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June 7, 1961
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Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 A4136 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX June 7 spending, either of which would add to the burden already imposed on our citizens; and "Whereas we believe that the improvement and upgrading of our educational processes will continue in the future, as they have in the past, through a qualitative rather than a quantitative approach; and "Whereas the citizens of Salem School Dis- trict No. 24CJ should be commended for their magnificent response to the needs of local education whenever the need has arisen and has been fully demonstrated; and we are confident that they will continue to do so in the future: Now, therefore, be it "Resolved, That the school board of Salem School District No. 240J is opposed to the proposed Federal aid to education legislation now pending before Congress, including any broadening of the National Defense Educa- tion Act, and respectfully requests our Con- gressmen to oppose any attempt on the part of the Federal Government to impose aid and control over the public or private school system of our country." Respectfully yours, DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD, HARRY W. ScoTT, Chairman. SID BOISE, Vice Chairman. RAY CATES. STANLEY N. HAMMER. Mrs. SHERRILYN MALTBY. Laundry Workers Commend the Freedom Riders EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. WILLIAM FITTS RYAN OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. RYAN. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD, I am including a resolu- tion passed on May 25, 1961, by the ex- ecutive body of the Amalgamated Laun- dry Workers Joint Board, ACWA, AFL- CIO, in New York City. The resolution was transmitted to me by the manager of the joint board, Mr. Louis Simon. It takes a firm and forthright stand in regard to segregation and discrimination in every area and urges the Kennedy ad- ministration to provide full protection to the freedom riders. I feel, Mr. Speak- er, that this resolution states the great moral issue of our times and expresses well the debt we owe to those who are in the front lines of the battle of civil rights. I commend it to my colleagues: RESOLUTION ON THE FREEDOM RIDERS Another battle in the great fight for the future is being fought in America's Deep South. As in other battles in that area-those at the schools of New Orleans, Little Rock, and other communities, the lunch counter sit- ins and many more-the front line fighters for our country's ideals are young people. This time the battleground is in inter- state buses and bus terminals. The issue is the same as in all the other battles: the right of all Americans to move freely, to share in public facilities without discrimination, to assert. their human rights and dignity without fear. We call this a battle because those who are fighting on the side of decency are doing so at the risk of life and limb. But they come without weapons, with no intention of doing violence. They defend themselves only with their courage and their faith that right out his own country for a mess of commu- will prevail. nistic pottage, and to think that he would There can be little question but that in keep his agreement about anything in his time the faith and courage of these young latest threat is to be of childlike faith. people and others like them will prove to be the strongest weapons of them all. But in the meantime, they are exposed and others will be exposed to acts of -violence by ugly mobs and by local and State offi- cials whose sympathies are with the mobs. And in the meantime, too, America's posture in the world will go on being under- mined by such actions and the forces of communism will be proportionately strengthened: Therefore be it Resolved, That the Amalgamated Laundry Workers Joint Board, ACWA, AFL-CIO: 1. Compliments the Federal administra- tion for dispatching Justice Department forces to Alabama to protect the freedom riders and for its efforts to persuade the State authorities to do their duty. 2. Urges the President and Attorney Gen- eral to stand fan in protecting the rights of the freedom riders and of all those who will press against the barriers of discrimina- tion and segregation in every area. No re- sponsible official can ask them to give up their part of the struggle in order to keep peace; rather ask those who are breaking the peace in order to preserve the rights of bigotry and hatred to cease their efforts. 3. To the freedom riders, the schoolchil- dren, the lunch counter sitins, and all the others, past, present, and future, who serve in the front lines of this great battle for the future-we express our grateful apprecia- tion. For they are fighting on behalf of all Americans who believe in freedom and decency. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. W. J. BRYAN DORN OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. DORN. Mr. Speaker, the follow- ing editorial is from the Anderson In- dependent, Anderson, S.C. The Inde- pendent is one of the strongest Demo- cratic papers in the South, having always supported the Democratic national tick- et. Our people everywhere are alarmed and shocked over this proposal to pay ransom to a cheap Communist thug: "EXTORTION" Is TERM BYRD GIVES CASTRO OFFER Senator HARRY FLOOD BYRD, of Virginia, calls Castro's demands for 500 bulldozers (some news reports have it tractors) in ex- change for 1,200 prisoners of the Cuban invasion nothing but extortion. He says that he will try to prevent any deductions from income taxes on the part of those who do- nate to the national fund for this purpose. The highest human motives on the part of those who are trying to raise the ransom money in the form of earth-moving ma- chines must be given full credit. The whole country would like to see the men captured on this ill-fated and bungled invasion of Cuba liberated. But it seems that Mrs. Roosevelt, Dr. Mil- ton Eisenhower. and Walter Reuther are mighty naive to believe that he will do any- thing he promises to do. Castro sounds more and more like the early Hitler and Mussolini who bellowed out de- iinan.ce to the world while trampling on the rights of their own peoples to get more power for themselves. He has already sold "Hope" Voyage Brings New Experience to Physician EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. J. ARTHUR YOUNGER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. Speaker, Dr. Norton Benner, a constituent in our dis- trict, was one of the volunteers on the SS Hope, and his report undoubtedly will be of interest to Members of Con- gress. Under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include his account of his experiences, as published in an article in the May 22, 1961, issue of the San Mateo (Calif.) Times and News Leader: "HOPE" VOYAGE BRINGS NEW EXPERIENCE TO PHYSICIAN Dr. Norton Benner, 30 El Camino real, San Mateo, admitted, "It's sort of exciting to diagnose a case of leprosy that hasn't been recognized before." Dr. Benner wasn't at home at the time. He was talking to a reporter at Bima, Sum- bawa, in Indonesia, where he is working with Project Hope. Since he accepted his assignment aboard the hospital teaching ship SS Hope, Dr. Benner has had enough adventures to make him one of the most sought after dinner guests in California. He shipped off on a medical exploration trip to the rugged island of Ceram, near New Guinea, where there are still headhunters. "We got on this tiny Indonesian steamer, the Babut," he said. "We slept on the deck on stretchers. It was so nice and warm you just put a sarong around your shoulders and honked off," The trip to Ceram was made by a small party of medical people from the Hope, which was anchored at Ambon. The ship is on.its maiden voyage, to Indonesia, under the sponsorship of the People to People Health Foundation. The authorities at Ceram had requested a small group to give medical assistance in remote spots. The voyage of the Babut lasted from Sunday to Friday, sailing by night, stopping during the day at towns where the doctors could set up clinics and treat as many patients as possible. "I amputated a leper's leg the first after- noon," the San Mateo surgeon said. "There was a little hospital in the village run by nurses-very neat and clean. We had only daylight to work with, of course. There's no electricity in most of those areas. We took along our own instruments from the ship and showed the nurses our techniques for operating room procedure." SPECIALISTS Dr. Benner left the United States on De- cember 21 and spent Christmas at Djakarta, the capital of Indonesia. In addition to a permanent staff of medical personnel, the Hope has the services of specialists who fly out from the United States to serve with it for varying periods of time. These doctors give their time to Hope. Dr. Benner is one of these unpaid volunteers. He caught up with the Hope at Bali, just before it left for Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX An army of ruthless atheists has captured an entire nation and yet because no H- bombs were dropped, no destroyers sunk, no missiles fired, the average American is con- vinced we are still holding our own with Russia in some sort of political cold war. In but a few years since the end of World War II, communism has enmeshed well over 7 billion people in total slavery. She has boasted the subjection of the entire world as her ultimate goal. Russia further con- tends that at her present rate of advance she will have the United States by 1967. In view of what the Soviets have done and are avowed to do, how in the name of all that is sacred and holy can we call this a cold war? If this is a cold war, what is needed for a hot war? Never In the history of mankind has a war been hotter. The problem is that our enemy possesses a secret weapon so effective and so subtle that whole nations topple without so much as a significant struggle. We think we are at peace because we do not see the traditional evidences of battle. In reality, Russia is fighting a war with ideas. We in our stupidity keep looking for guns. Khrushchev's atomic bombs and space ex- periments are only decoys. While we are seeking to outstrip Russia in the conquering of planets, she is at work right here in America conquering free minds. We look back-and smile at the primitive weapons used by cowboy and Indian. The sophisticated militarist scorns the outmoded artillery of World War II. Were the truth known, however, the American people Would be amazed to learn that the Communists are smirking just as disdainfully at us. Nuclear weapons have long been outmoded by the Communists. Russia's new secret weapon can capture entire nations without a single gun fired, without a single city destroyed. And not only does ideological war capture nations, It makes the defeated feel they are victorious, that their captor has done them a great favor. Case in point: Cuba. What is needed to wake up Americans to the realization that they are at war? Two men enter the ring to fight. Before the match, one man drugged the other. The dazed boxer is knocked out in the first round and later pronounced dead. Whether it is legal or not, whether It is according to the rules or not the fight Is over and if no one has the courage to protest the villian has won. Call it murder, call it anything you like, the fight is over and evil is in com- mand. We Americans have been watching Russia drug the Cuban people for months. We have read about the viciousness of her lies and false propaganda. We have stood by as mute spectators while the time-honored prestige and good name of our beloved coun- try has been dragged into the mud and the ideals of our forefathers spat upon. We have watched Fidel Castro (even helped him) enter the ring and with scarcely a blow knock the dazed Cuban masses, saturated with lies and deceit, into unconscious sub- jection. If we continue to look on as spineless spectators, to tolerate murder and lies and calumny without so much as a protest (on the contrary, we allow the.father of these atrocities to visit our land), we are not worthy of the blood of our ancestors nor are we worthy of the name Christian. Such utter cowardice, indecision, and lack of that courage once so characteristically American is deserving of the fate that inevitably awaits those who squander the supreme priv- ilege of freedom. The fate of which I speak is Communist slavery. Blind Side-Temporary Taxes Extended, Congress Ignores Proven Road to Re- covery HON. ARCH L MOORE, JR. OF WEST VIRGINIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. MOORE. Mr. Speaker, for sev- eral years, I have voted against the ex- tension of the existing corporate normal- tax rate and certain excise tax rates which were imposed at the time of the Korean war. I have introduced several- ly, measures aimed at terminating more than one of these wartime burdens. Now they are up for renewal and I shall op- pose their renewal. Under leave to extend my remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD, I wish to insert an editorial written by Thomas O'Brien Flynn, editor of the Wheeling Inteuigencer, and published in that pa- per on June 6, 1961, which points up the danger of the extension of these tax rates to our economic growth. BLIND SIDE-TEMPORARY TAXES EXTENDED, CONGRESS IGNORES PROVEN ROAD TO RE- COVERY Fresh evidence of the tenacity of a tax- any tax-comes from Washington. At the time of the Korean war the corporate in- come tax rate was increased "temporarily" from 47 to 52 percent. At the same time "temporary" increases were voted in various excise taxes covering liquor, cigarettes, auto- mobiles, telephone calls, bus, plane, and train tickets. The Korean war is long behind us, but the taxes linger on. Year after year, as a new expiration date approached, Congress, acting on urgent Presidential recommendation, has voted another extension. The war was gone but the "emergency" it created remained. Last year it appeared that at long last some small measure of relief might be in sight. In voting the usual extension Congress qualified it to provide that at the end of the year the tax on local telephone calls would cease altogether and that on passenger tick- ets drop from 10 percent to 5 percent. Now the House Ways and Means Commit- tee, by a vote of 22 to 3, not only has ap- proved another 1-year extension of these wartime emergency rates, but has put the phone tax back on and restored the 10-per- cent rate on passenger fares. Approval of this action by both branches of Congress is regarded as a mere forma- lity, whatever is done with respect to the balance of the administration's tax program. It is interesting to note that during nearly all of the period these supposedly temporary tax rates have been in effect there has been before Congress, with respectable business backing, a bill which would reverse this tax procedure. It would reduce both cor- porate and personal income tax rates pro- gressively over a 5-year period, with a safety valve provision providing for a suspension of the schedule if a revenue crisis appeared in prospect at any time. The theory back of this legislation is that just as today's excessive income tax rate schedule has discouraged business invest- ment and thus has abetted economic stagna- A4135 tion, lower rates would have the opposite effect; that they would encourage invest- ment and stimulate economic activity, pro- ducing more revenue in the process; that reversing the principle of diminishing re- turns, lower rates in time actually would yield more money. Why no Congress has had the political hardihood and business wisdom to under- take this experiment in tax adjustment de- spite the fact that it has worked before is one of the mysteries of the day. Resolution Opposing Federal Aid to Education EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. WALTER NORBLAD OF OREGON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 16, 1961 Mr. NORBLAD. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks, I include herewith a resolution passed unani- mously by the school board of Salem, Oreg., in oposition to Federal aid to ed- ucation: SALEM PUBLIC SCHOOLS, SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 24CJ, Salem, Oreg., June 1, 1961. Hon. WALTER NORBLAD, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR Mn. NonnLAD: In order to inform the citizens of the Salem School District, the Oregon congressional delegation, and other national leaders in a position to influence legislation, the Salem School Board has adopted the following resolution expressing its position with respect to Federal aid to education: "Whereas it has been a traditional concept in these United States that the education of our children has been a local responsibility; and "Whereas the citizens of our local com- munities have recognized and assumed this responsibility, producing an educational system that is the envy of other nations of the world; and "Whereas funds raised locally are 100 per- cent available, there being no shrinkage due to absentee Federal administration; and "Whereas local interest in education should be strengthened and encouraged; it should not be weakened and discouraged to the point where more and more Federal aid would be required; and "Whereas the Supreme Court of the United States has in effect ruled on several occasions that the Federal Government has the right to control that which It subsidizes; and "Whereas Federal aid to education will have a further tendency to foster the de- lusion among our citizens and particularly among our children that dollars from the U.S. Treasury are somehow free; and "Whereas the Federal Government now has a nearly unmanageable debt of $290 bil- lion, has operated with a deficit in 24 out of the past 30 years, with a positive operating deficit already announced for the years 1961 and 1962, with a dollar that has eroded in valuefrom 100 cents in 1941 to 46 cents in 1961; and "Whereas Federal aid can be financed only through increased taxation or further deficit Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 A4132 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX Whereas his integrity and firmness in support of sound principles of good gov- ernment won for him the profound respect and complete confidence of the people of Brooklyn as well as of the entire city of New York, together with great acclaim from the public press for his achievements; and Whereas he has served the people of Brook- lyn diligently and faithfully as assembly- man, alderman, district leader, county leader and borough president; and Whereas the officers and members of the Kings Highway Democratic Club desire to record their profound sorrow caused by his death on May 7, 1981: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the Kings Highway Demo- cratic Club takes this means to formally express their grief upon this great loss and hereby extends to his beloved widow, Edythe Cashmore, and their son, James Cashmore, their heartfelt sympathy; and be it further Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to them as a humble expres- sion of our condolence. JOSEPH B. WHITTY, Executive Member. ABRAHAM J. MULTER, President. June 7 neers and lawyers to assist him in solv- ing the many problems and carrying out the multitude of tasks which faced him. A kind father, loving husband, a man of true stature in a community he was proud to call his home, the Honorable John Cashmore will be sorely missed by his loved ones and his many, many friends. He will long be remembered as The furnishing of electricity is a public trust and requires that we serve all con- sumers with adequate facilities at reason- able rates without discrimination. The power business is public business. THRESHOLD OF THE FUTURE Now a word about the future. So far, much of our effort has gone into pioneer- ing, organization, and building up our sys- tems. But now most of our utilities are catching their second wind. We do see much evidence that the tempo of change 1s increasing. Even if there were no new outside factors, we know we face many rapid changes. But there are some new outside factors. They will soon be hitting us like a big tidal wave. The Canadian Treaty, when approved, will add well over 2 million kilowatts to the power supply of our two countries. The Hanford reactor will add 700,000 kilowatts if approved, The high voltage intertie be- tween the Northwest and Southwest would provide 2 million kilowatts of interchange capacity and open a large market for our secondary power. If these three decisions, the Canadian Treaty, Hanford reactor and the interties, are concluded this year, we can surely say that 1961 will have been the greatest year in Northwest power history since 1933 when both Grand Coulee and Bonneville Dams were started. So we stand on the threshold of great events. Let us prepare ourselves and our utility enterprises to insure that the bene- fits from these developments will be passed on to the people who own these resources. In closing, I want to express my personal appreciation for the fine work which is be- ing done by the staff of the Northwest Pub- lic Power Association. I cannot think of a better way of complimenting our Execu- tive Secretary and his staff than by saying that they do not merely anticipate the changes and the progress of our public and cooperative power systems but that quite often they help to guide and to bring those changes about. Finally, I want to express appreciation to our committees, to the members of our board of trustees and to the whole member- ship for your fine cooperation. Thank you. Kings Highway Democratic Club, Brook- lyn, N.Y., Eulogizes the Late John J. Cashmore EXTENSION OF REMARKS ng Straight on Cuba HON. HAROLD C. OSTERTAG OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. OSTERTAG. Mr. Speaker, with all the discussion of the Cuban situation today, it is helpful to keep before us a clear analysis of the actual events which produced the present conditions. Such a review has been printed recently as an editorial in the Rochester (N.Y.) Demo- crat and Chronicle, and, under leave to extend my remarks, I present, the edi- torial "Blind Charges Against America Ignore, Deny Facts on Castro," dated May 28, 1961: BLIND CHARGES AGAINST AMERICA IGNORE, DENY FACTS ON CASTRO Again a certain segment of our people has proclaimed this the open season of the U.S. Government. Just as predictably as tax bills and funeral bills, this bloc of semiblind people seizes upon every flop in American foreign policy to attack not simply that flop, but everything before it, related to it, and even after it. There are psychological terms for the way these people reason, of which the most com- mon is mental block-but the old-fashioned term of wishful thinking comes closest. Now the Greek chorus is heard again. The case in point is Cuba. There is ad- mission on all sides that we goofed in the abortive invasion effort. Almost nobody defends it, liberals, conservatives, Republi- cans, Democrats, even governmental spokes- men. But let us not go into the actual Cuban invasion incident. Let us see what it has triggered. Here are some of the charges heard in Rochester, from individuals, from organiza- tions, even from a pulpit: In the past, when he carne to power we did not treat Castro with respect. The Secretary of State met him in a hotel room when he came to this country. We turned him down when he wanted to barter sugar for equipment. MAY 15, 1961. Mr. Speaker, John Cashmore was a very dear, longtime friend of mine. Born in Brooklyn on June 7, 1895, Mr. Cashmore was the youngest of 10 chil- dren. When he was quite young his father died and he began his working career by servicing a newspaper route to help his mother support the family. In World War I he served his country in the U.S. Army, returning, as a young man, to enter the trucking business in a small way. While thus engaged he studied business and law at New York University and worked around the Dem- ocratic Club of the old fifth assembly district. His district leader, the late James Sexton, soon noticed his energy and ambition and persuaded him to en- ter politics seriously. Cashmore aban- doned the trucking business and opened a furniture store. In 1922 he was elected to the State assembly and in 1925 he ran for alder- man. He won, and having thus gained the confidence of the people he was re- elected to that post until the board of alderman was replaced by the city council. In 1937 he was elected to the newly formed council and in 1938 he was elected by the Democratic members of the council as Democratic majority leader. In 1941 he was elected to a 4-year term as president of the Borough of Brook- lyn. Again, he so justified the faith of the people of Brooklyn that he was re- elected in 1945, 1949, 1953, and in 1957. HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, the president of the Borough of Brooklyn, John J. Cashmore, died in New York on May 7, 1961. On May 15, 1961, the Kings Highway Democratic Club passed a resolution expressing the grief that its members felt upon the loss of the late Mr. Cash- more. The text of that resolution follows : 'Whereas the late John J. Cashmore throughout his lifetime evidenced an in- tense interest in his community in all its civic, religious and philanthropic affairs; and As a tribute to his great public service ban treasury; then denied a loan to Castro. and impartiality he received-both in We cut his sugar quota. 1953 and in 1957-the formal nomina- our sugar and oil interests had grabbed tion of the Republican Party. Cuban land. In 1951 Mr. Cashmore had declined to There are two Cubas today-the one we run as the Democratic candidate for the read about, and the true one which we do presidency of the New York City Council. not read bou -and gthe ood true uewone is one is From 1946 until 1950 he served as which contains printed. Democratic leader of Kings County. Press releases are mass hypnosis; many are John Cashmore was well known as plain lies. one of the few men serving on the city Nothing has been printed about 1,000 board of estimate thoroughly familiar homes built. with all of the many citywide items This Nation suffers from mass irration- which confronted the board at its weekly 'ality; we oppose Cuba, but what about Chiang meetings. As borough president he sur- Kai-shek? What about the Dominican Re- rounded himself with competent engi- public? Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX In the last few weeks I have been doing a lot of thinking about the benefits of public and cooperative electric systems. This theme in itself is a tribute to the late Mr. Dean Barline. Until his untimely death February 12, Dean was president of the Northwest Public Power Association. I call your attention to the tribute to him which appears on your convention program. It was Dean's conviction and faith in pub- lic power which led to the selection of our convention theme. Thus, in a very real way, we will be honoring him, as we think about this theme, during our 3-day meeting here. It seems fitting for us to be meeting in Wenatchee to discuss the progress of public power. For-in the Chelan County Public Utility District-we have an outstanding success story on consumer ownership of an electric utility. Our association makes up a regional com- munity of 115 public and cooperative sys- tems which provide electricity to about 2,200,000 people in Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska. Our operations affect the lives of many people. What benefits do our people receive? What benefits do they enjoy that would not exist if there were no public and cooperative electric systems in our region? Breifly I would like to submit for your consideration nine major benefits. 1. LOCAL DEMOCRATIC CONTROL The first benefit of consumer ownership is inherent in ownership itself. Thereby we achieve local democratic control. The idea of a public and cooperative power system is like buying your own home as compared to renting. When you buy your home it belongs to you. There is the satisfaction and pride of ownership. There is no conflict of interest between consumers and stockholders because they are one and the same. The consumer is the stockholder and he has a voice in what goes on. Our meetings are public meetings. As Ivan Laird said in his presidential address last year, our systems are "democracy in action." This is a part of our democratic heritage. Our systems are responsive to the public will. The other benefits of our systems are im- portant, but they depend on consumer ownership itself with its local democratic control. 2. GOOD SERVICE The second benefit follows logically from the first. When the consumers and stock- holders are the same, the electric utility can focus its primary attention on giving good service. Many of our systems subscribe to the motto: "To provide the best possible electric serv- ice at the lowest possible cost, consistent with sound business principles." Our utilities are consumer oriented. The primary aim is. service. By service we do not mean just electric service. As Dr. Raver pointed out in his keynote address at our Eugene Convention last year, we are also involved in many forms of community service. 3. LOW RATES Following the benefits of local democratic control and good service, we come to the third benefit of low rates. This one we can measure in money. Last year our association made a survey that produced some surprising facts. We learned that our public and cooperative power systems since 1950 had made about 100 rate reductions which saved our consumers $11.6 million in 1960 alone. Extended over the next 10 years, these reductions will save our consumers $165 million in electric bills. In contrast, we found that private elec- tric company rates in our region were $20 million higher In 1960, and in the next 10 years will amount to $280 million more than in electric bills. Low electric rates can be illustrated an- other way. This morning it was my privi- lege to sign 32 awards which will be pre- sented tomorrow night. These are the One Cent Power Achievement Awards which are going to 31 public and cooperative systems for selling electricity last year for residential use at an average of less than 1 cent per kilowatt hour. The amazing story of our rate reductions has not received much publicity, but I would like to read one comment that appeared in a California newspaper, the Sacramento Bee: "The public power conscious Pacific North- west provided a classic example last year of the dollars and cents savings which can result when the people decide to serve them- selves with electricity instead of farming out the privilege to private utilities." 4. BETTER LIVING Low electric rates, in turn, permit and en- courage greater use of power and this leads to our fourth benefit of better living. We achieve better living through greater use of electricity in our homes, on our farms, in the shops and in the large industries. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. The proof of our electric systems lies in the effective use of more power for greater production and for a higher standard of living. A plentiful supply of low-cost power is the hope of the world for a better material way of life. An economy of abundance must begin with an abundance of energy. Several of our systems are reporting that their average home use of electricity was over 15,000-kilowatt hours in 1960. Two years ago in his presidential address Vince Cleaveland urged us to consider the 25,000- kilowatt hour home as the symbol of better living. Many of our systems are well on their way to this long-range goal of better living. 5. DEFT-FREE OWNERSHIP The fifth benefit can be seen in our grow- ing record of debt-free ownership or equity. As we cut our rates, we sell more power. As we sell more power, our utilities prosper. Our net income goes tip. With this net in- come we pay off bonds or build more lines. Either way this shows on our balance sheets as debt-free ownership or equity. This is the idea of buying your home instead of collecting rent receipts. Utimately we want to be debt free, and in fact, some of our sys- tems are debt free. When we pay off the bonds, we no longer have to pay interest. Our debt-free ownership has grown by about $200 million in the past 10 years, bringing our total accumulated equity to about $300 million. Today we are -o *1 th r In terms of net worth on our books, about three times what we were worth 10 years ago. The rapid rise in public equity shows that once the pioneering work is done, our sys- tems can take off like a rocket and get into the orbit of low rates, abundant use, better living for the consumer, and prosperity for the utility. So much for the fifth benefit of debt-free ownership. 6. SAVINGS TO TAXPAYERS My sixth point has to do with taxes and with the savings to taxpayers because our systems provide lower cost power for schools, street lighting, the county rock crusher, and other public uses. Our low rates are especially helpful to schools and local units of government be- cause they are heavy users of electricity, yet enjoy some of the lowest electric rates in the Nation. When we reduce the electric bills of tax-supported institutions, we are saving the money of the taxpayer. In addi- tion, we pay considerable taxes for the sup- port of schools and local government. Here is another case where we have tended to understate our position. The Washington A4131 Public Utility District Association last year printed a pamphlet with the title "A Real Eye-Opener About Electric Rates and Utility Taxes." It shows that we not only pay con- siderable taxes but in addition that we save a lot of money for schools and local govern- ment through our low electric rates. 7. INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION The seventh benefit of public and coopera- tive power can be measured in terms of in- dustrial expansion, the creation of new job opportunities and general economic progress. Truly, prosperity through low-cost power has been the watchword of the Pacific Northwest. Grand Coulee and Bonneville Dams were the turning point. Then came the war in- dustries, the aluminum companies and other large plants. We have proven that low- cost power attracts industry and new indus- try means more jobs, more tax base and greater economic prosperity. S. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION The same is true in rural areas. My eighth point is to pay tribute to the wonder- ful job which our systems have done to ex- tend electricity into the remote rural areas. Power on the farm has brought a new way of life to many people. I could talk a long time on this point and tell of my own frus- trating experiences in trying to get power on the farm. I lived on a farm in Douglas County until 1941 Without electricity. Rural electrification is one of the grestest of the benefits made possible by our systems. 9. FULL DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES My ninth and last benefit deals with the role of our systems in seeking the full, com- prehensive development of natural resources. We owe a debt of gratitude to the public power leaders who fought for the Grand Coulee Dam against the Washington Water Power Co. Proposal for the puny Kettle Falls Dam. Our consumer-owned systems fought for Hells Canyon Dam. While we didn't get Hells Canyon, we did get a number of by- products in the form of Ice Harbor Dam, John Day Dam, some major election upsets and a greater national interest in river de- velopment. Today many of our utilities are banded together in a battle for the full development of the Nez Perce reach of the Snake River. Thereby they are performing an important public service. Full development for the long run as against wasteful, partial development for the short run expresses one of the basic dif- ferences between the public interest and special interests. Our efforts for full de- velopment are paying off for the region as the ninth benefit. SUMMARY Of course, there are other benefits which I have not listed. You in your own system will know of other benefits. However, the nine I have cited have resulted in several hundred million dollars in gains the past 10 years. Let me run over the nine points, by way of summary. The first one is local owner- ship and democratic control of electric sys- tems. The second one is good service to the consumer. Third, low electric rates. Fourth, better living through greater use of elec- tricity. Fifth, increase in debt-free owner- ship. Sixth, tax payment and savings to taxpayers. Seventh, attraction of new indus- tries and job opportunities. Eighth, virtual completion of rural electrification. And, ninth, the promotion of full development of the natural resources of the Pacific North- west, Alaska, and British Columbia. I want to compliment every one of you and your utilities on the fine job you are doing in your communities in helping your people to live better electrically and to achieve the nine benefits I have listed. Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 1961 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A4133 We have standards which say that a dic- tator is good if he is on our side and bad if he is not. Castro has never approached the terror Cuba suffered under Batista. We never wanted Cuba to 'diversify its agriculture because this would hurt our in- terests. We are against the hopes and aspirations of Latin American people. They need land reform. We have not manufactured the above re- marks-some are taken from group state- ments, some from letters to the editor, some from at least one pulpit address. Now let us look at the record. And in looking at the record, we come to that overriding curiosity, that one bloc of people either cannot bring itself to regard a historic episode as a part of a larger pat- tern, or simply refuses to do so. Castro never asked to be officially invited to the United States but the American So- ciety of Newspaper Editors, first to bring him here, gave him perhaps the second greatest forum on, earth to state his case. We would except only the United Nations as a forum. Secretary of State Herter gave him a luncheon; Vice President Nixon, in President Eisenhower's absence, received him; and Castro expressed himself as happy with his treatment. Let us try to list here just a few of the items which a person must ignore if he is to to say that the Cuba of today, and the Castro of today, are products of America's policy: Ignore the fact that a minimum of 60,000 and a possible maximum of 200,000 Cubans are in jail in Cuba merely because Castro suspects they are against him. Ignore the fact that America made no effort to isolate Cuba until after Castro made it an official policy to arouse and maintain hostility to the United States. Ignore the fact that Cuba is now an iron dictatorship and a police state, and was long before the invasion attempt. Ignore the fact that Cuba violated the resolution of Caracas of 1954 by accepting shiploads of tanks, guns, bombs, and war- planes from the Reds. Ignore the fact that only Cuba balked at Latin American solidarity when the Organi- zation of American States met in Costa Rica. Ignore the fact that from the time Castro came into power, the United States made 9 formal and 16 informal offers to negotiate all differences. Ignore the fact that the United States was actually sympathetic to agrarian reform, and never protested expropriation-we sought reasonable payment. Ignore the fact that American business- men actually favored Castro before he came to power. Ignore the fact that Castro has shut down every single newspaper in Cuba which dared to oppose him-thus ending freedom of the press just as he had previously ended free speech. Ignore the pictures of weeping Cubans in lines blocks long before the American Em- bassy, trying to get visas to get out of Cuba. Ignore the steady flight of tens of thou- sands of Cubans to get away from Castro and stay out of the country. Ignore the fact that Cuban forces attacked both Panama and the Dominican Republic. Ignore the fact that Castro's Cuba is on the way to completely ending freedom of religion. Ignore the fact that Castro's agents have been captured throughout Latin America while engaged in such incidents as stealing documents in Peru-which prompted that country to break off relations, Ignore the fact that the Inter-American Press Association, whose members include such great fighters for freedom as Alberto Gainza Pas, the Argentina editor who bucked Peron and was forced to live in exile, sent a task force into Castro's Cuba-a task force made up 95 percent of Latin American edi- tors who had great hopes for Castro as a liberator-only to have the task force come out despairing and despondent of the leader- ship of Castro and the direction of Cuba as far as any liberties are concerned: Ignore the fact that American foreign policy now, and for several years has been to try in each Latin American country, to per- suade its leaders that they must help their people-evolution or revolution. Ignore the fact that the first Prime Minis- ter, the first President of the revolutionary government, most of the revolution's original political and military leaders, and two-thirds of the 19 members of the first Castro cabinet either oppose him now or are imprisoned or in exile. Ignore the fact, documented over and over again, that Cuba now is an out-and-out Communist springboard, the place from which Moscow hopes to take off and take over the Western Hemisphere piece by piece. This list could go on page after page. We present only this little bit of it in sorrow and with a certain amount of fear. The idealistic liberal who will not listen to any more than he wants to believe, far from being a functional arm of this de- mocracy, is as great a danger as the medie- val-type conservative who begrudges every penny spent for foreign aid, who refuses to see that in an atomic war we can be knocked out as fast as we can do the knocking out, and whose concepts of world order ended along about 1908. There is nothing new to the idea that what we need desperately in this country today are more liberal conservatives, or con- servative liberals-whichever way you please. But it is a dramatic need. We are sick and tired of seeing this coun- try-whose record Is the brightest on earth, however relative records are-run Into the ground as if it was an ogre bent upon the destruction of the rest of mankind. Amer- ica, on the record, a record with some pretty bad muddy spots, nevertheless is the bright hope in the world-and we would like to see this acknowledged. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN H. ROUSSELOT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. ROUSSELOT. Mr. Speaker, in the June 5, 1961, issue of the Washing- ton Star newspaper there appeared an editorial by David Lawrence entitled "Who Gained the Most at Vienna." In this editorial, Mr. Lawrence advances some thoughtful observations concerning the wisdom of our President "going to the summit" with the Communist Dictator Nikita Khrushchev. I ask unanimous consent to have the editorial printed in the Appendix of the RECORD: [From the Washington Star, June 5, 19611 'WHO GAINED THE MOST AT VIENNA? RED LEADER SEEN HOLDING TRUMP CARDS IN MEETING ALIEN TO DEMOCRATIC SPIRIT (By David Lawrence) President Kennedy got what he wanted- international attention, political publicity at home and a firsthand study of the per- sonality of the world's most powerful dic- tator. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev got what he wanted-worldwide attention as the man who holds in his hand the fate of many nations, publicity at home as the champion of the alleged superiority of com- munism over capitalism and a chance to size up the new President of the United States. Did the meeting advance the cause of peace? There was no armistice declared in the cold war. Even as the two leaders con- ferred, the Communist-inspired commanders in Laos were violating the cease-fire and Communist agents were active in Cuba-in fact, in countries on every continent as they were continuing to spread their subversive movements and to instigate demonstrations of friction between factions and races. For what, indeed, has the Soviet Premier to fear from such conferences? It is he who holds the trump cards and can make the decision to strike the first blow. He deals from strength against a Western alli- ance weakened by conflicting purposes of the leaders and also by the steady erosion of the spirit of resistance. Was the Kennedy-Khrushchev meeting worthwhile? It could result in more harm than good for the West in world affairs. For Khrushchev is revealed as the man of strength, while the Western leadership is portrayed both by the Communist press and by newspapers in neutral countries as cring- ing and fawning. About the only gain that can be chalked up now for Mr. Kennedy is on the political side within the United States. He had been regarded as youthful, inexperienced, imma- ture, if not brash and perhaps impulsive. It was important from his standpoint to dispel such impressions. What better way than in a summit conference In which no other Western leader participated and in which Mr. Kennedy was pictured before the voters of his own country-through television and the newspapers-as the sole spokesman of the free world? Time was when a summit conference in- cluded the Prime Minister of Great Britain and the President or the Prime Minister of France and when the Chancellor of West Germany was nearby to be consulted. But this meeting of two heads of state was billed as a get-acquainted affair, and the other Western leaders politely stood aside to give him the chance. It was regarded officially- perhaps with tongue in cheek-as having no agenda and as not a negotiation. The spectacle of one man talking for the West-and, indeed, during certain periods of the conference Messrs. Kennedy and Khru- shchev were alone except for interpreters-is alien to the tradition of democracy. Theo- retically, a congress or a parliament or even a secretary of state plays a part in the mak- ing of important agreements or in the con., duct of negotiations between governments, including commitments in the development of international policy. It all seemed more like the historic meetings at Vienna, Paris, and London between monarchs of old. There was the same pomp and ceremony, the same outward evidences of cordiality, the same misleading impressions that peace reigned supreme even as both sides reiterated through their spokesmen at lower levels a determination not to yield an inch in their respective positions. What can be accomplished this way that cannot be achieved as well, if not better, through the normal channels of diplomacy? At least there would be written records then of what is said by governments to each other, and such records can be important in carry- ing on future negotiations. For these are public and not private controversies-they concern millions of human beings, and not just two governmental figures preoccupied to no small extent with their own political fortunes. The Soviet dictator never hesitates to dis- regard his own signature on a treaty or Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 A4134 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- APPENDIX agreement-for he does not recognize good faith as such and believes that the end justifies the means. The danger is that, despite his insults to the preceding President of the United States--who helped once to save Russia from military defeat-despite the deliberate breaking up of the summit conference in 1960, and despite his showing of contempt for the West by pounding the table with his shoe at the United Nations General Assembly, the same tyrant is still treated with awe, with respect and even with fear by the leaders of the Western World. This species of appeasement once led imperialist Kaiser Wilhelm to misjudge Britain's innate resoluteness and caused Adolf Hitler to disregard the promises he made at Munich that had encouraged hopes of peace in our time. The result in each case was a world war. The total impression left on many. people by the latest summit conference is that a President of the United States went 4,000 miles across sea and land to kowtow to a man who, by his policies and acts, despoils human freedom and maintains the biggest slave em- pire in the world. Enough courage is mus- tered up hereabouts to issue statements de- fying little dictators like Castro and Trujillo, but not a big Khrushchev. It is a sad hour for the cause of liberty and democracy. Manifestations of defeatism are never good omens. Italy Observes Two Anniversaries EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. EMILIO Q. DADDARIO OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. DADDARIO. Mr. Speaker, on June 2, when the House was not in ses- sion, a significant anniversary for the free world was marked. Not only was the date the 15th anniversary of the es- tablishment of the Republic of Italy, but the occasion was also the 100th anniver- sary of the gathering of the first Italian Parliament in 1861. The people of Italy willingly and freely chose the republican form of govern- ment in 1946 for their future. In effect, this was a difficult and meaningful choice, for Italy, as a result of decisions made by her Fascist leaders some years before, had come to a state of chaos and anarchy by 1945. Different forces, some interested in the future of Italy, others interested in serving an alien master, were vying for control. The vote in 1946 was a vote for freedom and for the in- dividual. I have recently been studying some of the participation by Italy in the defense of the free world in recent years and I have been most impressed. Italy has re- built her own economy; Italy has en- couraged programs in the interest of a West European and NATO defense sys- tem and Italy has taken a lead in look- ing into programs which would help ease the problems of underdeveloped nations. The people of Italy have been chal- _lenged by hardship, by political, eco- nomic, social, and fiscal problems in their recent history. They have met that challenge and overcome it. They have worked hard to strengthen the democratic institutions in their country. On this 15th -anniversary celebration, I believe the United States can join whole- heartedly in wishing the people of Italy many blessings in the years to come. Extravagant and Inflationary EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CARLETON J. KING OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 24, 1961 Mr. KING of New York. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, I include the fol- lowing editorial published in the Troy Record, Troy, N.Y.: EXTRAVAGANT AND INFLATIONARY One of the leaders in President Kennedy's own party has dubbed the current rush to free and easy spending on Capitol Hill as "extravagant and inflationary." We hope that some of the bright economists within the inner sanctum of the New Frontier will take heed. The concerned son of Andrew Jackson is A. WILLIS ROBERTSON, chairman of the Sen- ate Banking Committee. He is disturbed about the fact that the Senate has been looking favorably upon a $6,100 million hous- ing bill. Yet if you add up the spending totals de- signed by the New Frontiersmen to give a spur to our economy you reach the conclu- sion that Franklin D. Roosevelt was on the timid side, in comparison. The House Ap- propriations Committee on Friday opened the sluice gates for money bills totaling $14,412,664,000. This adds up to $20 billion- plus to prime the national pump. The House committee gave money freely to 24 agencies, including a substantial $5,- 984,566,000 to the Agriculture Department. Fortunately the House recommendations- the largest of the session, so far-are sub- ject to action by the House and later by the Senate. Perhaps we are a victim of some wishful thinking or are downright naive. Yet it could be that some shrewd political engi- neers in the House decided to lump all the appropriations in one giant sum. Only in this way could they bring home the fact that the new administration is spending too much and inviting inflation. There are many on both the Republic and Democratic side of the fence who have the good sense to put on the brakes when we are becoming so extravagant that our solvency is threat- ened. We hope that the spending spree recom- mended by the House committee will cause a stir in some quarters. Former President Eisenhower, speaking critically of the Ken- nedy administration for the first time, tried to issue a warning. He pointed out that the trend toward Government by "big brother" is dangerous and destroys our individual in- dependence. It will get so that all authority is seated in Washington, and State and local agencies-where the little taxpayer has a better chance to be heard-will be bypassed. Politicians listen only when the general public brings pressure to bear. And it is difficult to arouse the public because it goes about its business with little concern about Washington bureaucracy. When a Government agency is given more money to spend the average person takes the point of view that maybe he will benefit. He seldom June 7 stops to think that he is helping to pay the bill that his taxes continue to.rise and that the approach of inflation will squeeze the dollar even smaller. Now is one of the times when the taxpayer should be con- cerned. The purse strings are being stretched to a danger point. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS M. PELLY OF WASHINGTON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. PELLY. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent I include in the Ap- pendix of the RECORD an editorial en- titled "Cuba Now, America Next." This editorial by Rev. James H. Gandrau ap- peared in the September 9, 1960, issue of the Catholic Northwest Progress and was judged best editorial in 1960 by the Catholic Press Association at its re- cent annual convention held in Van- couver, British Columbia, during May: CUBA Now, AMERICA NEXT On the evening of September 2, before a crowd of more than 3 million people who elbowed their way into Havana's Civic Plaza, Fidel Castro tore up the Cuba-United States Mutual Defense Treaty of 1952 and threw away the pieces. This dramatic incident marked Cuba's official severing of friendly ties with the United States and the estab- lishment pf diplomatic relations with all Communist countries. Without putting one Soviet soldier against one American soldier, Russia has extended her curtain of iron terror to encompass an- other 6,721,372 immortal souls. The Castro announcement was not one of war, but rather of Communist victory. The war in Cuba has been raging white-hot for years. Siding with Khrushchev merely marked the successful climax of months of ideological warfare. The main battle for men's minds in Cuba has been fought and won by the Soviets. Now it is merely a ques- tion of mopping up. While the free world slept, silent, efficient shock troops invaded newspapers, radio sta- tions and public offices. Like deadly spiders the vast mechanism of spies and propa- gandists wove a transparent web of lies around the weakening fabric of Cuban con- sciousness. "Everything wrong in Cuba can be traced to the United States, to Capitalistic imper- ialism or to religion. All would be right in Cuba if the people would only embrace com- munism." These were the deadly phrases, repeated over and over, that finally numbed the masses first into belief and then sub- mission. Day after day the Communists sunk all they had into the fight. The free world, like little children unaware of the danger, played with rockets, argued over whether or not a Catholic should be Presi- dent, and for the most part did nothing. Like the sting of a black widow, the poison of deceit and half-truths has para- lyzed the minds and wills of the Cuban people. The web has been woven and another nation, quite according to plan and sched- ule, has fallen into the trap. In the weeks to come, watch carefully how Russia, like a giant, bloated octopus, seeks to suck the remaining drops of Christ's precious blood from Cuba's poisoned veins. Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 A4122 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 7 they will next pass Britain's production of steel. Thus, there would seem to be at least suspicion that coal is going into steel pro- duction on a priority basis, while petrochem- icals wait their turn. It is worth noting a pair of specific ex- amples in the chemical industry which might indicate what could be expected from China in the future. Soviet technicians designed for the Chi- nese an ammonia plant rated at 50 tons pro- duction per day. Once put into operation the plant failed to deliver its rating. Chi- nese engineers went to work on the problem, realized that the plant was some 5,000 feet above sea level, and that Russian calcula- tions had overlooked this fact. The Chinese proceeded to place a booster in front of the air compressor for the plant which stepped up production by some 12 tons daily. In another case Russians had specified two operations in tandem to reduce carbon mon- oxide content in gases. The Chinese found that one of these processes could be elimi- nated and converted the second operation to the first process raising production 50 percent. In these cases the information can be re- garded as fairly accurate for in both cases the Chinese simply improved on Soviet equipment to bring it more closely in line with accepted Western standards. However, accuracy is not the main point. In each case the Chinese were readily able to im- prove on the Russian-designed equipment with which they were working. In this light it is significant that within the last year some 12,000 Soviet technicians in China packed up and went home. From the most optimistic standpoint this has been regarded as an indication of a Moscow/Peiping falling out, but it would be perhaps shortsighted to overlook the other possibility that such So- viet aid was no longer needed. It seems clear that raw material for an effective engineering profession exists in China. Quoting one man who spent 5 years as an unwilling guest of the Chinese, "they are among the most inventive people in the world." From their firsts in gunpowder and rocketry, a Chinese tradition of scientific discovery. Like so many other re- sources available in the nation, it is simply a matter of developing the engineering profession. In the 10 years since the Communists took over mainland China, industrialization has been one of the single most important goals of the nation's leaders. Tremendous effort has gone into industrialization and from their relatively low starting point some statistically impressive results have been achieved. To compare Chinese and Western stand- ards without considering the basic differ- ences between the two civilizations would be misleading and inaccurate. For one thing any serious industrialization in main- land China is relatively new. While a few hesitant steps were taken under Chiang Kai-shek to bring industry to China, it was not until 10 years ago that anything ap- poaching an all-out effort was made. One measure of this is that those plants and mills introduced by Chiang Kai-shek are still in use and in some cases provide ma- jor portions of current production. China's industrial aims are purely and simply to build industry. Not economical industry, and not efficient industry, but in- dustry for its own sake. Chinese journals give evidence of this attitude. After con- siderable study of these journals, L. C. Pan told the American Association for the Ad- vancement of Science that in chemical engi- neering, "the considerations of economy and efficiency seem to have been ignored. But economy and efficiency are two of the funda- mental principles of all branches of engi- neering. * * * This, then, points to the basic fact that economy and efficiency in Communist doctrine are quite different from economy and efficiency as we know them." The point is well taken, but equally true is the fact that major gains in efficiency in most industrial processes have come after the process itself is fully developed. It is hard to imagine efficiency being introduced into a given industrial process before the process itself has been mastered. The same applies to the economy and is especially true in a nation where some 18.5 percent of the gross national product can be plowed back into development of the economy. A second factor stemming from the low starting point- is a sort of earn-while-you learn brand of engineering education. This is shown in two ways. First, engineering students in China spend a great deal of their time working in practical rather than the- oretical situations. According to Li and Woo, "It is apparent how the close tie be- tween their education program and educa- tion is wrought. The students of Tsing Hwa University virtually have their own pro- duction facility where they have designed and built some special automobiles and broadcasting stations and the like. * * * The Chinese objectives are more toward pro- duction than are our research activities, and they have much more emphasis on student participation than we have." Further, in working with Russia, an in- dustrial plant will be built by Chinese engi- neers in Russia under Soviet supervision, then dismantled and shipped to China where it is rebuilt. The aim is both to speed con- struction and to provide basic knowledge to the Chinese, along with insight to the planning that must go into such a project. In training their engineers, the Chinese have one marked advantage over the West- ern nations. They are in the enviable po- sition of being able to decide how many engi- neers they will need at a given point in the future, so simply start training the proper number of students wtih enough leadtime to meet the need. Obviously, this means that supply and demand will tend to balance ahead of time and adequate engineers will be on hand when needed. So far, what have the results been? In- dustrial output is six times what it was in 1950. Machine tool output is up 45 times, Steel output has come from less than a million tons in 1950 to a projected 18 mil- lion tons this year, passing steel produc- tion in France. In many other areas the results are as startling and there can be little doubt that tremendous strides will continue to be made. But there is another side to the coin. Can the Chinese engineer continue to work ef- fectively under the all-pervasive political control that exists in Red China? Will the drastic reinvestment rate from the' gross national product continue to sustain itself? Will the lack of economy and efficiency begin to make itself felt? Will force-feeding work on what is basically and traditionally a professional class of men? The answers to these questions will have much to do with the industrial, technical, and economic future of mainland China. At the rate of present development, the an- swers will have to be found in the fairly near future. To this day many peasants in China are still waiting for the introduction of the steel- tipped plow, and are still living in a nation where the prime means of locomotive power is the ox. In spite of a backlog of Western technology on which to draw, China is prob- ably facing the biggest job of limited-time industrialization the world has yet to wit- ness. With the drive that is being given to industry and technology in China, progress is bound to come. And in large part, its eventual success or failure will be measured by the success or failure of China's engineer- ing profession. CHINESE CLAIMS IN MECHANICAL, ENGINEERING 1. World's third largest producer of coal. 2. World's sixth largest producer of steel. 3. Discovery of a large deposit of nickel, unknown before 1950. 4. Designed hydroelectric stations of 1,000 megawatts capacity, and thermal power elec- tric stations of 450 megawatts capacity. 5. Produced 72,500 kilowatt hydroturbine generators. 6. Produced complete steam powerplants up to 50,000 kilowatts output. 7. Has in operation a 7,000 to 10,000 kilo- watt heavy water type experimental reactor, the largest in Asia. 8. Extensive studies on fuel cells. 9. Made high-speed electronic digital com- puters with speed of 10,000 operations per second. 10. Testing of Chinese-made jet planes completed in 1956. 11. Produced transport planes for civil aviation at the end of 1957. EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. FRANK KOWALSKI OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. KOWALSKI. Mr. Speaker, fol- lowing my recent remarks on Cuba, I received many comments from my con- stituents as well as from residents of many other States from coast to coast. One letter, of striking clarity, came from Prof. R. Kent Fielding, of Wesleyan Uni versity, in Middletown, Conn. I would like to include in my remarks this particular letter, since I feel it is of interest to the Members of Congress and the American people generally. Here is the text of Professor Fielding's letter: WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY, Middletown, Conn., May 23, 1961. The Honorable FRANx Kow5LSnI, U.S. Representative from Connecticut, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: It is fortunate that there are those in our congressional delegation who can view the Cuban situation with objec- tivity, decide we have erred, and resolve to reassess our position with a view to helping, rather than hindering Cuban development. But in doing that, let us confess that the Castro revolution was once a revolution to- ward our values. Let us confess, also, that it was aimed at abuses for which our own people, as property holders in Cuba, were in a large measure responsible. Beginning from there, perhaps we can recognize that the Cuban fiasco is merely the momentary symbol of a deep confusion which everywhere paralyzes our policy and distorts our intent. There are a few simple facts we need to keep straight. Every schoolboy knows that Americans were once a revolutionary people. We believed-we still believe-that men have a right to govern themselves. In the name of that belief we once rallied behind leaders who, in 8 years of violence, succeeded in throwing off the sovereignty of Britain. Every schoolboy also knows that we re- gretted the violence of the revolution and were fearful of the volatility of the aroused masses. We, therefore, in our Constitution, regularized change by establishing firm pro- cedures which only allowed it to occur at stated intervals, and according to prescribed metes and bounds. Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 1961 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A4121 er and more lush? Why is the soil being conserved better than in other ways? It is simple. Water is held back by ter- racing, limestone treatment induces legume growth, sturdy roots are formed. The end result is excellent pasture; bet- ter, sweeter land for this and other gen- erations. How is all this accomplished? I will tell you how. It is done by the simple expedient of helping the farmer to help himself. This is the best kind of soil conservation policy and I urge you to vote down this amendment, or any amendment, which cripples this program. I feel just as assured as I did on a previous amendment that if this amend- ment is not voted down here in com- mittee, it will be voted down later in the House when Members are on record and when those for and against soil conservation will have to stand up and be counted. Mr. SMITH of Iowa. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. WILSON of Indiana. I yield to the gentleman from Iowa. Mr. SMITH of Iowa. It was even said here that lime was used to increase the yield of corn, when, as a matter of fact, corn is grown in acid soil. Lime is used on legumes which are not supported crops. Mr. WILSON of Indiana. Of course; they do not know what they are talking about. Lime is used to produce legumes which, in turn, harbors a nitrogen pro- ducing bacteria. This bacteria lives in the soil and grows there. When inocu- lated, the soil produces nodules on the roots of legumes and adds to the fertility of the soil, making it productive. This program does much for my section of the country in just this manner. It will continue to do more if not hobbled by this or any other crippling amendment. Engineering: Red China's Bridge to the Future EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. ALEXANDER WILEY OF WISCONSIN IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. WILEY. Mr. President, Red China-a nation of 650 million mobilized to the cause of communism-represents an ever-increasing threat looming on the horizon of the Far East. We recognize, of course, that huge population, as well as vast land areas can be a handicap, as well as an asset, in the Communist forces' efforts to mo- bilize manpower and resources for carry- ing forward the Red aims of world con- quest. Nevertheless, the Communists are making an all-out effort to overcome the handicap and to catapult Red China into a position of power and influence, not only within the Communist orbit, but also one to be seriously reckoned with by the West. How are they accom- plishing this? In many ways. Recently, the magazine of professional engineers, the American Engineer, pub- lished a thought-provoking article on how engineering is serving Red Chinese efforts to progress. Recognizing that Red China will be- come an ever greater power and menace to world peace, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ENGINEERING: RED CHINA'S BRIDGE TO THE FUTURE? Whatever the present state of Communist China's science, there can be no question but that within the next decade or two that nation will be one of the world's scientific giants. The source of the above statement is the New York Times, one that is generally con- sidered reliable. The subject of the state- ment, mainland Communist China, is unquestionably one of the most enigmatic factors in the world today. It is equally one of the most threatening. Directly con- trolling a quarter of the world's population and enough natural resources to be almost entirely self-sufficient, China in the past has lacked only a few of the.factors which would make it one of the outstanding world powers, among them-organization and adequate development of her available resources. The problem of organization of the state pertains mainly to population and has been well handled. Under the iron control of the Peiping Communist regime, to say that China is organized is to understate the situa- tion. It is, for instance, unlikely that many other nations in the world could move a million men to or from a given construction project at will. In one dam construction project, however, the Chinese did exactly this. The number of men involved was roughly 20 percent more than the total popu- lation of the District of Columbia. The stories of the mobilization of China's half-billion population are well known: The great beehive construction projects, the so-called backyard steel furnaces, the over- whelming armies of "volunteers" in Korea which offered a battlefield technique as in- comprehensible as it was effective against Western opponents. Through a political con- trol that permeates even the family level encompassing the military, social, economic, and technological phases of life in China, the Peiping government has succeeded in organizing and directing the efforts of the world's largest single population with an un- wavering eye toward making China a world power. Certainly the odds for reaching this goal are in China's favor. Whether or not the present Chinese Government will acomplish all of her goals is highly debatable, but it would be out of step with the times to ig- nore the fact that China must be reckoned with as a force that will be growing more powerful in the future. Presently one major weakness in China's structure is technological development. No one is more acutely conscious of this fact than the Chinese themselves. Clearly, tech- nological progress is one of the key points in any program to build an international power of a nation. This point could be no more adequately underlined than it has been in the rivalry between Western nations and the Soviet/East European bloc. The very existence of the struggle between nations for technological prowess emphasizes the im- portance of advanced technology to a na- tion bent on increasing its power, perhaps to the point of world dominance. As a result China is presently leveling its sights on vast improvements in its tech- nology. Manpower is being mobilized to this end. Technical information is being col- lected from every available source. Educa- tion is being intensified. All these methods are tied directly to immediate production of equipment, information, and industrial prog- ress that will help to pay for the education of the Chinese nation. As in every other phase of Chinese life, science and engineering operate under un- yielding political control. At least for the time being this channeling of efforts has proved profitable, if the information re- leased by Red China can be believed. Un- fortunately almost all information available on the state of engineering and scientific progress in Red China is generated by her own propaganda machines. A group of papers on engineering recently presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science have proved valuable in making any type of assessment of the profession. By and large these pa- pers represent thorough research of the few technical journals published in China that are available in the West. Although the papers were occasionally supplemented by personal contacts, it must be remembered that any mainland Chinese would be well indoctrinated before being allowed to make contacts with the West. One example of questionable accuracy is offered by Chinese claims in electronic data processing. According to a paper presented to AAAS by Yao Tzu Li and Way Dong Doo, Chinese newspapers announced in October 1959, that Chinese engineers had been able to construct a computer that effectively translated Russian into Chinese. Indeed, such a computer would be a major scien- tific accomplishment. To achieve these re- sults the computer would have to deal with both the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language and the roughly 10,000 characters which make up the Chinese language, as well as two entirely different theories of language. The opinion of an American electronic en- gineer is significant: "It's generally ac- knowledged that the United States leads the world in computer technology, and we still haven't developed a translator that works. I'd be highly skeptical of their claim. For one thing, they say the machine uses 4,000 vacuum tubes. We haven't used tubes in our machines for years. They simply don't measure up with solid state equip- ment." Variations on this same theme probably hold true in more cases than have been ad- mitted. On a broader scale, major recent failures in agriculture and the complete flop ,of the backyard blast furnace program would certainly seem to indicate that a large grain of salt should be taken with most claims coming from mainland China. Even assuming their accuracy, claims from China for specific technical accomplishments are often misleading. Besides the heavy propaganda element, the society in question is closely controlled and directed. Where the Chinese are tremendously ahead or be- hind in a given area of technology, it is often a matter of priorities and not abilities. Thus, in the words of L. C. Pan before AAAS, "One has the impression that Communist China is fairly strong in the technology of heavy chemicals such as mineral acids and alkalis, but rather weak in that of petro- chemicals such as alcohols, solvents and or- ganic acids derived from hydrocarbons, and of high polymers such as synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers, and organic films." Pan points out that although Red China is not richly endowed with oil or natural gas, it has extensive coal deposits which other nations have used to build a petrochemical industry. However, China currently places tremendous stress on Iron and steel produc- tion. In the last year steel output in China passed that of France, and Peiping claims Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A4123 We were able to regularize revolution, be- cause, actually, we had always been a con- servative people. A study of our Institutions before and after the revolution clearly re- veals that we have always been gradualists, evolutionists, not fire-eating advocates of bloody anarchy. We have preferred to suf- fer evils while they were sufferable rather than to right them by overthrowing those institutions and practices to which we had long been accustomed. The Civil War marked the bounds of one period of suffer- ance. The election of 1896 and of 1932 marked the bounds of others. These have been our own practices. We have succeeded in maintaining democracy within one country. But we have always aspired to world revolution. We were once so enraptured of democracy, including the ultimate right of revolution, that we praised the overthrow of colonial control by the Latin Americans after 1807 and aided it in 1898. When Europe seemed to threaten de- mocracy in 1823, we put them on guard that the new hemisphere was reserved for demo- cratic practices. We asked the powers be- yond the oceanic moat to leave this hemi- sphere alone. We promised to reciprocate. But we applauded the democratic revolutions of 1830 and 1848 in Europe as evidence that ours was the tide of the future. What has happened to the American world revolution? How is it that Europe, once lib- erated, turned away from democracy to to- talitarianism? How is it that after 130 years, under the Monroe Doctrine protecto- rate, Latin American democracy is In many places still perilous, still unstable, still under a wasting creed of anarchy that runs unbro- ken from one military dictator to another? Our present policies are intended to' ex- tend our hand in friendship and in strength to the suffering everywhere. This is our modern concept of revolution, raised in 1898. The wealth, the power and the intelligence of America are committed to it. Unfortu- nately, our practices have made us the ob- ject against which all revolutions, of neces- sity, must henceforth be aimed. We have now become the universal judge of how long evils are sufferable, of the impropriety of change by any standard other than the ballot box, or toward any economic system but free enterprise. We insist upon con- stitutional procedures where no tradition for them has been cultivated. We are every- where on the side of stability, even if it masks flagrant abuse to democratic values. Ironically, Russia, with its practices of despotism and censorship, has inherited the title we have voluntarily vacated, and has made itself appear to be the champion of freedom. In so doing, Russia has challenged not our strength, but our weakness---our in- ability to Implement our own concept of revolution. Can we not again raise a standard of revolution that wilt put all the world on guard that America stands for the balance between human rights and property rights which, we flatter ourselves, obtains here? Can we not make revolution unnecessary by helping to remove its cause? Can we not show that when in doubt, we cast our lot with humanity? Can we not enlist the creative energies of mankind in the enter- prise? There are certain historical forces which can be made to work for the wise. Today most of them work against, us, largely be- cause of our ineptitude. In all they are the values and standards of the middle class. Our long-range objective everywhere in the world must be to build up an economic middle class, confident that there will flow from it the political, Intellectual, and re- ligious forms which characterize democracy. In particular, nationalism will work for us, rather than for communism. The en- tropy of creedal fanaticism will work for us, and against communism. But we must re- move ourselves as the object against which these forces rally. The upward mobility aspirations of humanity will work for us. The comfort psychologies which impel men to enjoy, rather than to suffer, will work for us. The belief of the middle class, inspired of humanism, that heaven awaits only the agency of man will work for us if, we be- come the reservoir and the right handed strength of this belief. We need not fear Castro and seek to destroy him. Let him have his island. We have much work to do elsewhere. But let us note that he is a captive of economic forces. His only salvation lies in outside aid. It must be ours rather than Russia's. Let him hate us if he will, but if he controls Cuba and is willing to work for its genuine economic improvement, let us help him. If he does this, be he Fascist or Communist, he aids our cause. There is precious little time for our re- assessment. The world has waited upon us as a modern power capable of exerting lead- ership, for 60 years. We have made far greater progress in our own thinking than in our practices. We are still not certain of how to proceed with our work. DeToc- queville may have been correct in condemn- ing the ability of democracy to work for long range objectives. While we vacillate in in- decision, our moment of opportunity passes. The gospel of love which we have preached and practiced since the Marshall plan and point 4 cannot be forever maintained in the face of contumely and in the presence of frustration. The cynicism and contempt which they breed ripens us for reaction. Only the shrinking oceans prevent It. Let us be forthright. If we have made errors, let us confess them. If we must eat crow, let us eat it openly and with such good humor as we can muster. If we must renounce a policy, let us renounce it, not merely cease to practice it and take up an- other, supposing that no one will notice. This is even more true of Red China than of Cuba. Reeducation and planning can best be done from that central stage of American attitude which is the Congress of the United States. Our world is arranged to wait upon your leadership, not you upon ours. Strong words may call for political martyrdom where a man depends upon mass opinion for his reelection. This is too much to ask, though it affords an opportunity for greatness which no actor on the stage should ignore. If there is anything that can be done, for the sake of the Republic, let us do It. Fur- nish the occasion and those of us who sit securely upon our tenure In the universities will make our offerings. Sincerely, R. KENT FIELDING, Associate Professor of History. Fiftieth Anniversary of Naval Aviation EX'T'ENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. J. GLENN BEALL OF MARYLAND IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. BEALL. Mr. President, one of the great patriotic organizations of our coun- try, the Navy League of the United States, better known as the civilian arm of the Navy, last week held its 59th an- nual convention and air-sea-power sym- posium in our Nation's Capital, during which time they commemorated naval aviation's 50th anniversary. Naval aviation had its beginnings Jan- uary 18, 1911, when Eugene Ely piloting one of the earliest model Curtiss biplanes landed on and took off from a 120-foot platform on the stern of the U.S.S. Penn- sylvania in San Francisco Bay. The 1961 air-seapower symposium reviewed the contributions of gallant Navy and Ma- rine airmen to the evolution of flight since that memorable day. Many of the historic highlights in na- val aviation occurred in the State of Maryland where many of the earliest experimental flights were made by naval aviators stationed at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, America's first naval air base. The heroic Comdr. T. Gordon Ellyson, naval aviator No. 1, was one of these great pioneers. Commander Ellyson set several aviation records flying the crude fabric and strut aircraft of the early 1900's. The commander died when his plane crashed in a flight from Norfolk to Annapolis in 1928. He was the first of the men who proudly wear naval avia- tion's golden wings. At the convention a remarkable dis- play of military and industry exhibits provided the public with a better under- standing of the latest scientific and tech- nological advances in our Nation's arsenal. This gathering had its climax at a banquet attended by nearly 2,000 per- sons who bade farewell to retiring Presi- dent Frank Gard Jameson and welcomed aboard Mr. Robert Crown as the new head of the Navy League. In the program of this dinner is a message by Mr. Charles M. Feather- stone, Jr., president of the Navy League's District of Columbia Council, which summarizes the ambitions and traditions of Navy fliers and rededicates the Navy League to Navy and a future of un- limited horizons. I ask unanimous consent that the message be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the message was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Ali, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp, Or what's a Heaven for? -Browning. We stand before unlimited horizons as we commemorate the golden year of the golden wings. A new era of flight dawns as a grateful Na- tion celebrates the 50th anniversary of naval aviation. Once again, as they have times without number, since that first historic flight on January 18, 1911, golden wings, blazing brilliantly across the skies, boldly pushed back man's horizons-opening new challenges to be solved by men. From Ellyson to Shepard, the golden wings have soared ever further, ever faster and ever higher. They have not been alone fn their achievements, for with them flew the pray- ers, the dreams and the labors of so many. As they explored the unknown seeking out its secrets and turning into reality the vis- ionaries' dreams-the golden wings con- tributed to man's knowledge of flight, of the universe, of the earth and of himself. America is today a greater Nation, a better place to live, because these golden wings had the courage and determination, the love and the spirit to chart new courses in the sky. Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 . Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9 A4124 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX It has not always been an easy task. Many women still cry-but with a fierce burning pride that their golden wings still fly. Therefore, from a Nation of free men, a "well done" to those who wear the wings of gold and our renewed faith and pledge to keep alive the glorious traditions of all men who wear the Navy blue. CHARLES M. FEATHERSTONE, Jr. President District of Columbia Council Navy League of the United States. Mansfield's Money Tree EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Speaker, we are naturally preoccupied with the prob- lems here in the House of Representa- tives, but it is well for us to be reminded of the activities in the other body. Re- cently, the Suburban Life, an outstand- ing publication in the Chicago area, in an editorial discussed a unique proposal now under consideration in the U.S. Senate. I submit for the RECORD this editorial which appeared on March 25 and which is entitled "Mansfield's Money Tree": MANSFIELD'S MONEY TREE Every time we think we've heard them all, another one comes along. This time it's a bill in the U.S. Senate, among others on proposed election reforms being considered by a subcommittee, which would provide that Federal funds be given to political parties to reimburse them for campaign broadcast costs. Apparently Senator MIKE MANSFIELD, Democrat, of Montana, who introduced the bill, has been in a huddle with Congressmen and Senators of both parties who have found it pretty rough digging for campaign gold in recent years. The Senate majority leader's subsidy bill for radio and TV political broadcasts would give each major political party up to $1 mil- lion and minor parties up to $100,000 during presidential campaigns. This is ridiculous. Where are we going to stop? Or, if we're not going to stop, why don't we just stop calling this Nation a Republic? We're already living in a semisocialistic state. Why not admit it? If the Senator's bill were to become law, the Government could be rudely awakened some morning to find it had been subsidizing propaganda broadcasts by Communists and other subversive elements. Furthermore, what would stop any group of hungry politicians from organizing a minor party and joining the election hoopla, knowing they would be reimbursed for their campaigns, no matter how serious their efforts. If the truth were to be admitted, the politicos would tell us how hard it is these days to come by campaign cash. What do they expect? They hit us left and right with all kinds of taxes and then expect us to kick in with more funds so that they can be reelected and enact more taxes. Now Senator MANSFIELD is attempting to bring the wheel to a full turn by seeking a law which would provide the parties with campaign money without the necessity of bothering the people with direct donations. Well, it does bother us, Senator. If the politicos want the public offices, and the scramble for nominations indicate they do, let them pay their own freight. No one pays our carfare when we go looking for jobs. Again Urges Total Cuban Embargo EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DANTE?B. FASCELL OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSI OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 29, 1961 Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, I urged the last administration as I have re- quested this one to impose a total em- bargo on the Communist government of Cuba. I am, today, reasserting the necessity for the United States to take this action. In making such a statement, the hu- manitarian aspect of the pending trac- tors for prisoners exchange with Cuba is not to be disregarded. There is more than one way in which the lives of these political prisoners can be saved. It is not for the United States, directly or indirectly, to handle such negotiations. Furthermore, a complete embargo should be maintained even though this would prohibit shipment of U.S.-made tractors directly to the Cuban Government. A recent editorial of the Miami Herald expresses my sentiments and that of millions of Americans : From the Miami Herald, May 23, 19611 BLACKMAIL FROM HAVANA We wish our Cuban visitors well in their compassionate effort to ransom members of the April 15 invasion force. The humanity of this act is an example before the world of Fidel Castro's disdain of human life and his maniacal dictatorship. By no means, however, should the United States involve itself in this worthy venture. Castro will surely seek to trap us into par- ticipation as a propaganda device. Indeed, his offer of 1,200 prisoners for 500 bulldozers or tractors was directed to Washington. There are resources among Cuban visitors and their associates ample for the purpose of saving Castro's captives. They should be free to make the best possible arrangement. As a deal insolently offered the United States, however, this is pure blackmail. It smacks of our troubles as a young nation with the Barbary pirates. If this govern- ment were to take Castro's bait it would incur the usual penalty of dealing with a blackmailer and cheat-endless blackmail- ing and cheating. Almost from the beginning of the Repub- lic until the War of 1812, the infant United States found itself fair game for the bandit nations of the Mediterranean. They raided our ships. They impressed our seamen. They asked for-and got-tribute and ran- som money until the country was revolted by its own timidity. When the Dey of Algiers went too far in his humiliation of the United States in 1812, Congress sent Capt. Stephen Decatur to the Mediterranean with 10 war vessels. Decatur stormed into the harbor of Algiers and made the Dey sing a different song. Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli were compelled to sign treaties renouncing demands for ran- som and restoring American personnel and property. And that was that. Castro's blackmail project is even more crude. We fear that it will have no end, June 7 and that our Cuban friends may be tricked and tricked yet again by a man who has no morals and does not respect morality in any- one else. But this, as we have said, is the Cubans' business. As for ourselves, the line was laid down long ago by no less compassionate a figure than Thomas Jefferson. In 1791 he wrote Thomas Barclay: "We prefer war in all cases to tribute un- der any form, and to any people whatever." Hurricane Spy EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. OVERTON BROOKS OF LOUISIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, June 7, 1961 Mr. BROOKS of Louisiana. Mr. Speaker, Mark Twain living today would have to eat his words about everybody talking about the weather but nobody doing anything about it. One of the electrifying developments of the space age has been the possibilities opened up by Tiros I and II, meteorological satel- lites, for global weather forecasting and perhaps for eventual control of the weather. Now, with the annual hurri- can season rapidly approaching, the Na- tional Aeronautics and Space Admin- istartion plans within a month to launch its third Tiros satellite and it is hoped that its cameras will disclose the secrets of hurricane formation, thereby giving us a chance to discover means by which hurricanes can be controlled. This pro- gram, which is being accelerated as a result of President Kennedy's request for an enlarged space program, will al- low NASA to keep at least one Tiros satellite in orbit and in operation at all times for the next 2 years. An article in the New York Times of Monday, May 29, and written by Mr. John W. Finney, explains the NASA and Weather Bureau program, as follows: SATELLITE To ACT AS HURRICANE SPY-TIROS III To FOLLOW COURSE OF STORMS THIS SUMMER (By John W. Finney) WASHINGTON, May 28.-The Weather Bu- reau plans to have its first hurricane hunter in space this summer-a weather satellite capable of photographing the life of a tropical storm from birth to its destructive death. With the unparalleled view provided by a satellite, Weather Bureau scientists are hopeful of discovering how hurricanes are born and perhaps a method of killing the storms in infancy. Within the next month, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration plans to launch its third Tiros meteorological satel- lite. The launching date has been deliber- ately set to coincide with the hurricane sea- son in the Atlantic, and it is hoped that the satellite, with its two television cameras, will be able to take pictures of at least one hurricane in action. VANTAGE POINT From its vantage point of several hun- dred miles in space, the weather satellite would provide an opportunity for meteor- ologists to view and examine a hurricane in its entirety-something impossible from air- Approved For Release 2004/03/11 : CIA-RDP64B00346R000200170007-9