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July 5, 1957
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Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 SR/DIV (24) PRESS COMMENT 5 JULY 1957 FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY DO NOT CIRCULATE Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 INDEX PAGE General 1 Eastern Europe 9 Western Europe 30 Near East, Africa 34 For East 38 Western Hemisphere 39 The Crisis in Communism 41 CPYRGH New York Times Summary International The three veteran Soviet leaders Molotov, Kaganovitch and Malenkov have been dis- missed from their high Govern- ment as well as their party leadership positions, the Krem- lin announced. Reports in Poland said they were under house arrest. The Soviet Gov- ernment was represent0 at the United States Embassy's In- dependence Day reception by Foreign Minister Gromyko, First Deputy Premier Mikoyan and Nikolai M. Shvernik, one of tile new appointees to the party Presidium. [Page 1, Column 8,.1 The dismissal of two inern- hers of the Rumanian Comm- ilist party Politburo was an- nounced, amid indications that advance notice of the Moscow decisions had been sent to other Communist parties. [1:6.] In China, the news was pub- lished and broadcast without comment. But observers noted tbat the eclipse of Kaganovitch and Molotov made Mao Tse- thng more than ever the senior living Communist in the World. 14:6.1 _ Meanwhile Muscovites went about their shopping in the shadow of the Kremlin, and expreased their hope that the party in its wisdom had served the misuse of peace and pros- lieritT. There were a. few who 4ared to disagree with the changes. [1:6-7.) . In Washington, there was a holiday calm very different from what would have been going On a few years ago. Both the President and the Secretary of State were out of town, and the Voice of America was put- ting out entirely unofficial re- actions to the news. [1:7.] Experts on Soviet affairs thought Defense Minister Zhu- kov would be the No. 2 man in the reshuffled regime. [2:4-5.] Prime Minister Nehru of In- dia said in London that the changes meant a return to nor- mality after a long revolution- ary period. [2:3.] Senator Humphrey proposed the formation of a United Na- tions Good Offices Commission to explore means of solving the problem of the 900,000 Arab refugees from Palestine. He said that Israel should accept a d'token" number of repatriates, and that the rest should be settled in Jorden, Iraq, and other Arab states. 11:4.1 The Egyptian Defense Minis- ter flew unexpectedly to Saudi Arabia, apparently in an effort to ease the strained relations between the two countries and to revive President Nasser's goat of a neutralist bloc. [8:4-5.] Pope Pius gave his blessing to fashion experts at a special audience with the personnel of a big Rome couturier. [1:4-51 Nehru views Soviet sh.ft as return to normality. Page 2 Khrushchev problem seen in Malenkov's ouster. Page 3 Profile of Zhukov, the "Ei- senhower of Russia." Page Bonn unity hopes rise after Soviet changes. Page 4 Bonn House approves anti- cartel law. Page 7 Conviction of prominent Mos- lem arouses Algiers. Page 8 Death toll estimates rise in Iranian quakes. Page 8 Tunis and Morroco give as- aurance to Jews. Page 9 High Nasser aide speeds to Saud on unity mission. Page 9 Approved For Release 2002/07/22: CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT Y. Times JUL 4 195 U. S. MAY SPREAD 'CLEAN' BOMB DATA President Weighs Proposal to Give Others Knowledge on Eliminating Fall?Out CPYRGHT CPYRGHT GENERAL /i. T. Times JjJ soo.1.1 By JACK RAYMOND specie to The New York Tenn. ? WASHINGTON, July 3 -- ..e.eMe.. tle ...I.....e. cola Leto he was thinking of sharing' with the Soviet Union and other com- es the knowledge of how to . produce "Mean" hydrogen bombs. Sort * step would require legislation, be said. But he dis- closed that he nad asked his scientific advisers about. the pos- sibility of sharing, and they had suggested such a course might be adopted as soon as they had proved they could produce a bomb totally free of dangerous radioactive fall-out. The President saki that in the meantime he intended to invite foreign countries lo make their own measurements of the per- centage of radioactivity on the site of the next United States, hydrogen bomb detonation, This should serve as an aP-1 propriate test by doubters of the: contention that 'even now only; 4 per cent radioactivity results from the explosion of United. States hydrogen bombs, the Prenident declared. It-eaS Given la Others President Eisenhower opened his news conference with an an- nouncement that the United States was making more man- WM-235 available in the peaceful uses of atomic power. . In response to questions about Carted States policy on disarm- am.ent and the effects on that policy of reduced radioactive fended, in bomb explosions, the; President emphasized: !The United States stands[ firm on its position at the Lon- don disarmament conference,: ?agreeing to a temporary suspen- sion of nuclear arms tests if it will lead to an end of bomb- making. 011ie United States disarm- ament position Was carefully f worked out over $ period of at least three years and its pro- posals are not designed to refute allegations of insincerity. 9The United States' effort to produce "clean" bombs is in- Emoted to make peaetime uses of nuclear energy possible, for :example, in the building of jtunnels or in moving mountains. Need: of Unity Strearsed The President also discussed at some length the importance of coordinating United States dis- armament proposals with those of its pities. "You don't want to go to the Soviets; or to any other nation, for exempla and make a pro- posal that affects a third coun- try without that third country's a.pproval, because then you sud- denly become like Napoleon and Alexander, on a raft in the . Vistula, settling the fate of Europe?' The President referred to a. meeting in 1807 that took place. on the river Neeman, or Memel. ?We are not doing that," he? continued, stressing that the Icing laborious process of work-: ing out policies required con- sultation with West Germany,' France, Britain, Canada and all the countries .of the North At': lantic Treaty Organization. With some heat he responded to a question whether the United States "dare" be sincere in dis- armament by declaring, "You mustn't think that this whole business of disarmament fluid as it is, is operated on the hares of shooting from the hip." President Eisenhower stressed the "political, psychological ef- fects" of getting on with a dis- armament agreement, "even if you suffered some scientific dis- advantage" The President did not specify what these disadvantages might be, but presumably he referred Co testimony by scientists of ? the Atomic Energy Commiesion that s. suspension of nuclear arms testa would impede the develop- ment of new weapons as well as peacetime protects. However, Charles E. Wilson, Secretary of Defense, has said [Jett a sueponsion of nuclear sems tests would not halt the development of the long-range ballistics missile, 'since the de- irelopment of delivery systems could continue. In addition Secretary Wilson eats said that suspension of the Melees, arms tests would con- stitute little more than a "nui- sance," and need not affect the international arms race at, Ml. The President revealed, in re- iponse to a 'question, that when as set down the final disarma- ment position for the talks in London last May 25, he knew Mat the United States had sue- teeded in reducing bomb radio- rictivIty fall-out by at least 90 cer cent. 'Clean' Bomb Data Lacking But no one bad suggested to nin at the time that "complete- y clean" bombs were possible, Othough Lewis L. Strauss, ?hairman of the Atomic Energy ,Iommission, had forecast "N ser cent clean" bombs, General Eisenhower went on. Then the President said, "in- ?Mentally," while there was 'very hopeful." talk of suspend. rig tests, he planned to invite my country in the world that canted to come to test the radio- settee fall-out of United States somas to do so "if, ever tinder my circumstances there is &n- ether test made." CPYRGHT JUL 5 flu/ CONGRESS IS WART ON GIVING MOSCOW `CLEAN' BOMB DATA Knowland, Mansfield ard Holifield Express Doubt? Hickenlooper for Plan Special to The New Yore Time. WASHINGTON, July 4. Co Lion that this country give U e Soviet Union the formula for a "clean" hydrogen bomb appeared today to be weighted oil the u - favorable side. William F. Knowland of Ca - Contra the Senate Republican,' leader, said he deubted that Co James C. Hagerty, Whit? House press secretary, eon:Innen [afterward that this was not r reference to the current nuclear test series in Nevada, In answer to the questio whether there wag any way I I which the United States tout share its knowledge of precis:min clean bombs, the President it plied that he had raised the- westion himself "the second th scientists talked to me about it. And the scientists told Mu 'Why, the minute that we hay srovedwhat we say we ar . , . going to prove. Why, we would want them to have ft," Presider.. Eisenhower continued. It appeared from the transcrigt of the President's remarks that he had not himself advocated this action, but it was clear that he had thought about it ant raised the possibility without prompting. Last week President Eiser- lower MM that he hoped the eussians would learn how t take a bomb free of radioaetiv Otil-out and that, in the even. A' war, that was the kind a: weapon they would use. "We are trying to make IIM4 maths, clean hornba, and to de- velop usefulness in a peacefut vorld, as well as just weapons war," he said. . "There are devices that ar cot necessarily weapons," h old another questioner, "If yel tad this clean, completely dear welled, I should think that i 3Uilding of tunnels or you migh lay, moving mountains and tha iort of thing, you could hay nasty economical, lintel, peace ul purposes for the thing and d course, you wouldn't want a leny civilization the opportunitt e using it? This 'recalled statementh by ttelin shortly before his deati hat the Soviet Union could rnoin nountains with , nuclear devices Approved For Release 2402107122 . CIA norcc 00746R000500130067-0 1 furnish the Soviet Union with such information. Senator Nne Mansfield, Democrat of Montana, said: 'I would be careful about glv- i Mg our formula away.'' , President Eisenhower, at his ; news conference yesterday, said 'that some nuclear scientists had told him that they favored giv- ing the Soviet Union and other nations information about mak- ing a bomb relatively free of radioactive fall-out. General Eisenhower did not say explic- itly that he favored this course hanself. 96.70 of Fall-Out Eliminated Previously, the President had noted that scientists believed that they had eliminated about 96 per cent of the radioactive fall-out from such devices and with time could reduce the amount even more, Representative Chet Holifield, Democrat of California, a mem- ber of the Joint Congressional Atomic Commission, said: 'If the President means that we should reveal to the Soviets how to make a clean bomb or any other kind of bomb, this is a complete reversal of our national policy and security." Stich a step would require Congressional approval. The President did not say any- thing about dieclosing bomb - making secrets, but only a for- mula for avoiding most fall-out. Senator Bourke B. Ilickem looper, Republican of Iowa, also a member of the Joint Atomic Committee, indicated cautious support of the proposal. "Through such programs as this," les said, " we may be able some day to obtain assurances that in event of another war all nations will have clean bombs." Knowiand Is Doubtful Senator Knowland remarked: 411 doubt that Congress would be prepared to turn over any weapons information to the So- viet Union." Mr. Mansfield, in an interview, deceased, "Before we agree to give thern a.ny information we certainty should have an iron- clad agreement., backed by sscape-proof inspection arrange- ments to do away with the building of the bigger bombs and a disarmament plan which would tut down defense expendituies for all countries." Senator Mansfield, the acting Democratic leader. toldthe Sen- ate yesterday that the search or a [?'elean" bomb must not be permitted to obscure attempts to reach an agreement to ban future testing of large bombs. .E am not at all convinced that ULC use of a 'clean' bomb would automatically displace the use f hydrogen weapons which would spread radioactive fall-out over a lareg area," he said, "We as Americans may not use 'dirty' bombs, but who is to say that tL pi Ill.., wise? 4' 4 ." HE ANNINtv \ PO?, II en'! h 1)1, m ft ti i? Approved_Egr Reledier 2002107/22 ?f CIA-RDP65-,09756R000500130067-0 _ Ike Releases New Lot CPYRGQI U-233Rfor Peace Use Sy Pat riela 551ggla ? Ltn, led F: 'F' I n I AU, sumn i 2.14 1, ? on et 1 /anent: :nen co y?tr,iding netted It o ) can't--'Jr It aearen Actotois and urge- ani ion day released an additonuo so, [alums have linen completed En kliegs/tins is ho i t 131.560' muds) of enriched uranium-,. for peaceful IlettS bore and it N. T. Times . . foreign countries. 'Ilier new allocation e as din JUL 4 195 7 tided So that $0,000 kilogoons: e n nil 0.rOarEARLYBAb eI r se will be available through le : the committeeStasa -pointshu . net shift t for /noosed domestic eicifirm . from negotiation to the audition purposes, The other 29.1-300, oN NucLEAR Ant 1 of the disarmament positions kilograms will be available to. ' c , other nations that air not foreign coo n tries through sale . members. The members tot, the or !carp, United States. Britain, 'France, 'nit! St len I/1111101 In loafing Stassen for Universal Hal C"n"(1""(1 l'he Sevjet iltit". kilograms, or A I,? 0 111 220.000 During this -stage of pounds the the kital Onrottuf idh. on Fissionable Output a sloes Mr. Stassen is expounding, li-235 made as for j! iel 1' the details of the 'United States i Month After Inspection position on the first step toward :search and power react ors In lie diaannam int. This position in- dale. ? ? chides not on) p a suspension of hit.Itioirthoo . / ditionaf allocation al tin' reepy G.kiT -? ? ? 4 el mac he the iirl' 11 ,4? MIME MIDDLETON litlitelP Was tests and control of I he production of fissionable 1111est at Cliairitnal Itlevii: il. townie tin York thatt, tliaiertil but a general reduction; Baum Iii ilni .510117ir Energy LONDON, Bily a?The Unitet. rt non alldeat Welipilna and milt- . mom gram). It had I he al ti-taLes pt OpOsed ti ay a UIIIVO ary manpower. sal ban on the manufacture a fissionable material for militar3 'use one month :liter the est ah hahment of an international in-; attention systern. In a detailed exposition of thn Hinted States position on pucka. disarmament, Harold E, Stamen suggested that a treaty govern- :Mg- the first step toward disarm- ament include a pliniaion for the establishment. of a eommitter to cooperate In the "design, In- stallation and maintenance" of an inspection system controlling the production of fissionable ma- terial. This is the heart of the. West- ern proposals on nuclear disarm- @timmt, A suspension of tesM of nuclear weapons is tightly linked to progrania toorimai a ban on the production of these weapons. / how air it infect iv nest t ear. CPYRGHT ricoyat oi the- Seeretarre o di:neva/4 Mr. St Assiut 's' expo- :State And I le Mose. Minn was am! to follow the The .ffi led St ales also Me advocated by Britain, Fiance sigonit ilultecie power iiitrei lot Canada, Mails With Bern:lam,. From the peOCedural stand -I mint the United Staters Admits- and Balt 10 help Poise vo011 '0.111,100es position is that an [ilea der elerri ainals-101,peare ffeetirte system for the jasper- Ind us /sirs. Ion of production cannot be 'rho norm will! Bet 'UR :1 fly 3 ml stablitibed until a first step It sir were 'Anew n eNisting reaty on disarmament has been' retool wills Prance was atificd. This treaty should pro-. rinciaticd pormil clam or ? hie for a ten-month suspensioni shionimits iortriched uranium f nuclear weapons tests, AA- 10 lite unclear reactors ollading to the United States fi. was not announced her icw, notch Crbricluid firrtnium would Curbs on U. S. Noted Iiisiiipord to each countiy Mr. Stasien told the salmon,- hut informed smillOCS Said lir tlitlee it be biniessilikito titin tit,' would be op Pi .I.'500 weem the exchange et scientific frilograms anil %formation necessary for an of it inesiden1 said be w ftive inapeetiOn c3 em Whibi "gratified" I hal the Armee tie McMahon Act VASS al force rtp ird -power and brow. ledge' 1 the United States. Onett the train the atom is prifeeeding at 'eat}, had been ratified this act a pace which requires nroviskin is (mid be superseded, he said. Moth Warns Commithur Jules Moth of France told the United Nations Disarmament ;Mbeoturaittee that if the pro- 10Seit suspension of tests of nu- fear weapons ten months is lie period Suggested by the hilted States did not end the inclear arms race the French slovernment would feel free to sesitme its liberty of action. The implied warning is that In On panel rhesil circumstances France Me. Eisenhower said thin ri urrern maces., sin last. \ (new- her by the -4EC, the -caitie net 100,000 kilograms of oraniam 235 is amill Stf 7 billion Eisen/outer also said di,.- of the nuclear 11131e- tit wilt he subject.ICP "prudent saregUards" agaireil diversion of the materials kw nonintiace, purposes. Previous at local ioos It a d made available Stare grIthin kilograms for domestic 11!te :f1R1 the same emittint lcui toreign use Sin en agreements fen. power noir ma are now, in direct nittioss ;aid, tie added that seven more are it hoot to he and "a Killnialit of ethers'. are ander iiiiripaitt- 11/?!, or additional supplies of the r simian Fuel.'' SiI-iiits'F reported nt t h %tithe flutist that the lira al. 10ei11100 WO,: needed alma. lad it foreign alld tiOilletthe at Iota- {hell e. made 'previously ti-at-p. 6(4'11 :WOW, USQ d kted %could pursue experimentation hat would lead to her establish- anent a-s the fourth nuclear 'sower after the United States, lie Soviet. Union and Britain. The proposal made yesterday try Valerian A. Zarin, leader of The Soviet delegation, that the tulian representative be heard 1),' the subcommittee was re- -.Adel by Itin Ste-men at. this --flermenis meeting of the sob- nromittee. The head of the Unitet, States delegation said tie subcommittee should not Anne itS estandshad prone hear oral statements Itom Indian Government. ? Stassends view is that an Invitation to India would prompt other governments to ask for a aring. The act severely Mints the :amine information the grpIel.,? E'rites illaY give to ariori brd,i to rip sat INITFD NATIONS, N. auf has been rea.clust by the piepoti-, [story commission of the In national Atomic Energy Agency Ion the program of viola fur the 'initial year, as welt as on t he budget, staff and the financing 111A1 liti11 he re/Wire:1 The irightecinmation commin-, stun made the announcement day as it ad-ionised until latter part. of July, when it willt teeenVeRA in NOW York lei inert: the Cow posnion of time Wet hoard of seismical:, Nn V. 'Times UN! 5 US?' EISENHOWER ASKS FAITH IN FREEDOM Message Read in Philadelphia' Calls on Peonie to Reaffirm Declaration's Principles . _CPYRGIrIT IPHILADELPHIA, July I itiff mon the .American people' today o reaffirm their faith daily in he principles of the Declaration f Independence, In a message read at Fourth f hilly ceremonies at Independ? nce Hall the President said in 'as equally important that "in cur turn, we dedicate ourselves o the maintenance of our fades lenience. and the progress of the free world." The text of the message. fel- 1 ma: "As Indepondencia Day draws rear It is well to be reminded of 1A birth of our nation in Plata- calphirt many years ago, "There, a fateful political doe- nent---unpreerdented in the art- mils of mankinikris as signed a id secured try the lives and tor- t nes and sacred honor of a few. r solute citizens. Inspired he cm r esamoie the ;tropic of the c untryade rose up to build a itstion founded on it deep respect ft r the rights of mem ''This dealt Merit Bonin - u s to he the source of mat' ..congth, 'A II men are erealed oat' All Americans are horn Mee to develop their individual to pacifies to the fun and for the tterment of the \thole eon- "Nmity. 'For the safely and?haratinefra 1, the A romican people it IS sary to reaffirm oar failla el fly In the principles of the I' arbitration of Independence. It s equally important that, in our Ii rn, dedicate ourselves to c maintenance of our hide- o reliance and the progress of the fere world." It T. Times ATOM UNIt SETS PLANS; UM 13- . to ,qpeed a ban on the pro- d Paton of nuclear weapons the inted States is prepared to end s teh preduction one month after inspection system has been f tahlishod. After that date all ;amiable material would be do- tted to peaceful purposes. Despite MT. Slassen's patient e position of the United States p salon, Mv, Zorin maintained Ii must wait until the entire p dose had been painted before replying. There will be no meet- ii t of the subcommittee /moor- s w but two meetings are whed. ii od for Friday. The United S rites delegation experts to itajnoloto ita trparntafirin than - Nopitad to Vire Views R nE i-hi lo the New 'ink Tanta PA 5, July 3 A special C int tie tit C. ti of the North Atlantic Treaty] lrganization will be held toner- as- to hear the views of Con j Norstail, supreme allied! anomalies in 'Europe, on thr Sarmament proposals being ocussed in London. It is understood the general is. in opposed to a zone -of limper.' on and control in Europe bat lc-sires to insure that it meets B the rtoiliretlicilts of security. Jules 'Moth, French negotiator London, and Dr. Konrad .Aile- Sion% West. Berman Chanifel- L taw? agreed to such a anne..? The coureation is- Chat it need t amount to Western accept- of the division of Getman ince it would not: he a zone of li anion Mut of internation- Mimed inn. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-007'56R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT Apprinj : CIA-RDP65-00756R000.50120067-0 UM_ 5 195/ T. Moo JUL 5 1957 CPYRGHT U.S. Shoots 1.0.?. Rocket MANY NATIONS LET 160 Miles Abwalonitoba L 6. L'S DAY GO BY Probing Into Ionosphere Marks First Regular World Day of Year -? ... -? fly RICHARD WITKIN So2del to The New York Thiel, FORT CHURCHILL, Man? i"alrelt .......... .......... thurehillatis PO4 r CANJWW/LLsr ? MANITOBA:: s- ? r A flriA L.Bruitypeg Cs Witirppa9 a Aerobee-Fli rocket 160 miles into the sky today to study the henomena that do tricks With ; mho broadcasts. A duplicate rocket was to be . Ntunched at. midnight Central ' : tandard Time. These were the first of seven- v-six firings likely to make this 'isolate post a leading contribu- km to the rocket: program of the emotional Geophysical Year. ?t'orlay's shots were also the ost spectacular events ached- led for the first Regular World "lay of the Eighteen-month ' year." Rocket research here is con- 'acted by the United States rmed forces and several tali- chitties, The Canadians run the ost. Sixty-four countries-have ?- greed to pool their efforts in he I. 0. Y. program, an exam- nation of the earth's anatomy rid environment. World Days have been desig- toted during periods when un- wual auroral and other aerial on:emotions are forecast. Par- icipants step up observations luring these and other special Merv:Ms. ? Fired From 100-Foot Tower The Aerobee-Hi, made by the rierojet . Geneaal Corporation, Mflit off from its 100-foot tower ally fifteen minutes behind the' noon schedule. The tower is a squarish barn .hat is made of metal for the cold-weather protection of tech- nicians. A mast with guide-rail sxtensions protrudes front the open top. The launcher can bre tilted in any direction lip to 10 degrees to e.ounteract high winds.] The delay was caused by gusty winds aloft that kept mathe- maticians busy making sure the twenty-four-f cot rocket would fall outside the safety zone. It was tilted seven degrees a little South of East lior today's thing. From all indications, the test was exceptionally good. The rocket climbed for four and a half minutes and fell into Hud7 The Nett York Vales Jul,/ 5.105? Site of rocket firing (cross) title& During average ioniza- ion, various kinoSpherie regions send or refract various radio requencies back to earth much is water bends light rays. Radio agnals bounced one or more limes between ground and lona- There van be picked up at dis- ances they could not otherwise midge. But often the ionosphere loses ts bounce for conventionally teamed signals. This occurs luring excessive ionization. Con- rentional signals, instead of be- ng bounced back, are absorbed ty the electrically churned at- l'arsphere. Radio black-outs re- ;ult. The commonest causes of ,onlization are ultra-violet and K-rays from the San. These chip plectrons from air molecules into positively charged ions and negative free-roaming electrons. It is the light, energetic elec- trons rather than the heavy sluggish tons that react with radio waves. Today's rocket was the first to make a deep penetration of the "F" regions of the Arctic ionosphere, above 120 miles. Much more is known of the "E" region, whose maximum ionize- tion appears between fifty-five and seventy-five miles. 'Scatter Technique Tried In recent years, ways have been foun dto capitalize on the Ionosphere for certain types of transmission even during uphea- vals. These mariedients are known as "scatter' techniques They involve broadcasting sig- nals with exceptional power. The signal, too powerful to be absorbed, scatters forward In all directions when striking the re- gion affecting it, A piece will find its way to the reception area for which the broadcast is sons' Bay more than thirty miles intended. to the East. The Navy's antenna But because enormous power began transmitting their test* highly directional antenna signals fromthe rocket on sched- are needed, scatter broadcast- tile, ing Is very expensive. The Pen- The rocket's mission was to tagon had bought scatter for collect data on the Inosphere. :radar warning stations in the This is the region whose atmo? Arctic:, where blackout, were sphere is electrically excited el frequent and continuous contact ionized It influences rads between stations was monde- U.S. Study of Sun Phenomena on Schedule but Others in Plan Are Unprepared By WALTER SULLIVAN broadcasts -in ways that art sometimes beneficial, sometime! distressing. Ionosphere Studied sphere is also need for better ristraitval.A.0414 P ppratveckfraleiReek3eilie an altitude of about forty to ea. frequencies too nigh to be af- tory. But scatter is too costly for other communciations. Better knowledge of the lone- ular World Day in the Interna- tional Geophysical Year. The World Day is a period of in. tensified observations throughout the world of the phenomena manifesting the link between the earth and the sun. It came close to what might prove to be the climax of the eleven-year sunspot cycle, but it caught several of the partic- ipants with their rockets not completed. Sixty-four, days have been set aside during the eighteen months of the International Geophysical Year as Regular World Days. They occur three or four times a month and are timed to coincide with the new moon, quarter moon or with expected meteor showers. The moon was in Its first. quarter yesterday and a shower of. meteors was expected to del' ug- the earth's atmosphere. Clouds of meteors, most of them hardly larger than grains of sand, orbit about the sun or fol- low other paths that bring them near the earth at predictable times. Data Sought on Flares When they plunge into the atmosphere they become shoot- ing stars as they are consumed fected. ? The key man In today's experi- ments was a 36-year-old elec- trical engineer front the Naval Research Laboratory. John E. Jackson devised the experiments: to be performed. They entailed the following: Each rocket had two whip- like antennae clasped tight to the air frame at take-off but rigged to extend like out- stretched arms abler the rocket had emerged into thin air, Radar, devices were set to record the rocket's position. Canadian scientists tried to beam vertical sigoals from ground to ionosphere to take readings that, in the past, had given useful but imprecise pic- tures of ionospheric activity. , Today these measurements were blacked out, by intense ionos- pheric activity. It is because such aberrations are prevalent in the arctic that much of the rocket research is concentrated here. What the scientists counted on calculating from all the sta- tistics were such data as: The density of electrons at various os MOS hectoric_a_nitudes; the ffirdpinagnetic field, and the frequency ofelec- tron collisions. y friction with the air. They i re of interest to geophysicistsi lecause some believe they Minh: mice weather and other upper i ir phenomena. ' Regular World Days were itaasen, by international agree- nent;to make the cost of ex- pensive experiments, such as the f ling of rockets into the fringes of space. The instruments they arty may report the true naturel 4 sunshine before it is filtered hy the atmosphere. emit information is of greater Me if it can be obtained from any points at the Same time, aving a composite picture. Sei- ntists are particularly, anxious 4 find out what sort of particles rre fired at the earth 'by solar ares. These are mysterious ffruptions in the chromosphere 'atmosphere) of the sun, which use magnetic storms and re- rated upheavals on the earth. Although the cycle of sunspots and solar flares seems to have cached its maximum premature- ', several nations will probably not be ready to launch their research rockets until fall. This. whales Britain, which plans to; re rockets from the test range t Woomera, Australia. France has announced plans to re a number of "Veronica" 'diets 100 miles into the sky ver the Sahara but will not be, .ady to do so until fall, at the thest? On Sunday Japan fired resear chrocket 17.5 miles into : le sky in a test, but no date s been set for the start of 'pular firings. About the only unusual acti- ty that took place today, 'me' reach ? scientist said, was the ending of greetings to stations ' other nations, The Soviet Union has said it ill fire its initial rockets from te region just west of the Ural Peountains, but has given no rnetable. Thus yesterday's firing of an merican Aerobee-Hi front Fort hurchill, Manitoba, may have, sea the only penetration of the. nosphere on the first Regular World Day. Sonic stations may -we released extra large hal- ons bearing instruments to oh- "rye high altitude weather or ? -emir rays, Otherwise the activity consist- -1 primarily of stepped up oh- asrvations throughout the world i certain fields. For example sunders such as that at Fort ? elven-, Va., which normally -robe the layers of the loom- here every fifteen minutes, were making soundings every ye minutes. May Explain Ionosphere When pieced together these eundings should throw light on -le short-term fluctuations of se ionosphere. This layer of Metal gasses, which reaches Fora fifty to 300 miles overhead, aas been in turmoil in 4ecent ays due to a series of flares m the sun, Major flares occurred on June ca and 28. Yesterday observa- tries in various parts of Europe, stening to radio emissions from, he sun and other manifestations O the son's pulse, reported evi- -sinee of two flares about an hour apart. ? Nevertheless, the World Warn- ig Center at Fort Belvoir an- tamed the end of the Special uforld Interval, which had been reclaimed four days earlier. 'rbont. 3 Waskingion Post CPYRGHT CPYRGHT for ftdcooc2002/fr7722 :ilkliDP65-00756R000500.130067-0 Thii?.Prias Vj aCriAeriod that caned, U.S. Disarmament Plan Can Override A-Bars er many of the otiservatie.nel provided for a Regular World; Day, Whereas the latter is sehed-' tiled in advance, a Special World; Interval is called when events on the sun indicate that there is flout to be a severe magnetic storm. One of the chief goals of the international Geophysical Year, which began Sunday, is to learnl more about the links between; ' the sun and the earth. Streams of particles from the sun, as well as ultraviolet rays and, x-rays, are believed to have pro- found effects on our planetn Some suspect they are even re-; sponsible for climate changes In any ease they rause turbun lenee in the earth's magnetic; field, in the density of the iono-; sphere, which reflects long-rangei :radio sienals back to earth, In the aurora or northern lights. and in the Input of cosmic rays. By Murrey Alarder CPtRAHTiropesn Burns The Washinstos Pan-WTOP L enda, July 3? oltvo nest 1/14411 a Unto, bVLL2II Activity In Britain Tit New York Titles. July 4?The most ma today are those investigate, ling the effects of recent flares; on the sun as part of the Intern national Geophysical Year. The latest flare was imported yesterday at Britain's largest radio research station at Slough, about twenty miles from London. When a researcher noticed' that an instrument called a vertical sounder- was no longer recording as it should have been. Vertical sounders are used to hurl radio signals into the iono- sphere at regular intervels. By noting the height at which sig- nals are reflected back to earth, researchers can calculate the density of layers of electrified particles from heights of about forty-five miles upward. The radio teams at Slough also found that it was impossible to pick up the wavelength of a British Broadcasting Corpora- tion long-range transmitter In North Wales, on which they carry out routine studies in radio-wave fluctuations. Inquiries at ten other radio and ionospheric research stations showed that all experimental short- wave transmissions had been blanketed by the initial im- pact of the wave of ultraviolet light from the flaring sun. JUILES 101 ?IIdIIICflL out e principles is ratified. are broad enough to produce a.:Once a treaty is in effect Stas-.treatv overriding secrecy bars of the Atomic Energy Act sett said American scientists; which now prohibit disclosing could exchange more inform- nuclear production data to tion on methods of assuring; other nations clear today]that production is being halted. That Was made Under present U. S. law and by an authoritative source as, the united stales continued tom absence of approved treaty, unfold its offer for a short term American sources noted the U suspension of nuclear testing,. S. couldn't report how much iss and an ultimate half to nuclear fiionable material it is pro- weapon production. ? clueing because now Most of Any accord which could that is used for weapons- Sias- :emerge from the disarmament sell said the 11- 5- previously ;negotiations would be in treatyiproposed that within one month rm. Under United Statesatter an inspection system to w a treaty takes preeedence.theck on nuclear production is Tr legislation, operating all production for The McMahon Act which is military purposes should be e landed States basic nuidearlhalted. ablation contains tight re- CarefulGuarding Seen rictions on sharing cerain T uelear secrets with other hen all nuclear production wers.(would be guarded "like you It also prohibits giving nu-iguard gold in a vault," as an American source put it. It at weapons to other nations, that, it is understood, would mean inspectors at each ould be a separate matter plant to check on what raw (tufting new legislation material goes into the plant, ould the United States the "finished product,' the eeide to share some of us.amount of waste, and even the uelear weapons with Britainramount of electric power the intent a halt to nuclear sveapon consumes. Stassen said roduelion is agreed rpm'. sithe inspection, however, would The impact of united sta,_Lc's- not interfere with any opera. lions for peaceful uses. gielation on nuclear matters' (Tame directly related to the Stassert on Tuesday said the is,armament talks as United United Stales was ready to halt fates Deiegate Harold Eannelear tests for 10 months Lassen unveiled a bit more of with an agreement at that lime e American nuclear tempo-sal. to halt nuclear weapon produe. Boo. The actual production bcommittee Adjourns !could be as late as 1959, Talks in the United Nationsl it is now understood the ;United States proposal may isar mament Stihremmittee ent forward in usual ehnsianot set any specific date at all. Mikes' form. it was reported, However, Stassen noted that till no hint of the great tuunless there is reasonably tun unless action on the production oil in Russia's leadership other states would akeup announced tonight. ; What effect if any decide to join the nuclear the Scmiet production rare and the whole turnoverarm am en t wouldn eghoativaenoonn sth e pro- agreement would collapse. New evidence that France duced much speculation to- 'ti B ci a ritain are demanding night. But because the Sub. greater specifies en inspection committee is adjourned overd an control of nuclear tests and Fourth of July there will not be a ? ,prouction came today from en opportunity for the Soviet,non-Ainerican sources. So far shakeup to be immediately re-neither nation has specifically fleeted in the negotiations. lcommitted itself on the United Stassen, behind closed doors, States detailed proposal,. pressed U. S. emphasis on the French Delegate Jules Much, need for agreeing to halt nu- it was reported, again served 'clear production along with notice France is only prepared ty test suspension. Ile made to participate in any agreement clear, it was reported, that suspending nuclear tests if the ATM-tower and See- other powers agree to stop the ra .1 MI Foster Dulles are nuclear arms race. Washington Post 5 t'S Thimmarskjold Sees Economic Normalcy Nearer crto Hiu: iy 4 n?united ions cc Eammarskjold said today the world is in its most nearly nor- mal period of Peace-time eco- nomic activity since the end of the war. Addressing the opening of' the 24th session of the U. N Economic and Social Council fECOSOC), he said: "It is tin fortunately true that a very high proportion of resources continues to be sidetracked into armaments in all parts of the 'world. When the time comes?as I am firmly con- vinced it must?That the world can safely reduce itsmilitary ougordwrin re:02 ? N. 1. Tim6QPYRGHT. JUL 5 1.957 MORE ATOMS POR PEACE t 'mine t ti an doubled the amount of atomic ft el which the United States pro- p ,ses to make available under the a ems-forepeace treaty over the n ,xt few years at home and abroad. The new total is 220,000 pounds of u anima, valued at a1,700,000,000, \Alf of which is to be leased to do- mestic users and the other half liaised or sold to foreign nations. The President announced this new oder for two reasons, One is to s mutate development Of atomic p wee plants; around the world by a miring them that the necessary a omit: fuel will be available. The ostler is to counter a proposal by S mbar Bricker forbidding the 'esident to make any atomic fuel enable to the International Atomic Ftergy Agency without specific Go.ngressienal approval. This move part of a Republican right-wing e fort to curb both the agency and t e powers of the President. An at- t mpt by Senator Bricker to attach a reservation 'to that, effect to the eaty was defeated, but Mr. Thicker ,I persistent, and pending disposal his present effort final American istification of the treaty is being &felted. If tha American offer looks rge, it is merely an indication of I e tremendous potentialities of the a oms-for-peace entermiae. It is e timated that the 220.000 pounds c uranium would permit the. pro- . r action of a,000,000 kilowatts of ectricity. But the target of the Puropean Atomic Energy Commit- ty, now forming, is 15,000,000 I Iowans by 1967, and nations out- de of this community have simi- r projects under way. fin addition, as President Eisen- I neer Indicated in his most recent alines conference, science is now oving toward complete elimina- t-on of radioactive fall-out, which mild make nuclear power avail- Ale, as the President put it, "to move mountains" for the benefit of I enamel No Bricker reservation snould be permitted to stop prog- ems toward that goal. dt,lt.Y' Tht9PYRGHT I Major Nuclear Blast Slated LAS VEGAS, Nev., July 1 I. The American delegate said, owever, it is the U. S. view rid effective cutoff on nuclear production cannot be fully des- as A t. t emerge." -it. 1St fl SUit trues, scientists will touch oft tomorrow what could be the biggest nuclear expoeien on this continent. The test, sixth of the summer series, had been set for today but was postponed for technical reasons. The device will be suspended from a bal- loon 1,,M0 let, over Yuma Flat. seventy-five miles to the north- * 1. Times west, More that--n 1,000 Marines are to crouch in trenehes, then JUL 4 195 7 conduct maneuvers after the burst. _Ann FLU STRIKES EUROPE Asian-Type Virus Found in] the Netherlands CNcr YoLk times : Tkrert, I Lily i--An influ- ti disease was spreading rapid- ;I, in the Nethellands, it is caused by the same virus: ^ nue-oil:int for the eeldemie in; F'-.r East, 11 her 11111filileM7.3. 011t brenir: en Ieroded in Gee-tendon le Mit no direct connect ion] ten establiehed with tin; :Al urea row (tilt, Li'! LU uncia VIAL AR ;Europe The World Health Or- ,. 02/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00710R0001500T310067dav that Approved For Releasep:19M/41 : CIA-RDP6501,7y59500130067-0 L Tires JUL 4 1957 Transcript of President's News Jut on For lairs W ASHINGTOW, OJP)? ? , 'unstop Eras Went Riseinhoivers news conm ;mace today: - down, lett-tioad morning. Please sit Hagerty ijameit C. Hagerty, press secretary] will have available at his office PRESIDENT EISENHOW- , aame time this afternoon a re:dement on the making available, on the Government, making available, considerably more 17-235 or equivalent for use both at home and abroad in the development of peaceful uses of atomic power, both in research and imager plants. And the atatement will be : ready, I should think, by o'clock, CHALMERSIt ROBERTS of The Washington Post and Times-Herald?Mr. President, as a result of your remarks last week on disarmament at the press ennference, especial- ly what you told us about the scientists who called on you, there appeats to be some im- pression, both at home and abroad, that you and the Ad- ministration are less enthusi- astic about a disarmament agreement than you had been previously. Could you straight- en us out on that, sir? At ?Welt I think if you will ratan my statement?arid now ma just depending upon my memory-4 think I started out by saying the Hinted States elands firmly by the agree- ment and the offers it has made in this regard, and we have not withdrawn from that position. I tailed to your attention a fact that coming tip as a rather new one in this whole scientific field, kept this sub. bet ever from being a stabs suet It ta at very dynamic, fluid sort of subject that you are working with all the time, but I I think I said last 'week that the political, paycheiogical et- ' I feels of doing this, going ahead I with this thing, were so great that even if you suffered some 7CiPilt Vic disadvantage, we I should go ahead with it, and stai believe that very firm- ly; and under the?under the conditions that: the United a, States has always insisted tts on. that is, that we have ant- ficient inspectma to know that th InP are both honest...doing what h we said we would do, and that fa it is coupled with some agree- h 'sent that at some future date We will cease Making bombs out, of this material, and de- vote It all to peaceful purposes, our offer always stands. el: , CHARLES S. VON FREUND I us of the Co/amble Broadcasting as System?An Army specialist w. named De Wayne MoOsker has been jailed by the French . an charges that he killed an -14 Algerian. Do you think he at should be turned over to our ha aittherities? there th was a short report made to sue St about it, but, as I recall, this at was off-duty, and I hope we er, are talking about the same F case I really do, because the a. name might escape me?but p. he was supposedly off-duty, in and I believe it c I hat Cl a LI a to in, is eKuried. 'Wench event; would say that the man 041 be tried by the local ithorities the same as would' tourist, , ? URN SCALA of The As- lated Press?In order to p Us understand the dis- ament picture a little re clearly, sir, could you its whether on May 295, at ich time you laid down the , :lc guidelines for our dis- ament policy, whether you -w that it might be pos. IC within four or five years produce an absolutely . bomb, if tests contin- ; and, secondly, could you ? tell us, sir, how the spect of being able to duce a clean bomb affects It you told us was your dive, several weeks ago, lely, total elimination of in weapons ? .--Well, now, there ate 'ces that ate not acres- ly weapons. If you had clean, completely clean, net, I should think that nilding of tunnels, or you kit say, moving mountains that sort of thing, you d have many economical, I, peaceful purposes for thing and, of course, you Idn't want to deny civil', the opportunity of us- it. to the first Pali of your 'Lion, May 25th, I knew flat time that We had sue- ed in reducing the radio- o fall-out from bombs by cast 90 per cent, No one suggested to me at that cnt that we were going lake it completely clean, ugh Admiral (Lewis L.] uss [chairman of the to Energy Commission] told me that It was cer- we would get down to 95, 96 per cent. which ?tting very close to it, identally, now we are ; ng, and very hopefully t, about some kind of 'Won of tests, But if, under any circumstances , is another test made, I ming to invite any cous- in the world that wants me and fire its rockets in ir and see just exactly much radio !radioactive] 'lit there is from those s because we are not g to make at this ?to bigger bombs, as I have you before. We are try- to make small bombs, bombs, and to develop Inns in a peaceful world, ell as just Weapons of D MaeLEISH of West. 'use Broadcasting? Sir, -resident, yesterday Sen- [John F4 Kennedy, Dem- of Massachusetts, told Senate that the 'United s policy should express a ger opposition to west- colonialism, such as cc's position In Algeria. ell as to Communist im- ism. Do you see any ,s by which this op/tom- ' 1,9 is In expreici-.In our'irescrit-rior.: des. A.?Well, / Understand the Secretary of State commented at some length on this matter yesterday. As I have told you before, nothing is more com- plicated than the questions and prolamin that involve for- eign policy; and any attempt to oversimplify them and just ? to make one great statement , of principle and truth and then say, "That's that, no more," Is to ignore the other side of , equally intricate problems. For example, take it at home: I was just asked. a : question about civil rights. From one side of this picture i there is no question. But from the side of people who have lived with a very, very deft- the social problem for a num- ber of years, there are almost violent reactions on the other side. Now,, the same way foreign policy, in here you have the? you have the whole standing of America in the world in- volved, the standing of Amer- ica as a fair nation trying to be decent to all, not taking any particular sides in either domestic. or in international quarrels, trying to be a friend to lead back to peace. And I believe the United States' best role as a leader in the world today is te. try under- standing to bags Wes in any quarrel if .it is any of our business, and we are invited in any -way and try to lead them back to peace. Now, that means often you work behind the scenes, be- cause you don't get up and begin to shout about such things or there will be no effectiveness. Generally speak- ing, though, I would say read Mr. Dulles' report or reac- tion to this, which I agree Pryrb Knowledge P. BRANDT of Mr. President, is ,there any way in which we can share our knowledge on clean bombs with Russia and the other na- tions which might develop theni? A.---Well, I raised that question, Mr. Brandt, the sec- ond the scientists talked to me about it, and they said, 'Why, the minute that we have proved what we say we are going to prove, why, we would want them to have it." That Is just what they Q.?That would require leg- islation, of course? A.-- would think so, yes. MARTIN S. HAYDEN o The Detroit News?Sir, would you elaborate adittle more on this statement that you made that future atomic tests are going to be open to any coun- try that wants to come to watch them? A --Well, I saki this- well, I don't mean to say you take the men and show them all your formula, and all that sort of thing as to what , you have done. But I said ter- Mikilbtitt dtt Weird CPYRGHT Conference the proposition U1T1t1? nest 0.1 Lawrence and Dr, [Edward] Teller brought to e, that eventually you could eke completely clean bombs, nd that even now you are 06 r cent clean, that it, you aye only 4 per cent of radio- Malty, radioactive fallout, at you did in the original mb, I say we would be glad ask any nation there to put s proper instruments in the ir to detect whether or not en' contention is true. LILLIAN LEVY of The Na- onal Jewish Post, Indiana- lis?Congressman (Ray J.I ridden 9Democrat] of Indiana as proposed a resolution that [fluid require all questions sed in radio and TV broad- ? sts of interviews with Com- , unist leaders to be subject advance clearance by the ecretary of State and the di- tor of C. L A. Do you ? have, Mr, that such vestries: ons can serve any useful irpose? A.?Well, I dent?you ask ? question can it serve any eful purpose: I say this; hat our tradition of a free ? ess and tree access to owledge and to opinion is ?t only very great, but it is aranteed really by the Con- nation, and I would think y such process as you talk ,out would align, us with that 'pe of country where gov- mental, political goveni- ental, action is a dominant dor instead of the kind of ?mocratte processes that we ? lieve in so thoroughly. DOUGLASS CATER JR. of e Reporter magazine -Mr. within the past year iu have failed to reappoint r. Dewey Adams of the A, B. and Mr, Harry Cain the Subversive Activities introl Board, and Mr. homes E.! Murray of the . E. C. It has been charged at you do not look favorably the right of the dissenter ithin these regulatory com- issions, I wonder if you could just say broadly what is your philosophy about the right to dissent upon these commis- sions? A.---Well, if someone would hear sonic of the conversa- tions and discussions in con- ferences in my of Lice there would be no doubt about my approval of the right to dis- sent, I appoint people to of- fice on the basis of the hest I tank I can find and I am re- sponsible to myself and to my own conscience it appointing them that way, and that Is the way I do- it. PETER LISACCIII of The Chicago Daily News?To get back to the French-Algerian question for just a moment-, A. Get back to what? Q.?The French - Algerian dispute for just a moment? Q,?When he returned from Africa, Vice President Nixon made a -report to you about the situation in Algeria, as we understand it. Could you tell us whether he mace any spe- cific changes for the Admin- istration to take a different approach in the matter? A.-- No no. As a matter of fact, 5 CPYRGHT 13 0 eq, about that,. and, I believe, .1 not mention it in his writo report. That is the way I r cam because he was not eon alls' Orilefed to go to Algeri. in that trip. He went to scan of the other countries, He merely pled for, or roe mornended, understanding am ...........g tote fair to both sides 1 because there is a terrific ar? gument. After all, there is one million three or tour hun- dred thousand Europeans in the country, and just 'turning the whole thing loose could well result in a very great disaster I don't know exactly what to go about it, but it is one that you study, realizing It is an internal problem primarily because Algeria was pact of metropolitan letallee, at least legally, and you try to jest be as fair and square and helpful as you can. EDWARD P. MORGAN of The American Broadcasting , Company-- Mr. President, would it be correct to infer from your invitation this morning about the witnessing of nuclear explosions and the Ill rthcoming announcement t his. afternoon about the in- creased gist Himhim of I heee that the A diundstration is at- tempting in this way to refute i the a I-guinea Mid Vd7 dare i not be as sincere in disarma- ment as ire would like to be? Ir am thinking in terms of the. debate Belt has berm going on as to whid we would lose and what we would gain by sus? pending test a. A.----Mr. Morgan now yea needn't think that this whole business of disarmament, Boil as it: is, is operdod on the bans of shooting Boni the hip. For throe long years every- body' in the Government, with the aid of task Woes, of which we have had people like Dr. Lawrence a MI Gee Bedell :Smith, and people of that kind have been working on this thing to develop a pokey for the United States. You take that policy and ,you try to find out, how it would affect, ether nations, You don't Want to go to the . Sends or to any other nation, ter example, and make a pro- posai that affects a third country without that third country's approval, because teen you suddenly become like Napoleon arid Alexander, on a raft in the Vistula, settling the fate 01 Enrope, We are not dcang that, SO ? you do have, though, the prob- lem, atter yen make out a, program that Beelike logical and decent, to us on a. country, Ii y go and take up the prob. Inn with Germany, with Frantic, with NATO, the whole NATO group, with Britain, with Canada, eVarybOdy that in affected by that proposal, in order that you don't Just destroy the whole effort by sadden recalcitrance because someone believes their Own sovereignty or their own rights have been ignored. Now, we have very valued allies and friends and we try to work with them very, very closely in all such things. Now this means that from time to thee, as new information be- comes available, It becomes very difficult or, I mean, it takes a long, sort of iaborious process, to get. everybody in line again. This is not easy Washington Post e 2002/h9/22 :ItruiDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Today and Tomorrow . On the Grandchildren's Future CPYRGHT ? By Walter Lippmann MARSHAL TITO. it turned out, has more than enough to do without being drawn ;into : the discussion, which was :started by : Ishrushc he so about social- ' ism and Airier- scan grand ; children. This may have been mere dis- cretion but I rather sus- pect that Tito !has learned from his own varied expert- Lippman , race that long-range ? predict- thins about the future of a so- cial system are almost certain to express little more than the prophet's hopes or fears. Al- though Marxists like to think 'that they possess the secrets t of history, no Marxist. tore :saw, or could have foreseen, :what now goes by the name of t socialism in Yugoslavia. The only thing' we know for :certain is that in the twent ?eth century, there is a rapid ;arid unpredictable evolution in every society, except pee- !haps in the most primitive :and isolated. Kbrushchey does not know, he cannot know ,wtiat will develop in Russia in :ten years, much less in Amer- Ica in thirty years. The Communist world from :China to Yugoslavia and Po- land, including Russia itself, is not proceeding at-cording to some grand plan, revealed by Marx and Lenin, which leads to a common end; the various Communist regimes are feel- ing their way, seeking reme- dies and solutions for their tactical difficulties, and they are rationalizing the absence of a grand and universal principle by saying that there are many roads to socialism, As they take these many and !differing roads, they will he- gome Many and differing sod. tties Casa IF NO ONE KNOWS what 'socialism will he like in 1W0 generations, neither does any. 'one know what the American eronomy will be like.. It will Or course, not be like the Rus- sian or the Chinese today. We can be sure of that he- cause the controlling princi- ple in both Russia and in China is the rapid and forced development of an economi- cally and technologically back- ward country. The American economy, as Communist think- ers themselves often say, has long since reached a stage of development which Russia is still struggling to reach, which China has hardly be- gun to approach. SO we can be sure that while our grandchildren will nape- tinnce great changes in the A inericaa economy, these changes will not bra reaction to and a recapitulation or the Russian and Chinese experi- ence. Communism may rep) resent a future to A priMitive country like China. But for America, Communism is heel. event, having nothing to dn with our highly &kapott and complex economy. The American social order has changed greatly in this century, so greatly that terms like capitalism and free en- terprise and competition, which come down to its from the nineteenth century, no longer describe our economy There have been the wars, and the rise of the United States as a world power with a great military establishment. There has been the fabulous, indeed explosive, increase of the American population. There has been not only the deep and wide technological development, but, with the on ganization of scientific re- search, a radically new pace in the application of science. There has been also, so at least it seems to me, a non- violent? but nevertheless rev- olutionary ehan le in the inner principle of our own social economy. This is the new principle, which goes by the prosaic name of "full em- cloym en t"?the imperative that the Government must use the fiscal and other powers of the state to keep the demand for labor at least equal to the supply. Until the present generation this principle was unknown to, much less was it the policy of, the United States or any other capitalist nation. Its adoption marks a profound change. It would not in my view be an exaggeration to say that It has brought about a revolution in the West which has made the Communist rev- olutionary propaganda irrele- vant and antiquated. For when the Governrryent is committed to the mainte- nance of full employment, the bargaining power of labor is underwritten, This means a decisive change in the balance of forces within our society, Ns, THE NEW PRINCIPLF, of full employment was formu- lated during the great depres- sion between the two world wars. Its technique is based on the discovery during the first world war that a govern- ment can promote production, regardless of the gold supply. by managing credit and the currency. The impulse to ap- ply the technique of war fi- nance to the pe?atetime econ- omy came from the' huge un- employment' and the vast misery of the great depres. shim The commitment to the new policy CMOS from the voters who, having learned that unemployment can he prevented, wilt rot tolerate any government which does not prevent it. Although the principle or ti.el employment was worked out under Roosevelt and 'fru- :man, it is now national policy from which no public :man, who expects to have a future? would think ,of dissenting. cs1.3 WE It AVE not begun to see the full consequences of the new principle. But la all probability, it is the real reau son why it appeared that the inflation in which we find our selves cannot be stopped by the orthodox devices of tight money and a balanced budget. It may well be that, a gradual inflation is the inseparable accompaniment of the policy of full employment, and that the two together will gradu- ally hut inexorably work a great transformation in the American way of life. YRGHT it, ion the other hand, there is CO shooting from the hip. It 'is' all based on long, earnest tidies by the finest people we can get together. Red Submarines for Egypt MILTON FRIEDMAN of The 'Jewish Telegraphic Agen- cy you give us your thinking, sir, an the furnish- so balarinea by the Simi- itoion to Egypt, atut the edion of piety? and in Inc Middle Bast! A--- ell, I would say it was UT- he Ipt Lit : that is all r would say about DAYTON MOORie of The hided Press Thank you, Mr. Preset en I. C. S. Mobiter JUL 1 1957 London: Dr. Libby Arrives CPYRGHT Dr. Willard F. Libby of the United States Atomic 'Enc.,, 'mission has told newspapermen that the United States lid Britain share the lead in developing atomic energy Can peace. tut purposes lie arrived June ail for a visit to Britain. Asked about the pro:nieces for development of a hydrogen bomb with- Ola radioactive fallout, Dr. Libby said the United States has made good progress. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 6 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT Washington Post JUL 5 1957 Washington Post c pyRGHT JUL 5 1S51 Matter of Fact soviet ICBM ? ? ? By StewnrAkop. ? Macmillan Says Britain THE merican Govern tient rut i has convincing col - dente t 14 the Soviets have anaemia ;7 tested their first ?aperient:, Al version or long- range, multi stage ballistic m site. T h e Soviet prototype Wile teated only a few weeks he- fore Atlas, the tint Amer can version of ;7,1 }intercom'. Stewart Alsop t 'Mai ballistic missile, was wn up off the Florida coast, tie June 11. this first Soviet test of an WW1' prototype is. of course, an event of grave international significance. It is comparable, as a technical achievement, to the first Soviet test of any atomic bomb in 19.49, and to the s est Soviet hydrogen bomb ' est, in 1953. Eventual- ly. it ',ay be expected to have the si,xne profound effect no the w. rd balance of power as those two Soviet technical tel. Umpha. The ICBM has been called 'the ultimate weapon" be. cause there is no known de- fense against it. A fully oper- ational ICBM ei designed to fly half way round the world at several hundred miles alti- tude. M a matter of minutes, armed with a thermonts Fleas warhead, characteristics which suggest why any de- fense against it is for the preeent wholly theoretical. 6.0 THE firwiet test version was ? multistage rocket with an "'operational configure t I on.' in ether worths, it was a first tont version of a weapon de- signed for ultimete Military use, ?-ether than r mere re- seals it vehicle. r is does not met A, of course, it the S,- vi' is will have Jperational 'Carts in strategically steels Sit quantities in the very OrfO" future. There is a long, Oilier& road to travel he- otsen the first test firing of a tir aotype multi ? stage long 7; rige missile and the achieve- ment of an operational wears Otis system An ICBM consists essen. (tally a three parts?The enor- mous first stage rocket which powers the initial flight, the second stage rocket which car- ries the warhead over the target area, and the warhead itself. The first stage must be tested again and again to eliminate "hugs." Then the Accurate -divorce" of the see ond stage from the first must also he repeatedly tested?it W1 n easy task to if nch one rocket from the bar, of an- other, traveling at rims times the speed of sound, s accu- rately that the second rocket remains on course. Final] y, a thermonuclear warhead must also be de- signed capable of withstand- mg the terribly high temper- atures caused by the friction of the reentry of the rocket intri the earth's atmosphere, And, nnce all these problems have been solved, it is then necessary to build decisive numbers of these enormously cemplieated an d expensive weapons, construct launching sites for them, and train per- sonnel In the complex busi- ness of maintaining and *per- Ming them. vas ICBM bases are, communal, pis( with bases for long range deer craft, Mobile and Emily ton- _ . meted. If both aides have an operational ICBM but sys- tem, neither M. tan knock out the nth e's delivery sys- tem. But 1 the Soviets are the first ti, create an opera- ltionat tle system, they could Tatth in a surprise at- ' lack, destre,v the strategic air force bases, and thus the American capacity to retali- ate decisively. No one can judge whether they might ac- tually do so. But the oppor- tunities for blackmailing the United States into accepting a superMunich are obvious, and mill history suggests that the Soy is would certainly take adv vase of these opportunl- tie., 'I s is enough to suggest wia the Soviet, in the midst of the talk of disarmament and "peaceful coexistence," have made an enormous effort to win the ICBM "race. Tlinuati we have not yet lost the ICBM race, we have received clear warning that we may lose therace. And the Soviet ICBM test is only the latest item in an accumu- lating wealth of evidence, which will be described in a forthcoming report, that fine Soviet have made giant strides In miasile development. These Soviet triumphs have been achieved at a time when the American missile effort is being sharply rut back in the name of economy and in cle- ferenee to the budget ceiling. Beeause this is so, the deco Mon has apparently beets . taken to play down the dan- ger, and to hush up the evi- dence of the first Soviet pro- totype test. Yet the test oc- curred, and it has gravely shaken the highest official circles as well it might. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R0 'Progresses' on II-Bomb ROLititi Prone Minister Harold Mac- millan told the House of Com- mons today that Britain was making progress towards thej production of "el 'an- hydrogenl bombs. But be adde6, M reply to tine; Ms, that it would not be in 0 public interest to dia.' close He air Hughes, Labor, who, rsisesS he point, said the publicl was entitled to SOttle informa- tion flout it. This was a "verse :urgent, matter which affects the peace, health and Sloppiness of mankind." he said. The Prime Minister replied: "Any progress towards the pro. auction, of clean bombs would nnl have taken place at allsif had yielded tn what you and your friends wanted, which Wag not to test." Washington Post JUL 5 1357 RGH.Stepping Out In terms or its impact on worm opinion, Tne American response to Russia's proposal foie a suspension of nuclear weapon tests seems grudg- ing ;rid conditional. Valerian Zorin, the Soviet deleg ite to the London conference, offered a two? to th cc-year cessation of tests. Harold Stassen, the A,nerican delegate, has now offered in return, in behalf of the United States, to halt nuclear tests for 10 months, provided the Russians will agree tU,. stop making bomb material, with an actual cutoff about 1959. It would have reflected much greater credit on the United States if the initial suspension proposal had come from this country with the support of its allies. Unfortu- nately, the difficulties of securing agreement in the West have enabled Russia to seize the iMtiative. Ten months is not a very long or impressive suspension period. It was made brief, nn dnubt, in order to fix a deadline for Soviet acceptance of the proposed halt in production of fissionables. But the tentative nature of the American suspen- sion plan, together with the condition attached ' to a gives rise. inescapably, to some suspicion that the United States is less enthusiastic about achieving agreement than it might be. And this suspicion may well have been augmented by the hope which President Eisenhower expressed at his news conference a week ago that a completely 'clean" bomb might be developed if testing could continue. At his news conference yesterday, the President helped to dispel this suspicion. The political and psychological benefits of reaching some agreement with the Russians would be so great, he pointed out, that they would outweigh the scientific dis- advantages of suspending further tests. For this reason, he said, he still believes firmly that the United States should go ahead with the effort to work out a firm agreement. This seems to us the heart of the matter. The political and psycho- logical benefits are so immensely important that they would warrant acceptance of a single-step stispension agreement if the two-step proposal advanced by the , United States could not he achieved, One step leads to another. The Ind's- 'pensable thing is to get moving. 00500130067-0 Approved FoalWise 2002/07/22 : CIACFR3get}56R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT LION 2 8 1, CPYRGHT Nutting Says Red Aim Is Time to Match U. S. Asserts Swirls Will Try to Get It With Arms Pact on Their Terms Lc the ccond of two desb Anthoay Nutting, TO ea British. Albtleger Of Stage Foreign Affairs; atho is a :id wetter /In the New York edd Tribune. --- ? By Anthony Nutting fl r?.1 U Limilhur P10 posais fa the :suspension of nu- clear tests should be rejected 11.$ dangerous and ins adequate, is there any hope of Rus- sia accepting a Western counter- proposal a n d flat should that counter-pnaPosal contain? I am sorry to say that II the signs are that the SOVittS would not a.t :Nutting present accept anything th t we should regard as adequate and safe. What they want is time to develop their guided missile program and to , accumulate. their nuclear weapon stock- piles. If they cannot get it as part of a one-sided disarmament agreement (in their own term,s,. they will for the: present go without an agreement, A leading French authority put, it this Wiwi "If the Ameri- cans have thousands of H- bombs, thc Russians ere still in the hundreds, and they are de- termined to catch UP." Of course the eXOnnents of agreement-at-any-Price will say that it ivould not matter if Rus- sia caught up and achieved par- ity with America. They argue that what motel's is to add the tests before the world be- comes Nteillized or dntegrated or both. They Iorget that the diSardlattleht Committee lisj Charged Cgth the Sob of work-1 ling out a disarmament agree- ment not a health: convent1on. They forget too, or deliberately ignore, the prodigious effort which Russia is putting into guided missile development. Cu the information at my dh- posal. I should not be surprised H the Soviets are Well ahead of everyone else in this sphere,. in- cluding tbe United States, With this thought in mind, awould he most dangerous nonsense to pretend that aa agreement to suspend tests V41:5 the begin- ning of disarmament Apart from ' anything else such an agreement would not tackle the "fourth countrY" problem. France for one has eaid she would accept no agree- ment, short or Iona term, unless it included a. cut-off 61 nuclear ApprovniForiftereabe 2002Y07/2r pesos There arc others wit; I u cne Arne, arid VOW INCUR' nisi stand Idly by and watch the t reit nuclear powers of today g on perfecting and increasing t mir weapon Stocks while the nest of the work' was excluded loin the club. Such class distinction would 1 e resisted on grounds of ores- ge iet alone security. Hasn't I rime Minister Macmillan said I at Brits m s possession of 1/4.11r. H-bomb would not only in- crease her security but weak] strengthen her influence in the aouneils of the citadel? And would not such countries as Western Germany, Jarmo and :sin:, not to mention Commu- : bit China like to do both of 'hese things? And each of these ountries have, or could acquire, he wherewithal to make nu- lear areallions. They could hardly be expected herefore meekly to subscribe to n agreement proposed by the luirlfear Wirers of today \illicit n terms seeks to sustain their nonopoly and, by permitting mlimited production of weapons. seen to expand it? And once the nuclear. Curet is possessed, Df seven or eight nations, howl ong befme it is common prop- erty? -brother Danger In Red Approach There ts another danger in accepting' the Soviet piecemeal approach. This is a slippery slope. Once a suspension of tests was in effect, it would then be argued that we stannic' accept, the Russian proposals for con- ventional disarmament. 'Don't complicate things b, making a German settlement a precondition' we should be told. Soviet propaganda would parade :heir latest reductions from 4,6 to 2.8 million men. conveniently ignoring that the purpose of those cuts was mat disarmament but modernhation. Would the British and Amatican public, hungry for peace and WCarg et war icold and hot variety!, be robust enough to 'resist these further calls to abandon then vigilance and their friends!? It would be lustier not to risk it. In ell the disarmament nei.o. !lotions the Soviets have tic( CherMOUS advantages over tin Western triivers. Pint, they only have in con suR themselves ? tnctpossibli Peiping. They give orders tt their European allies. tad Western nation has not only .te consult its, flute coramit te :Partners hut the fifteen-mem ber e.ouncil of NATO and, I the. case of Britain. eight mem bers ol the Commonwealth a well, Second. the Soviets flY6 eXiied the inhere 7..orfttallireg-91675tROPOVP01140067-0 not CS' Cal .e ohey for vey ion f ft invovcs aerifecing a rising standard oi tying. Western co-ordination in the sarMaMent committee has ever been good, eIt, was justii . _ bad in my day!) The West- ern members appear sometimes ever-eager: sometimes hesitant and negative. Because they do not know and cannot a.gree what they want, they have no taint positive :proposals. Br Thin Fronts 4 Stockpile 'the United States and France wa it an immediate stoppage of II- omb production. But Britain, laving badly IrL the atomic ? rare., wants nine to concoct 'a stc diode from the recipe which sh has just acquired. Her neat de ense policy has staked the en ire security of the nation on nuclear Weapons. If Russia andi America s.greed tomorrow to a' cu,-off. 13ritain would be in an intaissible fix. However unlikely h a may be, Britain b reluctant to go along with America and Fiance M insisting that a cessa- ti n of tests he accompanied by a cut-oft of production. This pr Pim could and should be odercome by Anacrica agreeing ' u sell weapons to Britain now at she has: the regiCe. Frehee attaches far less im- p itemise to political settlements t' an do Britain and America. na many 'Frenchmen would P to to see Germany stay tit. v (Jed. Yet no disarmament,. ereement would be carried :vend the most pecliminery ? s ages untal Germany had been S If the Russians are net to tau F td Mere rh'ieS 'round. us and 11' hghtir OCIShOrl IS not to rani awiay with us, the Western new- t 'a dilgt agree forthwith on in drectiv e counter-pronosal to :checkmate the latest Sm let !note. They :mist insist that, tett- ' lc and producing nuclear .capons be prohibited sitnulta.- misty. and they should include elided missiles in this en Maori'. 'hey should also in tist the li tidal inspection a reas cover mth sides equally. Finally they borate hold fiam that political, .ettlements Rre an essential pre- onditien of large-scale disarm- No doubt Russia. would retort iuen a proposal. Emote ivilrfor :he piesent Remit anyivitic Rmits short- Inn. melear CrOCtrld and Rhr long- plan h term )lan which demands a Gerthert erttlemont. Bulganin kind Ennisheligii made that yery plain at Geneva and again in London a year ago, when they deimitiSed the division of Ger- many as 'irrelevant" to the disarmarilen'. Problem. But the, West must not be eifraid to remind public opinion thair, a bad screemern is fee derSt.` 'hag rt, ague:mint. We I'MUSt re-emphasize the rd:anew lof Russia iie nucleat build-up and !Germany's future to any dis- !armm aent scheme. 11 ice ir tihre Fithe one and betray the other to !get aererintint for ligreEnrent's vcr stulnlic mnytgaRin,c our kttul ity and selling short cur Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT ? II IN Then JUL 5 !hi EASTERN EUROPE CPYRGHT CPYRGHT 3 OUSTED SOVIET LEADERS ALSO LOSE STATE OFFICES; 'NEXT STEP WAITED fiP Reports Unconfirmed r vLtc4ncse were Molotov, Kaganovich rephor,t?s'asciimuc uploastsedibleoutotsiedoenf itrhatt and Maluku Are Punished Further By WILLIAM a JORDEN SMCIal rat Mir YOU lima I MOSCOW, July 4.--Three Sips from the Communist party hire archy lost their high Covert. ment posts today. ! Newt; of the Government di s !missals came a day after ti ;disclosure that the three men, Veracheslay M Molotov, Gear M. Malenkov and Lazar M. Kaganovich, brad been removed from both the Communist pa ty's Central Committee and the committee's Presidium. All three men were form", intimates of Stalin amt as mere% hers of the Presidium belongel to the most powerful /tingle bo* in the Soviet system. The question asked in Moscow tonight was what would halve, next to the "dogmatists and op- nortunists," as tini three dia. missed men were called, The r continue as members of th P party. Cabinet Shifts Listed The Presidium of the Suprem Soviet, Mgest state body in th Soviet system, announced ill ; following changes tonight fit th Cabinet of Premier Nikolai A Sulganin. tilt Molotov was oustm from his job as a First Deput) Premier and as banister M Stan Control, a post equivalent tt Government auditor. ? eMr. Malenkov removed from hl post as a Deputy Premier and Minister of Electric Powel Stations. ? lialte Kaganovich was disi missed from his First Deputy Premiership, He held no Cabinet portfolio siace his Ministry of the Building Materials Industry had been abolished in the recent economic reorganization. eatlexei E. Pavlenko was named as Mr. Malenkov's sue- CliSSOr in the Electric Power Stations post, which Mr. Pave enko had held before Mr. Malens kov's appointment. in February, Approved For Release 2 Soviet Union that Meeks. Moat otov, Malenkov and Kaganovich had been placed under house se- rest. That would be a logical IprocNiure If the three men were to be place don trial for their 'activities. The indictment of the Central Committee that was publlahed 'ea right did not suggest they had teen guilty of criminal acts, but .helr anti-party activities collie be elaborated with little diffieilty into ermies agar wt the peop Th Soviet Covernn tot made official tonight its ear n prom- ise that compulsory dela, aries to the s ate from the privete plots 1of collective farmers Would be ,enclec next Jan, 1. He etofore farmers have been Teeth ed to turn in to the state certa percentages of the meat ;and vegetable produce they raisec on private plots assigned to th m by the collective farm. Opposition by Messrs. Melotov, ; Malertov and Kaganovich to the !abolit on of these compulsory &live-les was listed by the party yesterday as. one of the reasoi s for their dismissal. Deaeloprnents at the top of pyran id of the Soviet leadership were almost the only topic of conve sation at the traditional July 4 reception given today by the V ated States Embassy. The party was held at Spaso Rouse, the Ambassador's residence, where Richard Davis, Charge d'Affe res, acted as host. The Soviet leadership was rep- resent el only by Anastas I. Mikoy it, veteran party Presi- dium member, Nikolai M. Shyer- nik, n ivly appointed full mem- ber o that fifteen-man, body, and A Mei A. Gromyko, Foreign Minist a They seemed their usual elves as they chatted and 1drank with members of Mos- leceses iplornatie community and host of visiting Americans. Asked what effect the re- moval of Messrs. Molotov, ,Maienhav and Kaganovleh would have Mr. Mikoyan relined: "everything will be the same, only atter." He indicated there would be no major policy Ichancs but that things would O mare smoothly with the three 9 Dmitri T. SititpllOv. ale had been mentioned only once in the par- ty indictment of the ousted lead- ers, and the only for having "sided with them." Mr. Skeane's, was dismissed from all his party posts as alter- nate member of the Presidium, ember of the Central iruttee and one of the Partal retaries. He held no Govern.; ment post since he resigned as; Foreign Minister last March. Another mystery was what, had happened to Maxim Z. Sabu- rov, one the Soviet Unimes top economic planner. He was dropped from the party Presidi- um without explanation and had not even been made a candidate as had his colleague in economic planning, Mikhail G. Perviiklart. Mr. Mikoyan said tonight that ?Sr. Saburov still was a member of the Central Committee. He said, too, that Mr. Permikhin had been demoted because of his "youth and inexperience." ? alan.sup,.se, sent-act. JN UUIS iS. Khrushehey. the party secretary nor his constant companion, Premier Btaganin, appeared a the party, it was announced aft daily that they would leave to a state visit to Czechosloyaki July 8. Their visit had bee postponed, presumably because of the developments of the last two weeks. Much of sPeeulation m Moe- cow tonight centered on what changes, if any, could be expect- ed from the Kremlin as a result of the changes n leadership. In- terest was focused on foreign, policy. The dismissed leaders had been accused of opposing the Soviet policy of promoting better relations with all coun- t:1;i% Mikoyan gave no hint at the party that there would be any alteration in the Kremlin's general line in domestic or for- eign affairs. Mr. Mikoyan wa sengaged in earliest conversatton with Yugo- slav Ambassador Veliko Mieuno- vie. One of the things Mr. Mo- lotov was specifically criticized for was opposition to the resto- ration of friendly relations with Yugoslavia. Mass Meetings Held The Soviet leadership did not rely on the bare announcement of the removal of Messrs 'Molo- tov, Malenkov and Kaganovich to convince. the Soviet public that the action was both neces- sary and desirable. Newspapers today were filled With. reports] of mass meetings that had been 'held in most major cities in ad- vance of the official announce- ment. The most important of those meetings was held in Moscow Tuesday evening. The audience heard speeches by Mr. Khmer shchev, Premier Regatta% and Miss Yekaterina A. Furtseva, newly appointed to regular mem- bership in the party Presidium and the only woman ever to reach that position. At the meeting party officials, engineers and workers spoke in support of the party's action against the three men who had been dismissed. Messrs. Molotov, _Malenkov and Kaganovich were accused of "conspiratorial meth. ods" in trying to set up an "anti- party faction." ? Special fire was directed against Mr. Molotov, who has been in the highest Soviet circle longer than any living man. One speaker at the Moscow meeting said that as Minister of State Control Mr. Molotov, instead of promoting party decisions, had "written letters against those decisions." Some Mysteries Remain One of the mysteries that happened to L tkeYRGHT JUL5 1957 MALENKOV OUSTER POSES A PROBLEM Khrushchev Group May Find It Hard to Destroy His Popularity With Farmers By HARRY SCH1VAR'fZ NLKEta S. KflrU.flC.fleV. it Ions group of Soviet leaders be- gs a yesterday to cope math their internal problem in the wake of their latest purge -the wide popularity of ?corgi At "Laken - Roy. Yesterday's announcement that produce grown in peasant gar- dens would he freed irom Gov- ernment requisitions Jan. I seemed clearly calculated to win favor among millions who wel- comed former Premier Mabee, keel's 1953 promises of higher living standards. Collective faiTh- ers will be allowed to sell the produce grown on private plots at the relatively high pries pre- vailing in the Soviet free market. thus raising their income and purchasing 'power. The political intent of the move was underlined by the fact that the communique announcing the Moseoiv action asserted that Mr. Malenkov and his fellows had opposed the change. Mr. Karush- chev had held out this deices- Mon as a possibility in a speech earlier this year. Soviet farmers, however, may not be satisfied. Their personal garden plots are usually half an acre or less. Most Soviet food is grown on the common lands owned by the collective tarries to which almost all peasants be- long, and Government exactions front these farms? exactions paid for at prices far below the free Market rate--will continue. If all cemputeory deliveries; were abolished and all produce was sold at prices determined by supply and demand-- as has been; .90 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT APPWYgilgETAWeiRP9,40(424742 lite.65:00756R000380130067-0 elution there?then presumably! Silentlov accompanied Mr. Khni- 1Fdeerthele'llaiga's1h9e5s6. coTlimptsletel public with e en- peasant Income income would rise very +whey to Belgrade when the lat- . substantially. But the price on ter apologized for the 1948 ex the present assertions that he food to city workers might then, associated with the Molotov. rise top creating neW political Matenkov 'anti-party fraction* communication of the Yugos as Communists, In Be/grade, ac- cording to Yugoslav sources, Mr. problems. Shepilow acted as Mr. /Chen- shchev's expert and -sought to I find means of reconciling &MeV Concession to Farmers Whether the Malenkov-Moto- toy group will ever have a Mr. Khrushchev's original chance speech suggesting the concession and Yugoslav views on the na- to tell its side of the con- to the fanners indicated the tore of socialism. Raving re. a flat re conflicting precedents among remains to be seen. There sensitive nature of this moven .thaed Mr. Molotov as Eoretgn Ile mentioned the likelihood that. holster, Mr Shenilov welcomed his proposal would, improve the political atmosphere in Soviet villages. Even such an Indirect. i present situation in Soviet his- hint in popular discontent is 1 tory took place in October, 1927. rare in official Soviet statemnsts, Thus, all the evidence hitherto , The collective farms, which : i.i.orilatile about Mr, Stwitiktv's Then 1 wo major Soviet leaders Leon Trotsky and Gregory Zino I . these last fesir -years points farshal Tito to Moscow In une, 1956. A Khrtishekev Collaborator which the Soviet leaders may choose to govern themselves in deciding these men's fate. The closest analogue to the were formed. afterdifficulta:en were expelled from the. struggle in the early Nineteen ro the conehision that he was Thirties, make up about 90 per Mae of Mi', Khrushchey's closest central Committee session set cent of Soviet agriculture. They collaborators, and owed to Mr. ite eientr the same lint's as that. 1 ' are operated by machinery that leitushehetr his election as a Amlieh expelled the Maliankow? rented from Government-owned Communist party Secretary la 'Molotov group last week It was not entil a decade or more later that Stalin began the murder of his most prominent Ipolitical opponents, and then the majority of the most prominent -were killed after trials at which they publicly "confessed" treach- ery. hit. Khrusheheses attack on Stalin last year emphasized that Lenin, unlike Stalin, neither be- lieved in nor practiced the im- prisonment or shooting of his internal Communist party op- ponents. On the other hand, former So- secret police chief Laurenti F. Berta was executed in De- cember, 1953, after baying been purged in June, 1953. , -and operated machine tractor ; stations. Members of collective ; farms share the net income in i proportion to the work each one dors, in addition, the Soviet ' Union has state farms owned by . the Government and operated by ' hired workers who are paid as factory hands are. It remains. to be men whether Soviet farmers believe that Mr, IL Y. Times JUL 5 157 CPYRGHT SHIFT IN SA TEL alalenkov and the other ousted Soviet leaders optioned this con- cession as asserted in the official Communist party communique. Doubt on this point arises for at least two reasons: First, Government requisitions from the private gardens were sharply reduced earlier in the post-Stalin period, while the now ousted leaders were still very powerful, Under Stalin, the exac- tions from these gardens were so heavy that Many peasants found It Wiser to slaughter their cows rather than keep them and have to deliver what the Government required. Second, .the communique as- serted that. the ousted leaders opposed raising material Moen trees for fanners, that is to say they opposed raising prices the Government pays the collective lams for their produce. But, the first major increase in such prices was announced in Septem- ber 1953 while Ma Malenkov was Premier of the Soviet Union. Other Discrepancies There were also ether discrep- ancies in the official communi- que explaining the ouster of the leaders. The most striking seemed to be the linking of Dmitri T. Shepilov as a fellow conspirator with Mr. Malenkov. This raised doubts because in January, 195. Mr. Shepiloy gave the public sig- nal for tb.e policy change that preceded Mr. Ma.lenkov's nation RS Soviet Premier, Mr. FhepileV then was the author of a major article in Pravda that laid down the thesis that the "general line of the party" was the absolute primacy of heavy industry over eon:sumer good; industry. Premier Maine Roe bad been identified since the summer of 1953 with a policy of muck higher pnority for con- sumer goods production.. Linking of Mr. Shripilov with former soviet Foreign 'Minister Vyacheslay M. Molotov in the al- leged conspiracy also seemed to raise douhts. Mr. Moletnir was knot to have opposed the Soviet reeen- ciliation with President Tito of Yugoslavia. lile was released from his just as Foreign Min- ister on the eve of Marshal Tines arrival in Moscow in June, MM. But Mr ShopiloY had previously been publicly identified as a sup- meter of the noli.ey of Soviet- appreNronsifteraelease RUMANIANS REAC 2 Stalinists Droppe by Politburo?Other Moves Indicated -?,_ --.-? -?-- By SYDNEY' (HUTSON Pu The Nes, risk Tine,. PRAGUE, Czechoslovakia, Jul, CPYRGHT The communique issued by Ager press said the Central Committee agreed with the con- clusions drawn In the roporn presented by M. GeoriehM-Del.1 One of these cone/miens tvaM that M. Chtsinevaky and fit. Constantinesen had to go, (Agee press reported that e Central Committee had voted to oust the two men dur? five-day meeting that ended Tuesday, according to news agencies. It said AL Con- s mbar:soil kept his Govern.. Ineptants as First Deputy transcends the frontiers of the' ISoylet Union," said Zycie Wa jszawye And firybuna Ludo, organ ? iof the Polish Central Committee, Icorn in ' "Om- pally is solidly behind( 'the decisions of the Soviet party' land sees in them the victory of plying, creative Marxism-Lenin- 'ism '' One theme was nommen to all 1Polish newspaper comment. it was to the ef feet that the Soviet iparty now was experiencing a istroggie similar to that tinder-.- taken by the Poles after h Marlys- , .liac Onttaka return to power IlasS October on a program of liberalized communism. I Gain for 'Socialist Unity' The afternoon paper Express Wieczerny said that the down- fall of Soviet, dogmatists should .be a warning to those Comma- (nista in Poland "who would like :to halt the changes happening !here," Zycie Warszawy also Used the occasion to reiterate the Polish party's determination to I find the "Polish road to social- ISM," to which Vyacheslay M. Molotov had been considered thei major barrier in the Soviet party I Pit.sidii III). Moscow's actions, Zycie Wara strawy added? "bring the work- ing class of Poland closer to tire.' Soviet nation, for they serve al true .and sincere unity of the Serialist countries " General Rankovie, speaking at. a rally in Prijedor, Bosnia, of partisans gathered to celebrate the War uprising against m stain of Marshal Tito's the Germans, said: "AU progressive and peace- loving forces in the world will welcome these changes as a pipet victory of the people of the Soviet Union and their arty, as a victory of those forces that are snuggling for the maintenance of peace, for constructive cooperation among ipeoples and countries and for 'strengthening of socialism ? in the world." Advaneti Notice Indieated Moscow's actions, General Rankovie added, were "proof of the vital rapacity of Soviet so- ciety arid of its Socialist :forces, a.n go steadily a Inner ft Ionian Conlin Unist. party's polit- giro WeVii (Waits:sod " today a heels waves froni the Shake-up the Soviet Communist leader- 11-111 ip began spreading through :astern Europa The two men whose remora! as announced in Bucharest ere Miron Constantineseu and 1 Sf Chisinevagy? who also lost us job as a SQCITtary of the party's Central. Committee. 'Both len, whose membership in the Lolitburo placed them In the top nits of the Rumanian party, v ere known as tough old-fine traralinisis. tin. Budapest, supporters of ? reinter Janos Ends r pre- bet ed that the Mosconi events voted strengthen the hand of he Hungarian leader with the waters Communist, pony. lie East German Communist a:Worship hailed the Soviet hake-up.] Action by Rintianian Chiefs , According to Ager press, the ?tidal Rumanian news agency, el-orghe Georghiu?Dej, the Ru- in mien party's First. Secretary, livered a report to the Central C rnmittee on the ronsego.enties 11 the Soviet party's Twentieth C ngress in February, MO, at ion Stalin yeas downgraded. flu N. Chtsinevsky ana M. :71 nstantinescu had attended the D 'Fortieth Congress in Moscow. Premier and Minister of Edu- cation and Culture, rhisinev,ski had been re- garded n a the right-hand-man of hi, 131morghin-Dej, and M. Cowie itinesco Ms served as the R imanian CCOUrerrisis' expert education. Both men are lenn-time Moscow-trained ( Communes.] Othe au Expected fir I-all It wan generally believed DWI other Fe dens of the Communist, world w old also fall before the! affects d the dramatic actions 1 n Moseny died away,. In oth r parts of Eastern Eu- e, ire imitate reaction ranged rom th Czechoslovak party's 'Hence t out jubilation in leharatte and Warsaw, the head- waters of the two Commumsl iarties U at have st niggled hard- -sit In th s part of the world foe ndependi nce from Moscow's dic- ation. Airman jr Ennkovie, one of tigoslay a's four trice Peen- _ ..... . ents an a confidant of Marshal Ito, predicted that the Moscow cisions would have "far-reach. g posit ye consequences." He lied tN removal of what he esenbed as tbe "Malenkov roup" f om the Soviet loader- hip as "great victory" that wild be "reflected positively in e relati ns og the Soviet Union 'ith othr. countries:.'' The Po ish party's newspaper 2W 2/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00Mthildbegotitgaderree' 10 Hai Leash tot P th cant. CPYRGHT CPYRGHT mum uveu rut metvAse_ Twentieth Congress [of the So net communist partyl and can energetically remove all ob- stacles on that road." The dismissals of M. Chtst-1 Inevsky and M. Constantinescu In Rumania and an editorial in Nepszabad sag, the Hungarian Communist party newspaper, indicated that prior notice of the Moscow decisions had been given other Communist parties. The Rumanian Central Commit- tee apparently met shortly after the Moscow Central Committee meeting ended on June 29. Neps- zabadsag said the Hungarian partY's Central Committee had unanimously adopted a resolu- tion of approval after bearing , of the decisions. Both in. Warsaw and in Prague there was a noticeable air of suppressed excitement today. Newspapers with the news from Moscow were sold out swiftly. Most persons seemed to think that the changes in the Soviet leadership were an Important beginning, but of what they did not know. mpg (Imo tvmrcherotagge. 756R000500130067-0 oday that Mr. !Cedar had left udapest on vacation, Ills desti- ation was not disclosed. Deputy Premier Antal Apro and Sander Hanoi, President of Parliament, leo were on holiday. Also close to the party leader- hip mid it would be unrealistic to expect any thoroughgoing 'lenges in Budapest as a con- sequence of the Soviet move. he Hungarian party, they main- ained, cannot afford a relaxa- ion until the "counter-revolu- ionary forces" have been wiped out and the continuance of Com- munist rule has been assured. Kadar's Backers Pleased By ELIE ABEL CF'F New York tines. iintaliale.str, Hungary, July 4 routroa L?op .1 Radar welcomed today the. changes in the Soviet leadership. They predicted that the con- solidation of Nikita S. Khrush- chev's authority in the Kremlin would strengthen Mr. Kadar's :hand with the Hungarian Com- munist party. In a front-page editorial titled "On the Road of the Twentieth Congress," the Hungarian party organ Nepszabadsag said this morning: "The revolution of the Cen- tral Committee of the Soviet Communist party also helps our party to overcome existing and - reviving mistakes and sectarian methods and feelings. It is pos- sible that at the same time cer- tain revisionists or revisionism. minded persons will try to use the present resolution * ? * to justify and strengthen their ? ? * ambitions and inclinations. Of course one must stand up with proper firmness against slut phenomena,. aimed at ideo- logical troublemaking," At a conference of his own Party last week-end Mr. Kadar had no apparent difficulty in overcoming a challenge from the old Stalinist wing led by Jozsef Revel, former Minister of Cul- ture and arch-enemy of the in- tellectuals who sparked the October uprising. Mr. Revel got a. seat on the new Hungarian Central Committee, however, along with Imre Doget, Minister of Agriculture, also regarded as a Stalinist, 'Sectarian Methods' Scored The Stalinist group obviously as the target of Nepszahad- sag's attack on "dogmatic mis- takes and sectarian methods." The so-can et revisionists, many or whom ?fused to rejoin the Kadar grit after the crushing of the rm. 'ion, are the follow- ers of Imre Tau, the National Communist evener Premier now in exile to Lutaania. Mr. Kadar evidently had had advance knowledge of the So- viet shake-up. The action in IMoscow took place during a Cen- tral Committee meeting from June 22 to 29, which also was the last day of the Hungarian party conference in Budapest. JWith the Kremlin's blessing, Mr. Kadar consolidated his grip on the party apparatus acquiescing_ ApprevedsFanaSeasee00( teal Committee as a token of unity. German Reds Voice Approval Washington Post JUL 5 1957 ussian Peril to U. S. Seen Undiminished CPYRGHT By John M. Hightower CPYRGHT esierttese ere over the Stalinist bloc in Mo "'WV-r aw ewe uly 4?The East cow means to 'United State Iteff"Mir ankiallS that. Russia will rim as declared Itself unequivocally develop with cunning and de In support of the Kremlin action against what was termed here termination the "soft" poliele he "hostile group of IGeorgi M.1 toward the Outside world Whir Malenkov, [Lazar M.] Kaga- threaten the West with gray ovieh and Wyacheslay MI Mo- elm" A communiqu?ssued to- dangers. day interpreted all the latest The whole set of Soviet poll Soviet developments under .the Cies bundled up under the lathe leadership of Mr. Kbrushchev as of "peaceful coexistence" h soundly working out the policy been brought to its fullest d . established at the Twentieth veinpment during the past lou Congress of the Soviet Commu- years, while Khrushebev ha met party. It added: been the foremost figure in thi "The slanderous campaign Kremlin. aiming Comrade Khrushehey is The policies with which h if reality an attack on the lead- i g role of the party and has become identified ereatt red to the carrying out of the is op- t rave threats for the Unite( v shes of the Twentieth Party States and its Western allies caress." In sum, as analyzed by the ex East Germany's commujust pests here, they are designed t. strengthen Russia economicati o Belida said they had been in- f nd militarily while lulling' tic( ruled about the discussions of tie Central Committee of the Communist party con- cerning "inner party problems." They were informed also that ' he group of Malenkov, Kaga- remit% and Molotov, hostile to t e party, had erected hindrances t i carrying out decisions of the Ileventieth party Congress and Ind led an unprincipled fight against the implementing of de- e-stens and measures for carry- i ig out" the program of the party congress, their statement encl. Deputy Premier Walter UI- richt, the East German party eader, now will face the task of lemonstrating that his course in he last sixteen months has been orrect. Immediately after ,the Cone- munist rank and file in East lerxnany learned last year that Yin Khrushchey had attacked Ratite a campaign was started igainst Herr Ulbricht. He was lescribed as a Stalinist in his oyalty and in his methods of -tarty control. Thus far, how- :yea the party chief has survived all attacks. Washington Post JUL 5 1957 Red Endesesy Reacts A' Purges 1, July 4 (INS) ., I n . I ? . &Mi..' scheme of the Soviet Env. ears of foreign countries abou he Soviets' aggressive aim. I he West relaxes, its determi nation to make the tremendrag effort necessary for its owr security could malt away. Sinister Aim The "soft ' Khrushchey poll- :ies, if they e merely a ern- al mask for Mister aims, are he ones mos likely to produce stronger Soviet Union and a veaker North Atlantic alli- ance. Conceivably they even eceed in easing some of Rus- la's relations with the Euro- man satellite countries and hereby strengthen the Comma- ist bloc. Certainly they may antribute to more flexible and 1 djustable relations between iloscow and the capital of Chi- ese communism at Peking. Khrushchey has appeared to any experts here to be a hard- oiled, eminently practical man vith the same dedication to the 'odd-wide triumph of commie .sm as Stalin professed but th far greater resourceful- ess and agility in driving to- ward that- goal. Posen Polley With respect to foreign poi icy, Khrushchey has talked down the chances of armed con Ilia and talked up the contest of politica; and economic forces .between the Communist and free worlds. However, he oeca- sionally relapses Into a kind or classic Kremlin attack on e untied taiates as a tune o world peace. He has appeared to accept he fact and the in;ilitations f the nuclear stalemate be- ween Moscow and Washington, is conceivable that he thinks, do some top American offl- ials, that the stalemate can be ranslated Into a partial dia. mament pact. The reasoning ehind this view is that If the Suited States and Russia have roduced a standoff at a high evel of military preparation, vhy could they not get the sine result at tower cost all round by' an agreement to cut ack their arms burden? Those policies, and others of similar nature, constitute runt has become known As he "soft" Soviet line lin- r lehrioshchey. The "hard" I alinist line presumably called:' or tighter reins over the satell te countries, tougher public! Modes toward the West, per- aps more reckless action in lie Middle East, perhaps more euppressirm of the growing ' self-assertion of Poland. N. Y. ThWYRGHT JUL 5 13:7 WASHINGTON CALM ON SOVIET CHANGE Its Policy Seems to Be One of Waiting to See What Khrushchev Does Next I By 3431E5 RESTON setae to The New York tInbeit WASHINGTON, July 4?The bossy In East Berlin was re- vised quickly today to fit die velopments in Moscow. Eight portraits of V. M. Molotov and Georgi Malem kov?dismissed from their party and government posts ?were removed from the Embassy wails. A spokesman added that a psbe WantiaRarg756R000500130067-0 be located. 11 Adnhinistratio.n Was dm and silent today despite the political upheaval in Moscow. Those few officials who were here on the holiday were gen- erally hopeful but careful about the dismissal of the old Stalinists in the Soviet Government. Most of the United States Gotern- ment leaders were away from the capital or unavailable. President Eisenhower was play-, leg golf in the Blue Ridge. Sec- retary of State Dulles was off at his cabin on Duck island in Lake Ontario. Christian A. Her- ter, Acting Secretary of State, wa.s referring all cans to the duty officer at the Stato De- partment:, who was home with his family. And even the Voice of America was merely pumping out unofficial reactions to the Kremlin storm, INeeSS CPYRGHT Mppruveu rutrcelease zu Change Taken In Stride : At 6 o'clock this; evening, there' was still no official appraisal of the significance of the Soviet changes from the United States. Embassy in Moscow, and until.: dark, when the annual fireworks display illuminated the Mall be- side the Washington Monument' downtown Washington seemed almost neglected. This would not have happened: :a few years ago. Lesser changeel in the past in Moscow have? created much more of a stir, but; Washington is finally taking the mysteries of Mosecw in its stride? As to the meaning of the Menges, State Department of ti this handling , Soviet .affeirsj were recalling the statement made just a year ago today be Gen, Nathan P. Twining, retired Air Force chief of Staff, when .he returned from Moscow. "Nobody is an expert on Rus- sia," he said. -There are only varying degrees of ignorance." With this in mind, nobody here Was being very dogmatic about what to expect? but, all wer- pleased that the victors in Sur Kremlin struggle were those who had at least given lip service to. peace, disarmament and more freedom in the Communist etri-' Pitt. The general feeling was that, as a result of his victory over the more rigid Stalinists, Nikita S. Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Soviet Communist party, would have more freedom of action in the field of foreign affairs, This speculation produces mixed feelings In. Washington. It is reassuring in that officials here feel that Mr. Khnish.chev wants peace so that he can con- solidate the vast gains of the' Stalin era, but it is perplexing in that Mr. Ehrushettev, even under the restraints of the Stal- inists, has demonstrated ton- sideratde diplomatic skill in administering his coexistence policy in the last year. New Rhrushehee Moves Effected Though the normal procedure after so sharp a break is for the Soviet leaders to swing back temporeerily to a middle peal- lion, officials here expect Mr, Ehruslichey to take on more trips abroad, to make new ef- forts to propagandize the West and to try in various ways to seize the initiative In the world- wide debate over disarmament and ending the nuclear weap- ons tests. Washington itself is not ex- pected to take any new initia- tives until events indicate more clearly the meaning of what has happened. There are some offi- cials here who feel that the troubles in both Moscow and .Peiping are divided on the tough .Washington policy, and there- fore that it should, be main- tained, while others look on it as an invitation to a more hopeful period of negotiation with the strengthened fehrtzshehey. In this situation, the likelihood is that. the Administration will Wat and see. It is still citylded even on the cenditional offer tol liZTUPFICAL0.KIMPPritOrOCIKFILI7 tests for ten months. It is hest- that to do anything about a general political settlement in Europe until after the West Cern men election Sept. 11, and the long humid summer days are coming on?never a time for great, activity along the Potomac.' Nevertheless, some officials here feel that Mr. Khrushchey may force the pace of negotia- tion, and President Eisenhower inadvertently gave him an op- portunity to do so here this week. The Pteiddent said at his news confenenee yesterday morning that he would be glad to Invite other nations to attend the next United States atomic tests to check on he progress made by the Government in reducing the radiation-content of this coun- try's atomic weapons. He also indicated that he might be wilting to let the Rus- sians in on the secret of how these comparatively radiation- free bombs could be decontimi- nated. Both these references caused some surprise even with- in the Administration. What if Mr. Ehrushchey should say that he would like to come here and see a demonstration of these new deanear atomic bombs?, some officials asked. Would the President then not be confronted with having to ac- cept Mr. Khrushchev's "accept- ance and thus open the way for the Khrushehey visit the Administration has always tin- ed' Meanwhile, Mr. Khrushchey, and Marshal Nikolai A. Bulgardn Soviet Premier, will be going tol CPYRGHT 36RVaingtegbeeff0 tit/LC) 14 1951 Khrusitchrt iGains Power 61uRited Purge nant ana more suirounnen ve "yes men," was the view. The Kremlin dispute, sprang essentially from domestic, is- sues, according to the prevail- ing Washington assessment Khrushehev is rated a 'Jug speed ahead" man, determined to reorganiee the Soviet econo- my aed to run roughshod over those who say it can't be done, or can't he done as quickly as cnn? nnn gnel moot', Ic Hic Czechoslovakia nest week and that will undoubtedly occupy the attention of State Department officials for a time, For there Is great interest here in the ef- fects of the Kremlin changes oat the East European Communist I; Than states. These changes are expected to encourage the satellites to write and act more freely then before. The surprisingly candid state- ment on the Presidum of the Soviet Communist party said that the Stalinists had been dig :- missed partly because they op- posed giving more freedom MI the other Communist countries, and therefore, officials here ex The Kremlin shakeup makeij 'Nikita Kbruslichey "top dog" 'in the Soviet Union but he is not a Stalin. This was one conclusion of, iAmerican experts who y?eri :day sought to unravel the: meaning of the surprise purge of those who have stood in the iway of the boss of the Soviet' Communist Party. A price Khrushebee had to pay for kicking Out the men who objected to his speedup in internal economic changes was to give the Red Army a 'strdng- er position?the promotion of Soviet Defense Minister Georgi Zhukov from candidate to full membership on the ruling Presidium, some experts felt, The general disposition here yesterday was to reject the dea that Khrushehen had tacked, or would reach, the me-man ruling status of .the ate Josef Stalin. The Army would not permit it, these ex- eerts felt. The Soviet Union will com inue to he run by a stollen ive leadership" but with Chruslichey much More dome, pent that this will be taken as a, invitation in Warsaw and else where to test that freedom. Thus, the feeling here is the, a new phase ih the relations be tween Moscow and the satellites Is opening up, and the reactions, particularly in Poland, Czecho- slovakia and Yugoslavia, will be watched here very closely. For as Poland exercises more freedom, trouble In Communis East Germany is expected to In- crease, and these two points are still regarded in Washington as he greatest tests of Soviet POhey, recent televisionappearance, Khrusbeheir showed his con- tempt for such ideas, It was noted that the Mett Khrushehev had moved up a. ' well as those rated as his long . time followers all held their: posts or were promoted.. Among them were the new economic boss, F. R. Kinky. The purge or 'Old Bolsite- ' acs" V M eloknee and hblaganovieh was explained as the dumping of men 'who rei :tested Khrusbc hey's earrotand-, stick efforts to improve the' Soviet economy. On the other ' tided the dumping of Geprgi Malenkov was explained as getting rid of a man who had argued that industrial goofs should, he cut to medium more consumer goods, a position poles apart from the Mole:toe- Kaganovich Into,: The foreign policy rantiewai: thins of the more seemed less clear. Many aspects hazarded' a guess, but not much more, that it might make it. easiert to come to terms at the Inn-, don disarmament talks since Xhrushehey has sounded as tha ugh he wanted agreement. Molotov long has viewed with suspieio.n any form of huSiness with the Western powers. JUL 4 157 CPYRGHT 'Moscow Ousters Termed Victory for 'Liberal' Policy By HARRISON E. SALISBURY INlislut C. nILrnacaev, net tieereta y ot the 'immet Communist party, appears to have won a smashing victory' for his "New Look" policies of easing tensions at home and abroad. This was the initialiland his victorious Central tOhl reaction of competent special- !mittee majority charged Mre iota in Soviet affairs to the !Molotov, Mr. Kaganorich, dramatic decisions of the Pat- Malenktov and their supporters: " meeting in Moscow of the with persistentpersistentawl deliberate: Mt party's Central Committee. ,efforts l.oSRlinitige every effort With the Sens support of the ;It) "se internationalth Soviet A tniy, e Communist HIThifee the hie of neviet Cln- y apparatus and the Governs zoo; at home and destroy the Tont bureaucracy, Mr. Kbru- shchev has ousted from the So- viet, ruling group a Powerful bloc of Stalinist ohpositionists. Mr. Kimusheliev's ability to re. vestiges of Stalinist excesses. The communique announcing the expulsions contained a plat- form of the ikhruslichev faction, , which promised to continue move from the party's Pre. .strieing for better international sidium and Central Committee 'relations. White the main force cf the Khrushehey indictment was di- rected against Mr. Molotey Mr. Leaganovich and Mr. Malenkoy, they were not. the only targets. FIn effect Mr. Klittshchey made :a clean sweep, Ile also ousted Dmitri It. Step- ney the former Pravda editor Are of thodndictment placed , and Foreign Minister who was such veteran party chieftains as Vyachestav M. Molotov, Lazar M. Kagannvich and Georgi M. M aleuliov was testimony to the power lie had now mustered be- hind his leadership, Indictment Is Stressed Of great impel tance in inter- ational relations was the na- Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-001 RUM apOU identified with the "Young , r Michel; ' Turk" faction of the party, Mn cpylkimpfered For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 iL V. Timis JUL 4 1957 Man of Many Talents Nikita S. Khrushchev lslhendoit had been an alternate member of the Presidium. In addition, Mr. Khrushchev demoted leading members of the so-ralled "technicians" group. Maxim Z. Sebum:, a state planning official. was dropped from the Presidium, and Mik- hail G. Pervuklen, another lead- ing technician, was reduced in rank from a fell member to an alternate member. There were two notable facts about the new and enlarged party Presidium, One was the complete predominance of Khru- shelters supporters almost all of them petty bureauerate. The other was the elevation of Mar- Heti Georgi K. Zhlikces to full ;Jtisnberhip. While nothing was said in the communique about the role! of , Itornth,coming? Ute Army, it seemed beyend ; eAll% the area in which change question that Mr. Ithruelichev seemect to be most strongly die- could not have embeikeil :teted was in the continuing Sta- on so sweeping a cone.olldation of imist leadefailiP within tionne of power without tlet 100 per eent assurance of military backing. It was probably not without significance that the Only public appearances made by Mr. Khru- sheavv and by Premier Nikolai A. Bulganin In the period when the Central Committee was retrying on its deliberations be- tween Jane 22 and 29 were in the !company of Marshal Zhukov. It may be of eddltIonal signi- ficance that these appearances were all in connect on with the visit to the Soviet Union of the Yugoslav Minister of Defense, ;Nil Gen, Ivan Gosniale One er the principal, indictments brought against Mr. Molotov done within the Soviet Union. Of transcendent importance, gas his invidious influence upon Soviet-Yugoslav relation:, however, is the forthcoming vfsit to Moscow and to eastern Euro e Khrushehev Platform Listed of Mr. Mao, The new.' line The - The platform upon which Mr. lished by Mr. Khrusheliev should I iterusheliev is prepared to stand enable him now to assimilate Mr. in connection with his action Maxes ideas that eontradietionse careen's the following pointe: between the leaders and the led! eieupport of the policies of the of a Communist state can andl of state, Mao Tse-tung, in his speech on letting a "hundred flowers blossom" and "a hun- dred schools of thought contend." However, it was expected that at the onset, at least, of the inew IChrushchey regime caution would probably be the watch- word. The powerful individuals displaced by Mr. Khrushchev are not without friends throughout the structure of the Soviet and party apparatus. it seemed certain, for eeample, that the list of changes in the Soviet hierarchy had not been ex- hausted by the actions of the Cen- tral COMmatee. Other changes In the Council of Minlatere and, perhaps, the various provin- cial party aecretaryehipe may be the satellite countries. There has. been for example no change in the Stalinist leadership of the CzecIfoalovak Communist party., Visit to Prague Slated Mr. Khrushchev and Marshal: Bulganin are scheduled to Malt Prague next week. They had, planned to go there this week,[ but the visit was postponed, pre-1 sumably because of the Central, Committee meeting. The Prague visit should pro- vide a clear clue as to whether Mr. Khrushchev is now prepared to deal resolutely with Stalin- ism in the satellites as lie has CPYRGHT Twentieth Congress of the Com- munist party, in particular de- For while the Ceneral Commit- Stalinization and an end to Sea- tee firmly insisted that the party! Must police terror. was not a "debating society," !Peaceful coexistence with iwas apparent that Mr. 'chop' nations of differing political and t shehey was willing to allow more !economic systems. Iibera interpretattons of Marxist, elFriencIship of peoples and !dogma than his opponents on the "all-around consolidation of So- !Stalinist side of the party. ;ialist countries"- -an apparent ]It has been many years since, I allusion to better relations with any prominent party member st% the satellite countries and Corn- have been demoted from the Animist China and Yugoslavia. leading group without at the ' ?ISM ter industrial manage- same time being made the, Arent, to which is linked the cur- target of charges for which they. rent extensive reorganization of ultimately paid with their lives. he Soviet industrial system, However, close examination, 'The fullest possible advance- of the language used by the ment of agriculture. In particu- Central Committee did no mug- ler prosecution of such in- gest that Mr. Khrusluthey was!, rowations as the virginilands preparing a typical conspiracyil program. ease against his old associates. C'An ithondence of food, to Their action was described in which is linked Mr. Kinn- terns of sharp violation of party shrhey's :sew program for seek- flues but not of unpatriotic plot- leo to match United States meat ting to overturn the Soviet re- ! and milk production. t gime. cot, large-scate domestic hous- It was believed to he sigesifi- Hug program. cant that the Central Commit- tee communique gave unusual flExtension of the lights ot union republics?part of the gen- .emphasis to the persistent in- mat program of decentialiZation trite Mr. Kbrushthey has been pushing. lithe flourishing of national do exist. IT was a supremely confident Nikata S. Khrushchev that millions of Americans recently saw on their television screens Predicting that their granq.y. ehildren would live undee So- cialism, One probable reason For Mr. Khroutichey's confi- silence beeline! evident stealer- ' day in the Soviet politica/ tip- set that ousted his greatest rivals train the Kremlin's ruling hierarchy. Mr. Khrushchev, who now appears to be by far the most power- ful man in the Soviet Union. Was born to a family of Inunble circumstaaces sixty- three years ago. His progress through the Communist party ranks Was steady, but never has be moved so far and so last as in the four years since Stalin's death. At the dictator's feneral, he was merely the chairman who introduced the three funeral orators, Pixley he Is the pow- erful First Secretary of the Communist. party, while all three oratort have been purged. One of them, Lavrenti P. Eerie, was executed in 1953; the two others, Vyartieslay M. Molotov and Georgi M. afalenkOV, Were removed from the Conununist aerty's Presidium yesterday. Match for Any Diplomat Western diplomats once ended to dismiss Mr. Khriteh- hey as an "amiable chatter- Lint the squat, burly, irtuany bald leader from the tessian steppes described. nee by a Briton as looking rather like an ex-wreatier" as shown that he is a match i intelligence and cunning for soy foreign diplomat, and has more than held his own stainst rivals from the tough soviet political school of which es is a graduate. Man in the News There might be said to be iree lehrusbeheve. eueposnyviavtiahltdosreinot rties, chatters endlessly _mut whatever come tomind, id sometimes has to be . ushed up and taken home by g comrades of the "collective andership." It Was this Kiley- Whey who staggered down We stairs Of President Tito's celace in Belgrade in June, 55, and encountered a group foreign correspondents. tervention of Mr. Molotov in Soviet foreign policy and to his consistent opposition to Mr. Khrushchey's efforts to improve Soviet relations. culture-an apparent allusion to efforts to get Soviet writing. Art, The communique revetded . that Me Molotov had opposed music and other artistic aetivi Des out of the dead-end of the normalization of Soviet- Stalinist stereotypy. Japanese relations as well as! %IAN-around encouragement of the widely publicized personal the initiative of the masses?by foreign junkets of Mr. lehru- which is meant more freedom shchev and Marshal Bulganin. for the individual in relationship Mr. lenrushchev hes long been In the state and state enter- earthed as 'first. amongequals" pi ises. within the collective party lead- ership But the number of his means what it seems to mean equals has diminished. Mar- theneit _would INicatenthploWdian 44.01444 ebniMOP1/4QM,1447Cgarselit Of? 0 . Pi centred to steer a course much only full equals, it appeared, will closiir to the principles outlined now be Marshal Zhukov, Ams- ter the Chinese Communist chief tas I Mikoyan and. Perhaps, the If the Khrushchev program -Wlieli-The'Y asked him. for Sn- ie."dir;:hilefcr:ritnethLtvili.11;; did not fear them end they could have the visas they !! &Slight Expert on Everything Then there is Ehrushchev the universal expert. This I5 the man Who speechea on M- mon every conceivable topic from the intricacies of r11- ing corn to the emblems ot preventing hydrogen bomb . warfare or building low-cost houses--frequently are spread over three or four full pages of the Soviet newsPaPers. . These speeches reveal a gift ! for earthy wit and for plain speaking. Their effectiveness is not simply the work of a -Collection of ghost writers, for foreigners who have talked with Mr. Khrushchev have been Impressed by his broa.d and enceelopedie knoWledge. : But his speeches also reveal that he has a fanatical streak, that he is a man who becomes; obsessed with an idea. His ar- dor for corn as the answer to the Soviet Union's food prob- lem has earned him the covert nickname of Nikita Kokeruz- nik (Nikita the corn man). Finally, there is the per- suasive lehrushchee. In this role the party chief has gone % lo Peiping to charm Mao Tse- tung, traveled to Belgrade to ask Marshal Tito's forgive- ness, journeyed to London to ask for more British-Sevin trade. This tehruelichey Often shows a gift for farthing a re- sponsive chord. Speaking to Burmese studeets in Rangoon two years ago, for example, he contrasted his own leek of schooling until the age of 27 with the opportilnity for tele- Winn his young audience en- joyed. This eoinienetion of talents has served Mr. Khrushchev well, Even his weaknesses new have helped, for love or talk is an old Russian peasant char- acteristic that helpe to stamp hini in his people's eyes. as one of them. He never tires of reminding the Soviet people that he started as the son of a peasant and once worked as a plumber in the Donets mines, And that. he has Mirage Was demon- strated by Ms entree)) exposing Stalin last. February, though, as he himself implied, that courage did not , extend to defying Stalin while the dic- tator was alive. tattle is known of his per- sonae life. He is married and had two sons as well as several daughter;. One son, an airnian, was killed rioting World War H. The second sou, an ?net- twee accompaoted his father to London last year. Mut Khrushchev onee told a for- eigner that she was simple a housewife; Russians who have known her describe her as "'sweet." For ali his vigor and his con- viviality, there M evidence that the years now are catching op with Mr. Klinistiche.e. He hes complained often of liver freebie that sometimes causes him nearly intolerable pain. BM so far ,tether bodily ail- ments nor domestic political enemies have succeeded in slowing down his progress to- ward the power that was party IdeOlOgiet; Mikhail A. DeeisfonS, however, will un- doubtedly continue to be by re- corded vote, as Mr. KM u- shekel, explained to Turner Cat- sledge, managing editor of The New York Theo, in an inter- view six weeks ago. Mr. Khrushchev also said at that time, speaking of unity in the Communist movement: "We can compare it to the army. When a coMptiny is marching all in step, except one man, he slimed try to keep step or leave the company and drop somewhere in the tall until he learns to march correetlye 4, cIPPROWITS= Mr. Molotov. Mr. Kaganovich and Mr. Malenkov mead no tenger be tolerated in the Soviet Communist party's close-order CPYRGHT lf. TIM* Approve/M:1.9r Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT Moscow Commun? ique on Ouster of Molotov 11- CPXRPNTjettly 3 ARitideratt _ tistitausi by tho ,aottiet Co mm mt prrrfly arsogyeie9 tho diN- I gtom thr party.8 Prcaidi- !th. of G orgj M Mokierkm), Lea- ar 11 Kayernointh and V yache ho) 11.16. Molotov, 03 brOadCaSt by tko illeacow radio M- ier - 1,esohitiort at the plenary meet- ing of the Centraf Conimittee of Mc Communist party of the Soviet Union on the an group of G. M. Malmakoc, L. harfanevich and V. N. Mo- lotov, At its meetings of June 22- 29, MflT, the plenum of the Central Conine t tee of the Communist party of the So- Met Union considered the question of the anti-party group or Alitlenkov, Nagano- vich and Alolotov, which had fornsed sathhin the Presidium of he Central Committee, Socking to change the party's political ling this group used anti-party frac- Li On al InCtlincis in an at to change the composition of I he party's trusting bodies sslected by the plenary meeting of the central Committee of the Communist party of the Soviet Union. Long Opposition Cited This was not accidental. In I he last three or four years, hiring which the, party has been steering A reS0fUte course toward rectifying the errors Anti shortcomings born of the personality cull and waging a successful struggle against the revisionists of Alarxism-Lenin- aim, both in the international sphere and inside the country? mars doting which the party las done appreglable work to acetify distortions of the Mninist nationalities policy sommitted in ties past, the tiembers of Otte anti-party re'eap, now laid bare and fully exposed, hage been offering sonstant opposition, direct, or ndirect to this course sp- srcated by the twentieth party tongreSS, The group attempted in g- reet be oppose the Leninist, solicy of peaceful rorXi steno? setween states with different iocissl systems, of relaxing ternational tension and estah- ishing friendly relations be- .ween the U. S. S. IL arid all he peoples of the world. They von, against the extension of he rights of the union reentr- ies in the ,mhere of imanomics euttursil development and n the sphere of legislation and igainst enimiloitag the role of he local Soviets w the fulfill- tent of these tasks. Thereby, the anti - party I resisted the party's liii, course toward the inure apid development of the econ- any and cultui?e in the naa issnal repubfica, a course in- uring the further proinotion Leninist friendship he SU the people of our country. Other Chargra Made Faro from understanding the arty's litgassur aimed at ombating, butimuerstey and educing the inflated state pim ratus, the anti-party routs oppwif them, On all mse points, it eallie out ghost the Leninist principle H gelsiocratie centralism \being .IeMe Deed and sought to frustrate ';4004,4tArt',. the err, lea nffoisit in (-LILA. 4, ni testect a co' ,tflLU management and the attitude, far from ealizing the ;setting up of economic corm- necessity of Making tie of !ells in the economic areaS, ap- virgin tangs, resisted the rais- Proved by the whole of the Mg of 35,000,000 hectares of bar y and the people. virgin land, art enterprise 'They refused to understand which acquired Stith trentendf That at the present stage, ous importance in the economy when progress in Socialist in- of our country. Artistry has assumed a. tremen- dous scale and tOriti ntles at Opposition Charged MO rate, the development of Comrades Malenkovi Hogan- heavy indostry receiving pri- (With and Molotov put Up a ei'litY, it was indispensable to stubborn resistance to the find now, better forms of in- measures which' the Central thistrial management such as Committee and the whole of :Would bring out greater re- our ilaktV were eattlfing out Serves a 1111 guarantee an even to do away with the come- 4tringohristit powerful use irt $oviet queue" of the PerstlualitY cult' to eliminate the violations of The g,ratip Went SO far as revolutionary law that had to continue its struggle against been committed, and provide the rem-pinta-at:gm of intim. such conditions as would pre- trial management, even after chide their recurrence. the approval of the above Whereas the workers, roller- in the course' of the tive farmers? ous? glorious countrywide discusalorm and youth, our engineers and tech? the subsequent adoptlon of nicians, scientific workers, the subsequent adoption of writers and MI out Mellor- the law ata session of the Wats unanimously supporte Supreme Soy i et, d , opposed Farm Keratin Was putting into mactiee in the Measures Whieli the party With regard to agricultural accordance with the decisions of the Twentieth Party Con- problems, the members of the gress, Whereas the entire So- group showed lack of Under- yiet peeple had joined the Standing of the new, pressing vigorous effort to carry those task. They would not recog- measures into execution, , tlace The necesSicV CV increased whereas our country is going Itlaterial incentives for the Hirano' a powerful rise in ci!ulteCtillal- farm peasantry in popular activity and a froth 17ItpiillgikippiOttsPilas atglicul- surge of creative energy, the 11111.11? , rf Th objected to the Magi-group l.ribekrSeptoti theugnig it indletiffaeraty The. r Lon of the old boreaneratic systole of planning on the CO' to this creative movement of the masses? tjellgiv? fnEfl11141 to the in- In the sphere of foreign poll- 'MI of 3 new sifsttlna of cy, the group, in particular sulanning? such as would re- lease the initiative of the cid- iChflatyl-lnrilliarterleltniecistscv'atweblanritp"- lective farms in carryinf on. eitil in every way the tropic- ?slat nictitation of the new pressing ritijiiitwinch !]an ustu"s' 'ir?s?? nes' measures intended tss Me in- jtivePities, drifted so far away : ternational tension and pro. :from reality as to be finable mote l'ini"zal peace. 10 Forlong time Comrade see the act nal possibility of abolishing at the ond of this Molotov, at his capacity as Year obligatory deliveries of Foreign Minister, far from fsirin produce by collective taking, through the Ministry farmers from their individual of Foreign .Affairs, measures P12Itllte implementation of this to in prove relations between measure, uthiell is of vital tin- the a S. S? Rand YUg?Stavitts poitanee for the million.s of topeaLAY came nut against the working people of the the Measures; which the Pre U, S. S, fa? ems made possi- sidle= of the Central Cot-a- ble by substantial progress fri socially' owned livestock breed- mince aims canyma out to mg at the cou"tiyo fan" and inmemse relations wilth Yugo- by the advancement of. the Idacia. state rams. Co wade Motet ev's erroneous t Lack of 'frank Charged stand on the Yugoslav issue Instead or supporting this was unanimously condemned pressing meassu'its, the mem- by he plenary meeting of the hers of 1 he anti-party groull Central Committee of the oellesed it, mu carried or an party in July, I955, as md be- entirely unwarranted struggle ine in line with. the interests IlUllAst of the Soviet state and the sgeorously ropporh:.d. by the Seelalist camp and not con- collect ire Lithos, regions and forming to the principles of repubilics, to overtake the Leninist policy. United States hi the next few Comrade Molotov raised ob- years in per Capita output of stades to the :conclusion of the Inn, butter and 'numb state treaty with Austria and Thant.the metnPers of the the improvement of relations anti-party group demonstrated with that country which lies an overbearing attitude to the in the :center of Europe. The conclusion ef the Austrian urgent, vital Interests of the treaty was largely NALL- broad masses of the people and . Mental in lessening interna- lack of faith in the enorinellS tional tension in general, potentialities of Socialkit He was also against nom miry in the country-wide malization of relations with mc:isement now going on for a Japan, while that. nyroctInta- sixtkody increase in milk anti partreU.On haspllaaxyiendg ahrlit;ripispaotriotaurrati nntrat production, tension in the Far East, He gt_VOtiOri;Milk1# sc#54TrgeOgginc003.967t9 a Member of the anti-party Party on the possibility of ,preventing wars in the present ennins;ang nn igag nran;Igaan, Group of different. via of tans-Hien to socialism in d fel nt coun- tries, on the meecsity of strengthening laminas be- tween the Smite, pi sly and progressive pant s a road. Others Supps. rted Him Comrade Motet r peatedly opposed the So let Govern- ment's indisim sob e new steps in defense ,f it We and the mecurity of na attic in iparticadar? he di lied the ad- visability of est flsJ ing per- sonar contacts lettuten the Soviet leaders ni-1 the states- men of other cointri which is essential for the achieve- ment, of mUtual e Mei-standing and better inter atiooal On many Of ties Oast paints Comrade Motet v's opinion was supported iy lormade laaganovich and Pt a number of cases by Con rad Wen- t-soy. The Presidium of he Cen- tral Coninfince net be Cen- tral Cominince aswhole patiently correct d 1 tem and combated their nor , hoping that they would drat t' proper lessons from. the err that they mould not p rias in them and would fall it to seep with the whoM of the party's /cod- ing body, Nevelt helt se. they maintairIC d the F7(43001'3 anti-Leninist pos Liar ? What underlies trit attitude of Comrade Male km. Kagan- much and Afflict?s, w ion is at vacianee Wan , id3r line is the certain Ifs ct t isit they were and stilt an shadded by old nations and inetrocia, that they have drift:0 av ay from the life of the pa ty rid coun- t:Oft :friled to see the iew eon- diners, the new sma ion, take emmervative a titithi., Stub- bornly cli rig to 0 mak te forms and methods of t or] t that are I o In in lice lug with the interests of the sida inee to- wards communism rejecting. what is born of real ty itself and is suggeste Ins the in- terests of thts pr !ere s or So- viet society, by the interests of the entire Soc List camp. Dogmatic UI w to red Both in inter al rroblems and in matters o for sign pol- icy they are meta inn and dog- matig and they use a. scho- lastic, Mort sippriasch to Marx- ism ? Leninism. The s fait to realize that in th pia sent con- ditions living 1.1 rats n-Lonin- ihn in action am the straggle for communism n anifsst them- selves in the excesull n of the decisions of Li e went:loth party cOngreSs, I U e steady carrying of he 3o1icy of peaceful coca:tote cc, sme strug- gle for friendshi ant 'ng peo- ples and the poll y e 'the all- round consolidatia c the So- eialist camp, in )ett r indus- ft rink maim gement , in the struggle for the fu! est pos- sible advancemer t of fore, for an abun an of food, for large-scare iolJs ng con- strortfon, for tin cat niskin of the rights of the unit n repub- lics, for the firm ishi g of na- tional colftres? for the all- round oncottrage nen of the initiative of the r ass s. Seeing that thrir VIMMOUS statements and heti ns were constantly rebu fed in the Presidium of the 'len rid Coma 14 CPYRGHT matt*, which has been con- sistently putting into practice :he line set by the twentieth party congress, Comrades Mo- Mew, Kaganoviett and Malen- inv embarked on a group struggle against the party leadership Entering Into collusion on an anti-party basis, they set out to change the policy of the party, to drag the party back to the erroneous meth- ods of leadership condemned by the twentieth party con- gress. They resorted to meth- ods of intrigue and formed a collusion against the Central Committee. Lenin Resolution Cited The facts revealed at the plenary meeting of the Cen- tral Committee show that moineades Matenkov, Kaganoe 'nth ard Molotov, as Well as comrade Sheetlov, who joined I hem, having embarked on the path of reactionary struggle, violated the party statutes anti the decision of the nine- teenth party congress on party unity, drafted by Lenin, which says: ."In order to effect strict dosipline within the party and n all Soviet work and to iteltieve. maximum unity in eliminating all fractionary ac- tivity, the congress empowers the Central Committee to apply in cases of breach or discipline or of a revival ete 'toleration of Itaidionary lily; all party penalties include ei expulsion front the party, ad in respect of members ef he Central Committee timer Muction to the status of alter. ate members, or even as art xtreme measure, their expul- eion front the party. 'A precondition for the ap- itication of this extreme meas.. we to members of the Central Committee. alternate members of the Central Committee anti members of the Auditing Com- mission shall be the convening oi a plenary meeting of the Central Committee and all member's of the Auditing Commission should be invited. If such a general meeting of the most responsible party leaders recognizes by a two- thirds majority the necessity of reducing a member of the Central Committee, to the atus of alternate member or e expulsion from the party, then this measure shall be to t mid out immediately!' 'ries Leninist resolution makes it obligatory for the Central Committee and all !piety organizations tirelessly to consolidate party unity, it) rebuff with determination every evidence of reactionary or group activity, to insure that the work is indeed carried nut by joint effort, that it in- deed expresses the unity of will and action of the van- guard of the working class, ilia Communist party. The plenary meetings of the ? 'entre! Committee notes with great satisfaction the mono- lithic unity and solidarity of all the members and alternate members of the Central Com- mittee and the members of the Central Committee and the members of the Central Audit- ing Commission who have unanimously condemned the anti-party group. Not a single member of the plenum of the Central COM- nittee supported the group. Paced with unanimous eon- CPYRGHT CPYRGHT 2062/157MalltIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 tit_ 4 1957 The New Presidium Followirg are the members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party, follow- ing the reorganization announced yesterday in Moscow: Averky E. Aristov *Nikita S. Ithrusheliev Nikolai I. Belyayee . eFrol R. Koehn, theoniel I. Brezhnev Otto V. Kuusinen *Nikolai A. Bulge= *Anastaa r. Mikoven reekaterina A. Furtseva eNikolai M. Shverntk Nikolai G, 'gelatin'. *Mikhail A. Busboy 'Alexei I. Kitichenk0 *Kliment V. Voroshilov iGeorgi K. Zhukov Alfentafe tiMIllbera of the new Presidium are: Nuritdin A. Mukhitdinov Kirin T. Mazurov Pete N. Pospelov Vastly P. Mzhaeanadzo Demyan S. Korotehenke :Mikhail G. Pervukhin Andrei R Kirlienko Yen - E. Kainberein Alexei N. Keilygin Those dropped from the Presidium are: Dane M. Kriganovieh Vyanheslate M. Molotov Georgi M, Malenkov Maxim Z. San:roe Dropped as alternate member of the Pi Mum: Dmitri T. Shepilov *Retained es member of Presidium. tPrammed from alternate member. nemoted to alternate member.. CPYRGHT Inc removal or tne memocra of the group from the Central Committee and their expulsion iron- the party, they admitted the existence Of a collusion and the harmful nature of the anti-party activities and com- mitted themselves to comply. ing with the party decisions. Resolution of Meeting Guided by the interests of all-round consolidation of the Leninist unity of the part-., the plenary meeting of Vu Central Committee of the party has resolved: Me To condemn as Income pebble with the Leninist prin. ciptes of our party the fren titulary activities of the ant ? party group of Malenkos Kaganovich and Molotov an 1 of Shepllov, who joined theme (2) To exclude Comradel Malenkov, Kaganovich an . Molotov from the membershi of the Presidium of the Con teal Committee and from th Centred Committee, to removi Comrade Shepiloy from the post of secretary to the Cen tral Committee and to excludt him from the alternate mem bershlp of the Presidium of the Central Committee and from the membership of the Centre. Committee. The unanimous condemns Hon of the reactionary activi- ties of the anti-party group ol Comrades Malenkov, Kagano- vich and Molotov by the Cen- tral Committee of the party will serve to further consoli- date the unity of the ranks of our Leninist party, to consoli- date its leadership, to promote he struggle for the general inc of the party. The Central Committee of he party calls on all COMM- liStS to rally still more closely round the invincible banner of Marxism-Leninism, to bend all heir energies to the sucxess- ul fulfilment of the tasks of eommunist construction. Adopted on June 211, 1952, by he unanimous vote of all the Ta limes JUL 4 1957 FIVE KEEP POSTS IN SOVIET OUSTER Some of New Appointees) Though Strong Party Men, Little Known Outside CPYRGHT By WILL LISSNER shifted to otherepoets. Be be- . came party representative to the Navy Department, then deputy party representative under Marshal Bolganin when the k avy was merged into the de- ens e ministry. He achieved the rank of lieu- t. tont general, then was sent to azalehstan as second secretary c' the party in 1954. lie became I rat secretary in 1955, and sil- tmate member of the Presidium ib 1856. He was a key figure in t e virgin lands campaign. Nikolai I, Belyayev, one of r. Khoishehev's right-hand en in the field of politics, was veteran party boss in the Altai erritory In Siberia, One alternate promoted to full reembership Is better known in t W United States as the lone S Oman member of the Soviet top 1 adership. She is Mrs, Y. Ekate- r na A. Furtseva, another Khetp inches. protege, long prominent Ta party propagandlet, She Caine party boss in Moleow in 54. Her husband, Nikolai P. I tryubin, has been Soviet Am. 'weeder to Yugoslavia. Marshal Georgi K. Zhukov, an- ghee alternate promoted to full fiembership, saved Moscow for the Soviet Union in 1941. He had the honor of capturing Berlin. One of the new members of the Presidium is Nikolai G, 1g- natov, who was Communist party leader in Voronezh for many years, and later in Gorki. Among the alternates is the first person of Central Asiatic' Moslem origin to reach the top leadership, Nuritdin A. Mukhil- dinov. He was Deputy Premier of Uzbekistan in 19,ei, and be- came Premier after his chief had been denounced by Mr. 'Chen- *lichee because the Uzbek Re- public had failed to deliver its quota of cotton. Another alternate is Andrei P. Kirilenko, one of the members of Mr. Khruslichmes Ukrainian one way or another with Nikita S. tehrushenev predominate among the members and alter- nates of the new Presidium of the Soviet Communist party's , Central Committee, Five besides Mr. Khrusheliev Were retained in the Presidium. They were Marshal Nikolai A. Bulganin, Soviet Premier; Mar- shal Klement' Y. Voroshilov, An. asta I. Mikoyan, Mikhail A. Busboy and Alexei I. Kiriehenko. One of the new Presidium members is an individual who played an appreciable role in the setting of the anti-Semitic "doc- tors plot" ei early 1053. He is Frol R. Koziev, Leningrad Com- munist party leader, who was earlier named an alternate mem- ber of the Presidium, In early 1953 an article by Mr. Kozlov dealt with infiltration by Jewish bourgeois nationalists in the So- viet Union and the menace of these elements Averky B. Aristov, a Khru- shchey protege, is a man of noise tory. He had been a party sec- retary who became a full mem-, her of the Presidium of the pare ty Central Committee. He lost! both jobs on Stalin's death in 1953 and became Government, chief in the Khabarovsk region of the Soviet Far East., There he pressed Mr. Mini- 1:lichee's grain production cam- paign and in 1955 he was re- stored to his post as a party secretary. Protege of lihrushehey L. I. Beezhnev is a Khnishehey Protege who rose to prominence as a Ukrainian party leader aft- denotation of the anti-party nem Is of the Central Com- er his chief had purged the party Activities of the group by the nittee, the or alternate members there. He became Moldavian tirtiieRgges200270rittnege, **son 5 0075 5004099,674 Ira ,( Ira t n t no members et the Central PIP.d one or the ten where the members of the editing Commission, with one trehtM dentin, of the Central Coin- bstention, in the person of cottee unanimously demanded lonerade Molotov. 15 tee secretaries. But the day afterStalin' pig to matthInn One of the new alternative members of the Presidium is Alexei N. liesygin, considered a typical Soviet executive. He became commissar of textiles in 1939.. Elected to the party's Cen- tral Committee, he became Vice. Premier in charge of consumer goods industries in 1940. In 1941 he was named Premier of the Russian Republic. Worker in Byelorusela Kiri] T. Mazurov, a new, alternate member of the Presidium, is a longtime party, worker in Byelorussia, lie had been a member or the party politburo there and in recent years was party leader in Minsk. He became Premier of the Byelorussian Republic in July,, 1953, but left, the post to return! to the party's first secretary- ship three years later. Demyan S. Korotehenko re- turns to the Presidiurn as an alternate. lie had been Premier, of the Ukrainian Republic. hav- ing been elected to that post in ' 1938, In 1946, when he V.771S, elected to the Presidium of the. Supreme Soviet, he became Depe uty Premier in the Ukraine.. He! bad been a member of the party Presidium up to Lenin's death, but was dropped, apparently be-, cause he was out of favor with Beria. He received the Order of Lenin in 1954. Petr N. Posted" a new alternate, is a leading Soviet theoretician. He has been di- rector of the bats-Engels-Lenin Institute since 1950 and one of the editors of Pravda, Commu- nist party newspaper, since 1945. Another new alternate is the mail who directed the purge in' Beria's home state, Soviet, Georgia. He is Vasily P.! Sim. ....A, -.noant 'S,'-a- half yustzl 3.011 Communists ro he corgia.n party. He th was announced in a "S I ''t a recentonro members of the CPYRGHT Atrivainer Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R00054QJAI9EKTR Post L'Ll 5 1957 BtW ERA m JUL4 1957 MOSCOW? Government leaders all over the world have put in many hours these last two days, and will undoubtedly put in many more, attempting to divine the meaning of Wednesday's sensational changes In Moscow. The central question in these donee:a- tions is obviously this: Do the ?, changes in Moscow mean the open.' fog a a new era in which the cold war will be liquidated and the men- ace of nuclear war removed from humanity? A more Important . tion could hardly be imagined. Prime Minister Nehru Indicated yesterday that he is hopeful that the answer to this key question is positive. Apparently he believes that the removal of Molotov & Co. has opened the road to roe/ progress toward a more normal world. Cory tain/y the official communique is- sued by the Soviet Communist party is clearly intended to encourage this view. It can hardly be considered less than astounding that this offi- cial Soviet statement in effect ac- cuses Molotov, Ea ganovich, and Malenkov of being warmongers, men opposed to easing intetnaticnal ten- sion and opposed also to steps 'ressential for the achievement of mutua/ understanding and laettr International relations." What a Shock this must be for ComnaimIsts who have been taught to parrot that only "Western imperialists9 are against reducing international ten- sion! Unfortunately, however, to bade judgments cif this sort only upon the power or lack of power of par- ticular personalities is really to fall victim to the "cult of personality." ; Such men as Khrushchev, Bulganin, Voroshilov and Mikoyan were a's , much Stalinists while Stalin lived as the men who have been ousted. They too supported such measures as the political attack on Yugo- slavia in 194S, the military attack on South Korea in 1950 and the treacherous onslaught on the Hum. garian people rasa November. And it was Mr. Khrushehey, we should remember, v:ho threatened the use of armed force against Poland that fateful Friday In Warsaw last Oc- tober. On the record the men who rule in Moscow now are as poten- tially capable of treacherous attack ?in terms of their individual hiss' tories?as the num now purged, The answer to our question must take into account the political and economic and military realities with which the rulers in Moscow, who- ever they are, must grapple. It was klaienkov who spoke out three years L. .0 destroy world civilization. Malen- kov is purged, but that fact remains true for Khrushchev as well. discontent of the Soviet people is a hard fact with which Mos vi must grapple, discontent over remaining features of the po e state and discontent over the st te exploitation the people live un r. It is of the highest significance tat the first concrete measure flounced after this purge is the of Government exactions from small plots of Soviet peasants, a group among whom lehrushchev e- cently admitted there Is pith al discontent, If the present Soviet ruling gr wishes peace, it is not beaause t AZ group is radically different front e group which ruled iast week, Rath r, It would be because In its fudgm t peace and lessened tension ser d Its own best Interests, giving i breathing spell In which to con I- (late its domestic power by meeti g some of the aspirations of its peo ? e. Khrushchey and his new run g clique obviously wish us to belt e that they do want peace. But ti y must knew that mere words, m e shifts of personalities in their gro p will not alone convince us. T e means at their disposal for rea y , convincing us on this matter are plain to them as they are to If there actually is a new era it itfoscow, ft will be proved by dee s which make possible the Eclat n of the thorny international issu which have aggravated the wo d situation for many years. Until su h deeds are forthcoming we must self-p retection continue skeptical a make sure that our means of s defense are aclequate'to discoura e survived Molotov & Co. in Kreml any other warmongers who ha e power, Moscow U pheaval CPYRGHT o one outsme of Mos ow is likely to discern the full meaning of the latest explosion that has blasted three alleged Stalinist leaders and former Foreign Minister Shepilov out of the Communist Party's ruling presidium. Yet the moat casual observer must see in these events a signiflcant iaking DI the monolithic system that has prevailed n the Soviet Union. The explanation offered by the Kremlin itself rough the columns of Pravda is that the party has cracked down on malcontents who were trying to return to Stalinism in disregard of the edicts of the 20th Party Congress. That seems to be consistent with the Stalinist records of former Foreign Minister Molotov and First Deputy Ike- ier Kaganovich, Who was Stalin's brother-in-law. ut former Premier Malenkov, who was also mated, is believed to have opposed the old Bel- iheriki in recent years. In any event, the Provele ?xpianation appears to be only part of the story. The break would not have come in this dramatic ashion if the Kremlin had not been rent by feuds ind basic disagreements. No doubt the scramble for power played a large tart in the dismissals. Nikita Khrushehev has eized an opportunity to dispose of potential rivals s Stalin did before him, although, presumably, a less ruthless fashion. Yet this action is taken the name of progressive communism. The con- tolling faction 16 still trying 10 move, it appears, way from the terrors of Stalinism. 'Probably the most significant fad is that as soon as it grants additional leeway in the pursuit of conflicting fleas, it is faced with the dilemma of tolerating r idening areas of dissent or resorting once more Li repression. In some respects, therefore, the latest purge in Yescow may be the internal expression of the plicy that led to the crushing of Hungary. Pre- s !madly the now ousted officials, like the Nagy pvernment in Hungary, went further in their ii dependent thinking than Khrushchev and his a iseelates in the central scats of power would !crate. The great unanswered question is whether the S wiet Union can, by these uncertain swings to- wlsrd looser controls and then back to harsh r pression, move toward a more tolerable political s. stem. Secretary Dulles believes that such an e elution k possible and that American policy sl ould be directed toward encouraging it. Cer- tardy that is much lo be desired. But we must n vet lose sight of the danger that a sudden blow- UI within the Kremlin may lead to chaos within issia as well as in her relations. to other countries. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP06-00756R000506130067-0 CPYRGHT Approve IF oitelsease 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 JUL 4 1957 CPYRGHT Pravda Editorial and Article on Need for Unity in the Soviet Communist Party Smell Vita Yew York 'nava. that all ft-teeter-rail groups WASHINGTON, July 3?Pot- immediately disbanded and in- - ed all organizations to us, rtal entitled "Unshakable Unity" and an article on party unity that appeared today at Pravda, Roulet CoMmantat party organ, C? broadcast by the Moscow radio and metered /wren Pravda Editorial 'The entire Soviet people are enthusiastically struggling to Implement the great program outlined by the Twentieth Con- gress of the Soviet Communist party. This program shows the ways of solving urgent problems of the development of the Soviet society and for- mulatea the main principles on the most important problems of the International COMI1111- nisi and workers movement. It clearly reaffirms the fa- !Mous Lenin directive that the party Can exercise ? effective leadership only if it. correctly expresses the will of the peo- ple. The Twentieth Party Congress with exceptional pro- fundity and clarity expressed the requirements of social de- velopment and the thoughts and aspirations of the working people. It is foe precisely this rea- son that the Soviet, people with unprecedented unanimity and enthusiasm greeted the deci- sions of the Twentieth party congress and spared no effort lit the struggle for their im- plementation. In this great struggle, the Soviet people have still more closely rallied round their Communist party and its Leninist Central Coni- snittee. in the glorious history of our party, the Twentieth party congress occupies a spe- cial place; it Marks a new stage in., the development of our country; it caused a fresh, mighty upsurge of the creative. initiative and activity', of the Communists and nonparty members, workers, collective farmers, intelligentsia, and all the Soviet people. The Soviet people, the work- ing people of the peoples de- mocracies", and the working people and the oppressed of the entire world have again seen with their own eyes how unshakable are the ranks of oar Leninist party, brought up as they are in the spirit of faithfulness to the ideas of communism and of unshak- able unity of thought, will and action.. ?Monolithic lenity Seen The monolithie unity of our party has been built up through years and decades; it grew and became stronger in the struggle against. numer- ous enemies, This unity has ! been conditioned by the very nature of our party, by its philosophy of life, by its aims and organizational principles The great Lenin taught the party to keep as! the apple of? its eye the unity of its ranks and to struggle relentlessly against those who under vari- ous pretexts are trying to un- dello] Me this aunty. ratio. y see le It: that no reac- Lona ar speeches were made. It Was made clear that non- comr lance with the decielons of Li e aongrees would bring immediate and unqualified ex- pulsi n from the party. Th congress empowered the Central Committee, in eases of viola ion of discipline by Mem- bers rf the Central Committee and it eases of revival or sufs ferare of reaction, to take ever measure at Lee disposal of tha party, including expe- Mon . sem the Central Commits tee a id the party. Co 'plying with Lenin's di. risen es, our party has always suppgsscd any attempts at shaking the unity of the party rank, and at diverting the parte from its correct, path, no ratter from whom these atteinets emanated. This was the Lase at. tire time of the tenth party congress; the pe- riod af the struggle for the count -ye industrialization and the c illectivization of agricul- ture, and it, was also the case in tbs subsequent years. P st Ousters Recalled Wi-in it was discovered that this Jr that member of the party did not comply with its decisions and allowed mistakes In his work, the Central Com- mittee of the party ?adopted rheas res for the correction of tit se mistakes. In the pe- riod sre?ceding the twentieth party congress, at the plenary sessic r of the Central Commit- tee, tie activity of a number of p rty organizations was subje ted to severe eretleism, as was also the activity of mend era of the Central V. om- mate-% Some party workers who I ad not justified the trust besto red on them were ex- clude front membership in the Cents 4.1 Committee, ? TM twentieth party con- gress particularly noted that the Central Committee upper- tenet canto out against at- temple a.t retreating from the party a general line on the prieriey development of heavy Indus ry and also against mid(' e in the queetion of buildi sg socialism 'in OW county and in some other curre it questions. The congress instructed the Cents id Committee also in the futur to strengthen in every way he unity of the party and t maintain the pertly of Marx st-Leniniet theory; It durin ? the period following the c tigress fresh rimier sue- ceases were achieved, this was witne a to the feet.' that 'he party and its Central Com- irate were successfully ful- fillingthe directives of the cortex 'as. The struggle for the liquida- tion if the remnant of the perso &My colt and the res- torah n of Lenin's norms of party and state life required from the_ party great self- denyl g Worts.. This struggle as crownedw with victory and bore itch fruit, The enemies of ow party, the enemies of The tett ?lac Rib social am, had calculated that 1--13111We IPT , 1767/fligeelAgRDP66-011175 teethe of the party's unity!, sonal ty mat would shake the eC re?,,,?,e werreelem directed ranks of the party and weaken 17 - it. However the 'energies mis- calculated, and the whole of our multimillion party ap- proved the measures aimed at eliminating the personality cult and resolutely correcting the Mistakes of the past pe- riod, and is now leading the country along the path of new victories. Need for Telling Truth Fulfilling the decisions of the Twentieth Party Congress, the party courageouely re??- vealed shortcomings. In vari- ous spheres of economic, state, and party activity, discarded obsolete conceptions, and reso- lutely eliminated all that was out of date and impeded ad- vance. Criticizing the defects In our construction, the party bases Itself on the well-known principle that the Communists must not be afraid of telling the people the truth, that the person who is afraid of recog- nizing mistakes and weak- news. le not a revolutionary. Now everybody sees the great positive importance of the wise Leninist policy of the party for our successful move- ment forward," The ideological, political, and organizational unity of the party, and ,its constantly strengthening ties with the masses of welting .people, have insured a further strengthening of the fighting capacity of the party organi- zations and the rising of their leading nee in every sphere of life of Soviet society. Thanks to this the party has within a short period of time, achieved new menet'. successes in the development of industry and agriculte re., The unity of the party and the monolithic tallying of its ranks have made it possible to Implement speedily the plan for a radical reorganization of the management of industry, to achieve great successes in the advancement of agrieid- tune and to set a task of great importance: In the next few years to catch up with the United States in the per capita production of milk, meat,: and butter. On the whole, these measures have been warmly approved by our multimillion party and all the people. Only a hopeless po- litically blind person can fail to see. Pie enormous progres- sive.isemortance of these meas- ures for a. further development ? of the country's economy and a rise in the material well- being of the maeses. Under the sign -Of the un- shakable and constantly etrengthening unity of its ranks, the party has imple- mented and is implementing exceptionally important was-- Mee on the development of Socialist democracy, the ex- pansion of the rights of the union repnblies? and the strengthening of Socialist? leeality, As a result of this we have a Irk! t her strengthening of the moral and political unity, of Soviet society, and the friendship of the peoples of tee USSR and the growth qtglitiOgigalittiterisniltyg of its ranks and the support of the entire people, the party e , t ? itt's foreign policy and tire- lessly fighting for strengthen- ing peace throughout the world and for lessening inter- national tension. Foreign Visits Welcomed As One men, the Soviet peo- ple warmly tvelcome the eci- stilts of the visits of Our party and Government delegations to other countries, as well as the results of teaks with the dele- gations of foreign countries bordering on our -country. In this connection, the strength- ening ties of our party with the Communist party of China and the Communist and work- ers' parties of all peoples' de- ritheraeies has been welcomed with particular satisfaction. The growing! unity of the party ranks is undeniable proof that the political and or- ganizational leadership of the Central Committee of the party is satisfactory, that the party is correctly solving problems of party and state construction, and that it is sitillfellyr leading the country along Lenin's path. This does not, however, mean that one can forget. &Met further strengthening of the unity of the party ranks. As pointed out in the main report of the party's Central Committee to the twentieth party congress, the ideological and political and. organiza- tional unity of the !party con- 1 stitute a guarantee of its in- vincibility. No enemies and no difficulties are to be feared by the party if it is united. Any task can be shouldered by it if it comes ,out as a united force knowing no fear in struggle, no vacillation in the implententation of its policy. arid no retreat in the face of , difficulties. The party statutes,agnike it incumbent upen.every member of the party to safeguard in every ?way the unity of the party, as the principal condi- tam of its strength and Might. This requirement con- cerns equally both the rank- and-file and the leadership of the party, Leninism teaches that the party, if it wishes to preserve the unity of its ranks-, roust Maitre that the standard of discipline is the same for all members of the party, both the leaders and the rank-and- The most important condi- tion for the preservation and strengthening of unity is the ?observance ? of Lenin's prima iple of democratic centralism in the party. This principle provides for adherence to intra-party democracy in dis- cussing a given question and compliance with the adopted decisions by every Communist. I no matter what post he oc- cupies, T party cannot allow a 1 division of its met,' hers into ! selected and nonseleeted ones, 1 as they are all members and ? everyone of them has equal rights and duties to the party. alveryoCommunist, every So- viet man, is proud of the fact that in ilie period since the twentieth party congress, the might and p eetige of the party have grown still further, that the Leninist. unity of its ranks has become stronger still, --A " ' -? '-? COT CPYRGHT \tar:Oat-Leninist theliCaa. the Soviet society 'la-niacin the I humph of the -gaiity'smd App drfrollaeteass2002107122 : CIA-RDP 5-00758R0130500$801167rhing maiTir", and the preservation The hitais 44 the unity rif ebt:rt and strengthening of the iileo- ! vievys no on; of Coutnlu- Under these renditions any hf:inal and political and organ- }fasts ts _Marxism-Leninism lii Inisitaniat departuic from lam- izational unity of the party its combined form and fullness. Mist principles, or infringe- ranks constitute a guarantee ? The overcoming of ammonia dent of discipline and the of new great victories of the berme/it and the striving to- norms or party life mould hen- , Commimist party and the be , ward unificiation were the In only the enemies of our viol people, characteristic feature of our party The party demands of ? party at at.a very inception, It all its otgancations and al/ Pravda Article : grew into a unified indeormd- Communists an intensification ent party of the working class of their political vigilance and out of disunited Marxist groups fighting fitness and active anti circles, struggle against all who harm In founding the Communist its Leninist unity. Part1I, Lenin considered the most importnnt tient-Titian of its eaistence and successful struggle to be ideological tants based on the principles of Marxist theory, binding on all Communists, and not. permit- ting differences of views or combinations Rod confuslon of different outlooks and views. Thine cannel be a strong, So- It tined not and cannot tder? cialiat party, he mild, if there ate within its ranks any anli? party groups or groupings op? is no theolutionary theraiy posed to its policy. The unity which unites alt Socialists and of political action, based on from which they draw all.their Leninist principles, is supreme convictions, applying them to I hair methods of sfiuggle and for the piaty; it is a compul- sory essential law of its deed- , moalut of action. ?mutant. The party has been Lenin considefial that idco- and is striving for such unity logical unity of the party was OVercoming contrittlictious insufftriient. It must be supple- arising in its midst, by light- imalted +Aril h unity of organiaa- ing deviations fa ban the potiti- banal principles, binding on all cal line, wherever thslir maY party members. Unity is im- originate and by NI'llrit Over an without erganinalion, dividnala they may be support? and organization requires lee CLI. The party stands not for subordination of the minority any kind of unity but for one ? to the majority. In his hook based on Leninist policy. : "Cinc Step Papaart Two Steps ? Mad' he wrote that the pro- illseusaion Is Urged lean:nal could become awl Does all this mean that the , wmi Id inevitably become an in- Marxist Leninist party does ? tamable force only if its idea- not tolerate in its midst any !ogled union, based on the kind of discussion and ex- ' arinciples of Marxism-Lenin- change of views? No, it does ism, is consolidated by the not mean that The party is a material unity of organization democratic organization, whose and by enlisting millions of whole work is built on the workers in the armY or the broad initiative, activity, and valid] eharafilerizes it as an working aktaa. enterprise of party organizas thea-a4, tea a did ant eic ae Uniform party discipline is tions and all Communists. Con- imnaidedelv: it is the result_ equally binding on an mem- strata exchange of views and et a historical arogiess last- bees of the party It must de- detailed, vigorous, and active nip yeara and domdes; it grew , mania the ntifillment of obliga- discussion by the party masses aria strengthened in bitter tiOns ay party members, not nf all major questions of the struggle with openly hostile only by the rank and file hut life and work of the party rep- bourgeois parties, atienshcvars, by those at the top: that is resent the moat characteristic Trotskyite.* Buitharinites, : what al Latina:. View ronati- trait Of the party as a Yellin- bourgeois nationalists, and lutes the essential organiaii- tory democratic organization, many other' internal and ex- tionul prineguisite of the life, ft is only this course that on- tern-al elements, and preoirsiation of the in- tables all the efforts of Corn- Ignored by Lenin's principles. tegrity, of the party. minis ts to be united in a single our party invariably crushed Lenin's grot.ept that the unshakable will and strength all opportunists and revision- party has ono dmealine and of the party. rrnt trends, anti-Maraist one for all comminthAs. Durirg' the most difficult nations. and any sort nf sena . irrespective of their position period of Its development the ratist I ritations, bloc' or posts. has found expreasion parry submitted for discus. groups, slit nal honed its Alight in the statute nf the party, :4-ion by the knead rirty an its and raised lid political : Lenin aiwaya waged a resolute is the tuator quesliona of its ant e Of its or 'mirth ion. struggle against various kinds Ponca, and this only set Cal An Identity of Purpose or petty bourgeois and demo- to strengthen it. Freedom of discussion, selfdaiticisin, and The identity of as?in and ar- giladlas that ileausen the party criticism of ahertcomings in twa of the aim, a?nag. twat of all mortal ains, with a VinIV tloi are combined to provide wtmat inamaaatiato tan tit undeimining ea: unity dis, Da_ the party with unity of at> the eNiSLennl' if II 1', ti in', and eilf11,1,111 ainfl tilithlaTaa'at thin. To alai:11as a question, ariniping,s in it a ranks and Rug ar;laaLa s 3.1, expreas rind hear various rierts craitrattittLairt rxrUn- analthirt Juut devoid of pen - !yr tine v.ews Leninism, mat idecaaigirzi nil dialed re.Ir.iint, Lenin pointed faitait'ismaii iii flonifi toesTI-rus pr lire al prol?,?flp; is ouch. out that tin ,y led to the ab.01- 'these views in a 00311 Horned by the very nature of anninent of party principle trig decision, mid to fulfill that the party and its aims and and Organitr ittitnat principles 4freision honesw mat Is Is tasks. and were taithiracur L to de- nin's understanding' of unity. The aeldeveinent and main. struction of the party. it is precisety this principle tenance of the dietateaslap Ilesisionista Assailed to which our party adheres In working iflass and tlie , its activity. The strugrtle for Meolagiaaf ' "filling of a fanwainft,l,ff purity of Marxist-Leninist the- All decisions of principle eagy are impassible witnon, a any and the immutability of adopted by Our party in recent Naar limited nil its news and , organizational principles, eon, .a...ici:=,ncliciiiiiitscteii;fft Ilifi?eiartitot:irtes mm dechOonp and strong hY virtue Stitiltalg the foundation el the :ijilanagemert of the national of its solidarity and di:a:inane:, 'a Unite' has always her 01 "I the development of it is not atm nothing that at Ilie center of attention of local inttiatire, the strength- our party is called the Volun- tinnamists, Tina is partici- enine of the ntiglif of the tare militant union of like-: tarty topical at a time when Soviet country, the raising of inhaled communists, who have, naperialist anagram and its the material well-being of the Melina:al ideological and Pam tdaologiats, Ham g the asnanon., soviet people, and tho trim Mica t views and 'dantWalla.; ist rump within the Commii- cessful of the ar ad- imeapret the aims and tattli: nist movement and influencing mil ttansition toward commit- ol tile party and its organiaaf; the he viii unsi-,n eh., nisol, are the fruits of col- lierial and practiaal unit pitmeats and those insufficient/a distmssion a:Qat:easing ire all( act ?Ot.,t ? t organizationally, are Making linfillitant -and struggle The twentieth party con- gress brilliantly displayed be- fore the whole world the ideological-political and organ- intiOnal Unity el the Comma- ni at, party and the to quality and strength of its rinks. The congress showed that emi party is full of vital strength, mighty rieati eneray, and an aialtait deaint ttirl insatiable Will to Process farther along Lenin's course otwa a the a olileventent of its great aim the building of coniniunisin Fulfilling the decisions of the twenfieth rrutAre:U:, itivological??po!itital and organizational wooli, eonsiat rally and strictly maintaining Lenin's norms of party the and the print Mk of collective leadership in state anti pally affairs on the basis of alimist- Leninist policy, developing eritaciaid and self-criticism of shortcominea, and eonalantly ieviewmg the muse, and of its nativity, our party has achieved still great- er inlay and anliclarity of its ranks and has broadened mail strengthened its links with the people. The Communist party is strong' because of the ident- ity off its striving and actions, because of the solidarity of the rank and file with the Cen- tral Conunittee, and because of its inseparable links with the people. Our party's strength lies in ? the fact that it has always ivaged a determined struggle against theta" who infringe on its discipline and the solidarity of its monolithic ranks, against those who place their gream or scatarian intethsts above party interests. intense attafirs on communism. the whale Soviet Peolfde, lied around the party in a mighty and united collective society, No Dis'CitiSsion Club But the party is not a dia- cmasion club. It is a militant polithati organization of the workers and the ruling Party in env country. It cannot per- Tait that, under guise of free- dom of criticism and exchange of opinion, decisions or prin- ciple adopi ed by ti should he contested, rhat ideas nil ion to its outlook Nita hostile to the people should hi introdueed, tic I. views hafinful to the well-being of the Soviet peo- ple should be spread. In this respect env party Mt-hotly adheren to the indica- tions of Lenin. who as rota in his artiele, "Freedom of Crit- icism and Unity of Action": "The political activity of the party must be united. NI- 7 appeals spoiling the unity of specific, actions are permissi- ble at mass Meetings or at party Meetings or in the party press." The party favors freedom of discussion of alt questions freedom of criticism and al shortcomings. Lenin used tr say that the party would have disintegrated, first ideologi- .eaily and then materially, if it Iliad failed to wage a struggle against peaple propagating anti-patty views. For defining the bounds be- tween -patty" a nil "anti. party," there are definite am true criteria The statute program direction, decisions oh the party and the party', whole experience of more that fifty years. Tite policy of prim riple is the only correct. pal icy, Never to retreat in an) ma I:atter from party interests a the inimitable principle Communists. It i3 by that, only correct principle that the pa et>, am its founder, Lenin, were al wiays guided with regard ti anV people that disregardec the will of the party or its in terests and opposed its line however great the service and prestige of these penal ware, and however substantia their position. It is known, for example thataPlekbanov enjoyed pica authority. Lenin highly es teemed, and r-espected him But after Phikhanov betrayia the cause of the working class departed front the most Ira portant principle of Marxism and sank into the mire of op portunism, Lenin Mimeos-de Piekhanovis past authorit, and decisively spoke agains him as a deviator from Marx tint A nether exam pie As i known, a low. days boast the October rising cif tali Kamenev and Zinewyev, wh at the time occupied ver prominent positions in th party, made a statement Menshovist paper on? th preparation of the armed rir trig' that was being prepare . by the Bolsheviks and on thei ? disagreement, with this dec. Sital. By that treacherma, maneuver a supreme party ath erct was revealed to th enemies. In his famous letter t members of the Bolshevi party, Lenin wrote on, tams satiject '"I would conaider to be shameful net on my part if In - cause of my previous cIo association with these forme- contraaes I were to hesitate t 1 condemn them, I state colt Li) gorically that I no longer cora :edit either of them comrades; and that I will struggle wit CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 ?,^if tS$UAL, beat brriae Central ConimIltee and at the rongress for their expulsion from the party? In unity of action, Lenin conceived the party's greatest weapon in its struggle for So- cialist revolution. Striving to- ward party unity, Lenin de- cisively brake with all who did not submit to measures of dis- cipline and who went against the majority of the party and against the Central Commit- tee. Lenin attached cartieular importance to the partils ex- ecutive nucleus, its Central Committee. He took pride in saying that our Central Com- mittee has developed into a strictly centralized and high- ly authoritative group." He guarded it In every way from' influences of purely , personal nad fortuitous contingencies and ably averted the passibil- ity o any break in unity. The80 Leninist traditions are au immutable law, binding on our party and an all Commu- nists. For the Marxist-Lenin- hit party, the unity of its tanks assumed iamont impor- tance after the victory of the Socialist 'evolution and during the period of building social- ism and of gradual transition toward communism, M Is known, during the first years of Soviet rule our party was forced to wage an intensive struggle against all kinds of petty bourgeois trends, group- ings and fractions that sought to undermine the party's unity. in March, 1921, the tenth party Congress, in distussing the question of party unity, unanimously adopted a resolu- tion drafted by Lenin that Stressed the need for insuring complete cbtetidence among Communists and for concerted work embodying the united will of the vanguard of the proletariat. In order to insure strict dim cipline within the party and in all StiViet work, the resolution stated, to attain the utmost unity, and to eliminate all re- fractorinesa the congress au- thorizes the Ccietral Commit- tee to employ, in the event of infringement of discipline or revival or tolerance of refrac- toriness, any measures of party punishntent, even expulsion from the party., and with re- gard to Central Committee members. reduction to the status of alternate members and, in extreme cases, expul- sion from the party. The condition of the appli- cation of such extreme meas- ures against members of the Central Committee, alternate members and members of omitting commissions must be the convocation of a plenary session of the Central Com- mittee, with ? all alternate members and members of auditing commissions in at- tendance. If such a general meeting of the mord responsi- ble leaders of the party de- dries by a two-thirds major- ity vote to reduce a Central Committee member to the status of alternate member or expel him from the party, imch a measure must be put into effect immediately. The congress dissolved all groups which had formed un- der one platform or ;mother and charged all organizations with the task of exercising vigilance against Any manifes- tations of refractorinees. This Leninist resolution not by the moral-politleal unity of tee and the seventh seamen of only helped to enish the anti- Am APP,Maftryta antilMinthilqu klentleaTflikettilqOarMtetrattrtPeentselP n4opyl,g. t ing part in the subsequent life tasks and interests as those ai of the great reserves of lira of the party, arming R in the the Party. etstilig LU grnnte tste unity or the partt. Backed by the prin- ciples of Leninism, the party crushed the Trotskyites, Butt- harinites, bourgeon national- ist, end other deviators who sought to arrest the process of building aocialism in our country and to drag the party back. But they broke their heads against the Leninist party unity. Rena Purge Recalled dIV iesuren agaimit the eineer gene.: in our midsts of indivith nal groups or indivtduals Mee agreeing with the party line. There are stilt in our country people who approach questions of internal and foreign polict as sectarians and dogmatics, who adopted a doctrinaire 'an- Moo& to Marxism-Leninism. ? They cannot Understand that in the present-day feonditions Merxisrn-Leninism? ' is in ac- tion and that the ? struggle for The long and Intensive rnmmtlllI1l is manifested in implementing the decisions of the second. party congress. The Sectarians and dogs ma ties: do not understand that the prime duty of a party Member, a genuine Marxist, IS At present to pursue with determination the policy of peaceful coexistence, to struge gle for friendship between peoples, to strengthen the gm ? detest camp in every way, to Improve managernent of In. dustry, to develop agriculture In every way, to create an abundance of products, to broaden the scope of housing construction, to broaden the rights of union republic; tO assume the prosperity of na- tional culture and to develop the initiation of the people's masses M every way, ? Detached from the life of the party and country these people are the captives of backward ideas. They fall tO see the new situation, thanker conservatIviem, titubbornly tiling to outdated forms and methods of work and reject what is born of experience, that which sterna front the in- terests of the development of the Soviet society and the So- elan ramp. They would like to lead the party back to those wrong methods of lead- ership which were condemned by the Twentieth Party Con. mess. And if vigilance is re- laxed, if such peeple are not noticed in time if no struggle is waged against them, if the spreading of anti-party views is not prevented, this can see dimly damage the party and its unity. Reactionary forces hostile to socialism. strove to take ad- vantage of criticism of 'he personality cult in an effort to weaken our party and the whole international Commu- nist movement. These ealeue lations, however, failed com- pletely. The Communist party, created and steeled by Lenin, enjoying nation-wide devotion and support, has inexhaustible inner strength. It knows how and were to direct the task. It fears no difficulties or tests. It is ready to surmount all ob- stacles on the way to the great aim. struggle of the party culmi- nated in the construction of socialism in our country and complete victory of the party over reactionary groupings. Through the unity achieved, the party was able to rally the entire gimlet people around it for the defense of the Social* motherland in the Great Pa- triotic War and inflictde- cisive defeat. on the detested enemy. The crushing of the desple- able gang of the. dangerous enemy, Berle and his bench - men, contributed to the strengthening of the par,* and the successful solution of the tasks facing the country. The :twentieth. party Con- gress was a supremely impor- tant. historic stage In the de- velopment and atrengthening of the party's unity, the mo- bilization of all Its force, and its solidarity mound the Cen- tral Committee. Being completely loyal to Leninism and, prompted by the interests' of building commu- nism to the still greater strengthening of Marxist-Len- inist positions, our party de- cisively, openly and boldly &- pressed itself against the per- sonality cult of Stalin and its consequences in order to ob- viate all possibilities of the revival of the personality cult In one form or another. The party and the Central Committee devoted great at- tention to the realization of measures directed at the elim- ination of the Infringements of revolutionary legality which occurred in the past. It is now clear to all how wise and cor- rect were the measures put into effect by the party In the sting& to liquidate the con- sequences a the personality cult. A worthy example of ad- herence to Leninist principles, firmness and determination in the struggle for party unity is displayed by the Central Com- mittee. There are no people in the party, nor can there be any, who by virtue of their high posts, could be shielded from criticism of their mis- takes and shortcomings. This would be contrary to the spirit of the Marxist-Leninist party. The Central Committee, boldly and ireespective of per- sonality, subjects to discussion and criticism any leading fig- ures of the party and state, if they allow mistakes to occur In their work, and takes de- cisive measures against any persons if their actions and deeds contravene the party line. The party only gains from this: ? In our Socialist country there is no soda! foundation, nor can there be any for the emergence within the party of factions and trends hostile to Leninism. The unity of the _Cemmunist party, and of its -leading nucleus la determined 40th Anniversary Balled Our party is preparing ti greet the &HOW fortieth an- niversary of the October Rev- olution united and monolithic, closely rallied around its Len- inist Central Committee. The party directs the efforts of all Soviet people to the struggle for the fulfillment of the deck- on s of the twentieth party Congress, for a new mighty upsurge of industrial and agri- cultural, production, for the further rise in the material well-being and cultural level of the workers, The reorgani- zation of the management of induatry and building, carried out in accordance with the de. eislons of the February plenary session of the Central Commit. national economy in the inter. struggle against ail deviators, Rut it would be a profound etas of the prosperity of the net eirmlifinnt mistake to imagine that we &Mk motherland Of Supreme importance to the further rise in the well - Mete; of the Soviet people will , the fulfillment of the party 'task of catching up, within the next few years, with the United States in the per capita production of meat, milk and butter. The Soviet people ar- dently support this appeal see- ing M it a new manifestation of the solicitude of the party for the welfare of the people. The strength and prestige of the party stand at an unprece- dented high level. Our party has a clear-cut program a action, drawn up by the twen- tieth party Congress, It looks boldly to the future. In every- thing the party is supported by the people, following a as Its true and experienced guide. This, however, In no way en- titles us to rest on our laurels and be complacent. It is men- tial to maintain all our organ- izations in a state of a high degree of mobilization and political vigilance, to improve organizational and ideological work, rear nil Communists In the spirit of political activity. and streggte for the general Leniniet tine. The task of all Communists is to guard and etrenglhen the unity and solidarity of the party, its leading nucleus; al- ways to remember that the in. vineible strength of the Corn- niunist party lies in the Lenie- nt unity of in ranks. Th N.1. Time CPYRGHT Approved #6kReleiza1002/07/22 CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130D671) Ousted Russians Held Major Posts in the Hierarchy of thi Kremlin Yolloifirlit are btopretoOka iihortiy tifiei1Ward Trotsky . . Nkatch,.'s of the ,,..i.,!! mea favokflY Was a, fugitive and Mr. Molo- CPYRGHtfc, in Soviet leader. toy became a familiar figure on the international scene---an im- passive Man behind a rimless beorgi IV!. Malenkov Mashailianmach Nia- Ilenhe re a Deputy Premier and latinister of Poirot Stations in the Soviet Union, is a pudgy a-foot 7maili man who nearly, but net quiet, became the ob. solute dictator of his country and , the Corn niunisi world. [ All of his adult life Mr. Marren-, ;kov understudied Stalin. He par- 'mind his phrasesnwore the same style shapeless gray cap :and sim- ple soldiers tunic. He even copied the dictator's mannered He was Stalin's filing clerk,' hatehetrann and intimate. Stalin cherl and Mr, Malenkov CeeliOd AS Premier. But there' were early indications that, tin- like Stalin. he was not able to oCall lot the Communist par,. y appal ati Lavrenti P. Berta. who had once been Mr. Makin-, kov's supporter, was eliminated. It was apparent that a struggle for power was taking place, On Feb. 8, /9b5, Mr, MalenkoV [resigned as Soviet Premier', con-: 'Ceasing "my guilt and respon- sibility for the unsatisfactory: rtuatculture'' and citing "my insuffi-1 ien that. has arisen in agini [elm eaperionee in directing lecanonie activity. Vyacheslav M. Molotov ,1 Early in a career of five tIe- eades devoted to communism Vyactieslav Mikhailtivich Mob- toy Was stung by a sarcastic re- mark by the brilliant Leon ; Trotsky, "Very well, Comrade Trot- sky." Mr. Molotov replied. "We I ,can't alt he geniuses- --hut we Is:hail see who lasts longest." I: (mos p Z, an cuiia.i black worsted suit. factory. Mr. Moroi ov bent witIi the winds that changed Soviet policy and Dmitri T. Shepilov he survived not. only Trotsky, ; Dmitri Ttefimovich Shepilev, who was murdered Mexico, . 52 years old, was considered hut many others of his Bolshevik contem one of Mr. Krushchev's most I poraries.OlotoV had become So- trusted aides.. He had a sharp Mr, M - . [eye for gauging the shifting riot :Foreign Minister in May, tides in foreign affairs so that 1939. they could be rased to Soviet ad-, He dad not give up that post- vantage. ?don until the spring of 1919. He is a big man?by far the Then, observers said, it was he biggest among the top Soviet who pulled the strings of Soviet leadership. He weighs more than foreign policy from behind the 200 pounds, measures well over scenes. lie was hack as Foreign six feet in height, has a thick Minister after the death of neck and deep-set eyes. Stalin in 1953. ;i The rest of the Soviet leaders .are small men, probably because Lazar M. Kaganovich tit.s.liri was himself only about Lazar Moiseyevich Kaeanovich feet is a man of driving force, who in fact seine observers believe though not tall, has a rugged 1 that Mr. Shepiloy was marked frank,. -for purging when Stalin died in Perhaps his drive and ability were the reasons that he hats 195. At the time Mr. Shepilov. able to Stirvive as the last Jew , ra editor of Pravda in the Soviet Union to wield any real power. Many of the leaders But with Stalin gone %hid of the Soviet Union were his ,Sheptley began a rapid advance proteges, including Nikita Si that put him in the first ranks Klu'uslicileV dillaNihoini A,Bin' of the younger men of the Soviet Ulmon. Mr, Shitepilov's early party reer was mainly concerned with' propaganda, first, as head of the Central Committee's Agitation[ and Propaganda Department! and then as editor of Pravda. [ Mikhail G. Pervukhin Mikhail Georgievich Pervukhtn, successor to in making his first major speechl cgszyas e ender several years; Mr. KaganoVIch dealt with some of the major problems Of the Soviet Union--transport, coal, oil and heavy industry. He wag born in poverty In Jsi,o in se earame linar as a nor' wormer! in a SillOC ? ago, made a point at ridiculingt Americans. who said they had seen flying saucers. :His com- ment was, "Next they will say set amine flyine qahice 1114 Onin theinselves. Kaganovich had been very .close to Stalin. In the early I930's, when Stalin brought. him to Moscow rrom Ehe Ukraine, [Mr, Kaganovien readied the ;height of Ids power. 1 in the 11130's, Mr. Kagervi- vich was often tanked as num- 'her two to Stalin and Was con. sidered a possible the dictator. Mr. Pervukhin is a practical engineer who has little sympathy for fantasy, He believes in get- ting- things done. He is the son of a blacksmith: and in 1919, before he was LM years old, he joined the Soviet[ Communist party, At. the age Of 18 he was an editor of a lectil Communist newspaper in an obscure .corner Of the Urals and then be was sent to school to be trained as an electrical engineer, Before he was n5, Mr. Per- vii khirm become one of the, chiefs of Soviet heavy inthistry., heading all of the Soviet Pima: trice! industry and later all of the S'eviet chemical industry, Maxim Z. Saburov Maxim Z. Saburov has lived' lwith heavy industry of biR 'life and his personality shows [ the influence, He is one of the less colorful of the Soviet loaders. He gives 'the appearance of a machine-- efficient, businesslike, compe- tent. He came from a working- eigsa family in the Donets Basin. At 13 at started voili as a messenger bey, tried farming, Worked on a railroad till) then worked in a metallurgient plant. was his first brush with in- dustry, Thereafter Mr. Saburov dis- covered a successful formula for getting ahead in the Soviet Union. JUL 4 1957 Soviet People Not Told of Shifts Till After World Gets the News Announcement Is First Beamed Abroad by Moscow Radio:h-lt Covers More Than Half of Four-Page Pravda CPYRGHT By MAX EMANKEL S"ps IA to The No ay, July .1 CPYRGHT moscow, "rh, he Set I op until this morning of the shake up in the Communist. party hierarchy that rules them. News of the demotion of M. Malenkev, Vyacheiday M. Molotov and Lazar M. Kegs- novich, was beamed to the world by Moscow radio in a dozen languages last evening. But Ii was not announced here until t Metric]; this morning, This morning'R avda, carry- ing, en Page 1 the Central Com- mittee's communique detailing the shake-up, appeared on the streets at CO A. M. Hale the page AT' as taken up with piertures of the fifteen members of the APISfekeirPtglikegaige2 arrangedIl in alp oil mu and of the four-page Ileum pel 'devoted to the nonouncemen [and approval of it by this Moscow :parry organization led by Miss Furtsev : Acute readers of the Connnt hist party newspaper had bee 'led to expect some sweepiI1 news yesterday manning. It isn every dat?that Pravda issues . . 'stern call for "party unity" an :warns that even the elosea "friends of Lenin were discipline/ [for setting themselves agains the interests of the Commoni. . part y. : That is what Pravda did yes enlay. it said I he party 1. taSiiSi d dr! or cea I flat niscipillie !leaders as well as the lank and :file in the party. Some readers, recognized this for what it was ---a cue that some leaders had overreached themselves. The tone of Pravda's editorial was in line with Mt. Khroshchey's recognized policy and hinted at past "errors" o policies known to have been ad vocatert in turn by Mr. Malen kov and Mr. MolMov. The question around Moschu all day yesterday was, "Wha does the editorial meant"' Correspondents who had trio U, explain the ma nil ficatiOn; o the Pravda editorial subinitte their stories yesterip y after oon. But they were still wait g for them to move to the out de world last night when tl ?SCOW radio started to tell th vol-Id in its own words. The first. news available her ,as a report that quickly pu-cad among foreigners of the onitoring 4 of an Arabic- nguage broadcast to the Middle Asti Then. came the news of a ussian -language announcement mnitored in London. There was brit of an Italian-language ae- mint heard in Rome, and in- ions flooded in from Paris and Hamburg stations. But The radios sad telegraphs here were Finally, after midnight, the rwiet !WW1'S agency Tass moved an official fourteen-page an- ft044000141 bb dne this N. I. TunOPYRGHT JUL 4 1957 400 Russians See Pope VATICAN CITY, July 3 (I'M n imirirt attended a Papal audien in Peter's Basilica today for the Drat time since the Russian Revolution of 1917. The a00 Russians WAVO part of a general audience et about .2.000, The Russians stood InotiOnless at One coiner of the huge cathe- dral when the Pope was carried in on his gestatorial chair. The Soviet tourists left before the Pepe gave his apostolic blessing. CRYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 it T. Times JUL 5195? Zludiov Viewed as No. 2 Russian, Sharing Power With Khrushchev By HARRISON E. SALISBURY CPYRGHT N. Y. Times JUL 5195? New Kind of Leader Georgi Konstantinovich Zhohov a, ? and the Soviet Army are ex- pected by close observers of Soviet affairs to share power with Nikita S. Khrushchev in the newly-constituted Moscow regime. , A conviction that Marshal Zhukov, newly deviated; to the Presidium of the Soviet Commu- nist party's Central, Committee, is the No. 2 man in the new eet-u p has been etrengtheneal by an ermines at events preceding the shake-tip. , This analyina suggests that Marshal Zhukov and his army 11C VS MI Mtn. WiliJbU UItUVM II was announced yesterday. The December plenary appea to have marked the high pot at of the oppositionkst bid Or power. At that Dane, .the group on- posed to Mr. Kltrusbehev with it the Presidium apparently intrud- ed Alln Molotov, Georgi M. Mtel- enkom Later M. Kaganovich, Mr. Pervukhln and Maxim Z. Sabi- ne, former Mate planning, chief, and at Meet One more Presidltrn menthes'. This is certain since it took a minimum of Mx of t e associates. who played a key role .eleven votes of the Presidium 0in the ouster of the late Lavrenti P. Beria as Soviet police chief in June, 1953, playerl a similar part in the defeat of the group beaded by Vyacheslav ItMoletov. The second most important Soviet civilian?after Mr. Khru- navy hiraself?an the maneuver- ing that preceded the coup appears to have been Anaatas I. Mikoyan, the Soviet foreign trade specialist. Mr. Mikoyan may have switched sides in the bitter infighting among the So- viet hierarchy and thus facili- tated Mr. Khrushthey's move against his oppbnente. have sought to give the impres- sion that it was a mere "faction" of the Soviet Communist Party that Mr. Khrushchev ousted. However, closer Inspection of the changes shows that there was the narrowest kind of a Blatt within the ruling Presidium of the Central Committee. WM approval of the plan to ilan e Mn Pervukhtn as the new Me nomic czar. Theoretically, the Mx-mo antlelehrushehee majority on t e Presidium could have removed him at that time. With both U e Chinese leaders and Marsh Mary opposed to such a ram s, however, the Molotov coaliticn presumably was afraid to tal e such a radical step. This seems to have been a fatal error for Mr. Khrushches s opponests. The energetic par y chief set about rallying support. Communist China's Presal r and Foreign Minister, Chou E lai arrived from Peiping in la e The Moscow announcements ' December for Visits to Moscow and the satellite regimes. It s probable that he assisted W. Khruslichee and, perhaps, Mae- shal Zhukov in rallying over t least one of the antblehrushehry votes within the Presidium. By late February, at a ne v plenary session of the Centr I Committee, Mr. Khrushchev wags able to overturn the results I f the fateful December meetin To do this he had to command at least six of the eleven Pr - radium votesm-presuinably tt votes of those six Presidium members who survived Um considered probable that follow- shake-up announced this week. lug the Hungarian coup last Those six were himself, Pr - autumn Mr. Khrushchev lost ef- mier Nikolai A. Bulganin, Ma - shal Ehmenti Y. Voroshilov, M Mikoyan, Mikhail A. Suslose tee party's ideological specialist, an Memel L Kirichenko, Ukrainian party boss and Mr. Khrushchev s former associate In the Ukrain . Since Messrs. Bulganin, Voro- shilov and Kirichenko are know, to be the most reliable sup- porters of Mr. Khrushchev, the only ones who might have pos- sibly switched between Deem- A 6-to-5 Majority Mr. Khrtishehev, in fact, much of the time was able to corn- mand only a 6-to-5 majority among the eleven voting mem- bers of the old Presidium. R is fective control of the PreMdium to the collation of forces led by Mr. Molotov. It was reported by Polish Communist sources that Mr. fehrushehey had escaped ouster as First Secretary of the Com- munit party at the plenary ses- sion of the Central Committee fast December only through the powerful intervention of Um Chinese Communist party, led by Mao Tse-tung. ber and February were eitham Mr. Makeyan or Mr. Suslov. It is also possible that by lan February Mr. Khrushchev hal succeeded in separating M Pervulthin from his erstwhiM allies. This is suggested by the fact that Mr. Pervukhin Is the only one of the five known ant ? Khrushchev men who was no. dropped from the hierarchy. H He was forced to agree to a slipped from full membership Ls new set-up for Soviet industry the Presidium to alternate mem bershlp, but thre is still the ant& room to power In the Soviet. Union. Maeshal Teinkov, who !at December was only an alternate member of the Presidium and as such had no voting rights In the party's ruling body, probably also rallied to Mr. Khrushchev. Deeptte these powerful allies, Mr. Mintsbehey, as is now evi- dent, suffered a humiliating re- buff, at the December meeting, that would have put the most important levers of power in the hands of Mikhail G. Pervukhin rritE %teat shake-up in the Soviet hierarchy has for the first time put a profes- sional military man on the highest ruling body of the Soviet Union, the Presidium of the Communist party. For Mershal Georgi Konstantino- Vieh Zhukov this eleVation must have been specially sweet because it fri" eficanciled with the hi the Movmfall of the closest eollaborm News' tors of Stalin, the dictator who so long had deprived him of the glory he had wort in World War It. "Eisenhower of Russia" is the way some writers have de- scribed the marshal's role In the wan Certainly from the sueeessful defense of Moscow In early 1041 to the capture of Berlin in 1945 It was Marshal Zhukov who commanded gi- gantic Soviet. armies at key battles. "Spasiter," or SeVier, was what be was called by many a SeViCt man in the street. The reaction of Stalin, always envious and fearful of rivals, was to banish the mar- shal after the war to pro- vinc.ial pests, first in Odessa and then in the Urals, A legend was built up deliberate- ly that It was Stalin who bed planned the , victory over Hitler in every detail. A special film "The Fall of ' Berlin, Was made and widely &Lewis to "prove" Statin military genius and to portray Marshal Zhukov as a coward and a military fumbler. In per- sonal conversation with his intimates, Stalin accused the marshal of being a super- stitious oaf who smelled handsfid of dirt to divine whether he should begin an attack. But Stalin's eampaign failed, and within twenty-four hours after the dictator's death was announced in March, 1953, the marshal was back in a high Moscow post, beginning the climb to the highest level, of Soviet power, A Wrestler's Shoulders Marshal Zhukov is a squat 5 feet I inch in height, and has broad shoulders of a wrestler, His broad face be- trays that he Is a descendant of a long line of Russian peasants. His erect posture, his intelligent and mobile face and his piercing blue eyes make even a casual. acquaint- ance soon aware that he is a man to be reckoned with, while his vigor of movement and his obviously well pre- served body make lam seem younger than one born more than sixty years ago, in 1896. The marshal's slightly bowed legs testify to his ?Heiner cavalry background. He is still a good rider. A good shot with pistol or rifle, he was also a supple daya Be La a studencof military history, and hie fa- vorite military Imre is re- ported to be Hannibal. Marshal Zinesov's military career began two years before the Bolshevik Revolution when, at the age of 19, he was drafted into the Czar's Nov- gorod Dragoons. Be joined the Red Army in 1.918 and the Communlet. party in 1919,. In the next twenty years he rose In the officer corps, attended .military schools in. the Soviet m ? Union and Germany, and ob- served tank warfare in' Spain during the Spanish civil war. A Victory in Mongolia The quality. of Ms Profee- Monet prowesa was made dear when he commanded a tank array that defeated the Japan- ese in Mongolia in 1999 at a little-known but. important battle on the Khalka River. His opportunity to have this command, as well as to rise so rapidly in the next few years, came in large part be- cause most of the Soviet Anny's. high command had been destroyed during Stalin's great purges of 1936-38, President Else,nhower evalu- ated Marshal Zhulsov's role in World War II in these words, "To no one man do the United Nations (the Allies of that war) owe a greater debt than to Marshal Zhukov." The lat- ter, in turn, credited President Eisenhower with "the most magnificent performance of any general of the current time." The personal friendship be- tween these. two generals re- sulted in a brief exchange of letters earlier in the post- Stalin period, but; to date there has been no sign that this : friendship has had major po- litical importance. While visit- ing India this year Marshal Mallow indicated that the friendship bed cooled some- what, at least Ince the Hun- garian revolt. Little is known of Mme. Zhukov. But the marshal has often expressed great pride in his two daughters and in Ms 6 - year - old granddaughter, whom he MPS to take rowing on a lake near his country home, The Zhukovar older daugh- ter, Era, is married to Tuft A. Vasilevsky, son of the former Soviet chief of staff, Marshal Aleksander M. Vasilevsky. The younger daughter, Ella, became the wife of lChm P. Voroshilov in July, 1955. Her husband is a nephew of Mar- shal Kftment Y. Voroshilov, Soviet chief of staff. A family picture the mar- shat sent President Eisen- hower several years ago was the world's first knowledge of whom his daughters had married. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 N. I. haat App[oved NokiRplease 200C2VofftGldirek-RDP6CanWbil6500130067-0 L I Ji Both the Executive and Legis- Ousters Show Strain in Soviet System State Depart mentS ays lative branches of the tutted States Government have been Minded about how tti deal with Moscow and Peiping. Sonic legis- Paters and officials have favored nicking a major effort to reach a abantlament agreement with the Soviet Union and acquiescing in an accoMmodation with the Chinese Communists. 0,-, ,d 1.? e been opposing By JAMES RESTON CPYR9T(. tip New York tsars t: NGTON, duly :3-Of- it i it a stungton tried hard to conceal its pleasme Over the Ii test roacmup [o the soviet whole Conant nisi world was in Union today hut didn't none I ferment, The have been going attLalle(1. ' . along re:Meta Cy with the eth. "No comment," said dames a, rent United Sates policy in the ,liacekly! tvinte Louse press see- disarmament. talks in London, i rotary, grinning broad] ' d u. but insisting that the way to !grin ;!Vas the ribtoirt..tan3.gbibatjel anliPl cbkl,,ej,[1,LInPlk\hteo,701,1rlimainndist laalergL17; !significant act. hi a day devoted ? 'mainly to gleeful speculation, was to main ain the repnomai 1 News of the official [Soviet Pitssnrc. !announcement of the dismissal! Views of tulles Recalled of yvartheiag, NI, grfflot,,,w aio ' Secretary o Star a Dulles. who [his associates was brought to left for his G teat Lakes retreat !President Eisenhower during fi. en Duck Islet d today, said only .meeting of the National see.??eity, yesterday thrt he was opposed .coakted to the afternoon, m'm to making oncessions to the Chinese Cow reports or developments were tounists, and re- this on the ground that the riished to the White 'louse fermi the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency 'throughout the day. Mr liagenLy turd the pressiii .inlaafter noon that the Adminis- I I ration had advarue indication of the ouster, ilo noted that !Nikita S. iiihrushodiev, First Secretary of the Soviet Commit- rust, party, and Marshal Nikolai A. Bulge rein, Soviet Premier, had recently postponed a visit to Czechoslovakia and that an aerial demonstration over Mos.- row, to which Communist bloc[ leaders had teen inrited, had! suddenly been canceled. Beyond thal, however! he we trill not COMMellt. White Reads- Statement : The State Department was more explicit, in answer to re-! porters' questions, Lin col n press officer, read the following. statement: "It has long been known that the Soviet system operate!. Hinder stresses and strains. Arbitrary! and abrupt dismissals without pubhc discussion of the issues are also characteristic of the sysi eau 'The official Soviet press fins at various times saggested there have been disagreements rivet !basic policies in such fields as! [Government organizations, agrit' ! effille C. heavy industry, con-[ 'sumer goods and satetlitc of 'The serious nature of the : garded dicta. oda' COMMUniS111 in both Peipi g and Moscow as "a. passing pi nat." Today's devilopments in Mos- cow, coming on top of a noisy debate in Pei ing over ideologi- cal questions, were expected to strengthen th are who have con- tended that II e thing to do War, !to keep the censure on, not to grow weary if the brig &Meg- i l itr gle, not to n te risky concea- . ---- M0/13 to MOSCMW or Peiping, butt to plod along end allow the con-1 tradictions it the CoMmunisE world to weal en both the whole!! Communist empire, Meanwlitle, the capital had the greatest (lay at petit lent speculation ince M sliehey omen od on /he worldi scene after II r. death of Stalin.' The Private reports of Soviet' experts in the Government were :n general a teement on this Monte: flThe cent al part of the Pravda cdi on ii and the clove- .tion of Mr. Ihritslichevis per- sonal friends La the Presidiums-- particularly his it ?Miss Yekateri a A. Furlsevassi [Ilea tly slime( that Mr, lanitt[ thence had en lanced his power' th the struggl . Khru-hchev's political nuovations a the Tweniieth[ tarty emigres in February of [956 and the consequences ell hose innovati us in the other' ereOneunist pasties of the world vete at the cc-it of the trouble lint led to the dismissals, flMr.lciltrush her had contend. divergence of views is clearly ' [ dt that there 11, lit many 'toads to shown by the number ant! tropes. [ had invited in ! genre of the persons dismissed ithomeand a more liberal and Ii ticnalistu' r alley for Lout- shifted We are ruiturally fa& ? stir nisi parties abitiod and had lowing these developments close- , ntrodueed a uneentralized *re- ly for the effect they rnay have ! um of mann nic control on Soviet basic policy' ' All of hose had led to[i Jennie and Cr tieism from Mr. Effect on E. S. Policy Seen miokreck Mk.. Rockwood! and! I The Soviet changes have come , he other ['old Bolshevists ' who at a critical Moe in tie develop- ' lad beet/ close to Stalin. 11These fano !Miens had de- [rth1).11" of "tit& Statistf"eign ! !Finged 01 &SOT enl ad some Coin- .policy and le ealleettO to have ounist parties; abroad, had [Koine hilluenr:e on that policy, !arise(' ideclog ?ad confu.sion at [particularly as it affects Com- : mine, and ea 1 been followed! [manna China and the Soviet !I "V the riots in Poznan. the rise !Approved For Release 20C2/07/22 : C14-RDP66-0075 iR000600130067-0 [and defiance of Wlanyslaw to? In Warsaw, the emer- gence of new Communist themes in Communist China, and fi- nally by the revolt in 'funerary. 1Throughout these last eight- een months, there had been crit- icism among the long-time col- leagues of Stalin fir this looser control of the political life of the world Coaantinist movement and decentralized plan for the economy at home. And while Mr. Khruslachev had encouraged criticism, it finally, reached a point where lie felt he had to remove his critic,. Some of the Soviet experts here thought: Mr. bilituscher's China and disarmament policies hag something to do with the dismissals : others were inclined fri miaimize these as causes or dismiss them altogether, According to some of these n- perts, Mr. M.alenliov was unen- thusiastic, not only about Me Khrushchev's emphasis on heavy industry, but about his policy of Rid to Communist Chinn, Ma. Malenkovhs theme was that the time had come 'to concentrate more on the production of con- sumer goods, even if that meant being unable to help Red China. The men here who are paid to solve the Soviet riddle agree that his dismissal was not caused by any desire on his part- to return to the hard centraliza- tion policies of the Stalin regime. The argument over tile Soviet disarmament policy was this: some of the expert.s scented to think that this would inevitably Lad to a lessening of tensions. In the World and thus to greater influence of the West among the Soviet satellites, According to this thesis, the "old Bolsheviks" were fright- ened by the evidence that a re- laxation of centralized control nod of tensions inevitably leads lo opposition to Moscow both at home and among the other Com- munist parties. Then-dere, Mr, }Molotov and Mr. Kaganovich were believed to oppose Mit Rh ruslichey polirti The irony in this situation, a some officials Moe it, /14 the failure of Mr, KruskiflffvTrP downgrading of Stalin and his decentralization policies is now lending to his sueress in gaining control of the Presidium, and[ adding to the irony, that it im now driving him to assume the! kind of personal control ilia( he cenderimed in Stalin during the Twentieth Party Congress, CPYRGHT t L Times JUL 4 19'57 HARRIMAN DOUBTS SATELLITE SHIFT' ..._ ........_ ......_ Warns Against Assumption Soviet Bloc Would Adopt 1 Capitalism If Freed ..By WARREN WEAVER Jr. sattau hi :en Nre York !man HAMILTON, N. Y? July 3? I Hien to- day that captive nations veldt-. ing against Soviet domination 'vote not necessarily interested in adopting' the free enterprise ayatem of the United States, The Governor said at the Ninth Annual Colgate Univer- sity Conference en Foreign Policy that it would be "a grave mistake" for the State Depart- meat, to assume that satellite weregroups interested in eco- nomic change. ' wit people See not protest- int denim a akeite hat erenOMY." 111 litilthn declared, hot' maclit more personat f icedom and opportunity, And in the satellites, of course, they yarn first of all and above all: Ito throw off the hated yoke of! !Russian tile and recover nadi !tonal independence.. [ "If they achieve these things,. I we need have no fear, regardless! 'of the form of -economic i'mgan-1 ization they may choose. A little! freedom inevitably leads to thel demands for more. NI Y. Times JUL 4 195 Many Places in Soviet .G4Gy Need New Names CPYRGHT Y. Times JUL 5 1957 New Envoy to 'Hurry' to Soviet' ENNA, July 4 hEt-Liewel- bn n nIpsoft .11 mr.-R:1 f1RM. States Ambassador to the Soviet' Union said tonight he Was leav- ing- Tuesday for Moscow. "I guess I'd better hurry at the rate things are happening there,'' added Mr. Thompson, who has been Ambassador to Austria, ?thluitcrialc chimps; hi Soi a lie will probably fel- tow e tall from le favor of ket- Choslav M. M01101.0V, GeOtal M a . sinleakov and Lazr 3,1. Raga. Many towns, villages turd fern' enterprises now ni e named after the three ces- eredifed leaders. After I he Suahinist111111?0S, names of Si' phaces honoring fallen lenders ete alred to acknowledge w favorites. There are nineteen Soviet oatoft VeS that. bear Mr. Mo- lotov's name, including that of Itrals city with a population 53S,000. Eight downs and es are named iii honor Of 51 to tent give Nu had the rik isaraletell Me. Maim - comparative Itile-conter -It honors, had 60 be von- with having his name -3 factories and farms, nos of communities Mat incited Leon Tiotalry, y E. Zinovicv, and A Bultha tin ktse ro I by order of Stalin. ? CPYRGHT Approved For Release 21)02A07/22e: SIA-RDP6541107156R0005012,1100671:11F" am' Mit T. Times thousit not in title, head of the tetwis ICommunist party apparatus, the' Bat the Khrushehev-Molotos mese important mingle power alliance lasted only a few weeks mechanism in the country Less than two weeks later it was announced that Mr. Malen- kov had "resigned" as a. Secre- tary of the Central Committee. CPYRGHT Mt_ 4 1957 KREMLIN CHANGES FORESEEN BY TITO He Indicated Anti Stalinists Would Win Power Struggle That Dates Back to '53 By DA SCHWARTZ President Tito of Yugoslavia last November gave the world itit first authoritatitve news of the internal. Kremlin struggle that resulted in yesterday's major Soviet shake up. The shake-up also appeared to vindi- cate the confidence Marshal Tito expressed then that the anti- Stalinist forces would win the contest. Soviet organs last fall unani- mously denied that there was any split between Stalinists and anti- Stalinists in the Soviet leadership as the Yugosia.v leader described. But yesterday's charges that it. atroup of the highest Soviet. leaders had sought to sabotage the decisions of the twentieth Communist Party Congress of February, 1958, appeared fully to vindicate the accusations made by President Tito in a widely publicized speech at Pula Nov. 11. The struggle that reached its climax yesterday in Moscow, did not begin at the twentieth con; gross, however, nor was it aim.- ply between Stalinists and anti- Stalinists. The congress was the Thruni before which Nitrite S. Khrushehev delivered his orig- inally secret speech exposing tome M Stalin's crimes. The party meeting also adopted cer- tain policy assumptions that re- versed earlier policy bases ac- cepted during Stalin's reign, Struggles on Two Plane. The three top figures ousted Prom the Soviet leadership yes- terday ell had previously suf- fered significant demotion In re- cent years. Georgi M. Malenkov "resigned" as Premier of the So- viet Union in Febeuary 1055. Vyacheslay Ma Molotov was re- leased from hie post as Foreign Minister a year ago, while some months afterward Lazar M. Kaganoyich was released from his post as head of the Soviett internment committee in charge' of setting wage policy for the ountry. Struggles. among Soviet lead- ers since Stalin's death in March, 1953, have developed on two planes. One has been the conflict among individuals and cliques for personal power and position. The other has been the struggle among Statinat succes- sor* on the issues posed by the problem of reshaping the Soviet sr stem from the frozen mold of Stalin's teat, yenrs to new forms corresponding more nearly with the real requirements of a So- viet Union educationally and economically far advanced from 'ts relatively primitive state when Stalin assumed power in the Nineteen Twenties. A tense competition for indi- vidual power dominated the first three months after Stalin's death. A day after the an- nouncement that Stalin was dead Georgi M. Malenkov, long of the same group's meeting of the dictator's protege, appeared ettelltlItly a return to Stalinist December. laparticular, Mr, tpAwrifiansgigeaWslott Pervukbin was in effect deprived to Stalin as Premier of the Sol: 'kov's "resignation heard the' "'mimic chief an a complex Mr, Khrushchey and the nes; Premier, Marshal Nikolai A. Bu gamin, apparently decided tha if the basic tensions of Seale society were to be eased it wa. effect, this meant be had essential that a sheep improve surrendered control of the party merit in the Soviet Union's In- apparatus to Mr. Khruslichey, Lernational relations take place to became First Secretary of- Ma Molotov, though he mia tidally in September, 1953. ;then Foreign Minister, is now The late Layrenti P. Berta known to have opposed many o made his drive for personal' the steps taken in the spring power in a series of slashing 055 that: made possible the Gen moves between March and June, !eva Conference, where Preslden 1953. He gained repudiation bie !Eisenhower and the British an the mysterious "doctors' plot"' -French Premiers met with the, that ad been aimed at him He 'Soviet. leaders. In particular' demo strated the immense powe of the secret police ap- parat is he headed by bringing about the Ouster of some of Mr. Khrutcheele closest subordi- nates. Mr. Molotov and his supporters opposed Mr. Khruakicheite &ea slon to g* to Belgrade, apologize publicly to President Tito and to patch up Soviet-Yugoslav reJ B rim Deposed by Rivals lations by accepting for the Sri4 vlet Union all blame for the 194 ? rupture between the two coun tries. Major Turning Point Planned Against the background of the Improved international situation of 1955, ltilr. Khrusholew planned the twentieth Communist party congress of February, 1956, a? brouget in its wake a significant a major turning point in Sone downrading of the secret po- history. He sought at this lite a the beginning of a less meeting to consolidate his power strain d atmosphere in Soviet' by announcing far-reaching changes in doctrine and also by announcing important conceal Mons such as shortening of the work week, higher pay for low- paid workers, and higher pen- sions for old persons. more in a burning issue of Soy- Mr. Klirusinthev's aspirations let. lift: the desire of Soviet cit- in this direction were symbolized izens Mr a rapid improvement by his exposure of Stalin. This in the r poor standard of living. :exposure gave him the freedom be needed to change much in Soviet policy that previously had been untouchable, because its supporters could always call on Stalin's authority when chal- lenged. In particidar, Mr. Ithruslicheen doctrinal pronouncement that war was not inevitable 'even though capitalist states eiristed created the possibility of a basic new framework for Soviet pol- icy. Mr. Khrusheheats dictum that the class straggle eases when socialism is built, rather would aye required a sharp cut- than, as Stalin had it, increasing back in Soviet emphasis on in intensity, furnished a doe- heavy industry and on arma- trinal basis for easing time police- meats As the implications of state system of the Soviet Union, this became plain to the path Mr. Lehrushchev's concessions tally powerful leaders of heavy in February, 1956, however, soon indusey and to the Soviet milt- boomeranged sharply. The peace- tatty Madera opposition mounted. MI Polish revolution and the Mr. I, hrushchew then, in late bloody Hungarian revolt last fall 1954, emerged as the champion indicated that he had blundered of her-vy industry, won Central in his exposure of Stalin and his Comnstthe approval for his post- enemies closed in for the kill. At tom and thus forced Mr. Malen oval "resignation" as Prem r February, 1900. the Malemcov progrem was essen- tially abandoned for the time there was public evidence that being. the stock of Mr. Peryukhin and Mr. Malenkov had risen sharply. Stain.* Tattoo Utilized ? ' ? But 1956 also had brought Mr. Mr, Ithrusheheves lehrusheney a major, perhaps ' then vas already in Large part decisive, victory. His virgin lands testin ony to the Gaieties he had ed in purging his ore Program for expanding Soviet grain output proved a tremor- porter .s from key ,jObs in ,the dons success last year after the - ignominoes failure in 1955. Without that success Mr. Khru- shchev might not have siirvived politically. A major and still unsolved myrs- successfully in the Nineteen tory now is how Mr. Khrustichey Twerkies !when he defeated Leeon 6 turned the tables on his foes Trotimyt Nikolai Btikharin and early this year. That he had turned the tables became appar- rent at. the February Central Committee meeting which in ef- fect undid much of the work Per a apparently came close to vie Ory, but late in June, 1953, his r vats, acting with Army seep? t personified by Marshal Georg h., Zhukov, deposed him. Umtata subsequent secret trial and e mention was accompanied lby a widespread purge of his I steppe ters The fall of Berta Fran July, 1953, to January, 055, Malenkov, then Pre- mier, and Mr. Milstein:hest en- gaged in a covert rivalry for power that centered more and Mr. Malenkov seemed to take the Ind by appearing publicly In the summer of 1053 as the great advocate of a rapid in- crease in consumer goods pro- ductio to insure a sharp Ise in the s ndard of living 'by 1965 19 . Not to be outdistanced, in, rustichev appeared pub- ely ithin a few weeks as the great architect of plans to ex- pand Soviet fond production rapldt r. Gen tine implementation of the Male tor program, however last December's meeting of the Communist party Central Com- !blithe Mr. Khrushchey suffered some damaging defeats and tparte apparatus, whd hence from the l'entral Cobimittee. Thus, 'two Ind a hale?Years ago it WAS arrea y apparent he was fol- lowing tactice Stalin had used Mr. Khrushebey's victory in early 1955 was wort in associa?- ton vith the Stalinist faction, The earthy inctuatry doctrine was tired0;104e010756R0008:06413,373408"cief , - chief Stalinist Vyaelieslay M., decentralization of Soviet indua- ' v, lay down at the same tx- v was decided upon, eceinn a ha ra Stalinist harrier CPYRGHT Times JUL. 4 7 SOVIET EXPECTED TO EASE BLOC TIE Shift in Leadership Viewed as Move to Consolidate the Communist Orbit By SYDNEY HUTSON Spettal to Tn. Ni Mk rim'., PRAGUra, Ezechoslovakia, July --The changes in the Soviet Communist party's leadership, announced in Moscow tonight, may have ushered in a signifi- cant period of readjustment in ? relations between the Soviet Union and other Communist countries. The changes, and the Pravda: editorial accompanying them were considered of such basic Importance that people here and in Warsaw hesitated to comment until a more thorough Study! be- came possible. But aitiong their hest impressions were these: ? ithiikita S. Kik:thistle:hey had consolidated his 'position as the first among equals in the new Presidium ofithe Soviet party. Cdr. Ichrustichey was bent Oil it deeirmined effort to nay- row the steadily widening gip, between the Soviet party andl sorrel' of the other Communist patties, particularly that of communist China. To Leseen Antagonism The dismissal of Vyacheslav M. Molotov would be bound to .lassen the sharp antagonism be- kween Moscow and Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and the differences between Moscow and Warsaw as well. In both Belgrade and War- saw Mr. Molotov had been con sidered the prime architect of a, tough policy toward parties1 straying front the Soviet line. i The section of the Pravda edi-? tonal concerning the failure of "sectarian, and dogmatists" tStaltnistal to understand the necessity of consolidating the Socialist camp was read here as aimed against Mr. Molotov. ? Through the Pravda editorial the Soviet Union was assuming a. posture that had already been taken up elsewhere in the COM- thentst camp. Editorial strictures against Stalinists on the one' hand and revisionists ? on. the other echoed the 'Struggle on two fronts" adopted 25 the Po- hair party's major ideological lisle menthe ago. One paragraph in Pravda par- ticularly sounded like dozens of! recent editorials of Trybunat Ludo, the newspaper of the Poi-, ish party's Central Committee. Pravda described 'sectarians' and dogmatists" as people "di- vorced front life" who bevel "backward conceptions." "They do not see new atua- bons," !Pravda declared. "They stubbornly cling to obsolete arms and methods of work and eject that which is born by fe. They would like to turn the 21 tont'. UPYKUI-11 1)ittayi back to those Mearre plifevecl FraiiRejeaee he the Twentieth Porta C ' Frea'4," Thus at long MK the Rifest mnectled that Marsha/ Tito d been right when he sold mon s; go s faction-ridden, At pie tilt) that the Sotto Maers il the Russians heaped abuse at the Yugoslav leader for adverts; rune this Ideal I The aew. saaas of Mao :tune., Chinese Communist lead la no seemed to have had a ma, jinfluence in time latest tormu :tion of Soviet policy eithouga si some extent in a negative vi :Pari Vila's statement that "t ;Communist party is Mit a debr ;Mg society' appeared ta be :direct rejection of Ma Mao's a? couragement of discussion rind ? 'the phrase of "let a bonds ii flowebs bloom." Nevertheless, there are pal I of the Secret protlattneerne . that must fall gently on Chine Communist ears, particularly t' statements insisting- that Sovi ! foreign and domestie policy mu take current circumstances in 1 account and rejeet &mole methods anti attitudes :although neither Moscow it Peiping said so openly, it h been evident that a geowg breach was developing in the arialysee! Of how to apply Mat rat doctrine. In this crammed( it is oignifMant that Mr. Khr shehear showed a, special sem tivity on I he question of rel tions with Communist Cir early last. veal. 'Talk to Poles Recalled According a reliable report when Mr. teheushchev was maw in March 1956, he to the Polish Communist Dade tint one or Stalin's main to oi'gn policy errarS was his In lure to get along with Retain This was Only a few weeks aftc t Mr. lithrimfiehev had deliverer his de-Stalinization Speech ii Moscow, He sate in at amen! that Stal this overbearing attitude tower He Chinese communists ha :brought relations near to th: ;point of open brealt. It wa. I mainly heraose of tensions' be tween Peiping and Washingtor that the Commenist world 'ca ;able to avoid a notireaMe rap tare, Mr. Khrushehev told th Poles. The changes in Moscow ar l Mao likely to have some effeci ion internal politics in the Ohm Communist states, In Patent the opponents of Wiadyslaw Go Mathra's program based their arg:unienta precisely on a desir. Is return to the old ways de- nounced by I relate. It was widely supposed that these Pol- ish Stalinists took their inspira- tion and even a good deal of I heir statue from support ree eery ed from some Mealbera of I the Soviet Presidium, t The Czechoslovak Communist party conch tier a central emit trattee meeting only last month raking a firm atand On the old; tough line. It is likely now that he Czech, the Retrainee and r Bulgarian parties, which all have strongly., resisted changing as, will feel obliged to seine reconsidering. As for Hungary, the situatio* there is so involved that there is no telling what the Moscow changes alight mean there, _ CPYRGHT u441)-444,171geRcirff6.uprova from neethe :Yugoslav Communist party.R 0 0 915. Cy. 1 i ?ILA; -0 Moscow's charge that Georgi M. Matenkov Lazar Kaganovien, , Vyasheslav M. Mointov and Dmi- tri Te iThepileni were "shackled le, old notions and methods" and were -stubboralti clinging to old methods" was in full accord with dire private laeirs of top.level !yligoslav Communists, well-in. ;soisited soUt?ces said : Yugoslav offierare, however, declined any Ma:anent pending tull study of messages from Moscow. 11 am very surprised," it Goverritnent spokesmen said. ' Foreign observers zaid the re- moval of what Yugoslaaa regard fly TILLMAN DURBIN as the 'Old Statiaist guard" tellnli Rogf9Talle4ea.7;aYfeirkert, runes, asj the Soviet leadership was likely a to lead to new efforts by Soot. I. Lem, 3.-.....,m,... teortimmust pally chief Nikita t . chinareached the outside world S. ladradzeltert to improve Fria. yesterday on the dismissal of Dolls with Yugoslavia, Varaehealav af, Molotov, (Morel Beim ade sources said thence. t It!, male/thou and Lazar Mi Dom Moscow was undoubted), Kaganovich front the leadership the most important event in thb of the Soviet Communtat party. Communist world since 'Stalin' Peiping radio broadcasts mon- kleath in 1153 and subsequen named here earrie.d only the text Ittevelopments including lb P of the communiqu?f the Cen- I.Twentieth Congress of the Sovie int/ Committee of the Soviet ailmumnalst party in Fehr:Pars Party on the dismissal of 'the 191i6, and the Hungarian upris three men front the party's Con- ting last October. trill Committee and the text of . . ' Nikita& Ranislichere has toy the resolution condemning thelm emerged as the strongest singh There was no expression of opin-? deader in the Soviet Union, r114 n in any of the Peiping neves- asinine* said. Complete newel casts. now appeared to rest in hti Observers have noted that the t hands after a period of three departure of Mr. Molotov and 'years of "cialective Peadership." Kaganovich from high. Comma- The Yugoslays i?egard ati? flint positions left Mao Tse-tung, Kluatishchey As the exponent at head of the Chinese Communist ;am age essive" developments with- party, mere than ever the senior ,in the Soviet Union, and that, among the old-guard Communist if the Soviet party leader now revolutionaries still playing had complete power and freedom dominant roles, 'of action, he was likely to take velPonprnsiTntstainincleosoemtion'titannhistviCehhicireta. apeady ati tort to re.estabash :Soviet leadership in Eastern iere cautious in analyzing the Eurcree On a new basis, the Ittfgeaeteshgrat ite-dSiosnia?leistsat- Sources added. -- attune and conditions In Corn- , unfelt China pending some indi- cation of the reaction in Peiping. At was believed that the MOS- cow changes would have no Init- . 'JUL 0 lie ; mediate major consequences lin China, Insofar, however, as the Moscow shifts reflect weak- - noises Inherent in the dictatorial oin. 5 No PEIPING IS SILENT ON SOVIET SHIFT Makes No Comment for the Outside World?Broadcasts Moscow Communiques TITO AIDES TO SOVIET 'Soviet Communist system, the ' Two Vice Premiers Plan Vis t : changes were regarded as a por- tent of what could happen in Described as Holiday ; the dictatorial Chinese Conuno- _ I ' Mat system. ? piirpeastwrs, Yugoslavia Jul ? Dissension. hi Peiping '4 latatithbar.-'-.?Da Ciliated rata.: The Moscow dismissals came a a time when dissension within Il r ranks of the Peiping Gav- e, meat. was receiving consider- a It attention at sessions of the N ? Donal Peoples congress, Corn- rust China's rubber-stamp aresentative body, now being lo ,d In the capital of mainland C ina. (eiders of the minor parties t it the Communists have per- in tied to hold office in tile Per. pf g regime are under heavy p astute for having attacked the G. wianntent during the last few w eke. Pr, La Lung-chi, Chang ehun and Chang Nal-chi, all le dere of the Democratic ague, are the main targets of th pressure. Teem broadeasts from Peiping to Lehi said that Prof. LI Ta? ? sident of 'Wuhan University, had charged that Mr. Chang and Dr. Lo had a plan to organize al party of "several million Intel- lectual* to struggle for leader- ship in China." Peofeseor Lt spoke before a meeting of the CFArpOrtInty Satisfied" Peonies Congress and seemed to Pant-My ciPiaeldre Poitsh imply that Mr. Cluing and Dr. tee/at...alee a atK ought to take power from that it Was "very satisfied" anah the ommuntet party. the .onsting of the Soviet Mad- Chang, the Minister of rs Cot municatioas. and Dr. In lt la highly unusual for an Mir stet of the Timber Industry, obassy to take the initiative in are both vice-chairmen of the rob a cage it Vas stated Det oc retie League. Mr. Chang eDKA41The'rifidOlit one' Yugoslav vice premiers, will g to the Soviet Union shortly o a holiday, usually rehab] sources said today. Observers said it was virtuall certain the two aides of Marshr 'Tito would meet Nikita S. Khru shehev, Soviet Conunumst part: chief, for a general discussion o the Itrentlin shake-tip and So alert-Yawata relations. The visit was expected to lot low jourtteys to Western Ger many and Scandinavia, Meer Kanirej and AL Rankin). will start within a week. The sources said the officials had planned the holiday trip some time ago. But observers said it appeared probable that the Russian visit had been in- cluded at the last. minute. , Yugoslaa* Surprked , cwRGHT, Yugoslavia, July 3 tReutersi-- The Sot-let Cm ; In1111 as L pal tv A Orairlatie Eiglitps- awls came as a bombshell to I aear:Dv oflir-'isls tonight but N. Y* Time JUL 4 "tqc:' CPYRGHT party (CoMmunlet) domination of the Goa eminent, while Dr. Lo,t a Columbia Irniverfatait graduate; charged that some persons had a0en unjustly condemned in a2ornmunist campaigns against ' Mounter- revolutionat les." ; Attune of Red Policy Charged I Professor Li called Mr. Chang rad Dr. Lo "leading lights imorig, the Rightists" and said hey were "now attacking all eommunist theory and policy as ?gam." The University pins- lent stated that the two non- ! lommuniet leaders amed the eilif idly-proclaimed "free eon- ent on" policy of the Commie I ist leadership as a cover under .hi h to incite dissatisfaction Imecrig intellectuals, create dis- t artannees, acof I at the successes gefe t. e Conneanist party and ex- rate every little fault. Piefessor LI said Mr. Chang' gent Jr. Lo demanded a coalition C /Innate/at and a eapitatist s In- ca of Socialist type of et, H charged the two teen With wide !mining Chinese - Soviet f ler-labia and Nnat they merit I so tewspapers, the Kwangming) r ail News in Peiping and the) 1 'en Itui Pao Of Shanghai to fnil er their campaign. 'Pr &sant Li said Mr. Chang. and Br, Lo were now isolated be- e us the workers and peasants) a irt the pro-Socialist students " tad spoken out." A ong article yesterday in the. Pimp es Daily, the leading Corm: rromat party organ, described al s ems. meeting of university pro-, faeibra called early last month in Petineag by Chang Pa-chtirb The; A tic e, whose text was received) In re n a Peiping newscast nista :a et said that Dr, Fel Shiao-I ng a 'Denature 'University pro-, tease , described bitter discontent acre g students in China's uni-t ? rsl tea and called the situation; ? "met maim.' Pe 'sing has not indicated how, m ich longer the controversy overi ( hang, Da La and the none! mann masts In the Peiping Gov-) maim at who have attacked thet C rut waist regime is likely Or g 0 . An the critics have ex-. plain a themselves in appear- am cee before their party groups, mil: recantations and ex-. piano tone are said tn lame beep cutest( ered unsatisfactary by their' pr it. colleagues, tad catiene tuna (Ann in In rust ( . Sc ire s as to what set lea will be. Maim against the Government's) ! er tic hare been unclear. The Pp es Pally Mrs said they : av adc nor be punished end that I it vii add enCugli beam! them as Rightista, The paper melee howecee? that "bourgenis t mai anctIonary" tonics had ;be in elaborately 'left unchecked n der to let the masses lin- de stagd how dangerous they me- lard participate in their tot:at eli metal hurt , ram London paper Edith "Vt ;or an zed a leap to catch air I th se who were plan-hug to rp power.- he Mee Chou Emlat stated in , his lot g speech opening the Pee-I 'pies Cangresa last week" that rift Inn in nor party leaders persisted: lin cri 'tiling the regime, they ;Trii rht be classed air 'enemies of thi people." Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-0C7. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 L Times CPYRGHT JUL 4 197 EUROPE EXPECTS SOVIET PEACE Bit New Kremlin Approach to East-West Talks Held Likely by Some Capitals AMCW to DUI gn York Tenn LONDON, jut- 3 --- Ntkiti his position by eliminating thi three most prominent member: of Stalin's old guard from tlu highest, level of government it the soviet Union, To this view of today's event: In Moscow, qualified Britist sources added the comment thal Mr. Khnishchev, the most vont tile opponent of the "cult of per. sonality" established by Stalin heel now enhanced his own per, board position. The effect of the action 'Tor Soviet policy may in time be reflected in a superficially mon liberal attitude toward both the Western democracies and the Soviet satellites, these sources said, The Central Committee's state- ment belabored Vyacheslav M. Molotov, former Foreign Minis- ter for his narrow-minded oppo- sition to Mr. Khrushchey's policy of coexistence and relaxation of international tension. But the British sources warned that the Soviet rulers "interpretation of these slogans probably would re- main far different from that of the West. Appeal to West Seen It, was auggested that Mr. Ithrushebev, having rid himself of the most powerful holdovers Ira the Stalinist regime, would now appeal to the West as a rep- resentative of a united party and government bent on the peaceful settlement. of outstanding differ- ences, both in the field of potit- teal issues and in disarmament. Although this "reformist" front may be false, those who etudy Soviet policy here in? cheated that it could present real problems to the leYestern powers. There already exists In West_ ern Europe, British sources said, a strong tendency to believe. that the Soviet Union means no harm, that: rearmament. with ail s financial burdens under NATO can be abandoned and that: equitable settlement, of issues, such as German reunifi- cation, can be negotiated with the Seviet Union, Diplomats Expect Bid Among professional diplomatol there was an expectation that; Mr. Khrushchev would ask for. Another heads - of - government : - ? meeting, preferably with Presi- I dent Eisenhower alone, but, ir this proved impossible, with the President, Prime Minister Mace mann of Britain and Premier Maurice Bourges-Manoury of France. ' One aped of Mr. Khru- shchev's action that, surprised the British sources, was that Lazar M. Kaganovidt and ,Mr. Molotov, long considered to he supnorters of the Stalinist matey in both foreign affairs and internal policy, apparently had rinds, common cause with former Premier Georgi M. Malenkov and Dmitri T. Shepilov, who have been thought peek's radillerS. tateppwiee ineferteNASEn erther by their general opposi- tion to Mr. Khrushehey's Wi1i1d. The breaking point may have been the plan put for- ward recently by Mr. Khrush- they for dispersing control of Soviet industry. This plan involved disbanding of many of the central industrial ministries and establishment of regional economic councils. Soviet newspapers, although they recognized its completion, have spent more time attacking opponents of the plan than glorifying its results. There have been recent attacks against "snivellers and skeptics" e Soviet press. Crilieism of tho e who have "lost their links wit life" also point to the sharp-, nes of the debate within thea' par 3,. Paris llolds Rigidity la Dane sp In The New Yak TIMPI CPYRGHT Experts on tornmunithn here felt that Mr. Ithrusischey achieved his victory.' only with help of the Soviet army. Mar- shal Georgi K. Zhithov's inclu- sion in the Presidium of the Soviet Communist Central Com- mittee, act:ogling to these oh-, servers, is (?.' sign of the prom- inence acethirded by Mr. Khan- shehett to the military. II alien diplomats predicted another' vigorous Soviet cam- paign for top level blast-West talks' It was suggested that Martha! Zhilkov might this Rine be in foreground of such a :peace offensive. The ouster of Mr. Shepilov, in particular, WAS interpreted here as a blow to President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. It was thought here that Mr. Shepilov had been be- . PARateIS, July 3- -The changns N. T. Timss JUL 5 lYil CPYRGHT hind much of the recent troub e in the Middle East, The Italian Communist party,! the largest red organization I west of the Iron Curtain, ap- peared to be in a state of' confusion tonight. Some Com-? I monists said privately they ye- joked that the "peace course; ;had won in Moscow. Today's development also I caused a flurry of activity M the Vatican. Pape Pius XII asked his top aides in the Vag- can's Secretariat of State to, submit the latest reports M the Soviet situation. In he Soviet leadership were trite-Meted here as an attempt to 'rad the rigidity of Soviet doe rine that had contfibuted to Moscow's isolatiOn in the wor J. P rsonal rivalries also were coniderecl a factor by experts hen who recalled the opposition betveen Nikita S. Khrushehey, and former Premier Georgi M. Matinkov. T e news iWas a sensation to thot e permute Who follow Soviet From Revolutionary Era aft is. There was a feeling NEHRU SEES SHIFT IN SOVIET NORMAL Indian Leader Sees Changes as Result of Long Process ;of expectancy about possible echanges in Soviet foreign :polic -las a( result. Ayachealav M Mo ofov, Thnitti T, Shepilov, an ,La.aar M. Kaganovitch are ro sidi red members of the "o guise that, because of it doc Final rigidity, had dif fiedty in adapting itself ti chimed economic and politica cardigans. , late charge against Mr,. Mole, :toy that he had hindered th Ibetaerment of relations betweel the Soviet Union and Japan Austria and Yugoslavia wa not d with interest. but the goes tior was asked why Moscow liar war ed until now to try to inn pro re these relations. was felt that Moscow nos; des "ed to go even farther ant imrove relations with the Wes by at least restoring their o what they were before the Hungarian revolt. Mr. Khrte she ev and Premier Nikolai A But anin were believed to be des i anis to break out of the dip- !on Ale isolation in which the brutal represelon of that revolt had placed them. Thiel isolatior bad threatened to continue and evet he increased by the con- dentatory report of the United Na.t ons Commission on Hungary A mther factor in the change was believed to be the diver- gem-es :between the Soviet Union and Communist China over the therary and practice of Comma- nisn . It was thought that. MOS- COW did not, wish to be ?otitis- tanued by Peiping in the at- 'tern t to give Communism more rprarnatic form and to break out of the doctrinal strait-Jacket that had led to errors in the petit cal and economic fields. By LEONARD INGALLS y plAiNt le NM York tuns. Ingnit.M., July 4?Prime Min- flamerrempratrArramrirrinTerwi In analyzing the Soviet action in Hungary last fall, he com- mented that the Hungarians "frightened" the Russians who could "see the hostile frontier coming nearer." On the disagreement beiwean India and Pakietan over Kashmir, 'Mr. Nehru said that before it could be settled India must in sist on the withdraisell of Poking/ tarn troops from the disputed territory, He said he had dis- cussed the Kashmir problem with Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of Britain but Mr. Nehru did not report the results of the convey- goo. , "We have stood more from ; akistan than Israel or Egypt lever suffered from each other," . Ir. Nehru asserted. Turning to the aliddie East I e said his opinion was that 'Xgypt's attitude haward Israel r as been more helpful in the last aver years than that M some of ate other Arab countries." Backs Test Suspension /n reply to nuestions about adsarmainance Mr. Nehru said he did not think a feasible to tilve an agreement covering everything but that the suspen- ion of nuclear tests would not danger anybody but would Ira- lye the atrnospehre for con- s deration of other problems." The Commonwealth Prime If Inisters met for a short time today to hear a report by Alan! I ennox-Boyd, British Colonial I ecretary, WI the progres?s of I ritain's colonies, The Colonial Lecretary COSCUSSOO political, t oonamic and social matters af-, f,eting these areas. During their discussion the I little MIILIStCr.R indicated a favorable attitude toward the admission to the British Corn- r ionwealth of the Federation of ralaya gvhich will achieve its I dependence in August. riming Surprised Italy %Decal Iv The New Yak Tuna Rf ME, July 3 -Italy was not Sc, much surprised by the changes in the Soviet Union as by t eir coming So early. It was thought here it would; take Mr. Khrushchey much; long r to weather the dangerous' crist invotving test fall's t Hun-b ah7tivalt i SfitaDR615-00 etr2rifp over his rivals in the; !ruling croon. today described the political ;changes In the Soviet Union as 'a return to normality from a :long revolutionary period. ' Mr. Nehru is attending the British Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conference here. He conalnented on the Soviet Italia- Don, disarmament, India's rela- tions with Pakistan over Kash- mir and other matters at a press conference he calMd. Mr. Nehrtes remarks covered some of the ground that has been covered at the conference of Prime Ministers but his opinions were presented as his own and not, necessarily reflect- ing those of the Commonwealth leaders. The changes in the Soviet Union, he said, indicated a proc- ess that had been `going on in the Soviet Union for some years. "Every country that has gone through a major revolution gradually goes back to what might be called normality," he said. 'The surprising thing about the Soviet Union has been that it has taken a longer period to go back to relative normal- ity?' Interprets "Norniallty" By normality, he said, he meant that the Soviet Union "ls just not. living at the high pitch of revolution; no country( can live at that pitch for long."! On the question of Soviet dom- ination of Hungary, Mr. Nehru said that "in Hungary or else- where any kind of foreign domi- nation is not good and the people should have a chance to grow and develop as they choose." 6R000500130067-0 ? CPYRGHT N. jith " AplyreCr r5orilictease 2902/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-0075 Muscovites Pause in Daily Routine To Express Surprise at Ousters By MAX FRANKEL Corral to Tic Nr.e Yorlr, rirret better, espeeiallgt since ther 7. MOSCOW, Tilly 4-De Liii 0 01. I vs Lon LU CA!. shopping near the Kremlin this after m noon, indful of the .sween- mg developments within the dld for tress. They expressed surprise at the boldly headlined news that high 'and once trusted leaders stolid ;exposed as plotters against the people's interests. Many spoke trustingly, of the wisdom of the Communist party.Nearly all nursed the hope that the cause of peace and Sovint prosperity had been served. The CoinnianhSt party itself) worked for and reported the'] With which it snit: its 7.000,000 members Were ah- proving the dismissal col Vyachids- lav M. Molotov, Georgi Millen- key and Lazar M. Raganovich from the nation's ruling circle. 13et the Meng of world attention that bore down on Moscow -lei- day and the large type in Mor cow's Own newspapers belied the apparent mood of the people Of the Soviet capital Muscovites b,ought frying pans in the G. Al; department] store, pinched fresh mushrooms] in the market and swabbed the: facades of their buildings ft, dress up the city Mr a forttp The; coining youth festival, y' !hurried in pursuit of their every-, day but often overlooked choreS.1 Moscow's Summer drizzle let Ule sue through for a few hougi and a meth longer than usual chain of visitem. and tourists queued up for a look at tire bodies of Lenin and Stalin in their Red Square mansoieuna Near the tomb, a ruddy, kindly: . Man stood holding the morning Pravda and shaking his head. ? "I have been reading every word," he said. 'I am very much surprised, especially about Mole- toy. I am a worker and eOrlYe ' from an old peasant family. We have always followed Molotov's career and had thought that he ? was a, devoted student of Lenin- ist principles. "Rut, of course, he Is getting old and his vision must be fail- ing him. I hope the interns, Itional situation will get better for our children now. "You know, we have an old proverb here which says that whatever happens happens for the best. Do yo uave children C" A Student Is Interviewed A lanky, blond high school stu- dent leaning, against the Kremlin wall blushed at the curious ler- , dealer's approach. But soon he conversed easily, explaining that all his friends were talking about the news, "Now that that group is liqui- dated, things ought to get much pc,,,eLL caomg SV OI tension, said. Another man snapped: 'Thor is a policeman. Why don't you question Mam instead of me?" But most Muscovites ap preached were prepared to ox- press at least their interest in and surprise at the news. An ice cream vendor in Maneshnaya .Square did not 'think politics affected him deep- ly enough to merit discussion A woman vendor of ice dream pops at the Central Market, how- ever, thought the party's deci- sion was "very good." A near-by peasant watering his stock of flowers said he cherished his right to think the party's decision was wrong. .But he didn't say. why he thought it was wrong. A bundled-no peasant woman, fresh from the woods with soil- stained mushrooms, hat' ' heard it on the radio" "It's bery bad," she said. Pit's very bad that some of our lead- ers should have done these ;things. Molotov and Malenkov were liked and trusted by us" A potato merchant let 'his scales slip to note that these high matters did not affect his A man behind the meat coun- ter thought 'what is good for the party is good for the COun-I ay and for me," He had heard lint the demoted leaders had, node mu iigakes, he said., tilt Must think, they resisted the party after it made its deci- sions!" A dapper, tall electrical engi- neer in the Central Department Store here threw away half his leo-cream cone and cautiously franied his reply: "No, there isn't too much dis- mission of the news. You know, we don't, have the custom of discussion once things are. de- cided here. Besides what is there to discuss? These men have been exposed and disciplined." The young man hoped the news would be reported objec- tively in the West. Party tamale Meeting Within the Communist party, however, 111'er? appeared to be much to discuss and approve. Party "actives' and locals are meeting "everywhere," accord- Mg to official announcements,. They are displaying 'lift]. knit cohesion and unity of parka ranks." They ate reporting to Moscow their "hearty approval' of the exposure of the anti- party group. It was disclosed today also that newly elevated men in the party structure had gone cult to the distant corners of the Soviet Union last week-end to report. the drastic decisions and the shake-up ordered by the party's high command. The "unity" meetings were held before pubhc announcement of the demotions en Leningrad, Kiev, Alma,-Ata., Tashkent, Da- tum, Miusk, Tiflis, Rig'a, Gorki, Sverdlovsk and ninny other eines. Al. most of these meetings, local party propagandists tont N. Y. T1rnes 6ROikit0015obe-o Soviet Report in Cairo Omits She pilov, Once Lauded for Obtaining Arms Deal CPYRGHT glacial to The :ley York Tumor CAIRO, July 4 -?-- The Soviet and of Mr. Shepilov as an \ JO. m LI MOLL IWAAVS-U tkt the Egyptian press today copies of the report by Toss, the of Soviet news agency, of the latest shake-up in the Kremlin hierarchy. There was no mention, how- ever, of Dmitri T. Shepiloy is being among those involved. The omission was all the more curious in view of the fact that, Egyptian newspapers this morn- ing gave full play to other news agency reports tenni gof the ouster of Vyacheslav M. Molotov, Georgi M, Malenkov and Lazar M. Kaganovich from the Presi- dium of the Central Committee of the Soviet Commtinist party 4 LI., 1 The only explanation seemed t.o be that Mr. Shepiloy had, scored considerable success in the initial stages of the Soviet Union's drive to penetrate the Middle East through Cairo.. He received much credit for having laid the groundwork for the deal President Camel Abdel Nasser 'made for Soviet arms in the summer of 1955 when Mr. Shepi- loy as editor of 'Pravda, organ of the Moscow party, visited Cairo, iv Mr. Shepilov was roundly ap- plauded by the Nasser regime when he returned again last July ias the Soviet Foreign Minister. N. Y. Times JUL 4 195' SELF-SERVICE STORES PROMISED IN SOVIET 1 SCOW, July 3?Soviet c.on.- Il.,,,. L.j.,.,,,,oi0 rvico stores and ether retailing improvements to rut down the constant crush in almost every store. The pledge was made yester- day by D. V. Pavlov, Minister of Domestic Trade, as he re- ported a record increase in re- tail sales. Ile said the Volume of trade in the first six months of the year was 291,000,000,000 rubles, 13 per cent higher than same period last year. The of. Sal exchange rate for the ruble 25 cents. To demonstrate what he said was the tepid growth of the Soviet people's living standards, the Minister gave figures on the per capita volume of trade ad- justed to WO prices, He said on this basis the pre-war figure was 9 rubles. In 1955 it had risen 1,844 rubles. Ile estimated. t this year's figuss would he 2,1.10 rubles. The Minister reported it no's' Was possible to begin selling milk through the state trading sys- tem in an pelts of the Soviet" Union. He said this was because, collective? and state farms had produced 2,000,000 tons, more nilk in first five months of this tar than in the cerrespeeding period of 1956, an increase of 28 Per cent. In the past, peasants' aye sold their surplus milk on' th: free market. In addition to self-service stores and more home deliveries, the Minister said at least 20,000 riding machines would be in- stalled soon to sell milk, beer, sandwiches, Sausages, pastries, perfumes and other goods. ficials heard from leaders who I returned home front Moscow th new titles and responsibilb es; They spoke fervently for m new order of things. Rut there appeared to be hasty od "enthusiastic" consultations the :party ranks throughout e Soviet Union. Ordinary cite ens were obviously surprised] / the developments, CPYRGHT N. Y. Urn fl 1957 Death Terms Commuted For Two Hungarians LONDON, July 4 (Reuters) Led . sat o wo Hungarian writers, Gyula Obersovszky, and Josef Gild have been commuted by the Presidential Council of the upreme Court in Budapest, I, T. I. Hungarian news geney, reported tonight, Mr. Obersovszky will serve . life sentence and Mr. Galt fifteen years of imprisonment. Following. world-wide pre- tests, the death sentences were suspended by the Supreme Court last month for "re- examination." The supreme prosecutor then submitted .a new 'brief to the Supreme Court in favor of the two writers. Mr. Obersowszky, 30-year'- Id journalist, and Mr. Gall, 27, an ailing playwright orig- inally were sentenced In April to prison terms of three years and one year respectively for havin.g written and produced n illegal anti-Government: newspaper. The Supreme Court changed their ,sentences Tune 20 to death after it. had heard their appeals against the original prison terns. N. Y. TiatiRGHT 11.11, 4 195" 'lLGRA DE, Yugoslavia, Jiityli , t Yugoslavia. More than 4,1,000; uses have been it:ported. VIENNA, July it Iii Pt -"Sonic n Catholic I din: services annMele- ed today that 2,000 unit 5 of polio. vaccine had been sent to Ilion-, sin LH help steno a rer"or trd Mem ie. ,c Nap ovea ror rcelease zutrzroirtz-:-L?1/A-KLWO-0- CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Times CPYRGHT JUL 4 1957 &Viet Citizen Wart aware MOE IN MOSCOW ran Once again, this morning the head- lines on the front page of thiii news- paper tell of a purge in Moscow, a purge which km sent toppling men Who only a few days ago were titans on the Soviet, scene. The Meer drama of this news must amaze even the most blase observer. Molotov has fallen, he who forty years ago worked at Lenin's side in preparing the 'Bolshevik revolution. Kaganovich has fallen, he who first spotted lahrushcheies talents rim than three decades ago, When Kivu- shchev was an unknown and barely literate minor party functionary. Malenkov has fallen, he who in March, 1953, appeared to be Stalin's ' successor as Premier of the Soviet Union and head of its Communist party. Not since the Nineteen Twen- tea, when such former giants as Trotsky, Bukharin, Kamenev and Zinnviev met defeat, has there been a 'Parallel to the news Moscow an- ?Loomed yesterday. The victor, 'clearly, Is Khrusheliev. Yesterday's Moscow newspaper arti- cles, which gave the first: hint of the political lightning stroke to come, made it evident that the losers had opposed Khnishchev's policies, and by implication had op- posed K.hrushc.hey's power. The isitMe impression of Ithrushchey power is given by the new composi- tion of the Communist party Presid- ium, especially by the known politi- eat records of those who have been , promoted and these who have been demoted. Once again, as in the case of Stalin, 3 has been proved that the First Secretary of the Commu- nist party is the key figure in the Soviet Union, whose control of the party machine enables him to de- feat even his most august opponents. It would be wise, at this early point, to be cautious In assessing, the policy implications of this latest 'mud in the Soviet struggle for power. The official charges against Molotov, Kaganovich and Malenkov attempt to picture them as vile fig- ures who sought only a return to Stalinism, That they are vile we have known for long, but Khru- shehev & Co. are also vile on the same grounds and were also Stalin's close collaborators. Meanwhile it would be wise not to forget that it was Malenkov who in 193 first tiled to get higher priority for the long-suffering Soviet consumer, and it was Malenkov too who, first among Soviet leaders, recognized publicly that nuclear- war would Ming world suicide. These positions were last Stalinist. V7hat M dear beyond othate, how- aver, is the Mailing character of this purge. .Three of the highest ruler* of the Soviet Union have been dismissed by a votr, taken M secret In the Communist party Central Committee, a body composed of in- dividuals who hold no mandate from The peopte of the Soviet Union. Their dismissal arises because of policy differences involving questIona of the fint importance to every Soviet man, woman and child, yet no ordi- Of what was going on until yester- day's newspapers appeared.. The men Who have lost have had no chance to defend their positions in public; they have had no opportunity (wen to argue their case among the seven million members of the Communist party of the Swint Union, let alone among the 200,00000 people of the Stalintry. Is this spectacle of secret ;government, secret struggle and 1 secret pain anything but pure Stalinism 7 The ? essential Character of the Soviet Union has not changed_ It is still a totalitarian dictatorship in which a minute group of individuals successfully arrogate to themselves all power over the Soviet people. But a totalitarian dictatorship, we now see again, Li far from the seamless whole it tics to show publicly, Both the men who were purged yesterday and those who purged them have spoken in the past about their. "unity." Now we know there, was no unity. Some of us sometimes become discouraged at the public squabbles of a democracy and the habit of X democracy of speaking with many voices simultaneously. But as we : read the latest news from Moscow we should understand that it is pre- isely the diversity and freedom al the facade of Dna- canocracy which ire our great trength, while ) Unity in Mokow hides gigantic onflicts and, inevitady, correspond - g weaknesses. IL T. Times JUL 4 1957 U. N. CHECKS ON LEAK Sifts Report Ceylonese Gave Hungary Data to Russians - Spedg to She $ew York Time. ,CPvRIPF10N8, N. To Jut -The United Nations has cen quietly checking reports .hat a 36-year-old staff member from Ceylon supplied data te So- viet officials on the Unite Na ions, fact-finding investigation on Hungary. It was confirmed today by United Nations officials that an 'active investgationa was being nade of reports that Dhanapala Samaratekara turned over the Hungarian data to Vladimir Grusha, who wag first secretary of the Soviet delegation until he left this entuitry April 10 at the United Staten Government's re- quests Mr. Smottrasekara has dented e reporth as "fantastic ons" and explained that as a Imitedliations employe he could not discuss the matter. Bets con- tinuing in Ms post in the Depart- cut of Economic and Social Affairs. CPYRGHT Manchester Ocardlaa JUN 2 6 1957 stip T:Inn far Merry Trtadar's Government may yet s pe the immortality that an artist's de th can so easily confer on his ers. The Hungarian Minister of ce has discovered a legal objec-? to the sentence of death passed on the two young writers joszef Gall a Gyula Obers(wszky last week, and th Supreme Court, which sentenced m, is to re-examine their cases. TI e legal circumstances were in any nt unusual?the lower court would o y have imprisoned them for one three years respectively?and it in y be that the horror with which the o side world received the news of corning executions had nothing to d with their suspension. But horror certainly ' was?telt and pressed not merely by bodies like e International P.E.N., Club and ers from Mauriac te Sartre but o from loyal Coninaunists like casso and Aragon?and the ngarian authorities may well have en taken aback, by the vehemence O this reaction. They had met nothing e it after anY of the other hundred ath sentences which they them- Ives admit have been passed since e revolution. (The International ommissibn of Jurists puts the mber 'of executions in thousands.) ong the victims of the guillotine in e french Revolution it is Chattier 16 is remernbered. But there Were. id are, countless men and women ho have no eloquent advocates like . Aragon or their own works to peak for them, and it is as well to emind the Hungarian courts and vernment from time to tine that tem qi^e, rine TOPSOttell. T. Times, JUL 4 1257 CPYRg German Students Seized BgAWN. gaily 3 Un?The staGerman Security Ponce are said to have arrested ten stu- dents at the Martin Luther Uni- versity at Halle-Wittenberg oh charges of plotting against the Red regime The independent West Berlin newspaper Telegraf said today the ten were accused of "having prepared an organ- ized opposition against the state of the farmers and workers." 7/22': CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 ; 7 419 .4, 4 4 (111(' iP411,1" ',WAS. Sal. June ?fl, '57 ApPlaved For-Rele se 2002/07/22 : CIA-R P65- 756R0005001 CPYRGHT --Poles ontghtrope CPYRGHT CPYRGHT ? ear Alter on tatt GomUlko Isn't Out Of Woods Poland itself has walked an agonizing tightrope. Much of its newfound political liberty has been preserved, but only under the most exi fneMe pressures. At the same time even the ost sympathetic observers compelled to admit that .y little progress has been nade toward solving the ale - Mental economic problems that drove the Cegielski workers into the streets. The hope that Hared so brit- intly is dimming and in don. of flickering out. ? ? ? 'OR THEIR part the Soviets are recounted their influence ad initiative in a nearly in- edible fashion. The rot has been checked and confined to Poland. The Nader government, in he face of world-wide condom- nation, is functioning in Him 'BY DA.V111) N. NICHOL Doily News Foreign Sert'irrr R EWAN? One year ago this week workers of the big Gegielski locomotive plant in Poznart reached the point of thet rein In the twisted and petunia economy of ipoland P on long or was possible In liveon their earnings. Their bitten ess awl discontent boiled rivet into savage rioting that I very quichty took on potilical vertones. Outer Wait reslored by in military forces and ponce, hut only et the rest of rnugh blond. The shots Limed in Pcizil an's streets on that 'Bloch 11 Thursday" rev r r beret cdt throup,hotit Poland and the Task of the world. ? ? ? HT OCTOBER, in series (-if ? Monis/Ube upsets. the Polish! Communist party renounced Its Stalinist loaders, had elec-ted their on clinic prisoner. tladyslaw Gomulko, as sec- retary, had thrown oat 1110 Soviet field marshal who ran the army and the ministry Of defense, and generally bad et down the bars on political niseitssion. 'the eo 0 II I r y remained Communist, hut nitwit more nearly Independent of Mos. cow than it had ever been since the war. It was onset slide again to be "Polish,". The Soviets were stunted and uncertain, but when Hun- gary drank from the same heady cup end proposed to ,go even farther- in treeing titself of Communist toils. Moscow put down the uprising in the most. ruthless manner, t Roth within and without a hit sphere, the Soviet Union had suffered the most grieyOUS setback since it embarked on 4ts program et sublugatitng Central Europe: East Germany end Czecho. loyakia are committed more solidly to Moscow's leadership than some of Moscow's own people. The. prestige and appeal ref Yugoslavia's Marshal Ti among the restless millions o Eastern Europe have svancd since he was (aught over an ideological barrel by the 1.1mo garden revolution. 'Phis, tor 13/410seow, is a plus. ? ? ? GERMANY remains divided In West Germany the hand of Chancellor Adenauer may b less firm after the elections September. Europe's Common Markel to which the Soviets are op posed bitterly, seems a elision and unattainable dream whit( France wallows in the thrOnn economic and political crick ? EVEN IN Poland the So - stets are making themselves felt again. One of the best in- dications was the journey last,' week of Gomulka to Eastern t Germany. Much has been made of the communiques lba t rimed to give some ,iusili fleation to Gomulka's brand of "national communism," Far mere Important is the act that he could be compelled to undertake a mission that as politically and personally asteful. ?i 'The significance of this "sun ? ? ? render" has not been lost WHAT HAS been Inc cesiit among peoples who are (wink In the ear since Poznan' to detect power relationships. y, mart i, rs sjgonled the start. etil ? APPIPvectEnotRelease 200 LI /122 : LIA-RUPbb-UU/O6h900 rtimint poland Gemini:a is b ttling epPonene on both. silts in whet he 6-:scribes :Is a struggle an met nationalist vision and nihilistic dogma- . to" "Revision" is CotaretIlliai /anthology for the very kind. iniktpendence for 'h jib ornulka appeared lo stand a rat Bp. "Dogmatism" means a stav. h following, of Stalin's OM ? ? ? YASILINGION'S u n dcv nding, of Gormaka's diffi cut role lies behind the rt.: posais in extend economic a" I I Poland to the amount PIS million. West ttermany for simi- lar reasons h? beginning to show some interest In "nom mat:king" Its relationships with War saw . Of f litany there now are MM. Gomulka admit leery niy a limited time in n'hic o produce basic 01011. Poland's economy or to enlaced by some more ern lox regime. Over' ared Over, in speech ati writings, recurs the the hat: /here must be "no real from October." its y frequence is alarming. ? ? AS 'USUAL it is the peel. who suffer most. So :far th em to be drowning 111 miseries in floods of aleph 'ohne most:immix] liquor, according to Poli. newspapers, WaS 25-30 per cent higher In the :first three months of 195" than it was a year ago, and the trend i.e steadily up, CPYRGHT Washington Post 1)1_ igri7 Menzies Urges U. N. Action on litingary Report neuters gONT1ON, July The Lou 0011 conlererice ot pi line nien- isters from the British Corn. monweall h stales today heard argument in favor of United Nations action on Russia's sup- pression of the Hungarian re- volution last fall. Prime Minister Robert Men. ZIPS of Australia told the eon ference that the General As. senility should be convened at the earliest monment to goo. alder the recent report on the 'revolt, and not wait 'until its, regular session in September: According to the sources, Brit-t min supported this view, I ' later, military chiefs on for right of the Common-I wealth leaders Britain's new, 'defense plans based on the II. bomb deterrent. The prime. ministers of Ceylon and India followed past: custom and did not attend the secret defense briefing. Today WAS the first chance the Commonwealth traders had of learning the details of Brit- in's new defense policy which relies less on ground 'ogees and in or e .on American-sup. lied guided missiles and Brit- h possession of the R-bomb. CPYRGHT London Times JUN 2 191ii EUROPEAN MON' I [01 AID POt AND Int IN Imo 2e, eiarand econoinic Lied hnall dal nen) Ii cern the lainctem Ammitra eosin, Ics if 'a mammaInn mstat by Assembla commitekt hog In-clay is adoinctl. Hie ceitse.tien elexling with TriallOti CCI raeg countft:a nin septic:Lanni on tae asnoienced atter a tit enn.Vie teen; - lag in west Willa that time hat been 'avow...1Hk deMopmcnts " in the de- nitti, 'nett/mien Pt Poland's economy and th,n, for example, there weie now 211,000 erlYtto hLlsirLesscs In I ai min): is at the lima of ate. Ofiletillilet hiilith to power iilSl yean. I no details at lin: saa:Sled aid ot a tars Moo. 0130007 0 AmByparg9frITitaese 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 jig. 3 1957 CPYRGHT Pillage, D ZITZ"viahoolveablbeuliiit i 31, ecay in,4hdantaged by the war, bad Old tern down, Large at as German Area ,of farmland lie fallow. Pillaging Worse Than W 2; Houses Vacant; Others Dismantled; Farmlands Lie Fallow; All of Uncertainty Prevails CPYRGHT (Larry Rue, veteran Tribune foreign correspondent, obtained a visa to enter Poland to cover Me Poznan lair on the 071/aversary of the riots which rained Monty to give Poland a new meas. ? ore of freedom. Rue, familiar with rem? amazon after observing it in Russia end satellite vountrks, drove to all parts of Poland, talking to farmers, laborers, and professional men. They said they could talk freely for the first time since World War Ii, Another in the min will appear *morrow.) BY LARRY RUE ICMcage 'Mos Pros Benin' CPYRGWZNAN, Poland, July 2?It was a Sunday mnrning ... trubs-e6 me oiler river at Frankfurt. The Polish part of that German city, on the eastern bank of the river, A s now called Slublee. The Polish customs house was fairly well manned. Anho we had to fill odt many forms, the Polish officers were polite and die not object to our taking cameras into th, country. They took our word for the amount of money we carried and our declaration that we had no dutiable goods in the automobile. Even I; years after World War IL one gets the impres- sion of entering a gtiost town when crossing the Oder. any r25eAltles It was easy to belie post war destruction in Orier.Neisse territories, t Polish newspaper reports tt pillaging, dismantling, a t neglect, was far greater th the actual war damages. We had been prepared f bad reads, which visitors the Poenan fair a year had complained about, Toot earprise the road to Pozna bribe most part, was execi hnt Alm there were stretchcs el cobble stone where on t mkt break a spring, if ni ireful. There was hardly any motr- :Uric on the road despite th-' et that the international fat just taking place in Po: Large groups of peopl ire walking between the vi fetes. In the countryside mos. Rile was horse-drawn. Or ken saw the Russian-sty p tga With a wooden yoke twr She horses' heads. Bulge Out the Doors In the towns every type Mc transport?street car ses and trains?was ove c owdcd. R id e r s actual owded, ft triers actual t iged out of doors. Ball the distance from th p esent German-Polish fro t r to Poznan was Cermet./ u til the annexation of th cier-Neisse -territories. Thi e-mprised 43,953 square mile mith a pre-war German popu haton of nearly 10 millions At 1045. This annexation ha n ver been recognized by th , w stern governments. the new western Pons ft mier stretches from &me o (Stettin] on the Baltic i ? north along the Oder ancA N Sc rivers to Upper Silesia or the Czech border, includine lb rich Silesian industrial re ion. oznan [Posen', which was un 'or Prussian rule twice in recent centuries, was re. ineorporated into Poland after Weld War II. housands of foreigners In n the western countries 'at ended the international trao fair here, which is try-1 Ina to outbid the Leipzig fair as he most important east we j, trading center. Register with Agency , 'r visitors had to reels- With " Orbis," the Polish I tourist agency, where a I ec of forms, mentioning ? CPYRGHT- Waage Daily News JUL 1 1957 Polish Churches Freer, Pastor 1 NEW YORK-411')- A prom,- 'attestant clergyman I says there is "far more re- ligious freedom" at present in Poland than there is in Spain and Portugal, The Rev. Dr. Gaither P. Warrield, imprisoned by balk the Rnssians and Germans , during World Wa.r 1.I in Poland "where he was superintendent of the Methodist Church, made his comment after a recent 10- day visit to Poland. Now general secretary of Methodist overseas relief, he said he found there was "free. dom of religious worship" there, and a "ready willing- ness" on the part of Poles to freely voice opinions to stra nem s. MAT, 3k-pRGHT (Hungary Dancers Arrive Today fluildina. Loin which the Germans wets kicked out after the war, stand vacant and decaying. At some houses grass was growing thru the windows. Girls in Communion Dresses Wave In the main streets of Slubice we saw Poles in their Sunday best. Little girls were wearing their white conk znunion dresses and had flowers in their hair. As in Ilungary a year ago, children, even the smallest, waved eagerly at the passengers in the car as we passed by. In every town In the former German provinces there was the same depressing sight of abandonment. Many of the present Polish inhabitants, who were moved here from eastern Polish territory annexed by Russia with the approval.el of Prekident Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, seemed sth uncertain about theft future. ser There is no sign _of areyrolippOr,crsorktnit54 nonsApprowit/31, Wen, ft fitia been pilfered. inf, Furniture. window panes, fixtures, wood, iron gates,J.. NVORP5Mtliet or a visa and when pass- the froniier postj had tol 4 Vera Pasztor and Erno Vash- ent, Hungarian dancers' and choreographers who escaped into Austria during the revolution In Hungary last fall, will arrive today on an Air France plane and make their American debuts In the Empire State Musk Fest- ival at Ellenville, N. Y., Friday night, July 26, The Symphony of the Air and a ballet corps also will take part In dances with music by two Hungarian icomposers, Bela Bartok and Zol- tan Kodalto ? Both leading members of the I ballet of the State Opera in ,Budapest, Miss Pasztor and Mr. Vashegyi were caught by the Russians as they sisrted to cross the Austrian bordro? but escaped after bribing a it , 'Ian guard. They have since I dancing with the Zurich Om rift in Switz- erland. -- ? ? Before this in orma roe was I passed on to the police desk., the seeder was assigned a place to sMy. Because M the acute lack of hotel space we were assigned to the home of a city engineer. We were fortunate. ?For we had modern, comfortable, and , clean rooms. The engineer j and his wife welcomed us as personal guests. The night before we left for Warsaw they gave us 'a party. They served fine Polish j sausages, tomato salad Roma- toes were selling at $1.50 a pound M local stores, and Polish liquor. When we departc , thej housewife handed us a note In German. It read:, "Please convey thru your ewspaper the blist wishes nd greetings to the families eromarczyk in Chicago and Detroit, formerly of Polska Lisevol, who ?' are our rela- Ives, but whom we have not reard from Ante the war." CFA715Wg For Release 2002/07/22C:PaW465-00756RMING3001067-0 WESTERN EUROPE ft T. Times J111 5 1957 BONN HOUSE VOTES ANTI-CARTEL LAW Measure Bans Price-Fixing Jr Any Other Steps That Curb Free Competition By ARTHUR .1, OLSEN Special to The New 'Lark Tones BONN, Germany, July 4?The - lower .hflUSC or al t . n roved today anti-cartel legisla- tion designed to insure genuine competition in West German in- dustry. Approval in the upper house of Parliament is expected. The legislation provides that any agreements. made by busi- ness concerns Cr associations o business enterprises shall be in- valid if their effect is to limit or reduce free competition, A Federal cartel agency, well as individual agencies in each state, will he set up to ad- minister the law. They will be empowered to forbid such agree- ments and impose fines of up to 50.000 Deutsche marks (about $12900) against violators, Withthe permission of admin- istering authorities, however, :business concerns will be allowed to combine t.o promote exports, to rationalize production in certain industries, to establish agreed standards on items of proctiction anti to enter Into price-fixing agreements in time of an eco- nomic crisis. Bundestag approval of the legislation by a substantial majority amounted to a sweep- ing victory for Dr. Ludwig Er- hard, Minister of Economies, against a 'virtual solid front of German industr iGists. Dr. Erhard stubbornly insisted, upon and finally obtained -legis- lation that would gibe the Fed- eral Government authority to invalidate price-fixing and mar kit-sharing agreements such FIS dominated the German economy in the years before World War II. The Economics Minister, whose free-enterprise, philosophy domi- nates West German economic policy, has predicted that the new law will put an end to the Mstorie designation of Germany 'as "the classic cartel land." Mrs Specified In Measure United States economic ex- pert:; speak of the West German legislation as a desirable model for other West European coun- tries Independent observers em- phasized, however, that the West German legislation would be no more effective than the adminis- tering authority chose to make it. The power of Dr. Erhard tc make what he wishes of the anti-cartel law arises front s paragraph authorizing hint ,tc permit the formation of a carte "insofar as the resulting limita- ? tion of competition is necessary In light of overwhelming con- siderations of the overall econ- omy and the common good." 'There is no doubt in informer N. T. Times JUL 51957 r,TREATY DEBATE COOL I IN HOT, HUMID PARIS LMiteloi 0 'the Sirs NON< alms PARIS, July 4 ? About one- sixth et tile meraDers or me Na- tional Assembly were present to- day for a debate on treaties that would transforni the economies of Western Europe. It was the third day of discus. Slim of the twin treaties to cre- ate a European common matint and a nuclear poor among 'ranee, West. Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. More than thirty speakers re- tained to be heard, but no one expected any of them to throw new light on the problems raised by the treaties. The debate than far has gone tediously over old ground, revealing ideas and prej- udices long known, probably changing no Votes, . One explanation given was the heat wave that has reigned eines Sunday, with temperatures and humidity resembling Washington at its worst?Washington in the days before air conditioning, which Paris does not have. The atmosphere in the Assembly chamber, however, was not op. press we. Another reason may be that the basic principles of the two treaties have already been de- bated in the Assembly and adopted, those of the nuclear pool in July, 1956, and those of the common market in January, 1957. The Issue now is largely that of deciding whether, In negotiat- ing the treaties, the Government followed the Assembly's instruc- tions. it I. Times JUL 5 1957 IUNITY HOPES RISE IN WEST GERMANY British Doubt Foreign Policy of Soviet Will Change? Paris, Rome Cautious ..----- special (ante New tort Three. BONN, Germany, Slily 4? CPYRGHT Hopes for German reunineahon were raised here today as a in- sult of the changes in the So- viet hierarchy. Newspaper and politica/ com- mentators advanced the op- timistic thought that the aP- parent liquidation of hard-core Stalinist-influenced Soviet policy might lead to serious negotia- tion on the reunification of Ger- many in freedom.. The West German Govern- ment withheld comment pending a study of reports from Moscow and consultation with diplomats of the Western Allies. Dr. Hein- rich von Brentano, the Foreign Minister, spent the day confer- ring with his experts on Soviet affairs. It was clear that the govern- ment regarded the dismissals of the Stalinists from the Presidum of the Soviet Communist Party the most significant event within the Soviet Government since the removal and execution of Laurent' P, Perim four years ago Veteran German diplomats coun- seled close watch on the devel- opments in East Europe for clues to a realistic appraisal of the power play by Nikita S. Khrushehev, First 'Secretary of the Soviet Communist party. British Dubious of Change CPYRGHFC tam to The Sc', Yolk Term e es here Mat be. Erhart in- tends to administer the law strictly. On hits insistence, the draft legislation passed through exhaustive committee examitm- lion substentially unclienged, de- spite heavy premise -from a' powerful Industrial lobby and quarter*. Those pressures were reflected in the Bundestag vote, A few members of the normally welt disciplined Government Christian Democratic Union joined with ;Solid Socialist, Free Democratic and Refugee party Opposition in voting against the measure. There was no teller count. The new law will replace the decartelization decrees imposed by the Western Allies during the post-war occupation of West Germany. Upon assuming sov- LONDON, July 1?The British Government teeis it. unimmy hat the sweeping changes in lie Soviet leadership will bring 'any rapid changes of any rag- lificance" in Soviet foreign 'obey, In the first official pronounce- ment on the Soviet shake-up, .he Earl of Oosford, Parliamen- ary Foreign Under Secretary, :aid in. the House of Lords to- day: 'It appears that the policies aid down at the Twentieth 'arty Congress will still be !el- ected. Mr, Ehrushehev, whose personal prestige has been en- umeed by the ousting of his mrities, has been associated with II the recent main changes in oviet policy and It must, be resumed that the policies he as advocated will be continued ith oxen greater vigor and au- dhority." CPYRGHT IL I. Times JUL 4 1357 FINNISH PARTY QUITS COALITION CABINET Sot( lal to The Net awls l'i-nrs t_rtat co,ra'rer n .rkel 7,, ft, ( three Cabinet, ministers rept)); exiting the Swedish People's wilily in Finland s three-park,. 'caution Government resigned rest tlie nighI Tthree Ministers, Nil:. tfCilialliOr, Lindh andl Onisten Nordstrom, ohjested to my delay in pressing forward ' teth the Government's stabilize-, ton progi sm. The Swedish Peterles party' nen were replaced by two Agrarians and one Liberal. The 1grarlan-Liberal coalition corn- Golds the votes of only sixty- ! Ws of the diet's (Parliament's? , :00 members. Before the milk- . nil of the Swedish Purples pasty he Cabinet could count on sev- inty-nine votes in the house The new cabinet includesi 'reiptor-De. Vieno J. Suliselainen 7:) rt;. 172i t iiriane eN oba ones via,-- 'aseter--)Arvo non- plart ittai:t) I Agrarian ? it terfor-- itatras levire. Libet It, , jr/ease- Atte lakkanen (war ?itarrnaLer--hiartti Miettanen ii) g ea. rd af ..r Frruriqor A i(nnjs,tai:letx iiiroptm I. 0/a. titian rtu rat Iasi 13111 iAgrsrrorr Vew(,IN - jr1 ,11: i111 .? ri ? root) - KU,N1 A driirwin 7" i'adr dad Vire Premise- Ed) hi - Libel )-.11 Soriel At fair) rind t ;hid iLibets 1 I and Praha Malian% Liberal), I',,?,,...? t ItItgIVRGHT JUL 4 1951 British Fund for 11.7tiTrincis LONDON, dots, 3 (Reuters I - ci Britain h. told the United Nations that she via contribute :51,2689(9 toward cost of the Thijted Nations elite-i- genes' force in the Middle East, Han Noble, Minister of State or Foreign Affairs. said todsy, te explained that , it includoil 81 per cent of the first p1.0,000,000 to conic from meni- ber states and a proportion of a supplementary sum. Mr. Noble declared thst "it is certainly the Government's police that the orce should stay in the area as one as it is thought necessary!' CPYRGHT iereignty. West Germany co HE-French Comment Confused 1 to accept those decrees as?reif PARIS Jul 4?The art R Li &sena io Pte Newiork iltle9 law pending the adoption of new legislation. However, the decrees have been in effect only nomi- nally during the last five years. neat HI ilU.ueuttea tevainly only a struggle for internal power and not necessarily a more concilia- tory attitude In world affairs French experts concluded today Mel laLtUUMS, Un- used comment by both Comnot Mitt and non-Communist. French sources, these trends of specula- ion stood out: 01The "collegial" direction of the Soviet party, put to the test after the death of Stalin, was Showing signs of inefficacy. Nikita 5, Khrushehey appeared to be trying to oust men capable of opposing him alni to replace hem with appointees more amenable to his direction. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-R01365-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Times t)111. 4 1957 FRANCE'S DEBATE ON POOLS IS MILD Few Deputies Have Studied Pacts?Finance Minister Warns on Inflation Hy HAROLD CALLENDER :,epaid 0 Iln*Neur York 'finite. PARIS. July 3?Felix Gaillard, NIMOLE lit annan.t,RI toady France must attain a better eco- nomic balance and check Infla- tion to eatim the European com- mon mar I et in favorable Mr- metastatic' The dis 'Aims of the common market tr ly and its twin, that creating European nuclear pool, con i wed in the National, Assembly. Premier Maurice Bourges- ataanoury as authorized by the Cabinet to .nake the vote On the atlas a question of confidence. tent the debate so far has res vealed none of the passion that eplit the nation and nearly every party when the European De- tense Community Treaty was discussed and defeated. Approval b Egiteeted ?ere deputies have studied the Eta ee massive volumes represent- iiie the two pending treaties. There emery,' ia good chance they would be. approved by the Assembly without the fight that took place over the defense corn- enmity treaty. M a newt conference for for- eign correspondents, 1W. Gaillard heisted that France must move apldly. to redress her balance of payments because of the im- pending common market. He expected results of nen legislation within two or three months. He emphasized that new tn revenues of 450,000,000,- mM francs or ;1,200.000,000, and' economies of a similar mamma, affinied to the eighteen months' ,ht were expected to intervene' before the common market treaty l mitered into fore& Now that United States aid approximately finished France must pay her own war by in- censing her exports, saki M. Gaillard. He remarked that he hoped to increase exports by 30 to 35 per cent. He said regular exporters mend sell 15 to 20 per cent more abroad and non-exporting pro- ducers could be taught to export through a commercial organiza- tion acting for them abroad that the govemment sought to create. M. Gaillard said the main cause of the adverse trade bal- ance was internal Inflation that encouraged domestic rather than foreign nits. The cause of this inflation he found in the na-, I Donal budget deficit. M. Gaillard would give no esti- mate of the future gap be- tween exports and imports, but ?Andre Philip told the Economic Council that for the next twelve months the foreign trade deficit would be at least $500,00000. It has been suggested that the foreign bans France would need tn meet her deficit would be F700,0firt000 or more. M. ATIA"CrigAngl. Do said the reim.position of' I import. quotas was an emergency ineasure that the Government ? R. Y. Then _JUL 4 125? PREMIERS OBTAIN TRADE ASSURANCE British Back Preservation of Conetionwealth Pattern in EUropean Integration ' atir THOMAS P. RONAN 3itechn to The New York times, LONDON, July 3?British intionweann canunes urger] Br tam n today to protect their tirrests in the movement to- Ward European economic Inte- r tion, 'hey were assured by British offends at the Commonwealth Pr me Miniiiterst Conference that Britain regarded the preserva- tion of the Commonwealth trade pa tern as or viirls; neamertance. These officials stressed at the matte time that it would be a smeous economic setback for Britain, and consequently for the' rest of the Commonwealth, if she we e excluded from an economi- cal y integrated Western Europe, rettending today's two sem; Me is, in addition to Prime Min 1st r Harold Macmillan, were' Peter Thorneyeroft, Chancellor, of the Exchequer; Sir David Eceles, President of the Board of trade and the Earl of Home, Searetary for Commonwealth Reintione, Six other Prime Min- isters and the representatives of thre more were present. I he first session was devoted to titan's of the sterling area, ? Ite chief topic here was the av4lability of capital for Corn- Yo wealth development. Scone of .he countries, notably India anc Ghana, are badly in need of cap tat investment. A r. Thorneyeroft noted that Ski an had long been the 1111RjOY supplier of such capital and that her outlay for this purpose had bee r averaging about ?20000,- 000 0560,000,0001 a year. Fe questioned whether Britain cou d keep up that pace with- out jeopardizing her own finan- cial situation. le afternoon session was de- vot d to the plan of France, It West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxern- bo to set up a. common mar- ket together with their colonies, an Britain's proposal to link oth e European nations with it M free trade area. St of the Conferees stressed to ,ritain that they wanted to haw* continued access to the Eurmean market for their egetcultaral products and raw ma- tey' They reiterated their objections to any arrangement tin would Interfere with the andel privileges their products non enjoy in the British market win regard to duties and quotas. lion& would soorierad-iiiirinat would not aPply to Imposts under trade agreements. 4. Gaillard announced that wl lan ten days a decree would Mbar foreign tourists to buy ga Mine at slightly more than- on -half the new price charged? French consumers. This price is iertattpspApertfitier2R00 francs a liter or about 57 cents a anon if paid in foreign air- raga CPYRGHT London 'MIN JUN 27 1957 M. SPANK SUPPORTS GEN. NORSTAD AGGRESSIVELY MINDED SOVIET GENE:R.ALS FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT PARIS, duNft 26 tommenting at a luncheon of the Angle-American Press Association in Paris to-day on Mr. eiromy:r 'X Press conference about General orstad.s statement, M. Soaak, secreta 'general of the North Atlantic Treaty Izaniza- titan, said that at the risk of 'petition, he would emphasize that NAT 0. was a defensive organization. He was somewhat surprised at the strength of Mr. Gromykras reaction, for he, M. Speak, had got his staff to turn up recent speeches by Soviet military leaders, which showed that they were quite ready to proclaim Soviet strength in nuclear arms and make such references tis " crush- ing the United States "or " reducing to ashes the territory of any enemy whatso- ever." If Mr. Gromyko's logic led him to think that General Norstad and NATO. were never:delay minded. then he would also have to admit that the Soviet Union was too. Spoilt:mg of the development of N.A: TO. M. Speak said that they had now reached the stage of its politieel organeration, For himself, he had, on itSStum rig hisnew iob, taken the report of the " three wise men " as his persoaal cherter, with is emphasis uperit politieal consultations Wallin the affiance. However, this idea of serious political consultations between the Powers was a new oma and it ma :MOSS secular traditions. So far ft hid not been rytitttible tit do mach beeond the point of sunolaing reeriprOCat information. CONSULTING N.S.T.O. Governments. he said, should not make decisions about policy before consulting N.A.1.0.; the consultation, to be worth while, must precede the decision. which must then be made in the light of discussion within the alliance. All this was a. difficult and delicate task, hut he personally felt sure that the era of individual diplomacy WS past. An essential problem for N.A,T.O. in the weeks to come, he said, tv(iitld be that tif disarmament, Here M. Speak repeated some of the views that kw has ohm' ex- pressed before: that the only real disarmer Ment was that which was general and super- vised, and that disarmament in the nuclear and conventional fields could not he dis- sociated, for moral reasons if or none other. The horrors of an atomic war should not obliterate the memory of the horrors of the Second World War; the crinic war began with the killing of the lirst , innocent victim. lie thought that they would have to he very careful in the disa neat-Rent negotta-t tions, lest, at the end of all their efforts, the final results might be merely to have brought war nearer. 'They must look .,at the question as a whole. and not make OW- tinenons that weft: not there. It might even be neCessary to accept a ilartizil solutiOn although M. Spaak refused to exptairewhal he meant when he said (his. London Than JUN 2 7 195? ? ' NAZI LITERATURE' FOUND I BY GERMAN INWILICaPYRGHT FROM otiR OWN COgghsPoNDINI BONN, lissa 26 5001 0111 Aliens rmeuer, IflC 1011111.1 RAMP ui 4 banned organizatien known as hit Deutsche? Reichmiugend. with its 300e7k0en. has been arrested on cha ice ot sending out ttycircular letter to former mcvi he im i iteMt u re found by die police expressed Nazt*ntirnents. So far no con- riegiOn has IVO traced hetWeen the Orga- niritirm mo 11110i-01in %,ij show 750 an n POlitiCt part Waften S.S. CPYRGHT 30067-CLondon Times JUN 1 8 195/ EUROPEAN COMMON MARK IT C) TIlE, Emoit OE. lin TIMES 0756R000500; 3; CPYRGHT A p Miltett it.;atle 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R0005001 Strong Canada Bid Made By Red-Dominated Union TORONTO. June 29 (NANA) ?-111" !flounces heavy wafer jul ttornic research. They are also drengly entrenched in the Sud- union is making a strong bid i for power in the central Ontario mining 'region that is the world's biggest production center . of ,uranium ore, vital mineral Lfor 'atomic energy and atomic wea- pons. The Royal Canadian Mounted Ponce and other security agencies are keeping a worried eye on the situation in the tough, boom- ing mines of the Algoma basin, in the Elliott, Lake, Bancroft and Blind River areas. Here the Red-spotted Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union has made substantial headway in organizing the miners. The union's main Algoma victory has been to sign up sufficient work- ers to become bargaining agent for the labor force in the world's biggest uranium mine, Consoli- dated Denison, Steady Retreat Shown In general the Communists are having a bad time in Canada, where they masquerade under the name of "Labor-Progressive Party." Membership has fallen from an immediate postwac peak of 20,000 to 4,000. Leadership is I split into bitterly squabbling fats 1 tions, Funds: are low. ? ? Within the trade union move- ment, the picture shows a steady retreat of Communist influence, losing memberahlp to unions af- filiated to the 1,100000-membee Canadian labor congress. The two main strongholds of Red: labor activity in Canada today are Mine-Mill and the United Electrical Workers. Mine-Mill has 30,00 Cana- dian members. These are in important centers having to do ? with the raw stuffs of atomic energyuraniurn mines in 'On- tario and Saskatchewan., in iffie 1 t Trail British Columbia an a Stit I, Ontario, nickel mines. Red Organizers Active United Electrical have 22.000 adian members. This mem- leg hip is grouped particularly ! n the plants and shops of iadian General Electric, at ada Wire and Cable, and adian Westinghouse. %while withdrawing on most 'rot ts, the Reds have cunningly theism) the new and raw uranium airing zone of Ontario for an rift attic offensive. Red or- tan gers from Mine-Mill are in- en active among the work- Les of such important mines as oi solidated Denison, Algona, iro no. Fataday, Greyhawk oi hspan, Stanrock and Milli- 'en Lake, 'I ivy show every sign of hati- ng plenty of funds, platoons of till time organizers and skill- till prepared tactics. Their pe anons are based on head- ua ters at Sudbury. B Wing the CoMmuntsts is, he Canadian branch of the ini ed Steel Workers of America,. eon regional headquarters at ;au t Sainte Marie The tight ti sign enough men to be able to' ilalm bargaining rights to ra' up contracts for a mine's 'abet- force. Svelworkers officials allege Ma besides legitimate means of eri atsion-elncluffing reference 'heir undoubtedly 'mores- ice record of negotiating wage ficri--the Reds are using viol- mci graft and bribery. The Communists, they charge, will ay for junkets for recreationn ed Algoma, miners, taking Inen to the comparatively bright 1 gh s of Sudbury and picking p he checks for beer, women MI steakn. London' T mos JUN 1 195? Pot ITICAL UNITY IN U RON CPYRGHT ptirsimAr 6140NCM'S PAixtri jell Inesidein (thifittilf }news at ,4 hum ss iii the I wore iii Mgetengell1 here lOni.0, that " tog gratil Iteln t Ill 11111 iii I int 'pc situ1 ;II !1,,h il the janidarnernor enn, mks, 01 their', !Ind " sgat'Lll is bleb (Igy urn rentighl loud ornalaling from the 1,0110 &leo des. the CsosiLlont Lit lad) ilealoickl: " toil: era Hifi!ilse cimmium iiia.t k el are moat snma liii., lainnic sv,fl non achieve us rent hicrittly with oolitteid Pint), signoi rid he midi c-an,P the coneic,,. 'Hitch! hone, hut I iicidd not lie talhet0 ^111 Int ind with 't01.1 if I snit I felt tittut ?mullion." I he CCI Iris Is 011e of the hiie ne,h gather nigh 01 1 morLin reeent teals ht. kolic_it Svhrinnitl, hitt Ills'r Plume \IihustL'.r in I Ldu nieshdod Hi towl,ni' samsion 011fler yr thc. gillseLlietl p, whph Hal& I i g? run 5.111it, the Blinsh st,,, tk iii ltchntini, the ,?1:1111.t i ot N h. 111,J II 10.01ttt,1 dr,smsion Ala ' tiro Approved ForReleete 2002/071221101A-RD965 0 c knonettll mei an {nth, awl' ? 1).01'0,111h 01 (1 ?1c1.0111df F.iuirutpe Ali iell /6 lj Ilk, ,i1.11H11C7 ut i.e trial ''voice should take exception to Sir David Eccles's nem a rk an Cie( mall dilnilrguitn1 01 the European (Ammon Market. Ilasin,g closely followed the histola of the new treaty front its conception, and (T 001 t onVerhalitalti with my therigh COMIllerciat ;tad whet acqutint. antics. I know that however much Hiitan, tot Ca IS that she is not dividing Europe, lir dilee, neVellflthey,, leek' she is if) dancer of tiding not [hat, ? In a remarlciblv short time the French and Gentian flegtnialills of the liony have succeeded in burving the trade war hatchet and the two countries tinge illancgahl to achieve a realistic owner ten [Hole in a rather magnificent way, quite as shong as that between I f alhgt ii nd this country. I et those who la:inmate this bond consider the Saar settloment, the acceptance by the trench of' General Speidel in a position at command, the iwingut :Man Of tIll Official Franca-German ciihnral commission, mina 'Indians for road haqIiige integration now in progress, ;not to ineution the I civilian ltrtgily, which ssas &Might with strategic dangius All this has been achieved in he face of a United Kiundom Nese! Ve that seems to he on the brink of hurling nrlff down. 14.111. sullemn.cs. Can we wonder at I mope viewing with Collee:11 0111- talk ahem a Cited flosnin based no the idea of inn Atlantic ( csaitnionit 1,1 taitnecl not In ec.tcd With enthusiasm bv the Skh am! heti ty phrases lair e " a hcitile Houk .iteros, lh( Channel threglernitg the yen life 01 United Kniedoie 'there Is no doolit in my mind that liritain should go right into Eimruipuc as seventh member Of the Common Market, with the Commonwealth tullowing in V.I. ions degrees of tree ii aide relationship. Willtenn IJS rho Market win be dominated by tier' moor, which means that. even with equal defence commilmenls, (..rormena will also dominate I or this hitsic leavon the lininch have almtow iIcclitied that It in one 'leech lh 'the combination qt V-icnith thought, (ter- man power, and Ithilivb cdrinfliStiatinn is envisaged as giletrIg, Europe her host chance of avoiding another. trade halr. let IIIC Ctiteerflnlent Coincide( th ,';lesr they further alienate the ( cod Morn and plecipitate that which they it id) or stave ,id, SMias laithndh Brig'Ilt PCII- f 87, Amesbury A?eope, 5, W.. Sir,?-iOne of your reeciit correttpoindents, in a letter p uhlishd on June .4, has under- lined Sir David fieeteirs SNICITICgt That "Germany will ha:wit:11de dominate the C0111111011 Market nations Ittl1 nint- :here is some hcsittition Wore the scheme receives sinned aceepicnec, Is it opporomo thereloic to raise one tit 0.1,41 Wit:1.1(10Ft yomr conrctinondoin, 'Mr. Pant Cidoll, speaks in "Germany'v natural atIVOlinagres over the Urged Kingdom." And he goes un to sneak of ?Ur COMITIAIIICIIN in the defence of limoive which agttrayntie dkaaVaillage ill the buret' cli4iggle 104 in di,: C:.,, 010011 LII Lei Sir, is thcre another cowdOcitmon which ought to ne ',A en into the lock nu ion when WC thilCithile U11011 alir chancee, iii survival under the sithivme ' In intim:atop:: production Laws which Live pi. he covered in Selling prices, is thole zoo: ot the people's cotwerncid in the sehemii vu. a t, Viich ci hillrffen of taxation as the, United icing' dOnli 7 Ibis ic go ove, heed Chtir et: Inuit which re busiest or filineritise eaenne %laird it lie tisel itt, ediritiiini, if with the publiciting oi lire it tuirt,itL,ii Nlarkvit (lc the reel ad.: ?:!hytn,r.i Up.bli. vo,T. sided gis ins dem ly oh the national debts nen:amine to the sevend riarions alitmeade gif the cuposto rims of te an tion ohniame 7 If tn Ifint 1 egafd the Hinted Kingdom a pt'u'mti'a to signsi dne advantage tel rho 50 voznitnant a part in " ewe:dr:rot, ' are we not a Imoil tioriclevshei handicap:ivel in entering .t struggle tar rumken. is rib no MOO: hal led Venict inunubiluilts Pt PLY dA(. KS(iN. 55, S.alici " 30067-0 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 1. Tinos HN 3 U1:1;( CPYRGHT &AN HOLDS HER LEAD 4 A VAST COMMONWEALTH covering From Suez Crisis the Member Nations Take Up World Problems By THOMAS F wow to The N RGHT 'MON, June 29-- A tribute at AO tart sommonwetuto 3 last week from an unex- ed quarter?Moseow. I the eve of the opening of Commonwealth Prime MM- eV conference last Welnes- the Moscow radio described Commonwealth as "an im- ant factor In world politica" ith that aesesament most of rest of the world would e. And It would go along with Moecow's evaluation of present conference as "an I of no little importance." meow ',neutered M a Mt of fen thinking when it empha- the merlous difference that arisen among members of ";orranonwealth as a result of Britiah-French intervention Igypt and implied that these seance, were continuing. i se Suez CUM and ell its re- eines are being reviewed Boa the conferees have not t'sactsed this discussion es an emt et which blame must be -attuned. They are interested eterrommg the practical ts of the Suez crisis and in aging their pelices accord- V. his elastisity, this give and a are in large measure the lie of the Commonwealth's th. British and Coro/non- 1th etetesmen have long Inc- :zed that the widely divergent tents in thirs vast faintly of mm rule out any rigid oper- g formula. Ines Bengeonle hey also now that each of ten members of the Corn- wealth rannot be expected obscribe to ail of the policies he ?there. That the Common- sith ran function as "an im- tent factor in world politics" out universal agreement was e cleer by Prime Minister ree last week when he tched rumors that India was nosing to quit. hese rumors, encouraged by te of Mr. Nehru's public temente, Stave flourished for n, But Mr, Nehru empha- thet India did not "Intend "(save, And he was equally idiotic that this did not mean ean approval for all the acts other members of the Corn- nwea It h. be British-French interven- in Egypt brought one of the st dangerous crises the Com- nwealth has fared. India and er Commonwealth countries ;Sly disapproved a and Yin by all were resentfdl that 'e had not been kept properly nmed by the British Govern- A iftoved For Release 20 e preseiii conterence was cact eriginelty summoned to y this singer and resent-, enormenie into tion and Bei - Ares desire to become part of Mat movement have called into. onestion theaeconomic arrange- ments, that Amy. been a major fetctor in bolding the Common- wealth together. B.ritain has given preferred tariff 'treatment to Common- wealth' agricultural produce and thee goods. And they In turn haste tamed the way or the bn- pertatinn of her manufactured w T arts. mml . t it e the ggcducts Britain has insisted Lkened commonwealth links. ,, [-A agricultural produce be t time has Waged Much of exempted from the tariff and t e wrath felt Int fall. And the me ta restrictions that might be Itte ime Ministers are concerned i n lotted by the European free ISew with demonstrating rthe Smile area she has proposed. A 'Moray of the Commonwealth ' h e area would include the corn- rid with Insuring that B will ntm market being established arow in strength. . env France, West Germany, Italy, Be glum, the Netherlands and Mocembourg. During the talkie that will last A nil Friday the conferees--- en olaal Imports saven Prime Ministers and the (-stance of the other three--are e nging over virtually all the 1....ortri's problems. Appropriate*: enough they be- In with a review from Selwyn oyd, British Foreign Secretary, the proven of the United Nas bone subcommittee talks here on hiervey et the World ' he exclusion of agricultural reelects would have the effect at protecting Britain's arrange- r-tilts with the other Common- wAlth countries. But the Euro- pean nations have not yet given tiler assent. And the situation k a been vastly compjicated by Su decision of the Mx European mernamerits. They moved on te a i a eons to ghee preferred treat.. tionsiderittion of the international nit to imports from their 1 tuaticaa first in broad terms while,* rid then in relation to !specific tritain feels strongly that she went And all of this was en st participate in the economic Against a background of their in .gration of flume* or face swiesement of Soviet intentions.' in disastrous prospect of being 'Their conference agenda cov- er en out of a huge and profit-i ^s, too, a consideration of the b e market. But if she does this. feets of British defense cut* t be expense of her eqweseect4 n the Commonwealth as a rangemersts with the common- i hole and on each of the Corn-. V ith, she risks loosening the onwealth countries and a die- i I economic linke that help ssion of the Commonwealth's e p the Commonwealth to- onomic affairs,, e her. The future role of Britain as a "here 13 another trend within. mid power and as head of the Its Commonwealth that threat- ornmonwealth is largely bound cn the old economic set-up. That p with the discussions of des! Is he tendency of countries like inn and economics. And this At stralia, New Zealand and e true of the role that the Com- 51 la to build up their own man-] mnivealth will play M world fe cturing industries and to rely theirs. rise and less on imports from These conferences kre not held Sr thin. s decieion on Common- 'Malty, Britain 'always hasi beanie policy. But the views and le n looked upon as the chief iformatioIt exchanged are a -0 ree of investment capital for tajor factor in determining (User Commonwealth countries Mat policy each of the member TA the colonies. But the de- nuntriem will follow with regard ennuis are con.stantly pyramid- Commonwealth and world rii and Britain, with economic roblemt entries of her own, ta In no po- ttiest:Ione of Defense -it on to meet all of them. D n the opinion of most ?there- efense is a major interest n who follow the fortunes of t this conference because it is he first conference tieki since Within announced her decision o slash her conventional armas semis and to realign her forces. Traditionally the Common-, vealth has relied on Britain's scatteredmd bases .1 t he world, on her great fleet and, n more recent years her potent. Jr force to keep its line of ommunications open and to pro- ect its interests. Now that Britain is cutting ler army, navy and air force net planning to concentrate on mall but highly mobile units for ottani,' action, the other Corn- noziwealth countries are studysi ng the effects these changes!, 1 vii have hen even the defense problem 3 the discussion of the Commion- vessith economic situation. . mw www wawo h Commonwealth, it may, h ough the force of changing S There was a time when the notion werld circumstances, become s v-n looser than it M but it is 40 a Europe In which the various eseined to have a long and we i c ?untries traded freely among u We. l emselves would have seemed an 'hese observers feel, too, that CPYRGHT Saffinsore Sun JUN 2 9 15'57 France In Europe r reneti Nallonal Assembly is wheduled today to begin considera. Son of the European customs union Peaty. With French politics in their resent state of temporarily sus- pended confusion, it might be sup- posed that the customs treaty faces he fate visited by the Assembly on tome earlier plans leading toward uropean integration, notably! the Losuccessful scheme for a '.Euro- peaq Defense Community. The present case, however, is MI- (*went. A good part of Franh's present political uneasiness arises om the poor state of the country's &lances, particularly in a foreign t ade balance increasingly adverse. help correct this France is count- g on a loan from the European Payments Union; and it is believed t at the European Payments Union UI insist, as oat of a number of e mditions, that France accept the t eaties setting up a customs union a id establishing Euratom, the pro- cted European alomic-energy pool. Though the Assembly has frequent- shown itself unpredictable, the c lance seems good that under those ressures It will act responsibly. An additional pressure is pro- clod by what has become the clear evitability of closer co-operation a nong the nations of Europe, devel- o dog in time Into European unity, ie movement toward integration h is received many setbacks, and at troments has appeared moribund; y 1 ft revives each time stronger II an ever. It simply makes sense. It makes special sense in the eus. tuns union treaty, under which lis-ance, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luzern, beurg would progressively, over Ictizen years, abandon existing Irn- port duties and other tariff barriers. Once it comes into operation, Bra- n, Switzerland, Austria and the Seandinavian countries are expect e 1 to participate.. Inc t will be many years before tains position as the recog- it ed leader will be challenged ne has as many ties as she vith each of the others and none 1 um as yet coins/Mose to rivalling le' in world prestige. C. S. Monitor J , impossible dream. It is no longer a detain, and no longer impossible. It close to a reality. The French , National Assembly has the historic mortunity of casting the vote ateeded to make it so. UN 2 8 1957 CPYRGHT Britain; Radio telescope Heady 64:004c7Mitilleorkre They said June 26 that by natural radio emissions of st SO MAUCH MUM al p eos LUL vitorld's biggest radio telescope. picking up and focusing on the an as far away as a billion light ears the telescope will give them a tincture of events taking ace at the moment of the universes estimated birth. CFANAlgvEg For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP650707116601fl500130067-0 JUL'79? 'SENATOR BIDS [N11 SPUR RESETTLING' OFARABREFUGEES Humphrey Asks Commissionl to Study Means of Solution? ?Would Free Cairo Assets 1 By DANA ADAMS SCIEMIDT Special to The New YON! Them WASHINGTON, July 4--Sen- CPYRGHT CPYRGHT NEAR EAST, AFRICA N. Y. Times JUL 5 1q;7 1Nasser Top Aide Speeds to King Saud; Effort to Restore Alliance Is Pressed the United State ever since President Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company in July year ago, American officials maintain that the funds are be- ing kept for possible eventual compensation of the Suez Canal Company stockholders. On the subject of the Arab refugees Senator Humphrey said that according to experts he had consulted, Iraq is "desperately short of people" and could With advantage absorb the entire re- fugee population. The Senator said Iraq actually aeeded'3,000,- 000 to 5,000000 new inhabitants. Syria, too, is underpopulated, e said. In addition it is believed that as many as 200,000 persons ator Hubert at, ourapmey pro- eased today the formation of a 'United Nations good office commission to explore mean of solving the problem of the 900,000 Arab refugees who fled Ifrom what is now Israel. The Minnesota Democrat. made I his proposal in a report to the: Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee on his tour of the Middle: east during April and May. 'rho existence of this refugee problem ten years after the Arab-Israeli war is "a challenge to the conscience of humanity," he said. The "Vast majority," he be- lieved, could find homes M. the Arab states but there must also be "a commitment by Israel to accept a limited number of token repatriates? Cites Talk Will, Nasser The Senator reported that President Carnal Abdel Nasser of Egypt had indicated in an in- : terview that "both the problems of passage through the Gulf of Aqaba and the Suez Canal for' Israel ships and shipping intend- ea. for Israel could be handled : peacefully." "In the ease of the Suez Canal , he reiterated that the matter might be settled in the World Court," Ube International Court of Justice at The Hague, the Netherlands). 'His language was moderate and non-belligerent, al- though he did say that any Arab leader that tried to negotiate with Israel for a peace settle- ment would be shot.' Senator Humphrey recom- mended that. the United States try to reach the people of Egypt without condoning President Nasser's extremism by releasing frozen Egyptian assets and ap- proving an application by the Committee for American Remit- tances Everywhere (CARE) to use surplus foods to feed 3,500,- 000 to 4,000,000 Egyptians a ? Assets rut at $40,000.000 About $40.000.000 in Egyptian . assets have been kept frozen in' he settled in the Jordan I alley re the proposals made by tie Johnston. for joint develop- Lent of the river by Israel and I se Arab states were accepted ? the Arab states, Mr. Johnston the special Presidential rep- resentative on Arab-Israeli water On the Israeli side. Senator umphrey disclosed that Pre- ier David Ben-Carlon had told: lam in an interview that Israel ' voted be prepared to admit a I railed number of refugees who t elect pledge to become con - rective and productive Israeli c tizens and not embversives." urthermore, Mr, Ben -Curios s id, 'Israel has already dis- osed its willingness to compen- s ate the refugees for property 1 ft in former Palestine: the I hiked States has. offered to ad Israel the money." The Senator's proposal was in . with the thinking of a nuns- 'He of responsible United States caficials who see in the current c ara in the Middle East an op- yertunity to tackle this most e facial of Israeli-Arab issues. Direct Negotiations Pressed The tallied States in Senator' iimphrey's opinion, should use s leadership to being about di- Net negotiations between Israel nd the Arab states tor a final reace settlement. As one way of combatting emmunist penetration, he ret- dated his project for the admatioa of a Middle East Jevelopment Agency composed el Middle Eastern and contra eting states. It would operate ithin the framework of the ratted Nations to finance &wel- 1 patent plans and also to "work cut a solution to the whole 'alestine-Arab refugee prob- am." Of the Israeli Premier he 'rote t "He is a man of courage, 'sten, intelligence, and deter- siltation, and he has a sense f humor." Of President Nasser he said: On a personal basis Nasser was oth polite and ingratiating 'rem all I saw and beard I at sure that Nasser is not a Communist, I am equally sure NOWA to The New Yu: k Thum CAIRO, July 4?Egypt's Do- tense Minister flew unexpectedly to Saudi Arabia today, His mis- sion reportedly was to try to ease the grain an relations be- tween Saudi Arabia, on the one hand, and Egypt and Syria, on the other. The Egyptian official, Maj. Gen. Abdel Haklin Amer, was the only passenger in almilitary transport plant. His trip was seen as another step in the ef- forts Egypt has been making to pull together the Arab alliance behind President Gamal Abdel Naseer's policies of so-called positive neutralism. On paper, at least, General Amer is still the joint comman- der of the armed forces of three countries. The alliance also origi- nally included Jordan but was seriously split when King Saud backed the Jordanian monarch, King Hussein, in his fight against pro-Nasser elements and their Communist supporters. The Egyptian and Syrian Am- bassadors in Jidda., Saudi Ara- bia's port capital, bare had long discussions with King Saud re- cently in what was believed by Arab diplomats to be attempts to find means of regaining the one-time confidence and friend- ship of the monarch. CPYRGHT Chicago Ttbvno JUL 3 1957 World Bank Will Lend for Roads in Ethiopia PARIS, July 2 illeuters1 ? Cleavage Is n The rift between Syria and li Arabia became Mint bit. bin. after the Serlan Minister of: lot 'rise, Khaled el-Ann, last th openly denounced King au I and the leadascus press Nig n alms& I daily attacks aga net him. A though the Egyptians have se just as angry about King awl's support of King Hussein and Ills apparent leanings to- at I the United States, they law not openly attacked him. It was clear, however, that the r ins hoped Xing Saud would ma e some .ebneession toward, rnf y. Having been virtually agitated Nce the rest of the Arab world nee. use thee? neutralist policies s promoting Soviet perietra- t on into the Middle East, Egypt tint Syria now are working in osa concert to Cry to convince I in e Saud, at lease and through 1 an the other Arne states, .tiot I ea unity against Israel is more t rg nt than ether East-West so .5, typtian and Seder. military I acids all week have been in c es communication to nap r an of defense against what t tee have said is a large build- f Israeli armed forces near t e Syrian border around the Lak ? Halm area. Neutral oh- s briars here belteve there is such 'I' eat. inc bank nas Jest tm- opia 15 million dollars for ex- tension and improvement of 1 its highway system. No new 'road has been built in the ,country since before World I War II. however, that he is undully n.aive aboue the menace of COMMUN- ism, both ;agile Egypt and jal the entire. Middle Eastern areaa aNasser's obvious pan-Arab-1 Ism. could easily drive hint into! further conspiraterial entangle- ments. Be was much morel persuasive and balanced when, he discussed his plans for dove)-1 aping Egypt's domestic econ-' omy." N. Y. Timex 5pEYRGHT BRITONS OUT Of JORDAN Last Soldiers and Airmen Go From Port of Aqaba AMMAN, Jordan, SLAW I (Flu sritain pulled her remaining soldiers and airmen out of Jea- n today.' tea weeks ahead of chedule A Royal Air loam contingent oft the airstrip at the port of (Abe and the 1.700 soldiers at: he Aqaba bate began boarding e troopship Devonshire. Ironically the Devonshire wilt she them home Sunday through he Suez Canal. She will be the liist Western troopship to trait. it the canal since the Suez Isis last fall. Last March Brit- in and Jordan agreed to end no pact whereby Jordan had re- ived a $33,000,000 annual sub- tidy and Britain had the use of nilitarv bases in Jordan. 34 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDR65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 It T. Tirima 1r67 fI6 SLAIN, 40 HURT AS EGYPT VOTES 5,000,000 Ballot for Lists Hand-Picked by Nasser for New Parliament flit r\[w Orb Frisco if aU lnlv 8iott 1 'Aar:, fm' countia tire rlianter , or earithilates was Min 1;1 riet by the legime of Pre i- r.Gainal Abdo' Nasser. siratirren petsons were report di itted and forty injured aft rrio twat tribesinen began pushi ci rata another trying to vole r "ins go or Qerm in norm; ^it, 250 miles south of Cain.' Thu the only major ir. dent reported by tim rdinistry if Interior in an otherwise lanIQA- 11:r quiet election. The Wives nment. encrterdtlr t :qVrra pet ronN had been t r- est ed at nsoui a, near t Ilona 1 nwn rDamietta, for Ts tiil the electmu boruil." Washington Post JUL 5 1357 Santoro Battle Waiver, Disease CPYRGHT 5000 Iranians Killed by 'Quakes , 'Mon Caspian Sea, Majlis Is Told PYRGH TEHRAN, Iran ? :tub, 4 LW--A of devastation totaled m or aid more than 5000 Iranians vere k k 11 e d by earthquakes Tuesday In one mountain slope and coastal area along the Caspian Sea. Reports from there said sur- vivors are battling wolves, sick- 'ness, thirst and starvation. The area is 75 to 100 mile 'northeast of Tehran, across the towering Eibur ar, Mountain range, and about the same dis- tance from Soviet 'Turkmen! sten. No quake repohts bar come from Soviet sources. Iran announced official' ear tier in the day that tb known qua ke dead for th ivhola 501000iquare.mi1a are Deputy Ami settling much area. told th house of Path cauce MoSt viii of devastation Amttl and Habil or communicat ?aliment was t greater death t A Governm quickly replied ports indicat well above the nounced earlie The Geyer edged that aid yet reached tno ravaged part el Reports aa early as last Tines. day night said the qu a kes struck en a 500-mile arc from the Soviet Azerbaijan border on the northwest to south of Tehran to Soviet! Turkmen on Nuri n rctpre f the stricke II Mall!! (lowr ent) that be es in the areri wenn anen have no road ons the Gov aware of th it sprakesma that later re the toll wa 500 figure an ent ackhow teams had no t of the quake northern. Iran ? the northeast. a They said all Iranian ports I. and villages on the Caspian s were devastated awl iMpltert - the adjoining Soviet areas e doubtless were damaged sirni; Early. ' fl Amut and 'labial. the most - accessible of the mount In s slope and coastal towns, are farm and industrial centers. The area sloping down from 1- the nearly 10,000-foot heights t et the Efburz is a freakishly -, subtropical land that. produces !Lampert Ind cotton T. Times _Firearms Ban Defied 1S Tile Emiernment had stric r p ' . , i 7 ) i forbidden the carrying of lior:f "A ' PHAN PligLIAMENT arms, traditional in the inc-n ortinitive villages of However, acconhog to the 111 r - (stnv report, small arms via r brimght into play at Qcna tierce r. liedicenterl could break upt I melee. II was unofficially estima I --11 kit oar cent of the reetstoi 1e own end wont en voters east b - , in I lip 270 constituene I; there was a, contest, II- I w Tr P!): lug cart Mates. 4 T, ?Ong took place in the seventy,- five constitueneies in wh 113ral-pialcir1 candidates Wu' nttraffitically seated without ,t ;position, In Pee ether rerirlitialIC Ii th14.1 4' lvar.: no voting because I pesticide:in candidates hal bren disqualified as 'IflJl: byt 7.! ta,a`.111iln EXaal.aiVa +if flip nalVly fortrad Natter Dump, which is. to he Egyp only hody ?iudrr Pr C - dant Naraal'a ChairlIlanahip, Although the electien proitu ft holiday s t mos phere, there w a genera! firOlilig of apathy. Ea :1 f the final total of 1,160 can - ides (several dropped out at he hist minute) hail been ease- fully sirreened as reliable sr r- porporr. of the NOTTer regime a number of Communists us__ s stricken, from the lists, but t handful of their inost artlega., slinka-men were assured of sth th in the new 350-member Paul !- meta. ? Breause of all this, the el Lioncampaigns became more ,41. less mere popularity contests which (rapt+ aspirant tried in outdo the other in proclaim his faith in President NRSSe mit lona IPO, positive - neutral rt doctrines. Dor the first time ir Egy ? , menus% and members of t aroma forces could ve , it the wealthier districts cl rails). and A leisa , kart? arosPcrs of women went to 'NA! orrik An poorer districts and in ail/ages, where tradition kert_s vacuum more strictly bound hcarlAptintVedflEOF Releaa fluLr napoo,. lawns Were five women clan 1 - dis PS for P2 rliament? Pro r !Haan Fannin?: In Cairo, Most 4 f, k he men one talked to tri Ie; CPYRGHT it. All sixteen rnembet of Nas- Cabinet and fifty-two other: illwarts of the regime were dc area elected without an election ter their would-be opponents had en scratched. Why did Nasser enact this farce ? lie all Fascist or Communist Mo- tors, the Egyptian dictator feels rapelkd to pay tip servicc to de- locfacY4 though only to cloak his !Autry with its trappings. His etato follows the Miller pro- Egypt1)13st! . rosnir IUILV tary to a Nazi-tyre dictatorship : ander the same manageinent when President Nasser supplemented his tithing plata wilh a band-picked sham Parliament otheion in A. na- tional election that was a mockery of the democratic process, Like the national plebiscite, of last year, by Merlins of whirl] Nasser Pier:Led hint Self President: rigainst no opponent and with 09.9 per cent of the tot, vote, this first parliamentary doe- tion after the overthrow or King Farouk is also hailed in official liropaganda a he freest and clean- est election in Egyptian history, :which does indeed reek of fraud and corruption, Ent just haw free and clean the election was Cal be judged. thoni the conditions under which it was held: 1. Thet e was only one party in the field, Nassers own "National I Union." All other patties have been [ suppressed, 2. All potential opponents were barrivi from running. as 'enemies of the stale" and only those were prtp it t,o witue eandidateS %OM could "prove" that they supported Nasser and his 3. Despite this, half ot the mit*: na! 2,500 emendates were thrown out by is. M1Saer 'screening commit- tee as doubtful, leaving it tal the voters to choose between those who shouted more or less loudly in favor of Nasser. street e and pelting places dirt Pon give them much of a chance of winning the required absolute. majority. The ballots bore distinctive; !signs next to the names cf thel candidates, such as a camel, al wateh, a palm, or a tree. ThiE was to help the large number of! 2 0:2107122qt1A-RDP664075 their 011oire., Voters took their ballots into crudely improvised booths and marked them in what appeared to be carefully guarded serrerr T. TI..ta titt,,YSIC frit Only la..,paf.1, 10 :t Sat servient'Perlimmatt bet also in sprat to general oolories, includim 41 t;lt'1S1rIormadowil in Ms imibitice fortpaltit rab ianpirli. his disrega trerittr obligations, ma c,Npula0] tif foreigners and seizure of the properties, even in bia compact laiN Moscow. One oar( ()lily hap" lb; Waa.C.111 attengils to '`do busines: with bini xviII not hear results Iil those Mt the case of Ili tier, JUL 5 1957 JEWS REASSURED IN NORTH AMIGA ----- Tunisia and Morocco Grant Freedom of Emigration, U. S. Group Is Told k' ?THOMAS V. BRADY Atm! tr/ The New York tivoc,. ItABAT, Morocco, :Tidy 4- ego ish Committee has received as StirtillceS here and in. Talliaia that the principle of freedom of move- ment-iswhich !swans individual enng,ration-anill be maintained in the two newly independent Countries of North Africa. The throe - man delegation headed by Irving 1ff, Engel of New York, president or the American ?Jewish Coin t11 ttee. loft Casablanca today for Paris en route to the United States, The trip has Included visits to France, Italy and Israel as wen as Tu- nisra arid Monocrat Martin Ciane, a Los Angeles lawyer, and Alien M. Stroock 0 Nev York, chairman of th with kr. Engel. Their ciadan [ra- tion IS known its non-Zionist in its r.upathlirs. CPYRGHT Thn members of file dc legal ion satci fiebila 114iu3'imitia, Tunisian rainier?, had afrilited them in a flifloyrniiliute ml (review that, his country NIS determineilto dein- that ihsvs could live in harmony with the rest of the people in tit overWhelmingly Moslem hind, But he added, according to the delegoliort, the "citizens of Tu- nisia must he first and above all AP hough Mr. TErntrralilla 11 14101N n. hI K yultrIrtion het there must he no discrim- on against TAIllth-.1an hi Government has in/baited t sympathy for 'Zionist ata ro it propaganda in To- Ohio the national, Ownie- " and in aceordance" w Rh the I 1 or independent Tuna,. religious ClaltUral and aI arrtii,orlons wHi eer- y be able lo ran 1,7 Oil their act vities, Mr. P.ouroudia told tile arsi station. 'Ile added that arlaritH ing tin., lemilly-rocognized Jewl ish community orginiration to isia's new goVernment strue- u would present no serious c, 1.14 Ti hloni, provided Memtership in I ountinity was limited to: iHin citizens. This question. bee '.0 u or the long-stand. -oast's:Mend recognition of; S ewash rartnninity within ititisian state, CPYRGHT CPYRGHT tprovg (r Release 202/07122 :falik.RDP65-00756RoWeftitinene JUL 3195? J'iL 5 1957 IIIAL OF MOSLEM Denies Britain Receives - Eiyatian Peace Proffer Bomb Blast DainayearA LONDON, July 2 [Reuters lina LULLIWCU AO a U.S. Consulate in Algiers CPYRGHT AROUSES_ ALGIERS onviction of Tribal Chieftan Will Bar Rebel Contacts, French Sources Say Sy HOMER BISABT seethe to The Nat tort Tima. ALGIERS, Algeria, July 4 preach from Egypt for re- sumption of diplomatic re- lations, a foreign office spokes- man said today in reply to questions at his daily press conference about a television interview last night In which typtian President Nasser s Id he wanted to return to rmal relations with Britain pia es- aaai L1J int/tete between Frenchmen an re Algerian nationalist move .ent had become virtually un- ',risible as a result of the con- etion last night of one cif the vat distinguished Moglems in U1.. 5 195? Igen. The trial of the Moslem, Bei- yria Links Spies to Britain Raga Abdel ?Katy flo?tateb, a DAMASCUS, Syria, July 4 tenter delegate to the Algerian atonal Assembly, had at' y that they had unerliiitered acted wide attention here. The a py ring allegedly working for achaga (tribal chief) was ac- t e British Embassy In Beirut, wed of having associated with anon. A spokesman mid !astern rebel leaders and of t, rec members of the ring had wing hidden bombs in his b n arrested and would have a ruse, itary trial. He identified Last February, acting on in- em as a Lebanese formerly emation from a Moslem, th played at the British EM- rench found eight bombs eon y, a Syrian lawyer and a ailed in a walled-up corner house. Says Ile Aided French IL Y. Times CPYRGHT The Bachaga denied having we knowledge of the bombs Lying he was frequently away( can home. As for rebel con- eta, the Bachaga contended he ad been entrusted by high tench officials on the staff ofj obert Lacoste, French Minister` r Algeria, to communicate with le rebels and discuss cease-fire I erns. Though widely regarded as a, arm friend of France, the' achaga was sentenced to ten !ars' imprisqnment. He is aj iseendent of the Emir Abdell mkt, who led native resistance; tainst the French from 18301 1841. French source, including a' ornan Catholic ptiest, said con- Jets with Moslems had become ghly dangerous as arty as last; misery when weurity 'forces! wan arresting Frenchmen on iarges of associating with !beta. Among those arrested ere two priests who later were pleased after a protest from teir Archbishop. Some of the prisoners admit- itt they had given refuge to toslems who were being hunted y paratroopers of Gen. Jean .aseu. They said they had done ifs to save the Moslems from inures General Massu is security chief Algiers area, and all local po- :e are subordinate to him. French Horne, Searched The paratroopers searched !vend French homes looking sci as a result of this harass- .ent many Frenchmen who sup- )rt the Moslem independence .overnent fled to France. No visitor can stay very long Algiers without hearing about te "house of torture." This is re Villa Sestsini, large white .uceo building: that in pre-war Lys housed the German eon- 'late. It is on a hillside above se port and is surrounded by irielous gardens. The grounds are enclosed by ails topped by barbed wire and hart customs guard. FIDAV5akiLly 4 --r bomb Feeling exprixteu Irma) in Inn States Consulate in Al The blast caused no ties. It occurred in floor hail of the Consula lag on Rue Michelet p. m. (2:55 p. ne, EDT There was immediate latinn that the bomb h 'planted by extremists the French papule Algiers. e entrance is guar-deny pata-f C opera with tommyg,uns. A few days ago at a rendez- us in downtown Algiers, this respondent met a Frenchman o said he had spent several ys as a prisoner in the villa. "I was among twelve or thin. Frenchmen taken to this ace and systematically tar- red," he said, continuing: "We were arrested during the bruary -March round - up. At Da Sesini we were put in small rk cells with neither windows artificial light and nothing it Mats on the floor. 'They wanted me to inform a Moslem friend. They took e to a pavilion on the grounds here they trussed me tying y hands and feet together be- nd my back. 'In this position I Was hoisted a pulley and tarried out or pool of water. I was dipped in e pool and kept submerged un- I I was nearly drowned. This called the bathtub treatment." Allege* Electric Burning He said he was later sub- ted to electric shocks. Cur- ents were shot into his body mm a portable dynamo, he al- ged. He said he had received uperficial burns. The man also said he had been itten by a German shepherd og set upon him by the guards. He said that after eight days Villa Sesini he was taken o a paratroop camp outside Al- era and held there until the arks of torture had disap- ared. Then he was released. The Frenchman said that while e was at the paratroop camp a mmittee arrived from Paris to nvestigate accounts of torture hat had appeared in the Paris ss. All the paraphernalia of orture was removed from the ills. Sesini during their visit., e said. A Government spokee- n announced tonight that an nternational Red Cross team just completed a fifteaday ur of forty-eight prisons' and' oncentmtion camps in Algeria! ad would report its findings to' Approved For Release S. T. Times JUL 4 1957 United United States has run high in some es !French circles here since Sen. 1?' .1 John F. Keneetty's (D-Mees Mail speech urging independence' for third-: this rebellion-wracked territory. build-' First reports said the expel- 7:55" %ion caused insignificant dam- age. The bomb bad been Flitted in specte been front of the third flier offices among of the Consulate, Which was Ion Of closed for the U. S. national I holiday. CPYRGHT EISENHOWER WARY ON ALGERIA POLICY U. S. Is Trying to Be Fair and Decent, He Asserts? Paris Reaction Sharp PYRGRY---- WASHINGTON, July 3 n ejection. The rejecticra was coupled with nsistence that the French first again Algeria's right To in- lependenceand hue hc-varit of Nes Meal Liberation as the provi ional Algerian Goverunsere, 'enator Morton continued. "It ie.:evident that no Frence overnfnent could survive if it eceated such terms," the Sena '- r asses red. Most Arab diplomats in Wash c neten who could 'oe reacted! eicomed Senator Kennedy a gestion enthusiastically. Asa ed AhniRci Zabareit, charge "Mires of Yemen, raid it Wit beautiful speech by an ruel mar." e French Embassy trim, 1 speech "an intateelaaffair! rz the Senator and the ited States Gooterestent " 'We are rather touchy on ea- ts of competence." & seek:a- n added, "and bellows that we ye full competence in Algeria?' ( The suggestion or senator Jorm F. Kennedy, Democrat of Massa- chusetts, that the United States press France to grant indepent enee to Algeria aroused no en- thusiasm in President EisenhoWer today. Some Members of Con- gress strongly disagreed swab Senator Kennedy. The President said thearniter States was trying to he decent and fair to both sides--the Frencn and the Algerians ?and often' worked behind the scenes in such r controversies. President Eisenhower noted( that Secretary of State Dalks had said about Use same thing at his news conference yesterday. The President said that there as nothing More complicated than the Algerian question and that the United !Rates, in play- ing the rote of a peacemaker, should notebegin to shout about such thinks or there will be no effectiveness." (Miler Assails Proposal RepWseatative Emanuel Geller, Demograt of Brooklyn, who ij chair/'man of the House Judiciary !Committee, also took Issue with ISenator Kennedy. He said in a statement that the proposal "at this time is as immature as it ie unfair." t Senator Threston B. Morton, ?'Republican of J Kentucky, said American pressure for Algerian independence would "jeopardize the prospects" for a "liberal solution" by the French them- selves, Senator Morton, a former As- sistant Secretary of State, said in a Senate speech that Algeria's Front of National Liberation, the leading rebel organization, so far had rejected a "no- strings-attached" French offer Of a cease-fire to be followed fro Path h YRGHT By ItenaltST Ulinfrf spresig to it, New 'N ARTS July 3?era b ilfinister suggested Senator Kennedy Vta,, cii- aging Algerian rebels In ong their bloody rebellitai. I don't know whether Mr, nnedy has nights without httnares." said the minister, tire Moiler What I know well," he con- ued, "is that this will result a great increase of innocent Wes and the prolongation of razna that would have been g ended if so many of our hinking friends had weighed ir words or their acts. It is blood of others that pays I their errors." A published stater! nt by ques Sonstelle, fen Croy- or General oi edged e said: "The initiative of Senator nedy, if it Were followed by, rge part of the Congresa and the United States Govern- nt, would produce as an in- itable consequence a rupture tween France and the Unit- States--an extremely deep eak." This was about as far as any- e here went. Most other of- leis and a majority of editorial mentators said Senator Ren- y's motivation was political d noted that Mr. Dulles hail o aptly restated the United ates official policy of monist- vention in Algeria. CPYRGHT Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Wash. Evaing Star . MIDDLE EAST REPORT JUN 3 0.1957 CPYRGHT American Prestige Grows in Arab Countries By H. B. SHARABI In these recent developments the BEIRUT, Lebanon.?Since the so-called "street" (or the politicalla aiii?leriiikamelewpasattatatgasses of the population) lent fall there hag been a steady did not is against the new align- trend in the Arab countries toward R subtle realignment, with regard to the East-West conflict An important factor underlying this tendency is the fact that the choice now is no longer between the "West." RS represented by Britain, France and the United States an the one hand, and the "East" as tepresented tay Communist Russia and her European satellites on the either. but clearly mid simply be- tween the United States and the Soviet Union. The direct commitnts of America and the USSR in the Middle East have created a new atmosphere in which it has be- come increasingly difficult if not impassible for any Arab govern- ment or political group to avoid taking a clear atand in the cold war. Commitments Made -Positive neutrality" in or Arab world today no longer means what Egypt and Smite would like it to mean Each nation is committed one way or another to one or the other M the two world tamps During the writer's visit to this area three years ago, the situation Was funda.mentally different. In- ternational communism was not even viewed as an important factor in determining Arab attitudea iwith the possible exception of Iraqi, and ment, d ispite bitter Egyptian op- position Intellectual and profes- sional !bides backing Egyptian President NEISSOCS policies in the Arab word seem now to have seri- ous doubts regarding the genuine- miss of Egypt's Arab nationalism and he intentions in the Arab world. Then doubts are primarily caused y the clumsy, heavy-handed ac - tanks of Egyptian diplomats in the va ious Arab countries. For extampli , the details of the Egyptian Militatid Attaches activities in Jordan published in Amman and given v ide coaerage in the Arabic press, c eatcd a wave of resentment which vas plainly evident in the recent .cbanese election. The bold, outspokenly prO- Wester i stand of the present regime, hi Lebanon, backed by the electire victory, is based on the followi ig three points, which sum up tin spreading conviction that American interest in the Middle , East o !era the best hope forrefibyReckpfrbir 0,iisport protium. of modem Middle East lijitory at Gat town" ;int naii oc ohOlt Contemporary Middle East"' Re u an * three-menth tour of the Middle East. progress- And- Itidependenet- ? The United States Of America is no longer partial to the claims of Zionism and M terms of the Eisen- howett doctrine constitutes the best' gUarantee against Israeli aggression. iThe sending of the 6th Fleet during the Jordan crisis is cited as proof of America's determination to pre- vent Israel from expanding at the expense of her neighboring Arab countries,i ? The United States is not an imperialistic power, and has no designs to dominate any Arab coun- try; the is rather the Arab beneath against the return of French. or British irnperalism to the area, and Is the only guarantee against Com- munist subversion Or attack, ? The United States is the only nation in the world both willing- and able tiYaid hirge-seale economic development in the Arab cisuntims: she is ready, under the Eisenhower doctrine, to suPPla the Arab coun- tries with vast financial and tech- nical assistance without imPtiaging on the independence or sovereignty cf these minute& _ the West Mottled sitnply the im- perialist powers of Britain and France and "pre-Zionist" America. The change brought about by the mutual stand rif RusSia and the. United States during the Suez in- vasion has acted upon the two most sensitive problems of Arab concern, namely, Israeli expansion- ism and direct or indirect Anglo- French imperialism, In Arab eyes both Russia and America stood in October-Noirembem 1956, for the cause of truth and justice in the Middle East. But present develop- ments seem, to show that of the two stands the American is by fat the more radical in its effect, for despite the fact that the Soviet Union has scored significant politi- cal and psychological gains in Syria :Ind Egypt., the new Eisenhower policy has been a curbing influence on anti-Arnerican, anti-Western feeling. A new air of growmp, confidence is evident, especially in Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Lebanon. A v militant spirit has resulted in concrete steps to stem pro- Communist movements and at the same time move into closer co- operation with the United States? in act which only a few months ago would have created wide- spread disturbances and caused the immediate collapse of governments. This change is perhaps best demonstrated by the new rap- prochement between the three Arab monarchies of Saudi Arabia. Iraq and Jordan, King Saud's sisit to Jordan last 7 eek has sealed the new Riyadh-Baghdad- Amman triangle, thus creating a itew Arab pro-Western. anti-Com- muntst alliance riabich mast-ssen..- APPES)v%016fig rS1i71#031# -a4/P7/22 Libya and possibly lamisia and Morocco, Manchester Guardian JUN 2 5 1857 INFLATION IN MIDDLE EAST Trade diverted to Eastern EurwRGHT By our Financial Staff e crisis over Suez 1at autumn ha caused some inflation . in the Middie East and has led the countcies ? in the area to divert some of their In e from Western to Eastern according to a survey of cc nomte developments in the Nliddie 'a a that has been compiled by the Tfl ited Nations in New York. Thew the more general economic CO' Isequences. 'he direct impact of the lighting in Cc ober and November, 1956, was s mrtlived and quickly diffused?' Di ect material losses from the fighting fel wholly en Egypt, except for the lea ;es of the Israeli farces in Sinai. It parneulany in the field of transpo t. and Included airporta, aircraft, to as. military vehicles, railways, and ln (Mating equipment used in operating ft Suez Canal, Indirect losses to Kadin resulting from the military opera- tic Is were also "unite substantial." lacas of incense from canal services was at an annual rate of PELL millions. I Joss of secondary intome was also su istantial. After the withdrawal of r tish. and French troops the Egyptian Gavernment started a construction and Othslic weeks programme in Fort Said wri lob relieved unemployment. losses Tr rael also suffered economic losses ft m the preparation of the campaign purchases of arms, from the slow- d 11 in production due to rnolothation, ti emillor the eakiggn itself, the 1c4ffa'FabtOQZ.5 fa I in receipts from tourists. These AOAQQ.1130116 rrroirrin, re anut g prices to rise. The report sununarises the ways in which Egypt was able to continue financing foreign trade after the sterling balances hat been frozen by the :British Government. Credits alee:ad built up on bilateral a/mounts wttii East European countries werc drawn down ; by India. Indonesia. end Japan, these countries accepting Egyptian pounds or deferred payment for their exports to Egypt ; arm Mr People's Republic of China evened a cre.dit M40 million Swiss 'Pianos (trict millions) to he]o Egypt inty fry import s from all sources. In addition. Egypt drew 515 millions from the laterial- thrift' Monetary Fund and obtainer a credit of 515 millions from Sauer Arabia. In these ways Egypt. minim Lir to MallnthIll and even I it Cdtt holdings of gold a rffi do tars jr Me last quarter rif 1956 Drop in toil out pu I ' Except for oil, the to:unity:les of die Middle Emit .lo not make much use of the Suez Canal for their own trade,. The consequences of xis closure were feL most by nime distant countries and by the off produeerk Oil production lei very sharply, the worst Mt being Iraq, owing sm the destruction of the pipe- lines. The least affeeted was Persia which Sig: t On to the refinery al Elabreitt to replace supplies from Saudi Arabia., But although ell protuotion n!ll sharply, the oil producing countries were not MU th infected neenomically because they ware able to draw on accumulated reserves. DeTeopn1etLt programmes were maintained, The pgation has appeared in Egypt, farina., the Lebanon, and Syria white last forebign exchange resources ,of Saudi etrin h been strained. cithyRrytil For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Washington Post JUL 5 1957 FAR EAST Red Chinese Minister Admits Role in 'Plot' fra60:15p?='. I merits or Ruffin. its I In criticizing the Soviet ENING July 4?Co Union, I have made wrong real- Mamie, such as saying that alms MmisLer tnang nem n It lough she possessed heavy in- said in a confession publish' d lathy, she was lacking in an. today thathe and another nit"- c ent culture." Communiat Minister had Pa. lilltudent In London voted "Anglo-American dorm Chang admitted that he had raey" for Communist Chin; 'f irmed an alliance with an- Chang also said that "the e o her democratic leader, to heads might have been occurrent. I Lung-chi, who the Tim- Tear Industry Ministry. This al- A Hungarian affairs" early isatt, I anee, he said, was made "only month as a result of tensirn f r the sake of our individual among some university st ambitions" and was in f vor of Anglo-American de- dents and other people in the n ocracy. Peking area. So far, Lo has not replied to (Existence of an anti-Com- c iticisma of his attacks on rounist group of intellectua itiimurtism. Ile knows the in China was mentioned tort"! Vest well, having studied at e London School of In. in a speech to the Nation I; intnie s. People's Congress?Red Ch ? In 1927, studying under the na's Parliament--aceording h irte Socialist Prof. Harold Las. the Communist New Chi k he prepared a thesis nn News Agency. ISitish parliamentary govern. (The agency report, mar resent. Ile submitted this for a tared In Hongkong, quoted d gree at Columbia University, President Li Ta of Wuhan Un ? New Ynrk. versity as saying there was -a : Chang said he had been ale plan to organize a party of se - It (Med to know that early in eral million intellectuals t J ne there had been tion hi struggle for leadership of flu seine universities in the Peking nation.) it ea and that some dissatisfac. 'Serious Sin am had arisen on the part of , bah students and .people and Changs confession was fte-' there might have been occurtured today on the front pagn mimes of Hungarian affairs" If of the Oficial Communist Pi- these two groupk had Joined king People's Daily and othe farces. Peking newspapers. He ma"' : Chang denied' he had Issued it at a 'fleeting yesterday of th a v sort of order or instruction ruin Communist Democrati i welch m I g ht have started Party of which he is chairmar fl figs moving when be knew It was the first confession h the situation sizes tense. He a "rightists" Minister of a M ded; 'Itj were ever found tacks on the Communist paraa tt have thine so I should be Chang admitted he had stcom w Ring firundergo greater pun- mitted a serious sin in politics. II iment.".' He added. 'I admit that Observers here believe there am an ambitious man amont is no immediate likelihood of a bourgeois right-wingers. Sine rn rge. ,'Individual Communists the 20th Soviet Communis ate adsmant that no such thing Party Congress On February la intended. It le tilt/light that; 1956, when Stalinist method: if rinblists make a acceptable] were first attacked), I have de ; emfessions, they will be for- nied the revolutionary streng9 fglren. 1 of the Soviet Union and tht N. Y. Times JUL ,5 1957 TAIWAN AIDE WARNS cpf MyESTRATEGY CPYRGHT Ne TisNg OUL 4 19'17 REDS LINK DULLES, CHINA'S RIGHTISTS Peiping Paper Calls His Views on Eventual Freedom 'Fantastic Nonsense' By TILLMAN INTIUMN sordid to The New York tbee HONG KONG, July 3--sec a wo State Duthie was linked M Peiping yesterday with "righte ist" elements in mainland China' who recently have criticized the HAMILTONN. July 4 Communist, party and regime. the Peoples' Daily, a leading!. Communist party organ, said Mr Dulles hoped that these ele- nfl te' "WOUld work in cooreitnaH [kw with the United SliarS to: ove throw China's peoples' dein- am tic dictatorship and rebuild Air irican colonial rule." 3 le newspaper bracketed Mr. k WO ?Nationalist China s Ambassaa &no the United States ealti to- day the Soviet Union was using "nuelear diplomacy" to keep non-Comnuinist nations neutral in the cold war." The Ambassador. Hollington Tong, declared at the ninth annual Foreign Policy Confer- ence at Colgate University that this diplomatic offensive' also had caused some forces "to seek to push America into the camp of appeasement." "I have in mind," la mid, at least one Senator who has pub- licly urged negotiations with Red China, looking toward even- tual recognition by the United States." He did not name the Senator. Mr. Tong asserted that "fears of a nuclear war are being suc- cessfully exploited by Russia and are attracting more and more non-Communist nations in the East and West to the band- wago not neutralism and ap- peasement." Approximately 1400 delegates from forty countries are attend- ing the five-day conference, which ends tomorrow. , it IP not CPYRGHT4 CPYRGHT JUL 5 1957 - r -- JUL 9 5 Tokyo War Criminals Freed is _ 5 1;7 seism, to Th N.. Vork Tata TOKYO, July 4--The last five ta um sit daNnese war crunc- nals convicted by Australia were released today from Savona Prison. This reduced the number of war crimineds still held to sixty-three, all of thetas convict- ed by the United States. It is reported here that Washington has agreed to surrender "cus- tody' of these prismiers to Japan, but there has been no sPecittriptsovottti Red Guns Down Taiwan Plane TAIPET, TAWS.% July 4 UM? ,assuicaic gAnnttill OAAL4. aircraft gunners shot down a Nationalist F44 Thunderjet fighter early today, National Air !Force headquarters announced. A communique said the fighter Ltin Was one of a small group on rou- e patrol over the Taiwan irormosal Strait; It was hit While flying near the Nationalist fortiNeleat 811D6/122A.tiarrtgrOS 0 756R000500130067-0 IL T. Thins JUL 5 1957 CHOU COURTS JAPANESE1 Reported Urging Tokyo Act as Intermediary With U. S. C pligpiniellillievr Yeek Tim. TOketaily 4?Chou En-Igi aa .coaawo alnlay e.U. Laeo ,o1J group of visiting Japanese F Japan could act as an inter- lechery to bring the United States and Communist China loser together and avert war. The Chinese Communist Pre- mier was said to have described Japan's role as a "bridge of peace across the Pacific." Mr. Chou's remarks were quoted in dispatches to Japanese newspa- pers. At the same time however, Mr. Chou charged time? United States with fostering plans for war against Red china. Re said Washington would attempt to drag Japan Into war on its side. The antidote is for Japan to recognize Red China and then to sign a nonaggression pact with It. Dul es and the "rightists" in ail editerial answering the Seca ,- tar of State's speech in San Francisco last week. Mr. Dulles defended the continued rawer. ogn fon of the Peiping Govern. men by the United States and said that Communism's rule was stri t conformity hi China was 'a assing and not a perpetual Pha It?iit. Dulles told a news con- fennce in Washington yester- da that he believed in and working for the eventual pez-ceful liberation of the Se let and Chihese peoples. He said he was confident that the trend toward freedom in the Communist world was a base truthl -Acheson Theory Recalled Calling Mr Dulles' views a "fantastic dream," the Peiping' newspaper said his references to individualists in China indicated he was reviving the theory of his predecessor, Dean /Wiesen, that so-called "democratic in- dividualists" could be relied upon to overthrow communism in China. The newspaper belittled the in- fluence of critics within China of the Communist system. It aid that the rightists among the hinese bourgeoisie and intent- ,pntsia renewable "poor lash ashed ashore by the tide of racialism in China" and de- : Dime! Me Dunes as also "a helpless fish wriggling in a dry Lama" The critics referred to by the People's ,Daily are Racks% of n inor parties who are members o the Peiping regime as sub- ordinate associates of the Con- n unists. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT CPYRGHT Washington Post 5 1957 Cuban Troops Moving for Showdown IfiliVAN A, July 4 NNS'a eneeremeet 11r tL Caen province of Oriente a pp peered today to be preparing rnr a showdown with the rebel iorcp c F girl Castro. Uneffilhal reperts from San- I lag? de tuba and Mtunanille, largest cities in t he rugged I Sentheastprn province, told of , troop, tank and plane move-I ments. Police Mathew and Other ilcwettunent, buildings were paid tie he sandbagged, Pearling I n report t Castro may be pl a ening In lmaneh an off en, sisie of his own, II fan sermeh for rebele was enneern riled in an area where Delve seeped arms and 15 men in a raid inel Sunday on a farm nen h cif rasa tef s bead. mercers le the Stern Maestri tome amps, Asses ire ed Press repet ter!, In Snyanut i ta (trier' prey int?, police seized 15 bombs int a new holism Oriente is the ;mauler et opposition In the regime of President Fulgermin Batista, ne Cuban was wounded in Guanl enema when s bomb explociertl A repari front Palma Sod- nn, near Santiago de (Atha, ireopa had clashed with Spil young reembers of a rehell organieation and had arrested the Mayor a the town who, ris a mem bee nf the group. ' ripens said 01 patirtitt:t; ltr c,in he moved have been raenaled tram hospitals in l'alina Soriano and Santiago, WESTERN HEMISPHERE Washington Post JUL 5 195/ ?Peronists Tear Down U. S. Hag cPYRONT lisneisin AIRES, July 4 CPYRGHT N. Y. Times 4 1957 CUBA BOMBINGS GO ON Cache of Dynamite Is Seized ?Radio Program Banned rr Err The. New lork TLmr?), HAVANA, July 3-- Scatterer/ IMjII 01 o01) CIL If II r. 1/1 .re Ming Per onist slogans aped down a ?Ce tilted Slates lag last night. Police scattered r inob wile clubs and I ear, S and restored the flag toI steal on a loyal branch of. New V lark bank. Sevend. tpersons were arroSt. The demsitts; ra toes ' were it or a crowd at Et rally field: f011esrers of leftist preste ilia! ea ed d Me A rturn Bram: g, who is bidding openly foe le from the follneirrs of d &cite or Juan Peron. he rally, Prandial's nouthpiece, Raul Demonic Tap Hie a Racked P' imperialism" the pro-American re:gine, at previsional President Pedro krambuit. N. Y. Times JUL 4 1.957 NEW TARIFF RISE STIRS COSTA RICA Pigueres' Decree Protested in Assembly Debate-- Auto Cost Doubled fly PAUL P. KENNEDY seem to The New York Tann. SAN JOSE, Costa Rica, July CPYRGHT IL Y. Times JUL 4 ml THE DOMINICAN MYSTERY N. Y. Times JUL 4 1957 3 01/IT CHILE'S CABINET Ministers Oppose Government Decree Setting Price Rises FY SH1 Vr))rk TrimPer TIAGO, Chile, Suly AlItLdun rer ;?.3101:41.t reoigrieu today in protest agahmt Goy) ernment decrees raising the prices of certain foodstuffs and services. The three included Jorge Ara- vena, Minister of the Interior Oscar Pinochet, Minister of trtincts, and Roberto Muftoz, Mitt- 1 ter of Health. All are members of the Agrarian Labor party. The three ministers plied con- tended that the price increases might. provoke public President Carlos Ibanez del Campo appointed Francisco Ryan: as Minister of Health end fe- nnel? Garees Minister of Lands. N. Y. TitianPYRGH JUL 4 19E7 Peruvian Paper Reopened I SrirN1)1Yritlrer Yri). LIMA, Peru, July a La Tr t4Wlirties or the regime of Plied- dent enteencio Batista OrrUntr Ithroughout Cuba during the kis tw pint y-frmr hours. Eon' b eXplerder! in various I owns. In Pinall Del Rio, au- thorities seized a atche Of dyna? neie, uses e nd other banal,. fui king in:delink. Tbe Minfster for Cammiimicas Rainon alasconcelos, sae. itaiiiisit the riszt sive Loh() lootoams f "Batons the Ort) g socials that Isla! rownIR Marie fliarillg last prngralat had distinbest 'the public geace. Incii.LewLauvc lesammany re began a debate last night President Jos?igueres? tare increases, a matter likely to come a Presidential campaign he later this year. The President by executive de- e ee increased from 50 per cent t 109 per cent the import duties 04 more than 20D items, inelnd- i radios, household appliances a id automobiles, It was said officially that the love had been made to conserve the natioree dollar reserves. As of June 1 the national gold and dollar reserve Was redtleed to $21,300000, which was 12,000,000 less than nt the same date in 1956 and $8,000,009 less than int 1955. The decree raised a storm of protest from business, generally/ and automobile hammers, espe- cially. Critics saki the action had been taken without proper con- aeration and that it: would im. pa I' the national economy rind ra-se prices. The debate in the Assembly is merely to air feel- s over the matter, inasmuch as the Presidential decree a1 re dy is in effect. rant Bananas, Figutares Sap; 'resident Pigueres, whose Ad- annistra hen has experienced fire. ell int clashes with business, made lint. of the protests. In an inter- y ttit he mk said, e a Hying eTlitiurgnerbey uhaint w i ie. pe eine nice things, hut why do they go out and plant he- naeas for a living so that the co !litre can make dollars et dad of spending them?" Dealers En American auto- mobiles have protested that the tariff increases are discrinaina- my_ The new iMposfs call fur A graduated rise, both on value and according to weight. The new tariffs will almost double he delivery price on some heavy utornobiles. Deelers cemplain int the Increase will give an warranted advantage to light uropcan cars, which in recent ears have gained rapidly in des. Approved U?Riglgig JUL 1957 Sign Puerto Rico Bill to Subsidize Political Parties SAN JUAN, P. a July 1 gf, a ? Puerto RICO'S political parties and limiting the amount of money parties can accept front pliVate contributors. The goy- eminent will pay out more than 11.000,000 every four years to the three political parties. Heeler the In, each party will get 175,000 in each non-elect,* year mid $f50,000 in an election year. Individual private contrail- thorn are limited to $4,00 in a XVPAPP.13? 749"n all cninplished in the slow out relent- less process of unearthing the truth a.bout the dieappearances of Prof. jeses do Gatindez of Cotembia Uni- Versify the young American pilot Gerald Murphy, 'So tar as Generalissimo Trujillo, dictator of 1,` a Dominican Republic, is con- futed it is a Mee backward. or at least he has, sidestepped. Ee had been is sis ed by mar StaM Depart - to titt the diplomatic hunin- ii ar of the former Dominican Con- il ri New York, General paillat, so that he could come to e United States In testify. Gen- 1 Trujillo retused. This is by: ne means the e,nd ef tie catty.. On the contrary, it clears way for another move by the .t.e Departinent, working in con- OrtiOn with the Department of Neither itt the case of Do, indez rio! o Gerald Murphy con I e Atneriean Government allow pe P t{? to reniain Wasolved, The plumbia teacher, a, distinguished mtnittll Basque scholar, was atched from the heart of New 'Stork City on Merck 12, 1.956. Mur- y chtlapiteared in the Daininieen ?republic on Dec. 3, 1056. In the iter case the American authorities convinced that the Dominicans we t false version of Murphy's1 sth. The State Deparintent be- yes there is sufficient evidence to the Iwo eases. In the dretuhstrtnees and ctmeht- ing how greatly public opinion in is Western Ilisinisphere has been mated. 1 is ()befalls that the nut- nuist be pursued indium:. The S te DepartMent needs no urging, it otearty keeping op the res- t 'me affair is in the assids of I. grand ;jury in Washington which developing material, furnished by I Faders' Bureau of Investigation, American Embassy in chided eine and the Now York police. emething ewe well cisme of this estiganwa sisiriag the mailmen It obvious dies that, we cannot ex- coogeration from Ole Dornin n Government., CPiTestRGHT iiti JUL 3 IL S. ship." Brazil Rio DE JAN MB 0, July 2 Pe -k ferr ind Mt' ',hi, Ion tcship TO\ rr, ei p air )1111 Itrilf) (Mr-11'0r rrIrr Fil ;It NI rfp r) Inr1 ircor )1- le Pistil Pielil !lieu rend t.alre me'erime, Mid 01] (II I HA) ritionit , tt e a Oo, I d :he t CPYRGHT St Louis POO?Dispatch Appalled Fdr Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT British-Held Islands on Doorstep of U.S. BeineFonned Into Nation, of West Indies 3,000,000 to Enjoy Self - Governm e n t in Commonwealth System. BY DONALD GRANT A SUIT Correspondent of the Post-Dispatch, (FIRST OF A SERIES BRIDGETOWN, Barbados, JOY 1. British Guiana, still suffering the after effects of that crisis. will not immediately become a member of the West Indies federation though leaders of the new nation hope it may join the venture later. Gelana Is to hold an election next month which may be a test of the continuing strength of the Com- munists there lead by a former Chicago girl named Janet Japan. Race Conflicts Involved. But in a world which can be circumnavigated by airplanes and guided missiles In a matter or hours, the political effects of an event like the formation of w nation is by no means Uni- te the immediate area. One le circumstance of this new ra is expected to have esper y wide reverberations. ore than 90 per cent of the le of the West Indies are S people by United States aids. The non-colored, le mostly from the British , have been the rich and pin rful ones here; the colored peo le have been the poor wo ers. w the governing powers are being assumed by the ma- jor' y of the people who are col and poor though most of t e large plantations ho, these ag ultural islands ore still 1 ow d by the white .1ninority, whi either Bye here as they hay for many generations or in s me cases are absentee land- lo? living in London, is b a situation in many wa comparable; to Algeria. , wh est this eminent a bloody and cruel strangle Is in prog- res between tlye French settlers and the Berber and Arab peo le. It is even in some ways to ?arable to the Union of Sou It Africa where a white ma- nor y discriminates rigidly ga st a colored majority, ale- yi tonlat majority even the rud tub of self government. ifferenees of Opinion. 0 efof the most notable di!. ter ees between Algeria and Sou Africa on the one hand and the West Indies on the oth. ns pointed out to the Pu1 Dispatch by Sir Grantley A 3, the Oxford-educated mi man who Is Prime Min - of Barbados. The history tendon he said, and to ge extent of the other is- of the West Indies has for many years one of a of minions sent out from process of establishment fte here, a federation of British- sin held tropical islands just south ' nat and east of continental United l eta States. Preliminary work is go- lug Bernard in Barbados and peo next winter the 3,000,000 people! col of then blends will merge their no national Identities in what will I peo be known n the West Indies. , The West Indies will enjoy I a large measure of self govern- , ment from the outset and within a very few years are expected to achieve full self determination as a commonwealth, either witb- in the British system alongside Canada or, if the people choose It, outside as in the case of Burma. What is happening in these flower-decked end sun-drenched tropical Islands Is a part of a larger process going on all over ' the world. Formerly subject peoples everywhere are moving toward self government, In peace as here or in violence as in ' some other areas, and at the same time they an seeking higher living standards?In Asia, Africa and here in the Western Hemisphere. Important to U. S. For a great many reasons the United States cannot ignore this process, especially here on our own doorstep. The West Indies stand guard over the en- trance to an area of consider- able strategic importance, in- cluding our own Gulf Coast. the Panama canal and the shipping lanes for Venezuelan oil and Iron ore. During World War lithe United States used sev- eral of the islands as bases and ' still holds an important naval base in Trinidad, one of the is-, hinds in the new federation. ? it b precisely this base, called' Chaguaramas, which the netv West incites nation has picked tentatively as the site for its new capital. Neyerthelese it b United States policy to encourage for- mation of the new malign and self determination of the pee - pies in it. Not only Is opposition to colonialism a histork United States policy but at this par- ticular juncture of lilstory the orderly transfer of power from empires across the sea to the people who live in a given area As believed to be a move which can serve to [gestalt Commu- lust exploitation of the colonial Issue. This area already has had a taste of such exploitatien in British Guiana, where Commu. nists in 1953 gained political control which was only broken by British troops. RI Ian bee ter Lon on to try to teach the pia ere that the slaves have In f et been set free." F net, on the other hand, is em eying nearly 500,000 troops wa e side of the "planters" in Alt la and the full force of the Sou ? African government is asei against the Negroes there. 11 the experiment In the Wes Indies succeed, or will it 'e is t in more eruptions like hat n Guiana? Or in a gradual co mic and political disinte- a "1 has got to work" said Ed- NozIglia, a well informed on American foreign service fi r who is United States ons 1 in Barbados and the an ng Amerman diplomat in his area. ' MEM white plantere on Bar- bados. however, are convinced that self government* the West Indies will never wiark although they do not (merits, oppose it. "In the end," said one wealthy planter whose family has ban on the island , 'for nearly 300 years, "Canadd?Or the United SlatesneWIllw , ave to lake over? if He as car ul to add that he did not tel[ to be quoted by name. a . Governor Is Hopeful. The Walsh Governer of Bar- bados, feir Robert Arundel!,? a professional Colonial Office civil serene was quietly optimistic. ' 1.,expect it won't always go perfectly smooth," he said, "but then people have been %winking into self-government for a long titan On Barbados at any rate there has been 5ome kind of self-government since the be- ginning, Of course, at first it was exercised mainly by the planters and only relatively re- cently by the ordinary voters? Sir Robert, who began his career some years ago as e Co- lonial Office district officer in Africa, smiled as he recounted some of the changes he had seen in the colonial service. Our conversation took place in the spacious living room of Gov- ernment House. Through the open window looking onto the garden could be seen a magniti? cent flamboyant tree in full scarlet bloom. Small birds flew through the room as we talked, perching for a time on the elab- orate chandelier. In the old days," said the Governor, we had pretty full control of things M our dis- tricts but n I have grown more senior I have been giving up authority until today I am fairly much of a figurehead," The colonial governors In these islands are not, however, without considerable influence and in an emergency they ears exercise more than a little au- thority. If present plans materialize, however. these gov- ernors will In fact be little more than honorary represent haries - ceratmsoonfthe Queen at official The find step will be taken In December or early January when Lord Hallos arrives In the islands to begin his term as the first Governor General of the 1Vest Indies. Tide will activate the new federation end the new nation will be officially In I te The senond step will take place sometime early next year when the first federal election will be hed. Each island will select by popular vote its rep? resentatives to a House of Rep- resentatives. The lloilse will have full federal legislative powers excepting that the Gov- ernor General reserves veto powers on certain matters, nota- bly foreign policy and defense. Other powers will be reserved for the separate island govern- ments which already enjoy self rule on most local matters. Perhaps the greatest signifi- cance of the creation of the fed- eration is that the government in London officially has stated that the Sederation will hell. late complete self-government lngly the islands could be but t e smallest of nations, but en!- 'actively it b hoped they can I a hieve both political and eco- nomic viability. Teo Political Units. There are 10 units in the new federation. These may be ate or a whole group of islands. be one seems to know exactly how many individual islands a m involved because the terri- t ries include many small C limns of uninhabited rock-s. as well as the largest island, Ja- r aka, with an area about that e Puerto Rico and a popula- t on of 1,500,000. Islands in the new federa- t on are grouped in the 10 units ce Antigua, Barbados, Donain. a, Grenada. Jamaica, Mont. Serrat, St. Kitts, Nevis and I nguille?the three comprising cm unit?St. Lucia, St. Vincent red the unit of Trinidad and ',ohs Notably absent from t ais list are British-held main. Lind units of Guiana and Hon? flirts which Send Observers 1C i!deration meetings but hays tnme to no decision about join, ge, At the moment the new na? n, the West Indies, visite) consists of no more than a Sc rakes of makeshift offices in t rew school building hg Bridge teem, Barbados, offices sep riled by temporary beaver board partitions. Here is as t-nribled a skeleton seeretaria a sexne men anti wnmer trom eit Oyer the d'.:AteiS. A deeper look :3 necesseri t I see the roe:My?and Mu blems?of thr Wester: e "sphere's neeS1 nation aalti414"0:417RGHT JUN 9 19:57 La Prensa Sees Rio Per Plot Approved For Release 20021 17122 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 ? 4C Buenos Aires, Job I (ife?The newspaper La Prenst muzzled for five years by the old Peron regime, charged today the e> dictator is using halt of South America as a base for a drive' to return to power in Argen- tina. to PIT11511, accused exiled juan D. Peron of having organized commands in five countries ringing Argentina? Chile. Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay. But it said Venezuela is mainly responsible for the Peron plot to overthrow the provisional government of MO, Gen, Pedro AraMb1111.1. Vette? zuela gave Peron asyluth after he was ousted in September, 1955: La Prensa said the Vene- zuelan capital of Carnes is where "the supreme command of sabotage of destruction and of subversive works is in- stalled." La Prensa, whose fight against Peron in MI natal-tie an epic in the annals of press freedom, said Uruguay un- covered last week a Feminist subversive plot (Pere against Araminuto and ordered Peronists jailed. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT THE CRISIS IN COMMUNISM A collection of items on the confusion in Communist, ideology and the resulting disaffection and deser- tions from Communism throughout the world. ? Ma- terial will be reproduced, under this heading from time to time as it becomes available. The Belgian Road to Socialism. by. Alois Geri?. ? I hay,- left [doe Belgian uommunist Party (BCP) after 17 years as a member. I had to take this step in order to remain true to Myself and La ay former fellow members. I still believe in Marxist Socialtmn? just as I did before. I no longer believe in the BCP. I. have gradually become convinoed that the IICP nen no longer play a single useful role in Belgium, with a view to the establishment of J. socialist regime. The Belgian Communist Party emerged from the underground in 1944 as a strong party and one deservedly renowned, but this party has now definitely lost or rather destroyed its opportunity. I am now convinced that when the party act/gross meetina in Vilvoorde. in December 19514 made an effort to alter the course of the party it was already too late. The mistakes had been too serious and the ?line" had been too bad. At that time the BCP had already separated itself from the Belmian labor movement and was completely isolated. It was already too late for the party to renew its contacts with the working class and the serious efforts whieh were afterwards made by militant, devoted and honcat party members could not Produce any results. The BCP has become a small, powerless faction. It stands outside of the workers' movement in Beldium. It has lost the confidence of the Belgian workers. Anyone who thinks that in spite of everything the strucle for socialism and peace is still possible within the ranks of the ICP is wasting his time and energy. Personally I wish to carry on this struggle within Belgian labor movement and as a member in good atanaing do not wish to fool people anymore. The clincher about, done for, as far as I am concerned. That is the reason the ranks of the of this class. the Ivanguard" is for my resianation. There is, however, a second dnd equally important reason. I am a liberal, that is, a convinced adherent of free investigation. I reject cvery dogma, every Talmudism. I wish to think independently and to retain OY to criticize. I do not wish to be suspected of having surienderec my freedom of thinking. This?susoicion will ultimately weigh down upon anyone who remains a atember of the BC?. In spite. of the resolutions of the 20th Congreas of the &did, the. PCP continues slavishly to parrot the. Pravda; the Soviet leader, and their actions still remain sacred and everything they say is apparently gospel for the leaders and the press of he BOP. Such an attitude is not only anti?liberal; it is neither Marxist nor Leninist; it degrades man and impoverishes his mind. I wilTh not participate in this and neither will the Belnian workers. It is larmely for ohis reason that they have turned Lir backm on the RCP. Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 41 " CRliFiG4slaForRelease2002/07/22:CIA,DP65-00756R000500130067-0, in Belgium the road to secialism is through the Belgian Socialist Party (B3P), or, to express My opinion more exactly, through the mass of the workers organized in the, BST and affiliated organizations. In the maturing of this new conviction the resolutions of the 20th Congress of the CPSU held:in Moscow in February 1956 played a very great role. These resolutions do not contradict what I have written above. The 20th Congress passed many good resolutions. Among other things it corrected many mistakes. And it emphasized - and proved for those who needed such proof - that the CPSU can also make mistakes. Among the essential points which have qualified the 20th Congress as a genuine congress of renovation, I wish to mention: 1. the demolition of the Stalin cu1ta/20 the thesis about the different roads to socialism, and in this connection, 3. the changed attitude of the Communists in the Soviet Union toward the socialist parties. The thesis *but the roads of the various countries toward socialism, or - as Marc Pieisto stated in i.e SOir - the thesis of "socialist pluralism," expressly pointed out that this socialism can be reached along other roads than those pursued by the Soviet Union. This thesis is actually not new, but one which had fallen into oblivion under Stalin. Marxism has always expressed the opinion that different roads to socialism: are possible and even inevitable, because of the internal and external cenditione in whit any country may find itself at a given moment. Jean'Jaures wrote in 1902: "the social revolution is being accomplished among each of the great people of modern times by means of an autonomous movement" (in La Petite Republique, 2 January 1902). On the eve of the October Revolution Lenin wrote: "All nations will attain to socialism, this is inevitable, but this will not take place in exactly the same way in every nation. Every nation will make its own contribution to one form Or another of democracy, the dictatorship of the proletariat, and the tempo in which the socialist transition is brought eh:eft in the various domains of social life" (Collected Works, Volume 23, page 58, Russian). ' The thesis of the socialist pluralism was applied by the Yugoslav Communists, hence the breach with Stalin who appexently wanted the soviet experiment copied everywhere. This thesis is also being applied with visible success by the People's Republic of China?'which is pursuing a policy of peaceful reorganization of private industry and commerce. ' Finally, and this is once more "creative Marxism in action," the People's Democracy. of Poland is now resoluteey proceeding along this: way. The Polish leader Gomulka, *ho was once arrested as a deviatiZniste , has made a brilliant come-back. A plebiscite ?lathe Polish peoples supported him. Nikita Khrushohev stated in his report to the 20th Congress: "It is not true that we regard violence and civil war as the only way to change society." There is also the parliamentary road, the way of the parliamentary majority. In this regard Khrushchev stated.: "Socialism has become a great magnetic force for the workers, the farmers, and the intellectuals of all countries. The ideas of socialism will dominate the minds of all of working humanity. At the same time the present situation offers the wOrking class in a number of capitalist countries a real opportunity for uniting the overwhelming majority of the people under its leadership and for guaranteeing the transfer Of the decisive means ofproduction into the hands of the people. TheSrightist bourgeois parties and the governments set up by them are increasingly suffering fiasco. Under these circumstances the working class has an opportunity -(by uniting about itself the working farmers, the intellectuals, and Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP654)0756R000500130067-0 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT all patriotic forces, and forcing back the opportunist elements which are finable to oareender the policy of compromise with the capitalists and landowners)- to inflict defeat upon the reactionary forces which oppose the interests of the people, to gain a stable majority in par1im7ent, and to change thin parliament from an organ of bourgeois democracy into a genuine instrument of the will of the people." This assuredly does not mean a conversion to reformism. The problem dealt with concerns the form of the transition to socialism. The main thing is the content of this transition, and for all Marxist socialists this content remains the socialization of the essential means of production and the establishment of the government of the working class, a government which Marx and also the Ruaregnon statement of principle of the Belgian, Sacialist Party called "the dictatorship of the Proletariat," a terminology which is now somewhat obsolete. . At any rate there is no doubt about the fact that the acceptance of the thesis, first, of socialist pluralism, and second], Of the parliamentary road to accialiem has brought the CPSU considerably closer to the socialist parties. It was accordingly all the more normal for the 20th. Congress to emphasize the desirability and even the necessity ,for improving the relations between Communists, and soeialists and for overcoming the dangerous division of the international labor movement. Thinking thaings through logically, all of this means that the struggle which the BCP io actually waging against the DSP makes no sense whatever. In a country such az Belgium, in view of the objective situation and historica: (ambition, we mast see to it that the BSP obtains a parliamentary majority and that this majority is used toward establishing a really socialist regime. Neither of these, however, will be brought about by continuing to support an impoverished, totally isolated and discredited little Communist party'. It is hitbag to affirm: 10 that the cause of workers" unity is horeby served, and 2. that this contributes to the reinforcement of the leftist, Marxist trends in the ESP. The thesis which Khrushchev - proceeding from a realistic view of the international situation and of the actual power relationships in the various countries - formulated coriectly, in our opinion, has implications not only for the PCP but also for all Communist disruptive little parties which assume a.position over against a strong socialist party and which have rip held on the laboring nares. The. problem iaquite different where there are Communist and socialist parties of equal strenght or where the working class is represented by a strong Communist and a weak socialist party. The 20th Congress of the CPSU also began the demolition of the Stalin cult. This demolition, which was actually begun immediately after Stalin's death, was sealed at tho Congress by the secret report of Khrushchev. In view of the reactions in the entire world and first of all, in the other Communist parties., the CPSU set forth its standpoint in greater detail in ancther important document; the resolution of the Central. Committee "about the victorious struggle against the cult of the individual and its consequences adopted in July 1956. That which we remember from all of this material is that Stalin was a tyrant, who respected no one, at least during the last years of his life. In this regard the highest party authorities of the CPSU decided to tell the truth, no matter how unpleasant. 43 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT aaresiad613, yelePHISirnip22,ydpeselapslinserM6ROP06043(1390S5c4Ohim to pu his personal 4"17diStiedla place of the normal course of justice. He did the t tnking for .eveeyone and he was always right. He withdrew himself from criti ism py'no ? longer calling together the regular party authorities. This attilude resulted in a number of judicial crimes and mass repressions and it also led to a general sclerosis and paralysis of the initiative of the masses and of creative thinking in every field. Such an attitude was completely in conflict with Marxism and (not least) with the example of Lenin. People may disagree with some of the things contained in the secret report of Khrushchev and they may dispute the way in which this report was; brought to the attention Of the World; at any rate, the report remains a great liberating act. And there is little sense in wanting to start a fight against the terms "Stalinism" and "destalinization." As a result of theOth Congress these terms have eimply become standardized. The Belgian Communist know very well the term "Stalinism" means. It has resulted in the wrecking of their party. Does the use of these terms mean that henceforth there ae two kinds of Communists and that there is a threat of a new split within the labor movement? Not at all, unless some want to cling obstinately tolthe deviations from NerximmpeLenihism branded by the 20th Congress. Thie really seems to be the case with the leadership of the French CommunitSt Party, which has assumed a grave responsibility by opposing the neceSsaey destalinization and democratization, and not in France alone. In thipsregard and in connection with the discussion about this matter, the SCP ? which had an opportunity to show that it can still think independently ? is otanding nowhere; or rather, it is once again etanding on the wrong side. Among/other things the BCP is continuing to speak of mistakes " and "miscalculatiOns," and sometimes of "serious adstakes and miscalculations," but every thinking person, every Belgian worker knows that the things involved were Outright crimes and violations of justice. The sclerosis' is making headway. The theeketical schematism for beginners is making headway. What do I think about Hungary? ' Dcenot expect me to express a definiteland convinced opinion in regard to this 'tragedy at: this time. ram still without a sufficient knowledge of the facts and the Matter is far from simple. I have of course developed an opinion on the basis Of the mass Of reports, pro and con, and on the basis of my own appreciation of the events. As far as the course of the insurrection is concerned my opinion is the following: at the !bottom there was -Oustified and practically general state of dissatisfaction, which nevertheleas did not in the beginning threaten -she people's democratie regime. In part; however, as,a result of the weakness - and the blunders of Nagy, the reactionary and clerico?fascist elements assumed the leadership of the movement and/introduced, a kind of white terror which was directly aimed against the socialist achievements in general and against the Communists in particular. The seepe of this fasicis terror is to some extent underestimated in the Vest. At any rate, the result was that persons such as Janos Kadar thought the matter over and began a different course, that of the defense of the people's democraey with the aid of the Soviet troops. This intervention was undeubtedly a very regrettable matter. I think . this decision must also have been a painful one for the Soviet Wffprnmnnt, in Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 CPYRGHT view of the policy introduced by the 20th Congress, but that there were two kinds of considerations which tarried ? the scale: 1. considerations of a military nature: rte threatening of the entire defensive position of the Soviet Union in Central Europe; 2. considerations of a political nature: I do not think that there was a betrayal .of the destalinization.. To the contrary, I believe that without the interference of the Soviet troops the destalinization would have run into difficulties. It stands to reason that if Hungary should been lost as an allied nation the unconverted "Staliniss" would have raised their heads everywhere and would have caused a great deal of trouble for the new course of the Politburo. I believe that this view is confirmed by the fact that Gomulka and the Poles got their way, sot:that "Hungary" did not destroy every hope which the 20th Congress had aroused. It me be so free as to an almost prophetic article of Blaude Boardet in the 18 October 1956 issue of L:Observateurt, prior to the tragic develop- ment in Hungary, which concludes as follows: nend, my Polish and Hungarian friends, do not throw out the socialist baby with the dirtyStalinian bath water." The future alone will show whether the interference of the Soviet troops in Hungary has saved socialism and. peace. If this proves to be the case, then that interference was the least of two evils. 14hen all is said and done, however, I cannot forget that the Hungdrian.tragedy and the counterffrevo]ution were possible only as a result of 10 years of terror and folly, as 4 result .of the fact that incorrigible 4Stalinists" such as Rakosi and Gena whO were hated by the people remained in power until it was too late. That this was the great, the initial crime cannot be emphasized enough, if similar dramas are to be prevented from occurring elsewhere. Socialism is not an export commodity and it is particularly no terror. (1) (1) I will gladly set forth in a followin: contribution my views on the problem of the unity of the workers and of oexistence on the world scale. S.5 Approved For Release 2002/07/22 : CIA-RDP65-00756R000500130067-0 0