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September 18, 1962
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1962 Approved For. Relea B.R. 8074. An act to amend the Distriot~oil Columbia Income and 1~'ranchise Tax Act of 1947, as amended, and tt District of Colum.. bia Business {Corporation Act,' as aniendedt with respect to certain foreign corporations (Rept. No. 2146) PENSIONS OF TAX ON FIRST DO-' MESTICPROCESSING OF CERTAI14 OILS, ACIDS, SALTS, AND COM - BINATIO.NS,OF MxXTURFS THERE= OF-REPORT OF A COMMITTEE 7 SUPPLEMENTAL VIEWS (S. REPTi NO. 2102)_ Mr. BYRD 'of Virginia. Mr. Presi- dent, from the Committee on Finances I report favorably, with amendments the bill 260) to make perm. aneii the existing suspensions of. the tax on the first domestic processing of coconut soil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, and fatty acids, salts, and combinations or mix= 'tares thereof, and I submit a reporf thereon aS,that the report be print- ed, together with my supplemental views and the supplemental views of the Sen- ator from Illinois [Mr, DOUGL,SSI. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The report will be received, anc the bill will be, placed on the calendar; and, without objection, the report will be printed, as requested by the Senator' from Virginia. AUTHORIZATIONS FOR CERTAIN BANKS TO 41VEST IN BANK SERV- ICE CORPC f CATIONS-REPQRT OF A COMMITTEE - SUl?PLEMENTA11 VIEWS (S. KEPT. 146'A1051)' Mr. ROBES TSON. Mr. President from the Committee on Banking and Currency, 'I report favorably, the bill (H.R. 887k) to authorize certain banks to invest in co porations whose purpose port, together with supplementaJl. dfewsl.'I .~f member the with re of spect to the oiil may be filed as late midnight tonight. Mr. President, I also ask unanimous Consent that these supplemental views may be printed along with the commit The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, the report will' be received an the bill will be placed on the calep ar, and the report, together with the supplemental views, will be printed, as .requested by the Senator from Virginia. O T DISPOSITION OF VE ?APERS f Mr. JOI# f$T'ON, from the Joint Select Committee on the Disposition of Papers, in the Executive Departments, to which was referred fqr examination and rec- oaitliendatl u ',a list of records trans ~e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 1962, that appeared to have no perma- nent value or historical interest, sub- mitted a report thereon, pursuant to law. EXECUTIVE REPORT OF A COM- 2rI'X7EE As in executive session, The following favorable report was submitted : By Mr. SPARKMAN, from the Committee on Foreign Relations: Executive B, 87th Congress, 2d sessio Treaty of Friendship, Establishment, and Navigation between the United States of America and the Grand Duchy of Luxem- bourg, together with a related protocol (Ex. Rept. No. 7). BILLS INTRODUCED .Bills were introduced, read the first time, and, by unanimous consent, the second time, and referred as follows: By. Mr. STENNIS (for himself and Mr. EASTLAND): B. 3726. A bill for the relief of Charles F. McKellar, Jr.; to the Committee on the Judiciary. By Mr. BURDICK: S. 3627. A bill for the relief of Barry T. Thorndycraft; to the Committee on the Judiciary. By Mr. DODD: -5.3728. A bill for the relief of Evanthia Haji-Christou; to the Committee on the Judiciary. 'RESOLUTIONS CREATION OF A WESTERN HEMI- SPHERE MILITARY ALLIANCE Mr. SMATHERS submitted a resolu- tion (S. Res. 393) favoring the creation of a Western Hemisphere Military Al- liance, which was referred to the Com- mittee on Foreign Relations. (See the above resolution printed in full when submitted by Mr. SMATHERS, which appears under a separate head- ing.) ECOGNITION OF A FREE CUBAN GOVERNMENT IN EXILE Mr. SMATHERS (for himself, Mr. HUMPHREY, and Mr. BEALL) also submit- ted a resolution (S. Res. 394) concerning the recognition ol a free Cuba Govern- ment-in-exile, which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (See the above resolution printed in full when submitted by Mr. SMATHERS, which appears under a separate head- ing.) TO. PRINT AS A SENATE DOCUMENT A STUDY ENTITLED "UNITED STATES PRIVATE FOREIGN AID PROGRAMS" .;Mr. GOLDWATER submitted the fol- ring resolution (S.Res. 395).; which was referred to the Committee on Rules Resolved, That there be printed as a Sen- ate 0CUment a Senate Republican Policy Comrittee staff study entitled "United. States Private Foreign Aid Programs"; and that one hundred and three thousand addi- tional copies be printed for the use of the Senate. TRADE EXPANSION ACT OF 1962- AMENDMENTS Mr. B'CISU submitted amendments, intended to be proposed by him, to the bill (H.R. 11970) to promote the general welfare, foreign policy, and security of the United States through international trade agreements and through adjust- ment assistance to domestic industry, agriculture, and labor, and for other purposes, which were ordered to lie on the table and to be printed. Mr. PROUTY submitted an amend- ment, intended to be proposed by him, to House bill 1970, supra, which was or- dered to lie on the table and to be printed. NOTICE OF RECEIPT OF NOMINA- TION BY COMMITTEE ON FOR- EIGN RELATIONS Mr. SPARKMAN. Mr. President, on behalf of the chairman of the Commit- tee on Foreign Relations, I desire to an- nounce that yesterday the Senate re- ceived the nomination of W. Walton But- terworth, of Louisiana, a Foreign Service officer of the class of career ambassador, to be Ambassador to Canada. In accordance with the committee rule this pending nomination may not be con- or to the expiration of 6 days bf its receipt in the Senate. A message from the House of Repre- sentatives, by Mr. Bartlett, one of its reading clerks, announced that the House had passed, without amendment, the bill (S. 319) to amend part I of the Interstate Commerce Act in order to pro- vide that the provisions of section 4(1) thereof, relating to long- and short-haul charges, shall not apply to express com- panies. The message also announced that the House had passed the bill (S. 455) to pro- vide for public hearings on air pollution problems of more than local significance under, and extend the duration of, the Federal air pollution control law, and for other purposes, with amendments, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate. The message further announced that the House had passed the following bills of, the Senate, each with an amendment, in which it requested the concurrence of the Senate: 6. 2511. An act to provide for the produc- tion and distribution of educational and training films for use by deaf persons, and for other purposes; and S. 3408. An act to establish in the Library of Congress a library of musical scores and other instructional materials to further edu- cational, vocational, and cultural opportu- nities in the field of music for blind persons. ADDRESSES, EDITORIALS, ARTI- CLES, ETC., PRINTED IN THE AP- PENDIX On request, and by unanimous con- sent, addresses, editorials, articles, etc., Approved For Relba e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R Approved i ot',ReTease-2O&7/Q'1124 LLQA-R 3P64BOO346fR04t120al5Q 5- 1644 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 18 were ordered to be printed ,in the Ap= member nations. These staff members takes to assist in n e-eting-the attack in the pendix, as follows: total in the hundreds. The question exercise of the inherent right of individual By Mr. GOLDWATER: arises: Is this freedom from prosecu- or collective self-defense recognized by Arti- Address delivered by W. P. Shofstall, dean tion and trial likewise to be applied to and 1 of the Charter of the United Nations"; of men, Arizona State University, Tempe, each of them? Whereas the Foreign Ministers of the Org- Ariz., before Young Americans for Freedom,- We are thankful that these two enemy anization of American States at Punta del Phoenix, Ariz September 15, 1962. agents were detected. But how many Este in January, 1962, unanimously de- Article entitled "The Relationship Between others have gone undetected? The his- Glared, "The present Government of Cuba has NA- published News,' E:ing inure August 10, identified itself with the principles of Profits 1962, Isssuue e o of NAM Jobs," 1, aneconomiic tort' of the betrayal of atomic bomb analysis by the National Association of lvtaii secrets by cur-country's enemies carries Marxist-Leninist ideology, has established a political economic and social system based ufacturers, which will appear hereafter in the Appendix. By Mr. HAhTBE: Address entitled "Knowledge: The ey to a Century of Agricultural Progress,' deliv- ered by Claude R. Wickard at the Purdue Centennial Celebration, Purdue University, on July 27, 1962. By Mr. ENGLE i Article entitled "Cuba: Watchful Wait- ing," written by Walter Lippmann, published in the Washington (D.C.) Poet of today, September 18, 1962. By Mr. WILEY: Editorial entitled "America's Power Sys- tem," published in the Greenville (Wis) Press-Gazette of September 12, 1982. RUSSIAN UNITED NATIONS , EM PLOYEES ENGAGED IN SPXINQ- Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President; I feel certain gnat many, if not-all,- Tn this Chamber felt as I did on learning that certain Russian United Naticins-employ- ees were leaving the country--scot free- after "engaging in illegitimate -intelli- gence" activities, following a 3-year ef- fort on their part to bribe a student as- sistant in the office of the U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York. These spies offered $3,000 in exchange for "information .regarding internal op- erations of U.S. Government agencies." To put it mildly, I was surprised, in- dignant, and apprehensive. Then, on learning that, even without diplomatic immunity, these men were able to leave the country virtually un.cha;aenged, my apprehensions grew even stronger. There is some basis for granting immu-, nity to those with diplomatic status, be- cause we, in turn, are granted the same immunity for our own diplomats. But there is no reason whatsoever. to give relatively minor United Nations employ- ees diplomatic status. Certainly, it can- not be justified on the basis of reciprocity for our employees, since the-United Na- tions is in New York. It is well known that official repre- sentatives, of foreign governments in the diplomatic service enjoy full diplomatic immunity. I have checked today with the State Department, however, and am advised that employees of the United Nations are not included in the category of diplomats, but under the United Na- tions Headquarters Agreement are granted the privilege of residence in~New York City while employees of the United These employees are not riven diplo- matic immunity, and their privilege of residence can be withdrawn at any time. While residing in New '.i'ork City, they are able to assemble and gather infor- mation to be used by the soviets or others against us. New York City Is a fertile ground for such activity by United Nations staff members attached to the Soviet Union or to any of the Communist on that doctrine, and accepts military assis- tance from extra-continental Communist powers, including even the threat of military intervention in America on the part of the Soviet Union"; and Whereas the United States has joined with certain other nations of Europe in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in order to offer mutual protection against Communist attack or threat of-attack and thereby has successfully halted Communist encroach- men in that area of the world; and Whereas the United States has joined with other countries of the Western Hemisphere in an effort to prevent Communist penetra- tion of this hemisphere, as evidenced by pro- visions set forth in such inter-American agreements as the Rio Treaty (1947), the Charter of the Organization of American States (1948) the Caracas Agreement (1954), and the Declaration of Punta Del Este (1962) ; and Whereas international communism now controls Cuba and has created a massive arms build-tip there and threatens to extend its political, economic, and military sphere of influence to other nations of the hemi- sphere; and Whereas, in order to protect and preserve the security of this hemisphere against the threat of international communism, the agreements referred to above, including Articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty, must be fulfilled by all of those nations that are willing to act; Therefore be it Resolved, That it is hereby declared to be the sense of the Senate that the United States Government should support the for- mation of an Inter-American Military Alli- ance, joined by all nations in the Western Hemisphere who voluntarily wish to do so, for the purpose of carrying out the princi- ples previously enunciated. - S. RES. 394 Whereas historically Cuba has been a mem- ber of the Inter-American family of free and democratic nations; and Whereas the present Cuban dictatorship is now under the- domination of an alien Sino- Soviet Communist power and was publicly denounced and expelled from the Inter- American System at the Eighth Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Punta del Este in Jan- uary of 1962; and Whereas that dictatorship has destroyed the personal and political freedoms of the people of Cuba; and Whereas the existence of that dictator- ship Is a continuing threat to the peace and security of the other Western. Hemisphere nations, and violates the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 as well as theInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (1947), the Charter of the Organization of American States (1948), the Declaration of Caracas (1954), the Declaration of Santiago de Chile (1969), and the Declaration of San Jose (1960), which the nations of the Inter-American System have pledged to support and uphold; and Whereas the United States has historically given aid and comfort to oppressed peoples through the recognition of governments In exile, when free nations were overrun and occupied by totalitarian powers, as was the case in World War I with the recognition by the United States of the Czechoslovak Na- security through espionage. Yet, in this instance, two enemy agents and spies are ordered to leave the country, without trial or punishment. This incident brings into focus the possibility of continuing, vigilant, insid- ious -activities of Soviet spies in our midst, with complete immunity to prose- cution and punishment, so long as they are membe':s of the Soviet United Na- tions staff. It is time to be upset and alarmed. 'this is an intolerable state of affairs. It must be remedied. Are we to sit idly by, giving haven to spies and enemy agents, and even en- couragfhg them, to-plot, plan, and bring about our own destruction? Any treach- erous act must be punished. These two agents should be prosecuted and punished. This is the only method of dealing with them and any others guilty of espionage activity. I demand that the Nation be advised of the full facts in this case. We must know where we stand. We must have an effective plan to protect the security of our Nation, There must be it full explanation as to just what happened, and the reason for the end result of no prosecution. To this end, I am calling on the United Nations Ambassador, the State Depart- ment, and the Justice Department for a full explanation. Mr. Eresideyit, I yield tl* fl ESTERN HEMISPHE MILITARY ALLIANCE AND CUB GOVERN- MENT 1N EXILE Mr. SM?,THERS. Mr. President, I submit, and send to the desk, two resolu- tions which have to do with the problem of Cuba. ]; ask that the resolutions be printed and be appropriately referred, and also that they be printed in the RECORD. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The resolutions will be received, printed, and appropriately referred; and, under the rule, the resolutions will be printed in the RECORD. The resolutions submitted by Mr. SMATHERS were referred to the Commit- tee on Foreign Relations, as follows: S. RES. 393 Whereas President James Monroe, an- nouncing the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, de- clared to the Congress that we should con- sider any attempt on the part of European powers "to extend their system to any por- tion of this Hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety"; and - Whereas in the Rio Treaty of 1947 the -parties thereto agreed that "an armed at- tack by any State against an American State shall be considered as an attack against all the American States, and consequently, each Approved For'Refease 00-7101/20: IA-RDP64BOO346ROO0200150015- l Approved For Releasei 2007/01/20 CIA-R DP64B00346R000200150015-1 1962 CONG1t]ESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 18645 tional Council in 1918 (at a time when this territory was still part of the Austro-Hungar- Ian Empire) and in World War II when the United States recognized seven European governments in exile whose homelands were occupied by the Nazi armies; and Whereas, a Cuban government in exile would (1)' provide a rallying point for two hundred thousand Cuban refugees who have demonstrated their desire to liberate their homeland and return to a free Cuba, i2) provide a legal and effec- tive means whereby the Government of the United States and the other nations of the Western Hemisphere could help freedom- loving Cubans to regain their homeland, (3) provide an instrument whereby freedom-lov- Ing Cubans could ask for and receive the as- sistance that is necessary if they are to throw oft the yoke of communism, (4) provide an effective contact with those brave people in- side Cuba who are already opposing the Com- munist dictatorship in whatever way they can, and (5) assure the people of the world that the fight against a Communist Cuba is not ended and will not end until Cuba is free: Therefore, be it Resolved, That it is hereby declared to be the sense of the Senate that the United States should recognize as the true govern- ment of Cuba a Cuban Revolutionary Gov- ernment in Exile whose avowed purpose is to lead the Cuban people In the liberation and recovery of their homeland; Resolved /urther, That the United States should recognize only a Cuban Revolutionary Government in Exile which agrees, prior to recognition by'the United States, that it will, upon the liberation of Cuba, transfer its power and authority to the Cuban people by the holding of free elections. Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President,'one of the resolutions calls for the creation of a Western Hemisphere military alli- ance. Personally, I cannot help but be- lieve that before we get rid of commu- nism in Cuba and before we get rid of Castro, some action, and possibly some military action, will be required. It seems to me it is not the wisest course for the United States to let this situation continue to develop, and then finally have to make this move and act unilat- erally. It seems to me quite important that steps be undertaken now to get the countries of Latin America who feel about communism and Castro very much the same way that we do, and who are willing to enter into a type of alliance similar to that which we have with NATO, to act. I understand that NATO is 'an organization formed wholly to use military force to stop Communists wher- ever and however it is deemed important to use that force to stop them; and the same thing is true of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. There are in Central America and in South America a number of countries which I believe would be willing to join in an alliance of this type; and I believe the time has come for-the United States to take the lead in organizing such an alliance, so that if the day comes when troops are finally put into Cuba, they will go thereunder the direction of an organization in which many countries are represented, and in which at least a large number' of them will be Latin ;American countries. In that event, if the substance `of my other resolution is adopted, when that day comes, many of ..the Cubans themselves will be leading the invasion. That is what the Cuban refugees would like to do, and that is what should be done. So, Mr. President, one resolution calls for the creation of a Western Hemi- sphere military alliance. I shall not read the resolution for it appears in the REC- oRn along with these remarks. The other resolution calls for recog- nition of a free Cuban government in exile. There is a great deal of precedent for such action. In World War I, we recognized the exile government of Czechoslovakia. In World War II, we recognized many exile governments. For all practical purposes, there is today an exile government of Chiang Kai-shek, which operates from the Island of Tai- wan. We have refused to recognize the Communist government of China; but we recognize the government of Chiang Kai-shek, and we give to that govern- ment a great deal of funds and much material. So it seems to me that we should recog- nize a free Cuban government in exile, which could enter into treaties and agreements with the United States and the other countries of Central America and South America. These governments could then openly and legally send ma- terials, equipment and money to the Cuban revolutionary government. In that way the Cuban exiles can receive the materials and funds they need in order to begin to do the job they wish to do, which is to free Cuba from Castro. I am told that many of the Cuban refu- gees are in touch with the Cuban free- dom fighters who remain in the Escam- bray Mountains of Cuba. One of the reasons why the freedom fighters there are not more active is that they do not have sufficient equipment with which to fight, and they have no means of ob- taining funds with which to purchase such equipment. They can obtain it only from friendly governments, but they do not have funds with which to pay for it. But under the treaties and diplomatic arrangements we have made with all the countries in the Western Hemisphere, if we recognize a Cuban government in exile, we can then turn . over to it the equipment and material it needs, and they can be put into the hands of the freedom fighters who are still in Cuba, so that they can oppose Castro more effectively. Mr. BEALL. Mr. President, will the Senator from Florida yield? Mr. SMATHERS. I yield to the Sen- ator from Maryland. Mr. BEALL. I wish to Join the Sen- ator from Florida in sponsoring the two resolutions, and I congratulate him for submitting them. I am glad to hear him state that there is ample precedent for them, partic- ularly our recognition of the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Does the Senator from Florida believe that it we were to recognize a Cuban government in exile, it would be able to form its own organization perhaps to take over and recapture Cuba? Mr. SMATHERS. There is no ques- tion about it. Today, there are roughly 200,000 Cubans in Florida. Let us say 75,000 of them are in a position to do some fighting and, if necessary, to go to war. When the day comes when troops are finally put into Cuba, I can think of nothing better for all concerned than to have Cubans lead the fight. They want to do it, and they should do it; and, at the same time, that will negate the Communist propaganda- which otherwise would be made against us-that that was "U.S. imperialism" and all that sort of thing. Certainly the Cubans must have some financial means and assistance, in order to take that lead. Mr. President, I have submitted the resolutions. I cannot help but believe that ultimately we shall have to come to this idea, and I believe we should do so. DR. JAMES R. SHAW Mr. CHAVEZ. Mr. President, Dr. James R. Shaw has been rendering serv- ice in matters of health among Ameri- can Indians for many years. He has recently retired from the program of that service to 400,000 American Indians. The Gallup Independent of Gallup, N. Mex., has published several articles on Dr. Shaw's service. I ask unanimous consent that the said articles be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Gallup Daily Independent, Gallup, N. Mex., Aug. 3, 1962] INDIAN HEALTH IMPROVING When the overall health of a racial or ethnic group within a progressive society is considerably below that of the rest of the population, it is an indictment of that society. Using this criteria, the United States has been open to indictment in the matter of health standards among American Indians. Twenty years ago, a newborn Indian baby could expect to live no longer than a half century. In less advanced societies in the world, the average life span is even below that, but it Is a sad commentary that it was true in the United States even 20 years ago. Indians were particularly susceptible to such diseases as tuberculosis, infant diar- rhea, respiratory illnesses, and deformity. Half of all Indians hospitalized in 1956 had tuberculosis, but the mortality rate has been reduced considerably. In the past 8 or 7 years, infant mortality among Indians has declined 30 percent. Tuberculosis has de- clined 44 percent in the past few years. The problem of improving the health of Indians is one of education and improved facilities, and one man who has contributed a great deal in both respects is Dr. James R, Shaw. Dr. Shaw, 54, stepped down Wednesday as head of the Division of Indian Health with- in the U.S. Public Health Service, a post he had held for 9 years. There were vast changes made In Indian health care during his tenure. From an organizational standpoint, the biggest step was transfer of Indian health care from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Public Health Service. This was accomplished in 1955 and Dr. Shaw was one of the prime movers. He has seen appropriations increased from $20 million in 1955 to $61 million in 1962, an increase In personnel and new Indian hospitals built around the country, one In Gallup. As Dr. Shaw retires to a more placid life in Arizona, it is his hope that the trail he has blazed will be pursued until Indian Approved For Release 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 Approved For t, s,2007/01/20: CIA= 4B0346R0002001.50015-1 ex.) ally Inds- facilities in their homes, dispose of erandof Indianssemiprofessionalwill be ingroupthis profes- pendent, August 1, 1962 garbage sional , Shaw said. 1 andref ass, .Under special legislation B e ns standard of li-ving continue to attract younger doctors, nurses, employs Of the., _ pf Indian Health and laboratory technicians. An Increasing elioI the Gallu IN M wed the Indians how t to improve sanitary numb ["ro D bealt,"h reaches the same level-As.that of gram initiated by Congress in 1959. In 1958 that he has been in charge of the Indian *~ i x people in this country. It is axiomatic the Elko Indian: Colony, the city of Elko and health program, Shaw said. t with improved health and_a longer life the U.S. Public Health Service shared the The Indian health program is now and will ?ere will follow other improvements in the cost of building water and sewer lines cit jaa`#n G~TGR~,SQN . ~_AL RD -.S ]VATE _.. ~ . September Y8 ecause of cultural differences, he antici- Li>i, _. AMF;s SrIAW RErIR 0 AS, HEAham in 1957, the U.S. Public_ Health Service re- ress Pates that few young Indians will become AnMINISxanxnx celved $34.000 from Con g Y nurses aids, sanitation aids, practical nurses, changes will take plaice during the next benefits flowed from this initial construe- registered nurses, public health nurses, decade with Wagner at the helm, tion, Shaw said. The Indians began improv- munity health workers, and some specialists. A major milestone occurred in 1955, when, lug and broadening their streets. They else- This group will not only increase in num- oh July 1 of that year, it was transferred trifled their houses and bought refrigerators. ber, but there will be an increasing number from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the "The initial sanitation training program of Indians within it, and there will be an U.S. Public Health Service. i3haw was instru- for Indians proved to be the mechanism that increasing migration of these trained Indians mental in the transition. He had been de- brought the whole community together in from their reservations to nearby communi- tailed by the U.S. Public health Service to meeting the health problems of the whole ties," he said. "Many Indian nurses now take over the BIA Indian health program population, Indian and white alike," Shaw marry in the community and do not return in July 1953. Two years later Shaw and the said. to their reservations," Shaw said. "This 3,400 employees in the Indian health service The Elko experiment was so successful that trend will continue," he said. .were transferred'. tq, U.S. Public Health Serv- other programs have been patterned after it "The turnover of personnel in the Indian ice within the Department c f Health, Educa- in the Indian sanitation program begun in Health Service was once high because of tion, and Welfare. 1959, Shaw said. It proved that "there must inferior quarters. This is no longer the case, In the Interim the Indian health pro- be participation by Indians in the program, as 600 sets of quarters for the medical staff gram has made more progress than any from the. very beginning, If they have no have been built along with new hospital, other Indian program. Interior Secretary responsibility for it, they may reject the clinic, and outpatient facilities," Shaw said. Stewart L. Udall on July 25 hailed the In- whole thing." Shaw said. Turnover will continue to decrease as mpd- dian health program as one of the major Under the 1959 program, the U.S. Public ernization of Indian health facilities con- accomplishments of the Eisenhower admire- Health Service was given authority to make tinues, he anticipates. istration-quite a compliment coming from agreements with Indians and communities Shaw anticipates that the Division of In- a highly partisan Democrat for a Republican in India..i-border areas to build sanitation than Health will continue so to elevate the administration. facilities for Indians. They include domestic level of Indian health as rapidly as possible. Dr. Luther L. Terry, Surgeon General of and community water supplies and facilities, With better health and better education, the U.S. Public Health Service, said on July drainage, sewage and waste-disposal facili- Indians will achieve a greater measure of 12, that Shaw had been a 'prime mover in ties. The facilities are transferred to the self-sufficiency sooner and many will auto- transferring the Indian hE:alth service to Indians or communities to operate and matically leave their reservations for better U.S. Public Health Service, the Federal agency maintain, jobs in urban areas, Shaw believes. which spec%alizes in health: that he had Shaw has been absolutely insistent that Shaw believes that the Division of Indian spearheaded the initiation of the highly suc- it be a self-help program. For every dollar Health must continue to have both a short- cessful Indian sanitation program in 1959: spent by V.S. Public Health Service under range goal and a long-range goal. Presently and that he had spearheaded legislation the program, the Indians must put up 40 its short-range goal is to clean up all out- passed In 1958 providing Federal funds for cents either in cash or in work toward con- standing cases of chronic illness and illness the construction of hospital beds for Indians struction of the facilities. "No money is ob- due to poor sanitation on reservations. Its within community hospitals. ligated until and unless we have agreements long-range goal is to make Indian health So outstanding has Shaw'is work been in With the Indians on each project, includ- equal, at least, to that of the general the field of Indian hea}t:h that on November ing the role of participation of the Indians population. 7 In61 -h i ->w - ??w'_= ?c, uses anticipate that a number of Indians ti}rnel over to Dr. Uarruth J. Wagner the main and the necessary service lines for 28 will become doctors and will go into private Federal program providing health services to Indian homes. These were connected with practice on their own in non-Indian com- about 400,000 American Indians. the sewer and water mains of the city. U.S. munities. Dramatic changes took in the 9 Public Health Service entered into agree- place years "The Division of Indian Health now op, that Shaw was in charge of Indian health, tents with the city of Elko Rtes schools to train dental technicians, and he anticipates that equally dramatic to operate te and and maintain the facilities Man n e received the Gcrgas Medal for it, he said. his work in conquering diseases among -- American Indians at the 68th annual meet- [From the Gallup (N, Max.) Daily Inde- ing of the Association of Military Surgeons pendent, Aug. 2, 1962] Of the United States. This ii the top award SHAW PREDICTS CHANGES IN INDIAN HEALTH of the association and is those who PLAN have made outstanding contributions to WASHINGTON.--Dr. James it. Shaw, retiring the field of preventive medicine. chief, of the Division of Indian Health of the [From the Gallup (N. Mex.) Ti ail _Inde end- U.S. Public Health Service, foresees major ent, Aug. 1, 196 ] Y P changes in the Indian health program over - SANITATION PROGRAM WOULD CUT DISS.A,SE WASHiNGTON.-The Indian sanitation pro- gram undertaken by the U.S. Public Health "The Public Health Service will be treating more vertical cases, fewer horizontal pa- tients," Slaw told the Independent in an interview. "Mora na tied+o ~? __?_ =e a will be fewer dian do their part in carrying out the pro- cases of patients being hospitalized for long gram, periods of time," he said. That is the view of Lr. James R. Shaw, Indians will no longer be so plagued by the retiring Chief of the Division of Indian diseases to which they have been particu- Health or U.S. Public Health Service. He be- larly susceptible in the past, notably tuber- lieves the Indian sanitation facilities bill culosis, ini'ant diarrhea, and respiratory ill- enacted by Congress in 1959 vms a landmark nesses. T.aere already has been a marked in preventive medicine, decrease in these diseases, and as the health "As I looked at the whole Indian health of Indians approaches that of the general program, I became convinced that we had to population, they will have the same life- attack the cause of disease among Indians span as other Americans and be subject to at the source. From 30 to 40 )percent of. dis- the same illnesses. eases we were treating Indianli for were due Indians no longer will be moved hundreds to environmental conditions. They were due of miles to a hospital. Their own hospitals, to lack of sanitation, lack of information including the four new ones at Shiprock, and lack of ability by individual Indians to Gallup, Sells, Ariz., and Kotzebue, Alaska, provide proper sanitation, facilities," Shaw are comparable to the hospitals built under stated last week in an interviewwe._ the Hill-Burton An Indian sanitation program at Elko, a marked up program. "There has been lies Of, of hospitals, hospital Neva. Proved tQ be thQ forerunr er of the pro- staffs and B'4 ppies Of_ all kinds" in the 9 years U.S. FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD CASTRO AND CUBA Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, our Nation's policy toward Castro and Cuba is of great concern to all Ameri- cans. The President at his recent press conference made our Nation's policy quite clear. The President has my com- plete support in any action he finds necessary to protect the Western Hemisphere. The Daily Dunklin Democrat of Ken- nett, Mo.; recently published a thought- ful editorial pointing out the many facets of the Cuban problem. I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CASTRO No, FREEDOM SI Most Americans have not thought the Cuban problem through. There is reason for this. The President, who has thought the problem through, can- not talk about it in public without getting In trouble. He cannot lay all the American bargaining problems with the Soviet Union on the table. But civilians can. Fundamentally, American policy on Ber- I lire IS establiehed Approved For Release 2007/01120 r CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 Approved For Release 2007/01/20': CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Fundamentally, American policy on Cuba is not. The Issue at` Berlin is' whether Commu- nist power can break out of the East-West line-the military and political circle which holds it in place. =The issue in Cuba is whetheF the Conn-, American nations are just as concerned over munists can leapfrog over that circle and the Cuban situation as is this Nation. Mul- establish their power in the vast, unguarded tilateral action against Cuba is necessary if .territories behind the East-West line, They the future of American solidarity is to be have often tried this kind of penetration. safeguarded and preserved. tip to now they have never, for very long It may well be that a naval blockade will at least, succeeded. be necessary, but certainly at this point, any serious doubt as to where the West one way. Democracy must demonstrate to stood. Some persons would act to stop the world that communism will fail in all creeping aggression at an earlier point, some climates except where it is the sole ideology. later. But the ijV;'gst stands strongly agreed A Cuba collapsing despite Russian assist- on the fundaine. Rtal. If the Communists ante will offer a far more graphic picture to cut Western access to Berlin and the right to the world than thousands of Cubans starving keep West Berlin free and economically because a U.S. Navy blockade has prevented alive, the West will fight. them from receiving foodstuffs. If the Russians make a military base out America was driven to war over Cuba, once of Cuba, on the other hand, it is not decided before, and the single origin of this was hys- what to do. Or if they stop short of treat- teria. The cries of war were heard over the ing a Soviet base and continue to build up voices of reason on Cuba a little more than Cuba as an ally,as the United States has a generation ago. Let America not make the armed Pakistan, there is still no decision on same tragic error it committed once before- what to do with Cuba itself. The only let the voice of reason be heard over the land firm decision is to prevent the use of Cuban 'and let the freedom which America promises force elsewhere in Latin America, , have full meaning to the rest of the world. American public opinion is understandably on, edge. Serious minded persons of all viewpoints are gravely concerned, some in NONDIPLOMATIC ACTIVITIES OF a state of great alarm, There are several conflicting concerns REPRESENTATIVES OF FOREIGN which the United" States must resolve, GOVERNMENTS It must consider the threat to our own Mr. LONG of Missouri. Mr. President, immediate security. Now damaging is a nearby base? the Foreign Relations Committee is ex- It must consider Latin America. Would ' petted to schedule within the near fu- an American invasion of Cuba deliver signif? ture hearings on "Nondiplomatic Ac- scant, angry Latin American forces into the ' tivities of Representatives of Foreign hands of Castroism without firing a shot? Governments." Could the United,States then invade those In this connection, I should like to countries? Would time and persuasion, commend the distinguished junior Sena- prior to a showdown with Cuba, prepare Latin American opinion for it? tor from Minnesota, Senator EUGENE J. The United States must consider Ameri- MCCARTHY, for his cogent analysis of can bases and military missions overseas. the role of the lobbyist in an article They ring the Communist island. They which recently appeared in the Sunday bring American land power closer to the magazine section of the New York Times. heart of Communist strength than Com- I personally feel this is an area amply munist land bases can approach their in need of clarification, if not actual American targets. If the United States In- vades Cuba, will the Soviet Union invade a U.S. base ,or mission? What will the fusion exists in the public mind as to United States do then? the respective roles of the lobbyist and It must consider world opinion as well as 'the foreign agent. Many people appar- Latin American. The peoples once colo- , ently believe they are one and the same. nized by Europe have a deep and undiscrimi- Such is certainly not the case. nating mistrust of Western military action Now, we are all cogniz~nt of the fact again small countries like Cuba. The Com- munists play skillfully on this'. In dealing that abuses and unsavory activities have forcibly with one `Cuba, the United States 'occurred in the past in this field. Prin- would have to be extremely careful not to cipally, this is why we now have strin- create other and perhaps more damaging , gent laws controlling the activities of Cubas out of Asian and African resentment. lobbyists and foreign agents. The Cuban question remains a peculiarly I think, however, that it is time that awkward one. When Castro communism seemed to be failing economicallyand politi the role of the legitimate, responsible call United States pressure and a 'lobbyist or foreign agent be redefined rising tider of nantf-Castro feeling in the and the constructive contributions Americas, the Soviet Union converted It, by which he makes to proper legislation be signing an arms agreement,' into a military analyzed. That is why I am very glad outpost. The special nature of this new that the Foreign Relations Committee is type of threat, an armed satellite deepp inside planning hearings on the subject. the free world, needs to be ana1j d' atthougli " it has not yet developed very far in the military direction. Two fountainheads ,of enlightened think- ping in the State, the St. Louis Globe- Democrat and Rep I ublican Senatorial can- didate Crosby Kemper, Jr., have demanded an immediate V.S. naval blockade arourio Cuba. We are certain both sources fiave been deliberate in their'thinking processes and have considered all the ramifications of such an overt act. Have they considered, for instance, the fact that a U.S. blockade is a unilatexal action in the American hems,-, sphere when this Nation has sought, over a period of many, years, pacts against such ac- tioners of the art of public relations have ing this service with such an able been unduly maligned by being grouped resentation of the facts . p together with overly, aggressive and less In this regard, I might mention that conscionable individuals. several ' unfortunate articles recently I think one of the most concise analy- have appeared on the subject in the sis of the role of the lobbyist was writ- German press. It was obvious that these ten- by President Kennedy, when, as a publications did not even comprehend Senator, he wrote the following in an the difference between a lobbyist and a Approved For 'Release 2007/01/20 : CIA-RDP64; 18647 article prepared for the New York Times in 1956: "Lobbyists are in many cases expert tech- nicians and capable of explaining complex and difficult subjects in a clear, understand- able fashion. They engage in personal dis- cussion with Members of Congress in which they can explain in detail the reason for positions they advocate. Lobbyists prepare briefs, memoranda, leg- islative analyses and draft legislation for use by committees and Members of Congress; they are necessarily masters of their subject and, in fact, they frequently can provide useful statistics and information not other- wise available. . Competent lobbyists can present the most persuasive arguments in support of their positions. Indeed, there is no more effective manner of learning all important arguments and facts on a controversial issue than to have the opposing lobbyists present their case. Concededly, each is biased; but such a procedure is not unlike' the advocacy of lawyers in court which has proven so suc- cessful in resolving judicial controversies. -Because our congressional representation is based on geographical boundaries, the lob- byists who speak for the various economic, commercial and other functional interests of this country serve a very useful purpose and have assumed an important role in the leg- islative process. I I think that adequately explains the role of the lobbyist-a role, by and large, that most of us appreciate. Frequent- ly, the prospect arises of legislation af- fecting areas which are beyond the ex- pertise of most of us. Here is where the lobbyist often is invaluable, regardless of which side of the issue he represents. He is an expert on the subject, he is well informed, and he has all the facts at his command. He is capable of briefing the Senator in infinitely less time than would be involved if the latter had to do the research himself. Thus does he per- form a service to those who must bear the responsibility of enacting legislation. As the Senator from Minnesota pointed out in his article: The most common method of lobbying is that of simply appearing before a commit- tee of Congress or speaking to individual Members in an attempt to bring them to understand one's position or to influence them to support that position. Elsewhere in his article, Senator Mc- CARTHY writes: Although lobbying does not usually in- volve a physical assembly-such as the 1932 veterans bonus march on Washington or current picketing of the White House-it does involve organization, a bringing togeth- er of citizens seeking a common objective. Thus the act of lobbying is basically an ex- ercise of the right to petition the Govern- ment-a right set forth in the Constitution. Lobbying also involves, in a way, the exer- cise 'of the right of assembly. I believe it is important that all citi- zens be informed of the proper functions of lobbying groups and I congratulate ApprovedforReIaase 200-7101/2G 1A-RtP64Boa-346R000200150015 18648 ~ONGRESSh~NAL RECOR~~ SATE Septerrtber 18 foreign agent, the latter being a public relations professional, a lawyer or a per- son who is registered with the Depart- rnerlt of Justice as the U.S. representative of a foreign official body. Some Carman newspapers went so far as to write that one of the ;most reputa- ' ble foreign agents in the United States may be involved in "a court hearing by the State Department," This statement certainly reflects misunderstanding 'and confusion. Perhaps they were referring to the forthcoming hearingsby the For eign Relations Committee, but if so, something was very definitQly lost in the translation. I certainly hope that representatives of these newspapers will avail themselves of the opportunity to attend the For-r eign Relations Committee's hearings. This country spends many millions of dollars annually to protect a proper image of America in foreign countries. It is heartening that the Western Eu- ropean democracies are cooperating in encouraging mutual understanding. In his foreword to the.. preliminary study, the distinguished ch?aArman of the Foreign Relations Colnmitttee, Senator FULBRIGHT, very properly points out: "In many instances, ti,tate Department officials themselves a;ree that legit- imate representation by U.,3. citizens on behalf of certain foreign governments is necessary due to the complexities of cur- rent international problems. 'however, it is believed that this corr.mittee has a responsibility to obtain for itself, for the Senate, and for the American` people a full and accurate picture of activity of this kind, particularly since the tempo of has increased in almost tivit su ch ac y derful job General Klein performed in direct proportion to our Government's dert l special, General Klein d consultant erfor performed in growing political, military, and economic 1954 as a the Armed Services Subcommittee of the nt broad " mit . me s a com Committee on Appropriations. General When hearings on this subject are Klein's report, following his mission to held, I believe they will accomplish a Western Europe, called for increased mil- great deal in clarifying this entire area itary self-reliance by the United States, of activity. consolidation of American oversea oper- While on this subject, Mr. President, , ations, greater centralization of admin- I might say that in my opinion the dis- istrative :Functions, and the adoption of tinguished Senator from Arkansas re- policies to encourage Western European cently hhas made a most commendable nations in seeking solutions to their own and sensible suggestion that our coun- military and economic problems. try's law schools carry on what he termed General Klein's report, I might add, imaginative and thorough research in the field of foreign representation in the was highly praised on both sides of the United States. As he liointed out, there aisle. In fact, if I recall correctly, its have been no cases at all under the label- only critic was Pravda. ing provisions of the Foreign Agents A former Chicago newspaperman and Registration Act of 1938 anal, since 1945, author, General Klein is a pioneer in the none have been brought uxCder_ the actrs field of public relations. Much of his full disclosure requirements. present activity involves industries with- Certainly an examination of possible in West Germany, where he enjoys also loopholes in the act by our law schools the confidence a respect of top offi- is logical and quite probably would prove vials in the he Federal Federral l Republic. fruitful In singling out General Klein, whom It is unfortunate that many people are :I have known for years, I wish only to wont to confuse the activities of one per- point out-for the edification of those sufficiently interested-that at there is son such as Alexander G uterma, who nothing at all sinister or cloak-and-dag- represented the dictator Trujillo and was gerish about a registered foreign agent prosecuted for not registering-as a for- who performs his activities above board, eign agent, when the actual foreign in the open and within the letter of the agent registration files in the Depart- law. ment of Justice include the names of - I look forward to the hearings con- some of the most prominent men in our templated by the Senate Foreign Rela- country'. tions Committee, as I believe a public I might list just a few of these gentle- - discussion of this whole area of activity at age 10 learn languages faster than they do in high school. There is a great need for Americans to understand Russian. Russian pupils long have been encouraged to learn English. As as result, the Russians know more,about us on a level of direct communication than we know about them. The stakes are big in this experiment. Success in Bayonne could stimulate similar experiments and successes in other school systems throughout New Jersey-and even beyond our State's borders. This could do much toward eliminating the advantages the Russians enjoy over us in the language field. A BIRTHDAY FOR OUR CONSTITUTION Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr. President, our Constitution has served us well for 175 years. It has given us pro- tection and security, it has proven capa- ble of change without compromise of basic principles; it has become part of our very thinking processes about lib- erty and hopes for this Nation. We hear many comments during this week-Constitution Week-about the great document offered to the Nation in Philadelphia175 years ago. These com- ments are significant, I think, because they indicate the continuing vitality of this document. We continue to argue about the Constitution; we continue to interpret it in different ways. And we find that there is room for such argu- ment; there is room for such interpreta- tion. Approved For Release 2007/01120: CIA-RBP64B00346R000200150015-1 - -- tered foreign agents: 11'tormer, Secretary BAYONNE EXPERT E?NT of State Dean Acheson, the Honorable Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr. Thomas E. Dewey, John and Franklin President, we have heard much of late Roosevelt, Jr., Under Secretary of State about the language lag in our Nation. George W. Ba11, and Maj. Gen. Julius Justice William O. Douglas, in a recent Klein. statement, warned that we seem to be I had the pleasure, incidentally of see- falling farther behind. Our educators Ing General Klein just recently when he sense the need, but there seems to be a was invited to attend the luncheon which lack of organized effort to produce a Speaker McCormack gave for General well-defined system -for instruction in MacArthur. foreign languages at all levels of our ed- General. Klein, of course, is known ucational system. and respected as a distinguished soldier For that reason it is heartening to read and one of our leading citizens. He about the efforts made in the primary commanded combat troops under Gen- school system of Bayonne, N.J. There, eral MacArthur in the South Pacific and fifth grade pupils in some schools are his personal decorations include the Sol- studying Russian. School authorities dier's Medal for Heroism, the Philippine believe that this project will help serve Distingui;.hed Service Star, the Legion of a definite need. We know, of course, Merit, and the Bronze Star. that English is a major subject in many He was the author of the original Russian schools. We know, too, that Army combat public relations plan. This there is a need in this Nation for experts project, d:'afted before Pearl Harbor, was who are qualified to study Russian news- the foundation of our psychological war- papers and documents. The Bayonne fare activities. After completing his tour school system is to be congratulated for of duty in the Pacific, he served with this experiment. distinction after the armistice in a mili- An editorial in the Jersey Journal of tary capacity, as special assistant to the September 14, comments on the project. late Secretary of War Robert P. Patter- I ask unanimous consent to have it son, participating in the unification pro- printed in the RECORD. gram which resulted in the establish- There being no objection, the edi- ment of the Department of Defense. torial was ordered to be printed in the General Klein is a lifelong resident of RECORD, as follows: Illinois, the good neighbor of my native BAYONNE ExPERIMENT Missouri. He also is a lifelong Repub- That Bayonne experiment in teaching lican. I can state unequivocally, how- Russian to primary school pupils probably ever, that when it comes to matters in- will be watched carefully by educators every- volving the national interest, he is above where in New Jersey. partisan politics. General Klein is the So far as is known to educational author- type of American whose politics ends at ities, Bayonne is the only community in the the water's edge. State where fifth grade pupils in a number Russian This is the re stud in ls f h g y sc oo a Many Senators will recall the won- o logical level at which to begin, for children Approved For Relea~e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64BO0346ROO02001'50015-1 1962 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE lug the respective States to conserve or pro- tect fishery resources, or (4) takes any action, contrary to the prin- ciples of international law, to harass or otherwise interfere with the United States- flag fishing vessels engaged in lawful activ- ities on the high seas. On page 22, line 10, strike out "or" after the comma. On page 22, line 13, strike out the period and insert " ,or". On page 22, between lines 13 and 14, insert the following: (C) take such action to adjust imports of products of such country or instrumentality as he deems ecess y AMERICAN POLICY IN CUBA Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, will the ,Senator from Alaska yield to me for about 5 minutes? Mr. BARTLETT. I yield. Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, for several weeks the American people have been listening to those who are on the other side of the aisle frantically seek- ing for some straw which, through magic-known only to themselves, can be turned into a campaign issue. The oratory has been splendiferous- the flag has been waved vigorously and the voices have been loud-but, unfor- tunately for their purpose, the words arld the logic, have been unconvincing. The American people, wise in their understanding and mature in their judg- ment because of their heritage of de- mocracy, recognize the purpose of this shouting and shadow boxing for what it truly is-a desperate search for an issue which can be used in the, election cam- paign that is now upon us. The issue that is being belabored is American policy in Cuba. It is a strange fact of history that ex- actly 60 years ago our Nation was faced with, the problem of another power-mad dictator also named Castro who, gripping the people of Venezuela by their throats, forced upon them a rule by corrupt and revolutionary methods. ,Theodore Roosevelt, our President at that time, discarded the soft language of diplomacy in describing this Castro- the Venezuelan Castro-as an "unspeak- able, villainous little monkey." Somehow the words 'evoke a similar image today. One must agree with the sage known as "the Preacher" who, nearly 2,000 years ago, in setting down his thoughts and reflections regarding man and his deeds-in what is.cailgd "Ecclesiastes" said: "There is no new thing under the sun." This power-mad, blood-lusting Castro of 1902 refused to honor his debts and his committments causing three power- ful nations, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy to begin a combined naval demon- stration ,off t11e epast ofVenezuela. President Roosevelt calmly, and from a position of strength, saw to it that the battleships were withdrawn and made the,ditatir Castro see reason and honor his golitlents-not with arms, not with.weapons, and not with troops- Last Thursday afternoon at his press conference, President Kennedy-in measured and reasoned words-coun- seled watchful restraint. His unruffled and impressive statement is in keeping with the policy of "speak a softly and carry a big stick." What our Republican friends either have forgotten or purposely ignore are the facts of geography. Yes, Cuba is only 90 miles from our shores. But remember and mark this well, we are firmly based on the island of Cuba. At Guantanamo we have an impreg- nable position, manned by thousands of highly trained and skilled marines armed with the latest weapons. Hugging the shores and on the alert are units of the powerful U.S. fleet, including aircraft carriers. Yes, Castro is only 90 miles from our shores, but we are in his kitchen-armed with a great big stick and looking straight down his throat. Mr. President, is not ours a wise and clear-sighted policy? That, first spoken by Theodore Roosevelt-"Speak softly and carry a big stick." President Kennedy spoke as a states- man-and a student of history. I am grateful to the Senator for yield- ing some of his time to me after yielding time to other Senators. TRADE EXPANSION ACT OF 1962 The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (H.R. 11970) to promote the general welfare, foreign policy, and secu- rity of the United States through inter- national trade agreements and through adjustment assistance to domestic in- dustry, agriculture, and labor, and for other purposes. Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, be- fore the Senator from Indiana spoke, I was about to say that I did not know exactly where the Senate had been in the few minutes before that. I was about to suggest a cooling off period, since I proposed, in discussing my amendment, to take Senators below the briny surface of the ocean. But before doing so, I am minded to say that fol- lowing the discussion among the Senator from Illinois [Mr. DOUGLAS], the Senator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], the Senator from Florida [Mr. SMATHERS], and the Senator from Minnesota [Mr. Mc- CARTHY], the Senator from Minnesota, who is a close student of "Alice in Won- derland" and possesses a most retentive memory, suggested that the end result of the discussion might have been long since settled in "Alice in Wonderland." He referred especially to the caucus -race recited in that book. Apparently the question was who had won the race. It was finally settled, said the Senator from Minnesota, in the deathless words of the dodo, who said: Everybody has won, and all must have prizes. Mr. President, I turn now to the amendment which I have.. offered, which is_ cosponsore(1 by the distinguished sen- ior Senator from Michigan [Mr, MAGNU- sorr], the chairman of the Committee. 18679 on Commerce, which has jurisdiction over all measures related to the fishery; and by the Senator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], the Senator from Maine [Mr. MUSKIE], and the Senator from Texas [Mr. YARBOROUGH]. The purpose of the amendment is to authorize the Presi- dent to use the trade power given him under the bill for the purpose of con- serving our fishery resources. The ap- proach employed by the amendment is direct. It amends section 252(b) of the bill by adding two conditions under which the President may suspend trade concessions granted other nations. The amendment would permit the President after public hearing and within his own discretion to withhold trade concessions if he determines that a country is en- gaged in practices which tend to defeat our efforts to conserve fishery resources or if he determines a country is taking any action contrary to the principles of international law to harass U.S. fishing vessels on the high seas. In addition, the amendment supplements the present au- thority given the President under the trade bill by adding the power to adjust imports of products of a country there- by permitting the use of import quotas or embargoes. Mr. President, this amendment was submitted and referred to the Commit- tee on Finance 6 weeks ago, giving a full opportunity to assess the merits of the proposal. At the time the amendment was submitted a clear record was made of the need for this amendment. In joining me when offering the amendment the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAG- NusoN] stated: Surely the United States, which has a deep interest in fisheries and international wa- ters, and which is a country that practices conservation, should have authority to allow the President to do what he can to persuade and influence other nations to do the same, and if necessary, to do it through economic sanctions. I fully concurred with the Senator from Washington. At the time the amendment was sub- mitted I pointed out that the United States is an important market for for- eign fish products, that we likewise are an important fishing nation. I felt then, as I do now, that it is imperative that we insist upon proper conservation of our fisheries and those international fisheries upon which we rely. We will be judged harshly if we, through inadver- tence or for any other reason, give trade incentives and thereby encourage foreign governments to violate sound conserva- tion practices, to overfish areas and stocks of fish and to use fishing gear and techniques contrary to proper con- servation. I pointed out then, and I do so again, that this is not merely an Alaska local problem. It is a serious matter of con- cern for the entire fishing industry of the Northwest, for the California tuna industry, the gulf coast,chrimpindustry, and the important fishing industry off the east coast. On numerous occasions my colleagues and I have pointed out with alarm the recent efforts on the part of }lot only Japan but Russia to accel- e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1` Approved For Release 2007101/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 18 .vote their fishing efforts on the high SeRS, "The attention of the Senate, of the Nation, and, indeed, of the world was most forcefully called to this situation only a ;Pew months ago by the distin- .guished, junior Senator from Massachu- setts, (ly;;r. SMITH], who is now presiding .over the Senate, in one of the most logical .speeches that it has ever been my privilege to hear. We would not be alarmed if this ef- fort were directed only at tapping here- tofore unharvested resources but such is not the case. Attention was also called to the ineffective efforts by our. State Department to protect our own fisher- men from harassment inth.e Gulf Coast and off Central and South America. Ad- ditional instances have been reported this month. At the close of my remarks when Introducing this amendment I stated that so long as we do nothing to protect the rights of our fishermen on the high seas, we can only expect further aggression .and further oppressive acts against our fishermen from foreign., governments. To avoid possible misjudgments as to the merits of this amendment, the Sen- ator from Washington [Mr. 1VfAGxusoN] and I wrote the Director of the Bureau of the Budget and the Secretary of State advising them of the importance of 'the proposed amendment and soliciting their favorable consideration. In the letter we pointed out that the amendment is con- sistent with the purposes of the bill. It would encourage the expansion of for- eign trade in fishery products by assur- ing the conservation of our fishery re- sources and defending our fishermen on the high seas. If our fishery resources are exploited foreign trade in fishery products will decline. 'We warned in the letter that our fishery resources will be devastated by a blind. continuation of the sudden and tremendous surge by for- eign governments on to the high seas with technologically advanced fishing vessels and gear. As evidence of this rush we cited that the world catch of fish increased 33 percent from 1955 to 1960. just within the past 10 years Japan has entered the North `Pacific to catch salmon on the high seas and has moved into the Bering Sea with factory ships In search of bottom fish. Research scientists have forecast that bottom fish resources in the Bering Sea will be destroyed within 10 years if adequate conservation practices are not followed by all Nations engaged in the harvest- ing of these rich resources. We will then be faced with the same bleak situation now threatening the bottom fish re- sources of the North Atlantic.' Russia, too, has launched its commercial fishing fleet around the globe searching out the fishery resources off George's Bank, the Bering Sea and into the Gulf of Alaska. As a dramatic illustration of the deterioration of the U.S. position 'in viet Union. These facts were first called -Fish move in and out of territorial to our atten tion in this Chamber, so far waters and on the high seas. Salmon as I-know, by the junior Senator from return to the inland streams to spawn. Massachusetts [Mr. SMITH]. Conservation -practices may be regulat- We stated that the amendment is con- -ed, therefore, only by international sistent a.'so with the organizational agreement; and international agree- structure provided by the bill, in which ments, like other agreements, can be se- wide discretion is given the President to cured and enforced only when adequate solve these complex and interrelated sanctions are available. Traditionally, problems.' A broad range of economic trade sanctions have proved most ac- responses must be available to the Pres- ceptable and effective. This is a valid ident, so he can tailor the remedy to and traditional use of trade power. I meet situations involving any particular call attention specifically to trade sanc- country a',- any time in the future. tions found in our legislation protect- In'sumrnary, we believe it obvious that ing our halibut resources. there is a serious threat to our fishery Mr. President, I stated that the pres- resources, that the proposed amendment ent administration has recognized that provides on effective answer to the prob- trade sanctions are required in order to lem, and that there is a direct relation- protect fishery resources. I refer to the ship between fishery resources conserva- legislation, introduced in the 87th Con- tion and trade. ?gress, at the request of the State De- Mr. President, only 2 weeks ago the partment, to amend and strengthen the Department of State informed me that regulation of tuna on the high seas. the Finance Committee had been noti- On September 14, 1 year ago, the Sec- fied that the administration considered retary of State wrote the Senate, re- the amendment unacceptable. In op- questing an amendment to the Tuna posing the amendment the State De- Convention. Sounding as if he repre- partment informed me that fishery sented Alaska himself, Secretary Rusk conservation is unrelated to trade agree- called for urgent action on his legisla- ments, and that there would be a risk tive proposal, so as to discharge the of retaliation against our exports if the U.S. "general responsibility to the in- amendment were to be adopted. It was ternational community to follow sound also stated that legislation independent conservation practices with respect to of the trade bill was being considered, high seas resources." -I shall not quar- in order to accomplish the purposes of rel with that. I ask only that we do it. my amendment. The letter from the Secretary of State Mr. President, if my amendment is un- included a draft of a bill which, among acceptable to them, I should like to make other things, provides: it a matter of public record that their That upon the,promulgation of any such position is unacceptable to me. It is a regulation and upon notification thereof, the further example of the disregard of the Secretary of the Treasury shall promulgate State Department of all our fishery regulations to limit on p` ohibit the entry into the United States, of fish of spe- problems. ties covered by the convention and taken I am perfectly willing to run the risk from convention waters. Any such regu- of commercial trade concession retalia- lations to limit or, prohibit the entry of such tion in order to conserve our public fish shall require the concurrence of the fishery resources. I presume that the Secretary of State. President would use discretion in the So we find that 1 year ago the Secre- exercise of such power. Under Secre- tary of State proposed the use of trade tary of 31tate Ball testified before the sanctions, under his close supervision, to Senate Finance Committee that mili- conserve tuna resources found and taken tary, eccnomic, and political pressure primarily in tropical Pacific waters. had been exercised on other countries, to Japan is the world's exporter of tuna. persuade them to adopt our concepts of This administration, as well as others, commercial trade negotiation. If we are has recognized the necessity of assuring capable of such dedication and interna- fishery conservation through the use of tional leadership in this area, can we not trade sanctions. use trade power to protect in a responsi- Mr. President, I also call attention to ble manner our fishery resources? I the numerous bills, which I and other believe it. may be a matter of priority; Senators have sponsored, which would and I, for one, place fishery conserva- place a restriction on the importation tion extremely high on my list of na- of fishery products from countries which tional goals. violate salmon conservation efforts in Mr. President, the difference between the North Pacific. fish and so many other products is this: When I first came to the Senate, I in- Once fish are gone, they are gone, for- troduced an Alaska salmon bill which in ever, and are lost both to the United substance would do for Bristol Bay States and to all other nations in the salmon what my present amendment world. would do for all fishery resources. That On first impression, the response of was in the 86th Congress. Hearings the State Department may sound genu- were held by me and by other Senators ine. W:aat, it asks, has international in Alaska and elsewhere. On May 6, world fisheries, attention should be trade to do with fishery. conservation? given to a recent report by the Bureau My answer is that international trade of Commercial Fisheries indicating that sanctions have been recognized for years the United States held second position by prior administrations, and even by only 0 short years ago and, as of 19-91, this administration, and on numerous had backed down to fifth position, bow- occasions by Congress, as the only ef- ing to the more energetile efforts made _ fective means of safeguarding fishery by Communist China, Peru, and the So- resources: Why? The answer is clear. 1959, the State Department wrote the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAGNU soN], chairman of the Committee on Commerce, expressing opposition to the bill, and giving five reasons why the bill would be ineffective, inappropriate, and, in fact, would endanger the free world's stake in the Pacific. The Department Approved For Release_2007/0112[ : -'ClA-RDP64B00346R000200fi560l5-1 Many'year6 ago,'the' late Geri. George' C.' to defend as worthwhile budget items. movie." ?- - ? THE INSISTENT TELEPHONE Marshall, testifying before Congress, at- I am convinced that we get more for tempted to summarize what he regarded as our idea dollar than we can ever hope the characteristic Impatience of the Ameri- to get from our hardware dollar. This can people Said'he" They regard as 'a stalemate any problem Nation is famous for an idea officially which arises in the morning and cannot be proclaimed on July 4, 1776. If we can settled by afternoon." sell that idea and the ideas that devel- This is, the mark of a youthful' oped from it we will do mankind a great and people, an we are still essentially that,'for service. an our 186 years as a nation. A measure of our effectiveness in sell- If this Is so, then it suggests that we should ing these ideas is found in an article en- comment with, some restraint on the fre- quently titled "How Democracy Is Nudged Ahead newly emeexhibited impatientce of many in the in Ecuador," which appeared in the Sep of ewly the rest of trginghe or q'upward struggling nations tember 17 issue of the National Observer. We d. We canont always easily curb our exaspera- ? It is the story of a United States Infor- tion at some manifestations of this impa- mation Service post in Guayaquil. This tience in others.. Peoples seek freedom be- story shows how efficient and dedicated fore fe. budgets, for its responsibilities- . n and thereafare tereth ready row themselves sandittheir can advance epe the e a cause e of freedom can a. problems at the world's door. They demand status In the United Nations before their I ask unanimous consent that this ar- leaders' voices speak with effective authority' idle be printed in the RECORD. within their own borders. There being no objection, the article Their young men sometimes come to the' was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, United ,, tasts, assailing our "failures and as follows: stupidities" in dealing with their problems. How DEMOCRACY Is NUDGED AHEAD IN What this often iribans is that we have not ECUADOR shaped policies to their 'specific' national (By Hunter S. Thompson) taste. They forget that we are a great power which must weigh the broad world impact' GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR.-Fred Shaffer, chief of everything it does. We have many , con- of the U.S. Information Service office in cerns, while they seldom have more than one. Guayaquil, looked up from his desk as the Yet, thou h we may have'matured enough visitor entered. "Did you see that little man to be critica of impatience in other peoples, ` who just left?" he asked with a smile. we evidently retain a, large quota of it our- "Didn't seem very happy, did he?" Selves. The visitor recalled the man, a small You would expect to find a lot of it in our Ecuadorian with a large satchel. He had youngsters-and you do. come out of the office, looking slightly sick, A midwestern college lad was asking a and nearly bowled over the receptionist as he Washington newsman about som.eof'thekey fled through the door to the street.s, " Mr. y. world and national issues of the da Th "I think that man has trouble e answers he got seemed-to pile complexity on Shaffer explained. "He owns a radio station complexity. He finally smiled and said: that used to broadcast so much anti- "I find it hard to get very interested in American stuff that we nicknamed it the things on which `you can't get a fairly im Voice of Moscow," He shook his head sadly. mediate solution;'' ' "Then he had some bad luck; suddenly all It did not seem to trouble him that he had his advertisers quit him and now he's nearly just ruled out of bounds nearly'al1 the great bankrupt." He smiled faintly. "And he matters of the day-the-cold war disarma- has the gall to come in here and try to blame meat, unemployment, the booming popula- it on me-can you imagine such a thing?" tion; The visitor detected a note of irony. But he has plenty of company in this land. 'A CRISIS OVER DELEGATES For any, youth is still a time-here as else-' It was a hot afternoon in Guayaquil, where-for fast, sure, clean, rewarding where the year-round temperature averages answers. 77 degrees, but in the USIS office no one had The great trial lawyer, Clarence barrow; time to mop his brow. The scene was one once said: of apparent chaos: Visitors were constantly "When you're young, you want to reform arriving; the phone rang incessantly; and the world and you think 'you can'.' When crises succeeded themselves in an appar- you're old, you still want`to, but you know ently interminable progression. you can't." Jim Smith, the press officer, entered the Maybe Darrow has it about right. But per- room and introduced another crisis. "Those haps our impatient young folk get some good women are outside, Fred," he said. "Did things done before they discover how im- we get word on the other delegates?" possible it is. Without their zeal for quick Mr, Shaffer picked up the phone and results, we might 'not make even the slow, dialed a number. "Guillermo? We're wait- social advances We do. HOW P: JMOc RACY 1IS 'NUDGED 18741 ing on your people-they coming over?" There was a pause, and a horrified expres- Sion crossed his face, "Great balls of fire!" he exclaimed. "I don't want you to think SAD IN P1C1JADOR I'm pressing you on this thing, Guillermo, ' ve set up this meeting four times Mr, 9c Mr. President, in the but we Words of I adison Avenue, this country now-can you give me some idea when you'll get around to appointing your delegates?" must project its image if 'we are to help He hung up the phone and fell back in freedom and democracy in the battle for his chair. W. Smith groaned and shook men's minds. his head. "I can't face those women again," This body is seldom hesitant to grant' he said helplessly. "You'll have to do it, your turn." ose4 who we! _ hope will be our friends Mike Eisenstadt, the cultural anairs omcer, appeared in the door. "What about the Itzer is a suostantial piece of equipment, Mr, Smith.., beamed, ".Right. Eighteen - pointed out in d. 's that for and is easily d emonstra hundred to eleven hundred-how tion of value received for an expendi-' an upset?" Lure.' A radio broadcast or a news serv-' Mr. Eisenstadt gave a mock salute and ice Item in a foreign newspaper are less_ turned' to go. "Tell me later on. I have The phone rang; a sack of powdered milk, donated by an American welfare agency, had been found on the black market and the story was in-the afternoon paper. The phone rang again; the USIS office in Quito was demanding photos of 15 dump trucks that had arrived that morning from the United States. While Mr. Shaffer checked on the milk, Mr. Smith went to see what had happened to the photos. He returned with a long face; the film had not been developed because the photo lab man had taken a religious holiday. The receptionist reported that a local journalist, a friend of Mr. Shaffer, was demanding to know why he'd been refused a visa to go to the States. And the women were getting impatient. Out in the hot sun, the cabs rolled back and forth like animals looking for meat, honking their horns incessantly at every walking prospect. Several American tourists were sitting at P. sidewalk cafe talking excitedly about a Communist demonstra- tion the night before. It had been broken UP "by a cavalry charge through the Plaza Centepario,- the city's principal park. At the Phoenix Club, where Anglo-Ameri- cans gather in the evenings to reaffirm their solidarity over beer and bridge, an unem- ployed helicopter pilot was idly tossing darts at a much-punctured board, killing time until somebody arrived to keep him com- pany. For Guayaquil it was a day like any other day, with a lot to talk about and not much to do. - WHERE THE UNEXPECTED IS PREDICTABLE, Even at USIS, despite the apparent chaos, it was a pretty routine day. Nothing had happened that could not have been pre- dicted-and at the same time everything had been unexpected. The USIS is the oversea arm of the United States Information Agency, headquartered in Washington and headed by Edward R. Murrow. Each year, when Congress is asked to appropriate new funds for USIS, legisla- tors want to know: "Why do they need all that money? What do they do with it? The agency's reply could easily be lifted from one of its own pamphlets: "The young officers, now being recruited, will, carry out a mission long ago established-to submit evidence to people of other nations that the objectives and policies of the United States are in harmony with and will advance their legitimate aspirations for freedom, progress, and peace. They must also be able to coun- ter hostile propaganda." Doing things like "countering hostile propaganda" costs money-especially when the propaganda is put out by such practiced craftsmen as the editors of Prensa Latina (Fidel Castro's news service) and the New China News Agency, both operative in Ecua- dor. And money is a commodity USIS offi- cials would like in greater abundance. When Mr. Shaffer was program manager of a radio and TV station in York, Pa., he points out, the station had an annual budget of slightly over $300,000. The 1962 USIS budget for all of Ecuador, by comparison, is $151,160. And for all of Latin America-20 countries-it's approximately $4 million with almost one-fifth for Brazil. THE VOICE OF AMERICA These figures are slightly misleading, how- ever, because the USIS operation in South America is given a considerable boost by ad- ditional money spent in Washington. A good example is the Voice of America-which comes in very clearly, all over the continent, 7 days a week. The "Voice" transmits reg- ular broadcasts from Washington, and also provides taped programs used by 235 local stations in 16 Latin American countries. Approved For Relealse 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 Approved For Release 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346RQ00200150015-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Approves l= r-msse 20-a7tf1J20 CIA-R'DP64B00346R000200150015;t 18742 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE September 18 Another worldwide service is the USIA cause the prodemocratic students were split proffer our hearty cooperation in the work press wire, which sends out a steady stream into seven or eight factions. of the United Nations. of news, stories for local papers. These Although USIS maintained a strictly Outside the U.S. Senate Chamber, in which stories are not so much slanted as selected. handsoff stance, Mr. Smith worked hard in I am privileged to serve, there is a statuary A recent day's fare, for exam; ie, included private conversations to convince the anti- bust of former U.S. Secretary of State Cordell coverage of.Ecuadorian President Arosomena Bonini students that their only hope was in Hull, my fellow townsman, friend, and bene- in New'1 btk; a wrap-up of the previous unity. And Marcello Santos, a stanch pro- factor. On the base of this bust appear these night's 'T'elstar activity; a report on the Dis- American, upset Bonini by a vote of 1,800 words: "'Father of the United Nations." I armamei i; Committee meeting in Geneva; to 1,00. know Secretary Hull would have been pleased and Senate comments on :Puerto Rico's an- Still a third aspect of this personal con- to have foreseen the growth of this organi- niversary, tact is-a Ui'.IS-sponsored community center zation to a membership more than twice that ,ere's locally Originated Ul3IS material, taking shape in Guayaquil's barrios at its beginning. too- n4 newspapers welcome it. "Our suburbanos, one of the worst slums in the In common, I believe, with mankind of functio is propaganda," says Frank Dean, Western Hemisphere. The community cen- the world, the people of the United States press' b1 Cer in Quito, "but we don't like to ter idea, one of the biggest factors in the regard with hope, not unmixed with awe, the - use that term because.. of its unfortunate _ U W progrs.m, is basically aself-help con- marvelous growth of the United Nations or- connotation." cept: The people of some community- ganization. Today we welcome to member- Whatever` the material is called, how- usaliy a lower class one- et together and ship four nations, each newly possessed of ever, VSIS places a lot of it. T!ie Guayaquil undertake projects to lift themselves up by the fruits of self-determination, real inde- branch, distributing to 3 local papers the bootstraps. Usually this involves build- pendence, and genuine national sovereignty. and 18 in the coastal provinces, placed 12,540 ing houses or schools. Two of these countries rest in the midst of inches during June alone. Mr. Dean's office For sometime, Guayaquil has had a make- a sunny ocean close to our shore. ,in Quito, serving 3 papers In the caps- shift center functioning in several rooms of Two of them are nestled in the majestic tal and 31 in the mountain provinces, racked a barrios municipal school. Now land has reaches of the central African highlands, up another 13,000 inches. been donated for a new building, and roughly . almost half a world away. Yet; for all the What kind of propaganda? In Guayaquil, $12,000 has been pledged" to build the strut- distance that separates them Ruanda and the June breakdown included 1,396 inches of ture. Some of, this money will come from Jamaica, Trinidad-Tobago and Burundi science news (space achievements, medicine, USIS; most, plus the land donation, comes share a Common strain of blood and .expert- and so on); 464 on 11.S. .foreign from local American and Ecuadorian bust- ence. And today, joining with us in the policy; 2,370 on "inter-Anneriaan subjects" nessmen. I,ast month, a Peace Corps con- U.N. each of them makes a commitment to (Organization of American States activity, tingent arrived to help build the center and the single community of man which in news from other countries) ; 404 on sports, get it underway. previous epochs was obscured and hidden, snd 1,934: on "Cultural, Educational and During the day of apparent chaos at USIS but which today is plain for all to see and Agricultural subjects," a catch-all category described earlier, Mr. Smith was trying for which best explains why each of us and all covering everything from Pal to Casals to the fourth time to set up a meeting of the the countries we represent are here. trenchmo':Ith In the Argentine, center's board of directors. Three earlier _ So, Mr. President, on behalf of my coun- LOCAL SUBJECTS GIVEN SIC, PLAY attempts had failed, because the business- trymen and the President of the United There's outright anti-COmmtxrxist maters- men's representatives had not appeared. States I congratulate and welcome the rep- al, too, of course-2,103 inches of, it, ixiclud- Now the fot:rth meeting would also be called resentatives of Ruanda, Jamaica, Trinidad- ing photo stories on the Berlin wall, food off. The only people on hand were the three Tobago and Burundi. rationing in Cuba, famine in China, and so women from the barrios suburbanos, and forth, And the month's biggest news Cate- somebody bad to tell them it was another gory is local subjects (3,3:(7 inches), which false alarm. TRANSACTION OF ADDITIONAL means stories from Guayaquil and the nearby Getting people to honor appointments is ROUTINE BUSINESS provinces. Most of these cent t,k on the AI- only one of the USIS's frustrations in By unanimous consent the following bl th bi t b ' , y gges , a e for qua- - Guayaquil. Another, pro fiance for Progress, what it means dor, and specific ways it's be.:ng put into is trying to convince them they can solve additional routine business was trans- effect. their own problems. Progress is slow, and all acted:. A tremendous amount of USIS effort goes Of it come:; in spite of daily Communist -harassment. The people themselves are Into what thehandbook calls p reone cox;- often exasperating; there is never enough ADDITIONAL BILL INTRODUCED tact. This is a "gray, uncertain area where money; and sometimes a tiny detail will imagination, quick wits, and a good sense of stall entire program. An additional bill was introduced, read humor Cain tip the balance ' between triumph by unanimous Cori- Anyo Anyone In Guayaquil for any length of the first time, and, b and disaster. If the businessman of Guaya- time, though, is encouraged by what he sees. sent, the second time, and referred, as quil didn't respect Mr. Shaffer, for instance, It is on this sort of level-in the barrios follows: he couldn't have reduced the J"oice_of Moe- and the daily papers and local student else- By Mr. HART: cow" to financial ruin in a few E.hort weeks-' Lions-that the battle to make democracy S. 3729. A bill for the relief of Wilhelm -rile stabion was a steady outlet Ior Prensa lost. Latina material. Its viewpoint was patently anti-American, yet most of its advertising RESOLUTION revenue was coming from representatives of ADDRESS BY SENATOR GORE BE- I USE OF ARMED FORCES WHERE American-owned firms .wl;oxe, interests clo FORE THE UNITED NATIONS GEN- not lie in exactly the same area, as those of NECESSARY TO DEAL WITH COM- Presna .La.tina. ERAL ASSEMBLY MUNIST BUILDUP IN CUBA SPONSORS QUICKLY 1wiTSWRAW Mr. MONRONEY. Mr. President, this submitted a resolution (S. -So Mr. Shaffer became a regular listener afternoon our colleague, Senator GORE, Mr with a tape recorder. "In 5 days," he says, made his first address as a member of Res. tArmed uth the President to "I picked up one open denunciation of our the U.S. delegation to the United Na- use . . SCOTT TT submitted United the where Forces to of deal the with the ed point 4 program; one of Irv' "Rubenstein, tion8. the point ,'4 labor representative; one of It was a, message of congratulations Communist buildup in Cuba, which was the Peace Corps; one of the Alliance for and welcome to four new members of referred to the Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services, jointly, as -Progress; and, one of the Ernpressa Electrica, the U.N. :Because of its importance in a U.S.-owied light and power oompany-all follows' rowth of this organization I com- follows: preceded and followed by advertisements for the growth' American products," mend Senator GoRE's statement .for the Whereas President James Monroe, an- He then notified the companies involved, information of the Senate. pouncing the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, de- asking if they were aware of what their ad- I ask unanimous consent to have the clared eider to the Congress that we should con- eider attempt on the part of European vertising dollars were sponsorini;. They were address by Senator GORE printed in the powers "to extend their system to any por- not, but they quickly withdrew their com- RECORD at this point as a part of my tion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our mereials. _ remarks. peace and safety"; and Another example of improvised USIS There being no objection, the state- Whereas in the Rio Treaty of 1947 the work was a recent election for the presi- meet was ordered to be printed in the parties agreed that "an armed attack by dency of the Guayaquil chapter of FEUE, the any state against an American state shall national association of university students RECORD, as follows: be considered as an attack against all the Mr. Smith, who does a lot oC work with STATEMENT BY SENATOR GORE American states, and, consequently, each various student"groups, was convinced that Mr. President, on behalf of the United one of the said contracting parties under Luis Bonini, a rabid Leftist, was going to States it is a pleasure to congratulate you, takes to assist in meeting the attack in the win-not because he had a majority, but be- Mr. President, upon your election and to exercise of the inherent right of individual Approvedi sr:Release 2007 01729-- `CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 1962 Approved For Relea CO or collective self-defense recognized by ar- ticle 51 of the Charter of the United Na- tions"; and Whereas in the Rio Treaty of 1947 the Parties further agreed that: "If the in- .violability or the integrity of the territory or the sovereignty or political independence of any American state should be affected by an aggression which is not an armed at- tack or by an extracontinental or intra- continental conflict, or by any other fact or situation that might endanger the peace of America, the Organ of Consultation shall meet immediately in order to agree on the measures which must be taken in case of aggression to assist the victim of the ag- gression or, in any case, the measures which should be taken for the common defense and for the maintenance of the peace and security of the Continent"; and Whereas in the Rio Treaty of 1947 the Parties ' further agreed that "the measures on which the Organ of Consultation may agree will comprise one or more of the fol- lowing: recall of chiefs of diplomatic mis- sions; breaking of diplomatic relations; breaking of consular relations; partial or complete interruption of economic relations or of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, tele- phone, and radiotelephonic or radio- telegraphic communications; and use of armed force"; and Whereas the Charter of the Organization of American States, signed in Bogota in 1948, states: "If the inviolability or the integrity of the territory or the, sovereignty or politi- cal independence of any American state should be affected by an armed attack or by an act of aggression that is not an armed attack, or by an extracontinental conflict, or by a conflict between two or more Ameri- can states, or by any other fact or situation that might endanger the peace of America, the American states, in furtherance of the principles of continental solidarity or collec- tive self-defense, shall apply the measures and procedures established in the special treaties on the subject"; and Whereas the Foreign Ministers of the Or- ganization of American States at Punta del Este in January 1962 unanimously declared: "The present Government of Cuba has identi- fled itself with the principles of Marxist- Leninist Ideology, has established a political economic, and social system based on that doctrine, and accepts military assistance from extracontinental Communist powers, Including even the threat of military inter- vention in America on the part of the Soviet Union"; and Whereas the international Cquununist movement is increasingly extending into Cuba and its political, economic, and mili- e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 GRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Whereas the Government of Cuba is now a part of the international Communist move- mend, defined by the Caracas Conference of 1954 as of "anti-democratic nature and * * * interventionist tendency * * * in- compatible with the concept of the Ameri- can freedom."; and Whereas the Declaration of Caracas con- demned the activities of the international Communist movement as constituting inter- vention in American affairs and expressed the determination of the American States to take the necessary measures to protect their political independence against the interven- tion of international communism, acting in the interests of an alien despotism: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That it is the sense of the Sen- ate that the President of the United Staten in addition to his authority as Chief Execu- tive, is specifically authorized to employ the Armed Forces of the United States as he deems necessary- (a) to prevent by whatever means may be necessary, including the use of arms, the Castro regime from exporting its aggres- sive purposes to any part of this hemisphere by force or the threat of force; (b) to prevent in Cuba the creation or use of an externally supported offensive mil- itary base capable of endangering the United States naval base at Guantanamo, free pas- sage to the Panama Canal, United States missile and space preparations or the secu- rity of this Nation and its citizens; (c) to work with other free citizens of this hemisphere and with freedom-loving Cuban refugees to support the legitimate aspira- tions of the people of Cuba for a return to self-determination; and (d) to use such measures as may be nec- essary to halt, Impede or counter the build- up of Cuba with Communist arms as a Com- munist military base, including the use of economic and military boycott and blockade. TRADE EXPANSION ACT OF 1962- AMENDMENTS Mr. KERR proposed an amendment to the bill (H.R. 11970) to promote the gen- eral welfare, foreign policy, and secu- rity of the United States through inter- national trade agreements and through adjustment assistance to domestic indus- try, agriculture, and labor, and for other purposes, which was ordered to be printed. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware submitted an amendment in the nature of a sub- e 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346P000200150015-1 18743 ,titute for the amendment of Mr. KERR to House bill 11970, supra, which was ordered to be printed. EXPRESSION OF SENSE OF THE SEN- ATE ON INTERNATIONAL CONFER- ENCE ON THE CONSERVATION OF FISHERY RESOURCES-ADDI- TIONAL COSPONSORS OF RESOLU- TION Under authority of the order of the Senate of September 14, 1962, the names of Mr. GRUENING, Mrs. NEUBERGER, and Mr. JACKSON were added as additional cosponsors of the resolution (S. Res. 392) to express the sense of the Senate on International Conference on the Conser- vation of Fishery Resources, which was submitted by Mr. MAGNUSON (for him- self and other Senators) on September 14, 1962. ADJOURNMENT Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I move, pursuant to the previous order, that the Senate stand in adjournment until 12 o'clock noon today. The motion was agreed to; and (at 12 o'clock and 20 minutes a.m. on Wednes- day, September 19, 1962) the Senate ad- journed, pursuant to the previous order, until 12 o'clock meridian of the same day. CONFIRMATIONS Executive nominations confirmed by the Senate, September 18, 1962: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY Gienn T. Seaborg, of California, to be the Representative of the United States of Amer- ica to the sixth session of the General Con- ference of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The following-named persons to be Alter- nate Representatives of the United States of America to the sixth session of the General Conference of the International Atomic En- ergy Agency: Henry DeWolf Smyth, of New Jersey. Robert E. Wilson, of Illinois. James T. Ramey, of Illinois. William I. Cargo, of Florida. 1962 Approved For Release 2007/01/20: CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX America's greatest Invention was a crea- ture of compromise from start to finish, and yet the invention created a strong Central Government, and protected the liberty of citizens and retained', the authority of the States. William Gladstone said the U.S. Constitt}- tion,was the greatest work ever struck off by the mind of man. Considering the obstacles, the rivalries, open warfare, suspicion among the States, It is all the more remarkable that the Cor1- vention of 1787 should have produced this "Fifth Symphony" of statesmanship. As Washington had predicted the event was in the hand of God, Surely a power greater than man contrived to resolve the antagonisms of the day and to inspire those 39 men to create in this greatest of all American inventions a shield for liberty that would survive the test of time and become an example for others to follow. Here indeed was raised a standard to whic i the wise and honest can repair-In 1787- and in 1962. 119w fully we understand and appreciate this great charter will determine In large measure how well we fulfill our stewardship in keeping high the torch of The great historian of the period, John Fiske, concluding his study entitled "The Critical Period of American History," had this to say: "In some future still grandeur convention?we trust the same thing will be done between States that have been wholly sovereign, whereby peace may gain and vi-, diminished over other lands that this which has set the example. Fiske wrote these words .80 years ago. And today leaders in both political parties speak hopefully and confidently of this stillgrander convention Fiske foretold. "Sail on, 0 ship of state. . Sail on, Union strong and free. HiAmanity in all its fears In all its hopes for future years Hangs breathless on thy, fate." EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON, CLAIR ENGLE OF CALIFORNIA '' IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATESI Tuesci'ay, September 1..8,1962 Mr. ENGLE. Mr. President, I am glad that Walter Lipplnann, with his usual Clarity and. good sense, has spoken up on the Cuba issue. 'I commend his ar_; ticle appearing today-in the Washington Post to the attention: of my colleagues- and ask unanimous consent that the ar. title .be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,, follows: CusA WATCHru , WAITR1O (By Walter Lippmannj deployment of aircraft and tanks and artil- lery. There may be some doubt whether we have located every missile site in the vastness of the Soviet Union. But in Cuba, unless our cameras are failing us, we are completely informed. As a result, we are quite able to know about the development of anything like a Soviet missile base directed against the United States, and what may be more realistic, we are able to spot anything like an expedition- ary force against Cuba's neighbors in the islands and in the Caribbean. Our policy at the present is to keep our- selves completely informed, and to wait and see whether Castro and his Soviet helpers do any overt act, against the United States or its neighbors. Beyond this, there is no serious action the United States can taken to remove him that would not. be an act of The United States is, of course, able easily to blockade Cuba. But stopping ships under threat of seizure or sinking would be an act of war not only against Cuba but against the Soviet Union. For we would be seizing or sinking Soviet ships. The invasion of Cuba would, of course, be an act of war against Cuba. To be sure, the United States could easily win a war against Cuba. We could close the Cuban ports within a few hours and we could occupy very quickly Havana and a few big cities. The countryside might be another story. But what we could not be sure of doing is to prevent the retaliatory moves to which we would have laid ourselves wide open, moves against Berlin, or against Turkey, or against Iran. For we would have acted on the rule that a possible threat against our security or our interests justifies us in going to war. We would be saying that because Cuba, which is only 90 miles away, Is in the grip of an unfriendly European power, we have a right to blockade or occupy the island; we would be saying too that the Soviet Union has no such right to act against the American military positions in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, right on her own frontier. Let us not fool ourselves. Such an argu- ment will not wash. It would be rejected, probably even laughed at, not only by all neutrals but by powerful elements among our closest allies. There are some who think foreign opinion doesn't matter. But when it comes to war, it means a great deal to the belligerent who is for him and who is against him. We could go to war if Castro injures us. But we cannot go to war, even against Castro, be- cause of what he may conceivably do in the future. We cannot wage a preventive war against Castro without establishing the rule that a preventive war is legitimate against . our military position in Berlin, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Thailand, South Vietnam, Tai- wan, Okinawa, South Korea and Japan. It is true, of course, that the Soviet lodg- ment in Cuba is a 'gross violation of the Monroe Doctrine. Yet we cannot invoke the Monroe Doctrine. Why not? The Monroe Doctrine declares that "any interposition" by a European power in this hemisphere would be "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States." But, and this is the crucial point, the American claim for the isolation of the West- ern Hemisphere was coupled with a renun- ciation of American interest in the Eastern Hemisphere: "In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it com- port with our policy so to do." This fundamental passage in Monroe's message is, of course, a 'restatement of the principle laid down by Washington In his Although there are some who say that we are doing nothing about Cuba, the fact is that we are'doing just about everything that. ';Can be done .short of going to war. -Be- gides the economic embargo, we are keeping the island 'under surveillance. We are watching every ship that comes to and goes from the island, and we are keeping a close watch on the loading and unloading of these ships. We have accurate and cur- rent records of building operations and 'the A6895 farewell address: "Europe has a set of pri- mary interests which to us have none, or a very remote relation." This basis of the Monroe Doctrine disap- peared in the 20th century, in the two World Wars, the Korean war, and the cold war, We cannot Invoke the Monroe Doctrine without, meeting the question of what we are doing all over. Europe and Asia. Our right to put Cuba under surveillance, and if necessary to blockade and invade it, rests not on the Monroe Doctrine but on the elementary right of a people to in- sure its own security. For two centuries the British felt that way about the occupation of Belgium by an unfriendly power. The Russians felt that way about Turkey. This right can, how- ever, be exercised only when there is a clear and present danger. Castro isan insulting nuisance but is not, and is not now remotely capable of becoming a clear and present danger to the United States. So we must practice watch- ful waiting, and hold ourselves in readi- ness, never for a moment forgetting the vastly greater dangers elsewhere. In a time of watchful waiting, Congress and the newspapers are compelled to re- member that the President is conducting a delicate and dangerous operation, and that he is seriously interferred with if he is forced to dot every "i" and to cross every "t" in advance of a decision. The President should not be asked to say whether he will go to war. He should not be driven to say that he won't go to war. A certain mystery and uncertainty are desirable, and will be deterrent to our ad- versaries, Role of Lawyer in Alliance for Progress EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BARRATT O'HARA OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, September 18; 1962 Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, perhaps no organization has as potent an influence on hemispheric thinking as the Inter-American Bar Association. William Roy Vallance is the secretary general of the association. Mr. Valiance retired a year or so ago after an out- standingly distinguished career with the State Department. By unanimous consent, I am extending my remarks to include an address by F. V. Garcia-Amador at a meeting of the Inter-American Bar.Association on Sep- tember 13, 1962, at the National Lawyers' Club in Washington. Mr. Garcia-Ama- dor' Is the Director of the Department of Legal Affairs of the Organization of American States. His address follows: The great undertaking in the hemisphere today, the one to which all our attention is turned, is the Alliance for Progress. As you are well aware, the Alliance for Progress pro- grams for economic development and social -improvement are of such magnitude that profound transformations in the legal insti- tutions of the Latin American countries are inevitable. As a matter of fact, these changes, particularly as to land reform and taxation, are explicitly contemplated in the Punta del Este Charter. The question which concerns us is what is the role of the lawyer in this. program? What can we do to aid the transformation and adaptation of the exist- Approved For Release 2007/01/20 CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 Approved For Release 2007/01120 CIA-RDP64B00346R000200150015-1 A6896 tONGRIESSION.AL RECORD - APPENDIX Ing legal institutions so that they can better There are also the problems of commer- -serve the ends and the aims of the Alliance? cial law, techniques of public control of We, at the Pan American 17nioll, occupy a very strategic role in the development of the Alliance. Vrehave the facilities of the entire hemisphere at our disposal, and we can speak In an imppasrtial voice to the entire hemi- sphere. We recognize our role; we recognize our responsibilities. It is, howe'7er, so vast an undertaking that we cannot possibly be- gin'to do fi; all ourselves. To the contrary; it is a never=ending task in which the more help we will have, tfie more we will have to do. That is why the most important thing which I have to say- to you tdday is that we of the legal department at the Pan American Union welcome your help. We welcome your poly and restraint of trade about which you here have so much to teach us. The prob- lem of expropriations and of nationaliza- tions is one which will be with us for a long time. ICow can this be handled in a fair manner with aggravating international tensions? W:nat can the law do to promote and facilitate the flow of capital across na- tional border. ? What means can be devised for encourag- ing small business while, at the same time, preventing fradulent operators and profes- sional manipulators from taking advantage of those laws? What are the possibilities suggestions your cooperation. We welcome ` for protecting international creditors, im- y'ou and invite you to join with us in attack-' proving the security of secured transactions? log these problems which muss; be-solved Is there a possibility for paving the legal before the political stability and well-being road to international security transactions of our entire hemisphere is to be secure. ? in stocks and bonds so that private investors What are some of these problems? Let may be encouraged to put their money into me name a few to you. To begin at the base the public securities of foreign firms? What of the structure there are the iegei rights about labor law and protection for honest, and, role of the new national plaamin$ agen- responsible labor unions? ties'. These agencies are comparatively new There are, gentlemen; all these and more, in administrative law. Whit is-their-legal I haven't even begun to mention the poe- status to be? What will their ad inistrative sibilities in banking regulations; improve- tble be? Are they to be created simply to ment of Jud'cial procedures and remedies snake recommendations, formulate' plans, both within the individual countries and in and then disintegrate? Should' they' take international intercourse; improvement of the form of an overall commission on the the civil service laws; the problems of the law grder of the great Tennessee 'Galley Authority of civil-rights; methods for improving the here in this country? Is it better, in the election laws and procedures, and many oth- alternative, that they become some sort of ers. Some of these problems are already superagencj7 to oversee and administer other being dealt with in respect to individual agencies which will carry out the work? If countries; In others general studies are well them to insure that their plans and recom- mendations are properly carried out? Will they be able to investigate, to ~aorrect and compel? Should they be insulated from political pressures and influence? And if that is a desirable end, how can it be accom- plished? We have here, you seta, a myriad of problems, relating to this one initial aspect of the program, the purpose, role, and func- tioning of the development agency itself. In the. substantive field, the list is poten- tially endless, and it touches ail phases of economic activity and coop/)ratlon. To mention just a few there is the pressing problem of agrarian reform. What are the different., possibilities in fair and equitable yet uncumbersome agrarian reform laws? that legal protection can be devised for the new land owners, many of whom will be illiterate, against those who mad seek to take advantage of them, while, at the same time, safeguarding bona fide cred:Ltors' rights. Bow shall the new programs of agricultural credit be administered and protected? What about insuring good title, and sim- nary studies will have to be made. There are no general solutions which will serve in all countries. The existing record will have to be detailed so that we can know the exist- ing situation in all of the Latin American States. This means research and digging at a moment when we have little time for re- search and digging. We must begin to act, but we have also to understand fully the kind of action we must take, We must know what we are talking about-what problems we are facing-and what we are going to do about it. We must acquaint the lawyers of the hemisphere with these problems. This means discussion, seminars, exchange of ideas. We at the legal department of the Pan American Un',on are getting ready to under- take a vast 'grogram in this sphere. It is simmering now, and we invite you to join with us in making it a` reality. We invite your suggestions and proposals of topics, plans of action, and methods of disseminat- ing our call to the lawyers of the hemisphere. plifying methods for clearing title? You have a conference scheduled in Panama to tax law, I don't have to S[ scribe tI e , early '-next year. That conference could problems to you. Even the most developed make a tremendous contribution to our prog- 1'developed countries havx their share of ress and we should like very much to discuss problems here. uit the needs of the Latin Amer- wthe ho possibilities responsible for it. of your officers It. Together, let us effectively lean nations: Direct taxes as you have. In hope, we can begin to chip away at the tre- the United. States, or indirect? What are mendous task in front of us, the rights to be established to ascertain that all levels of Government;, National, State, and local, get their proportional share of the revenues,, and to what extent is it possible to insure: that these revenues are properly allocated on the local `