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Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 7478 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE May 8 the Senate and other interested persons that the Senate Subcommittee on Inter- governmental Relations has scheduled a hearing on S. 855 and S. 915, both of which deal with metropolitan area plan- ning. The hearing will be held at 10:30 a.m. beginning on May 21. Any Senator or other person wishing to testify at the hearing should notify the subcommittee, room 357, Senate Of- fice Building, extension 4718, in order that he might be scheduled as a wit- ness. ADDRESSES, EDITORIALS, ARTI- CLES, ETC., PRINTED IN THE AP- PENDIX On request, and by unanimous con- sent, addresses, editorials, articles, and so forth, were ordered to be printed in the Appendix, as follows: By Mr.RANDOLPH: Remarks.before the first plenary session of the Ninth Pan American Highway Con- gress, Washington, D.C., May 7, 1963. By Mr. BURDICK: Address delivered by Hon. Paul Rand Dixon, Chairman of the Federal Trade Com- mission, to Law School Honor's Day Student Bar Association at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, N. Dak., on April 27, 1963, which will appear hereafter in the Appendix. By Mr. HUMPHREY: Address by Robert Moses, president of the New York World's Fair, 1984-65, delivered at the dedication of the Press Building, Flushing Meadows, Long Island, on May 4, '1963. Address by Dr. Ralph T. Collins, delivered at a meeting of the Minnesota Governor's Committee on Employment of the Handi- capped, relating to the problem of mental disease. By Mr. JAVrrS: Statement of 53 university foreign lan- guage and area center directors on title VI of the National Defense Education Act. Statement of the American Jewish Con- gress Governing Council on Peace. In the Middle East. Memorandum on relations between church and state, written by Raymond L. Wise. By Mr. TIIURMOND. Editorial entitled "Continuing No-Win Policy Avenue to Disaster," published In the Nashville Banner of May 3, 1963. By Mr. DOUGLAS: Editorial entitled "Whither the Truth-in- Lending Bill?" published in the Department Store Journal of April 17, 1963. By Mr. ENGLE: Editorial on electric intertie legislation, published in the Sacramento Bee of April 18, 1963. By Mr. KEATING: Article entitled "Soviet Oil Trade a Con- fidence Trick," written by C. L. Sulzberger and published in the New York Times. By Mr. FULBRIGHT: Article entitled "Must Equality Hold Us Each From Excellence?" written by Joe Stroud and published in the Arkansas Gazette of April 21, 1963. Article entitled "Jesus, the Most Beloved Man, the Humblest and Greatest of All," " written by Judge John Park Cravens. By Mr. SALTONSTALL: Article entitled "Fish Flour Fracas," pub- lished In the Wall Street Journal, issue of May 8, 1963, relating to the use of fish pro- tein concentrate to relieve suffering from malnutrition. By Mr. HARTEE: Article entitled "Hero Goes Back to White House," published in the Evening Republi- can, Columbus, Ind. Editorial entitled "Youth Dependable, Too," published in the Palladium-Item, Richmond, Ind., on April 30, 1963. By Mr. COTTON: Column entitled "Ponzi Did It First," writ- ten by Austen Lake and published in the Boston (Mass.) Record American on Febru- ary 14, 1963. By Mr. MUNDT: Column entitled "A Foreign Academy-To Match the Communists," written by Roscoe Drummond and published in the Washing- ton (D.C.) Post of May 8, 1963. By Mr. BFALL: Poem entitled "Two-Party System," writ- V E DAY-UNANINIPUS-CONSENT REQUEST Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I have conferred with the majority leader. I indicated that today was the. 18th an- niversary of V-E Day. It is a day suit- ably to be observed. A number of speeches will. be delivered on this side of the aisle, and perhaps on the other side of the aisle, in commemoration of that event. I ask unanimous consent that, notwithstanding the 3-minute rule, I may be recognized so that I may recognize other Senators for that pur- pose. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I rec- ognize the distinguished Senator from Texas. pum Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, on V-E Day, the United States stood on a pin- nacle, universally respected and trium- phant. Today our international stand- ing has slipped low indeed. The primary reason can be summed up in one short word--Cuba. Every American knows what Cuba means, hard as that little group of theo- rists clustered around 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue try to twist it. Cuba means that ,an enemy, intent upon our destruction, is based 90 miles away. Cuba means that we have endangered our children's future by. forgetting that vigilance is the eternal price of freedom. Cuba means we have abandoned our Christian neighbors next door to atheistic terror- ists. Worldwide, Cuba invokes an image of a weak and wavering United States. In permitting what has happened in Cuba, we have cast aside the traditions of this Nation as embodied in the Mon- roe Doctrine and have reneged on carry- ing out our solemn obligation under the Rio, Caracas, and Bogota Treaties. We have done violence to the charter of the Organization of American States, which binds member states to assist each other "to defend their sovereignty, their ter- ritorial integrity, and their independ- ence." We have demoralized and discouraged those Latin American Republics who, threatened by Communist subversion, have urged us to take tough and decisive steps to purge Soviet colonialism from this hemisphere. This, I may comment, is quite different from the speed-with which the late, great ' John. Foster Dulles had the Red regime broken In Guatamala. It seems worthy, to note that, a decade and a half before the Monroe Doctrine, Jefferson's Cabinet put itself on record as against the acquisition of Cuba by Brit- ain or France, the world powers then. President Polk tried to buy Cuba for $120 million and President Pierce for $120 million. Down through our history we have recognized that, because of prox- imity, the Cuban-American relations were special. - After the Cubans rose in revolt in 1895, we went to war with Spain to aid them. The Organic Act of Cuba-her first con- stitution-declared that no foreign pow- er was to secure partial or complete con- trol of the island and authorized the United States to intervene in Cuba, if necessary, to prevent this. President Kennedy himself stood in 1960 upon a Democratic Party platform which unequivocally declared: The new Democratic administration will also reaffirm our historic policy of opposition to the establishment anywhere in the Amer- icas of governments dominated by foreign powers, a policy now being undermined by Soviet threats to the freedom and independ- ence of Cuba. Nevertheless, we have followed a policy more fit for a Byzantine emperor than a great modern world power, and straight- forward world power like the United States. We denied at the time we had anything to do with participation in the U.S. conceived, U.S. prepared, and U.S. directed Cuban landing force at the Bay of Pigs. One result. of this hypocritical policy was that the landing was made wthout adequate air cover or support. Three days after that disaster, Presi- dent Kennedy appeared before the Na- tion's editors here and said: If the nations of this hemisphere should fail to meet their commitments against out- side Communist penetration, then I want it clearly understood that this Government would not hesitate in meeting its primary obligations which are the security of the Nation. Mr. Kennedy made a similar statement to the released Cuban prisoners he saw fit to address in Miami despite the fact he had repudiated them on landing day. Both statements were widely interpreted to mean Mr. Kennedy would help liberate Cuba. - Instead, he has repudiated the Cubans he once induced to risk their lives and the leader he selected for them. On this V-E Day, I would recall to the President's mind the further pledge of his platform: The Government of the United States un- der a Democratic administration will not be deterred from fulfilling its obligations and solemn responsibilities under Its treaties and agreements with the nations of the Western Hemisphere. Nor will the United States, in conformity with Its treaty obligations, permit the es- tablishment of a regime dominated by inter- national atheistic communism in the West- ern Hemisphere. I ask, along with the American people, why this pledge has not been kept. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I rec- ognize the distinguished Senator from Pennsylvania [Mr. SCOTT]. Mr. ROBERTSON. Mr. President, a parliamentary inquiry. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 The resolution (S. Res. 138) was re- ferred to the Committee on the Judiciary, as follows: Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate that the President should take such action as he may deem appropriate to provide for the conduct, by a conference including rep- resentatives of small business organizations. of a comprehensive study and investigation to determine (1) the economic effect of the antitrust laws of the United States upon the operations of small business organiza- tions, (2) the respects in which such caws are advantageous, and the respects in which such laws may be disadvantageous, to the economic success of small business organi- zations, and (3) the nature and extent of any revision of such laws which may be necessary or appropriate to facilitate ef- fective competition by small business or- ganizations with business organizations hav- ing greater economic resources. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT RE- GARDING THE MAINTENANCE OF CERTAIN LIGHTS IN THE RED SEA-REMOVAL OF INJUNCTION OF SECRECY Mr. HUMPH REY. Mr. President, the President of the United States trans- mitted to the Senate today Executive F, 88th Congress, 1st session, the interna- tional agreement regarding the main- tenance of certain lights in the Red Sea. I ask unanimous consent that the in- junction of secrecy be removed from the agreement, and that the agreement, to- gether with the President's message be referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, and that the President's mes- sage be printed in the RECORD. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. The message from the President is as follows: To the Senate of the United States: With a view to receiving the advice and consent of the Senate to acceptance, I transmit herewith a certified copy of the international agreement regarding the maintenance of certain lights in the Red Sea, which was open for signature from February 20, 1962 to August 19, 1962, and during that period was signed on behalf of the United States of America and seven other countries. The agreement primarily concerns the sharing of the costs of maintaining the lights as aids to navigation, and is fur- ther explained in the report of the Secre- tary of State, which is transmitted here- with for the information of the Senate. JOAN F. KENNEDY. THE WinTE HOUSE, May 8, 1963. Enclosures: 1. Report of the Secretary of State. 2. International agreement on main- tenance of certain lights in the Red Sea, opened for signature February 20, 1962, REQUEST FOR ENGROSSED HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION 5 OF INDIANA LEGISLATURE TO BE EXPUNGED FROM RECORD Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, on March 7, 1963, a joint resolution of the Legislature of the State of Indiana was laid before the Senate and referred to the appropriate committee. The reso- lution appears in the RECORD of the above date on page 3408 as "Engrossed House Joint Resolution 5." Recently, I received a letter from the Honorable Matthew E. Welsh, Governor of Indiana, regarding this resolution. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that Governor Welsh's letter be printed in the RECORD at this point. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection. it is so ordered, The letter is as folio's: STATE OF INDIANA. Orricz or T= OovERNOa, Indianapolis, Ind., April 28, 1963. Hon. It. VAxc5 HART,RE. Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. YTCAS VANCE: With further reference to "Engrossed House Joint Resolution No. 6." it is my feeling that this resolution on the Liberty amendment should be expunged from the permament REcoxn since it passed only one house of the legislature apd is not an lo- tion of the general assembly of our State. Very best. Sincerely. MArrlrsW E. Wrisa, Governor. Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, in ac- cordance with the Governor's wishes as expressed in his letter, Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that "Engrossed House Joint Resolution No. 5" be ex- punged from the permanent RECORD. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without' objection, it is so ordered. ESTABLISHMENT OF FORT UNION TRADING POST NATIONAL HIS- TORIC SITE, NORTH DAKOTA- ADDITIONAL COSPONSORS OF BILL Mr. BURDICK. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that on subsequent printings of Senate bill 187 to authorize establishment of the Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, North Dako- ta, and for other purposes, the name of the Senator from Montana (Mr. MANs- Irmt,Dl appear as a cosponsor. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, It is so ordered. CONSTRUCTION OF TRAWLERS-- ADDITIONAL COSPONSOR OF BILL Mr. MAGNUSON, Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that at its next printing the name of the junior Senator from New Hampshire (Mr. McINrvasi be added as a cosponsor of the bill (S. 744) to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to construct two modern steam- ramp trawlers to be used for experi- mental commercial fishing, research, and for other purposes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. AMENDMENT OF CERTAIN PROVI- SIONS OF THE AREA REDEVELOP- MENT ACT - ADDITIONAL CO- SPONSOR OF BILL Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the junior Sena- 7477 tor from West Virginia [Mr. BYRD] be listed as an additional cosponsor of S. 1163, the Area Redevelopment Act amendments which I and other Senators introduced on March 21, 1963, and that his name be added to the bill at the next printing. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN SHIP- PING CONTAINERS-ADDITIONAL COSPONSOR OF -BILL Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that at the next printing of the bill (S. 1342) to prohibit the introduction into interstate com- merce of any shipping container manu- factured in the United States from im- ported ,steel unless the container is marked so as to indicate the country of origin of the steel, that the name of the senior Senator from Alaska [Mr. BART- LErr) be added as a cosponsor. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, It is so ordered. NOTICE OF HEARING ON H.R. 3872-- EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, I should like to announce that the Subcommittee on International Finance of the Banking and Currency Committee plans to hold a hearing on the bill H.R. 3872, to increase the lending authority of the Export-Import Bank of Washington, to extend the period within which tha- Export-Import Bank of Washington may exercise its functions, and for other purposes. The hearing will be held on May 17. 1963, at 10 a.m., In room 5302, New Sen- ate Office Building. All persons who wish to appear and testify on the bill are requested to notify Mr. Matthew Hale, chief of staff, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, room 5300, New Senate Office Building, telephone CApitol 4-3121, extension 3921. NOTICE OF HEARING ON SENATE BILL 176 Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, as chair- man of the Retirement Subcommittee of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, I wish to announce that pub- lic hearings on S. 176 have been sched- uled to begin at 10 a.m., on May 14, 1963, in room 6202 of the New Senate Office Building. S. 176 would amend the Civil Service Retirement Act so as to provide for retirement from the Federal service at age 55 after 30 years of service. Rep- resentatives of the Bureau of the Budget and the Civil Service Commission will be heard first. -Then others interested in the measure will be given an opportun- ity to testify. NOTICE OF HEARING ON S. 855 AND S. 915, DEALING WITH METROPOL- ITAN AREA PLANNING Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, I would like to announce for the information of Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06123: RP65PR~A33Ag4~~g000200240021-3 1963 CONGRESSIONAL RECOD SENATE 7479 The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- establishing a beachhead in the Western we already support a British deter- pore. The Senator will state it. Hemisphere. The creeping communiza- rent. Mr. ROBERTSON. Is the Senate op- tion of Laos, otherwise. known as Harri- Concern is sometimes voiced, by NATO erating under the 3-minute rule? man's folly, is opening a brand new countries and rn others, over West Ger- Mr. DIRKSEN. It is operating under door into Vietnam, where we are heavily many's potential for a nuclear capabil- a unanimous-consent agreement. committed. The policy of watchful wait- ity. Their scientists in this field are Mr. ROBERTSON. That agreement , ing in the Middle East amounts to watch- among the very best. To quote Har- does not violate the 3-minute rule, does ing a tinder box that is already burning yard's Henry Kissinger, a noted expert on it? at one end and waiting for it to ignite these matters who is frequently con- Mr. DIRKSEN. It does. at the other. And Indonesia's playboy sulted by New Frontiersmen: Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, on V-E potentate, Sukarno, goes his merry, ex- If West Germany is seriously interested Day, just 18 years ago today, we stood travagant, and anti-American way with in acquiring strategic weapons, the multi- with trusted friends and allies, trium- our support. Such policies and events lateral force (missile-carrying freighters) is apt only to prove an interim step and phant over the totalitarians who had laid have not increased our prestige. may turn out to be the easiest way of get- waste much of the world in their attempt Even freedom's shield, NATO, is today, ting Germany into the nuclear business. to dominate it. to use the currently fashionable phrase, When the Soviet Union reverted to its "in disarray." One recent sequence in Is that what we want? Indeed, is that Marxist-Leninist policy of world con- what the New Frontier describes as dip- what the Germans want, a backdoor into quest, we strengthened the old friend- lomacy illustrates this massive under- potential disaster? ships and forged new ones, first under statement of our European dilemma. But this missile freighter-idea is the the Democratic administration of Presi- The administration's shock tactics closest discernible thing to a policy on dent Truman, and then under the Re- with the British in abruptly canceling this problem to emerge from that New publican administration of President, construction of the Skybolt missile, on Frontier combination of computer-man- Eisenhower. which Britain has based her future nu- aged-military-hardware-thinkers, ab- Many Americans had misjudged So- clear deterrent, led to the hastily im- stract theorists, and spenders. viet intentions during and immediately provised Nassau agreement providing for There is an alternative to this stop- after the war, but through aid to and British Polaris submarines. This con- gap gimmick, a constructive alternative. alliance with our friends abroad, we firmed General de Gaulle's suspicions Instead of futile and negative efforts to restored economic stability, built the about an Anglo-American "special rela- discourage any European nuclear de- NATO shield, and brought the Red band- tionship" and served as a trigger for his fense initiative outside of Britain, we wagon in Europe to a decisive halt. rejection of British entry into the Com- could encourage an integrated, overall Indeed, on the 15th anniversary of mon Market. De Gaulle reportedly had European force as a vital part of the NATO, in 1960, we stood at a pinnacle. hoped that Britain would pool her nu- drive toward unity and true Atlantic of power and prestige. We were Preemi- clear know-how with France. partnership. nent in the field of nuclear weapons-the And what was the administration's re- I share the concern of those who are myth of the missile gap did not even sponse to this ferment and confusion in continuously vocal about the dangers of survive the present administration's first the "New Europe" which it had done so nuclear proliferation; of too many hands months. Our space effort, which had much to jog into being? A missile- on too many nuclear triggers. But been ignored during the Truman admin- carrying freighter to be financed by all, certainly a joint force combining the ef- istration, was beginning to make up the and with mixed NATO crews, but with forts, assets, and aims of the British, lost time. A series of alliances, sup- the U.S. finger on the firing button. French, and other Europeans would be ported by both of our great national par- Such a scheme is not what the Europeans preferable to many separate independ- ties, ringed our cold war enemies. We really want; for, despite their participa- ent nuclear forces. If. we cannot relate dealt with the Soviets, but in concert tion, they will still have no control. It our nuclear needs and strategies with with our friends. And, our unyielding will add little to their defense or to ours. theirs now, how can we expect to do .so opposition to Communist oppression was And yet these ships will be very ex- when the present seeds of nuclear pro- clear. pensive-estimates run as high as $6 liferatlon really begin to sprout? Looking back on V-E Day, of which this In spite of this, there was a great deal billion, a large portion to be paid by the is the anniversary-looking back on the of talk during the 1960 campaign about German Federal Republic. United States prestige and polls. A so-called decline Former NATO Commander General great then-looking prestige of back on the the Uninrtef and the in American prestige was made a prime Lauris Norstad has pointedly observed breast beating, the public categorizing issue by Democratic candidates. The that "no matter how you tinker with the of our status in the world as sadly low then junior Senator from Massachusetts gadgetry of weapons" the heart of the exhibited great concern when he told a problem "is the question of control." and declining, during the last Presiden- Portland, Oreg., audience: it is time, i believe, that, in the Pres- tial campaign, one .finds now the true situation be To rebuild American prestige will not be ident's words of 1960, we began to "un- ward in American a has taken great leap back- easy. It cannot be done overnight by a new derstand the needs of other nations as ward past prestige 2sti administration.. But I can assure you that well as our own. And, the best place place over o the cep 2 years. It will a new administration will make the effort. continue unless w wee face up to the diffi- a start would be with those nations who cult challenge of exercising positive and He told a Kansas City audience that are our proven friends and allies. In coherent leadership among equals, un- the great challenge of "rebuilding our short, we should recall that the NATO less we recognize that the era which be- prestige" would require us to "under- Alliance is just that, an alliance, and gan on. VE Day is closing, that great stand the needs of other nations as well that we should treat it as such. changes have been and are being as our own." General Norstad has termed the Eur- wrought. We ought to move with the He painted a grim picture. And it opean desire for a nuclear capability a course of .history, attempting to influence was all backed up by talk of mysterious "very legitimate desire." It seems to me and mold it, rather than standing against and secret Government polls which pur- that instead of deploring the fruits of it, portedly indicated declining American our own successful investment-Europe's In Cuba, for example, in Laos, and else- prestige abroad. economic miracle-we should seek to where, a. policy of wait and see usually Well, those and other polls are being help and influence those who, as com- ends up as wait and be shown. used now, though under odd ground mitted Allies, should be in our corner if W. Baldwin, the distinguished rules-one uses them when they prove the horrible necessity for a resort to nu- Hanson military d t the New York his point, and abuses them when they do clear weapons should ever arise. Times, summed it up, I believe, when he not. France's desire for an independent de- wrote: As for our prestige, after 2 years of terrent is a natural one, and one which No alliance has room for second-best allies "rebuilding" the Russians are now in will spread to other European nations in or discriminatory practices. A really coor- Cuba, where we have gone from eyeballs a disorderly and dangerous way if we dinated multinational European nuclear to elbows- with them. This is the first do not move to influence, rather than to deterrent, keyed to the two principles of col- time in modern history that an enemy obstruct, the normal reach for security, lective European control without an Ameri- of the United States has succeeded in nation by nation. can veto and a minimum deterrence, probably Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 7480 Approved FottsL~SSFhTAL nPCC,I~ARDP6E013~8R000200240021-3 May 8 offers the beat hope for tomorrow. It is time to recognize that President de Gaulle has a point, to shift our emphasis to coor- dination rather than Integration, and to attempt to influence, rather than to control. Europe's nuclear future. Mr. President, we are now confronted with a Russian military presence in Cuba. An international brigade is being organized there-with the exporting of revolution from Castro Cuba presently and overtly underway, after the training of numerous cadres. And we are con- fronted by an administration which has deplored the very existence of any form of communism 90 miles from our shore and yet has complacently accepted not mere existence, not even mere coexist- ence, but the actual, thundering, omi- nous menace of foreign Communist armies, the very introduction of Euro- pean systems condemned by the Monroe Doctrine. If the Monroe Doctrine Is dead, in the administration's judgment, they should say so. In my judgment, the answer Is to as- sert our rights under the Monroe Doc- trine, under the various declarations of Rio and Caracas, and under the state- ment of the Organization of American States of October 23, 1962. Let us again, as Americans, be proud of and assert the facts that we know how to defend ourselves against com- munism, and again all other enemies, foreign or domestic; that we are pre- pared to defend ourselves; and substi- tute a policy which makes sense, that is in keeping with the desires of the Amer- ican people, for the sad lack today of any foreign policy in relation to Cuba. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I rec- ognize the distinguished Senator from Utah [Mr. BENNETT]. Mr. BENNET I'. Mr. President. on this anniversary of V-E Day, I think we should look south of the border to the rest of Latin America, outside Cuba. Latin America was the one major part of the world that was not involved In or en- gulfed by World War II. But it has not escaped the tidal wave of the war's con- sequences. We thought that V-E Day marked the end of both the forces and philosophies of totalitarianism, but we were wrong. A particularly evil germ lay dormant, protected by a nominal participation in the forces of freedom; and since V-E Day, it has infected the bodies politic of many of the nations to the south of us. Unfortunately, we have not yet found the antibiotic that prom- ises a cure. We have tried words and phrases like "good neighbor policy" and "Alliance for Progress," as substitutes for the old homely remedy of the Monroe Doctrine. But the infection continues to spread. We know where the source is. it is in Castro's Cuba, and we have made sev- eral apparent attempts to eliminate it- notably at the Bay of Pigs and, last fall, on the "day of the missiles." Both times when we prepared our friends to see surgery, they enthusiastic- ally approved and supported us, and then we ended with aspirin. No wonder their faith in us is wavering. In such a situation-and to change my metaphor-I am reminded of the lines of the poet, Pope: Vice is a monster of so fierce a mien That to be hated needs but to be seen But seen too oft, familiar with its face We first endure, then pity, then embrace. For the word "vice" in the poem, read the word "communism." South American leaders live in a world of political insecurity. Their history, with its pattern of revolution, tells us that. They also live in an economic world whose pattern resembles pre-1917 Russia more than it does ours, an-eco- nomic world with little or no middle class. and no widespread base of private capital available for investment in homes and jobs. The phoney promises of com- munism-the lure that hides the hook- sound good to them. And yet they are proud, as we are, to be Americans. Those of their citizens who are not native are descendents of men who fled Europe, as our Founding Fathers did. Their tradition of law and government, with its roots in Rome, is different than ours, whose roots are in England, but the difference is less than between Europe and Asiatic Russia. I believe they want mostof all to be like us, In personal opportunity and well-being. I think they would turn to communism only as a second choice, and In despair. And yet they seem to be turning in that direction, or at least to be hedging their bets on American leadership-and increasingly so since 1961. Even the President of Mexico, who may not leave the country for more than 2 days with- out Mexican congressional permission, has made the pilgrimage to Moscow. Where is the fault? With them? I think not. It must be with us. We must look within for the causes of failure. When we do we may discover these among others: First. We have not tried to under- stand them, but rather to assume the arrogant posture of prescribing without diagnosis. The Great White Father knows best. We went into Latin America with the Alliance for Progress before its details had been presented to the Congress. Second. We have satisfied ourselves with catch phrases and Washington-cen- tered programs, hoping that they would take the word for the deed-and when deeds have been inevitable, they have been weaker than the words that prom- ised them. Third. In the typical pattern of the New Frontier, every Idea we come up with is based on the spending of money, In- cluding the ransom of the Cuban pris- oners. Money is always a completely inadequate substitute for understanding and solutions based on human values. Fourth. We never seem to be able to establish a satisfactory system of com- munication. Not only do we face a dif- ference in language, but a difference in the meaning of words that are basic to an understanding of our goals. To them free enterprise is an evil concept, with the meanings of exploitation Marx at- tached to It over 100 years ago, To them social justice Is the ultimate good; and Communists, not we, call themselves so- cialists. V-E Day found us with the greatest power in the world, military as well as economic. Since then we have failed in courage to use both. So who can` blame the South Americans if they be- gin to shop around and take a look at communism? Unfortunately, that is exactly what they are now doing. In the American tradition, the custom- er is always right. We must present the American system to our friends in Latin America more realistically, as though we were dealing in their interest, and not our own, and we must begin to live up to the promises we have so glibly made, realizing that time and confidence are slipping away from us very rapidly. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I rec- ognize the distinguished Senator from Kansas (Mr. CARLSON]. Mr. CARLSON. Mr. President, 18 years ago today at 2:41 a.m., the German armies surrendered unconditionally at Rheims, France. It was a day for rejoicing. It was also a day of great sorrow for the cost in lives-for the suffering of men and wom- en wounded and crippled from the fray. It was a day of mourning for those whose lives were laid down for liberty and for their families whose losses could never be repaid. Out of this holocaust we emerged the mightiest Nation in the world. Our power and prestige were at a peak. The United States was looked upon not only as the savior of the free world, but as the protector and helper of all freedom- loving nations. Now, 18 years later, where do we stand? Mr. President, our foreign relations all over the world are in disarray. Our prestige Is at a low ebb. Today we find Castro "home free" as puppet ruler of his apparently permanent Moscow sup- ported Western Hemisphere Communist base. In Laos our situation is deteriorat- ing every day, as a result of our agree- ment to accept a governing body that should be neutral, but is actually Com- munist.' In Berlin, In Latin America, in Korea, and In Africa-no matter where you go- our efforts have not made us friends, nor built our prestige. In the continent of Africa, the political situation is most unstable. In many countries of Africa, our own money is supporting individuals and organizations that are bringing about chaos and in- stability. President Kennedy, in seeking the Presidency, declared in a speech at Bowl- ing Green, Ky., October 8, 1960: First, we must ally ourselves with the ris- ing tide of nationalism in Africa. Second, we must make the United Nations the central instrument of our energies and policies in Africa. Today, in the United Nations, we are barely holding our own against a bur- geoning of new little African nations be- ing born almost daily, many of which are smaller than our smallest states and with less population than some of our middle-size cities. In Africa, many of these emerging nations are neither emerged nor are they nations. If we count Egypt and the Ma- lagasy Republic among those African nations, there are 32 of them in the United Nations at present. Yet their Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 1963 0 Approved FoCWd%? ?j/j23R fP65 X8 000200240021-3 7481 Influence is as great as the number of which figured in the ransom deal, such tion of the administration with respect votes they have. as wheat, flour, potatoes, and possibly to the Middle East at this time and the Out of the 111 member nations in .the also a few luxury items, have been pur- grave dangers that amount to a war United Nations, we, who shoulder the chased with private or semiprivate funds. threat, including the accelerated arms greatest burden, have but 1 vote. We Mr. DIRKSEN: Mr. President, I rec- race which it poses. I do not believe we find ourselves weighted in African votes ognize the distinguished Senator from can be even-handed in the Middle East 32 to 1 with even little Togo having the New York [Mr. JAVITS]. between the aggressors and the defend- same vote as the United States. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. ers, between the oppressors and the op- Because Soviet Russia finds its greatest IxouYE in the chair). The Senator from pressed. eI do not d concerning an aggression we can of advantage by fishing in troubled waters, New York. and because of the diversity of languages, Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, we are, power under the leadership of President tribes, and economies, we find that Afri- in a way, taking inventory of the foreign Nasser. Nasser threatens to use his ca is seething with all sorts of Commu- policy of our Nation with respect to VE power to destroy a state to whose preser- nist activities and subversion. They are Day. This is certainly a deeply moving vation we are pledged-pledged by Presi- carrying on a campaign of hate, not only day for all of us in the United states dent Truman in his recognition of that against each other, but also against the and, if we may be forgiven a little par- state; by President Eisenhower in his United States. ticularization especially for those of us support of that state; by Secretary Despite official U.S. claims. that "no who served in the Armed Forces of our Dulles in his declaration that constitutes ou support new nation has gone Communist" both country. to of Israel policy; and one of Mali and Ghana have declared their I should like to say a word about a the of by the ign whicPresident the governments as the Soviet-type "social- particular area of the world, to which I campaign tenets e con- with pledgpledg a I e and ake Guinea have addressed myself recently. Wady fundamental are Guinea is cooperating with Soviet- I am as devoted to a bipartisan foreign fronted undertook. bloc nations; and Ethiopia has been a policy affecting the Middle East, about When itself such uch a in mistake ways fucah is believe which are made, it mistake. s s most mani- center for Soviet espionage in Africa. which I would like to say a word today, Pests wise. For example, we made a very grea Mr. President, in. making the United as I am with respect to every other area group of Nations the central instrument of our of the world, and I trust that nothing mistake For Arab-Asian nations standing which athwart a were seeking energies and policies in Africa, we found which I shall say, even in the context A A United Nations a ourselves embroiled in a bloody civil war of these remarks, which would betray to have ian have adopted a calling in for the direct ipeace Nations a in the Congo. The list could go on and my deep devotion to that fundamental ations slu between Israel di and the Arab on. approach. States. I can hardly see how we could We find ourselves called "imperialists" However, I believe that it is the funs- have taken that attitude in view of the and worse by many of these tiny so- tion of the opposition or the minority in called African nations still engaged in respect to questions of foreign policy not policy of the President of the United bloody tribal warfare and drifting into merely to be quiet and close ranks, but States, who, when he was a candidate, the Communist orbit. to be fully informed about the facts upon speaking before a convention of the Today, in commemorating this anni- which foreign policy decisions are made, Zionists in New York City, said: versary of V-E Day, instead of a world in and also to make its contribution-and I propose that all the authority and pres- which we had the opportunity to lead to often it could 'be a very marked and tige of the White House be used to call into strength and freedom, and in which we conference the leaders of Israel and the Arab strong one-to the way in which that States. did lead so that Europe is strong and policy is administered and decisions are prosperous in a world in which we freed made, so that the impact may be had be- Certainly, there was a chance to move of Japanese aggression those countries fore grave damage is done to the na- to do that, but we did not do it; again, I in the Far East who are now their own tipnal interests, rather than to seek po- believe, because of the mistaken idea that people, we find we have fewer friends litical.advantage after it is done. we can be even-handed between those than. we ever had. It is in that spirit that I speak with who threaten aggression and liquidation On V-E Day we realized that major respect to the Middle East. I think it and those who are defending themselves. problems can never be solved by appease- is fair to say that this is one of the areas I think we see the same thing happen- ment. It is hoped that this principle is of the world which has caused consider- ing now in the way that foreign aid from realized in the future. able difficulty since V-E Day. It has been the United States to President Nasser is Only by a firm and clear foreign policy suggested that, perhaps the letters "VE" being used to assist in the economics of can we hope to regain the prestige and might be reversed so as to be "EV the situation, and which unfortunately respect which we had on that fateful "eternal vigilance"-the price of the se- enables him to use Egypt's cotton crop for day, in Rheims when the once powerful curity of our Nation and our Nation's the purpose of buying Soviet-bloc arms, German Army capitulated and.the world future. thereby jeopardizing peace and security dared to dream of a bright future. ? In the Middle East I see certain direc- in the area of the world especially se- Mr. DIRKSEN. I now yield to the dis- tions of policy being pursued by the ad- cured to the State of Israel. tinguished Senator from Vermont. ministration against which I called out I believe we did the same thing again Mr. AIKEN. Mr. President, I have the other day in a speech. I should like when we moved rather precipitately, in been listening to the remarks of the elo- very much to include that speech within my judgment, to recognize the new re- quent and patriotic-speakers who have the context of constructive criticism; if gime in the Yemen. Incidentally, recog- preceded me. I must confess that, so far you will, within the context of construc- nition was withheld by our great ally, as Cuba is concerned, I cannot under- tive criticism of the bipartisan policy on the United Kingdom. But the United stand the shift of position in our policy. which I believe we are basing our ac- States recognized Yemen, notwithstand- Last October I do not believe any of us tion in the Middle East. I am not di- ing the fact that the new government would have believed that 6 months later recting my criticism. exclusively at this was maintained essentially by Egyptian the U.S. Navy and Air Force would be administration. I have had my diifi- troops shipped there by United Arab used for the protection of the Russian culties in this regard with previous ad- Republic President Nasser. occupant of that island or the puppet ministrations, both Democratic and Re- Again, enough problems have been government of Mr. Castro. publican. But, after all, the President raised for us by Syria and Iraq with the It is also beyond my understanding to is the President. He administers our United Arab Republic, whose declared fathom the purpose of our own Govern- foriegn policy, and we must deal with intention is the liquidation of Israel, and, ment, not only to use our own Armed the President who is presently in office. therefore, with the consequence of bring- Forces to protect the Russians, but also That is the sense in which I wish to be ing war to the Midle East, a war which to send shiploads of food to feed them. understood. would be bound to involve the great pow- We have contributed 15 million pounds I believe we make a grave mistake in ers, as well. of Government-owned powdered milk for thinking that we can be "even-handed." So on the aniversary of the great V-E this purpose. We have also contributed Those are the words used by the Under Day, as it focuses on the Middle East, I 20 million pounds of vegetable oil. I un- Secretary of State in a letter sent to me ' again pledge myself to a bipartisan for- derstand that other articles of food, and other Senators, explaining the posi- eign policy. I have laid on with equal Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved FoE M&SJ?8 /0A12 DP6SENA,~8E3R000200240021-3 May 8 Mr. JAVITS. I wish to yield on this subject, and then to submit certain other matters. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, in- asmuch as there has been a concerted attack on the administration and on the Government over the past 18 years, I be- lieve some Senator should respond to that criticism; and I hope that I may do so. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I had thought the Senator from Montana would take the floor when the Senator from Illinois [Mr. DIRxsENI concluded. I shall be glad to have the Senator from Montana proceed now. Mr. MANSFIELD. No, Mr. President; I should like to have all the diatribes and criticisms presented first. Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President. I should like to add to these remarks. Mr. MANSFIELD. That is what I un- derstood. - Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President- Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I yield to the Senator from Colorado [Mr. Doasnazcrc] . The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. HARTRE in the chair). The Senate Is now proceeding In the morning hour; and the Senator from Colorado is recognized. Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President. it seems to me that 18 years after V-E Day we have had clear expositions in the Senate today of some of the problems that we are facing on a nationwide and worldwide basis. LATIN AMERICA The threat to the internal security of Latin America, and hence the entire Western Hemisphere, is greater today than at any time In history. Overlook- Ing this fact, or pretending it will go away if Ignored, Is a policy fraught with danger which is doomed to absolute and final failure. As the most powerful na- tion in the hemisphere it is our responsi- bility to assume the lead of eradicating this menace. We have done this In the past and are expected by our Latin American friends to do It again. During World War Ir, the United States, along with the Latin American nations, cooperated to prevent Axis penetration of the Western Hemisphere. In 1954, under the Eisenhower adminis- tration, a Communist-dominated gov- ernment in Guatemala was overthrown with encouragement from the United States and the Central American nations after it began to receive heavy arms shipments from the Soviet Union. Firm action by the United States during the October Cuban crisis received unani- mous and unqualified support from all members of the Organization of Ameri- can States. The will Is there. The need Is there. The leadership of the United States cannot fail to be there. The policy of the present administra- tion on Latin America defies description. We are unable to see through the series of State Department smokescreens long enough to determine what, if anything, our Government is doing, or plans to do, with regard to Cuban exported subver- sion. That such subversion is going on, that saboteurs are being trained, equipped and sent to Latin American countries from Cuba is irrefutable. The testimony of John A. McCone, Director of the CIA, makes this point clear. Mr. McCone's testimony showed that between 1,000 and 1,500 Latin Americans received guerrilla and sabotage training in Cuba last year, and more have ar- rived this year. The CIA Director testified : The Cuban effort at present is far more serious than the hastily organized and ill- conceived raids that the bearded veterans of Sierra Maestra led into such Central Amer- ican countries as Panama, Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic during the first 8 or 9 months Castro was In power. Today the Cuban effort is far more sophis- ticated, more covert, and more deadly. In its professional tradecraft, it shows guidance and training by experienced Communist ad- visers from the Soviet bloc, including vet- eran Spanish Communists. Mr. McCone has stated clearly that the nations of Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, and Panama are marked targets for this sub- version by the Communists. Mr. McCone also indicated that Cuba furnishes money to buy weapons and other items neces- sary to conduct subversive activities. By the end of March 1963, the Presi- dent had both the proof of extensive Communist penetration in Latin Amer- ica beyond Cuba, and evidence of grow- ing alarm among our Latin American friends. On April 15, 1963, President Kennedy attended a meeting of Central American Presidents in San Jose, Costa Rica. In spite of pressures by Central American Presidents, Mr. Kennedy did nothing to clear the issue of our policy toward sub- version in Latin America. In line with the strange things that are happening In Latin America are the questions being raised regarding the possible evacuation of the U.S. forces from Guantanamo Naval Base. Is the administration searching for a naval site in Puerto Rico as a prelude to such an evacuation? The Congress, the Ameri- can people, and the freedom-loving Latin Americans have a right to know just what is being planned for Guantanamo: The Latin Americans as well as citi- zens of the United States cannot help but be concerned over this administra- tion's policy regarding Cuba. They can- not help but wonder whether the admin- istration has a policy of assistance to Cubans to regain control of their own government or whether it intends to try to coexist with communism in this hemi- sphere while subversion and infiltration continue from Castro's Communist gov- ernment in Cuba. Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, will my colleague yield? Mr. DOMINICK. I yield. Mr. ALLOTT. I compliment my dis- tinguished colleague from Colorado on the remarks he has mad@, and I join in them wholeheartedly. The Senator has performed a very valuable service In pointing out that all of us, as Americans, desire to support the President's policies in Latin America if we can. But first we need to know what those policies are. As Members of the Senate we have a right to have those policies defined for us. In that respect, the remarks of my colleague from Colorado have been very helpful, It is my hope that he will con- candor with respect to the administra- tion in power, whatever may be its po- litical obligation. The President has very heavy responsibilities. He is the man in authority. He is the man who is doing the work. Nevertheless, I believe we have made and are making some ex- tremely grave mistakes in respect to our Mideast policy, and I believe It Is my duty to point out, as well, what I con- sider to be appropriate solutions for them. I am trying to be true to that duty in the effort which I have described to call the attention of our people to what are the dangers-and I believe they are real dangers, as.I have described them-amounting to a threat of war and. In my judgment, what needs to be done in order to avoid war. In this connection I ask unanimous consent to Include with my remarks an editorial entitled "Our Mideast Policy Under Fire," which appeared in the New York Post, May 2, 1963. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: OUR MIDEAST POLICY UNDER FIRE The Kennedy administration Is smarting under the harsh criticism of its Mideast policies voiced by a dozen Senators last Tues- day. The Senators, of both parties. assailed the administration for building up President Nasser while he continues to threaten the peace and stability of the Middle East. In an Indirect answer to its critics, the administration has let It be known that it recently took precautionary military meas- ures and warned Nasser that we would inter- vene if there were a coup against King Hussein of Jordan. Washington also dis- closed that It has been pressing the United Arab Republic, Iraq, and Syria to call off their propaganda war against Hussein. But these diseldsures only underline the contradictions in our policy. Who threatens Hussein? Who denounces Hussein as a U.S.. puppet? It is President Nasser-the same Nasser who is a substantial beneficiary of U.S. aid and support. It is a policy that makes little sense. Re- publican and Democratic Senators warned the administration that events in the area were now moving In a direction that can only end in war, a war that would endanger the peace of the world. To halt this trend, they urged revival of the United States-British-French guarantees of the region's peace and stability, coupled with Initiative to end the arms race. If Nasser is unwilling to cooperate with a peace and stabilization program at a time when he issoliciting our help, what [Hakes us think he will be more amenable later, when our help is less Important? Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President, will the Senator from New York yield? Mr. KEATING. Mr. President- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The time of the Senator from New York has expired. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, Is the Senate now operating In the mom- Ing hour, or under the dispensation granted to the minority leader? The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senate is now operating in the morning hour. " Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may have 5 ad- ditional minutes. Mr. MANSFIELD. Five additional minutes In which the Senator from New York will speak? Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23: CIA-RDP65gp03 000200240021-3 1963' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 7483 Ptinue, as I hope others will continue, to troops would be removed. And if there named Dr. Joseph Sizoo. It is worth discuss that subject until we find out should be any attempt by the Soviet recounting that his father came from whether we have a policy and, if we do Union to take advantage of other situa- Norway. He went to work for the Pull- not have a policy, that we will start de- tions which develop in Latin America man Co. in South Chicago, when Abra- fining a policy for -Cuba and Latin such as might develop in Haiti-our ham Lincoln's son was the president of America. country should prevent, promptly, any the company. When the elder Sizoo got Mr. DOMINICK. I thank my col- further intrusion by Soviet forces. his first raise he put the money into a league. I believe that the establishment of sequestered account for the education of Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I rec- such a policy would clarify our purposes. his son, and that son was Dr. Joseph ognize the distinguished Senator from It might not be possible to achieve its ob- Sizoo, who long presided as the minister Kentucky. jectives immediately, but the establish- of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Mr. COOPER. Mr. President, on the ment of the policy and the determination Church. 18th anniversary of V-E Day, it is very to continue to insist upon withdrawal of I always thought it was one of the appropriate that we turn our thoughts troops accompanied by other measures, interesting postscripts of history that to that day 18 years ago when the great even the resumption of the quarantine, that is a church in which Lincoln at- conflict in Europe ended. It marked the in time, would I hope bring results. tended prayer meetings-where, almost end of a 12-month campaign in which I close by saying that on this anniver- stealthily, he went on Wednesday nights American soldiers and other members sary of V-E Day. it is best to remember through a side door, there to engage in of the armed services, in conjunction the thousands who gave their lives dur- the fellowship of prayer. with our allies, liberated Europe. These ing World War II. Dr. Joseph Sizoo found a larger minis- forces moved into Germany and Czecho- It would be presumptuous for any of try in New York. On Saturdays he used slovakia and defeated the Nazi totali- us, to recall our own experiences, but it to go to the Veterans Hospital. One tarian regime. is especially appropriate for all of us who . Saturday afternoon he was talking to There is much to consider today, as had the opportunity to serve in World a youngster there. He found that the we still struggle with the consequences War II, and in Europe, to remember to- patients had been "washed up" by the of that great war. We remind ourselves day the sacrifices of those who died, of backlash of war. They were the wrecks, of history to afford light for today and those who were wounded, of those who in large part. the future. suffered, and the sacrifices of their He was talking about responsibility I think that the judgment of history families. and social obligation, which come later, will be that the agreements which were I close my remarks by paying tribute and in the middle of his discourse one made during that war-agreements to those who fought in World War II particular youngster stood up. He had which permited the division in Berlin, and who gave all that was asked of one arm shot off. The other arm was in which permitted the Soviet Union to them, and more, for our country and for a sling. He had a steel girdle around move into Manchuria and ports along the preservation oi: freedom. his middle, because a Japanese sniper the Pacific-brought about the unhappy Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, an had shot him in the spine on one of the consequences with which we still must anniversary occasion is rather high islands of the Pacific. He would never deal. ground in what can otherwise be a drab walk again under his own power. Despite the promises made by the and routine existence. It gives one an As he listened to Dr. Joseph Sizoo, he Soviet Union, it broke them callously opportunity to stand up a little higher, suddenly stood up, with agony on his and fastened its control on every coun- to look back to see from whence he came, face as if the chisel of Phideas himself try it entered, except Austria and Iran. and then to look ahead in the hope that had put it there, and said, "Padre, Padre, The Soviets agreed to the establishment the road is clearly demarked. will anything come of it?" of democratic governments in Poland Today is the 18th anniversary of V-E That is a good question, Mr. President, and the Eastern European states, but Day. 18 years after this deafening silence on proceeded to deny any democratic choice Sometimes a journey can be described the battlefields of Europe. to the people of those countries. as a tour from one epochal event to an- I was in Paris that day. I asked the That denial was followed by the block- other. Certainly the cessation of con- commander of the Paris quarter to give ade of Berlin, by the coup d'etat in flict and killing in a great sector of the me a car and a doughboy, and I went to Czechoslovakia, and later by its open world is an epochal event. I lived Versailles, that great garden built by domination of Eastern Germany. through it once, Mr. President. I lived Louis XIV. The place was locked, and These events provided us with lessons through it on a battlefield on the West- I wandered around, and I finally found which, unhappily, we have not recalled ern Front in World War I. a poilu with only one arm. We had often enough. The Soviet Union has People used to say about Lexington _ something in common. He also had established its presence in Cuba and the and Concord that the shot fired at the served in World War H. Western Hemisphere, and I am fearful bridge was heard round the world. I In my limited French, I asked him how that, despite whatever promises the So- can tell Senators that the stillness which I could get in. Then I asked him, viet Union made last year, it will not comes in such sharp contrast can fairly "Where Is the Salle de la. Guerre?"- withdraw its forces. be heard around the world. the Salon.of War, with all the magnifi- The question of Cuba troubles the So there was something eerie about cent oil paintings. Then I said to him, country. What kind of policy shall we the situation on the 8th of May, 18 years as we went into that room, "Where did pursue, and what can be done? It is a ago. Clemenceau sit?" He said, "Voila." I difficult question to answer for the. ad- ' What a ghastly business it was, with asked, "Where did President Wilson ministration and for those who criticize the damage which was done to the sit?" "Voila." its policy. ancient churches and cathedrals; to And then, at the end of one com- I believe that it ought to be our de- buildings and housing equipment, where ponent of World War 11, I was standing clared policy that the Soviet presence men found a livelihood; to homes of all where the peace treaty was signed. I al- in Cuba and the Western Hemisphere kinds; and, of course, the scars on the lowed myself to fal into something of a cannot be' accepted. I say quite honest- earth. All that suddenly came to an end. reverie. I thought, "Had we learned ly, it is difficult to implement this policy, it was a bloody business, to say the least. anything?" It seemed not, because more but at, least there should be a declara- So when we stand on the pinnacle of men were under arms. The methods tion that the ending of this presence is an anniversary and look back and look and devices for killing were more ef- our policy-a declaration which will have around, we look forward, to try. to assess ficient and expeditious. And a rather meaning in our country, and which will the future and come to some kind of peculiar feeling possessed me. have meaning in Latin America. conclusion. Then one is lost in puzzle- Four months after V-E Day came V-J I believe the President should continue ment and wonderment as to whether Day. A bomb brought a new a.ge and a to insist that Khrushchev keep the mankind learned a lesson or not. new era and the end of a war. Then promises he is said to have made last fall, I think of a great minister of the New we had an opportunity to think a little at the time of the crisis, that Soviet York Avenue Presbyterian Church about what was taking place. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE May 8 It is an astounding thing, Mr. Presi- dent, that one of God's greatest blessings to mankind is grass, because It heals and covers the scars of the earth. How quickly the rubble is gone. Go out to the Ruhr or any place else in Ger- many or Austria. New buildings have risen, and the rubble has disappeared_ Man's ingenuity and imagination have encompassed all that. But, singularly enough, a nation, like Phoenix, can rise from the ashes of war and fairly rehabilitate its great physi- cal plant, its shattered earth, and every- thing else; but, somehow, that healing has not reached the hearts and minds of mankind. I had a very quaint experience the other day. I went to address a mass meeting. of Republican women. My speech was taken down by a reporter using shorthand, and when she trans- cribed her notes, where I had spoken about the "balm of Gilead," she put in the words "bomb of Gilead." What an amazing thing, then, that, somehow, the very atmosphere in which we live im- presses Itself in little ways, and the balm of Gilead seemed to be pretty far away. I asked the distinguished majority leader to let us have this time, and he graciously consented, because I thought we ought to look back and observe this day and think a little about the problems of today, and also the circumstances and conditions that have evolved since that day 18 years ago when, in a delirium of jubilation, I thought I saw a million peo- ple in downtown Paris as the lights came on for the first time in years. So we stand here on this pinnacle. and we look back, and then we look down, and then hopefully we look ahead. But as we look around, what do we see? Name any continent. Name any great area, and, Mr. President, you will see it on the front page. If you name me Asia, Mr. President, I name you a divided Korea that cost us nearly $20 billion a year, and is costing us every year. A parallel of latitude di- vides North Korea from South Korea. Mr. President, you name me China, and I name you a great, hulking coun- try, with prehaps 600 million people, under the tyranny of dictatorship driv- ing their people down the Red road of communism. Mr. President, you name me Thailand, once known as Siam, and I name you a country that is under the dynamics of fear. A part of our 7th Fleet is stand- ing at the Gulf of Siam. Mr. President, you name me Laos, where we finally assented to a troika gov- ernment-Commun st, neutral, and one for their own coup y-and I name you a country that is in grave jeopardy to- day of being overwhelmed and taken over by the Red ideological scourge. Mr. President, you name me Burma, and I can recite you the agony of the acting Prime Minister when I was in Rangoon. Mr. President, you name me Indonesia, which has been referred to on the floor today, and I name you a country which is seething with difficulty and which it- self could become a victim of this virus. This is 18 years after V-E Day and after men surrendered the ghost in the Islands of the Pacific. Mr. President, you name me Europe, and I name you a stone wall that sep- arates East from West Berlin. I name you France, which vetoed Britain's entry into the Common Mar- ket, and which evidently Is seeking to develop a third force. I name you all the countries in Eastern Europe that are under the Red heel, and particularly a great country like Poland, which pro- duced so much In culture, so many great musicians, artists, and the like. Today, for practical purposes. It is the victim of the virus that is In the atmosphere of the world today. Mr. President, if you name me the Middle East, which has been discussed here today, one wonders if all the coun- tries of Moslem extraction and Moslem base will finally consummate what they have In mind, and what will happen to the Republic of Israel, which was born and recognized in the Truman adminis- tration. Mr, President, you name me Latin America. with its poverty and Its wretchedness, and I name you a con- tinent were the peasant league, evidently 2 million strong in the largest country there, is seeking, by might and main, to overwhelm the constituted authority and impose the imprimatur of communism. Mr. President, you name me Cuba, and I name you a country that was liberated by American arms, sustained, and taken by the hand, until it obtained Its own Independence; and today It is under the heel of communism, and is the stooge of Khrushchev, 18 years after V-E Day. So, Mr. President, you can name any hemisphere, any continent, most coun- tries, and it will be seen that we are confronted with problems seemingly greater than those that were on our doorstep when we summoned the youth of America and our ingenuity to stop the rising tide of dictatorship. It is a tragic business, one that can bring only distress to human hearts. One thing that bothers me more than anything else is the phrase that is creep- ing Into our conversation. We no longer talk of the cold war. We seem to talk of a permanent cold war. That phrase recurs so many times that It Insinuates itself into the thinking of the people, 18 years after the deafening silence brought the delirium of joy to millions of people in all corners of the world It is a day to be remembered. It is a day for rededication. It is a day for reconsecration to the purpose that makes this Republic the greatest coun- try on the face of the earth, and sets In motion those divine forces in the mind and in the heart of the individual which are the great swelling motive power for American achievement and accomplish- ment. How quickly we forget. The Senate has not observed the anniversary of this day during my service in this body. However, I think it is time to take ac- count of some of the ancient landmarks that those before us have set, and to take account of the sacrifices they have made. The word "sacrifice" has in it the con- notation of something sacred. When a young man forfeits his life for his coun- try, and when a million casualties-our casualties-are the result of conflict, we can afford in this deliberative body to take a little time to go into communion with ourselves and- measure the cost of what we enjoy today. One of the most pathetic and touch- ing stories that I have ever heard was 'that of a young GI who, when last seen, was getting on a transport to go to one of the Pacific Islands. His commanding officer noted that when he last saw him alive he had in his breast pocket a little paperbacked book, the outside cover of - which displayed the title "Our Hearts Were Young and Gay." When his commanding officer saw him the next time he was upside down and covered with blood, and his blond hair was out over the sand. But the book was still in his pocket: "Our Hearts Were Young and Gay." I helped to send these young men over there, by my vote, and I mean to re- member it. I believe that Members of this exclusive legislative body, to which was committed the purse, while the Con- stitution was committing to the Com- mander in Chief the sword, must always remember that we cannot get into for- mal conflict without a vote of this body, and no dollars can be spent unless we ap- propriate them to send the flower of America out Into the far reaches of the earth, to do battle-yes, and for what? Sometimes we forget; but I have talked with many of them, in Germany, France, the Middle East, India, and the Far East. I have said to each of them, "Soldier, what do you think about? What is this all about? Why are you here?" Almost invariably they become inar- ticulate and tonguetied. Then I would get a kind of halting answer, which came not so much from the lips as from the heart, "Well, I guess it's for freedom." What blessed beneficiaries we are of the great hordes who have gone before us. May we never cast aside one of the greatest attributes that God has con- ferred upon mankind, the attribute to remember. This day, Mr. -President, we remember. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I have been listening for at least an hour and a, half to a series of speeches by my Republican colleagues in the Senate on a number of subjects which had very lit- tle, if any, relation to the observance of the 18th anniversary of V-E Day, mark- ing the end of World War II in Europe. During the course of these remarks, some of which were quite statesmanlike, such as that of the distinguished minority leader and that of the distinguished Sen- ator from Kentucky [Mr. COOPER] and others, I thought that due honor was be- ing paid to the subject under considera- tion. However, some of my other Re- publican colleagues in the Senate men- tioned V-E Day at the beginning of their remarks, and that was the last reference made to that historic occasion. It seems to me that while this was a well-led and well-directed brigade, the arguments which were advanced to show Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B0 000200240021-3 8 r - SE 7485 196 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD NATE that this country has enjoyed 18 years in accepting our responsibilities, how- with the newly emerging countries in of misrule were very poorly documented. ever, we must recognize the limits of Africa? What about the situation in the I heard such words as "inventory of our our ability to affect events around the 'Middle East, where the perennial Israeli- foreign policy" over the past 18 years. globe. I think it is important that we Arab conflict is blossoming again, poten- I heard such descriptions as "clear ex- avoid what D. W. Brogan calls "the il- tially dangerous? positions" concerning foreign policy and lusion of omnipotence"-that American I suggest that Senators ask themselves our lack of it over the past 18 years. I policy and power can reverse any un- one question about the man and the heard references to Cuba, with Latin fortunate trend or repair any difficulty Government whom they so freely criti- America thrown in incidentally. I heard that occurs anywhere in the world. cize: What would I do if I were in his fleeting references to Africa. I heard , President Truman, President Eisen- shoes and had to make the decisions references to the Middle East, which I hower, and President Kennedy have all which only he can make?" do not believe should be considered with- learned, if they did not already know; If we ask ourselves that question, we in the context of the "Charge of the the truth of this situation. will have a pretty good idea of the great Light Brigade" today, because they had I wonder why it is that on this sad and responsibility which is his, and his alone, to do with a resolution which was sub- happy occasion-sad because of the lives not because he is the head of the Demo- mitted. lost; happy because of the end of a war- cratic Party, put because he is the Presi- Until the minority leader spoke, I it has been necessary for the Republi- dent of the United States, and as such heard no reference to the situation in can light brigade to launch a series of represents all the people of this country. southeast Asia; no reference to Formosa; attacks against what has occurred in our no reference to Korea; no reference. to own country over the past 18 years. Thailand; and I believe no reference to What do they mean when they speak REDESBATIGNA IGNATTIOION OF NATIONAL BIG MON HOLE E LEFI- Laos. A good deal was overlooked in of "surgery" as being needed? I do not BA I' the course of these discussions, and much know. Are we being accused of "losing" MENT was left unsaid. Criticism was leveled Cuba and possibly Haiti? Are we being The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. BAYH against the policy of this Government accused of, or commended for, "saving" in the chair) laid before the Senate the over the past 18 years. the Dominican Republic and Guatemala? amendment of the House of Representa- I did not hear mentioned once the Are we Republicans and Democrats tives to the bill (S. 138) to redesignate name of General Eisenhower, the mili- first, and Americans last? Or are we the Big Hole Battlefield National Monu- tary leader of the Allied Forces on V-E Americans first and members of two ment, to revise the boundaries thereof, Day. I did not hear mentioned once the great political parties second?, Are we and for other purposes, which was, to name of former President Truman, who politicians first and Americans last? I strike out all after the enacting clause was in office at that time. I did not hear urge Senators to consider some of the and insert: mentioned the name of the present Pres- statements which we make. That the Big Hole Battlefield National ident of tie United States, who at that Over the years since V-E Day, the Monument, established by Executive Order time was, I believe, a lieutenant, junior United States, under Republican and Numbered 1216 of June 23, 1910, and en-bered 2339 grade, in the Navy, and who was fighting Democratic administrations, have been larged 29 1 Proclamation hereon Numignated as the in the Pacific, doing what he could accused on the floor of the Senate of HNational rebefield. through personal courage to advance continual failure. I have heard no al- Big SEC Hole N tonal to preserve historic fea- nd sites associated with the Battle of the security, welfare, and well-being of- ternatives offered; but I have listened tures a. 2. In his country. to criticisI'ns of what was being done and the Big Hole and to facilitate their admin- But I heard much criticism without of what was not being done. I have istration and interpretation, the boundaries- any names being mentioned; and evi- heard no Senator advocate that an em- of the Big Hole National Battlefield are here- dently it was criticism of the Govern- bargo be imposed on Cuba. An embargo by revised to include the following described ment_over the past 18 years. I should is an act of war. I have heard no Sen- lands: MONTANA PRINCIPAL MERIDIAN have hoped that our Republican col- ator urge today that the United States leagues would have given their own ad- should invade Cuba. I have heard much Township 2 south, range 17, west: Section ministration and our own country a bet- criticism, generally speaking, but I have 13, southwest quarter southeast quarter, ter mark for what has occurred over the heard nothing in the way of specifics. southeast southwest tr ut ter, ear; past 18 years than was given on the floor The easiest thing a politician can do is section 23, east half northeast quarter south- of the Senate today. to find fault, without offering construe- east quarter; section 24, west half east half, Who halted and reversed the Soviet tive alternatives. Not one constructive north half southwest quarter, southeast threat in Iran? The U.S. Government. alternative or suggestion has been made quarter southwest quarter, east half south- Who inaugurated-the Greek-Turkish aid on the floor of the Senate today. west quarter southwest quarter; section 25, I have heard criticism of our Govern- those portions of the northeast quarter program and the Marshall plan? This ment and of our policies over the past northwest quarter and the northwest quarter Government-and, incidentally, in the northeast quarter lying north of the north 18 years; criticism of our sacrifices our leader- over right-of-way line of relocated Montana State Republican-controlled 80th Congress. the past 18 years; ; criticism of our leRoute 43; consisting of approximately 466 Who was responsible for lifting the Ber- ship over the past 18 years. lid blockade?, This Government. Who All of us, regardless of party, should SEC. 3. (a) The Secretary of the Interior instituted the Marshall plan, which re- examine a 'map of the world. Look at may acquire by donation, purchase, ex- Vietnam, where today we have 12,000 change, or otherwise, lands and interests in ing of a powerful, friendly, democratic men stationed-"advisers," as they are lands within the area described in section 2 Germany? This Government. Even the called. Recall that the 7th Fleet is in of this Act. power of President de Gaulle in Western not only the Straits of Taiwan but in (b) Any lands described in section 2 of affairs is a testimonial to a strong and the South China Sea and the Gulf of this Act that are a part of the Beaverhead vigorous France, a nation which was as- Siam, as well. Look at Korea, where National Forest when this Act takes effect axe from near ruin by our aid within two American divisions are still std- dereby excluded from the forest and the past 18 years. Who resisted com- added to the Big Hole National Battlefield. tinned, and where I am afraid they will (o) Lands Included in the Big Hole Na- munism successfully in Korea? be stationed for a long time to come, tional Battlefield pursuant to this Act shall In all that time, our country has re- because there is no peace in Korea-only be administered in accordance with the pro- mained strong and able to meet such a continuation of an uneasy truce. visions of the Act entitled "An Act to estab- emergencies. Russia has added nothing When we look at the rest of Latin lish a National Park Service, and for other to her direct territorial control since America outside the Caribbean we can purposes", approved August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 1945, while our power has maintained a hardly, find a single country which is 535; 16 U.S.C. 1-3), as amended and supple- nuclear standoff. stable today. Consider Cuba and Haiti, mented. SEC. 4. There is hereby retroceded to the Great problems still remain, but they where anything may happen. Consider State of Montana, effective when accepted by are not solely the responsibility of either the Dominican Republic. What do we said State in accordance with its laws, such Democrats or Republicans; they are the see? We see trouble, real or potential. jurisdiction as has been ceded by such State. responsibility of all Americans, regard- What about our relations with West- the boodUnited aariies States Big Ho le Nwithin' less National lof party. ern Europe9 What about our relations Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE May 8 Battlefield reserving in the United States. however, concurrent legislative jurisdiction over such lands. SEc. 5. There are authorized to be appro- priated such sums not exceeding $20,000 as are necessary for the acquisition of lands and interests In land pursuant to this Act. Mr. METCALF. Mr. President, I move that the Senate concur in the House amendments. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to the motion of the Senator from Montana. The motion was agreed to. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. BAYH in the chair). Is there further morning business? Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr, President, I ask unanimous consent that the morn- Ing hour be continued for the next 20 minutes. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. THE WHEAT REFERENDUM Mr. AIKEN. Mr. President, I wish to speak on a matter, which may have al- most as Important a bearing on the wel- fare of the country as the solution-if we find one-to some of our foreign en- tanglements. On May 21 a vote will be taken by the wheat growers of this country as to whether they will accept a program, and the controls connected with It, which were promoted last year and approved last year, for future application, or whether they will reject the program. A vigorous controversy is now In prog- ress as to whether the Department of Agriculture is putting forth an intensive propaganda effort to secure a "yes" vote in the referendum. Probably the methods used by the administration may be of as much concern to us as the out- come of the wheat referendum itself. I believe that we had better let the facts speak for themselves. Therefore. I shall ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD at the close of my remarks a document which has been sent out to wheat growers. The one I have comes to me from the Labette ASCS county office, at Altamont, Kans. I understand that documents similar to this one have been sent out to wheat growers all over the United States. The document purports to show that if the wheat grower who is raising 40 acres of wheat votes "yes," he will receive $1,805.06 for his crop; whereas, If he votes "no," he will receive $1,014.20 for his crop. It seems to me that the administra- tion is proceeding on three or four false assumptions in regard to the fortlicom- Ing wheat referendum vote. First. It seems to assume that the American farmer, particularly the wheat farmer, is gullible, and will believe al- most anything that the Department of Agriculture sends to him through the mails. Second. It seems to assume that the will gladly give up controls over his own business in order to have a temporary increase in income. Third. The administration assumes that the American farmer is a timid person, who will fall on his face if he is threatened with any loss of Income. The fourth assumption seems to be that If the wheat farmer votes against a program desired by the administration, the President and Congress will punish him by not enacting legislation which will give a fair recompense for his crop.. I believe that the administration in this case would do much better if it were to busy Itself with studying the real character of the American farmer, rather than proceeding under these several false assumptions. Besides receiving copies of this docu- ment from Kansas, I have received them also from Colorado and other States. There Is no question about the fact that at least 1 million copies of the docu- ment have been distributed to the wheat growers of the country. I believe all of them have received copies of this docu- ment. We know that the Department of Agriculture Is very busy trying to pick up new votes. That might be very helpful in the forthcoming referendum. Also, there have been some very inter- esting meetings throughout the country for the purpose of explaining the new wheat program. If it were explained impartially, I would have no objection, but I will leave It to the readers of this document to decide for themselves whether the administration Is Impartial in this matter. I ask unanimous consent that the document be printed in the RECORD at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the docu- ment was ordered to be printed In the RECORD, as follows: U.S. DEPARTMENT or AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION SERVicE, LABrrrE ASCS COUNTY OFFICE, Altamont, Sans., May 3, 1963. DEAR Mx. AND MRs. FARMER: Are you ready to decide on 1984 wheat? Yes, $1.90; ' no, $1.10' May 21 is coming soon. Producers who have an Interest In a 1964 farm wheat acreage allotment are eligible to vote. This Includes: 1. Landowners who receive all or a share of the wheat crop or proceeds thereof. Both husband and wife can vote It both names are on the farm deed. 2. Tenants or sharecroppers who receive a share of the wheat crop or proceeds thereof. Both husband and wife can vote if- (a) Both names are on the lease; or (b) A verbal lease applies and the county committee determines that both are respon- sible for carrying out the tenant obligations under the lease. The eligibility of the wife to vote should be established with the ASC County Commit- tee before May 21. If you live outside the county, or you will be out of the county on May 21, you can secure the ballot by signing and returning the enclosed request for an absentee ballot. Special step to take by May 1S: 1. If your farm acreage allotment is 14.9 acres or less, the operator must sign on the back of the allotment notice by May 13 and I Warehouse stored. $1,90; $2 farm stored. ? Warehouse stored, $1.10; $1.20 farm stored. get this to the ASCS office. This signature will make landowner and tenant eligible to vote and eligible to participate and obtain price support, wheat certificate, and diver- sion payments. Are you in favor of marketing quotas for wheat for the 1964 crop? Yes -. No - What a "yes" or a "no" vote can mean to you based on estimated 1964 wheat loan rates for warehouse stored grain: LABETTE COUNTY A "yes" vote means: 1. $2.03 per bushel price support ware- house stored rate on certificate wheat--80 percent of normal production-$1.33 on non- - certificate wheat. 2. Assuming a 40-acre 1963 allotment and 36 acres for 1964: 38 acres times 25.6 bushels normal yield equals 922 bushels. 3. Eighty percent certificate wheat equals 737.6 bushels at $2.03 per bushel equals $1,497.33. 4. Other sale or use: 184.4 bushels feed, seed, or price support of $1.33 equals $245.25. 5. Four acres diverted at $15.82 per acre equals $82.48 diversion payment. 8. Total $1,497.33 plus $245.25 plus $82.48 equal $1,805.06. You can substitute date for your own farm. A "no" vote means: 1. About $1.10 per bushel price support warehouse stored rate If within allotment. Market price estimated $1 per bushel or -. 2. Assuming a 40-acre 1963 allotment and 38 acres for 1964: 36 acres times 25.6 bushels normal yield equals 922 bushels., 3. $0 certificate wheat. 4. Other sale or use: 922 bushels at $1.10 price support equals $1,014.20. If seeded above allotment like 50 acres times 25.6 .bushels equals 1,280 bushels at $1 equals $1,280. 5. $0 diversion payment. 6. Total $1,014.20 or $1,280.00? GEO. W. MAavELE, Labette ASC County Committee. Postage and fees paid U.S. Department of Agriculture. DAR GOOD CITIZENSHIP AWARD TO MISS KATHLEEN BARDEN OF LIT- TLE ROCK Mr. McCLELLAN. Mr. President, on April 18 at Constitution Hall here in Washington, a very talented' and ex- tremely capable young lady from Little Rock, Ark., Miss_ Kathleen Barden, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Barden of 8 Kavanaugh Place, was awarded the National DAR Good Citizenship Award for 1963, together with the $1,000 schol- arship that accompanies the award. Miss Barden achieved this high honor in competition with 10,869 senior girls in accredited high schools throughout the Nation. Judging for the award was based On outstanding qualities of de- pendability, service, leadership, and pa- triotism. The Arkansas award winner will use her $1,000 scholarship to attend the Uni- versity of Arkansas, where she plans to study either to become a teacher or to pursue some other vocation in the field of Christian education, Miss Barden Is an outstanding example of the fine young people in our State and of the high cali- ' Cost of production would increase due to planting additional 14 acres. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 f6ved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX - May 8 Castro is ear after his visit to Cuba th m l st ld t . e a y o now Castro's Moscow Visit archy on the benefits that cou from stepped-up aid to Cuba in armament, unstable and volatile, and not dependable HON. BRUCE ALGER OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 8, 19?3 food merchandise, and equipment of many from the Kremlin viewpoint. It seems clear kinds. to experts on Soviet affairs. that Khrushchev Khrushchev, for his part, gained an oppor- decided the time had come to summon Ca-- tunity to seek assurances from Castro that tro to Moscow and give him a talking to. Russian guidance would be accepted to a More than just the plight of Cuba is in- greater degree in trying to bring some order volved in the visit. Communist politics out of economic chaos on the island. It is at the highest level enter in. known that many top Communists are con- Official experts in Britain who study such cerned because what they had hoped to make things say the Castro trip is a major move in a show window of Communist success in the the mounting competition between Russia Mr. ALGER. Mr. Speaker, Khru- Western Hemisphere looks more like a junk and Red China for Communist leadership. shchev is now confident that he has won heap under Castro. According to these experts, the side that ti 411 in a a hind the Iron Curtain. The invitation to Castro to visit Moscow, the joint in- sulting statements directed toward the United States, all were intended to dem- onstrate that Cuba now belongs to Khrushchev _ and, that as far as the Communists are concerned, the Monroe Doctrine is dead. The failure of President Kennedy to take a firm stand against Communist ag- gression in the Western Hemisphere; his refusal to invoke the Monroe Doctrine, his acceptance of Soviet terms on keep- ing Russian arms and soldiers in Cuba, gave Khrushchev this victory. We can seize the initiative again in ridding this hemisphere of Communist subversion, but only if the President will demonstrate courage and support the demand of the American people to put the security of the United States ahead of his fears and frustrations. The Mon- roe Doctrine must be reinstated, the Communists driven out of Cuba and that country returned to its people. If the President is unable or unwilling to be the true leader of the United States, he should so state before it is too late. The propaganda victory President Kennedy has given to Khrushchev through mishandling the Cuban situa- tion is told in the following article from the U.S. News & World Report of May 13 : WHEN KHRUS$CHEV AND CASTRO GET TO- GETHER-WHAT THE MOSCOW MEETING MEANS Fidel Castro, by his state visit to Moscow, has made formal the position of Cuba as Russia's first satellite in the Western Hemi- sphere. . Castro traveled abroad, confident of his position at home. He had public assurance against any move by his neighbor, the United States, to cause him trouble at this time. The United States, too, was acting to keep in check anti-Castro Cubans. It is clear that Khrushchev shared Cas- ? tro's confidence. Soviet experts say Khru- shchev wouldn't have risked his own prestige by having Castro in Moscow if he thought there were any possibility of imminent trou- ble in Cuba. The Russians, too, by honoring Castro, gets Castro s active coopers on w g sought from him a commitment that he decisive advantage in Latin America. Since would go along with the Soviet Union and Khrushchev announced the withdrawal of avoid ties with Red China on issues that are Soviet missiles from Cuba last autumn, dividing world communism. Castro has been flirting politically with the Both men saw the trip as a blow to U.S. Chinese Reds., prestige in all of Latin America. Khrushchev may have called Castro to THE INVITATION Moscow suddenly because he got word that It seems agreed that initiative for the Castro had scheduled a high-level meeting with meeting came from Moscow. There had been the Chinese Communists for later this a long-standing, generalized invitation to month. With Castro' s cooperation, the Chinese Reds Castro to visit the Soviet Union, but it was have been preparing to make a vague in terms of time. major bid parties for the allegiance of all Commu- ,There are signs that, when the trip did in latin America. The Kremlin, already worried by Chinese come, it was planned in a ,hurry. The pur- successes in the Communist Parties of Asia pose may have been to forestall a gesture and Africa, considers it of prime importance by Castro that would be regarded as favor- to block such gains in Latin America. And able to Red China. Castro could be it the experts say the Castro trip may accom- played in Moscow as the symbol of Soviet push that Khrushchev can point out to Russia's first territorial gain since the years Castro that China is doing next to nothing just after World War II-and the first such for Cuba, while Russia is doing a great deal, gain under Khrushchev. and at considerable financial sacrifice. In Russia, Cuba is now dealt with as a Specifically, it is believed that Khrushchev full-fledged Soviet satellite. In greeting wants Castro to drop his plans for a confer- Castro, the Soviet dictator described the ence in'Havana of representatives from un- bearded Cuban as "the envoy of the first derdeveloped countries around the world. Socialist revolution on the American Con- The Red Chinese, who induced the Cubans tinent." to propose this meeting, have been count- Cuba, as a satellite, is listed in alphabeti- ing on it as a way to establish a foothold cal order among the Communist-bloc na- among Latin America's Communists. tions. The Communist May Day slogan for Castro is known to be anxious to stay on Cuba is similar in phrasing with those of good terms with both the Russian and Chi- other satellites-worded to a pattern made nese Communists. There has been specula- in Moscow. tion in Britain, and among some U.S. ex- The' Russians seem confident that their perts, that he might visit Peiping in an American satellite is nailed down. But effort to keep himself balanced between the there is evidence.that they are not altogether two Communist factions. happy with the way Castro is operating that But talk of such a visit has been generally satellite. discounted, for several reasons, since Castro The Communist empire is supplying Cuba showed up in Moscow. with aid that amounts to about $1 million For one thing, the Chinese under present a day. They are pouring in petroleum, meat, circumstances are thought to be unwilling rice, fats find oils, steel, wire, tractors, buses, to play second fiddle to Khruschev as hosts road machinery, and many other things. to Castro. Another point is that Castro, Khrushchev has had to tap his European needing more economic props from Moscow, satellites for materials to keep Cuba operat- wouldn't go to China without Khrushchev's ing. Czechoslovakia, in particular, is pro- approval-which he is not likely to get. viding a substantial share of this aid-and PRICE TAG ON CASTRO the Czechoslovaks are publicly grumbling about What price is Khrushchev prepared to pay the burden they bear and about the help us the power struggle inefficiencies of Castro and those about him. for Castro's s within communism? SUGAR SHORTAGE American experts disagree, but British oflf- In spite of all the help that Castro is cials believe Khrushchev is prepared to getting, the economy of Cuba appears to be promise to keep Soviet troops in Cuba in- running steadily downhill. Cuba's total out- definitely=or, at a minimum, until Cubans put is down 25 percent from what it was 3 can be thoroughly trained in the handling Castro was communism's May Day hero in years ago, and is still declining. Estimates of their Soviet weapons. Moscow. But there was more to the trip are that the main trading crop-sugar-will The logic in this reasoning is that the' than public display. be less than 4 million tons this year. That withdrawal of Soviet missiles and bombers When Khrushchev and Castro got together is just about half what it was in the best from Cuba has left Castro uncertain as to in the Soviet Union, their objectives were years before Castro came to power. just how solid are Russian military inten- described as varied: Living standards for larger and larger sec- tions in the Western Hemisphere. As a By meeting, the two leaders of Communist tions of the Cuban population are dropping means of reassuring Castro, some experts states advertised their confidence that they steadily. Letters from Cubans to refugees in would not be surprised to see the' Moscow can carry forward -an anti-U.S. operation the United States increasingly plead for trip produce a mutual-defense pact between unmolested, right under the nose of the shoes, medicine, clothing, food, and other Cuba and the Soviet Union. United States. Soviet diplomats proclaimed necessities. If that happens, it will be Russia's first the death of the Monroe Doctrine shortly Castro needs more help than he is getting. formal military alliance in the Americas- after Castro landed in Russia. The price he may have to pay is to grant and will raise anew the question of when There was the opportunity to explore open- Moscow closer supervision of Cuban affairs and where the Monroe Doctrine applies. ings and programs to promote communism so more efficient use can be made of the aid That doctrine is a U.S. pledge=now broad- more aggressively in the countries of Latin the Soviet Union is willing to supply. ened to include the backing of the Organiza- America. Castro has been a troublesome character tion of American States-to prevent the es- Castro was able, at first hand, to sell Khru- for the Russians to deal with right along, as tablishment of any foreign system of gov- shchev and others in the Communist bier- Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan reported ernment in the Western Hemisphere. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 1963 Approve For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 ONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A2877 American Revolution, summarize our present They have been conquered by guerrilla UNITE RATHER THAN REFORM world situation. warfare, a kind of warfare which our gallant We have stated officiall we have no de- Man-with his great achievements, his Spanish friends understand well. They've sire y staggering scientific discoveries-yet faces been conquered by infiltration and subver- to reform our eform soo ur friends. us Let not then the threat of annihilation. sion, by blackmail or coercion and bribery, to to unite rather than n tfri to reform. AT EXPENSE OF OLD FRIENDSHIPS by external pressure and Internal force-and It is not too late to take effective action, The State Department and Indeed the we Americana must learn to operate effec- but it will take time. Let us be as resource- United Nations are obviously trying at the tivety in this twilight zone of action In which ful in thinking up reasons why it is to our expense of old friendships to be popular with the Communists excel. We must also con- Interest and the entire free world to act as new nations. centrate more on conventional forces (as we are in thinking up reasons why It Is not. The United States is friendlier toward In- General Norstad recently pointed out) in Let us hope that our leaders In Washing- dia than towards her victim, Portugal, And order not to be confronted with an all-or- ton will at long last understand that peace this In spite of the fact that India Ignored nothing choice. !8 the product of strength, that war is the the right of the people of Goa to self-deter- In Berlin there is a precarious standoff ess result of weakness. and that appeasement mination, and that Portugal In a small na- which could be turned against us by reckless merely multiplies the hazards of war. tion compared to India-and that our bases and timid miscalculations, such as occurred Castro has taught us a bitter lesson: That in the Azores came up for renegotiation last In the Bay of Pigs. The ransom to liberate he who proclaims himself a Communist can January. 1,113 Cuban heroes certainly appeal to our count on help from the Soviet Union-even The Dutch, the Belgians, the French, the sense of humanity and brotherhood. Yet, though he is 9,000 miles away-and he who Portuguese, and the British do not enjoy bur their freedom was obtained by helping our proclaims himself a lover of freedom can doctrinaire, somewhat sanctimonious, anti- enemy materially and psychologically. fight and die 90 miles from the shores of the colonial attitude, especially since we don't Certainly we had an obligation but the United States--and no one will come to his often talk about the Russian colonies-the honorable way to rescue them was to help aid. And now we are helping to make the greatest and most tyrannical colonial em- them to- carry out them original noble Caribbean physically sale for the Com- pire In the history of man. Yet we joined objectives--to rescue-not bribe them. inunists. Russia in demanding that the U.N. Invests- In Laos. the troyka coalition government, U.S. POWER IMMOBILIZED? gate Portuguese Angola. endorsed at Geneva and organized by the Last summer, while on active naval duty United States, as I said last summer, has Americans are i South Vietnam, just with the 7th Fleet in the Far East, I had op- done nothing to prevent Communist infiltra- gone e Russians ca as out to are prevent , Viet yet no Cong orders attacks have portunity to observe the dark clouds charg- tion-and indeed helped bring the leftists to American t soldiers. v Russian officers are ing down upon us. a controlling position. present n to Laos, as advisers to are Among our friends and allies there is con- The Communist Viet Cong terrorists have Khrusbehev , as well o the Red side. siderable dismay regarding the drift In our warned there can be no peace in Laos while that t American fear may well convict on will foreign affairs. a confrontation will war is being waged in South Vietnam. Immobilize American power in Laos as it has s CONCESSIONS ENCOURAGE SOVIET "MATURITY" In South Vietnam we are heading toward In the Caribbean. To suggest, as the administration has a second Dien Bien Phu some 10 years later, Winston Churchill summed It up for us, repeatedly suggested, that the Soviet Union an American version. I think we should as he has many times. He said: is maturing, and that concessions will en- make an shout effort to win, or withdraw. "Still if you will not fight for the right courage further maturity, is a naive and AIDED LEFTISTS AGAINST PRO-WESTERN THAIS when you can easily win without bloodshed; egregious error. This struggle in 1963 is just We gave leftist Cambodia economic aid if you will not fight when your victory can as Intense, the threat just as menacing, as at in spite of Thailand's objection. Thailand be sure and not too costly; you may come to any time In the past 17 years. Is pro-Western. the moment when you will have to fight The theory that Khrushchev represents The Prime Minister of Singapore says with all the odds against you and only a an evolution, that the Soviet Union is not either there will be a Malaysia quickly or precarious chance to survive. There may only at odds with Chinese communism but Is the Communists will take over his city- even be a worse case: You may have to fight moving toward modification and modera- state and the rest of southeast Asia_ when there is no hope of victory and it will tion, is a dangerous illusion. ,.,-_ . _ - - ha hntfa.. +? --1 .,..,r ... ,.__- ._ o- ...n= na.,, vrrn n"elr gained West New Guinea, Is now threaten- ANSWERS TO WRITTEN QUESTIONS FROM FLOOR This whole concept is the same story all ing North Borneo, Brunei, and Sarawak. Question (R. Cathcart) : "Will Franco over again. Russia has a capacity for put- the Russians have given Sukarno $1,400 mil- survive wave of strikes predicted for sum- ting It over which Is almost incredible and lion military and economic aid. mer?" some have an equally incredible capacity for The United States encouraged transfer of Answer. Strikes in Spain have been small accepting what Russia is propagating. West New Guinea from the Dutch to Sukaf- compared to United States. Spain is very In 1961, 3,600 million pieces of Soviet no, although there Is no relationship between stable, with practically no juvenile delin- literature Inundated us and our friends and the Papuas and the Indonesians. The In- quency, low crime rate, low suicide rate. Re- allies. We facilitate this In the United donesians have acted like old-fashioned cent strikes were handled with moderation States by free postage, decreed by the Press- imperialists. on both sides and I hope that will be the dent. We are paying for It. ,.nee thiv real internal unity, she is saddled witha The President of the Philippines stated Question (William J. Ebert) : "How does colonial empire that detests her, and yet she last year that the Communists were win- Junior Achievement plan to overcome Com- gains position after position. ning southeast Asia. The situation Is much munist threat at home?" It Is a catastrophe that we of the Western worse now. Answer. The only way It meets the Com- World should be so drugged with half- In the field of diplomacy our pattern of munist threat is that young people, forming truths and distortions, and that public sup- what is called "flexibility" against the Com- their own corporations under advice of pro- port has not been mobilized to a realize- monist threat has produced discouragement fessionai businessmen, learn about the free tion of the imminent and implacable danger. and lack of confidence among our friends- enterprise system by their own experience; KHRUSHCHEV LOST FACE BUT GAINED OBJECTIVE and few discernible results favorable to our manufacture and sell their own products. cause. Perhaps we should be more flexible Polled, 91 percent of Junior Achievement In Cuba, following the disaster at the Bay toward our partners-less flexible toward our youth were against state taking over busi- of Pigs, the obscene Communist dictator enemies. ness. This contrasted with much lower per- Castro has, assisted by his Communist allies We might consider whether It might be centage by those not enrolled in Junior and in spite of our brief action last October, better to be firm In Berlin-rather against Achievement. This itself leads to healthy built a fortress where tanks, Russian migs, pro-Western Tsombe in the Congo. dislike of communism and its methods. heavy artillery, arms, supplies, and merce- Perha s we should be more Question (Howard C. Ellis) : "What is ac- naries in large numbers. constitute an In- _ Indignant orn it "" p their colony Hungary than over the fact that Answer. It would be mistake to conclude he has effectively accomplished his objet- our NATO partner Portugal is determined to because she is in bad shape economically, tive-not to destroy the United States by resist the Communist-Inspired attack against she cannot wage war. We should give as nuclear force, but to protect his conquest of the people of Angola. much aid as we can to Nationalists, I Was Cuba and to help him conquer other nations Ins sad of waxing resentment over the at Quemoy last year while on naval dui in our hemisphere. g Y? fact that General Franco, who has since If I were an enemy, I'd hate to have to make RED CONQUEST BY GUERRILLA WAR 1953 cooperated fully with the United States, a lending there. The fact is that the many millions of still rules Spain-prosperous Spain-per- Question (W. M. Strother) : "Prospects of people who since World War II have been baps It would be better to deweli on the getting communism out of Cuba?" subjugated by the Communist tyranny have monstrous fiasco of the Invasion of Cuba Answer. All sorts of things could have been defeated in no case by nuclear attack and on the monstrous fact that a Communist been done, still could be, but it is getting and In no case by the contagion of the Com- dictator threatens us in our entire hems- more difficult every day. Prospects are good muntst doctrine. sphere. If we decide what we ought to do and do it. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00DI38f000200240021-3 A2879 1963 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPEN and Freedom Specialists in Soviet affairs-both British cultural chemistry ever issued. It was Taxes, Spending, and American-do not expect Khrushchev to translated' into German, Russian, Swed- REMARKS support or encourage Castro in any action ish, and Italian, and used as a textbook EXTENSION OF to try to force the United States out of its in those languages. It was followed in of Guantanamo naval base in Cuba. 1870 by a second book, "How Crops HW. PAT JENNINGS They say the Soviet leader knows that the Feed." HON. t United States, if provoked, could overthrow it was, therefore, a fitting tribute when OF VIRGINIA the Communist regime in Cuba by military IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES action. They also say that, should military the Connecticut Agricultural Expert- May 8 ,1963 force be used, Khrushchev would scream ment station on March 29 announced a Wednesday, about U.S. aggression, and might even harass. series of annual lectures named for its the Americans in Berlin-but that he is not first director, Samuel W. Johnson. The Mr. JENNINGS. Mr. Speaker, 1 week willing to risk a war to save Castro. first lecture in the series will be given ago today the Honorable Douglas Dillon, by an internationally known speaker as Secretary of the Treasury, spoke before the principal address at the annual "Sci- the chamber of commerce here in Wash- ence at Work" meeting, to be held at ington, D.C., on the importance of a tax Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Connecti- Lockwood Farm, Mount Carmel, on Wed- reduction this year. His remarks explain succinctly the cut Agricultural Experiment Station nesday, August 14. A leaflet issued last Year, "The Con- causes of our economy's lack of growth. necticut Station Story," tells of out- They set forth the President's tax pro- EXTENSION OF REMARKS standing accomplishments at the station gram as the best means of overcoming of during its first 75 years. Among them this chronic problem. It may serve as .HON. ROBERT N. GIAIMO was the corn seed production technique an example to those who endeavor to OF CONNECTICUT first used by Donald F. Jones in 1917. He find common grounds for supporting this IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES invented the four-way cross that made legislation. hybrid corn practical. Protein investi- Secretary Dillon's - address merits the Wednesday, May 8; 1963 gations by Thomas B. Osborne led to the 'attention of this body, and under leave Mr. GIAIMO. Mr. Speaker, on May 7 discovery of the significance of amino to extend my remarks in the Appendix of and 8, the Connecticut Agricultural Ex- acids in the diet. The Morgan universal the RECORD, I am including his address. periment Station at New Haven marks extractant, simulating the action of The address follows: the 75th anniversary of work in two im- plant roots in removing minerals from TAxES, SPENDING, AND FREEDOM portant fields of science that have con- the soil solution, made possible the wide- (Remarks by the Honorable Douglas Dillon, tributed greatly to this Nation's emi- ly used Morgan method for quick- Secretary of the Treasury, Before the nence in farm technology and its steadily testing soils. The zineb fungicides had Chamber of Commerce of the United advancing standards of living. The their origin in research at the Connecti- States, at- the Statler Hilton Hotel, Wash- areas of scientific work to be commemo- cut station, and organic fungicides gen- iinogt theD.C, April 30, 196 session of your rated are botany and plant pathology. erally are originally tested by methods Scientists from numerous States, Can- or modifications of methods the station annual meeting, you have chosen the theme, ada, Great Britain, and the U.S. Depart- developed. Station research made the "Taxes, Spending, and Freedom." It is a ment of Agriculture have gathered at tobacco shade tent practical- in 1900, theme both timely relatively few significant. Timely, House Haven to present papers and take thereby creating a new agricultural in- - be cause becas andn a Means Commewee eks tthe he Huse will out part in discussions on topics such as the dustry in the Connecticut Valley. the tax bill it is now working on in executive history of plant pathology, biochemical In his report to Gov. John N. Dempsey session. And significant, because there is no resistance, and plant chemotherapy. in 1961, Director James G. Horsfall most more urgent task confronting the Nation to- They were welcomed on May 7 by Di- ably defined the purpose and nature of day than the adoption of a program of tax rector James G. Horsfall, himself an in- the work done by the Connecticut Agri- reduction and reform, a program that is at ternationally recognized plant patholo- cultural Experiment Station-and by oiblence fair, substantial, and fiscally respon- gist. those established subsequently in all the no doubt in my mind that such I am pleased to represent the district other States-in the following words: There is n a program will be einto law this ouch which includes this pioneer station. Its This station was established as a unique The public ill be enacted on the tax this year. testi accomplishments are legion, and I would venture of government in 1875. It was to T strengthened onny earlier n btax that tax of reduction is essential. It is no surprise that, to le stationris unique knowledge toand daypamong The my briefly to take this opportunity to mention government whose reports are Included in on an issue so complex, so farreaching and briefly a few of its many notable achievements. that as deeply affects so many people, there Te Connecticut this digest. is The CoAgricultural Expert- It is true that the statutes assign to the is no nely unanimity remarkab of le is that agreement. the under- in What at s ment Station is the oldest such station station specific duties, duties that in them- genuigenuinely and sometimes sharp disagreemen- the United States. Since 1875, its selves have little to do with scientific, in- st has in no way weakened the strong and widespread consensus weakened a business has been and continues to be vestigations. In this respect the station is details overhaul of our tax system can the scientific investigation of agricul- like other departments of State government. rog the lasting impetus our economy s sciences. to be Its The however, station has because been they given call for these the skills assignments, and p to work. pro thorough vi ture's overt' product problems and biological related has been and continues to be dis- knowledge the station has in putting science More than 200 witnesses have testified be- c Te he Connecticut station's first direc- The general mandate, however, the respon- fore the House Ways and Comm While tor was Dr. Samuel W. Johnson. He sibility for science, does not involve execu- on the President's tax proposals. fathered the idea on which the Ameri- tion of manmade laws. It asks rather for their views have differed widely on specifics, can experiment station inovem founded and succeeded. This was ast ` was to laws,vand forninformat on'on and themeanings ir applica- with the central thesis witnesses of tae Prresidents only two of these an experiment station near tion now and in the future. We do not program, the need for a substantial tax re- know expperiment station should be near to why these laws came into being, or duction to encourage economic growth. but not a part of art academy." Johnson where, or when, and we are unlikely to find While your organization, for example, has had a unique combination of scholarship, answers to these questions. We do know questioned certain data ils i stione d its essi ent's ' aim. t ability as a writer and speaker, and mis- that natural laws cannot be evaded or re- proposals, it has no you have made it d very clear that sionary zeal for the principle that knowl- pealed. Through organized research; men in strongly shave mthe principle of tax beginning be taught. to be sought before can have ofaundes told anding how someeofig antic you fact, reduction as- vital to the continuation of a be tasiughtht. in was one one establishment the active aws work and how the knowledge gained healthy free economy. The practical ques- of the in ate agricultural abtuesnt canoe used. tion is: What can you actively do to make s the State experiment Act o of f e I congratulate the station on that goal a reality when you do not agree stations under er the Federal Hatch Act oc- with all the means proposed to reach it? 1887, 13- years after Connecticut's "first casion of its '75th anniversary, and I am An excellent answer to that question has station in the Nation was -founded. sure that my colleagues in this House will just been given by the group of distinguished In 1868, he published "How Crops join me in thanking the station and its business leaders who, last week, here in Grow," a book described at the time of most able director for its outstanding Washington, formed the Business Commit- who his death in 1909 as more widely read and record of accomplishment and scientific d eWfor Tax , Retdu ctiionoinp1963 and upon studied than any other work on agri- contribution Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 A2880 Approved Fo Q~~ g RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 rC 1 ~E~`S~Lxtdt~ E F D- APPENDIX May 8 which businessmen can unite in support of th-en, by 1970. our unemployment rate would that, if our economy were operating at rea- meaningful tax reduction in 1963. soar to a shocks 12.7 Certainly, the time is ripe. Four or five g Percent, today b full capacity, our tax system would months ago, few of us coulde. have realletieal- such The a result. American It people would inevitably calliforth noueato flnancecour currentanation 1 needs ly expected that the economic conditions massive governmental action to provide the within a balanced budget. Instead of worry- for a tax cut would be as favorable as they jobs that our private economy bad not pro- Ing about deflicits we would be enjoying now seem. For, based upon the performance vided. The President's tax program Is proof budgetary surpluses. of our economy in the last few months, our enough that such a prospect Is as unwel- But the harsh truth is, that unless we prospects for the year are relatively better come to us in Washington as it must be release the drag which our tax system now than most observers had expected. If the to you. exer on our hope to improvement continues, our estimated rev- High unemployment is at once the most move signific ntlyonclosere toaaot balanced enues for fiscal 1964 may well be more than enduring anti the most unendurable result budget. In fact, the experience of recent we estimated In January perhaps by as of our slow growth over the past 5 much as a billi ears y , on dollars, thus reducing but it is only one of the many ills which the deficit. flow from an inadequate economic perform- theve o omy ie areas nably buoyant would gram of subs[ nt altaxarethat duct on, our plants be far more effective in carrying us toward will continue to operate below the levels full employment than a tax cut when the that businessmen themselves feel they need economy is merely limping along. For the for most efficient production; that there will tax program that the President has pro- be no letup in the pressure upon profit mar- posed is designed as a long-range program, gins; that new Investment which, In real a program not merely to shield us from an terms, is just equally the levels reached 6 economic downturn, but to accelerate our years ago, will continue to lag, that we will, economic growth well into the future. The In short continue to suffer from the many present state of our economy is ideal for the ills that accompany an economy whose re- Inauguration of that kind of program. sources and Incentives for growth are ham- As you are well aware, the aim of the pered by an overly restrictive tax system. President's tax proposals Is to break the As long as our economy is so hampered, we Iron grip upon our economyof a tax system are likely to continue to suffer as well from which helped control inflation during the the chronic budgetary deficits that grow be- Second World War and Its aftermath, but cause our economy fails to grow. The record which now throttles growth. It is a program Is clear that the deficit we now face Is the to promote economic growth by promoting result of an economy which produces too economic freedom. And by economic free- little, rather than of a government which dom I mean not only the freedom of the spends too much. Let us briefly review that market place, of investment, and of enter- record: prise, but the freedom that Is the right of We are all well aware that within the past every American, to have the opportunity to 2 years the Soviet rulers felt enough confl- work, to grow, and to prosper in accordance Bence In their power to confront us with a with his talents. mill Lary challenge on a scale we have not seen Far too many Americans have not had since the Berlin blockade, 15 years ago. For- that opportunity for far to long a time. Not tunately, President Kennedy had, in one of for a single month In the ast 5 p years has unemployment fallen below 5 percent. Yet for the greater part of the preceding 5 years, unemployment was either below or only slightly above the 4-perc^nt level that many regard as reasonably full employment. Last month, 4iZ million of our citizens could not find the jobs they sought. Unless we do something now, the pros- pects are that many more millions will be unable to find jobs in the future. Next year, those young people who were born in 1948, the first year of the postwar baby boom, will turn 18 and begin to enter our labor force In largo numbers. During the mid-sixties our labor force will have to absorb an aver- age annual inflow of around 2,700,000 young people, compared to 1,800,000 during the mid-fifties, an increase of 50 percent. We must be able to provide jobs for all of these young men and women. And we must do It in a time of ever-increasing automation. For the Impact of automation that has long been felt among our bluecollar factory work- ers is now spreading rapidly In the white- collar and service areas. We welcome the progress of automation. But we cannot accept the unemployment that too often accompanies it. We can. and we must, take steps to meet, with a many-sided response, the twin challenge of automation and a rapidly growing labor force. The Government has a clear and di- rect responsibility in this area. But It will act only to the extent that the private econ- omy cannot, or does not, meet this chal- lenge. The President's tax program is evidence of his belief that a free and vigorous private economy can provide our citizens with abun- dant job opportunities. Should we fall to achieve this kind of economy, let no one imagine that the result would be anything but catastrophic. For instance, Mr. W. P. Outlander, president of the National Asso- ciation of Manufacturers, recently estimated that, if our economy continues to create jobs no faster than It has during the past 5 years. our mill ?--r ,..sue up oy an increase in the tax base was o mitary ur mil sC engthe . and it the steads Increased rea of against which the lower rates are charged. our cat! There is evidence of this not only in our own that urh the Eerlin crlen oil 19!31 a o withstand the Cuban experience but also in the experience of such crisis of last fall. That military buildup was countries as Canada, West Germany, and P Austria, each of which has enacted several vital to preserve our freedoms. it was also tax relief measures in the post-World War II expensive. Our annual defense budget grew period." by some $10 billion. That statement was made by the National ion to their Sovietsdhave also challenged us In~the vast noIts cbulletin on Federal Tax Facts, June 4, new arena of space. Thanks to a consider- 1958. able headstart and rockets far larger than Last year, we took our first important steps ours, they have been able, up to now, to out- in tax relief. They were the enactment of perform us In manned space night h ,__.__._ and t e visi feats. But, In the spring of 1981. our Con- gress agreed with President Kennedy, that we were no longer willing to continue second best in space. It approved a program de- signed to put an American on the moon before the end of the decade, and hopefully before the arrival of any Soviet space ox- plorer. That decision was extremely costly, but P. involved far more than a symbolic race to the moon. It represented our clear determination as a nation that we will not permit the Soviet Union to preempt world leadership In a new and unknown environ- ment whose potential we have scarcely begun to foresee. These two decisions in defense and space. along with relatively normal Increases in other programs vital to the needs of our growing population, have combined to push our expenditures substantially higher than the revenues we collect from our underem- ployed economy. I mean exactly what r say when I characterize these other increas es as relatively normal. Because, for all programs except defense, space, and Interest on the public debt, President Kennedy's current 1964 budget recommendations exceed actual 1961 expenditures by only $4.5 billion, as compared to an Increase of $4.9 billion in these same programs during 8 preceding years. 1958--61. There can be no question will take place. rr~ Thus, we are faced with what might seem at first to be a paradox: while our present tax rates are so high that they would pro- duce a substantial budget surplus at reason- ably full employment, we have little hope of ever achieving that surplus unless we first reduce our tax rates. Actually, this should not be very mysteri- ous. The explanation Is that the major factor ih our economic progress, and, indeed, in the progress of any free market economy such as ours. is the vitality of the private sector, both the business community and the consuming public. The across-the-board reduction in our tax rates recommended by the President will stimulate both. We can expect more economic activity, and higher tax revenues, to result. This has been the record in the past, and there Is no reason to expect that it will not prove to be the case again. We are not alone in this analysis of the results of tax reduction. One of the clearest statements of this thesis that I have ever seen reads as follows: "Any appreciable downward revision in tax rates will, of course, cause an immediate re- duction In revenues. But there is substan- tial evidence from the history of tax relief measures, particularly with respect to Income on and extensive liberaliaztlon, for tae first time in 20 years, of the tax rules d l ea - ing with depreciation. The combined effect of these two actions was to reduce the tax- load on business by some $2.5 billion a year, the equivalent of a five-point reduction in corporate taxes. Today, business is -reacting to these two measures as we had anticipated. The en- larged flow of new orders for machinery and equipment that marked the opening months of the year, and the recent striking increase In business appropriations for modernization and expansion, can be tracted largely to these two actions. Most of you, I am sure, have seen the report in the magazine, Iron Age, of the effect of these measures on the steel industry, an increase b f 32 percent in depre- elation writeoffs. The investment credit and new deprecla tion guidelines were a preliminary part of the tax program now under consideration by the House Ways and Means Committee. That program, as you know, offers a broad, top-to- bottom reduction in tax rates, both corpo- rate and personal, accompanied by a num- ber of structural reforms. The overall result would be a reduction of $10.3 billion in taxes, designed to unleash our economy and allow it to reach Its full potential. The President's program is not weighted in favor of any one sector of the economy at Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 A2874 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX May 8 7. Once again, world communism had suc- ceeded in choosing the point of conflict and crisis in the cold war, and once again, as with South Korea or South Vietnam or West Berlin or Laos, the focus of contention is inside the realm of the free world, not in the Communist realm. Whatever the precise degrees of blame to be placed on American administrations, past and present, or on Cubans, past and present, the net result is as described above; and in spite of the trade restrictions and the partial efforts of the OAS at diplomatic "isolation" of Cuba, no persuasive evidence has yet de- veloped to justify optimistic assumptions about the future effects of Castroism in the Caribbean and in continental South America. At the moment Guatemala is holding and in Venezuela the local Communists have been weakened and disorganized. But quick re- versals have been a hallmark of the volatile politics of Latin America, and its strains credulity to assume that a general era of stability is now beginning. For countries like Peru and possibly Brazil it is hard to con- vince oneself that the fundamental forces for _integration are stronger than the fun- damental forces for disintegration. Latin American Communists believe the contrary, and are relatively quiescent right now only as a matter of strategy, waiting for the time when the United States will relax about Cuba, take its nervous finger off the trigger, and gradually slip into a state of de facto coexistence with Mr. Castro. As we drift in that direction, most Latin governments as well as those European allies anxious to re- sume trade with Cuba will try to force us further in that direction. STRATEGY SEEN CHANGING When northern opinion is adjusted to ac- commodation, Communist strategies will change again, and with the present electric- ity dissipated, we shall find it far harder to rouse ourselves to forceful action in the case of some attempted uprising in Cuba or in the case of Communist coups in nearby nations. This is the prospect unless some- how we will find a way to increase our pres- ent pressures on Cuba. If they are not in- creased, they will decrease; it is not in the nature of these things that a status quo can be indefinitely maintained. Wise and good men are reminding us that a Communist Cuba is not a mortal threat to our vital interests. In and of itself, of course, it is not. But that opens, it does not close, the argument. A Communist Viet- nam, or a Communist Laos, or Indonesia, or Venezuela or West Berlin would not be mor- tal threats, either-in and of themselves and separately considered. But the Communist world strategy of protracted conflict is a strategy of the piecemeal advance. There are only so many pieces on the board. With the capture of Cuba they have taken a tre- mendously important piece. Dozens of Rus- sian ships would not be plying the Cuban trade and thousands of Russian citizens would not be turned out to cheer Castro, if the Kremlin didn't think so. Agate Springs Fossil Quarries, Sioux County, Nebr. EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. DAVE MARTIN OF NEBRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 8, 1963 Mr. MARTIN of Nebraska. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent, I wish to insert a statement in the RECORD in connection with- a bill I have intro- "help wanted" columns in our newspap- duced today, as a companion bill to one ers indicate the many job opportunities being introduced in the Senate by Sena- for workers at all levels of the skill tor ROMAN L. HRUSKA, of Nebraska, to ladder. preserve and designate the Agate Springs In order to provide workers, and es- Fossil Quarries, located in Sioux County, pecially the unemployed, with market- Nebr., as a national monument in the able skills for this age of automation and National Park Service System. technological change, we need effective These unique fossil beds are 'known training and retraining programs. It around the world, and this fame rests would be a mistake, however, to think principally on the wealth of geologic in- that all the job vacancies in our society formation and paleontologic informa- require a high level of skill. , Many per- tion gained from them since their dis- sons could qualify if they had the inter- covery. This may well be the world's est and put forth a minimum of personal mains, and it is estimated that only about 25 percent have been explored after some 60 years of digging by scientists. The superintendent of nearby Scotts- bluff National Monument estimates that his site now has 96,000 visitors a year and that the Agate Monument could con- ceivably attract 50,000 per year. The proposed project would include almost 3,000 acres of land, construction of a visitor's Center, an Indian artifacts mu- seum, and development of a museum at the fossil quarries. Three stories could be told at the site: First, paleontology of of the area dating back 21 million years; second, pioneer ranching; and third, the Indian experiences of Capt. James Cook-Government Indian scout, cat- tleman, author and amateur bone col- lector, who purchased Agate Springs in 1887. It was Captain Cook who earlier discovered the first fossil material in an area now recognized to be one of the world's richest finds. The Regional Director of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebr., is now pre- paring a final report of the Advisory Board of National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings and Monuments, and both Federal and State officials feel that these fossil beds should be preserved for re - search and future generations' The area could be developed into a prime tourist attraction in addition to neighboring Scottsbluff National Monument, Chim- ney Rock, the Black Hills, and so forth. As presently proposed, the cost of the project would run an estimated $1,750,- 000-including the acquisition of the land, construction of a visitor center, an Indian artifacts museum, development of a museum at the quarries, and the Hav- ing of roads to the fossil sites. I believe this is a worthwhile project, and I feel it is our duty to protect these fossil- quarries for additional research and posterity. Jobs Going Begging EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS OF MISSOURI IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 8, 1963 - Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Speaker, a recent column by John Chamberlain in the New York Journal-American points to the fact that there are many more jobs going begging in our society than is commonly realized. As Chamberlain says, the long effort. Mr. Chamberlain presents a thought-provoking column discussing this problem and -under unanimous con- sent I include it in the RECORD at this point: THE PUZZLE PIECES JUST DON'T FIT (By John Chamberlain) The job of us professional commentators, or licensed libertines, as Arthur Krock once called our breed, i,* to suggest answers to certain perplexing questions. Well, we try. But there are so many contradictions be- tween official claims and statistics, on the one hand, and the evidence of our senses on the other, that the business becomes almost im- possible at times. For example, there are the unemployment figures and the projections therefrom. Automation, so it is said, is putting a hard core of irreclaimable people out of work. Maybe this is true. But the other day I started reading the "help wanted" columns of a daily newspaper. Having just been in- formed that 50 percent of the unemployed in New England, which happens to be my sec- tion of the country, are women, I looked at the "female help wanted" section first. The results startled me, for, though many of the advertisements called for some kind of training, most of them were asking for a type of schooling or apprenticeship that almost anybody could obtain with even a minimum of get-up-and-go. How much experience does a woman need in order to act as an attendant in a coin- operated laundromat, for instance? Or to become a cocktail waitress or a part-time counter girl? Or, given a natural gift of sharp eyes, to succeed as a proofreader? Or, given some previous business life, to take a crack at managing a snack bar. These are some of the jobs that are, at the moment, going begging. And there seem to be scores of openings for typists, and regis- tered nurses, and cleaning women, and dental assistants, and for general office work- ers, and - for waitresses, and for sewing machine operators. - The list of openings for the more obvious types of trained or semitrained women went on and on, occasionally interspersed with a request for some more esoteric skill. Not many, I imagine, could meet the require- ments demanded of a mortgage girl or a legal secretary or a claims examiner with a knowl- edge of surgical instruments. But if such skills are needed in our, economy, surely there are good openings for_ teachers who know how to teach them. - The "male help wanted't columns seemed to be filled with notes of urgency. Barbers, cooks, automobile mechanics, accountants, adjusters, auto seat cover installers, simon- izers, concrete masonry workers, counter- men, drill press operators, welders, news- boys, dishwashers, steel warehousemen, rate clerks, registered pharmacists, salesmen of all types and descriptions, porters, plumb- ers, pressmen, clam and oyster openers, tool and diemakers, delivery vehicle drivers, sci- ence and mathematics teachers, commercial artists, service station attendants, motel managers, linotype operators-well, the list eventually became a droning bore to read. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A2873 5945, by the Honorable WAYNE AsPINALL, chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs; H.R. 5946, by the Honorable Leo O'Brien, chairman of the Subcommittee on Territories and In- sular Affairs; H.R. 5947, by the Honor- able JOHN KYL, member of the Commit- tee on Interior and Insular Affairs, and H.R. 5948, by myself. These four bills were introduced on April 30. 1963. On May 1, 1963, the Honorable JACOB H. GILBERT introduced H.R. 5991, and on May 6, 1963, the Honorable HuGH L. CAREY introduced H.R. 6047; the Honor- able WILLIAM FITTS RYAN introduced H.R. 6076, and the Honorable HENRY GONZALEZ introduced H.R. 6083. These eight bills are all identical bills and they are entitled: To establish a procedure for the prompt settlement, in a democratic manner, of the political status of Puerto Rico. These bills have been introduced in response to Joint Resolution No. 1, adopted by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, on December 3, 1962, pro- posing to the Congress of the United States of America the procedure for establishing the final political status of the people of Puerto Rico. The editorials follow: From the San Juan Star, May 1. 19631 THE LONG. LONG TRAn. The resolution introduced in the House of Representatives of the Congress yesterday Is an extremely delicate measure. It is also a historical document that proposes to lay the legislative groundwork for a precedent- setting formula for establishing a permanent relationship between citizens and the coun- try of their citizenship. The resolution contains a number of key phrases long discussed here as indispensable to the enactment of legislation that would give constitutional validity to any compact agreed to by the people of the United States and the people of Puerto Rico. Before any such compact can have validity, permanence. and irrevocability, the Congress must recognize the sovereignty of the people of Puerto Rico and their Inherent right and juridical capacity to enter Into such a com- pact. Congress Is being asked to make such a recognition in the resolution. The purpose of the carefully drafted wording of the meas- ure is to put an end, for all time, to charges of colonialism by the United States in Puerto Rico, and to legalize beyond any doubt the decision of the people when they choose among Commonwealth, statehood, and in- dependence, the final political status of Puerto Rico. The formula for achieving that desirable end, as represented by the resolution intro- duced in Congress, is an admirable one. It embodies the principle of democracy by rec- ognizing that the people are the highest au- thority in the process of self-determination. We would want to say here that the pros- pects of success are as good as the formula itself. We cannot, because the long, long. trail between Introduction of this sensitive resolution and its approval by Congress has many windings that can come upon tricky detours without warning. The delicacy of the wording requires that the resolution be approved almost intact, as written. Any one of various amendments could nullify its high purpose, and the Con- gress is composed of 535 Members who have the right, which they cherish exceedingly high, of making changes that satisfy their sense of duty and responsibility in any leg- islation that comes before them. Whether the resolution is approved in a manner that meets the objective of its ar- chitects, or is defeated, or dies in committee, should not alter the fact that the job must be done. The status debate will end one day, and it should be terminated as soon as pos- sible. When all who have an Interest have been heard, we sincerely hope the final result will be congressional approval of legislation that will resolve Puerto Rico's political destiny in a manner that meets with the approval of Its people. [From the Washington Post, May 4, 19831 PERPLEXITIES OF STATUS Three members of the House Interior Com- mittee have introduced a bill that offers the best method of tackling the question of Puerto Rico's status. The legislation would create a 12-member commission that would draft a proposed compact of permanent union between the United States and the people of Puerto Rico. The compact would go into effect if the following conditions were met: (1) adoption by Congress of authorizing legislation after receipt of the commission's report; (2) rati- fication of the compact by the people of Puerto Rico In a referendum in which three choices would be submitted-an amended version of the present Commonwealth status, independence and statehood. In the event the majority of voters choose either inde- pendence or statehood. the results would be transmitted to Congress "for such action as it may consider appropriate" The virtue of the commission proposal Is that it skates around some fixed constitu- tional objections and at the same time pro- vides ample time for deliberation. By creat- Ing the commission, Congress would not be committing Itself or any future Congress to acceptance of the recommendation. The mechanism envisaged by the legislation is essentially a repetition of the procedures used In framing the original measure that created the Commonwealth a decade ago. It is quite true that Puerto Rico poses some special problems for our Federal sys- tem. The question is whether that system Is flexible enough to accommodate the needs of a people who want to remain within the United States without acquiring a political status that would be ruinous to the econ- omy of an overpopulated Island. Certainly the Founding Fathers did not contemplate the special Issues raised by Puerto Rico. but neither did they foresee a trip to the moon. A living constitution must be continually reinterpreted in the light of fresh circum- stances. It Is in this perspective that Con- gress should consider the Puerto Rican bill. EXTENSION OF R or HON. DON L. SHORT OP NORTH DAKOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 8, 1963 Mr. SHORT. Mr. Speaker, in all the hue and cry about Castro and Cuba, there are a few outstanding facts which appear clearly to those who take the trouble to analyze the situation. Coleridge once said: If men could learn from history, what lessons it might teach us. But passion and party blind our eyes, and the light which ex- perience gives Is a lantern on the stern- which shines only on the waves behind us. The lantern of Coleridge shines on waves which are now behind us-and we should open our eyes and see what the lantern reveals. We should do this re- gardless of passion and party, for only in this way can we hope to save ourselves from the consequences of our failure to learn lessons from the past history of the march of communism toward its goal-enslavement of the world and the peoples of the world. I was impressed with a column written by Eric Sevareid, which appeared in the Washingtgn Evening Star, of May 7, "Man and the Times." Mr. Sevareid's article is called "Cuban Issue Not Clear for Debate." Mr. Sevareid outlined seven facts which we should seriously consider, in all our debate on the pros and cons of Cuba and the handling of that very con- troversial issue by several administra- tions. His last point-that "once again, world communism has succeeded in choosing the point of conflict and crisis in the cold war" should be a sobering reminder to all of us that we are not dealing with, nor should the security of this country ever be a partisan issue-but with a long view and an impassionate evaluation of the outcome, as far as Cuba is concerned-of the continuing battle between communism and capitalism. Under unanimous consent I would like to Include Mr. Sevareid's column with my remarks In the Appendix of the RECORD. The column follows: Cua.{N ISSUE NOT CLEAR FOR DEBATE (By Eric Sevareld) Cuba may well be, as now predicted, the prime issue In the national politics of 1964. But unless the issue is clarified far beyond Its present state it will be a rhetorical ques- tion, not a question for true debate. Alter- native policies are required for true debate and all we have on either side, so far, Is attitudes. With justice, the President has Insisted that his critics show more precision in their prescriptions for handling Cuba; but with equal justice his critics can insist on more precision from the administration. What we are now witnessing Is a collision of two fog banks. This never clears the air, in nature or in politics; it merely produces fog of double thickness. WHAT HAS GONE BEFORE How uncertain the future course, there can be little uncertainty about what the imme- diate past has produced: 1. The Russians now possess a military, political, and propaganda base in the heart of our area of security and influence. 2. Their troops in Cuba constitute a "trip wire," paralyzing to American' action, as our troops in Berlin constitute a trip wire there. 3. Cities and Installations of the U.S. main- land are now open to damage by conven- tional weapons. and have become, therefore, in some degree hostage to Communist pur- poses. Theoretically, at least, the Russians could damage us by proxy, their method else- where, without themselves being directly in- volved. 4. Fidel Castro's physical hold on the Island Is complete, with the underground movement facing probable extinction. 5. The mass of Cuban manpower In exile Is now a "blown Instrument," a handicap and thorn In our side, not a weapon for our uses. 6. A foreign policy quarrel of serious pro- portions Is engulfing an administration which has not yet found Its feet in the area of Its domestic policies and programs. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240021-3