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Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 1963 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 3449 Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the To us this proposal must be a complete It is said by the administration that Senator yield? oversight. I say that because I am con- this is being done in only 12 States; and Mr. AIKEN Sts not have any time vinced that the administration would that the other 38 States certainly will to yield, unless 1. am given additional not go back on its commitment, given to not complain. I hope the other 38 time. us so solidly. States are not deluding themselves in Mr. MORSE. I ask unanimous con- When we heard about it, we went to any way; their turn is coming. As soon sent that the Senator may be given ad- the White House, I believe that is the as the administration has abolished the ditional time so that he may yield to euphemistic way of referring to people offices and destroyed the pride of man- me for a question. without describing them further. At the agement of good offices in 12 States, it The VICE P> ESIDENT., Is there ob- White House we voiced our protest will certainly select 12 more States. The jection? Does the Senator from Ver- against this proposal, administration has not tried to touch mont yield to the Senator from Oregon I trust that the commitment given to any State south of Delaware yet; but it so that the Senator from Oregon may us will be honored. If the Treasury De- will. I assure the Senator from North ask him a question? partment has any concern about getting Carolina [Mr. ERVIN] and the Senators Mr. MORSE., I ask unanimous con- a tax bill through Congress, it ought to from the other Southern States that sent that the Senator from Vermont double check its relationship with Con- their turn. will come. The administra- may be given an additional minute, gress. The proposed step is not one tion is selecting a few States at a time The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there ob- which will be found in any basic text on in order to accomplish its program, but jection to the Senator from Vermont how to get along with people or how to it is following a pattern of concentrating being granted an additional minute? Win friends. its power in a few great urban centers of Mr, AIKEN. I should like to have 5 Mr. AIKEN. I really appreciate the the United States, from which opera- or 10 minutes or a half hour. comments of the Senator from Michi- tions can be more easily controlled by a Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President- gan. few persons in Washington. Mr. AIKEN. I should like to have 5 Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the I hope I have made it clear that I do minutes. Senator from Vermont yield me an- not approve of the action taken by the The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there ob- other 10 seconds? Secretary of the Treasury. jection. The Chair hears none, and Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I ask the Senator may proceed. unanimous :consent that the Senator I CMr, oobserve the New York on his Senator feet. from If he wishes Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I have a from Vermont may have an additional to defend New York, that is all right. I feeling that the Senator from Vermont, 3 minutes. believe the regional office of the Inter- as the dean on the Republican side of The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there ob- the aisle, may be able to get some in- jection? The Chair hears none, and the nal Revenue Service in New England has formation from my party's administra- Senator from Vermont is recognized for been well handled. and has been under tion. If he is able to do so, we will be an_ additional 3 minutes. good management. When the Govern- very grateful to him. I cannot get an Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I am par- ment now seeks to consolidate district answer from the administration. There- titularly proud of myself for having offices on a flimsy pretext, it is time for republican side from Vermont If he will try to find out to get this information for me from the what the for moving some present administration- particularly the dreg., out of my State. There is only who, after all, must assume some respon- Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, one-way traffic with regard to Oregon. sibility for some of the moves. I should our sympathy goes out to the widows All the offices are being moved out of like to work with the Senator from Ver- and children of the four Americans who the State, whether they concern the mont to see if, between us, we can get were killed in the Bay of Pigs invasion in Treasury, the regional offices of the Post an answer from the Secretary of the April 1961. They were mature men, not Office, or the Federal Power Commission. Treasury. - boys seeking adventure. Possibly they As I say, it is, all one-way traffic in Mr. AIKEN. I do not know what de- were employees of the Central Intelli- Oregon. We cannot understand the gree of responsibility is assumed by the gence Agency who had-been given the reason for'this ,mo-ve. If the dean on the Republican Secretary of the Treasury. job of training anti-Castro Cubans in Republican side of the aisle can obtain Over the years, the Internal Revenue Guatemala for the invasion then being the answer for. us, he will be doing a great Offices of Maine, New Hampshire, and planned. This was during the Eisen- personal favor for the people of Oregon. Vermont-and I think I may include hower administration. According to Mr.. HART. Mr. President, will the Rhode Island, too, since Rhode Island news accounts, their pay was $1,900 per Senator yield? also is affected by this order-have been month. Whether this big pay made The VICE PRESIDENT. Does the efficient and respected and have never them soldiers of fortune, if they volun- Senator from Vermont yield to the Sen- been touched by the breath of scandal. teered for combat just before the ill- ator from Michigan? Why at this time should all these of- fated Invasion, is a matter for argument. Mr. AIKEN. I will yield, if the time flees be moved into Boston? The per- Undoubtedly, it was not expected that is not taken out of my 10 minutes. sonnel of those offices have served well they would themselves engage in combat. Mr. HART. Mr. President, I ask for 20 years; yet now they are told that Their job was to teach and train. Pre- unanimous consent that the Senator they will have to fight for their new jobs, sumably in the excitement of the inva- may be given an additional 2 minutes. if they can get them. The only assur- sion, they offered to go in fighting. They The VICE PRESIDENT. Is there ob- ance they have is that they will not have became casualties of the Bay of Pigs in- jection? The Chair hears none, and the their pay cut or will not lose their jobs vasion. It may be that the checks for Senator may proceed, until after the next election-or 2 years $225 received every other week by each Mr. HART. First I should like to say from now. of these four widows come from the that the commitment which had been Why should a system which has CIA. It is said that these payments will given to the people of Michigan and to worked so well over the years now be continue until the widows remarry. Let their delegation in Congress has gone upset in favor of one which is dubious? us see: $225 every other week amounts to competely by the board. After a careful In reply to the question asked by the approximately $487 per month. Unfor- and intensive survey it was determined Senator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], this tunately there are a number of widows, by the Internal Revenue Service that a latest act on the part of the Internal with children now of college age, of offi- data-processing center, one of nine Revenue Service merely follows a pat- cers of our Air Force who lost their lives throughout the country, would be located tern which, while it originated a long in combat in the service of their country in the Detroit metropolitan area, which time ago, has been accelerated rapidly in World War II. Have those war wid- embraces a region of many counties. during the past 2 years, namely, the pat- ows whose husbands, Air Force pilots or The reorganization plan proposed tern of breaking down State lines and bombardiers in World War II who died yesterday by the Treasury Department concentrating the activities in a few ur- heroically for their country, received as has removed that data-processing cen- ban centers of wealth, population, in- much as $487 per month from a grateful ter. dustry, and political power. Government? Approved For Releases 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 $450 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE March 7 A niece of' mine, whose husband, a #oung lawyer who became a tank cap- in and was killed in action in Europe 1944, leaving her with a child who is 4ow a college boy, must have read with durorise the newspaper accounts of the iery substantial amounts of the checks eceived by these other widows, whose usbands were unfortunately killed in he Bay of Pigs invasion. WELFARE OF OUR FARMERS though I am no longer a member of he Committee on Agriculture and For- try, on which I had the honor to serve or 4 years under the chairman of that ommittee, the distinguished senior Sen- tor from Louisiana [Mr. ELLENDERl, I till have a great interest in the pros- erity of our farmers. I am glad to ob- rve the chairman in the Chamber. I hold him In high admiration for the hievements and the leadership of that committee during the 4 years of my serv- cce under his chairmanship. I The present administration has done much toward making less burdensome the serious problems with which our armers were and are faced. I am posi- tive that we in Congress shall continue to legislate for the welfare and pros- perity of our farmers. I feel certain that this will be done so long as the present majority and the present chair- man control the operations of the Com- mittee on Agriculture and Forestry. Therefore, I read with interest the edi- 'torial response to President Kennedy's farm message in two of Ohio's widely (read, outstanding metropolitan news- ,papers, the Akron Beacon Journal and the Columbus Dispatch. Both recognize t that farm legislation enacted by the 87th j Congress reduced the surplus of wheat and feed grains, increased farm Income, and put surplus foods to worthwhile use ? through school lunches, food stamp pilot programs, distribution to needy families, i and the food-for-peace program. Both recognize that the President's farm pro- posals point the way to further farm program Improvements. Inasmuch as these editorials are thoughtful reviews of the farm situa- { tion and the operation of farm programs. I believe they merit the attention of my colleagues. Therefore, Mr. President, I wk unanimous consent that they be printed at this point in the RECORD, as art f m remarks The President and his farm adbisere feel that the system, while not ideal, is beginning to work and already has made progress toward its goals. The goals are considerable: Reduction of surpluses, reduction in expenditures for price-support programs. improved income for farm families, lower prices to consumers for food and fiber, and expanded exports. Nevertheless, the President tells us. there to a substantial Improvement in farm in- come, a substantial decrease in Government holdings of agricultural products, and a sub- stantial reduction in costs to the taxpayer for carrying farm surpluses, without increasing the consumer's burden. Probably the most vital phase of the pro- gram for Ohio is the part which pertains to feed grains. The President's proposals in this field include the following: Extension of the current voluntary acreage-cutting program for perhaps 2 more years beginning with 1964. but with a con- templated easing of curbs next year. The general goal of keeping Government feed grain stock from dropping below the 45- million-ton supply deemed adequate as an emergency reserve, but continuing the re- duction from the record high of 85 million tons In mid-1961. The reduction has come about mainly because of acreage cutting, In- creasing domestic consumption. and heavy exports. The President called for an affirmative vote in the forthcoming wheat referendum to be held under the legislation enacted by Con- gress last year. If two-thirds of the wheat producers in the Nation vote this spring to approve the bushel marketing law authorized by that law, the President declared, the present income of wheat farmers will be protected and "the overhanging surpluses of wheat will be fur- ther reduced." Failure to approve the wheat program will leave the wheat farmer without either sup- ply management or effective price supports--- "at the mercy of unlimited production and unprotected prices." If the wheat stabilization program is re- tained In the upcoming nationwide referen- dum, each wheat farmer will be assigned an acreage allotment. As previously, marketing quota penalties apply to excess wheat. Mar- keting quotas do not apply to farms that have 15 acres or less of wheat for harvest, A-support averaging $1.82 per bushel, na- tionally, on the 1963 wheat production will be available to a farmer who complies with his farm acreage allotment. In addition, an 18-cant-per-bushel price support payment will be available if the farmer complies with the 1963 stabilization program in Its en- tirety. Ohio wheat farmers traditionaly have re- jected the Government program because of deep-rooted opposition to Government in- tervention. As in the past. If the control program is voted this year. It will be because of the favorable vote in the Western States, ng progra e to approve the bushel mar There being no objection, the editors- with their huge wheat acreage, where the be printed in the farmers want to make sure they receive the authorized by the 1962 law, wheat farmers alb were ordered to Government price support. again will be at the mercy of unlimited pro- RECORD, as follows: The Ohio farmer then is in the position duction and unprotected prices. New legis- [Fromthe Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch, Feb. 3, of being able to take advantage of the price lation is necessary to preserve the gains made 19631 supports, meanwhile submitting to the con- in corn and other feed grains. The cotton FARM PaocaAra OrYERS SOME Hors OF trol features which are distasteful to him. industry is in trouble; help is needed both i3oLVrfox An imponderable in the farm picture and for producers and for textile mills, President Kennedy's farm message to Con- the efficacy of the intricately devised pro- And as for the dairy Industry, the Presi- grew omits most of the mandatory crop gram, replete with political concessions one dent reminded Congress that he warned last control proposals that stirred up a hornet's way and the other. Is the weather. One year that failure to pass legislation in this nest of opposition last year. In most re- drought year, for Instance, could wipe out field would cost the Treasury $440 million spects the proposed program would retain the surplus In feed grains. The effect of pro- a year in price support payments. The legis- the present system of voluntary controls in longed subzero winter weather or a late lation was not passed. What happened? feed grains (with some amplification), make planting of corn due to heavy spring rains "Costs have recently been running at a little change In the wheat program launched and flooding, perhaps followed by unfavor- rate in excess of $500 million a year, and last year, and retain such features as the able growing weather, could throw even so the income of the dairy farmer has fallen wheat referendum and the current system of cleverly-devised a program Into disarray, with by over $100 million a year," Mr. Kennedy price supports and bonuses. deeply disturbing results. said. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Because of Its voluntary compliance fea- tures and some Evidence that the program is working favorably in most of its several as- pects, farmers generally, we believe, will look with reasonable favor on the President's latest version of his farm program, although some organized elements already are arrayed against it. For one thing, the administration, we un- derstand does not plan to put all its pro- posals in one package, on which all its provi- sions would have to rise or fail. Instead, the various phases of the program are to be presented In separate bills, which will allow fuller debate and separate votes on the pro- posals affecting various crops and dairy products, food distribution, land use adjust- ment, rural electrification, vocational train- ing and water retention. Whether the program will bring order out of chaos, or produce more chaos, remains to be seen, but there Is more reasonableness In the President's program as laid down In Con- gress last week than in some of the earlier approaches and recommendations. Akron (Ohio) Beacon Journal, Feb. 1, 19631 THAT FARM PROBLEM President Kennedy yesterday talked about the problem which is the envy of Premier Khrushchev-the over-production of farm commodities. Whereas the Russian Communists-and the Chinese Communists, too-carry on an endless, uphill struggle to expand agricul- tural production to meet the bare require- ments of their people, the chronic problem here Is just the opposite. The President summed it up when he said: "Our capacity to produce still outruns the growth of both domestic and foreign demand for food and fiber. Our abundance must still be harnessed In such a way as to bring supply and demand more nearly into balance. And the benefits of our agricultural progress still need to be translated Into improved in- come to farm families, lower prices to con- sumers for food and fiber, expanded exports, and reduced expenditures for price support programs." Mr. Kennedy's message was not'entirely gloomy. Net farm income at the end of 1962 was $1.8 billion a year higher than In 1960. Government stockpiles of surplus grain are down by 929 million bushels from their 1961 peak, Exports of farm commodities reached a record $5.1 billion In fiscal 1962. The emergency and temporary feed grain legis- lation of 1961 has been successful. Surplus foods have been put to good use through a variety of programs--school lunches and surplus commodity distribution to needy families, the food stamp experiment, and the oversea food-for-peace program. But there was much to be reported on the negative side. Unless wheat producers vote this spring m ti k 1963 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 CONGR1SSIONAL' RECORD - SENATE 3457 There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the REboRD, as follows: GAUS, MAN WHO SAVED POLITICAL SCIENCE, VISITS UNIVERSITY ALTER 16 YEARS (By Elliott Maraniss) Prof. John M. Gaus, the man who saved political science from dying of irrelevancy- the Dutch elm disease in the groves of s.ea- deme-has returned to the University of Wisconsin campus. Dr. Gaus will spend a week here visiting his old classes In public administration, re- gional planning, and political theory. Among the political scientists in South Hall, this has aroused the same kind of ex- citement that would be found among his- torians if Frederick Jackson Turner suddenly showed up at old Bascom. In the opinion of Prof. James McCamy, one of Dr. Gaus' hosts this week, the comparison is appropriate. "Professor Gaus is to political science what Turner was to history," Dr. McCamy said Monday. "He took it out of the law books and put it into life, among the people and in the communities in which they live. He said government is not just statutes and consti- tutions, but people dealing with other people." For 20 memorable years between 1927 and 1947 the Wisconsin campus and the Badger State were the vineyards of Professor Gaus' fruitful labors. A graduate of Amherst College with a mas- ter's degree and a doctorate from Harvard, he came here to become part of an Amherst triumvirate which made an imperishable contribution to Wisconsin's rise to greatness. Dr. Alexander Meikeljohn had been presi- dent of Amherst, and Dr. Walter Agard had been an Amherst classmate. Dr. Gaus hap- pily responded to their invitation to join them here in establishing the famed Experi- mental College. Dr. Agard taught the first- year course in Greek civilization and Dr. Gaus taught the second-year course in American civilization. In those years the`Wisconsin idea-putting the resources of the university in the service of the people of the State-provided a perfect basis for Dr. Gaus' ideas about political science. Gov. Phil LaFollette named him executive secretary of the Wisconsin State Planning Board, an advisory board of legislators and -citizens, charged with the task of "making a continuing inventory of the State govern- ment and its functions and suggesting ways as to how the State may operate more efl- ciently and economically." Together with Robert Goodman, who later became chairman of the Conservation Com- mission, F. L. Sensenbrenner, then president of Kimberly Clark, Charles W. Nash, then president of the Nash Motor Co., Dr. Gaus and his board made many important recom- the most lasting of which was mendations , a far-sighted plan for the uses'of the State's regime in its vicinity. tern about the date when the administration forest resources. With that view I am in full agreement. decided that the Soviet arms buildup was As a member of the Madison Area Plan- Our concern must be with the danger offensive in character and so dangerous as ning Council, Dr. Gaus helped devise an Soviet Cuba poses at the present mo- to require the strong measures that were orderly plan for the growth of the city. taken. The charges that the administra- In every one of those 20 years Dr. Gaus ment. This is a much more important tion knew of the offensive character of the was the object of flattering and bountiful of- issue than what the situation may have weaponry long before it disclosed its knowl- fers from rich and famous universities such been in the past. edge and acted on it is essentially political as Harvard and Chicago, but he turned them These editorials clarify the perils of in character. If the charge ever is proven all down, saying "Wisconsin is where my the present situation and, in my judg- true or false it will leave the future quite heart belongs." ment, emphasize the need for a firm and unaffected. ironically, it was during one of those dark effective policy to meet the problem, a Perhaps the administration erred in try- periods. when the Wisconsin spirit faltered policy which, so far as I know, has not ing to make a distinction between defen- temporarily that Dr. Gaus finally left here. been made evident. sive and offensive arms. Certainly it is a In 1'947 the board of regents refused to ap- I ask unanimous consent to have both very difficult thing to do. The argument is point Prof. Howard J. McMurray to the poli- largely a semantic one. The antiaircraft tical science faculty. Dr. McMurray had editorials printed following my remarks. weapons, the defending fighters and the served a term in'Congress and had sought There being no objection, the editorials antimissile missiles are defensive in one political office as a Democratic candidate two were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, sense of the word. They are, at the same other times while a member of the faculty. as follows: time, components in any offensive weapon Dr.` Gaus disagreed with the regents' de- [Fronk the Washington Post, Mar. 4, 19631 cision and accepted an offer to go to Harvard No PEACE WITH CUBA as professor of government. At Harvard, Dr. Peace in this hemisphere will not be secure Gaus' reputation continued to grow and was as long as Castro rules in Cuba. That is culminated with his election as president of the meaning of the events of the past the American Political Science Association. week-whether they relate to disclosures of In June of 1961, Dr. Gaus retired as pro- Cuba's role in training subversive forces in fessor emeritus of government at Harvard neighboring countries or to the movement and returned with his wife to a farmstead in Soviet personnel from Cuban ports. No the lovely dairy and forest country the one will ever be sure how much subversion Adirondacks in New York State, where he was born 68 years ago, the grandson of Ger- man immigrants. There, Dr. Gaus said in an interview Mon- day, he has found a perfect laboratory for his lifelong interest in the interaction of city and country. "I really don't know what kind of society we are coming into," Dr. Gaus said. "There are thousands of people who live in the open country, yet are city oriented in their work and their recreation." :Dr. Gaus said the metropolitan areas of the country are faced with "tremendous problems" presented by the profound changes in distribution of the American pop- ulation, not only in terms of space but also in terms of employment and technological development. .He remains hopeful, however, that the problems will be solved. "It's amazing how people will respond to a really objective, factual diagnosis of what is going on if you put it to them in human terms," Dr. Gaus said. Pitting things in human terms is what D}'. Gaus has been doing all his life. SOVIET CUBA fine editorials dealing with the problem of Soviet Cuba. While it is believed by Government officials that last fall we were successful in forcing removal of Soviet intermediate and medium range missiles and bombers, it is now recog- nized that the Soviets are continuing to maintain a powerful military base in this hemisphere. The first editorial, published on March 4, strongly affirms: Peace in this hemisphere will not be se- cure as long as Castro rules in Cuba. * * * The regime in Cuba is one with which its neighbors will not be permitted to live in peace. The second editorial this morning is still more explicit. It suggests that the distinction between defensive and offen- sive weapons may have been erroneous or largely a semantic one. It then calls for an end to recriminations over the past and a recognition that Castro's Communist regime in Cuba is a very real threat to the safety of every democratic is going on and, in spite of the efficacy of aerial surveillance, no one can be certain' how large are the remaining Soviet forces. The regime in Cuba is one with which its neighbors will not be permitted to live in peace. The threat to the security and peace will rise and fall as their own precautions are extended or contracted. There is every present indication that no country can af- ford to allow its guard to relax. As long as Cuba remains a center from which Communist infiltration is carried on, it cannot expect the United States or any of its other neighbors to make any firm pledge against the invasion of Cuba. The day may arrive when these belligerent operations will reach a level of military significance to which there will be no appropriate response but military operations. To make sure that this pitch of activity is not achieved in total secrecy the scrutiny of operations on the island must be maintained at the highest ldvel. The Western Hemisphere must live in dan- ger while this situation persists. The pre- cautions necessary tocontain this threat are so onerous, disagreeable, and unsettling that the United States will be under continuous pressure to take arms against this sea of trouble and end it. Were there any as- surance that it could indeed be ended by extreme measures, it would be harder to resist such counsels. There is, however, no assurance that even this dangerous alterna- tive would end the crisis. It might only start a greater crisis. There is no easy escape from the Cuban nuisance. There is no present alternative to the maintenance of a high state of readi- ness for extreme action, a continuous scrutiny of Cuban measures for signs of increasing hostility, an unremitting readiness to de- fend any threatened country in the hemi- sphere. All that we can be sure of for the moment is that as long as this regime lasts, there can be no real peace. [From the Washington Post, Mar. 7, 1963] PAST AND FUTURE IN CUBA What is going to be done about Cuba to- morrow is a question of such pressing urgency for the survival of freedom in the Western Hemisphere that it is too bad to see it put into eclipse by a debate over what was done about Cuba yesterday. The intellectual resources of the adminis- tration and of its opponents, unfortunately, seem to be going chiefly into the controversy Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 3458 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE system. As It turns out, these weapons in Cuba were the first components in a total offensive weapons system that became com- plete with the arrival of intermediate range missiles. In this sense, they were offen- sive weapons--or, at least, parts of an of- fensive weapons system, from the beginning. 'There is some evidence that Chairman John MoCone of the CIA began to suspect this before the heavy missiles arrived. If this Government had acted on these sus- picions, however, Its posture might have been difficult. Could it have acted with the firmness It exhibited once the intermediate range missiles were in place? If it had, wouldn't Cuba and the Soviet Union have blandly asserted that only defensive weapons were installed? And wouldn't the vigorous measures of the administration have seemed premature, In this context? Surely, they would have seemed premature to most of our NATO allies and to many South American governments. A strong case can be made for the argument that the American tim- ing, whether due to ignorance, concealment or design, was well suited to achieve the de- sired result. A little earlier would have been too early and a little later might have been too late. The debate over what was right or wrong With the operations of last October is not as urgent as the debate over what is the right thing for this country to do now. Castro's Communist regime in Cuba is a very real threat to the safety of every demo- cratic regime in its vicinity. The adminis- able to, disclose, measures for dealing with it that seem adequate. In the absence of plans for dealing with it, those who argue for the most extreme measures are having a field day. They can enlist behind dan- gerous and oversimplified solutions the well-known American belief that you can "do something" about every problem. The administration runs the risk that this im- pulse will push it into doing something reckless and unwise unless It can perfect and disclose a policy that Is eater and sounder than the policies its critics pro- pose: VETERANS IN THE STATE OF MONTANA Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, several days ago my attention was di- rected to a new and very Informative pamphlet on the veterans in Montana. The document is based on information gathered in the 1960 census. I am proud, as is every. Montanan, of the major contribution made by the men and women of the Treasure State in World War 1, World War II, and the Korean war. eight out of every ten Montana men between the ages of 35 and 89 years are war veterans, a record of which we are extremely proud. The research staff at the Veterans' Administration has brought together a number of Interesting and helpful facts on the veterans of my State. The sta- tistics cover such things as length of service, residence, occupation, education, and a number of personal details. The Administrator, J. S. Gleason, Jr., Is to be complimented for a Job well done. I ask unanimous consent to have printed at the conclusion of my remarks in the RECORD the summary which ap- pears on pages 1 through, 4 of the pamphlet. There being no objection, the sum- mary was ordered to be printed In the RECORD, as follows: VrrsRANS IN THE STATE OT MONTANA, 1960 sn7LMAaT Three out of eight of the civilian males 18 or more years old living in Montana In April 1980 had served In the U.B. Armed Forces during World War I. World War II, or the Korean war. Another 8 percent had served only during peacetime- Fifty-four percent of the State's 89,300 male veterans, as compared to 47 percent of the 114,800 nonveteran males 18 years old or over, were living In cities and towns. One-third of both veterans and nonveterans lived In rural nonfarm areas. Proportion- ately fewer veterans than nonveterans lived on farms (veterans, I out of 8; nonveterans, I out of 5). Of the 89.300 veterans in Montana, 51.100 had served in World War II; 17.600 in the Korean war (of whom 2.800 were also World War II veterans): and 11,400 In World War I. The remaining veterans (12,000) were peace- tice ex-servicemen. except for about 180 Spanish-American War veterans. The median age of the 89,300 veterans in April 1960 was 38.3 years. World War I vet- erans were the oldest-median, 68.4 years. World War II veterans were 402 years old (median), and Korean war veterans were 292 years old (median). The other service veterans were the youngest (median-25.0 years). reflecting the fact that most of them had served in the Armed Forces since the Korean war ended In January 1955. ffight out of 10 men in Montana between the ages of 35 and 39 years were war veterans. Four out of every 10 men 25 and older had served in the Armed Forces during a war period. The lowest proportions of war vet- erans to total males were 1 out of 8 for the 55- to 59-year age group; I out of 8 for the 70 years and over group; and I out of 20 for the youngest males-18 to 24 years. Of the 56 counties In the State, Yel- lowstone had the most male veterans: 10,100 war veterans and 1.500 peacetime ex-service- men, Petroleum County had the smallest veteran population: 103 war veterans and no peacetime ex-servicemen. Of the State's 89,300 male veterans, 80 percent were married; almost 15 percent were single; 4 percent were divorced; .and 2 percent were widowed. Six out of ten Montana veterans were liv- ing in a different house In April 1080 than they had occupied 5 years earlier. Three out of ten moved within the same county and one out of eight moved from one Montana county to another. One out of seven male veterans had moved to Montana from an- other State since 1955. The movers (those who had lived In a different house In 1955) were more than 8 years younger than the veterans who remained at the same address (median age: movers, 352 years; nonmovers, 43.6 years). Veterans who moved within the county were almost 2 years older (median age. 36.9 years) than those who moved to another county In Montana (median age, 35.2 years). The veterans who came to Mon- tana from another State were even younger; median age, 33.2 years. The average veteran in Montana had fin- ished part of the first year of college. One out of eight had completed i to 3 years of college; another one out of eight was a col- lege graduate (1 out of 20 had finished 1 or more years of postgraduate study). Three out of ten completed high school, but not a year or more of college. One out of five (19 percent) completed his education with I to 3 years of high school; and one out of four (28 percent) bad completed no more than 8 years of elementary school. Eighty-eight percent of the Montana male veterans were members of families-9 out of 10 of them were family heads, the others were related to the family head (son, father, or other relative). Another 1 out of 10 were living alone or with unrelated persons, Of March 7 the 2 percent (1,800) who were not living In househcida, 4 out of 10 were in institutions, and 6 out of 10 lived in roominghouses, col- lege dormitories, and other group quarters. In April 1960, 84 out of 100 (74,500) male veterans inMontana were working, another 5 out of 100 (4,800) were unemployed. The 11 out of 100 veterans who were not in the labor force were about 27 years older than those in the labor force (median age-64.1 years as compared to 37.5 years). One-third (34 percent) of the employed Montana veterans in 1960 were craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and similar workers. One-fourth were professional and technical workers, managers, officials, and proprietors. One out of eight employed veterans was a clerical or sales worker; 1 out of 6 was a serv- ice worker, laborer, or farmworker; and 1 out of 10 was a farmowner or manager. Median personal income in 1959 of Mon- tana male veterans was $4,653. Veterans be- tween 35 and 44 years old had the highest income (median, $5,502); those 70 years old and over had the lowest (median, $2,041). Six percent of all veterans reported incomes of $10,000 or more. One out of five (18 percent) had less than $2,000 and 1 out of 12 had under $1,000 of income in 1969. Five thousand, eight hundred and fifty seven dollars was the median income in 1959 of the Montana families headed by male veterans. Twelve percent of these families bad an annual income of $10,000 or more; 36 percent had between $6,000 and $10,000; 30 percent reported income from $4,000 to $8.000; and 22 percent had under $4,000. One out of eight veterans' families had a 1959 income of less than $3,000. Of the 9.900 Montana veterans who were unrelated Individuals-living alone, or with nonrelatives, or In noninstitutional group quarters--4 out of 10 had less than $2,000 of income in 1959; 3 out of 10 reported be- tween $2,000 and $4,000; 2 out of 10 (18 percent) had between $4,000 and $6,000; and over 1 out of 10 had $6,000 or more. Their median annual income was $2,580, compared with the $4,853 median personal income of all veterans. THE ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, for all its emphasis on the need for increased material benefits to the people of Latin America, we should not lose sight of the fact that the Alliance for Progress repre- sents first and foremost a battle for men's minds. This makes the work of the Alliance in the field of education of crucial importance. Although largely unpublicized, the work of Alliance and AID people in raising educational standards is going forward on several fronts. The magni- tude of the operation Is summarized very well In a speech by the Honorable Teo- doro Moscoso, coordinator of the Alliance for Progress, before the California Teachers Association in Los Angeles on March 1. After reviewing the general problem of illiteracy in areas of Latin America- and the factors contributing to it-Mr. Moscoso outlines what is being done in the field of teacher training, school con- struction, furnishing of school supplies, assistance to higher education and stu- dent scholarships. Even with luck, it will be a long time before significant re- sults of our effort can be pointed to. Yet some of our first steps have been very promising. For instance, some 2'/ million primary readers-costing only about 12 cents Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release ?2004/06/23: CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 -l Y d J -'CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE 3571 needed in the education of exceptional Committee for the transition period pre- bipartisan national interest. The use of children, ceding the inauguration of President political party funds for such an activity Title V of the bill authorizes appro- Kennedy totaled at least $360,000. is not desirable. Nor can we escape the priations of $5 million for fiscal 1964, These figures cover only a proportion fact that there is a lack of dignity in a $10 million for fiscal 1965, and such sums of the costs involved in the transition system which requires party solicitors as the Congress may thereafter deter- period between changes of administra- to seek out private funds to support the mine to, be necessary for research and tion. During this time the President- necessary activities of the President- demonstration. grants to State agencies, elect must select his Cabinet, the Am- elect of the United States. colleges and universities, or public and bassadors to man diplomatic posts all Briefly, the bill I am bringing before other nonprofit educational or research over the world, top echelon administra- you does the following: organizations for projects which hold tive officials, as well as key personnel to Section 1 gives the title: "The Presi- promise of improving special education staff governmental and White House dential Transition Act of 1963." and related services to exceptional chil- executive offices. Section 2 declares its purpose to pro- dren. Some of the individuals chosen by the mote the orderly transfer of Executive President-elect to fill crucial roles in the power during the several months of CORRECTION OF RECORD construction and maintenance of the transition from one administration to Mr, MA,cORE&OR. Mr. Speaker, I ask new administration, in the past, have the other. unanimous consept that, the RECORD of been able to do so only at considerable Section 3 authorizes certain services yesterday, Wednesday, March 6, be cor- personal sacrifice. Transportation of to be provided by the- General Serv- ester a in the y, following Mach 6 such individuals is in itself an expen- ices Administration to President-elect Page 3359, "recently" should be "re- slue item. Housing during the confer- and Vice-Presidents-elect, such as of- cently:"-add colon. ence period is also costly. When the flee space, compensation for staff per- Corrections .for: Minnesota Taconite, conferences end in an appointment, the sonnel and experts, travel expenses, and 3380- 84,. new appointee in most cases must incur so forth. pages $3: hotel expenses until permanent housing Section 4 authorizes necessary services, Page 3387, `department of 'taxation'is procured. The requirement to work office space, and so forth to outgoing should be capitals "D and T", without Page 3381, "taxation"-should be capi- pay for 2 or 3 months Presidents and Vice Presidents for 6 tal "T". while incurring the increased personal months following the expiration of their Page 3381, "makes" should be "make", expenditures is an unreasonable demand terms. Page 3382, "whom" should be "which", upon persons of limited means. Some of Section 5 authorizes the Congress to Page 3382, "Anderson" should be "An- the special studies requested by Presi- appropriate such funds as may be nec- `dersen", dent-elect Kennedy were produced essary to carry out the purposes of the Page 3384, "a" should be "at". through the generosity of his consul- act. Page 3384, "told" should be "said", tants, not only with respect to their own In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, may I The S SPEAKER pro tould b .. Is there time but with respect to the substantial draw your attention to the fact that this m oectiOn to the request of the. gentle- clerical and administrative costs as well. bill to provide Federal Government funds OF 1963 American President rrg dispense with Dwight D. Eisenhower, as well as former (Mr. all but a few preliminaries in assuming presidential candidates Thomas E. Dew- FASCELI a ked and was given office. The size and complexity of to- ey, Adlai E. Stevenson, and Richard M. permission to address the House. for 10 day's Federal Government, the Pressing Nixon. minutes and to, regise and ext remarks..? end ills domestic and international problems John M. Bailey and Congressman Mr. facing the President, all combine to make WILLIAM E. MILLER, the chairman of the r. FASCELL. Mr.- Speaker, I have it imperative that' the machinery of two major political parties, have also today introduced a bill entitled the transition be as efficient as possible and lent their full endorsement and support. "Presidential Transition Act of 1963." sufficient resources available for the re- Mr. Speaker, I can see no valid reason This, is similar to H.R. 12479 which I in- trodced in the 87th Congress. quired orientation of the new leader. why this body should not enact the nec- This orientation can only be provided essary legislation to meet this kind of This bill was introduced re me to carry n ln;lde to the Con- by the outgoing administration. There- transition as a matter of organized pro- out a recommendatio gress re President,T exuaad t fore, it must be recognized as a legiti- cedure and as a matter of law in order gress with certain edyo on the Con- May mate function of government and a to orient and in order to effect the order- 1962, expense of government. Un- ly transition of power into the new Gov- dealing with the financing of presiden- der present conditions, a new President, ernment, particularly, Mr. Speaker, at tial election capaigns. The various in one sense, begins working for the Gov-' a time when it is extremely necessary proposals resulted I from a study and re- ernment the morning after the election. for a new Government taking over this port prepared by the President's Com- It is understood that both President- Government of ours to be able to meet mission on Campaign Costs. This was elect Eisenhower and President-elect almost immediately the challenges a bipartisan committee made up of Kennedy were given the cooperation of which are constantly hurled at us, the members with varied and extensive ex- their predecessors and access to needed American people, every hour of the day. perience in political finance, such as information. This is a tribute to the in- Mr. Speaker, I yield back the balance Alexander Heard, Chairman; V. O. Key, telligent and friendly attitude of all these of my time. Jr.; Dan Kimball; Malcolm C. Moos; gentlemen. But at this period of our Paul A. Porter; Neil O. Staebler; Walter history, I believe it more fitting that we N. Thayer; John M. Vorys; and James establish a formal process supported by (Mr. LIPSCOMB (at the request of C. Worthy, law. Rather than leave this important Mr. FINDLEY) was given permission My bill deals withthe transfer of ex- matter to the discretion or whim of the to extend his remarks at this point in ecutive power when there is to be a individuals concerned, it would seem the RECORD and to include extraneous change of administration. It is related wisdom to guard against the dangers of matter.) to the problem of campaign financing noncooperation, remote as they may be. [Mr. LIPSCOMB'S remarks will ap- because it was estimated by the Com- Under certain circumstances, such as a pear hereafter in the Appendix.] mission that in 1952-53, the cost to a campaigning incumbent defeated by the special Republican committee of the President-elect in a hard fought cam- ,., transition period between the .election paign, such dangers could arise. C T,TBAT CAVES and the inauguration of President Eisen- I submit that the vital transition of (Mr. CLEVELAND (at the request of hower exceeded $200,000. In 1960-61 Executive power from the outgoing to the Mr. FINDLEY) was given permission to the cost to the Democratic National incoming administration is a matter of extend his remarks at this point in the Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 19 63 C01VGR ESS eral courts, but at the same time to preserve What kind of a tomorrow are we going to economy will mean in more of all the things existing State law in the same field. Most build? for the cases of unfair competition tend to be What will the United States be like In the consume the people who brought in the Federal courts and it is ex- mid-1970's and by the year 2000? of a fabulous age. pected that in the future such cases would Fortunately we have some solid forecasts tax seandrine 1959family do's early incomefter llars, mind you -will invoke the new statute. However, a plain- in figures. Our Government joined two na- soar to $14,750, the survey states. tiff who wished to invoke State law would tional planning associations in predicting Fifteen times as many families will be be free to proceed in the State court based what Americans will achieve in the last one- earning $20,000 a year and up. on the same facts that also would create third of this century.' a right of action under the new Federal Their report, just issued, stimulates me tre- foreI don't for a casts like thesein* * bllfremem remember being statute; such a party would be entitled to mendously. The experts look at the long- warned years ago, "Henry, dont' be fantastic all the benefits of State law if he chose to pull trends. don't r into the pursue them, either in, addition to or in The trouble with short-run estimates often I urged-let ss set ours goalsblue for otherpostwar substitution for the Federal right of action, is that forecasts just for this year may be at 60 million jobs and a 400-billion-a-year entirely unaffected by the provisions of the conflicting and confusing, perhaps Influenced economy in the United States. Yet that bill. by a temporary situation or clashing theories. target has been well exceeded. These fore- Section 10 contains definitions of a num- Under short-range estimates, the forecaster casts force us to raise our sights. ber of terms used In the bill. Most of these may miss the forest for the trees. Spending for housing will triple, the re- are borrowed almost verbatim from the defi- But this long-range forecast takes account port forecasts. nition section of the Lanham Act (15 U.S.C. of. the historic past performance of our econ- Five times as much probably will be in- 1127). omy and projects the trends that should pre- vested in plant and equipment. Section 11 is the customary saving clause vail. for artial invalidit By the turn of this century, are told p y. So here are highlights of this official fore- we will almost double today's number of Section 12 provides that the new statute cast for the year 1976: jobs. There gain- shall take effect immediately upon its enact- Only 13 years from now-this country's an- fully employedill be 135 million people gain- ment, but that it shall not affect any pro- nual output of goods and services will reach Their average workweek will be 30 to 31 ceeding pending at that time. ? about one thousand billion dollars. hours-some 8 hours less than now. Section 13 provides a short title for the Our employment will exceed 92 million They will have month-long vacations as a statute, viz., the Unfair Commercial Activi- with the labor force one-third again as large rule. They will travel nearly three times as ties Act. as now. much as now-on the average 11,000 miles a Almost 70 percent of American families year per person. FREE ENTERPRISE-THE TRUE will be earning, at current prices, more than Turning to California, I dug into the 434- $6,000 a year. page book of projections and thought back FOUNDATION OF A FREE WORLD America's population will top 235 million 15 years ago when skeptics scoffed when I (Mr. YOU (at the request of people. predicted this State's population by 1970 Mr. r. YOU) Was g(aeri Two-thousand-miles-an-hour planes will would gain 50 percent and would reach 20 permission to fly us from Los Angeles to New York In 90 million, I was too conservative. California extend his remarks at this point in the minutes-New York to Moscow in 2 hours. Is headed for 18 million people this year and RECORD and to include extraneous mat- Those are some of the official forec t as s. fir) To me they emphasize that there lie im- Mr. YOUNGER,. Mr. Speaker, recent- mediately ahead times of spectacular change, ly one of America's leading industrialists challenges of revolutionary impact, yet un- and builders was honored for his contri- dreamed-of opportunities. butions to the free enterprise system we Science and industry are jet propelling this cherish so much. The man selected to generation into lightning progress of mate- rial far receive the first International Broad- m ankindih si ever known outmatching anything casting Award was Henry J. Kaiser. Mr. Scientists and free enterprisers are making Kaiser has played an important role in breakthrough in every field, the growth of the industrial might of In electronics alone, you well know how this country, and more recently, the de- millions of robots are at work for us in our veloping nations of the world. daily lives with computers and pushbutton True to his credo, "Find a Need and control systems making it possible to do jobs It," Mr. Kaiser is searching the that before eforr factories, have been eeoffices, too tom plexratora- corners of the earth for opportunities or la - corners borious for humans. In television, there e that will help all mankind enjoy a fuller, are the wanders of transistors and of Telstr more rewarding life. It has been said spanning the continents, as man learns how that Mr. Kaiser never looks back upon to send messages millions of miles along a his accomplishments-instead, he con- beam of light. stantly is looking ahead, seeking out new Our lives will be affected by the peaceful areas of neod. use of atomic energy and new, vaster sources As he accepted the Free Enterprise istry, drugs, and living cells by new uses of Award lee presented such an inspiring metals and other materials and new processes appraisal of the future that I wanted to providing us with thousands of new products call your attention to his enthusiastic for you to advertise and sell. forecast. I ask unanimous consent to I have just quoted you the forecasts for place into the body of the RECORD his 13 years from today. Now let's consider the remarks at the International Broadcast- forecasts that this same important report ing Award dinner on February 26 in makes for the year 2000. Hollywood: Here are some of the things that the able economists state will take place in the next FREE ENTERPRISE-THE TRUE FOUNDATION OF 37 years: A FREE WORLD The Naton will have 350 million people- (By Henry J. Kaiser) almost twice as many as today. Tonight I salute the great world of broad The goods and services produced annually casting and advertising, embracing, as you do, will be almost four times our current gross drama, entertainment, music, song, art, the national product. They will reach $2,000 printed and spoken word-the most power- billion. ful force of all time to, bring pleasure, en- Just imagine what this 2-trillion-a-year lightenment, and the fruits of free enterprise to people. "Projections to the Years 1976 and 2000: I am grateful with all my heart for the Economic Growth, Population, Labor Force award you have presented me. Yet after say- and Leisure, and Transportation," reports to ing "thank you more than I can voice"-I Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Com- would prove unworthy of the honors if I mission, to the President and Congress; U.S. didn't say-"now let's get on with our jobs Government Printing Office, Washington, ahead." D.C, IONAL RECORD - HOUSE 3575 The forecast is that California In a mere 37 years will have 41 million people. Now I'm leaving the figures on the ma ni g - tude of the growth ahead, and looking to the deeper meanings. More skills and' knowledge than ever be- fore will be called upon in coming years. The that not morel than one-fifth of the average man's brain is ever used as it might be, and perhaps half of one's brain remains unused from birth to death. We should not be satisfied with that. For the future that's right upon us, our youth must be educated to their maximum capacities trained to the skills that will be in serious shortage for this Age of Science. And equally important-they desperately need to be grounded in the humanities-in human relations-and the realms of the spirit. The jobs ahead call for more ideas and ideals-more courage and will-more zest for work-more brainpower. There always will be still tougher so-called "impossibles." Personally, i occasionally look back on the past only to goad myself to the faith that the pending "impossibles"' CAN be done. We should take the "t" out of "can't." The skeptics said a new cement plant could not make it in northern California which they claimed already had too much capacity, Yet that company's capacity has been multiplied seven times. Doubting Thomases said the west coast could not mass-produce ships; It didn't have the shipbuilders. Yet ships were built at record low cost at a rate of one a day. Hardheaded men argued that the west coast had neither the raw materials nor the markets to build Its own integrated steel industry. However, a 3-million-ton-a-year steel plant today feeds the industrialization of the West. Sixteen reasons were given why a new- comer would flop trying to enter the alumi- num Industry. * * * 200 firms turned down operating the wartime aluminum plants, convinced "aluminum will be running out of our ears." Yet that aluminum business has multiplied nearly six times. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 2963 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE established, have been ratified and held as thereof or in an ordinance appended there- defeated. This was the last direct military valid; and all the rights legally acquired by to," would define future relations with the i t t vi f th r n ue o ervention by the United States in Cuba. ose acts shall be maintained United States as follows: and protected. However, we did subsequently send a fi- 1. Cuba should never make any treaty with nancial adviser to Cuba, Gen. Enoch Crowder. ARTICLE III any foreign power which would impair its- In 1922 our Government asked Cuba to recog- Until the two contracting parties agree to independence, nor permit any foreign -iuus vi tine agreement In regard to the lease to the United States of America of lands in Cuba for coaling and naval stations signed by the President of the Republic of Cuba on February 16, 1903, and by the President of the United States of America on the 23d day of the same month and year, the stipulations of that, agreement with regard to the naval station of Guantanamo shall continue in effect. The supplementary agreement in re- gard to naval or coaling stations signed be- tween the two Governments on July 2, 1903, also shall continue in effect in the same form and on the same conditions with respect to the naval station at Guantanamo. So long as the United States of America shall not aban- don the said naval station of Guantanamo or the. two Governments shall not agree to a modification of Its present limits, the station shall continue to. have the territorial area that it now has, with the limits that it has on the date of the signature of the present treaty. pro- 2. Cuba should agree not to contract any t sts C , rowder proceeded to carry on such an debt beyond the capacity of its ordinary investigation. Under Crowder's direction revenues to pay. the budget was cut, crooked contracts un- 3. Cuba should consent that the United covered, and the formation of an "honest States might intervene "for the preservation cabinet" imposed. This latter step was the of Cuban independence, the maintenance of U.S. requirement for consent to a loan to a government adequate for the protection of Cuba by a New York bank. Crowder left life, property, and individual liberty," and Cuba briefly, returned in 1923 as American for the discharging of treaty obligations Ambassador, and this advisory form of in- which would now devolve upon Cuba from tervention was over. the United States. 4. Cuba should ratify all the acts of the ABROGATION OF THE AMENDMENT V.S. military government. During the late 1920's and early 1930's 5. It should agree to execute the sanitary the regime of President Gerardo Machado program instituted by the military govern- grew steadily more repressive. However, ment. President Hoover's administration in this 6. Title to the Isle of Pines (an island country refrained from intervention. When south T of of itle the western end Cuba) should the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt be left to future adjustment by treaty with assumed office, Sumner Weller was sent as the United States. Ambassador to Cuba, as Dr. Julius Pratt 7. Cuba should sell or lease to the United wrote, "ostensibly to mediate between Ma- or chado and his enemies; really States the lands necessary for coalin there is reason , g ARTICLE IV naval stations at points to be agreed upon. to think, to secure Machadesi resignation." " If at any time in the future a situation S. These provisions should be embodied In In any event, Machado did resign and flee the should arise that appears to point to an out- a permanent treaty with the United States. country on August 12, 1933. Several short- break of contagious disease in the territory The American demand that these stipula- eventually recognized ived rally refollowed. of Car- tThe regime of C United of either of the contracting parties, either of tions be included in the Cuban constitution - Col. Car - the two Governments shall, for its own pro- were at first resisted by the constituent as- a eaty wit th and ov May 1t b negotiated tection, and without its act being considered sembly, but were eventually accepted after a treaty h his government d which the unfriendly, exercise freely and at its discre- Secretary Root assured the Cubans that the Ulitt States re was only teh, nigh the i tion the right to suspend communications intervention contemplated in the third use the o United naval base at Guantanamo the Bay u l between those of its ports that it may desig- article would take place only in the event that naval base at G etaside b Bauntil nate and all or part of the territory of the of foreign threat or domestic disturbance. consent. might be set aside on mutual other party, and for the period that it may The amendment was added as an annex to 9ns. The treaty was Senate on May 29, consider to be advisable, the Cuban constitution, and embodied in a 1934, and approved. by the Senate 2 days later ARTICLE V. permanent treaty between the United States without a dissenting vote. According to one and Cuba in 1903. source, it represented a growing sensitivity The present Treaty shall be ratified by the to Latin American opinion, and an attempt contracting parties in accordance with their OCCASIONS FOR INTERVENTION on our part to convince Latin America of respective constitutional methods; and shall The first test for the Platt - amendment our got and ti imperialist intentions go into effect on the date of the exchange of - came in 1906. The first President of Cuba, their ratifications, which shall take place in Estrada Palma, had been reelected, but r`'?~ the city of Washington as soon as possible. within a few months there was a revolution. TJ S TAXPAYERS DOLLARS USED IN In faith whereof, the respective Plenipo- Little fighting actually took place, but ~ CUBAN PRISONER EXCHANGE tentiaries have signed the present Treaty and Estrada Palma appealed for help to Presi- have affixed their seals hereto. dent Theodore Roosevelt. - President Roose- MARCH 7, 1963 Done in duplicate, in the English and velt sent William Howard Taft to Cuba to (Mr. CRAMER (at the request of Mr. Spanish languages, at Washington on the try to get the quarreling Cuban factions to FINDLEY) was given permission to extend 29th day of May 1934, settle their differences. This mission failed, . his remarks at this int in the [SEAL] CORDELL HULL, the President of Cuba then resigned, the and to include extraneous atteR>coaD [SEAL] SUMNER WELLES, Cuban Congress received his resignation and Mr. CRAMER. Mr. Speaker, after a [SEAL] M. MARQUEZ STERLING. then adjourned without choosing a Sue- eessor. 5-month delay the General Accounting THE PLATT AMENDMENT With Cuba thus left without any effective Office has finally answered my inquiry Following the Spanish-American War, government, Taft proclaimed a provisional addressed to the Comptroller General Cuba was occupied by American soldiers un- regime. President Roosevelt appointed on October 9, 1962, relating to the Cuban til 1902. In 1900, Governor Leonard Wood, Charles Magoon provisional governor of prisoner blackmail proposals by Castro acting under orders from Washington, an- Cuba. A "handful of soldiers" occupied Cuba, and the action of the U.S. Government pounced an election of an assembly which while Magoon strove to carry out various relating thereto. would draft a constitution for a Cuban reforms. After reasonably honest election government to which the United States in 1909, the United States withdrew. It appears that contrary to what has would transfer authority. When this assem- In 1911, dissension, riots, and armed up- been reported to the American people by bly was eventually convened, it met with risings flared again in Cuba. The United the Kennedy administration the Gov- American, stipulations. These stipulations, States took measures preparatory to inter- ernment of the United States did par- largely drafted by Secretary of War Elihu vention. These measures consisted of the ticipate financially in the Cuban prisoner Root, were introduced in the Senate by Sen- dispatch of a few companies of marines to exchange. ator Orville H.,Platt, of Connecticut, as an Guantanamo, to aid the established Gov- amendment to the Army appropriation bill ernment In the event anarchy threatened? This becomes apparent as a result of of March 2, 1901, and was adopted by Con- As events worked out, no greater troop the reply I received from Joseph Camp- gress in that form. According to one his- movements were necessary at the time. bell, Comptroller General, dated March 1. torian, the Platt amendment "was designed Again In 1917, intervention followed on The Comptroller General's answer, to place such limits upon the island Repub- the heels of a disputed election. Declaring though 5 months late in coming, did re- lic's activities as to make her a safe and that this Government would not recognize veal "the U.S. Government provided 5 tractable neighbor." x The amendment au- a regime established by violence, Secretary thorized the President to terminate the mill- of State Lansing urged Cubans to refrain -tary occupation of Cuba as soon as a Cuban from civil war. Marines were landed to pre- 8 Pratt, Julius W., "A History of U.S. For- government should have been established serve order, and the rebellious faction was eign Policy." New York. Prentice-Hall. under a constitution which"either as a part 1955, p. 613. gBems, Samuel Fl `Thomas, Ann Van Wynen and A. J. 1 T erring, Hubert, "A History of Latin tory of the United Sta es."(4 h edition, New Southern Methodist University Press. Dallas 1956, .America." New York, Knopf, 1959, p. 404 York. Henry Holt & Co., 1955, p. 506. p, 28. 3577 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 1963 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 3579 intercourse with any foreign government or any "officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or agency or officer thereof, in relation to any disputes or con- troversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than three, years or both." This provision of law, in that it contains fine and imprisonment terms, is criminal in nature and not' within the purview of the General Accounting Office to enforce. Re- sponsibility for application of the .Logan Act lies with the Department of Justice. "5. The U.S. Government was in no way committed by Mr. Donovan's agreement with Cuban officials, and Mr. Donovan had no au- thority to commit the United States during his discussions in Habana. "The final terms of the prisoner exchange agreement reached as a result of Mr. Dono- van's efforts call for the delivery by July 1, 1063 of $53 million worth of goods, c.i.f. Habana. Cuban officials accepted 15 percent as the calculation for charges of handling freight and insuranace which is to be includ- ed in the $53 million total. The wholesale value of the goods eventually to be delivered is therefore estimated at approximately $46 million. In addition, before the transaction could be consummated, the fines for the 60 wounded prisoners who were released on credit in April 1962 had to be paid in cash by the Cuban Families Committee. The amount of the fines, totaling $2,925,000, was raised primarily by Gen. Lucius Clay on be- half of the committee entirely from private sources. "6. A full disclosure of the facts concern- ing the Cuban invasion prisoner transaction could not be made by the U.S. Government before agreement was reached (1) because the U.S. Government was not a party to the negotiations; (2) while the negotiations were still in progress, it was not known what the final terms of the exchange arrangements might be, or how soon the negotiations would be successfully terminated, if at all; (3) it was not possible to say before the terms were agreed upon whether the private com- mittee planned to request U.S. Government assistance in meeting these terms; (4) pre- mature disclosure of information available to this Government would have constituted U.S. Government intervention in the matter and might have prejudiced the negotiations. "The position of the U.S. Government to- ward the prisoner exchange has been fully and currently reported in the press, except during the period in which there was a -hazard that publicity might endanger the safety of the prisoners. Attention can be called to the extensive and generally accur- ate reports printed immediately after the exchange in the Washington Evening Star of December 24, the Washington Post of De- cember 25, and the New York Times News Service of December 26, 1962." In summary, it appears, aside from the nominal administrative costs that may have been involved, that the entire transaction so far as the Government's interest was con- cerned involves matters of policy and the applicability of criminal statutes within the jurisdiction of the Executive Branch of the Government to determine." Regarding the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act, 50 U.S.C. App. 1-39, and Presidential Proclamation 3447 of February 3, 1962, 27 F.R. 1085, declaring an embargo on all trade with Cuba, it should be noted that provisions are made in paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Proclamation for the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Commerce to make exceptions to the restrictions on im- ports from and exports to Cuba. In view of all of the facts and circumstances as dis- closed by the report of the Secretary of State and since the essential basis for controversy over the transaction as finally consummated lies in the realm of policy and statutory con- siderations outside the scope of the jurisdic- tion of this Office, we do not propose to take any action in the matter. Sincerely yours, JOSEPH CAMPBELL, Comptroller General of the United States. THE 1963 LINCOLN BANQUET (Mr. SCHWENGEL (at the request of Mr. FINDLEY) was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. SCHWENGEL. Mr. Speaker, on the evening of February 5, 1963, the Lin- coln Group of the District of Columbia again sponsored their annual Lincoln banquet in observance of the birth of our most American American, Abraham Lincoln. This year it was held at the National Press Club. Some 150 avid, in- terested, and recognized students of Lin- coln were present to enjoy the occasion and to learn more about the life and work of this great American. The president of the Dr. Paul Gantt who pointed out that there was reason for us to commemorate the an- niversary of Lincoln's birth on the 5th of February rather than the 12th as is our custom when it can be arranged. He pointed out some of Lincoln's activi- ties on February 5 which included the following : February 5, 1861, while still in Spring= field, Ill., Lincoln visited with Horace Greeley. February 5, 1862, Lincoln received his salary warrant of $2,083.33. Mrs. Lin- coln gave an unprecedented White House ball and 633 people filled the East Room. February 5,, 1863, he again received a salary warrant, this time amounting to $2,022.33. On the same day he wrote to Gen. Franz Sigel: General Schurz thinks I was a little cross in my late note to you. If I was, I ask pardon. If I do get up a little temper I have no sufficient time to keep it up. February 5, 1864, he again received a salary warrant of $2,0-22.33. On the same day he wrote to Secretary Edwin M. Stanton: On principle I dislike an oath which re- quires a man to swear he has not done wrong. It rejects the Christian principle of for- giveness on terms of repentance. I think it is enough if the man does no wrong there- after. February 5, 1865, at 7 p.m., the Presi- dent read to the Cabinet a proposal to pay $400 million to 16 States pro rata on their slave population in return to cessa- tion of all resistance to national author- ity by April 1, 1865. The "Lincoln Day by Day" book tersely notes: Cabinet unanimously disapproves. After these remarks he extended the greetings of the group, paid tribute to the committee, and then introduced the master of ceremonies for the occasion, Mr. Eldon Billings, the vice president of the Lincoln group, a student of history, an authority on Lincoln, and a very ca- pable economist at the Library of Con- gress. His background and capabilities fit very well the opportunity he was given to be master of ceremonies. He performed this task with tact, appro- priateness, and dignity. The group heard the Singing Ser- geants give several renditions which were interesting and appropriate. Again we were reminded of the great talent and sense of dedication that the young men in our armed services have and were impressed once more with the ability of our leaders to bring out and display in a very fine manner the tal- ents that are present among those who serve us in our Defense Establishments. They were given a generous hand and were appreciated beyond measure by all who heard them. One of the features of the banquet each year is the announcement and presentation of the Lincoln Award of the Year to someone who, in the opin- ion of the awards committee of the Lincoln group, has through the years made contributions in the general area of Lincolniana. This year we were pleased to honor a man who was most deserving of this recognition-Ralph Geoffrey Newman-for 30 years of un- selfish devotion to the Lincoln story, and those who tell it. Servant, stu- dent seeker, scholar, discoverer and dis- cerner, propagator and expositor, coun- selor and critic and comrade, editor, writer, collaborator, publisher, often fastidiously anonymous, always the happy, the generous participant, form- ulator, fashioner and founder of tables round, bookman rare and bibliographer learned, acknowledged authority and changeless, exuberant, eager amateur, friend to the Lincoln men, preceptor of the past for the enlightenment of the present. SPEAKERS As is our custom, we again had out- standing speakers who talked from both great knowledge and feeling for the heritage of our country as reflected in the life and work of this noble citizen in our heritage. This being the 100th, anniversary of the Proclamation of Emancipation, it was natural that Carl Haverlin, last year's winner of the Lincoln Award, should talk on the Proclamation of Emancipation. Because what he said is so meaningful and is worthwhile for us to know about as we contend with the complex problems of this age, I am ask- ing that this be placed in the RECORD so that every Member of Congress and all who receive the CONGRESSIONAL REC- ORD may have the opportunity of read- ing this splendid dissertation in which he points up the salient fact that Lincoln regarded our kind of democracy as."the last best "hope of earth." And, because Lincoln had such strong feelings about this he was moved to issue the Emanci- pation Proclamation at a time when it could be implemented and in a way that made it legal: In pointing out its many ramifications and great impact he quotes Dr. John Hope Franklin, who was our principal speaker 2 years ago when he said., The ramifications as well as the implica- tions of the Emancipation Proclamation seem endless. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012;5 1963 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A1241 won't wash away the loose pieces of soil and other things on top of the ground. That's why water that flows fast will wash or erode land more than water that flows slowly. If the water runs fast, it will carry more soil with it. The amount of soil that will be washed away in a given time will depend also on how easily the soil will erode. For example, water may be flowing over two different kinds of soil at the same rate, at the same depth and for the same length of time. Yet one soil will wash away much faster than the other. This is because the two soils differ in their ability to resist erosion. Twenty-two percent ' of Johnson County's 390,400 acres are considered by soil experts to be susceptible to excessive erosion, 26 per- cent susceptible to severe erosion and 52 percent to moderate erosion. The result of a drop of water falling on bare soil somewhat resembles the action of an exploding bomb. Each raindrop digs a small hole in the ground surface. The loosened soil can then be easily washed away if the water is not held where it falls. Basically, the process of soil erosion by water consists of three principal steps: (1) loosening soil particles by the impact of raindrops or by the scouring action of run- off, (2) moving the detached particles by flowing water, and (3) depositing the par- ticles at new locations. In a watershed, these steps occur in sequence from ridge to river or stream. Whenever the rain falls faster than it can soak in, . a sheet of water collects on the surface and moves downhill. The: rain continues .to dislodge soil and keep it suspended in the moving sheet or feed it into the little streams of water flowing off the field along crop rows or hills. Min- eral nutrients and organic matter are churned into the runoff and carried away, leaving the coarser, less fertile particles behind. The combined actions of bdating rain and flowing water remove continuous layers of soil from fields. This is sheet erosion. On rolling land, soil is removed more rapidly from the hilltops and steep slopes than from the gentle ones lower down, often exposing lighter colored subsoil as erosion progresses. But sheet erosion takes place wherever muddy water moves off a field dur- ing a rain without ponding. If the water in the little streams -moves fast enough, it, too, dislodges soil and carries it along with that splashed up by the rain- drops. This scouring action carves out chan- nels that join farther down the slope. This is rill erosion. The little streams or rills carry more soil as they pick up speed or grow in size. The abrasive particles they carry help scour the sides and bottoms of the channels. Sheet and rill erosion in combination remove enor- mous amounts of soil from unprotected Further cultivation smooths the rills and mixes subsoil with the surface layer. The result in most soils is a surface layer harder to work and less productive than the original one. As the rills join to make larger channels, the runoff becomes more and more concen- trated as it moves downslope and its scouring action increases. A sudden drop, or overfall, in the channel multiplies the cutting power of the stream and enlarges the channel as the overfall ad- vances upstream. The result: gullies. They are channels so deep they cannot be sniootlied out by ordi- nary cultivation. Soil conservation officials say gullies in Johnson County are feeding large amounts of sediment into the county's streams, the Ionia River and the Coralville Reservoir. rill erosion have been going on a long time. Sometimes they divide fields into small areas Impractical to cultivate, even where erosion is not serious between the gullies. The banks of some large gullies slump and cave. This is especially likely to happen if the soil is underlain by a deep crumbly ma- terial. As the plunging stream of water undercuts the head and sides of the gully, great masses of soil break loose and are swept downstream. In this way gullies advance rapidly across some fields and often make otherwise pro- ductive land impossible to farm. When erosion is active on the uplands of a watershed, the stream that drains the watershed may be cutting away its banks, also. This usually is the result of more floodwaters than normal from the unpro- tected watershed and the scouring action of the sediment load in the stream. The final step in the erosion process is the depositing of the soil particles that have been moved. This sediment deposit may oc- cur in upland fields or on bottom lands where it damages crops. Or the sediment may fill streams, ponds, and resorvoirs. In any event, deposition of the soil where it is not wanted may be as damaging as its removal from its original position on the watershed. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HARRY FLOOD BYRD OF VIRGINIA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, March 7, 1963 Mr. BYRD of Virginia. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Appendix of the RECORD a letter addressed to me as chairman of the Senate Finance Committee by Mr. George J. Burger, vice president of the National Federation of Independent Business. There being no objection, the letter was, ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: NATIONAL FEDERATION OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS, San Mateo, Calif., March 5, 1963. Hon. HARRY F. BYRD, Chairman, Senate Finance Committee, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR BYRD: I know that you and the members of your Committee on Finance will be interested in the fact that the federation recently concluded a poll of its more than 190,000 individual members in the smaller independent business and inde- pendent professional pursuits on the sub- ject of the tax reduction phase of the administration's program. In thousands of signed ballots sent to their Congressmen in the House of Repre- sentatives a majority of these members voted in favor of the three-stage reduction in personal and corporation income taxes, also in favor of the administration's pro- posal to reduce personal income taxes by various percentages, also to reduce corpora- tion tax rates to 22 percent on the first $25,- Q00_of taxable income and 47 percent on all aboye that figure. Additionally a slightly larger majority voted in favor of the corpora- tion rate revision proposal by Senator JOHN SPARKMAN, chairman of the Senate: Small Business Committee and Senator LEVERETT 8ALyON,STALL, ranking minority member of the Senate Small Business Committee to reduce corporation tax 'rate to 22 percent of the first $50,000 taxable income leaving the rate at 52 percent above that figure. It is most significant to note that while a majority of federation members voted across the board in favor of the administration's tax revision proposals an even greater ma- jority stated they favored Congress match- ing tax cuts with Federal spending cuts on a dollar-for-dollar basis. In other words, Senator BYRD, there is a definite consensus among our members for reductions in Gov-. ernment spending to accompany tax cuts. For your further information I set forth below the questions asked our members, with the percentage response received: In percent] 1. President's proposal for 3-stage tax cut_______________------- 2. President's proposal to reduce personal income taxes------ _ _ 3. President's proposal to reduce, corporate income taxes ------ 4. Senate Small Business Com- mittee plan to cut corporate taxes------------------------ S. Congress match tax cuts by spending cuts ___________ No vote. 5 4 7 7 3 GEORGE J. BURGER, Vice President. Administration Not Blazing New Trail With Tax Theory EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES E. CHAMBERLAIN OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 7, 1963 Mr. CHAMBERLAIN. Mr. Speaker, editorial interest in tax reform is cur- rently running high, stimulated by the President's recommendations to the Congress. It was inevitable, though, that attention would be directed to. alternatives to the proposals now before us, or to modifications aimed at more workable methods of stimulating the economy-the President's announced aim. I submit for the consideration of my colleagues, as an indication of such editorial reaction in the Sixth District of Michigan, an editorial from the Flint Journal of February 26, 1963, which makes some interesting points in favor of the principle we have had before us these many years in the Herlong-Baker bill. The article follows: ADMINISTRATION NOT BLAZING NEw TRAIL WITH TAX THEORY Backers of President Kennedy's tax recom- mendations to Congress sometimes get car- ried away. They imply that the theory on which the revisions are based is a novel idea stemming from the New Frontier. This is not true. The theory, of course, is that a lower rate of taxes eventually will produce more money from a greatly expanded national economy. In subscribing to such a theory Mr. Ken- nedy is neither propounding something new nor blazing a new trail in the implementa- tion of an old doctrine. The principle is ss old "as taxation itself. It is what is known as the law of diminish Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/C i i,,t CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 A1244 CONGRES_. 1 AL RECORD - APPENDIX Ing returns which decrees that after a tax passes the maximum level of toleration any further increase in the rate produces less rather than more revenue because It dam- We Handle Khreshchev With Kid Gloves EXTENSION OF REMARKS ages the source. or In reverse application, a lower rate of taxe- HON. STEVEN B. DEROUNIAN tion-down to a given point-eventually pro- duces more revenue because It makes poo- slble the creation of more substance to tax. This is more than a theory. It has been demonstrated In actual application of the Federal income tax. The Wheeling (W. Va.) InteIligencer re- cently pointed out that Andrew W. Mellon, secretary of the Treasury under three Presi- dents-Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover-sold the idea of a rate reduction to a skeptical Congress. He argued that a rate reduction actually, would yield more revenue in time than the rates in force because the incen- tives would create so much more income to tax. Congress went along with Mellon and ex- pe-lence proved him right. But the theory hasn`t been applied In a substantial way since Mellon's day. This doesn't bean that the Idea was swept under, the bed and forgotten until now. But those who have been advancing the same arguments Mellonused haven't been listened to in recent years. Now the Kennedy ad- ministration is trying to take credit for coming up with a startling new Idea. One group which has been pushing for such tax action for at least 5 years is the f handful, of Congressmen supporting the Herlong-Sakes bill, aimed at lessening the tax obstacles to economic growth. That's how long attempts have been made to get the proposed legislation to the action stage. In making his tax recommendation, the President accepted the principle on which the Herlong-Baker bill is based. However, he stopped short of the full Implementation caller( Sor in the bill sponsored by Repre- sentative A. S. EmONG, Democrat, of Florlda, and Representative HOWARD W. BAKER, Re- publican, of Tennessee. For one thing, the administration plan would apply more tax reduction more abruptly-3 years as against 5 years, a $8 billion first-year reduction as against one of just under $4 billion. For another, the Kennedy goal Is shorter-an eventual reduction of $10 billion as against one of slightly more than $10 billion. For another, the President's program puts less emphasis on economic stimulation through the encouragement of investment by keeping both the corporate and individual top brackets much higher. Also, although Mr. Kennedy has promised to curtail nondefense spending, It seems inevitable that enactment of his plan as sub- milted would result In an even larger budget deficit, at least In the beginning. The Her- long-Baker bill contains a suspension provi- lion toguard against deficit increases. Because of the political implications, it Is unlikely that either the administration or Congress will endorse In its entirety a bill which has the backing of the business world-which Herlong-Baker has. But the President's latest proposal agrees in principle with the bill (as compared with his recom- mendation to Congress last year). And it seems not too much to hope that sufficient modifications can be worked out and a pro- gram formulated that will overcome the weaknesses of the administration plan and be acceptable to those who believe in fiscal regularity. , As the sponsors of the Herlong-Baker bill pointed out after Mr. Kennedy's recommen- dation was made, It is not Important whose name is on the bill finally adopted or whether it is a combination of several bills. The goal of more growth and jobs through spaced-out rate reform, while strengthening the Federal budgetary situation, is our over- riding concern. Or NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 7, 1963 Mr. DEROUNIAN. Mr. Speaker, the amazing story of our refusal to make U-2 flights, last fall, could have been dis- astrous. We were quite lucky, as it turned out. President Kennedy, in his program of being blunt with our friends and soft on our enemies, was the one responsible for the failure to use our full Intelligence facilities during the period, last fall. In yesterday's Washington Evening Star, Jules Witcover tells us about the photo-gap: CvwAw PHoTo GAP Tim To PEAR Or U-2 RacKna (By Jules Witcover) Fear of another International U-2 Inci- dent appears to have been the major im- perjlment to earlier discovery of the Soviet missile buildup in Cuba. The Kennedy administration was -deeply concerned that heavier aerial reconnaissance of the island might erupt Into a replay of the U-2 propaganda brawl that scuttled the summit conference in May 1960. Every evidence, both public and private, tends to support, the conclusion that for 5 weeks, high-altitude flights were avoided over areas where the Russians were preparing to build offensive aites, for fear that loss of a U-2 would ignite another diplomatic uproar. The fear apparently was based not so much on the possibility of a diplomatic setback in the court of world opinion. Rather, It grew out of concern that the bold Soviet gambit might be obscured in a sea of semantics and shifted to the United Nations before conclu- sive proof could be obtained. atrsslLa THREAT TO U-S's Discovery of Soviet surface-to-air missiles by a U-2 on August 29 posed an immediate threat to overflying U-2's, and the shooting down of a Nationalist China U-2 over Red China on September 9 confirmed the surface- to-air missiles' capability. It Is believed now that the U.S. policy- makers were sufficiently concerned by the downing of the Chinese U-2 that they stopped all U-2 overflights of Cuba for nearly a week while that incident could be ap- praised in the light of the Cuban situation. Finally, it apparently was decided that flights should be resumed, but not over areas protected by the surface-to-air missile sites. Thus, Defense Secretary McNamara was able to report only last week that flights were made four times during the 5-week period of the so-called photo gap and that pictures were taken. but that they didn't relate to the Soviet offensive buildup. CHRONOLOGY or evzwvs What appears to have happened then was thin; 1. A U-2 flight was made for the first time In 12 days on September 17, but cloud cover prevented effective phototaking. 2. Other U-2 flights were made on Sep- tember 28, 29, October 5 and 7, but they flew patterns that avoided the surface-to-air mis- sile sites and hence yielded pictures of Cuba that were unrelated to buildup, since the pro- tective surface-to-air missile sites were con- structed in the buildup areas. 3. In response to a number of develop- ments-more provocative refugee Intelli- gence, the pressures of leading members of March 7 the intelligence community, an increasing clamor from Capitol Hill-the President around October 9 and 10 ordered U-2's to photograph the surface-to-air missile-pro- tected areas. 4. It was here that the discussion took place that led to transfer of overflight re- sponsibility from the Central Intelligence Agency to the Strategic Air Command of the Air Force. In Itself this discussion did not cost time, because bad weather would have prevented flights for these few days anyway. 5. SAC was given flight responsibility on October 12 or 13, ostensibly because it had more planes but probably also because of the military implications of potential at- tacks from the surface-to-air missiles. 6. The President authorized a SAC U-2 overflight for October 14 on a specially pre- planned flight pattern taking it directly over the ran Cristobal area protected by surface- to-air missiles. The Sight yielded the telltale photo of the Soviet offensive buildup well underway. From then on, overflights were stepped up regardless of the surface-to-air missile threat. STATEMENTS BACK OUTLINE This chronology of the 5-week "photo gap" period is reinforced by several public state- ments by high administration officials and a number of private sourcesIn and out of the administration. John Hughes, the Defense Intelligence Agency expert who brief the Nation in the February 8 televised report on Cuba, set August 29 as the date on which high-altitude photos provided the first evidence of Soviet surface-to-air deployment in Cuba. It was this Information, magnified by the downing of a Chinese U-2, that Is believed to have accentuated deep concern within the administration about the possibilities of a diplomatic or propaganda short circuit of the Intelligence effort. A high administration official, discussing the mood of the decision-makers sometime later, emphasized the extreme caution with which the administration approached the matter of sending U-2's over Cuba. He recounted the propaganda mess that accrued from the downing of Francis Gary Powers' plane over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960, and emphasized that the memory of this affair was in the minds of key ad- ministration advisers throughout this time. Accordingly, he said the administration proceeded with great care against the chance that a plane might be shot down. causing the loss of U.B. psychological initiative as well as loss of the plane. Proposals EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. STROM THURMOND Or SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, March 7, 1963 Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, the State and the Columbia Record of March 3, 1963, contains an excellent editorial which presents some good food for thought to those supporting the so-called civil rights proposal which would sub- stitute a sixth grade education for vote of qualification tests in the States. This editorial points up the fact that such legislation would water down rather than improve the quality of the ballot in the United States. I commend these edi- Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 1963 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-, APPENDIX being is suffering, there Is Christ likewise the proportions now being disclosed in suffering? Washington. 2. Am I antagonistic when a person of an- Arthur Sylvester, Assistant Secretary of other color joins my parish, sits in my pew, Defense for Public Affairs, actually boasted attends my church society, or kneels next of the way the administration had care- to me at the altar rail? According to 'his fully timed relea,ses to news media to pro- or her reliability and devotion, am I glad duce the proper effect in the Cuban crisis. to have a person of a different race on my For a top administration official to declare vestry or hold a -parish office? that news is a weapon must give the free 3. In my daily work, am I willing to labor world the shudders. side by side in union' jobs, in office posts Then came a directive by Sylvester to all in any kind of honest employment with of the Defense Department's military and decent people regardless of race or religion? civilian personnel to report to him the sub- Am I Willing to be helpful to such persons, stance of every interview or telephone con- cooperative and understanding and to con- versation with a newsman. A similar order duct myself in the spirit of Christ and the has been put into effect by the State De- Constitution of the United States? If I partment. In plain words, officials are be- am an employer, am I willing to hire those ing told not to talk to reporters. of different races when they are qualified Most disturbing is the attitude on the for positions and are willing to give of their part of top U.S. officials that these develop- best abilities? Am I doing my best to end merits reveal. They are saying that the only economic discrimination so that our free news American citizens should receive is enterprise system will remain free for every that in governmental handouts. It would willing worker? Do I want full, employment be easy to extend this to matters not in- for all sorts and conditions of en as long volving U.S. security. The next step is tell- as they are honest, reliable, and industrious? ing selected untruths to influence public 4. Am I too hard of heart to have a sense opinion. of shame when I drive through blighted This is a situation about which all Amer- areas, overcrowded slums, filthy, and dete- icans should be concerned, regardless of riorated living quarters? Does my heart go their political or ideological beliefs. out to the needs of the children and the delinquency that follows from such living conditions? Am I moved to help improve these conditions or do I simply "pass by on the other side" without care or action? 5. When people of other races move into my neighborhood, am I courteous to them or do I seek ways of preventing their presence? 6. Do I seek special privilege, regardless of my race or religion, when I lack depend- ability, courteous manners, and sincere will- ingness to work and search for truth and 7. Am I provincial, unwilling to study the world conflicts now being fought along lines of racial and religious hatred? Have I tiled to understand the consequences of spiritual Ivry friends, few of ' us will find ourselves without guilt on one or many of these ques- tions. May we approach them' with calm understanding, spiritual insight, persistent prayer, and openness of mind. May those of us who feel strongly on one side or the other of these questions, ask God to rid us of the self-righteousness that breeds a haughty air of intolerance. May we approach this issue of the hour with intellectual integrity, emo- tional discipline, Christ-like humility, and patriotic devotion. May we not judge some other part of the world or nation without first examining our own consciences in the community in which we now live. Faithfully yours in Christ, AUSTIN PARDUE, Bishop of Pittsburgh. No Propaganda Ministry EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. RALPH HARVEY OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 7, i$63 Mr. HARVEY ' of Indiana. it r, Speaker, under unanimous consent I In-_ elude in the Appendix of the RECORD an editorial from the fl.ushville (Ind.) Daily Republican, issue of March 4: No PROPAANAMINISTRY Management of the news is, a growing: practice in the fJnited States. It shows up on all, levels, But nowhere has it reached Employment-of-the-Handicapped Contest EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. CLYDE DOYLE OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 18, 1963 Mr. _DOYLE. Mr. Speaker, by reason of unanimous consent heretofore granted me so to do, I present the text of the two prize-winning essays in the employment- of-the-handicapped contest conducted in the great 23d Congressional District of. California on the subject of "How My Community Benefits From the Abilities of the Handicapped Worker." The. first-place winner was Ralph A. Sorensen, of Lynwood, Calif., a student at Lynwood High School, who won a $50 bond, and the second-place winner was Cheree Noyon, of Compton, Calif., a stu- dent at Dominguez High School, who won a $25 bond. I am sure you join with me in complimenting these young Americans and the contest committee under the leadership of Mrs. Lillian Karnes, a.dis- tinguished veteran, now of Lakewood, Calif., but who for many years lived in the congressional district which I have the honor of representing. The essays follow: HOW MY COMMUNITY BENEFITS. FROM THE ABILITIES OF Th E HANDICAPPED WORKER (By Ralph A. Sorensen) How does my community benefit from the abilities of handicapped workers? I am proud to be a citizen of a community that has realized that the physically disabled are valuable assets, not pitiful liabilities. "Valuable asset?" one queries. "How can can an individual, deformed or demented by war, disease, or accident, be of any practical use to anyone?" Let us look at the record. Two of the greatest military generals of his- tory, Julius Caesar and-Napoleon Bonaparte, ,were both epileptics. Halleyrand, Darwin, Franklin Roosevelt, Steinmetz, and Toulouse- Lautrec were all crippled, yet the philoso- phies, inventions and works of art of these .A1,261 handicapped men have changed the course of history. Ludwig von Beethoven was so deaf he could not hear a note of his sym- phonies, yet his music has thrilled genera- tions. Incredible? Yes. But these are just a few of the world's celebrities who, in spite or maybe because of their disabilities, became great. The list goes on and on, each example a blow to the myth that handicapped means useless. In our community, the situation is one of give and take-the community gives the handicapped the tools and training, and in turn reaps the harvest of an able and produc- tive working force. A prime example of the work being done in our community can be found in the near- by Community Rehabilitation Industries, a private foundation designed to rehabilitate the handicapped person so that he may face the world again with as much to offer as the next man. , Inside the walls of this center can be found men, some crippled, some blind or deaf, yet all performing tasks that benefit themselves and their communities. For these men are re-learning to perform simple tasks that they once performed without a second thought until fate struck them down. When they graduate from the center, as have over 200 persons, they will move Into industry as very capable employees. Community Re- habilitation Industries is but one of several such Organizations in our area, both State and private, all with the purpose of tapping this oft neglected resource. Our community today is a better place in which to live because of the abilities of handicapped workers. When it becomes common knowledge that the handicapped worker is an able, diligent, and productive member. of society; when man realizes that the physically disabled person is an asset to his community, rather than a millstone around the community's economy; then the entire world. will be a better place in which to live. NOT CHARITY-BUT A CHANCE (By Cheree Noyon) The handicapped are not first blind or deaf or crippled; they are first human beings. This means they should not be designated as a faceless mass, but rather judged as individuals. Many times we have a tend- ency to forget that the deaf or blind are not all alike, that they all have personalities and skills of their own. These people do not like to be lumped together, pitied and predjudiced against. They want to prove their worth as individ- uals, and they are determined to have an equal chance. Being handicapped seems to endow them with a will. They work harder and better at their jobs. They are more careful in industrial work knowing well what kind of consequences an accident may have. They are also very conscientious, because there are few second chances for the handi- capped in employment. Their roles in so- ciety are useful and varied. They range from housewives, draftsmen and industrial workers to authors, artists, lecturers, and teachers. They fulfill their roles as well or better than anyone. It is a mistake to single out the handi- capped as objects of pity. For they do not want pity or charity-only an equal chance. The odds against them are high, therefore their triumphs are double victories. They must have spirit and they do. Beethoven did much of his greatest work after he had lost his hearing. When he realized he would be deaf, he bravely challenged, "I shall take fate by the throat." And that he did. He wrote the most beautiful, powerful music the world has heard. He wrote it without ears-from his heart. He is a wonderful example of a great man with perseverance, strength and soul. He should serve as a lesson to us that even though the handi- Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 A1262 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX March 7 capped have physical deficiencies. their souls and minds are sound and true. They are courageous, faithful people and there are no tier virtues than these. Helen Keller, Frances Butler, Helen Morgan, and many others surmounted seemingly impossible odds to become useful contributors to our culture. These people are certainly not to be pitied but honored and respected. Why then should be pity others so afflicted? The handicapped often have to cope with pitying stares and comments. It is to their credit they receive these calmly and even with humor. There Is a story of a disabled KoreaFn veteran who had lost one of his legs? At the hospital where he was con- valescing, a woman looked at him with too obviot}s pity and exclaimed, "Why you poor boy. You've lost your leg?' This would have been a very embarrassing moment for the C}I, but he was equal to the situa- tion god responded with a tone of surprise while glancing at his leg, "Why I'll be dog- goned if I haven't." The handicapped's biggest problem is so- ciety's general condescending opinion to- ward them. In order to eliminate this feel- ing, If is necessary to promote understand- ing. This can only be done by Interaction between them and general society. The Paul Ginner classes of today's public schools are a 'start. Here deaf children attend the same schools as the other students. Through association students learn to regard the deaf and dumb not with aversion or pity: they learn to accept them as individuals just like themselves. We need more educa- tion of the public in these matters. Where there is understanding there is no fear. And it is true we often fear the handicapped. We do not know how to treat them. We feel somehow they ought to be treated differently from other people. This to not so. Try to imagine yourself as a handicapped person. Would you be any less a person? Would you feel less, care less, understand less? They don't either. Cook County Group Backs Antidetergent Pollution Legislation EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. HENRY S. REUSS CT WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 21, 1963 Mr. REUSS. Mr. Speaker, the wide- spread support for legislation to prevent continued detergent pollution in Ameri- ca is ,a reflection of the seriousness with which the people of this country view this growing problem. Groups that have focused their at- tention on the Nation's water resources have been in the forefront of those en- dorsing the efforts to force a switch to decomposable detergents. Such a group is the Cook County Clean Streams Committee. Because the feel- ings Of this group are typical of those of organizations in other metropolitan centers, I partlcular!y call the Cook County committee's stand to the atten- tion of Members representing urban areas. Excerpts from their statement follow: Our Cook County Clean Streams Com- mittee is delighted to learn that you have introduced into Congress H.R. 2105, which. it passed, would make it unlawful to import into the United States or deliver for Intro- duction into interstate commerce, any de- tergent after June 90. 1965, unless such detergent conforms with standards of de- composability prescribed pursuant to sec- tion 3 of this act. The rapidly growing use of detergents in the United States is making our rivers and streams not only unsightly but also is threatening the purity of our water supplies. We feel that H.R. 2105 is a sorely needed measure that should receive the full support of the Izaak Walton League, sportsmen's clubs, and all organizations interested main- taining pure water supplies. We shall do all that we can to support this measure. I would note that the approach em- bodied in H.R. 2105 together with amendments to add to the effectiveness of the legislation have been included in a new antidetergent pollution bill, H.R. 4571. 1 1 t People Have No Intention of Keeping Quiet When They Feel Threatened EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. LOUIS C. WYMAN O7 NEW HAMPSHIRE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 4, 1963 Mr. WYMAN. Mr. Speaker, in these days when there is so much controversy over Cuba it is of considerable interest to read the views of responsible people in Florida who are so close to the situation. One of the best statements I have read in recent weeks is expressed in the editorial of Jack Gore in the Fort Lauderdale News of February 12. Under unanimous consent. I am in- serting this editorial in the CONGRES- S=AL RECORD so that others may bene- fit from its message: PEOPLE HAVE NO INTENTION 07 KEEPING Qatrr WHEN THEY FEEL. TIIEEATENED The appeal voiced by Under Secretary of State George W. Ball this past Sunday night for Americans to stop talking so much about the Cuban situation and sit back and let It develop, emphasizes once again the impor- tant role that public opinion plays in the determination of national policies Under Secretary Ball strongly believes that now that all the facts about the Cuban deal have been given to Congress and the public everybody should unite in a common shell. keep their traps shut and throw their un- limited support behind our Government's efforts to resolve the situation. In ordinary circumstances Ball's advice would be very sound counsel well worth heeding. But this advice presupposes some- thing that just does not exist in the Cuban situation. It presumes that our Govern- ment is taking direct and forceful action to protect the interests of the citizens it repre- sents and that a great majority of these citizens are well satiailed with the results that have accrued from this action. We wish this were true but the commotion that is currently being raised over Cuba signifies just the opposite, and a large part of this commotion Is being engendered by people who don't have any political axes to grind but who are definitely interested in preserving basic policies this Nation has followed for a good many years. There are, we think, just as many Demo- crats as Republicans interested in trying to find out what has happened to the Monroe Doctrine these past few months. We wouldn't call abandonment of the Monroe Doctrine a partisan political issue. Yet, to hear some people talk today, anybody who brings up such a basic question Is trying to make political fodder out of the Cuban situ- ation. We have always felt that partisan politics should stop where the real security of this Nation begins. Thus, anything that affects the security of this country, in our book, should be argued not on a political basis but on an America first basis. People can disagree with national policies that affect our security without being con- sidered disloyal. In fact, we think they not only have a right but a responsibility to do just this as we haven't yet reached the point in this Nation where a political administra- tion's word is the law and everybody has to bow and scrape before it. It is argued that all the current furor over Cuba Is apt to create the impression abroad that we are a disunited people not capable of throwing our shoulders behind a common wheel. But, In this respect, we are like two brothers fighting among themselves but who can and do instantly unite when they are threatened by an outside force. Fortunately, In our political system, the force of public opinion cannot be ignored too long. When it is mustered behind any given objective It can literally move any- thing before it including a stubborn Con- gress, a muddle-headed State Department or a recalcitrant administration. It was public opinion, as evidenced by a rising furor in the Congress, that eventually forced administration officials to suddenly change their tune last fall and recognize the seriousness of the growing Russian missile threat in Cuba before it was too late. Now, It is public opinion again which has once more forced administration officials to come out in the open and admit facts which, if they had their way, would be better left covered up. All this goes far beyond partisan politics. It is not just Republicans or Democrats who are threatened by the growing Soviet menace in Cuba and the rest of the Caribbean. It is America and Americans and anytime any- body starts playing politics with their secur- ity it is time to call a halt to such a danger- ous game. Personally, we don't give a whit whether the Cuban problem started primarily with the Eisenhower or the Kennedy administra- tion. This Is water under the dam and bick- ering over this serves no useful purpose be- yond a certain point. But we do care about what is or isn't being done about the Cuban problem right now, and so should every other American who is the least bit inter- ested In winning the fight against com- munism. If this administration has committed itself to scrapping the Monroe Doctrine and living with a Communist bastion 90 miles from our shores then It ought to have the guts to say as much instead of beating around the bush. If it hasn't scrapped the Monroe Doctrine as the basic policy of our country then it is time not only to say this forth- rightly but to take firm action to give its words weight. People get confused and petulant pri- marily when they don't know or can't find out In just which direction their leaders are taking them and their country. That is why Americans are confused and petulant right now. They see an admitted menace to their security in their backyard but they see little being done about it. They want something done, and until they have some clear evidence that it is being done, we doubt they will take Undersecretary George W. Ball's advice to stop asking embarrassing questions of the administration. JACK W. Goss. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 x963 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A1269 Khrushchev promised to pull out some of an area has not been as fully integrated Board member E. Thomas Moulder, who the estimated 17,000 military personnel by into the defense system of Western Europe. cited an article in Tuesday's Springfield March 15-and indeed a handful, not more Recent reports have hinted Spain is seek- Daily News as the basis of his worries, re- than a few hundred, have left in the last ing NATO membership as the price for Po- ferred to the show of "Operation Abolition" few days. Four other ships are known to laris use of its big Rota naval base at Cadiz. and "Operation Correction." be on the way. Careful reconnaissance and Well, I fail to see why this should even be Calling for the teaching of "pure, unadul- intelligence estimate, that they can take ap- an issue. proximately 7,000. There seems to be little logic in continued scools, Moulderi said Americanism" ais s not In seekingcity to Thus it becomes a matter of simple sub- exclusion of Spain from NATO. traction. Deducting 7,000 from 17,000 leaves If the dictatorial nature of the Spanish butithatt this freedom does not include the 10,000, and there has been absolutely no regime is offered as the reason, how can one right of a teacher to teach anything he or indication-at least as .far as the admin- rationalize the membership of Prime Minis- she may want to teach. Istration has put out-that Khrushchev has ter Salazar's Portugal, hardly a parliamen- The "Abolition" movie was based on 1960 any intention of removing any more. In tary democracy If his association with Ger- riots in San Francisco, which the House Un- fact the indications are . the other way many and Italy is offered as a reason-then American Activities Committee says were around; that, he is determined not to re- how come they are in NATO? move any more. The Pyrenees Mountains, separating the to be ua i correction Theofsecond the first purported situation film Informed guesses are (A) that he will use Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe, shown. the Soviet military presence in Cuba for all constitute the only really effective natural Former Congressman O. K. Armstrong and its propaganda worth throughout Latin land barrier in NATO's sphere of interest. Dr. William McClure conducted a commen- America, (B) that he does not trust the A huge U.S. investment, in the form of great tary on the two films. Cubans to handle Soviet "defensive" weap- air and naval bases, has been poured onto Moulder's statement: one on the island, and (C) to protect Castro, Spanish soil. And one merely need look "Gentlemen, I wish to read into the min- All are probably correct. back again to World War II and the crucial utes of this meeting this article taken from It is fantastic to fear that the Soviet necessity of the Straits of Gibraltar to recog- page 15 of the Tuesday, February 12, 1963, troops would be used to invade the United nize the immensely strategic nature of this issue of the Springfield (Mo.) Daily News. Our States or any other part of the hemisphere. corner of Europe. The article Is headlined Our response would be immediate and over- In addition, the political complexion of es Bring Lively C aims."?2 "Operation" Mov- the south shore of the Mediterranean has "Now, gentlemen, i do not mean to imply But it is not fantastic at all to conclude undergone radical changes since the Franco by this statement that any individual, group, they are being used to train Castro troops question first raised its head. Morocco and or organization is communistic or Commu- in infiltration and subversion; that their Algeria, once French, are now independent nist dominated. I do, however, want to continued presence would be a festering sore nations, both with dubious attitudes to the make my views quite clear concerning this in our prestige; or finally that to acquiesce East-West face-off. matter to board of , to the in their remaining in Cuba would be to agree In short, Franco Spain-regardless of its teachers bothof hehSpringfieldePubliceSc ools, with Khrushchev that the Monroe Doctrine domestic politics or even lack of them- and to the general public of Springfield. is dead. should be a solid link in the NATO chain. "I am concerned that a movie would be The administration cannot acquiesce. Be- Britain, Norway, Denmark, and Belgium op- shown at a teachers meeting that, in the cause the Soviet troops do not pose a direct pose this, apparently seeing Franco only as words of the newspaper, and again I quote, military peril, it cannot condone their pres- a former pal of Hitler and Mussolini. And 'purports to correct the abolition movie and ence as a minor irritant. any one of these can veto Spanish NATO attacks the congressional committee.' I am I repeat a suggestion first made here Feb- membership. These countries should re- worried about the possible motivation be- ruary 10. It has since been reinforced by orientate, at least re-examine, their views hind the organization of a teachers meeting similar stands by former President Truman, purely in the harsh light of national sur- to hear a program on riots that took place in Senator John Sherman Cooper, and .many vival. others. When Hitler attacked Russia on June 22, in1960 and have not een terest since that time a matter of public If after X date it becomes clear that Khru- 1941, Winston Churchill addressed the world. "Of course, a program of this type could shchev has no intention of.removing the re- He said he had been a lifelong foe of com- possibly be of interest to a teacher of po- maining troops, I suggest President Kennedy munism and would remain so. But he added litical science or an allied field. Were all Should give him Y days to do so. he would march with the Devil himself to of the teachers present at this meeting in If he does not do so in Y days, the United defeat Hitler. States and all other members of the hemi- Spain is more important to NATO than were this not category? And science whether teachers, I am were i n-political spheric family would throw a complete' Franco's old alliances are a threat to Eu- In knowing e quarantine ring around Cuba and allow rope's safety. ofrested in knowing what use will be made nothing-repeat nothing-into the island, by Sprifngfngfield school s In ystemthe cTherque s of the sea or air. . The question also As the Common Market of the new Europe arises in my mind if this was an attempt at begins to sound uncommonly like the old Motivation Worries Moulder indoctrination in a liberal political phil- Europe, still another old controversy is being osophy, or if it was simply an innocuous heard from again. EXTENSION OF REMARKS fhowinn of twh movies with a commentary It is the relationship of Spain, its aging tollowig for the employment of a group of dictator Generalissimo Francisco Franco and OF teachers. the strategy of the West's historic conflict HON. CLYDE DOYLE "I do not want to abridge the right of free- with world communism. dom of speech. This is not my purpose, as Now whenever this is raised numerous peo- OF CALIFORNIA abridged freedom of speech is one of the plc go into tizzies,, from left to right; few IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES noteworthy disgraces of the Communist dic- issues in recent history aroused such violent Monday, February 18, 1963 the Am the Am. However, I submit to you that emotionalism as the Spanish civil war of the erican principle of freedom of speech late 1930's. Mr. DOYLE. Mr. Speaker, by reason does not include a right for a teacher to This barbaric affair, often called the re- of unanimous consent heretofore granted teach anything he or she may want to hearsal for World War II, was won by Franco me so to do, I present the text of a news- that t any his individual orsroom. I not deny or do by dint of massive aid in men and material paper article clipping wish, roup m i ndividuals from the Spring- may, if they wish, view this or any from Hitler and Mussolini. Franco's name field Daily News, Springfield, Mo., which other movie; but when en it takes place at a is, accordingly, still undeniably a dirty word was sent forward by Hon. Morgan Moul- teachers' meeting on school premises, I be- in many parts, here and abroad. der, a former member of the House Com- sieve that the board But Franco later denied Hitler land access mittee on Un-American Activities for and the public have a to Gibraltar, thus right to inquire and to know the purpose of B preventing him from bot- several years. This statement was made such a viewing. d tling up id is the Mediterranean. He told pact be- did this beaue tie felt the 1939 Now, I address mys to the following tween me he by Mr. Moulder's Cousin, Thomas MoUl- portion of my statemene lf not only as a mem- pact ab- der, a member of the S g t id t Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia Springfield Board ber of the board of education but also as a solved him from any obligation to Hitler. of Education. parent, a taxpayer, a Whatever his reasons were-he may have The article follows: field Puh patron a the Sar- had a sneaking suspicion Hitler wouldn't BEHIND SHOWING OF Two MOVIEa TO TEACH- ecnchools , and above all a e a cngth- h anyway sneaking suspicion coIntry on I that did u It, In Efts-MOTIVATION WORRIES o Mo S TO TE earl ?i the meet States of A the fac oo of my o anyway and strictly from the viewpoint earth, the United States r America. I do not A Springfield School Board member who Congress, or for any oPits comm tte s, or for of military history, he has never received said he is worried about the motivation any other duly constituted authority. I adequate recognition for this. behind the showing of two movies at a teach-don't want him to be Looking at the Spanish question today, ers' meeting Monday night demanded to any compromise with communism, that there in the equally cold light of current military know last night whether contents of the is even a hint of a possibility that commu- problems, it seems strange that .so strategic film might be used in classroom work. nism might be right, or that commu- Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5 A1270 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX nism might be anything but a threat to his freedom and well-being. "I realize, of course, that we cannot teach the values of freedom and democracy in a vacuum; that it is well and wise that a con- trast be shown. This can certainly be done through the medium of a well developed curriculum and properly oriented instructors Who will see to it that their students are taught Americanism and not communism. "In that connection I wish to read an ex- cerpt from an article in tonight's Issue (Wednesday, February 13, 1983) of the Springfield Leader and Press, on the front page of that paper, entitled. 'Communism Study in State. 'tI am an American and I'm proud of it. My son Is an American, and I want him to be taught Americanism; pure, unadulterated, jingoistic Americanism. I am dogmatic on this subject, and I admit to no other way than this in teaching about our Government. I believe, too, that I have the wholehearted support of the large majority of Springfield- ians and Americana on this matter." About -30 persons attended the Monday night showing, which was under sponsorship of the Association of Classroom Teachers of Springfield. George Buckley, Parkview teach- er 'rho acted as master of ceremonies, de- clared: "All comments I have heard were very favorable that meetings of this type were of a very high professional caliber." vva,r y ?---- 'sion of News Stories on Cuba and Failure of Administration To TO the Truth Makes Us Wonder What Is Go- lag on -in Cuba EXTENSION OF REMARKS Or EON. BRUCE ALGER OF TfltA5 IN THE HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 7, 1963 Mr. ALGER. Mr. Speaker, confusion continues to surround the question of Cuba. We read many accounts in the newspapers, that there are thousands of Russian troops in Cuba, that many have been pulled out, that a few have been pulled out, that the missiles have all been removed, that the missiles have not been removed, that many weapons potentially dangerous to the United States are hid- den in thousands of caves In Cuba. The President does little to clear up the situa- tion and seems to be as much in the dark as to the actual facts pertaining to the Russian military buildup In Cuba as the most III-informed citizen. We surely cannot believe the President is complete- ly uninformed, therefore we must come to the conclusion that he Is deliberately keeping the truth from the American people and only giving out, through his management of the news, such items as he believes will keep the American people In the dark. Well, here is something to think about in the two following newspaper articles. Onc from the Chicago Tribune giving an eye-witness account of the great number of Russians in Cuba, the other from the Copley News Service pointing to the de- velopment of Cuba as a Soviet nuclear sub base. Could It be that the techni- clars In Cuba are actually submarine personnel and maintenance crews? How long is President Kennedy going to allow this buildup to continue-until Khru- shchev is strong enough to make fur- ther demands upon us. or until just be- fore the next election when it could well be too late? The articles follow: [From the Chicago Tribune I REPORTS MANY RUSSIANS AND GUNS IN CUBA (By Knowlton Nash) (Noun.-Reporters and cameramen from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation have returned from Cuba, where they filmed a report for the Canadian network, Here are the impressions of one of the group, the network's Washington correspondent.) WASHINGTON. March 5-Two of the most striking impressions you get In Cuba are that there are so many guns and so many Russians. Almost half of the people carry machine- guns, rifles, or pistols. To a Canadian, it seems a little unusual to be greeted by a hotel doorman carrying a Czechoslovak burp gun or by a pistol-packing room clerk. Militia boys and girls, some as young as 15, carry guns. One young militia girl I saw was carrying a rifle almost bigger than she was. I went to a Russian motion picture and noticed that many boys and girls on dates lugged along their guns-a somewhat incon- gruous sight as they held hands with one hand and carried their guns with the other. MEASURE Or ALARM While initially, at least, there is a measure of alarm at the sight of so many guns, you get a feeling of some frustration at the sight of so many Russians. Cubans constantly mistook us for Rus- sians, apparently believing any fair-haired person Is a Soviet citizen. While I saw literally hundreds of Russians dressed in civilian clothes wandering about Havana or jammed in the back of trucks rushing to factories, I saw few Chinese. The Chinese that I did see were the most properly dressed of anybody in Cuba, even wearing ties, something the Russians and Cubans generally do not do. Food is very short in Cuba, although no- body Is starving, and it is expensive In restau- rants. Stringy pork and elderly chicken are the main dishes, along with rice. Outside Havana. the food Is rather less appetizing. RATIONS ARE TIGHT The Cubans themselves are on tight rations, Including one chicken a month, one-eighth of a pound of butter a month, and five eggs a month, If you can get them. We were in Cuba at the height of the sugar- cane cutting season and the Government had launched a nationwide campaign for volun- teer cutters. The No. 2 man in Cuba and its economic czar. Ernesto (Cbe) Guevara, spent 2 weeks cutting cane himself In Camaguey Province. It was In the canefields that I interviewed him. The Interview was conducted in a semicircle of his guards, all carrying machine- guns, rifles, pistols, and machetes. I found It a bit inhibiting at first, but you get used to It after a while. GLAD TO TALK Guevara was only too glad to answer any question and this seemed to be the attitude of the Cuban people. Those who support the Castro government are proud of their guns, their communism, and the houses and hos- pitals they have built. Those who oppose Castro are equally anxious to talk, but only when you are out of earshot of any Intelli- gence operatives or microphones. When I came out of Cuba the first things I did were to sink my teeth into a juicy steak and luxuriate in being able to say anything I wanted without looking over my shoulder. March 7 [From the Copley News Service] U.S. ExpreTs Loos: TO CUBA AS SOVIET NUCLEAR SUB Base President Kennedy's decision to replace land-based intermediate-range missiles in Britain, Turkey, and Italy with Polaris sub- marines underscores a dangerous aspect of the Cuban situation. The possibility of Russian missile sub- marines operating out of Cuban ports worries U.S. Navy and Pentagon intelligence officers. Such a move quickly would restore the So- viet firepower lost when Premier Khrushchev withdrew 42 missiles and more than 30 jet bombers from the island. Navy experts report that they have no evidence of Russian submarine operations in Cuban waters. They admit, however, that several excellent submarine bases are avail- able. Cuban exiles have insisted for several months that many of the Soviet "techni- cians" on the Island are building submarine facilities. They also have reported sighting Soviet subs, although no missile submarines have been claimed. The U.S. Navy is particularly concerned about announced Soviet plans to build "fish- ing bases" in Cuba. Such a base, Navy men say, easily could handle submarines. No one in the Navy minimizes the Soviet undersea potential. Top priority has been given U.S. antisubmarine developments in the face of a Red fleet of between 400 and 500 submersibles. It is the largest submarine force in the world and at least 250 are modern, snorkel craft built after World War II. An undisclosed number are capable of fir- ing nuclear missiles. Most of these missile subs must surface before firing, but Russia now claims It has craft similar to the Ameri- can Polaris fleet ballistic missile subs that can fire while submerged. Forty to fifty Russians subs belong to the largest Z class. The others are Q or W types. The first announcement of nuclear- powered Red subs came last July 21. A few weeks ago Moscow claimed that one of its nuclear subs sailed under.the Arctic icepack and surfaced at the North Pole. U.S. Intelligence reports this distribution of the Russian submarine force: Northern (Arctic)-no medium range, 110 long range. Baltic Sea-DSO medium range, 40 long- range. Black Sea-5 medium range, 70 longrange. Pacific and Far East-50 medium-range, 60 ]ongrange. This adds up to 385 operational subma- rines. Their distribution indicates strategic deployment in long-range operations. Aside from being able to attack Western sea communications, Russian subs also could, as the U.S. Navy has said, operate directly off U.S. coasts from their bases in the U.S.S.R. Russian bases in Cuba, of course, would constitute an even greater menace. Soviet seapower's strategic threat to the United States Is dramatized in the Navy's huge antisubmarine warfare plotting room at Norfolk, Va. On a giant wall-to-wall map, black diamond-shaped markers indicate gob- lins. That's the U.S. Navy's nickname for Russian subs presumed to be roaming the seas. In one recent 6-month plotting period, the map showed 186 separate reports of what may have been Soviet submarines. Appar- ently some of them, from their positions, were probing American submarine defenses, testing the Navy's detection and tracking proficiency. Close contacts between United States and Russian submarines are rare. Soviet subs, however, frequently are tracked by American undersea craft as part of realistic training exercises. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200220012-5