of communism to prepare the dish for our eat- ing, when it is not really good for our exist- ence, but food for our destruction. We have reacted to this mental stimuli of the Communists as the dogs in Professor Pavlov's experiments reacted to the stimuli of lights and electricity. The entire concept of brainwashing is based upon the experi- ments of Professor Pavlov. Instead of lights and food, which are physical, the Commies have substituted words, ideas, hopes, and de- sires which are mental, as stimuli to make us react to their strategy and tactics. It is our minds that the monsters of the Commu- nist conspiracy are after. If they have our minds they can make our bodies do their work for them. This is the real idea be- hind world communism. I believe that before we can understand this subtle war for our minds we will have to look at the proving grounds for this con- cept. These proving grounds were the pris- oner-of-war camps in North Korea, from 1950 to who knows when, for there are still 500 Americans behind the Iron and Bamboo Cur- tains who are still being involuntarily brain- washed. Another expert is needed here to clarify this subject for us. I will call on Major Mayer, who was the Army psychiatrist on the Korean prisoner study project. Major Mayer has interviewed and examined the completed records of more than 1,000 Amer- ican soldiers released from PW camps in North Korea. After careful study of both the men and their records, let us ask him what he had learned. Major Mayer, sir, can you tell us what you found out that can help us fight this evil conspiracy, both as civilians and soldiers. These are the words of Major Mayer. Action: Instructor spot off. Instructor retires, assistant. instructor enters and stands before podium. Instructor spot on. ASSISTANT INSTRUCTOR. A group of men was called together by the President, and they drew up a thing called the Code of Conduct. A very remarkable document. It consists of 247 common, familiar English words set into a series of half a dozen articles, each of which contains principles which are so obvious that everybody knows them, and it seems a little ridiculous that there seems to be a need to put them down into some kind of a code. But be not deceived. The principles In the Declaration of Inde- pendence, and I mean no irrevant com- parison, are also very obvious and truthful ones. And these principles in the Code of Con- duct, which we have always before assumed successfully and correctly assumed, that Americans knew and used as a basis for be- havior, were demonstrated point by point in Korea-and this is the reason for the Code of Conduct--to be deficient, to be inade- quately understood or acted upon-to the very serious detriment of our own people. Now, when the President announced this Code, and it's a rare military document that is announced by the Commander In Chief, you know-when he announced this Code, he said, "This is not a plan for how to be a good prisoner, you know. We are not teach- ing people to be prisoners of war. This is not our mission,", he said. "It is a code of standards of behavior for any fighting man, fighting any kind of a battle." And then he went on to say: "Furthermore, it is a Code.of Conduct for every American. It sets standards we must live by, or we are not going to live." So, let's examine these points In the code which reflect the specific failures in Korea. The first one says, "I will never surrender." What do we mean? Give up? Yes. But not in the simple military sense. We don't just teach men that it's against the law to surrender your troops-that's perfectly ob- vious. No, we saw another kind of surrender in Korea. We saw a kind of phychological sur- render that was fatal. There was a disease there that killed hundreds of troops, which the medical service had no name for, so the prisoners named it. They called it "Give- up-itis." This doesn't sound like much. But it was a disease of the passive, the de- pendent, the rater inadequate, the kid who was awfully insecure. The fellow, who couldn't tolerate this being isolated from other soldiers, or the rest of his unit. The. kid who cried himself to sleep at night, who talked about his mother a lot. Who brooded. Who threw down the dirty old food, because, even though it would keep you alive, it was dirty, and he didn't like it. Then he would crawl into a corner by him- self and pull a blanket over his head, and in 48 hours he was dead. Dead. Not starved to death, no physical disease present, just dead. Hundreds of Americans died in this fash- ion. They were not psychotic, they were not insane. They knew what they were doing. They made the most profound of all human surrenders. And any physician has seen this. Among patients we see it sometimes among abandoned infants. We have never before seen it among 18- to 22-year-old adult males. Not on any scale like this. Never surrender. Well, aren't we trying to teach persever- ance? Aren't we trying to teach fighting against odds and obstacles? And is the Army or the Navy really the place to teach this? Isn't this an old-fashioned American characteristic? It's in the Code of Conduct because not enough people practiced it. And the next point in the code says, "If I am captured, I will continue to resist." It doesn't mean that we want people to knock out the teeth of the nearest guard-because you can get a hole in the head if you do that. We want them to resist this way. We want them to be active, contriving methods of re- sistance, however small, all the time. From the standpoint of their mental health alone this is absolutely essential. But, also, here is a picture of two men, in a conspiracy against the enemy, two men who come back closer buddies. This is what they were lacking. This is what we are trying to teach. It takes two or more. You can't be an individual here. And it's the same with escape. We tell them you must try to escape, and you must help others to escape. - Why? Because when escape came up for discussion in POW camps-we are very dem- ocratic In the military now, so everything gets discussed and voted upon, including surrender sometimes-and when escape came up for discussion, people said, "Oh, don't mess around with that, they'll take it out on the rest of us." And yet, escape is the primary mission of a soldier who is captured, any kind of a soldier, any branch of soldiering. And we found that this didn't succeed because men couldn't get together for the purpose of or- ganizing escape committees. They couldn't trust one another well enough, don't you see? There was quite at lot of informing, and It compromised the plans. There wasn't the internal organization you must have to escape. In fact, of some 4,000 Americans who sur- vived 3 years of captivity in 12 separate camps, guarded by as few as I armed guard per 100 prisoners, never, not once in the course of the entire Korean war, did a single American successfully, permanently, escape from any established POW camp. Some evaded near the time of capture, some were recovered from initial collecting points. But, never did a man succeed In an engineered or planned escape-and stay away. That's never before happened in our his- tory. We found camps--camps holding as many as 500 or 600 Americans--guarded by as few as 6 armed guards. This was astonishing. No maehinegun towers, no guard dogs, no electric fences or searchlights. And yet, no- body got out. And where were the other 594 Chinese who should have been guarding these Ameri- cans? A-?: least 594? Why, they were down on the 38 h parallel shooting Americans.. It's a much more efficient way to run a war. In contrast to this on Kobe-Do and C:hede- Do where we had a great number of Chinese, I admit, but still, where we had them on islands, from which there 'was no place to swim really, surrounded by magnificent barbed wire complexes and all kinds of de- vices for controlling people, we committed an airborne regimental combat command, now that's 5,000 armed to the teeth, auto- matic weapons, crack infantrymen, and then another regiment, and then. another-just to control the Chinese, whom we had already defeated. And where should those 15,000 or 18,000 troops have been? Why, they should have been down on the 38th parallel shooting those 594 Chinese. Now you multiply that nasty little busi- ness in Korea, which everybody knows was just a police action--you multiply that by a 100 or 154) division general war and you've got yourself quite a problem. So we tell them-try to escape. But, we tell them., you have got to do it with other people, Individualism doesn't mean that, as an individual MGM production type hero you get out all by yourself. Escape is a mili- tary operation. You're a soldier. The next point in the Code of Conduct gets completely away from military things. It doesn't even pretend to be military. It's spoken In the language of the military, however. It says, "If I am captured by the enemy, I will accept no favors and I will not give him my parole," which means of course, "my promise to be a good boy, if he makes me a trustee." But, you know this is a principle you have tried to teach your children. It's a principle in every basic religion on earth. It's a very simple moral, but also a. very practical principle. Put into other terms, it reduces itself to- you cannot compromise with evil. You can't make a dean with your enemy, you just can't do it, any deal he makes with you, when he is in the driver's seat is going to be for his benefit-and not for yours. And if you have principle, or a value system, you cannot compromise with what you believe to be wrong. But enough people thought they could make a deal, so that this principle now has to be in the Code of Conduct. Now t:aey give all kind of excuses. I know a colonel who said to me, "I ingrati- ated myself with the enemy, and did what they wanted, because I felt that by doing so, I could get on their good side and exercise a beneficial influence in behalf of the other prisoners." Well, I have no way of knowing. Psychia- trists have no special access to the ultimate truth. I don't know whether this is just .an excuse, or whether he now believes it. Or Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16432 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 advances the Communist conquest, is a peaceful act (pause) if they take a gun, they take a peaceful gun (pause), containing a peaceful bullet (pause) and kill you peace- fully (pause) and put you in a peaceful grave." Communist guard and prisoner enter stage from left, red spot on the action. Prisoner kneels, and shot is fired at "Kill you," pris- oner falls over "dead". Spot off, and in- structor spot returns on. INSTRUCTOR. This is what the Communist conspirators mean by dialectical materialism. Can anyone in his right mind believe or con- done such actions or not believe that it could happen to us and to our country? If they do, they better start acting like the ostrichs that they are. Because the arch criminals of the Kremlin have been using these tactics successfully against us for more than 20 years. This little skit and the story presented by Dr. Schwarz are the peaceful methods of the Communists when they control a country and want it to remain "peaceful." This is how they work in a conquered country. How do they capture a country, say like ours? The Communist leaders cannot afford to use bullets in taking over a country. It's not the cost of the bullets that stops them, this Is not the way the Communist mind works. The arch conspirators are afraid of the dam- age that bullets cause to both man and machinery. In the psychological battle for the control of a nation the Commies use bullets shaped like words and ideas. Another code word of the Commies today is war. It has a defi- nite meaning to us, but to the criminals of the Kremlin it means something else again. Today's Communist leaders have realized that for them the methods of warfare have changed. The form of war has changed in accordance with their long-range plans for controlling the earth. Another expert, who has written three books on brainwashing, the psychological warfare weapon of the Com- munists, is Edward Hunter. Mr. Hunter also stated to the same committee as Dr. Schwarz, the following concept that is behind the meaning of the word "war" to the Communist masters. Mr. Hunter, if you please. Action: Voice over public address system offstage: "The Communists have discovered that a man killed by a bullet is useless. He can produce no coal. They have discovered that a demolished city is useless, Its mills can produce no cloth. The objective of Communist warfare is to capture intact the minds of the people and their possessions, so that they can be put to use. This is the modern conception of slavery that puts all others in the kindergarten age." INSTRUCTOR. When we think of war, we visualize death, carnage, ruin and all the other brutal aspects of physical violence. Not so the Commies. They see and use war as a psychological technique. In the field of psychological warfare there has come a new concept, the brainchild of the evil Com- munists. It is psychopolitical warfare. One of this concept's best weapons is psychologi- cal dislocation, which is simply the breaking down of the enemy's will to resist. In order to break down our will they have infiltrated and penetrated the leadership circle of all spheres of influence by softening up and creating a defeatist state of mind. Included in this is the penetration of our educational system, to first control the so-called objec- tiveness of our teachers and through them, the minds of their pupils. What is Communist "objectiveness"? This is the readiness to believe Communist prop- aganda and promises. Their first target, in this area, was to liquidate our attitudes on what we recognized as right from wrong and what we use to accept as absolute moral standards. Through this use of educational objectiveness the conspirators have sown doubt and confusion. This has allowed them to substitute the so-called sophistica- tion of dialectical materialism for the unso- phisticated attitude of believing in the standards of morality. This method of op- eration has been successful to the extent that it is unsophisticated and even corny to be a patriot or even to believe in God. If you believe in the rights of man granted In our Constitution, and that they are in- alienable in the eyes of both man and his God, then you belong to the stone age, so say the Communists. If we do not believe in the rights of man we are ripe and ready for the Communists because here is what the father of communism (if you can call him that) Karl Marx, said about our indi- viduality and our belief in God. Action: Voice over offstage mike: "The democratic concept of man is false, because it is Christian. The democratic concept holds that each man has a value as a sov- ereign being. This is the illusion, dream and postulate of Christianity." INSTRUCTOR. Here yet, is another voice shouting down the concepts of man and his beliefs in a Christian-Judeal doctrine, where man guided by God is supreme. This is Adolph Hitler. Action. Voice over offstage mike: "To the Christian doctrine of the infinite signifi- cance of the individual human soul, I op- pose with icy clarity the saving doctrine of the nothingness and insignificance of the individual human being." INSTRUCTOR. These two architects of evil, Hitler and Stalin's predecessor, are very clear in their denunciation of the Christian rights of man. Today's Communist leaders believe the very same things. History is very clear and concise in letting the facts talk for themselves when it comes to the motivations of such men who follow In the footsteps of Hitler, Marx, Lenin and Stalin. Once the Commies have us bending backwards, in being objective, they slip in the next step in their propaganda technique. Using their twisted logic again, they say, isn't it true that everything changes? Then, if this is true, what used to be right can now be wrong, and what once was wrong can now be right. The Communist minds steeped in conspiracy, and duped by their own weapons of dialectical materialism, have to believe this as a natural outcome of this diabolitical logic. To clear-thinking people, who have access to historic truths, clear time-tested moral precepts of right will always be right and wrong will always be wrong will always stand. It has been like this since the begin- ning of time and it will remain that way when time runs out. One of the clearest` thoughts in history that logically refutes the entire concept of dialetical materialism is the quotation by Aristotle, "If the means are evil, the ends are evil." Of course, the Commies had to twist this one around to justify their existence and say that "the ends justify the means." This statement alone is proof that the Communist mind is designed and aimed at destroying history and creating a new history that glor- ifies and justifies their conspiracy. Another key tactic of this conspiratorial strategy is the use of propaganda techniques whereby they can subvert the ideologies of American character and principle. They have exploited the principles of our Constitution (freedom of speech, press, ex- pression, etc.) by exposing our best sides as weaknesses of our national character. Here is a for instance: A few years ago all the personnel depart- ments of industry looked for the qualities of leadership as a key to employment, espe- cially with the idea in mind for advance- ment, through creativeness, within the organization. But not so today. Most or- ganizations in this day and age have taken the cue from sociology in changing the key a from individuality to conformity. We no longer ask if a man is a go-getter, but.- whether or not he gets along in order to live "the good" life. So it was made easy for the Chinese when these Americans be- came prisoners for they had already been conditioned to the psychology of getting along. These Americans only reacted in the way they had been taught. Never mind any- one else, just try to get along. They had completely forgotton that they were prison- ers of their enemies. They had been so con- ditioned that the only thing they could do, with and under very little pressure, was to conform, even if it meant further indoctri- nation or edubation in the form of commu- nism government. So, it was evident that the young soldier who broadcast for the Communists was just getting along. The latest code word that has been given the free world by the master conspirators is the term "coexistence." Through infiltra- tion, penetration, subversion and indoctri- nation they have succeeded in making us think and talk "coexistence" as if it were the end itself, while in the other parts of the world, like India, the Commies frankly ex- plained that this coexistence is merely in- tended to give us an easy way to choose our road to communism. Another little gimmick that the Commies use in their plan to destroy our will to re- sist Is by causing doubt, confusion, and apathy in the making of treaties and agree- ments. It is very easy to sit down at the conference table with the Communists and negotiate anything that you wish, so long as it does not require actual concessions by the Communist world, but requires only such concessions by ourselves. Let's let the record speak for itself. Here is the record of summit talks with Russia. Action: Offstage voice over public address system: "Twenty-four major agreements were reached. Twenty-three out of the 24 have been violated by the Communists. During the same time our Secretaries of State have conducted six conferences with the Soviet Foreign Ministers. At these con- ferences 16 major agreements were made. Of this number, Russia violated 14." INSTRUCTOR. Yet we are willing to once again sit down with these people and make agreements that we know they will break in the hopes that the arch criminals of the Kremlin will change into good men. This is like having, "Typhoid Mary" as your baby sitter and hoping the children won't catch typhoid fever, or having "Mack the Knife" turn in his switchblade. Everything that we have discussed here today falls within the area of brainwashing or, in military terminology, mind attack, because phases of the Communist strategy are aimed at the minds of men. Once again we shall call In an expert to tell us about this subject. This expert was the man who first introduced the term brain, washing into the English vocabulary. This man Is Edward Hunter, who spoke to us earlier. Let us ask Mr, Hunter this question and get his answer. Mr. Hunter, what exactly is the term brain- washing? Action: Voice of offstage public address system: "A more exact term in the military lexicon would be mind attack. We are ac- customed to such terms as infantry attack, air attack, and naval attack. Mind attack simply recognizes a new dimension to the kinds of war used against armies on the field or against peaceful populations. "Brainwashing consists of two processes, a softening up and an indoctrination proc- ess. Each of these is formed out of a set of different elements: These elements are: hunger, fatigue, tenseness, threats, violence, and in more intense cases where the Reds have specialists available on their panels; drugs and hypnotism. No one of these ele- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE You see, the American soldier in Germany 1s the American Government in the eyes of the German public. Our attitude, yours and mine, and our action as representatives of America, must reflect a conscientious respon- sibility and an understanding of American- ism. Equally important, we must maintain the good will and the good name of America overseas. You and I must be active citizens in service. In conclusion I want to leave this thought with you. Nineteen hundred and fifty-nine marked the closing of an epoch-the end of free security for Americans. The challenge to freedom in the 1960's must and will be met, by American citizens in uniform who replace optimistic fatalism with a fighting will to preserve our great heritage-yours and mine. Script: "Communism and the Soldier's Code." Flynn copy, 4,200 words, 32 minutes. Mayer speech, 18 minutes. Total, 50 min- utes. Action: House lights and instructor spot on senior instructor as he introduces the period. Instructor leaves stage all lights out. Curtain opens one-third to expose table and two chairs, with prisoner of war and interrogator seated. Follow spot red. Interrogator speaking in rough voice. INTERROGATOR. Stupid American. All you can say is Burton, David, Ra, blah, blab, born November 12, 1932. Don't you know that it pays to tell us all that you know? Not from the viewpoint that you will be giving us military information. We already have all this. Where you were trained in the States, how long you have been over here. We know your unit. Action: Interrogator pauses, rises in front of prisoner of war who continues to stare ahead. Interrogator makes angry gestures and says: INTERROGATOR. Pig. Can't you understand that we have liberated you? You are freer here than you have ever been in your whole life. We want to be your friends. We want to help you along the wonderful road to true freedom (pause). If you won't answer friendly questions perhaps you'll answer to my fist. Action: Prisoner of war continues to stare ahead, remaining silent. Interrogator strikes prisoner of war. Well dressed senior officer enters from stage right observing action in shocked silence, then speaks. SENIOR OFFICER. Fool What are you doing? Action: Interrogator comes to attention, facing senior officer. Senior officer walks in front of him, slapping him in face. Inter- rogator looks astonished. SENIOR OFFICER. Imbecile. What are you trying to do to this prisoner? Intimidate him? Hurt him? Don't you know this type of treatment is against the Geneva Con- vention? Get out. I will deal with your stupidity later. Now I must try and console this man for the miserable way in which you have treated him. Action: At this the first interrogator leaves room. Senior officer looks at prisoner who now has a look of confusion about him. SENIOR OFFICER. I am truly sorry that you had to be subjected to that horrible man's tactics. Action: Senior officer pulls pack of cig- arettes from pocket, offering one to the prisoner. SENIOR OFFICER. Here, have a cigarette. It will settle your nerves and help you forget that pig's actions. You and I are intelli- gent men, not animals, therefore we can talk and act like human beings (pause). Go ahead, take one. . Prisoner reaches for cigarette, finally takes one and looks at senior officer who takes out lighter and lights the cigarette. Prisoner takes drag and relaxes slightly. Senior officer takes seat behind desk. SENIOR OFFICER. I have just taken over this camp and my observations of the con- ditions and treatment of you men is hor- rible. l: want to change' all of that. And, I need your help. You, as an intelligent man, can tell me some of the things that are wrong, and what I can do to make your life more decent and human. Action: Prisoner shows signs of reacting to new treatment and then blurts out: "We are all sick from the starvation diet. There is no medical treatment for our sick and wounded. Your guards treat us like dogs." Action: Prisoner realizes what he has done and site, down with head between hands ex- pecting punitive action or sudden outburst. Instead he is shocked as the officer says: "Can this be true? If it is I will see that it is changed immediately. How can we hope to win you to the true freedom if we treat prisoners like that." Action: At this the prisoner looks at the officer with hope in his eyes. Officer changes his voice and speaks in conversational voice. OFFICER. You know, I have been in your country. I like the people I met there very much. As a matter of fact I was educated in Chicago. What part of the States do you come from? PRISONER OF WAR (haltingly). I'm from the Middle West. Action: Curtain closes immediately and lights go out. Instructor comes to podium right stage and instructor light comes on. INSTRUCTOR, You have just witnessed a scene very familiar to many Americans who fought In the Korean War. The technique used here, called "threat and rescue" by psychologists, places the pris- oner at the mercy of a bully, the bad guy. Then, when the staged violence reaches the point of physical attack, a second Commu- nist actor, the good guy, rescues the pris- oner. Having established himself as the prison- er's protector the second Communuist in- itiates a friendly conversation. This, of course, 'leads to revealing matters of military intelligence. The technique used here is clever. Yes, but even more, it is diabolical. Before we can come to understand this technique, we must first understand the type of a mind that developed such a technique and why. It took a conspiratorial mind, not a cre- ative mind, to devise such a devilish tech- nique. Let's get one thing straight in the begin- ning. We are in a war. It is a total war. It it is a war for the minds and the souls of men, It is a psychological war that some- times breaks out into a shooting war like Korea and Vietnam, but it is still. war. When you have an enemy he must be bad. He cannot be a little bad, and a little good. I repeat, the enemy must be all bad. In war there is only black or white. No shades of gray can be 'tolerated, With whom are we at war? We are at war with the Communists. Communism is our natural enemy. Let's first look at the reasons why we are at war with commu- nism in the words of a great, able, and loyal American, J. Edgar Hoover, the Direc- tor of our Federal Bureau of Investigation. Many years ago, Mr. Hoover gave us his warning gained through his knowledge of the inner workings of the Communist con- spiracy that we were in a life or death strug- gle with the forces of evil represented by communism. Let us ask Mr. Hoover. Mr. Hoover, can you tell us your definition of communism? Action: Voice over public address sys- tem offstage: "Communism is not a politi- cal ideology but an international conspiracy designed to undermine all other legally con- stituted ?;overnments." INSTRUCTOR. This is a marvelous piece of deduction. It strips the cloak of respecta- bility from those who say communism is a political idea and should be treated as such. It shows eeoanm.unism for what it is-a con- spiracy to take over the minds, bodies and governments of all mankind. It puts the conspiracy of communism right where it belongs, an the field of crime. It thereby makes ccin:munism, Communists, and all those other misguided fellow travelers crim- inals of the highest order, not' only because they commit crimes against each other but because they commit the most cowardly crime of all: "Treason", upon all freedom- loving peoples of the world. We have started with this fact. Now let's go on and explore the strategy and tactics of this ccuspir.acy. In order for us to fully understand the problem facing us, it might be wise to have Mr. Webster, of dictionary fame, give us his definition of the terms "strategy" and "tactics." Mr. Webster, sir, what is the definition of strategy? Action: 'Public address system backstage on: "Strategy is the science and art of :mili- tary command employed with the objective of meeting the enemy under conditions ad- vantageous to one's own force." INSTRUCTOR. And now "tactics," please, Mr. Webster. Action: Backstage public address system: "Tactics La the art of arranging and ma- neuvering troops or ships in action or in the presence of the enemy, or any skillful or clever device for gaining one's ends." INsTRuCToR. The Communist strategy is aimed at our minds. It is not concerned with the movement or employment of our troops. It is designed to condition our minds and mold our individual and na- tional character so they can lead us down the road to communism without firing a shot. The strategy of conspiracy is further aided by the Communist tactics of skill- fully using devices of infiltration, subver- sion, and indoctrination as weapons to gain their objective of eventually taking over the entire world, and if allowed, the uni- verse. These Communist tactics are aimed like bullets at the heart of our free society, our constitutional government. They are aimed at changing our minds and destroy- ing the principles upon which we live. Let us take a look at how they can do this and how they disguise this strategy. The very :first thing these conspirators did was to steal and interpret Hegel's philos- ophy of dialetical materialism. It is a fancy title and hides the real forces of the conspiracy. In good old English, this is nothing more than the using of code words that have a separate and distinct meaning to the com- mies. These words are not new. They have been used by civilization for a long time. It is the new meaning that is important In understanding their tactics and overall strategy. The question now is: How do they use these code words against us to lead us to our own destruction? It is very simple. For instance, here is the word "peace." It means a great deal to us. What does it mean to Communist leaders as witnessed by their own words and actions? Let's bring in another expert to tell us about this. Dr. Fredrick Schwarz, an expert on the Communist mind, was consulted by the Committee on Un-American Activities. Dr. Schwarz, please tell us what you told this committee. Action: Instant spot off. Curtain opens one-third Voice over offstage public ad- dress system: "'Any act, however brutal, and no matter how many people are killed, that Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 Without this essential element, free enter- prise will not work. It is reduced to groups of businessmen outsharping one another in the shady practice of animal survival. Without the sensitive individual con- science, even the dignity of man is a myth, for without a conscience man is not digni- fied. He is reduced to the level of an animal, as the theory of Communist dialectical ma- terialism attempts to prove-and as the death camps of another dictator, Adolf Hit- ler, so clearly shows. So, we've got to start With the individual. The very fact that men believe that they can govern themselves assumes that there is an acceptable standard of conduct to which each of us, can, and must conform, in our relations with one another. If we do not conduct ourselves in this conscientious man- ner, it is inevitable that we will be forced to conform to a standard imposed by others., Today, you and I must be the conscien- tious man. You and I must dedicate our- selves to the causes which support liberty (stop) Action: Instructor exits. Podium light off. Assistant exposes chart No. 6 (10 by 15) "Freedom and Responsibilities." FREEDOM 1. Religion, speech, press and assembly. 2. Choose leaders by secret ballot=peti- tion for grievances. 3. Movement at home and abroad. 4. Educational, social, political, economic opportunity-equal protection under law. 5. Own property and contract in personal affairs. 6. Choose own occupation, bargain with employers and employees. 7. Compete in production-bargain for goods and services in free market. 8. From arbitrary government regulation and control. 9. From arbitrary search, seizure, deten- tion of person or property-speedy public trial by impartial jury. 10. From torture, cruel, unusual, or de- grading punishment-treatment. RESPONSIBILITIES 1. Tolerance of the beliefs of others. 2. Vote conscientiously-maintain active interest in civil government. 3. Respect rights and customs of others. 4. Assure equal opportunities-further individual and national well-being. 5. Employ and conserve resources-con- duct personal affairs legitimately. 6. Contribute useful production-resolve differences justly and fairly. 7. Fair-ethical business practices. 8. Guard against granting arbitrary pow- ers to government. 9. Assist, uphold, and insure justice, law, and order. 10. Maintain vigilance against illegal, un- fair, or injurious practices. Traveling spot on chart and assistant. Instructor spot on. ASSISTANT. The Honorable Charles E. Wil- son, then Secretary of Defense, published in 1955 a booklet called "Militant Liberty." In it he said: "Liberty is like a coin. One side offers rights and privileges to the In- dividual. The other side requires the ac- ceptance of corresponding responsibilities." First, let us consider the freedoms guar- anteed by our Constitution. Now, these freedoms are basic to a free people. People almost anywhere in the world believe that they should have these ten freedoms. However, these freedoms did not originate in America, although they are Included in our Bill of Rights. These free- doms have been inherent in people for cen- turies. As a matter of fact, in the Golden Age of Greece some of these freedoms were believed and practiced. The whole Judeo- 9 "Militant Liberty," Secretary of Defense, Nov. 2, 1955. Christian heritage has indicated that these freedoms are God-given and born in the spirit of man. We know that some of these freedoms were stated in the Magna Charts of the British, that they appeared in the liberty, equality, fraternity concept of the French, and that more and more people all over the world are becoming aware of them, and demand them for their own. These beliefs are a part of people everywhere. They may not be in practice but they are believed. These free- doms are not easily achieved or lightly re- tained. For every freedom there Is a cor- responding responsibility. If the individual desires freedom, No. 1, he must accept the corresponding responsibility No. 1. If any group of people refuse any single responsibility, they run the risk of losing all of the freedoms. Of course, it's comparatively easy to legis- late these freedoms--to make a law stating that these freedoms are available to all. But, and this is the difficulty, it is impossible to legislate individual responsibility. Personal responsibility which supports these free- doms, for you and me, is "Citizenship in Service." Liberty, then consists of two parts: The freedoms and the responsibilites. Let's note briefly the freedoms in our Bill of Rights and compare them with the un- spoken, but implied, responsibilities. The first one says something about free- dom of religion, speech, press, and assembly. Now, if we cherish these freedoms for our- selves, then we must fight for the tolerance of the beliefs of others. The next freedom states that Americans have the freedom to choose their leaders by personal secret ballot-and the right to pe- tition for grievances. Well, isn't it obvious that, if we want these for ourselves, that we must defend the right to vote conscien- tiously-and to maintain active interest in civil government? The third one gives us the freedom to move freely at home and abroad. Of course, this freedom demands that we respect the rights and the customs of others In the areas in which we travel. Next, if we believe in freedom for edu- cation, social, political, and economic oppor- tunity for ourselves-with equal protection under law, then we are equally bound to as- sure equal opportunity, and further indi- vidual opportunity for all, and to further national well-being. The fifth point guarantees our freedom to own property and to contract in personal affairs-very vital to our incentive system, of course. Well, aren't we then responsible to conserve resources and to conduct our per- sonal affairs for legitimate and productive purposes? And, what about our freedom to pick our own occupation? And the right to bargain with employers and employees? Doesn't this freedom imply that we are equally re- sponsible to contribute useful production and to resolve our differences, both in labor and in management, on a fair and just basis? Closely allied to this is our freedom to com- pete in production and to bargain for goods and services in a free market. These free- doms underlie our entire private business practice. It is pretty obvious, therefore, that to protect this freedom we are obligated to accept responsibility for fair and ethical business practices. The next area covered in the Bill of Rights is Government control. If we demand free- dom from arbitrary Govrnment regulation and control, then we must guard against the granting of arbitrary powers to Government; and we do this by the power of our vote, and by knowing the issues we vote upon. Free- dom number nine says that Americans shall be free from arbitrary search, seizure, or detention of person or property, which means, of course that Americans need fear no midnight knock on the door by a Gestapo police force. But, we will retain this security 1 of home and person only by accepting the responsibility to assist, uphold and insure justice, law and order for all other Americans. And, finally, if we believe in freedom from torture, cruel, unusual, or degrading punish- ment or treatmet for ourselves, then we must be responsible to maintain vigilance against illegal, unfar, or unjurious practices against others (stop). Action: Traveling spot off. Instructor re- turns to podium. Instructor spot on. INSTRUCTOR. Make no mistake, The Intent of the Communist conspiracy is to deprive you and me, and all other free people in the world, of these freedoms. It is the avowed aim of communism to destroy human rights and to reduce all men to the servants of the State-the Communist State. A new privileged class, a new royalty, has arisen from the ashes of Czarist Russia. These privileged few are the card-carrying Communist Party members. It is this small, organized, ruthless, power-seeking group, comprising less than 20 million fanatics in the world, who threaten all free men with a return to world slavery-to the dark ages of serf and master. We can judge the success of these evil men by taking a look at Soviet territorial expan- sion since 1939 (pause). Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 7- "Soviet Territorial Expansion Since 1939." Follow spot on. INSTRUCTOR. The important thing about this chart is its illustration that less than 20 million Communists have enslaved more than 822 million people. This represents nearly 29 percent of the world population. This is a huge conquest for a government that professes to oppose colonialism and im- perialism. It is also important to note that the terri- torial conquests of communism halted with the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization-otherwise known as NATO (pause). Action: Assistant fixes slap on sign to East Europe-"Halt. NATO." INSTRUCTOR: The 15 member nations of NATO, of which we are 1, have said to the Communist aggressors, "This far and no far- ther-or we will fight." And the Commu- nists have halted in their imperialistic sei- zure of weak nations and have backed away. Strength, in other words, is the only thing that the Communists will respect. Now, it is fairly obvious that America alone, with a population of 180 million, could not long resist the Communist-directed effort of 822 million people working to destroy us. Our freedoms could not long endure if, with- out allies, we were to face the industrial pro- duction, and superior manpower, of these Communist-driven people. But, the free people of the world can and have, successfully halted the march of the power-hungry, totalitarian conspiracy by joining forces in disciplined ranks for free- dom. This is why the American in uniform fills a vital and significant role in Europe. You and I with the other freemen of NATO, have stopped Communist aggression in Europe. This fact materially effects the security of our families and domes in America. And, let's get one thing straight. These agreements between allies, these written for- malities, are put on paper, certainly. But- their ultimate authority and effect rest with the people, on the individuals, of the coun- tries involved. Put another way-our NATO pact is based on the honor, good will, and cooperation of the Americans and Europeans who make up the charter. This is why the American sol- dier must be an ambassador in uniform. First, we must be enthusiastic and con- vincing In stating our principles of freedom. And, second, we must respect our host country so that this shield of freedom will remain firm and strong. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Butter (1 kilogram) : United States, 49 min- utes; Italy, 403 minutes; Japan, 327 minutes; U.S.S.R., 425 minutes. (d) Sugar (1 kilo- gram) : United States, 7 minutes; Italy, 83 minutes; Japan, 27 minutes; U.S.S.R., 144 minutes. Traveling spot on. INSTRUCTOR. And, here is another stand- ard of comparison take-home pay, expressed in average income. The average per capita income in Russia, and this means yearly salary divided by the number of people in the household, the average per capita income for each Russian is $308 per year, when rubles are expressed in dollars at the international exchange rate. The U.S. average per captia anual in- come Is $1,733, or more than five and a half times that in the U.S.S.R 6 But this revealing comparison tells only part of the economic story. Even the wide difference in income, shown by these two figures, does not accurately reflect the dif- ferences in the individual standard of living. A better index is the labor index-how much time, in labor, does a worker pay for the necessities and comforts of life. Let's take just four common food Items as typical indicators of the national economies, and match the work price, In minutes of working time, required to buy these items in four different countries. Here we have listed bread, beef, butter, and sugar, all common food items-with the work price in minutes each of these things cost In the United States, in Italy, in Japan, and in Russia. An American, as we see, works 12 minutes to earn 1 kilogram of bread (about 2 pounds), a Russian, 17 minutes. An Ameri- can, again, pays 34 minutes in work for 1 kilogram of beef; a Russian, 200 minutes. An American pays 49 minutes for 1 kilogram of butter; a Russian, 425 minutes. And, lastly, an American pays 7 minutes for 1 kilogram of sugar; a Russian, 144-and he may have to pay even more now in order to subsidize Cuban sugar which his Govern- ment has agreed to purchase from Castro. Recent figures show, in fact, that the Rus- sian has to work longer today to buy the same items than he did 32 years ago (News- week magazine). The wage prices for these same commodi- ties in Italy and Japan are also shown for illustration. In 'these two countries the dif- ferences are even more astonishing. In the commori coin of human labor, which is the only real exchange any of us have, it is apparent that the American democratic process, and American free enterprise, offer material awards far exceeding those provided by any other society in the world. A free economy creates more real wealth for all to share, than any other economic system de- vised by man. Think about this. And, freemen, in the American democratic climate, live longer to enjoy these benefits (pause). Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 4 (5 by 6)-"Male Life Expectancy: 6 United States, 67.3 years; U.S.S.R., 61 years; Mexico, 37.9 years; India, 32.5 years. Follow spot on. INSTRUCTOR. American longevity, due to better medical facilities, higher level of hy- giene, balanced diet, better housing, and safer working conditions, is about the high- est In the world. In fact, by way of com- parison, the average American can look forward to twice the years on earth than can his counterpart in India. American male life expectancy is 67.3 years; in India it is 32.5 years. This is quite it difference. And, remem- ber, we're talking about the length of your life. 6 Economic Almanac, 1956. s Statistical Abstracts of United States. These brief comparisons show the results of incentive and energy of a free people. The better things of life, and the measure of our stature as a Nation, are everywhere about us in educational opportunities, limitless economic horizons, and increasing time for the pursuit of happiness. It is a self-evident fact that Americans, endowed with an enduring and practical government, have achieved a greater pros- perity than any other people in the world. These advantages, these material bless- ings, are not "pie in the sky." This is reality. These are real ham and eggs for break- fast. They are decent homes for our fam- ilies. And they are health and long life for ourselves and our children. But, this-after all, Is only a small part of the dream. Of greater significance than our progress from material poverty, at the time of the American Revolution, to our present full, and promising life, is the richness of our cultural and spiritual heritage. For it is from the strength of our national morals that all other benefits accrue. It is to the concept of, "The Rights of Man," and the respect for legal process, that Americans owe the advantages of this fruitful land. Embodied in our Constitution and Bill of Rights are spiritual freedoms never be- fore achieved by the human race. And it is upon these spiritual precepts that our moral courage and convictions are, and must be, anchored. You and I agree, I am sure, that indi- vidual dignity, and equality in Justice for all, are cherished "rights": that religious freedom, freedom of speech and assembly, and security of person and property are characteristic of our society. These foundations are the bedrock of America's strength. These are the articles by which our forefathers established "jus- tice and domestic tranquillity in the land." Under these articles, Americans have thrived for 173 years. Are these concepts worth transmitting to future generations of Americans? Are free- dom and liberty worth preserving? The alternative to freedom is subservience, regimentation, and peonage. The require- ment for survival is citizenship. To us this means citizenship in service-for the real strength of America lies in the collective strength of our will to remain free. Action: Assistant flashes sign, "Citizenship in Service." INSTRUCTOR. What is "citizenship in serv- ice"? What can you and I do to strengthen America? First, let's keep in mind that citizenship in service means a basic under- standing of the principles of a free society. We must understand, and be able to explain, the philosophy of liberty and freedom. The challenge of our foe, the dictatorship of world communism, must be met through the dynamic: action of Informed citizens. By political doubletalk Communists at- tempt to make plausible the aims of com- munism; its inevitable triumph as the wave of the future; and the wisdom of joining the winning team. This is part of their design for our destruc- tion. It is important to remember that Com- munists are well educated in the develop- ment of our democracy. We citizens in uni- form must be equally motivated, enthusias- tic, and educated so that we may be capable of defending, and explaining, our democratic principles. Menaced as we are by commu- nistic tactics of aggression, we must seek re- vival of our strength in the spiritual founda- tions which are the bedrock of our republic. American democracy, and in fact, any democracy, is the outgrowth of the religious conviction of the sacredness of every human life. On the religious side its highest em- bodiment is the Bible; on the American political side, the Constitution. 16429 As has been said so well, "The U.S. Con- stitution Is the civil bible of Americans." We must learn more about it (pause). Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 4: (5 by 7)-"Mockup of U.S. Constitution." Travel spot on.. INSTRUCTOR. If you read closely the full text of the Constitution you will discover that each clause and word in it was care- fully designed to protect you-your life, your liberty, and Your property. 'The Constitution is a coat of mail which man himself fash- ioned for his own protection, and which lie has changed. from time to time so that this protection might be more complete. Each American, including you and me, is pro- tected against the abuse of power by his representatives in Congress. We may dis- miss these public servants at election time, or by impeachment. And we can appeal to the courts. We can dismiss our President by impeachment or by ballot. And, we can remove our judges for lack of good behavior. Our Government, therefore, is not our master, as the kings and the dictators have always been, but our servant. Now, it's perfectly obvious that the prin- ciples of our Constitution were not formu- lated in a day. This document is the result of hundreds of years of trial and error, In the management of human affairs. Even as our forefathers declared their in- dependence in 1778, some Americans had lived under written charter from the English Crown for 169 years. During that long pe- riod many of the English Colonies were practically self-governed. In fact, many of the principles now in our Constitution were adaptations of what the colonists had worked out in experience while they were subjects of the English Government. We can trace many other provisions of our Con- stitution to ancient principles of English law which, in turn, had evolved from Roman law. We can see, then, that the principles which serve American freedom today have served the cause of freedom for generations, yes, for many hundreds of years. We know that these principles of liberty and freedom, human dignity and human rights, did not appear in our Constitution by chance. The formulation of this docu- ment required the courage and conviction of intelligent, dedicated rnen-men who possessed the vision to avoid the pitfalls of partisan politics and personal ambition. America bad such men in 1786, the year the U.S. Constitution was written. The Constitutional Convention, which laid the foundation for our Constitution, includ- ed men o? extraordinary ability. Of the 65 members of this group, 31 were experienced in law. The Convention of L786, which had been called to remodel the Articles of Con- federation, under which we governed our- selves after the Declaration of Independence, cast these Inadequate articles aside and drafted an entirely new instrument of gov- ernment. This document, our Constitution, created the most successful government free men have ever known .7 The U.S. Constitution is it code of liberty and law under God, and the common denom- inator of its philosophy is the sensitive, con- scientious actions of the individual. This is the hard fact of democracy. No democratic practice or process can work without the presence of one essential ele- ment: the sensitive individual conscience. Man, or at least enough men, must be re- sponsive to their rights, their obligations, and their responsibilities in a democracy to make it work. Without the is essential ele- ment, democracy will not work. It becomes a ruthless struggle for power. Without this essential element, capitalism will not work. It becomes economic imperialism, the ex- ploitation of one group by another. 7 "The Constitution of the United States," Thomas J. Norton, 1956. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16428 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 tions to be answered in about 15 minutes. These test sheets will be turned in to Colo- nel Bert, Deputy Brigade Commander, chair- man of the curriculum committee. Results of the test will be forwarded to senior unit commanders concerned. "Citizenship in Service" will be terminated by a 30-minute critique. The remainder of this hour will be con- cerned with the first two subjects, "Citizen- ship in Service," and "Getting Along in Ger- many." There will then be a 10-minute break, followed by the presentation of sub- jects three and four. Your first instructor is Action: Music, "Army Goes Rolling Along," in and up. Travel spot off. Assistant re- moves chart. Music out as senior instruc- tor exits immediately followed by first in- structor. Script: "Citizenship in Service" and "Get- Copy: 2,500------------------------- 24 Charts: 1-1 at 8 minutes each-------------- 10 6 at 1 minute each---------------- 6 Total-------------------------- 40 Stage setting: Immediately following in- troduction. senior instructor, curtain opens, instructor enters. On-stage assistant and charts center stage. Instructor spot on. INSTRUCTOR. The American dream, the goal of abundance and freedom for all citizens, is challenged by a new peril as Americans enter the decade of the sixties. Violent and tu- multuous world affairs mark this new age. For the first time since the victorious con- clusion of the American Revolution, Ameri- can security is seriously challenged by an alien, hostile force. Our foe is not a remote and distant enemy. Today, right now, our enemy treads arro- gantly on the very threshold of the American home, yours and mine. This new aggression has shocked and con- fused the American citizen. Our character and personality is unwilling to admit that our home is subject to Invasion, that democ- racy Is under attack, and that our way of life is in jeopardy. Yet, our very national existence, the future of America as a world nation, depends an an understanding that an era has ended and that continued op- timistic fatalism could spell the collapse of our Republic. If democracy should be destroyed with it would vanish, also, our great national abun- dance, and the American concept of individ- ual freedom. This is the reason why you and I must clearly understand the stakes in interna- tional affairs. We must take a hard look at the future of America in the light of developing foreign threats to our security. We must see clearly the personal and na- tional advantages of American free enter- prise, American liberty, and American jus- tice. We must be convinced that the attack on our system of government is a direct at- tack on each and every one of us. We are in a war. It is a total war. The prize for the loser of this war Is national oblivion. New, let's be honest about our interest in world affairs. Let's admit that we are, in fact, political illiterates when it comes to understanding, really understanding the im- plications of diplomatic maneuver, or political coercion, and of "fabricated" in- cidents. These matters occur every day. You and I read about them in our papers, hear about them on radio, and know that they are discussed as International politics. But, what do they mean to you and me? Very simply, these actions are the strategy and tactics employed by a powerful enemy determined to destroy us. These are the tools used by the dictators to dismay, divide, and, eventually, destroy America. Despite this evidence we are reluctant to admit that a foreign Ideology, and the danger of an alien dictatorship can affect us personally. This "optimistic fatalism" has its origins in the protective geographic character of the American Nation. Americans have devel- oped an attitude of aloofness from world af- fairs because, for 180 years, we enjoyed a free security. As the American historian C. Vann Wood- ward remarked, "U.S. geographical good fortune shaped the American character." 1 Two oceans and a polar ice cap were nature's gift enabling the United States to maintain national security inexpensively (pause). Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 1. Polar projection of North America, Russian Asia, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Traveling spot on. Assistant points to natural obstacles protecting America (5 by 10). INSrR.uc'roR. This boon permitted Ameri- cans to exempt their youth from the long training in military discipline that was routine in other nations. It insulated us from the reality of totalitarian ambition. For nearly 200 years Americans, protected against aggression by the natural barriers of oceans and land masses, developed a society of freemen and free Institutions. A broad frontier, free land, and inexhaustible natural resources permitted the development and growth of the American Standard of living, and incidentally, of our system of Govern- ment. This isolated, complacent, cheerfully op- timistic position ended with abrupt finality with the launching of the Russian sputnik on October 2, 1957 (pause). Action: Assistant fixes following slap-on illustrations to chart No. 1. (a) Aerial ar- row, originating in Russian Siberia, crossing polar region and striking Chicago area with nuclear explosion. (b) Aerial arrow, origi- nating in Atlantic, crossing east coast and striking Pittsburgh area with nuclear explo- sion. (c) Aerial arrow, originating In Pa- cific, and striking San Francisco area with nuclear explosion. INSTRUCTOR. Free security is gone forever. Now we must create the militant discipline which, alone, can save our Nation. Now we must fight for our freedom, for our homes, and for our lives. No longer can we conduct "business as usual" behind the moat of oceans and breastwork of land masses to the north and south. Americans are now ex- posed to attack on all fronts, and from all quarters. We have arrived suddenly and unexpectedly, at a critical moment in world history. Americans, in 1960, face the pain- ful necessity of ridding their national char- acter of complacency. We must steel our- selves for a long, expensive, and risky battle for survival. If we cannot meet this chal- lenge, we face the inevitable decline of na- tional sovereignty, the destruction of democ- racy, and the loss of freedom. The defeat of the dictators, and their de- sign for world conquest, demands an alert and determined American public. Why? Because the destiny of the Nation and the will of the individual are indivisible. The spiritual strength of our Republic lies in its people, you and me. This fact is the legal foundation of our national power. The preamble to the American Constitu- tion is very clear on this point. The Con- stitution says, "We, the people." The Con- stitution does not speak of, "We, the Gov- ernment," or "We, the Federal States." No. The supreme document of American democracy states, "We, the people." There- fore, if you and I are to enjoy the heritage of American freedom, and if we desire to transmit this heritage to our children, then, "we, the people" must strengthen our na- tional character, and steel the national will, so as to preserve this institution of freemen, Now, we've talked of character, and free- dom and democracy in America. But what do these concepts mean to you and me? What do we mean by the "American heri- tage"? Is this a good social order? Are we convinced that it is worth fighting and per- haps dying for? Is this something about "pie in the sky"? Or, is freedom something worth preserving for ourselves and for fu- ture generations? Let's bring these ideals, these words about freedom and democracy, and the American heritage-let's bring these thoughts down to the level of ham and eggs, of take-home pay, and down to the level of family security. Here are some thoughts for our considera- tion. Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 2: (5 by 6) "Food and Housing," (a) Left half of chart: bar graph of 2.8 billion world popula- tion equals 1 billion adequate diet and 1.8 billion inadequate diet. Caricature of hun- gry face, empty bowl. (b) Right half: rec- tangular rooms equal 80 percent U.S.S.R. in one-fourth room per person; or one Russian family per room; 80 percent United States of America in 1.5 rooms per person, or six rooms per family. Travel spot on. INSTRUCTOR. As 1960 began, the world pop- ulation stood at 2,800 million people. Now, the fact is that two-thirds of the world's people, or about 1,800 million men, women, and children, don't get enough to eat. India, for example, imports 3 to 4 mil- lion tons of grain annually. Even with these food imports the average Indian lives a short life on a substandard diet, a starvation diet.2 But, in America, due to natural resources and the intelligent development and use of agriculture, our problem is not hunger, but overabundance. Our granaries, our farms, and our food stores burst with the produc- tion of a generous land. In fact, we have taken 22 million acres of farmland out of production so as to reduce the American food supply? Or, consider another basic human need- shelter. We must remember that the vast majority of the world's people live in primi- tive, vermin-infested homes which are little better than huts. Few of these homes have such refinements as running water, sewage disposal, or other comforts which you and I take for granted. Most of the people of the world live in an environment little changed by the industrial revolution-the social change that replaced animal and human muscle with the strength of machinery. This is the technology which has given Americans a "nylon" civilization-and which is the envy of people everywhere in the world. In most countries even privacy is beyond price. Russia is a good example of this point. Although the U.S.S.R. Is thought to be one of the more highly developed nations of the world, her citizens have little share in this economic development, or in living space. It, is estimated that 80 percent of the Russian population live in no more than one-fourth of a room per person. Or about one room for each Russian family. This is crowded living (pause). In America the same percentage of the population have 11/2 rooms per person, or about six rooms per average American family., Action: Assistant exposes chart No. 3 (5 by 6) -Work versus food. (a) Bread (1 kilogram) : United States, 12 minutes; Italy, 44 minutes; Japan, 350 minutes; U.S.S.R., 17 minutes. (b) Beef (1 kilogram) : United States, 34 minutes; Italy, 329 minutes; Japan, 350 minutes; U.S.S.R., 200 minutes. (c) 2 Time magazine, Jan. 11, 1960. 3 Time magazine, Jan. 11, 1960. * Economic Almanac, 1956. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 16427 Instruction schedule: "Citizenship in service program." Period covered: Apr. 26-Jury 29 (11 instruction weeks)--Continued MUNICH AREA-Continued Week Time Subjects Location Umts concerned Allot- Mont July 4-82............. ............................................ ...................................... --------..........--?----------.-._.....----------- - - July 18-22: - 3 1st Transportation ----------------------------- 100 34th Artillery ----------------------------------- 200 Monday (18)--.-. 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above ...... Warner Theater, Warner Kaserne 92d Artillery ------------------------------------- 200 (capacity, 940). 11th Artillery --------------------...,---_--_-_._ 200 Total --------------------_...---------- 700 Wednesday (20) --- 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as in Wednesday above___ Same-------------------------------- Same ...... -,-._-.___..__-_-__--______...-_____-_--__ _.__.__ Friday (22)_______ 1430-1630 3d 2-bour block as in Friday above-------. Same ----------------------------- Same __------------------------------------------ -------- Maximum Mu ----------- --------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- ----------- ---------- ------- ----------------------------------------------------- ...----------- 31000 nich total for nich period. - Maximum total - - ---------------- ------------------??------- ---------...----------- 6,810 Munich- Au gsburg area for period. Type of instruction: (A) Address, (B) ad- dress, (C) lecture, skits, visual illustrations; (D) lecture, skits, audio visual illustrations. Instructional aids: (A) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system, national and unit colors, record-martial music. (B) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system, record, "The Army Goes Rolling Along," chart, curriculum "Citizenship in Service." (C) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system. Charts: (1) Polar projection, North America-U.S.S.R., 5 by 10 frame; (2) food and housing, 5 by 6 frame; (3) work versus food, 5 by 6 frame; (4) male life expectancy, 5 by 6 frame; (5) citizenship in service, 2 by 5 frame; (6) Declaration of Independence, 5 by 6 frame; (7) freedoms and responsibili- ties, two 5 by 13 frames; (8) Soviet territorial expansion, 5 by 7 frame. (D) Podium, podium light, instructor spotlight, follow spotlight, public address system with two microphones (1 podium, 1 backstage). Costumes: (1) Chinese Com- munist officer uniforms (two); (2) U.S. prisoners of war (Korea) (one). Stage property: (1) U.S.S.R. rifle (one); (2) blank pistol (one); (3) field table (one); (4) field chairs (two); (5) national and unit colors; (8) charts, US. Declaration of Independence. Personnel: (A) Senior commander, back- stage manager, 2 spotlight operators; (B) senior instructor, back-stage managers, 2 spotlight operators, 1 stage assistant; (C) instructor, back-stage manager, 2 spotlight operators, 1 on-stage assistant instructor; (D) instructor, back-stage manager, 2 spot- light operators, 1 assistant instructor. Ac- tors: (1) Communist interrogator; (2) U.S. prisoners of war (Korea); (3) Communist prisoners of war camp commander. Voices (on back-stage nnicrophone) : (1) Mr. Hoov- er; (2) Mr. Webster; (3) Dr. Schwarz; (4) Mr. Hunter; (5) Karl Marx; (6) Adolf Hit- ler; (7) Commentator on summit talks. Script: Address by senior commander (5 minutes); comments by senior instructor (5 minutes). Note: Martial music played over public address system as troops enter theater and out at curtain time. Stage setting: Podium, light, microphone, right stage, front. National and unit colors center stage in stands. Charts and aids for first instruction period in wings ready to place on stage at. conclusion of introduction. Curtain closed. Action: Music out. Troops called to at- tention. Curtain opens. Traveling spot on 7 Skip week. colors. Commander enters, center stage, walks to podium, commands: "Be seated," instructor light on speaker. COMMANDER. You and I, as members of the U.S. military forces in Europe, sometimes become so involved in our Army jobs that we lose sight of the Army mission. We, in fact, forget the primary purpose of our being in uniform. We lose touch with the origins of our social and cultural heritage. And we fail to associate our individual interests with the high aims of our Republic. Therefore, it is pertinent that we pause in our daily pursuits from time to time and thoughtfully examine our position as sol- diers in. relation to the ideals of Western civilization to which we are heir. Action: Curtain closes. Travel spot off. Charts and aids for first instruction period in place. COMMANDER. Gen. Edwin A. Walker, com- manding general of the 24th Infantry Di- vision, :has directed a reappraisal of body, mind, and spirit by all members of his com- mand so that we may more clearly preceive the pattern of our personal lives; and under- stand the direction of our Nation in world affairs. In representing General Walker here to- day I feel a great responsibility in. conveying his purpose and design to you, so that every man and officer seated in this audience will grasp the gravity and importance of the course of instruction which lies ahead. The succeeding presentation will be a study of personal and public subject matter. The range of interests embrace standards of conduct, mental and moral principles, polit- fcal concepts, and medical science. But, more important than the separate subjects is the broad intent of the program. It is hoped that the instruction will :help officers and men of this command to think for themselves and by so doing, assist each one of us to gain a richer personal life and increase our value to the Nation as members of the Army team. Therefore, the course is named, "Citizen- ship in Service." It's aim is to inculcate moral and legal responsibility in service, and to teach the fundamental principles of citi- zenship and patriotism. It is hoped that the course will motivate members of this command so as to reduce sociological stresses in the service, and gen- erate a desire for the awards of self-dicipline and public service. Let us remember that the armed services are the crucible of our culture. And that the product of a crucible is either slag or steel. General Walker demands that the24th In- fantry Division be a steel "shield of free- dom." We can achieve the spirit of steel in our mental, our moral, and our physical atti- tudes only by determined effort-by a will to learn and seek truth. I commend your full participation in the succeedin "Citizenship in Service" program. Your gain. will be the Army gain, also. Action: Troops called to attention. Com- mander exits. Troops resealed. Senior in- structor walks to podium Immediately fol- lowing address by commander. SENIOR I:asTRuc'ro , I will outline the course of instruction which comprises the "Citizenship in Service" program, so that you may know the subject matter, and the duration of the classes in the week ahead. First, the instruction, or curriculum, will be covered in a 6-hour block, of study, This 6-hour block is divided into three instruc- tion periods, each of which is 2 hours long. A 2-hour session will be conducted once a day for 3 days, on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, so that the entire course will be completed in 1 week. These instructional periods are being ro- tated throughout the command so that, eventually, all personnel in the 24th In- fantry Division will receive this orientation in, "Citizenship in Service." Action: Assistant enters from wings, left, carrying tripod displaying chart: Curri- culum (a.) "Citizenship in Service," (b) "Getting Along in Germany," (c) "Commu- nism," (d) "The Soldier's Code," (e) "Per- sonal Morality," (f) "Patrotism," (g) "Psy- chological Aspects of Military Service," (h) "Social Aspects of Misbehavior," (I) ":Mili- tary Aspects of Misbehavior & UCMJ," (j) "Care and Maintenance of the Human Ma- chine," (k) "End of Course Test" (5 by 6 frame). Chart is placed to left of podium. Travel spot on. INSTRUCTOR. "Citizenship in Service" will cover 10 major subjects; namely, "Citizen- ship in Service," "Getting Along in Ger- many," "Communism," "The Soldier's Code," "Patriotism, "Personal Morality," "Psy- chological Aspects of Military Service," "So- cial Aspects of Misbehavior," ""Care and Maintenance of the Human. Machine." Subjects one through four will be pre- sented today. Subjects five through nine will be covered in the second 2-hour period on Wednesday., And subject 10, and the end-of-co-.arse test, will be given during; the last 2 hours of the course on Friday. All instruction periods begin at 1430 hours. The end-of-course test, incidentally, will comprise a series of true or false clues- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16426 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE August 30 Instruction schedule: "Citizenship in service program." Period covered: Apr. 25-July 29 (11 instruction weeks) AUGSBURG AREA Week Time Subjects Location Units concerned Allot- ment Apr. 25-29: Monday (25) ...... 1430-1630 "Introduction to Six Hour Course," (19th Infantry__________________________________ 500 "Citizenship in Service and Germany," ' Garrett Theater, Reese Kaserne ) 724th Ordnance---------------------------- - 100 "Communism and the Soldier's Code." (capacity 751) 1 -- - , . 1 Total----------------------------------- 600 Wednesday (27)__ 1430-1630 "Patriotism and Personal Morality," Same-------------------------------- Same ------------------------------------- - "Adjustment to Military Service." - --- -------- Friday (29)------. 1430-1630 "Care and Maintenance of the Himan Same-------------------------------- Same _______-___-.------___---.... Machine," end of course test and con- ............ ........ elusion. May 2-6: 24th Signal Battalion__________________________ 100 M d 2 1430 1630 1 t 2 h bl k i M d b k Th Fl t Fl 24th Administration Company________________ 100 on ay ( )___.__. - - our as n on ay a s oc ove ------ a ea er, ak Kaserne (ca- pacity, 300). 24th Headquarters and Headquarters Com- pany. 100 Total----------------------------------- 300 Wednesday (4) --- 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as in Wednesday above--- Same________________________________ Same__________------_-__-_-__--__-___---__ ___ - - - - - Friday (6) -------- 1430-1630 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above -------- Same________________________________ _ Same --------------------------- - - _ May 9 13: - ------- - - - - - - (24th Medical Battalion________________________ -------- iso M onday (9)_ .... 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above------ Infantry Theater, Infantry Kaserne (capacity 289) 24th Aviation Company____________________ 150 , . Total----------------------------------- 250 Wednesday (11)__ F id (13 1430-1630 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as in Wednesday above--- F 3d 2 bl k i id h b Same-------------------------------- S Same ------------------------------------------ S -------- r ay ) ------- May 16-20: our n r - oc as ay a ove -------- ame-------------------------------- ame ------------------------------------------ _______- Monday (16) 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above Gablingen Theater Gablingen Ka- (2d Infantry----------------------------------- 4QO ______ ------ , serve (capacity, 438). Total----------------------------------- 400 Wednesday (18)__ Friday (20)-______ 1430-1630 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as in Wednesday above ___ 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above -------- Same________________________________ Same________________________________ Same ------------------- ::---__-_--_-_-__-_-_-_ Same ------------------------------------------ ________ ---_-_-- Tuly 11-15; 9th Cavalry----------------------------------- 200 13th Artillery--------------------------------- 200 Monday (11).____ 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above------ Sheridan Theater, Sheridan Kaserne 7th Artillery__________________________________ 200 (capacity, 657), Transportation companies____________________ 115 Total----------------------------------- 660 Wednesday (13) 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as In Wednesday above--- Same------------------------------- Same ----------------------------------------- -------- Friday (15) ------- 1430-1630 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above -------- Samo_______________________________ Same ----------------------------------------- --_---- Tuly 26-29: 34th Infantry 600 Monday (25) ------ 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above ------ Sheridan Theater, Sheridan Ka- acit some (ca 657) ITra nsportation trucking companies ------- 15 p y, . Tota l----------------------------------- 660 Wednesday (27)__. Friday (29)------_ 1430-1630 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as In Wednesday above --- 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above ........ Same -------------------------------- Same________________________________ Same ------------------------------------------ Samo______________-_-___--___----------__-_._ -------- Maximum--?-- ---------- -------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------? 2,870 Augsburg total for period. May 30-June 3: Monday (30)----- 1430-1630 "Introduction to Six Hour Course,""Citi- in Service and German zenshi " Warner Theater, Warner Kaserne (ca , 940) acit 21st Infantry__________________________________ 600 p y, "Communism and the Soldier's Code." p y . Total___________________________________ 600 Wednesday (1)___ 1430-1630 "Patriotism and Personal Morality," Same ------------------------------- same ----------------------------------------- -------- "Adjustment to Military Service." Friday (3) -------- 1430-1630 "Care and Maintenance of the Human Same_______________________________ Same ------- ____--------------- -------------- -------- Machine," end of course test and con- clusion. Juno 6-10: 46th ARB------------------------------------- 150 34th Armored -------------- _------------------ 150 Monday (6) ------ 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above------ Henry Theater, Henry Kaserne 3d Engineer__________________________________ 100 (capacity, 490). -- Total----------------------------------- 400 Wednesday (8)___ 1430-1630 2d2-hour block as in Wednesday above ___ Same_______________________________ Same__ Friday (10) ------- 1430-1630 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above ........ Same ------------------------------- Same ----------------------------------------- ________ June 13-17: (28th Infantry_________________________________ 600 Monday (13) _ _-._ 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above ------ Warner Theater, Warner Kaserne { (capacity, 940). l Total ----------------------------------- 600 Wednesday (15)__ 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as In Wednesday above--- Same------------------------------- Same ----------------------------------------- -------- Friday (17) ------- 1430-1630 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above -------- Same_______________________________ Same ----------------------------------------- -------- June 20-24 2 ----------- ----------- -------------------------------------------- June 27-July 1; 31st Transportation Battalion_________________ 100 34th ~tillery--------------------------------- 200 200 Monday (27) ------ 1430-1630 1st 2-hour block as in Monday above-.-..- Warner Theater, Warner Kaserne 92d Artillery---------------------------------- 200 (capacity, 940). 11th Artillery_________________________________ 200 Total------------------------------------ 700 Wednesday (29) 1430-1630 2d 2-hour block as in Wednesday above___ Same------------------------------ Same -------------?-?--?------------------- -------- Friday (1)________ 1430-1630 3d 2-hour block as in Friday above -------- Same..-.--??-------------------- -------- Footnotes at end of table. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 16425 (b) Tfre instruction will be repetitive and will comprise a 6-hour curriculum, in 2- four increments, scheduled three times a week, for personnel stationed in Augsburg and Munich areas. (c) The program is conceived as a cap- sulated, dramatized presentation of body, mind and spirit objectives, adjunctive to existing character guidance, troop informa- tion, and commander's programs. 3. Objectives : (a) Stimulation of citizen-soldiers who may readily respond to, or materially in- fluence, sociological and military factors in service, is the prime objective of the pro- gram. Specific aims include: (1) For newly arrived division person- nel- (A) Command interest in the welfare of men, officers, and soldiering. (B) Illustrate the individual and group re- sponsibilities of Americans overseas. (C) Emphasize national and international factors effecting: the American military posture in Europe. (D) Explain the importance of moral forti- tude and the direct relation of spiritual fiber to theocratic doctrine. (E) Review military jurisprudence and its application to the military overseas. (F) Note the vital relation between the Army mission and the physical readiness of the individual to respond to emergencies. (0) Describe the social factors which stalk the individual, compromise military pre- paredness, and weaken the national struc- ture by wasting manpower and money; i.e., drugs, alcohol, venereal disease, and acci- dents. (2) For other selected personnel- (A) Reflect command necessity for har- mony and teamwork within the command. (B) Show the military and civilian ad- vantages gained by moderation, maturity, and deliberate action. (C) Present the enduring physical and social effects of Incontinence, moral bank- ruptcy, and irresponsibility. (D) Stress the spiritual strength available to all who seek guidance. (E) Expose the mental, physical, and moral drives which can serve to enhance or de- grade life, depending on the control exer- cised by the individual. (F) Summarize the pitfalls, military and civilian, which await the ill-guided soldier. (G) Exhibit the physical ravages of alco- hol, drugs, disease, and the, physical damage caused by accidents. (3) For commissioned and noncommis- sioned officer personnel- (A) Create a common frame of reference which will provide direction in influencing members of the command. 4. Responsibilities: (a) Development, planning, implementa- tion, and supervision of the program will be executed by a curriculum committee, headed by the deputy brigade commander, and will include: ACofS 0.1, ACofS 0.3, Chaplain, Staff Judge Advocate, Surgeon, Inspector General, Information Officer, Provost Mar- shal. (b) Scheduling, funding of expenses in- cident to procurement of training aids, and normal staff implementation procedures, Is a responsibility of the ACofS, G.3. 5. Procedures: (a) Curriculum committee will organize and train one instructor team, and will provide lesson plans and training aids required, for implementation of the program on a rotation plan; i.e., succeeding kaserne theaters in Augsburg and Munich areas, on a schedule to be announced. 6. Curriculum. (See annex A.) For the commander: JAMES H. SKELDON, Colonel, GS, Chief of Staff. MEl,VIN L. PECHACEK, Major, AGC, Assistant Adjutant General. FIRST DAY 1. First 2-hour block. Introduction: Guest speaker establish pur- pose and objectives; instructor establish con- tent and. sequence. Subject No. 1, "Citizenship in Service": Freedom and responsibility, citizenship, the Constitution, heritage of America. and bul- warks of freedom. Subject No. 2, "Getting Along in Ger- many": Germany and Western defense, prob- lems and policies, Status of Forces Agree- ment. Break. Subject No. 3, "The Soldier's Code": Code of conduct, brainwashing, Communist propa- ganda, Communist interrogation. Subject No. 4, "Communism": Democracy versus Communism, international commu- nism, Communist tactics, communism in action. Total instruction time first 2-hour block, 100 minutes. SECOND DAY 2. Second 2-hour block. Subject No. 5, "Personal Morality": Repu- tation and honesty, origins of freedom. Subject No. 6, "Patriotism": Patriotism, our moral defense, heritage of America. Break.. Subject No. 7, "Psychological Aspects of Military Service": Personal adjustment to service, adjustment to military life, the soldier's mission and responsibilities. Subject No. 8, "Social Aspects of Misbe- havior": Incidents of discharge, Hiss Act, German jurisdiction. Subject No. 9, "Military Aspects of Mis- behavior and the Uniform Code of Military Justice": Rights and obligations of foreign forces in Germany, Uniform Code of Mili- tary Justice. Total instruction time second 2-hour block, 100 minutes. THIRD DAY 3. Third 2-hour block. Subject No. 10, "Care and Maintenance of the Human Machine": Effects of venereal disease, effects of drugs and alcohol, effects of accidents, the division health record, structure of the body. Break. Subject No. 11, "End of Course Test": All previous instruction references. Concluding address: Guest speaker. Total instruction time third 2-hour block, 100 minutes. HEADQUARTERS, 24TH INFANTRY DIVISION, APO 112, U.S. Forces, April 21, 1960. Subject: "Citizenship in Service Program." To: (See distribution). 1. Reference : "Citizenship in Service Pro- gram" instruction schedule, attached as en- closure 1 (II-week schedule, April 25-July 29, 1960). 2. This is a corrected copy of letter AETGPA 265/54, this headquarters, subject as above, April 18, 1960, and will be substi- tuted therefor, 3. Commanders will assure that the same personnel attending the first 2-hour block of instruction on Monday will continue to at- tend the succeeding 2-how: blocks of in- struction on Wednesday and Friday. 4. Priority of personnel space allotment will be: (a) New arrivals. (b) Selected personnel. (c) Cornpany grade officers and non- commissio-a.ed officers in command positions. For the commander: EDWARD AVIN, Chief Warrant Officer, Assistant Adjutant General. Lesson plan, first 2-hour block of instruc- tion: Subject and duration: (A) Senior Commander (script attached). Establish purpose and objectives-5 minutes. (B) Senior instructor (Script attached). Note content and sequence--S minutes. (C) "Citizenship in Service," and "Getting Along in Germany" (script attached) 40 minutes. (D) "Ccanmunism" and "The Soldier's Code" (script attached)-50 minutes. Place: Theater. References: (A) Training directive No. 3, "Citizenship in Service." (B) Instruction schedule, "Citizenship in Service." (C) "The Constitution of the Urdted States," Norton committee; "Militant Lib- erty," Secretary of Defense, 1955; Time mag- azine, January 11, 1960; "The Bulwarks of Freedom," Bishop R. A. Brown, 1959: U.S. Economic Almanac, 1956; Statistical Abstracts of the United States, Germany, and Western defense, USAREUR Information Bulletin 14- 6; "Problems and Policies," USAREUR fact sheet No. 36; agreements on status of forces, Germany, Bonn convention, May 1956. (D) "Communism's Invisible Weapon," national education program; "Communist Party; U::S.A.," Facts Forum; "Christianity Today," Carl Henry; "U.S. Soldiers in Com- munist Prisoners of War Camps, " Korea, Maj. William 'I;. Mayer; "Communist Interroga- tion, Indoctrination, and Exploitation of Prisoners of War," DA pamphlet No. 30-401; "Democracy versus Communism," pamphlet, House Committee on Un-American Activi- ties; "Black Book on Red China," Edward Hunter; -rfte U.S. Fighting Man's Code," DOD pamphlet 1-16; staff consultation with Dr. Schwarz, House Committee on Un-Amer- ican Activities; consultation with Mr. Edward Hunter, House Committee on Un-American Activities. . Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16424 Approved For ONGRESSIONALIRECORDDP6S4 QOA 4 8000200110007-5 August 30 iUnited States-the inveterate anti-Soviet and reactionary Senator GOLDWATER-con- siderable monetary reserves, drawn from the tills of monopolies and banks, and its own publishing house. The reactionary military clique of the Pen- tagon has occupied the most important (translators note: possibly a most impor- tant) position in the activities of the so- ciety. The following retired personnel have already been exposed as members of the society and Its leaders: the former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Army, General Wiede- meyer (Vedemeyer); the commander of an air army, Lieutenant General Stone (Stoun) ; a military attache to the U.S.S.R., Lieutenant General O'Daniel (O'Daniel); Lt. Gen. del Wallen (del' Vallen) of the Marine Corps; Rear Admiral Cope (Koup); Major General Willowghby (Uillobi); and Colonel Banker (Banker); and also many other generals and officers. (Translator's note; ranks and posi- tions here are translated verbatim. Due to my unfamiliarity with some of the names, a direct transliteration of each of them as it appears in the Russian text Is in paren- theses following my guess as to the proper English spelling). There is information that the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Burke, and other highly placed individuals now on active duty in the Armed Forces or in American military intelligence have direct contact with the society. One American newspaper writes that, the workers of the Pentagon have "gathered around (themselves?) so many Fascist pub- lications and groups that they are able to form their own general staff with no diffi- culty." It would appear that the fact that so many generals and admirals are listed as retired not only does not create difficulties, but, on the contrary, makes the Fascist ac- tivity of the "ultra" easier when applied di- rectly to the Armed Forces. The American press states that retired [officers] "maintain direct contact with their colleagues still in uniform, often appearing as the mouthpiece of those whom the Government has ordered to remain silent." - According to the foreign press, the primary mission of the military leaders of the Birch society is to implant Fascist ideology, anti- communist, and propaganda on the inevita- bility of atomic war among the personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States of America. General Walker was one of the direct executors of this program. He issued Circular 350-20, in which it was ordered that Nazi propaganda be distributed In the 24th Division, utilizing reactionary literature re- ceived from the Birch society. Hoping to turn the division into a band of headhunters and bandits, in October of last year he or- ganized in it a "service of special troops" [sic] which occupied itself with spreading the Nazi ravings of Welch among the troops. The division was literally flooded with the publications of the society. Issues of the di- vision newspaper were full of openly Fas- cist articles. It can be said directly that Walker had experienced teachers in the carrying out of similar propaganda in the person of the leaders of the society. In- cluded in that number, for example, is Gen- eral Wiedemeyer, a graduate of a German military academy and former chief of staff of the troops of Chiang Kai-shek. Why was the 24th Division, specifically, chosen as the objective of this fascist propa- ganda? Because it was one of the best pre- pared units of the American Army, armed to the teeth. It had participated more than once in the aggressive adventures of the im- perialists of the United States of America, including Korea. More actively than in oth- er units, its personnel are educated in the traditions of banditry and, in the opinion of the "fuehrers" (sic) of the society, were more prepared to receive the fascist propa- ganda. In summarizing all that Is known about the influence of the Birch Society on the Armed Forces, the American press reaches some uncomfortable conclusions. In part, it states that, under the cover of this society, the more reactionary circles in the United States of America have dreamed and are dreaming of the preparation of a military- fascist revolution, "A group of military people," write Brown and D. Ril (translator's note: Brown is obviously intended the first initials and other last name are translitera- tions from the Russian) in their book, "can, of course, take the political power over the American Armed Forces as soon as signs of weakness on the part of the United States of America with respect to other countries be- gin to appear." The American society Is deeply disturbed by this information of such widespread activity by fascist organizations in the coun- try. It is especially disturbed by the fact that officials are not taking active steps to- ward the liquidation of this filth and are actually conniving with the conspirators. It is becoming obvious that the action taken by the Secretary of the Army with respect to General Walker is intended only to disorient public action and give the appearance of de- cisive government action toward the con- spirators. There is no other way to explain the statement of the newspaper New York Times that, as a result of the completed in- vestigation, Walker "got off with a talking- to" (translator's quote). No matter what happens, this scandalous story of the business of General Walker and the Birch Society clearly shows that the Pentagon is teaming with generals and ad- mirals who openly profess fascism and who are attempting to drag the country down the road to unleashing the third world war. [From Red Star, July 18, 1961, page 4] SOVIET "RED STAR" CITES GENERAL WALKER AND PaEVIOVS COMMAND, 24TH INFANTRY DIVISION Moscow paper reports Secretary of the Army relief of General Walker and Commis- sion to investigate his connections with semi-secret fascist organization kr}own as the John Birch Society. It further states political programs of the Society to raise fascist terror and racism to the rank of Government Policy continuing with a com- ment from the publication Nation (United States)--capable of causing panic. Accord- ing to RED STAR, Birch was an American military spy who was executed in China for underground work against the Peoples Army of Liberation. Walker, through the issuance of Circular No. 850-20, is reported as ordering Nazi propaganda distributed in the 24th Division, flooding it with publications and the Divi- sion newspaper with openly fascist articles. "Why was the 24th Division, specifically, chosen as the objective of this fascist propa- ganda? Because it was one of the best pre- pared units of the American Army, armed to the teeth. It had participated more than once in the aggressive adventures of the Imperialists of the USA, including Korea. More actively than in other units, its per- sonnel are educated in the traditions of banditry and, in the opinion of the 'fueh- rers' of the society, were more prepared to receive the fascist propaganda." - General Walker's position today was re- flected in his extension of his files and In- formation, personally acquired through civil legal assistance in the United States on cer- tain Overseas Weekly staff members and their connections to German publishers. The book "Schizophrenic Germany" written by Mr. Dornberg received criticism in the German press. The book had been adver- tised in the United States by Macmillan Publishers which included an ad in the New York Times that was reprinted in Visieor, a German Army magazine published in Co- logne, 15 July. At least one article in the. German press referred to the author as a schizophrenic and another as helping the Communist. The author's charges, citations against at least three German publications for untrue or discrediting publicity, are get- ting little sympathy from the Germans. The General has said that he is informed that certain material in the book is recognized by the Germans and that its original source is identified and was considered to be of questionable intent. He also said the trial of Mr. Naujocks, the reporter on the Overseas Weekly, was due in early September. As pre- viously purported, the general's complaint was accepted by the German prosecutor in Augsburg as a criminal action against the German State, to be prosecuted by the State. The charge was served 8 August under the German Penal Code 185 and 186, each car- rying 1, 2, or 3 years' imprisonment. The German court's State trials are often accepted on the basis of the public's interest and concern. The Overseas Weekly moved its reporter from the Augsburg area, that of the 24th Infantry Division, after he was barred in December 1960 to the Frankfurt main office. He, with the editor, Dornberg and a reporter-Jones, shared credit at least in one article of their 16 April issue attack- ing the Division pro-Blue program. The publicity of the book "Schizophrenic Ger- many" and the Augsburg case seem to have some conflicting interest with respect to publicity. Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, I thank the distinguished Senator from South Carolina for his very important, signif- icant, and appropriate remarks. I wish to note that the Overseas Weekly to which he referred, which contained the charges against General Walker and which were the basis for his relief from command, is the sort of newspaper which ought not to be circulated among Ameri- can troops. It is full of sexy pictures, crime stories, and liquor ads. It is typi- cal of newspapers which are circulated among our troops in West Germany un- der the auspices of Stars and Stripes. It is very important that the Senate have available to it the program which provided the basis for the charges against General Walker; namely, the cit- izenship-in-service program, sometimes referred to as the pro-blue program, of the 24th Infantry Division. I therefore ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks, along with five editorials on the subject. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CITIZENSHIP-IN-SERVICE PROGRAM OF THE 24TH INFANTRY DIVISION TRAINING DIRECTIVE NO. 3, APRIL 18, 1960 Morale and welfare 1. Purpose: The purpose of this program is to inculcate moral and legal responsibility, to teach fundamental principles of citizen- ship and patriotism, and to motivate mem- bers of this command so as to reduce so- ciological stress in the service and generate a desire for the awards of self-discipline and public service. 2. General: (a) Implementation of this program will be progressive. Personnel who may be in- itially considered most eligible include: Newly arrived division personnel, commis- sioned and noncommissioned officer person. nel and other selected personnel. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE wanted ro stay in the Army and in the divi- pion "so I can go to school and get paid." Both men said they like the division but were not particularly swayed by Walker one way or the other. Sp4c. McNeal Scow, of Waynesville, N.C., said he was looking for secu- rity and decided to remain in the Army. Scow said he believed with many of his friends that Walker was mishandled in being relieved before an Investigation got under way. Pvt. Arthur Jackson, of Pawtucket, R.I., said he was "fed up with the Army" and wanted to get out. "The Army stifles the initiative and it's an alien way of life," he said. Jackson said he had no gripes against Walker. Sp4c. George Smith, of Broomville, Colo., said "Walker had many good ideas but they were not followed through." Smith is re- turning to civilian life, and college soon. One officer, who cannot be named, worked with some of the officers and enlisted men who ran Walker"s special projects section. He said he opposed Walker's program as treading dangerously near off-limits policy. He said when it was over Walker called him and gave him credit "for sticking to my guns." "You've got to admire a man like that," he said, [From the New York Journal American, Aug. 18, 1961] REDS MAKE HAY OUT OF REBUKE TO GENERAL WALKER-PROPAGANDA MILL ROLLING OVER- TIME The rebuke administered Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker for his lecturing of American troops in Germany on the Communist men- ace has provided the Soviet Union with a large quantity of grist for its propaganda mill. This was disclosed through a survey of Iron Curtain publications and broadcasts which linked General Walker to the ultra- rightwing John Birch Society, described by the Reds as a semisecret Fascist organization. Lt. Col. O. Aleksandrovsky, writing in the July 18 editions of the Soviet Army news- paper, Red Star, seized upon the Walker incident to cry: "No matter what happens, this scandalous story of the business of General Walker and the Birch Society clearly shows that the Pen- tagon is teaming with generals and admirals, who openly profess fascism and are attemept- ing to drag the country down the road to unleasing the third world war." What General Walker did, in effect, was to accuse some prominent citizens, segments of the American press and TV industry, and certain news commentators of serving the cause of communism by their actions and attitudes. PROPAGANDA TARGET For this he received an official admonish- ment, was relieved of his divisional com- mand, and transferred to Army headquarters at Heidelberg, Germany. Until his 'transfer, General Walker had commanded the 24th Infantry Division in West Germany. It evidently is one of the most respected of American fighting forces, for Colonel Aleksandrovsky notes: "Exactly why was it that the 24th Division became a target for Fascist propaganda? Be- cause this was a rather well-trained and heavily armed unit of the U.S. Army. It had often participated in aggressive adventures of the United States, for instance in Korea. "Members of its military personnel are more active than in other units and are be- ing educated along the lines of robber tra- ditions. Moreover, the fuehrers of the (Birch) society believe the unit to be sus- ceptible to Fascist propaganda." CAUTIONS UNHEEDED The admonishment of General Walker fol- lowed an Army investigation which found he had failed to heed cautions of superiors against "controversial activities which were contrary to longstanding customs of the military service and beyond the prerogatives of a senior military commander." The probe Itself grew out of a charge in the Overseas Weekly, a newspaper published in Europe, that General Walker in a speech had termed definitely pink such figures as former President Truman, former Secretary of State Dean Acheson, and Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt. Connected with at least one article on General Walker, according to the general himself, was John Dornberg, author of the book, "Schizophrenic Germany." COMMUNISTS HELPED General Walker has pointed out that the West German press charged that the book has helped the Communists. One publica- tion termed Mr. Dornberg "schizophrenic," and another stated that the material used was "considered to be of questi.onable in- tent." And Visier, a German Army magazine published in Cologne, declared: "Everybody in the Bundesrepublik can see that. hatred, if not the hand of Moscow, has guided his hand in writing ? " ? Mr. Dornberg took it upon himself * ? ? to de- fame the Federal Republic of Germany in a full bock of lies." Last May, General Walker filed a suit charg- ing libel and slander against Siegfried. W. Nanjocks, a German reporter of the Over- seas Weekly who also was connected with at least one of the Walker articles. In his suit the general charges that Nan- jocks, in the presence of American soldiers, called him a sick man. The general's complaint has been accepted by the German prosecutor in Augsburg as a criminal action against the German State, to be prosecuted by the State. The charge was served under two German penal codes, each carrying 1, 2 or 3 years' imprisonment. Friends of the general pointed out that the State often accepts trials on the basis of its interest in and concern for the public. GROWING INFLUENCE That the Soviet Union is playing the rebuke of General. Walker for all its worth is evidenced in a follow-up dispatch to Colonel Aleksandrovsky's remarks, which also were broadcast to Soviet troops on July 20. On July 22, Moscow's domestic service re- lated, apparently through its Washington correspondent, that the Senate Foreign Re- lations Committee had prepared a document expressing alarm at the "growing influence of the military on national policy." The dispatch further noted that the com- mittee nlembers' report held that the activi- ties of the American officer class were evil and drew an analogy to the revolt of the French generals in Algeria. "The authors of the document note that this revolt was an example of what might come of similar activity by the military," the Moscow dispatch stated. DEFENDED BY THURMOND Coming to the defense of General Walker was Senator STRoM THURMOND, Democrat, of South Carolina, who on July 26 took the floor of the Senate to state: "Possibly the beginnings of the attack (on General. Walker) other than in Pravda itself, was with a slander sheet called the Over- seas Weekly, which apparently has as its primary purpose the general discrediting of U.S. servicemen and their leadership in Europe, particularly those of the 24th In- fantry Division. "As a particular target, the Overseas Weekly undertook a campaign against the anti-Com,nunisi; indoctrination course of the 24th Division and its commander at that time, General Walker. "It is significant that although the Over- seas Weekly has been charged with being subversive by many persons, the only in- vestigatio:a. has been directed at General Walker and not the vicious slander sheet which dances to the tune of leftwing causes and givee: its most prominent display to 'girlie cheesecake' pictures and sensational GI crimes in its publication area, so near the Iron Curtain.'" [Extracted from the Soviet newspaper, Red Star, July 18, 19(311 ULTRA IN THE PENTAGON Recently, by decision of the Secretary of the Army of the United States of America, the commander of the 24th Infantry Di- vision, located in Germany, Maj. Gen. Walker, was relieved of his duties. Simul- taneously. under the chairmanship of the commander of the V Corps, Lieutenant Gen- eral Brown, a commission was appointed to investigate the connection between Walker and the semisecret Fasc:bt organization known as the John Birch Society. This society is named for an American military spy who was executed in China for underground work against the "Peoples' Army of Liberation" (translator's quote). Fascist propaganda has canonized Birch as a sacrifice of the "Third World War." The political program of the organization is contained. in a "Blue Book," edited by R. Welch. In substance, the contents of this book are no different from those of Hitler's bible, "My War" (sic) (translator's note: probably "Mein Kampf"), and amount to the following: unleash war against the U.S.S.R.; reestablish the :lost position of colonialism; raise Fascist terror and racism to the rank of government policy. Infuriated: with the foreign policy fail- ures of t:b.e United States, the founders of' .the society have even called such figures as Eisenhower and Eleanor Roosevelt "Red." They demand that the U.N., which they characterize as a "nest of saboteurs and spies," be "sunk in the Atlantic Ocean," and with all their powers they fan the flames of anti-Soviet hytseria and miattary (war) psy- chosis. "The atlierents of Birch," writes the maga- zine Nation, "are capable of causing panic and creating an atmosphere of suspicion. They can attach the label of 'Communist' to any man., and their semisecret meetings lay the groundwork for fear and hatred." The fact that the meetings of the society are semisecret and all of its activities carry a conspirlttorial character has its own mean- ing. It was recently revealed that behind the curtain of the Birch society hides an organization of the powerful bosses of merican business and well-known political American" and military figures. Among them are the "ringleaders" (translator's quote) of the Na- tional Association of Manufacturers, which is all powerful. in the United States, Con- gressmen, generals, and admirals, publishers of newspapers and journalists. The ballot for leadership of the organization even in- cluded the name of the ex-Vice President of the United States of America, Nixon. This rrob of American "ultra" [sir,] is supported by several offic:lal Government organs, such as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, headed by Senator EASTLAND. This subeo3mnittee, in order to hide the true character of the organization from the masses of the population, has invariably an- swered the alarmed questions of Americans thusly; "We are happy to inform you that, according to our information, this is a pa- triotic organization." The society has its own candidate. for the presidency of the Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 16422 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 30 military men to speak up because they know the nature of the enemy and are better pre- pared than anyone else to discuss the evils of communism. We have had too much soft speaking on communism by pinks and near Communists." WORDS WORTH HEARING About 150 veterans were present for their annual reunion. After General Walker had spoken and applause had subsided, one of the leaders commented: "It's too bad his speech was not heard by 30,000 people. They would have marched on the Pentagon." The 1st Special Service Force consisted of 3,200 men chosen for hazardous commando operations from among 7,000 volunteers, after preliminary training. General Walker said he sought to instill the same spirit in the 2d Division artillery in Korea, which fired 22,000 rounds a day for 14 days, an unheard- of feat; in the 7th Infantry Regiment, also in Korea, and the 21st Battle Group (Gim- lets) of the 24th Division in Germany, which last Friday won the highest marksmanship award of the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- zation. NO TURNCOATS THEN Each man in the special service force, he said, was "experienced and alert and, know- ing the enemy, psychologically prepared. There was certainly no fear-can you imag- ine it-that as a prisoner of war a man would betray his trust-Canadian or American." The implication was unmistakable-but he could not say in so many words-that the anti-Communist orientation program which got him in trouble in Germany was intended to give the same psychological preparation to men of the 24th Division. The Overseas Weekly, a scandal sheet cir- culated to the troops in Germany, attacked General Walker's orientation program, charg- ing that he was using material supplied by the John Birch Society. The same publication charged that Gen- eral Walker had said Eleanor Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, and Dean Acheson were "definitely pink" and that Edward R. Mur- row, Walter Cronkite, and Eric Sevareid, radio-television commentators, were pro- Communist. GIVEN SECONDARY JOB General Walker was summarily relieved of command and assigned to a subordinate post at Army headquarters in Heidelberg, instead of a previously scheduled assignment to command the 8th Corps in Texas. After an investigation by Gen. Bruce C. Clark, commander in chief of the American Army in Europe, General Walker was for- mally admonished by Secretary of the Army Elvis J. Stahr, Jr. Replying to a letter from Senator GoLD- WATER, who demanded an explanation, Stahr said: "No substantial evidence was revealed that General Walker had referred to former Presi- dent Harry S. Truman, Dean Acheson, and Eleanor Roosevelt as 'definitely pink,' as al- leged by Overseas Weekly, but it was estab- lished that he had staged or inferred that these prominent persons are leftist influ- enced or affiliated." PRESS, TV INFLUENCED "It was also established that General Walker had mentioned Edward R. Murrow, Walter Cronkite, and Eric Sevareid as being leftist or Communist-influenced commenta- tors, and that he had stated that 60 percent of the American press and the radio-tele- vision industry were Communist influenced, not Communist controlled. "The investigation also revealed that Gen- eral Walker's strong anti-Communist feeling frequently led his talks to become heated and intense, with the use of excessively strong language. He had previously been cautioned on at least three occasions to re- frain from language of this nature." The Army also reported that Walker's pro- gram had nothing to do with the John Birch Society. REDS RUSH INTO BREACH General Walker, a 1931 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, obtained a 2-week leave from his post in Germany to attend the reunion here and visit his mother, who met him in New York. She lives with another son, George Pinckney Walker, Jr., on a ranch at Center Point, Tex. The 51-year-old gen- eral is not married. After the sacking of General Walker, sus- tained attacks on anti-Communist activity by military leaders emanated from four prin- cipal sources: Gus Hall, boss of the American Communist Party; Marquis Childs, syndi- cated newspaper columnist; the New York Times, and Senator WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. SEE DANGER ON THE RIGHT In the July 16 issue of the Worker, official organ of the Communist Party, Hall said: "In the opinion of the Communist Party there can be no question that the threat from the extreme right is serious. A pronounced characteristic of the movement," said Hall, is "Its spreading influence among the higher military personnel." The New York Times has published a series of reports on anti-Communist seminars and orientation programs at military establish- ments, charging that they are "preoccupied with radically rightwing political philoso- phies." These programs were conducted pur- suant to an official cold war strategy policy, adopted by the National Security Council 3 years ago. RADICALISM A VIRUS In a memorandum addressed to the Presi- dent and referred by him to Defense Secre- tary Robert S. McNamara, Senator FULBRIGHT charged that in at least 11 instances "pro- grams closely identified with military per- sonnel made use of extremely radical right- wing speakers and/or materials, with the probable result of condemning foreign and domestic policies of the administration in the public mind." It would be extremely dangerous, FUL- BRIGHT said, "if the military Is infected with the virus of rightwing radicalism." "In the long run," he added, "it is quite possible that the principal problem of leadership will be, If it is not already, to restrain the desire of the people to hit the Communists with every- thing we've got, particularly if there are more Cubas and Laoses." A new directive governing speeches and statements by military personnel was issued by the Pentagon on July 10. Roswell Gil- patric, Deputy Secretary of Defense, ex- plained at a press conference that it would require military spokesmen to confine them- selves to defense matters and not talk about communism. "We are not suggesting by this move that we are going to be soft on communism or that we don't want the military to have their own views on the subject of what our na- tional defense policy should be," Gilpatric said. "But there are other organs and agen- cies of the Government that speak for these other areas." [From the Charleston (S.C.) News and Courier, Aug. 9, 19611 WALKER STILL HOLDS RESPECT OF MEN IN 24TH DIVISION AUGSBURG, GERMANY.--Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker is still a soldier's soldier to many of his former troops despite his suspension from command of the 24th Infantry Divi- sion for mixing his political beliefs with Army policy. Lt. Col. William D. Taylor, division'enllst- ment officer, said the 24th is still getting heavy reenlistments. According to official division figures, dur- ing the 1960 fiscal year 2,590 troops were eligible to reenlist, and 849 did, to make a percentage of 32.8 for the highest in the 7th Army. Taylor compared this figure with 26.8 for the 3d Armored Division, 13.2 for the 34th Infantry Division, 11.8 for the 8th In- fantry Division, and 7.5 percent for the 4th Armored Division. Taylor said Walker's suspension "went in one ear and out the other" as far as the average enlisted man was concerned. He added that a "man doesn't reenlist in an out- fit that has poor morale." Maj. Gen. Charles Bonesteel III, who left the Pentagon to replace Walker, said "the morale is fine and all indications are that reenlistments will increase." A survey among officers and enlisted men of the division bears out Bonesteel. "There is no feeling of any carry-over be- cause of the Walker incident," the tall, lean general said. Some officers and enlisted men of the di- vision, including those who were for and against the general's alleged personal re- marks, said they and many others felt the 51-year-old Texan had been drummed out of his command before given a chance to prove his case. From some of the highest ranking officers to the lowest grades, it was noted that Walk- er was relieved of his command and assigned to Heidelberg headquarters before the in- vestigation into his special projects began. Walker of Centerpoint, Tex., was relieved of his command in April after a private American paper in Europe-the Overseas Weekly-carried a story alleging that Walker had exposed his men to propaganda based on the philosophy of the John Birch Society. A 1931 graduate of West Point, Walker was admonished and suspended from command on June 12. Walker issued only one state- ment which came before he was relieved in which he compared the newspaper to com- munism. Since then he has refused to com- ment. One of Walker's biggest boosters in the division is 1st Sgt. Richard T. Flynn of Passaic, N.J., who was the senior enlisted man on the general's special projects staff. "We all need to boost our moral values and that's what Walker was trying to do." Flynn. said. "He didn't push Birch stuff on his troops. He put the information on the barrelhead and let them choose." "We tried to interest the troops in the flag, in patriotism, in parades, even in bugle calls. These things belong to the Army. We wanted obedience based on understand- ing." Flynn said. Flynn said he was responsible for order- ing copies of "American Opinion" which contained the life of Birch, written by Rob- ert W. Welch, founder of the John Birch Society. "That was the only so-called Birch mate- rial we put out in the dayrooms," he said.. "I tried to get the book but was told it was out of print. So I got 'American Opinion' because the story was there," he said. The book by Welch also contains much of the author's thinking on how to protect the world from communism. "Birch was the first casualty of the cold war. Everybody should know about him," Flynn said. Interviews with men in the division who were about to reenlist or go back to civilian life, brought out that few had concerned themselves with the Walker case or that it did not affect their leaving or staying. Sp4c. Percy Craig of Piedmont, Ala., said he was staying in because the Army offered more security. Sgt. John Forbes, of Coral Gables, Fla., said he Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5 Approved For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP64B00346R0002, 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE reiating to its resumption of nuclear acts by Mr. Khrushchev only fortify and tests. I did not wish to respond at that strengthen us. Sometimes in the ar- point, because the Senate was in the rogance and the false pride of the process of completing its work on the Soviet leaders we find new strength, new appropriation. bill for the Departments determination, and new cooperation on of State and Justice and for the Judici- the part of the allies in the free world., first, to commend the Senator from THE ANTI-ANTI-COMMUNIST CAM- Tennessee [M:r. GORE] for his statement. PAIGN AND MAJ. GEN. EDWIN If any Member of the Senate is informed WALKER on these matters, it is he. He is very Mr. THURMOND, Mr. President, on experienced. He attended the negotia- tions at Geneva, as one of the advisers of the U.S. Senate. I wish to add that I find myself in full agreement with the statement he made, and I desire to associate myself with it clearly and without qualifica- tion. I also wish to say that I hope Presi- dent Kennedy will immediately request the return of Arthur Dean, our chief negotiator, from Geneva, as a demon- stration of our, I might say, disgust about the manner in which the Soviet Union has treated this vital issue which relates to the welfare of humanity. I also hope the President will direct our Ambassador to the United Nations, Mr. Stevenson, to lay before the United Nations the efforts of this country over 3 years to arrive at some form of agree- ment, with reasonable and effective con- trols, to suspend further nuclear tests. Mr. President, this Nation has walked the extra mile; it has done all that could be expected of any great power, and it has done it and has proceeded in the name of decency, freedom, peace, and compassion to attempt to arrive at an agreement. In fact, only recently Mr. Dean returned to Geneva with new concessions, in hopes of being able to arrive at some kind of workable agree- ment with the Soviet Union. So I hope President Kennedy, either himself, in a personal appearance be- fore the 'United Nations General As- sembly, or by direction to our Ambas- sador to it, Mr. Stevenson, will lay be- fore the nations of the world the draft treaties we presented at Geneva in the most recent negotiations, and their full history, and how we have sought to pre- serve the peace and to protect man- kind, and how we have sought to slow down the arms race and prevent the spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world. I feel that if this is done, our case will stand the test of careful scrutiny and we shall be all the better because of it. I wish to add that I am confident our Nation is prepared, through its scien- tists and its great facilities in the field of atomic energy, to undertake quickly whatever experimentation and testing may be required. Let no one be in doubt. The Soviet Union is attempting to accelerate the war of nerves, as the Senator from Ten- nessee [Mr. GORE] stated tonight. The main objective is, and has been for years, to separate us from our al- lies and to intimidate. Its act is the act of a bully. But the United States is not frightened; and I am confident that our country and our allies, stand- ing alongside of us and assured of our purpose, will not be frightened, These several occasions lately there have been discussions on the Senate floor with ref- erence to the anti-anti-Communist cam- paign which is focused on our Military Establishment with a view toward dis- crediting and rendering ineffective our military personnel and particularly our military leaders. Early in the campaign, a smear campaign was commenced against Maj. Gen. Edwin Walker, former Commander of the 24th Division in Eu- rope, by a slander sheet called the Over- seas Weekly. The smear campaign against General Walker reached such a height that General Walker was relieved of his command and, although the spe- cific charges made by the Overseas Weekly were found to be untrue accord- ing to the Department of Army, General Walker was officially admonished and his command was not restored. For some time, General Walker has been awaiting assignment. It is clear from the circum- stances and public statements by high- placed civilians within the Defense Es- tablishment, that General Walker's case was conducted in such a manner as to constitute an example of what would happen to any officer who candidly taught his troops the facts about the total nature of the insidious cancer of comunism. In the past few months it has become increasingly obvious that this smear campaign has resulted in the sidetrack- ing of the career of a brililant officer and fine commander. Our own country is allowing this man to be crucified for his patriotism and devotion to the best interest of his country and the troops he commanded. There has been much guessing as to General Walker's next assignment. Only a few short months ago, he was spoken of favorably as a future corps commander. It is now apparent that General Walker not only will not be a corps commander, but he will not com- mand. He has been pigeonholed. His new assignment is Assistant Deputy for Operations in U.S. Army Headquarters in Heidelberg, Germany. The Deputy for Operations, General Walker's imme- diate supervisor, is also a major general, an officer with a splendid record who is perfectly competent to carry out the functions of his post without another major general as his assistant. General Walker's job could not be a more obvious pigeonhole. I recall that almost every year the Army has expressed to the Armed Serv- ices Committee its need for more gen- eral officers. The assignment, there- fore, of a general officer who is recognized for his command abilities to such a job as that to which General Walker has been assigned could not be more con.spicuods. General Walker is to be a continuing example of what can happen to an officer's career who takes his patriotism, his oath. of office to de- fend his country against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and his command Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- ent that articles concerning the Walker une of August 20, the Charleston, S.C., News amid. Courier of August 9, and the New York Journal-American of August 15, as well as translations of articles from the Soviet newspaper, Red Star, of July 18 and July 22, be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my re- marks: There being no objection, the material was be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From .;he Chicago Sunday Tribune, Aug. 20, 1961] GENERAL WALKER URGES: INSTILL VALOR IN U.S. C c,OLDIERS--ASSERTS TRAINING Is AN- SWER 'CO MENTAL WAR (By Chesly Manly) CLEVmAND, August 19.---Veterans of the 1st Special Service Force today gave Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker, their World War II commander, a moving demonstration of trust and affection after lie expressed con- fidence that American a:nd Canadian sol- diers, if properly prepared, can withstand the enemy's new dimension of warfare- brainwaeh:ing and mental warfare. Not once In General Walker's 20-minute speech did. he identify the enemy or men- tion communism, for that would have vio- lated the Kennedy administration's ban on anti-ColrmLunist talks by military leaders. General Walker's address to the men he commanded In Italy, when they spearheaded a drive that cracked the German line, was his first public appearance since he was re- lieved o:' command of the 24th Division in Germany last April, and subsequently ad- monished for using excessively strong lan- guage in attacking communism. RECALLS OLD VALOR Tears :filled the eyes of the much deco- rated Texas general, and his voice was af- fected by emotion as he recalled the valor and the spirit that distinguished American soldiers of the 1st Special Service Force. He sad he has tried to instill that same spirit in all men under his command since World War II'. "And it is a spirit," he said, "that caaa make soldiers of men and men of soldiers, inspired by God, country, and com- radeship," Senator FRANK J. LAUSCHE, Democrat, of Ohio, who was In Cleveland for another event, read about General Walker's presence in a newspaper and immediately called on him at the Pick-Carter Hotel. Invited to speak to the veterans, he said he was greatly in- spired by their respect for General Walker, whom he praised and welcomed and im- plicitly defended against the charge of ex- cessive seal In fighting communism. JOINS FIGHT AGAINST GAG Senator BARRY GOLDWATER, Republican, of Arizona, and Senator STROM THURMOND, Democrat, of South Carolina, have repeatedly denounced the gagging of our military lead- ers by the White House and civilian officials of the Pentagon, but Senator LAUScH[E had not previously spoken out on the contro- versy. "If our military leaders, in speaking to their men, make a mistake, t want the mis- take to be too much and not too little about the virtues of our country and the evils of communism." LAVscHE said, "I want our Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200110007-5