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June 18, 2004
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May 16, 1963
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Approved For Rele (23 C1p Rpp 58003838000200240024-0 ~~4 12 AL - 9 - 0286 HOUSE May 16 In 1949, after much legal haggling, Los report of the special Preparedness Sub- To a man the intelligence chiefs stated a Alamos became a county, and its citizens be- committee of the other body, summariz- that it is their opinion that all strategic came legal residents of New Mexico with vot- missiles and bombers have been removed ing privileges in local, state and national ing its findings in its recent investigation elections. In 1967, the gates came down, and into this whole matter. from Cuba. anybody who wanted to could come and go peaker, Pi that thisYreport has The intelligence community estimated in the town. -w,r. an.:cy? rl+r 14n rugged mountain set- ting, the community of bright green lawns and brilliant gardens looks just about like any suburban town. Its more than 13,000 residents enjoy an outstanding school sys- tem, a fast-growing shopping facility and plenty of recreation. The housing has never caught up with the demand and often seems to be losing ground, but the big hope for im- provement lies in two burgeoning subdi- visions, where land and homes are being bought and built by private individuals for the first time in the history of the Federal project. But, if Los Alamos is still not quite a "normal" community, it soon will be. Last fall, President Kennedy signed a bill making possible the shift of commercial and residen- tial property of the Hill from Federal to private ownership. Although the long pro- cess of platting, planning and appraisal has begun, actual sales are not expected to be- gin before mid-1964. Meanwhile, the AEC is planning more than $8 million worth of construction and maintenance to put munic- ipal facilities in good, salable shape, and the busy members of the Los Alamos Coun- ty Commission are tackling the monumental job of preparing the community for self- government. With an impressive record of accomplish- ments behind it, and its hometown becom- ing what the AEC hoped in 1947 would be "a community satisfactory to scientists," the February we found ourselves with a vio- o.000 additional have been WMdrawn since -- c lrUAllile- tence of our Nation's intelligence agen- cies. Either they cannot find out the real facts about Cuba, we were being told, or else they are deliberately cover- ing up. This attack became so severe and so potentially damaging that on February 6 to quiet it, the Secretary of Defense went on nationwide television for 2 hours with material that only a few hours earlier had been classified as secret or top secret-a truly unprece- dented undertaking, which, incidentally, was only partially successful. It was against this background, Mr. Speaker, that the subcommittee moved to try to find the real answer to these grave and very disturbing questions. Were the intelligence people right-or were they not? The Congress ought to know, and the people ought to know, too. This was the task to which the distin- Many changes have taken place on Pajarito guished subcommittee set itself. Plateau during the past two decades. Now the verdict is in, Mr. Speaker, and Changes which have affected not only the I must say I am flabbergasted to see it: community itself, but changes which have al- All charges have been factually dis- tered mankind's whole .outlook on the world proved, but somehow the defendant has in which he lives. But, one thing will not still not been acquitted. Instead he re- change: the Laboratory's adventurous spirit e mains under suspicion, if he is not in- and the unmatched natural beauty of th I setting which provides much of the inspira- deed actually found guilty at least on tion for that spirit. some counts. Laboratory can look to a promising future. Many technological and scientific advances are predictable-achievement of flyable n?- I realize that the legislative process involves compromise, but surely when it comes to a question as gravely serious as-the one that originally led to the sub- committee's inquiry, do not we deserve a more specific answer than that. if the puisticatea types of nuclear rocket"propul- YeL Here 1s a jury verdict with some- sion; practical systesm for obtaining power thing for everybody, a strange amalgam from controlled fusion; fast breeding fission of both fact and fancy which comes out reactors; expl rationsin the field of muolecu- clearly and positively exactly nowhere. lar biology. Zuits unpredictable, however, Surely if the facts point one way, Mr. are scientific . and technological break- Speaker, then we have a right, do we throughs. There were plenty of these dur- not, to expect that the conclusions will ing the Laboratory's first 20 years-there are follow them in the same direction? ter dill tp be y , ore in the future. Surely when the integrity and the com- THE ROLE OF OUR INTELLIGENCE] have been n so our top viciously a intelliatttactacked, t sd, the he AGENCIES DURING THE CUBAN American people have a right to expect MILITARY BUILDUP: WHAT ARE a more si)eciflc and forthright answer attsubcommittee. THE REAL FACTS, AND WHAT CAN from thisI ok are the others, from the subcommittee's' NCLUDE? lit, every single one of YL..c .?.r--__- -.. "Gc WE PROPERLY CO last February-both -- "?flselflce services previous order of the House, the gentle- on and off of the man from New York [Mr. STRATTON] is floors of Congress-have been specifical- recognized for 45 minutes. ly and conclusively disproved by the (Mr STRATTON ' . asked and was given subcommittee s report. - permission to revise and extend his re- Let me just run down some of their marks 1 - c.--"----- ?. - - dente to support the charge, made in some quarters, that a-comparable num- ber of Soviet personnel-whether called troops or technicians-have newly ar- rived in Cuba. Mr. - MORSE. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. STRATTON. I yield to the gen- tleman from Massachusetts. Mr. MORSE. How many Soviet troops, according to the estimates of our intelligence sources, now remain in Cuba? Mr. STRATTON.- If the gentleman will permit me to develop my point of view as I have prepared it, I think that we can then discuss that subject a little later. Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, if the gen- tleman will yield further, will the gen- tleman agree that the presence of Soviet troops rather than the number of Soviet troops is the critical factor? Mr. STRATTON. Well, I would say to my good friend from Massachusetts that I certainly agree with him that the pres- ence of Soviet troops is a matter of con- cern, but what I am directing myself to, however, is a specific item with respect to the quality of our intelligence and with respect to certain suggestions that have been made in certain quarters that certain individuals have a different kind of intelligence from that available to our top intelligence agencies. Such a sug- gestion was made, for example, to the effect that as many troops or techni- cians, or whatever you want to call them, had moved back into Cuba in recent months as had been withdrawn earlier, and I am simply calling to the atten- tion of the House the fact that the re- port of the subcommittee says that a total of 9,000 to 10,000 troops were with- drawn from Cuba since October. And that there is not a shred of evi- dence in the report-I- am not quoting- but there is nothing in the report to sug- gest that any number of troops or tech- nicians or Soviet'personnel ever went back into Cuba. Mr. MORSE. If the gentleman will taiat, still of r? STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, as a The subcommittee has uncovered no evi- troops= onetheeislandtof Cubastoday? let member of the Armed Services Commit- dence to substantiate charges and specula- Mr. STRATTON. 'Yes; and the re- e and as a former intelligence officer tion about a photography gap having existed ports substantiate that. tee the Navy I have been from September 5 to October 14. The evi- gravely con- dence before the subcommittee leads to the Mr. MORSE. Would the gentleman cerned since last January with the conclusion that such charges are unfounded. restate his quotation with reference to -sweeping and serious charges that have been made against our established Gov- The news reports of an alleged conflict be- Mr photography. the rSRATTO TRATTON. gap" W W? ernment intelligence agencies in connec- t e w e the on and SAC with reference to ell, I do not mind tion with thseir performance in the Cu- the o operation of v-2 high-altitude recon- debating with the gentleman, and I am ban crisis. For this reason I have await- naissance flights prior to October 14 were always happy to talk with him, but my also closely inquired into and found to ? be time is somewhat limited. ed with great interest the release of the without merit. ? Mr. MORSE. I just missed the dates. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 Approved For RelSaIU 4/ 1 _RR Q0383R000200240024-0 82$5 1963 those who shared Bradbury's faith In Los Nerve 1 caging oin as va a nuclear rv'thfirst ird an increasing store of knowledge and high Alamos. Their faith was confirmed often through- stage for the Saturn C-6 manned lunar land- Aiding and abetting all Laboratory pro - out the balance of 1946. In the spring. then- ing operation, and will make possible a sin- ecta Is the work of the chemistry and metal-lurgical eral Groves approved plans for construction gle launch capability for lunar landing and ldivision. of reactor and met, laud the of "The Hill's" first permanent housing, and return. Once engine tests have begun. hope- investigations nvesof new fabrication techniques, prefabricated units were added as quick re- fully sometime next year. Los Alamos' efforts development me of ortar in Protect iques, lief for the critical housing shortage. will be shifted to investigations of more ad- are power reriamer wpor and the roect o er- The biggest boost came In August, when vaneed propulsion reactors. Congress passed the McMahon Act. establish- The Rover reactor project, however, is only morn and u nd mnial studs of hay ing the Atomic Energy Commission and put- part of a varied reactor research program the World's - As elements ting atomic energy under civilian control. _ that began before the Laboratory was a year added ads a of such significantly ato materials. A pioneer in the the As 1947 began, the Commission took over old. The world's first homogeneous reactor, field of field mm processing. Los Alamos and the University of California agreed to the Water Boiler, produced its first chain re- d t iucto-refining process mos continue operating the Laboratory. With the action in May 1944. and continues to oper- developedos been called "the biggest advance Commission establishing as its first priority ate, at higher power. in a deep Los Alamos In lutonium race "the technology in a dect this "the stabilization and revitalization of the canyon. Following the Water Boiler came e l A batch of ss teihrefined a ional Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory." it became the world's first fast reactor Clementine, so odr has been pcuepne by the National clear that Los Alamos would continue to play named because it operated in a cavern in a Bureau of Standards as the Nation's first a key role In the Nation's atomic energy canyon and used plutonium, whose code and only recognized r standard of pure mprogram. word was "49." Clementine operated from Research nl low temperature of physics, metal. by Although the Laboratory continued devel- 1949 to 1953. Still another research reactor, cIn group, has produced ics, by In group, has pr df thesignift opment of advanced fission weapons, it Omega West, went Into low power operation the e cryogenics Mas- shortly embarked upon its second major in July 1956. caner effect, and in a temperature soss- mission-development of the hydrogen bomb. In the mtdfifties the Laboratory entered based a on the ect vapor Inesaure of helium 3 cafe Theoretical possibilities for a thermonu- another field of reactor research with the has been adopted as a worldwide standard. clear weapon, an Idea born during a lunch- formation of a division to Investigate power Baresearch, a program that grw of time discussion In early 1942, had been under reactor development. To date, three unique out Biomedical early concern for the amount study since the earliest days at Los Alamos reactor concepts have been tested, and a plutonium being absorbed by personnel, has by a special group headed by Edward Teller. third experiment Is under construction. Also become a program of great Importance as Theoretically, the scientists knew, a fusion in the works: a fast reactor core test fa- the Laboratory. The health rca group reaction was possible, but it required tem cility In which various fast reactor core de- the Lao completed a healt study of group peratures far higher than any previously signs can be readily Interchanged without activity milk completed a la humane, the radio- t created by-man. With the success of the going to the effort of building an entire re- activity In pmilk and of its kind s, ever under- fission bomb, these high temperatures had actor for each core. exten, This, along its the group's e r- been achieved. The -thermonuclear bomb Another of the Laboratory's major achieve- lightening findings onwi the harmful group's en- been Alamos scien- was now In the realm of practical possibility. menta, growing out of its reactor research, of radiation, have made Los But. major barriers were still unsur- was the first direct conversion of nuclear ofsta dltlo the foremost authorities on fall- mounted. Once the cooperative efforts of energy into electrical power. Though many out a the world. Teller and Stanislaw Ulam made the neces- scientists had been fascinated by the pot- All t ewe Laboratory's practical programs nary conceptual breakthrough, the Labors- eIbtlity since the first nuclear pile went supported by baste and Independent programs tory was able to launch an elaborate theoret- critical, it remained for a group of Los Ala- are search. The history of the dependen re- teal and experimental research program. mos men to come up with the plasma thermo- fords of examples of h original toy of The famous electronic brain. Maniac. was couple. Working on the principle of the fords d ensc have pies o f resulted i unique arch built to handle the complex calculations of conventional two-metal thermocouple, the trproj ibutions to mankind's knowledge of the the thermonuclear process, and the Tabora- plasma device substitutes an easily Ionized physical universe. To accomplish this, the taro went on a 6-day week to get the fob gas for one of the metals. It obtains its laboratory is well equipped with research done. In November 1952, 2 ionths before beat from the neutron flux of the Omega tools In addition to two research reactors the laboratory's 10th anniversary, the West reactor. After more than 70 in-pile and many critical assemblies, Los Alamos world's first full-scale thermonuclear explo- tests, scientists now are thinking of a power has one of the worlds highest voltage elec- sion shook the Pacific atoll of Eniwetok reactor built of many of these cells, pro- trostatic accelerators, two smaller ones, a with the detonation of the Los Alamos de- ducing a high power level and capable of venergy cyclotron, a Cockcroft Wal- vice, "Mike." operating for thousands of hours. variable accelerator and various betatrons. A ton Since that time, several dozen LA$L fission Although a practical power reactor prob- 360-kilovolt pulsed neutron generator will be and fusion devices have been tested in 8 ably will not be a reality until sometime In in operation soon, and a tandem Van de series of tests in the Pacific and to 8 the 1970's, such a device could power the Graff generator Is being purchased. series, comprising 100 shots, conducted at 111e-supporting facilities man needs in his Theoretical studies at Los Alamos ranged the Nevada test site. Today, more than 90 space chips for extended journeys. It also widely during the first 20 years. The weap- percent of all fission and fusion warheads In will put ton propulsion within practical ons program depended heavily on theoretical the U.S. stockpile are Los Alamos products. reach. work-and still does. In addition, Lael During the first decade, as it Is today. the The harnessing of thermonuclear energy theoreticians have been active in many peace- Lahoratory'a primary responsibility was de- as a cheap, almost Inexhaustible source of ful areas of research, from nuclear structure velopment and improvement of nuclear power was discussed at Los Alamos long be- to astrophysics. Much of the complex work, weapons. However, in view of Bradbury's fore the hydrogen bomb became a reality. both theoretical and experimental, is made emphasis s on programs of fte dto the l rb- Just before the Mike shot In 1952, the first possible by the Laboratory's unique array of search and development tl Is not n not the surprising prong experiments In what to now called Project feat computers. In fact, the Laboratory l tome of nuclear energy, f re- Sherwood were conducted with a device boasts the world's largest computer center. hat-peaceful and ed Increasing gele of is called perhapeitron-perhaps It Would work, Maniac I, first of the stored program paral- search have received approximately half abor perhaps It wouldn't. lei electronic computers, was designed and until today aggro devotee d d to half this of the h type of e of r re-- It didn't. But the experiments offered built at Los Alamos and went to work In seearchh. enough encouragement to keep the search 1952. Seven years later, it was replaced by ratory's effort Is devot One nonmilitary project, now the Labors- going and opened up an entirely new field of Maniac II. In addition, the Laboratory has tory's second largest program. is'Project Flo- Investigation; plasma physics. an IBM 704. two 7090's and the eupercom- ver, the Nation's effort to develop nuclear Since no material exists that is capable of puter, "Stretch." developed for the Labors- rocket propulsion. Since 1955. the Labors- withstanding the Incredibly high tempera- tory by IBM. , the tory has concentrated on design, develop- tures required to produce a sustained ther- In the last 20 years, while the Laboratory vances rent, and eventually These of the Kiwi monuclear t be confined In the nonma- community of LosiAe lamos tItselfdwas coming lightless t of reactors. These are named d for the e the plasma mus magnetic field, or "bottle." of age. not Imes Australian uc because they are lariat walls ie a of approaches f intended to fly. Successful tests of three Trying a variety of agpoachea to this pro's- The AEC brought to Los Alamos-in the Kiwi-A and one Kiwi-B reactors, using gas- lem. Los Alamos scientists eventually late 1940'&-an ambitious, $121 million plan eous hydrogen as a propellant-coolant, began achieved, with a machine called Scylla, a for community expansion and laboratory re- eh the in 1969 and removed doubts about the feast- burst of neutrons million ingrg an ees energy utem- locition w nhgput ne , modern rn removing 'stilt of developing nuclear propulsion ors using p eet This year tests of wI-B coolan will first Though manmade recognized controlled ththermonucl thermonuclear high fences- f oom the town's emaindstrtheir be conducted with the purpose of evaluating reaction, the achievement also showed that A spaciove, attractively landscaped shopping and liquid be conducted aspoPe11ant- cen communit effort work very with agvariety of de$ ices and housing were built In the fra tic Schools was and modifying the reactor for hassing from e- 10 years of still or t engine development During the year, phasing g have resulted in some disappointing fail- to keep up with the need. A post office, ii- actor engine. r With ith Is expected in a cooperative effort w contractors in the urea, some promising successes, and always. brary and medical center were added. No. 73-2 Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 Approved For Re ea 5B 00200240024-0 1963 C NSGp`R - 8287 Mr. STRATTON. 'I have a rather long speech and it might, perhaps, be better for us to get in the discussion after I have had a chance to get it in the RECORD. Let me say that the reference to the photography gap was a statement di- rectly from the committee report that they looked into the charge of a photog- raphy gap, and I am sure the gentle- man recalls when this was made, and it made big headlines, they looked into it and found that the charges were un- founded. Mr. MORSE. Between what dates? Mr. STRATTON. Between Septembi~r 5 and October 14. ` Mr. MORSE. If the gentleman will yield further, is it not a fact that there was no aerial reconnaissance surveil- lance of Cuba, during that period of time? Mr. STRATTON. No, that is not a fact. The report-and I invite the gen- tleman's attention to it-lists the extent- of the coverage and backs up the state- ment which it made and which I am quoting, that there was no gap between September 5 and October 14. Mr. MORSE.. I thank the gentleman. Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, here are some other points the report makes, in Its own wording: The intelligence chiefs do not believe that the Communist forces in Cuba now present a direct aggressive military threat to the United States or Latin America. Offensive weapons systems were identified before becoming operational and their loca- tions and performance characteristics spelled out in a limited period of time despite ad- verse weather and an almost completely closed society. Photographic reconnaissance ultimately produced incontrovertible proof of the pres- ence of strategic missiles and offensive weap- ons in Cuba. Credit is due to those in- volved in this mission. - It has already been indicated, during all of this period there was a great volume of un- confirmed reports and rumors from human sources about strategic missile-related ac- tivity in Cuba. None of these reports were confirmed prior to October 14, 1962. were discovered while they were still irk their and evidence, or on the basis only of crates. The Mig 21's were discovered when philosophical skepticism? Do we make only one, had been removed from the ship- our decisions on reality, or in terms of ping container. absolutes which can have no applicatiofi CIA and military intelligence, by use of to our real world? heir highly developed photographic capa- AA ll t discard the o bility, were able to give a unique performance in intelligence operations. They ultimately placed in the hands of the President, his advisers and U.S. diplomatic representatives incontrovertible proof of the presence of Soviet strategic missiles in Cuba in direct contravention of Soviet Government assur- ances. This visual proof unquestionably played a major part in the united action of the OAS ? and world acceptance of the cor- rectness of our position. The- intelligence community does not believe that in fact Cuba is now or has been a base for Soviet submarines. Now, Mr. Speaker, I have here" listed 11 specific points, in the language of the report itself, which I think are respon- sive to some of the charges we have all been reading in the press. These are the hard, demonstrated facts about our Cuban intelligence found by the subcom- mittee. They add up. in my Judgment, jo a simi~ v overw e m ng co r on o an outstandin ob done b our in. t 1 enc d they conclusively refute and, Indeed, demolish, Mr. Speaker, all the myriad charges we have heard raised on this floor and in another body about what was really going on in Cuba, or what was really known to someone with some specialized brand of "inside intelligence dope." I think this is a tremendous verdict to be handed down by any Jury, Mr. Speaker, and surely it should have de- molished once and for all the nit-picking attacks that have been made variously on the competency and integrity of our Nation's intelligence services. Not only" should these facts wipe out completely all of these efforts to cast doubt and suspicion on the performance of our in- telligence agencies, surely they should give us a great sense of pride, both in the performance of our- Intelligence people and in the conduct of our Government leaders acting on the basis of that in- I Are we now su e Y reasoned, rational; realistic beliefs of every single one of our intelligence chiefs and to fall back instead on some -appeal to absolutes and "nothing more" than philosophical skepticism as the touch- stone of truth and falsity when it comes to Cuba? We certainly do not operate this way in any other agency of govern- ment; we do not operate this way in the business world; we most certainly do not operate on that basis in our everyday lives. Then why should we now sudden- ly be told that such an approach is a meaningful factor in assessing our Gov- ernment's conduct in the Cuban crisis? -Or'consider this statement in the re- port: . - The deficiency in the performance of the intelligence community appears to have been in the evaluation and assesment of the accumulated data. Moreover there seems to have been a disinclination on the part of the intelligence community to accept and believe the ominous portent of the infor- mation which had been gatherer:. And again: It was not until the photographic evid- ence was obtained on October 14 that the intelligence community concluded that strategic missiles had been introduced into Cuba. Mr. MACGREGOR. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. STRATTON. I yield to the gen- tleman from Minnesota. Mr. MACGREGOR. In connection with the point the gentleman made as to the verification of ballistics missiles in Cuba oh October 14 for the first time, I would like to inquire whether the gen- tleman was in the House of Representa- tives on September 26, 1962-and I am quoting the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, page 19719-when the gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. RIVERS] advised the House as follows: telligence information. We have arrived, Mr. Chairman, at the Yet, Mr. Speaker, and this Is the thing point where we had better march together that disturbs me, and it is the reason while time remains. . - why I have taken this time today, having I got a lot of information over the 22 years Y I have been on the military committee, and clearly acquitted the defendant on the I have other assignments from which I get basis of-the factual evidence, the sub- information. They are loaded for bear in committee jury, by some strange legis- Cuba. Russia has missiles, and they are lative alchemy, then proceeds to find him portable ones that can permeate the United guilty not on the basis of the facts but o Norfolk, are portable-from is not role on guesswork. Let us take a closer look Cuba, talk. at this strange turn of events in the sub- committee report. Was the gentleman in the Chamber on First. Having discarded the charge September 26, 1962, some 3 weeks in ad- about missiles being hidden, in caves, by vance of October 14, 1962, when the dis- saying that the intelligence chiefs "to tinguished gentleman from South Caro- a man" did not believe it, the subcom- lina [Mr. RIVERSI' made that statement mittee gobs on to add: without, I may add, any refutation whatr However, they readily admit that, in terms soever? of absolutes, it is quite possible that offensive Mr. STRATTON. The gentleman' weapons remain on the island concealed in knows I cannot recall specifically caves or otherwise * ` based on skepticism, whether Iwas in the Chamber on a par- concern nothing more, there e is reason for grave concern about this matter. ticular day. What a strange statement, Mr. Speak- Mr. MACGREGOR. This was during er, that is. Anything, of course, is al- the debate on the Cuba resolution, and ways possible. But are we living in a I assume the gentleman was here. real world or are we living In a dream Mr. STRATTON. I know I was there world? Do we act on the basis of facts that day, and was proud to vote for the And again, on this same subject, which incidentally lies at the very heart of the attacks which have been mounted against our, intelligence performance. During the July-August period refugee re-. ports of alleged missile activity in Cuba in- creased significantly. These reports were checked out as scrupulously as possible, but even though many of them included con- sistent and similar descriptions of some form of missile activity there was no con- firmation of them. We have been reading a lot, Mr. Speak- er, about those who had information be- fore the President of the United States went on television on the 22d of Octo- ber and how those who had this infor- mation were right and how the Govern- ment was wrong. Here a-direct reading of the Senate document, which has not received the attention it deserves in the press, completely and totally refutes that kind of a charge. The MRBM's were discovered while they were in the process of being deployed. The IRBM sites were ctiiscovered in a very early stage of construction, The IL-28 bombers Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 Approved ForC,g6w"2EWP6?W3R000200240024-0 May 16 resolution. I do not recall the gentle- the human reports that strategic mis- man's statement being made. I have no siles had been placed in Cuba. even doubt it was made. though they were most scrupulously Mr. MACGREGOR. I assure the gen- checked out by our intelligence person- tleman that I have correctly quoted Mr. nel. Are we now being asked to criticize RIVERS' statement. our intelligence people because they did Mr. STRATTON. I would not take not conclude that strategic missiles were issue at all with what the distinguished in Cuba before they had any confirms- ranking member of our committee said. tion of these rumors in their hands? I simply point out to the gentleman that -What does the subcommittee think our what applies to the gentleman from Intelligence chiefs should base their South Carolina applies to the distin- judgments on-confirmed fact, or fie- guished Member of the other body, with tion? Before October 14 the record it- whom I have upon occasion taken excep- self says there was absolutely no con- tion with regard to this same point; firmed proof of Soviet strategic missiles namely, that there were a lot of rumors at hand. Our intelligence agencies would and reports of strategic missiles and of have been derelict indeed had they made short-range missiles In Cuba prior to any such conclusion then before the Oc- October 14. The point I am making is tober 14 date. But we also know that as the point made by me in this body before, soon as the October 14 evidence was in, and now has been demonstrated and they immediately made the correct con- proven by the report of a subcommittee elusion, and they passed it on swiftly to of the other body; namely, that until the President, and he in turn acted October 14 there was no proof, no con- swiftly, courageously, and effectively. firmation of this charge. It Is one thing Does the subcommittee really think our to talk about rumors, and it is another intelligence agencies are open to repri- thing to talk about proven fact. When mand because they failed to manifest you are going to take this country to the psychic powers prior to October 14? brink of nuclear war, as the President Again, the report says this: did on October 22, you had better be Finally, the intelligence community was of very sure that what you are talking the opinion that the Soviets would not in- about is a fact and not a rumor. troduce strategic missiles into Cuba because Mr. MACGREGOR. I have served, they believed that such a development would like the gentleman, in the intelligence be incompatible with Soviet policy as in- branch of our military services. Would terpreted by them. the gentleman not agree with the dis- If Well, this may well have applied to tin uished sub mmitt . f f th g co ee o en e d nte li e ce o i f + y, thaw l n ng c m rom a closed society covers a certain range of factual information, and the principal problem is proper evaluation and analysis. Mr. STRATTON. I certainly would agree with the gentleman on that point. If the gentleman will bear with me a moment, he will see I am now moving Into a discusion of this specific point. I am sure that after the gentleman has heard what I have to say, because of his background in the intelligence field and his own native sound intelligence, he will agree wholeheartedly with the state- ment I am about to make. Mr. MACGREGOR. I await the gen- tleman's further remarks with bated breath. Mr. STRATTON. I thank the gentle- man. Resuming the direct quotation from the subcommittee report on this second major critique which they make of our intelligence performance in the Cuban crisis: check out all the evidence as at Pearl Harbor. Instead we did a fantastically thorough intelligence job that got results as quickly as humanly possible, even though those results proved to be con- trary to the philosophical preconceptions of some people; and then finally we ac- cepted that confirmed proof, and we acted on it the moment it was received- as the subcommittee's factual findings also indicate. What a vast-and most fortunate difference-from what hap- pened in the days before Pearl Harbor. Finally, Mr. Speaker, we are told that the intelligence community erred by substantially underestimating Soviet troop strength in Cuba. Now let me make Just two comments on this par- ticular alleged error. In the first place, there can be no other basis for determining Soviet manpower in Cuba except our own intelligence esti- mates. If our intelligence agencies can be said to have underestimated Soviet manpower this can only be so because they have now, on the basis of further Information, come up with a new esti- mate. There is no other benchmark short perhaps of direct Soviet and Cuban announcements, Mr. Speaker, by which to measure real Soviet strength in, Cuba, or an on-the-spot head count on Cuban soil. So to criticize the performance of our intelligence reports on the basis of other updated intelligence reports made by the same agency strikes me as an exercise In futility. community, but it emphatically does not Secondly, the subcommittee appears apply to the chief of that intelligence to be laboring here, as before, under a community, SAW McCone, as the misapprehension that intelligence can- distinguished Sena r from Washington, not be good unless it Is absolutely certain Mr. JACKSON, makes clear on page 7733 of and 100 percent correct. Now nothing the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD for May S, the could possibly be further from the truth day the text of the report was made than that. Intelligence of the enemy available to the other body. must by its very nature be inexact, an The subcommittee report goes on: attempt at approximating a truth that The danger that such Is deliberately and ingenously being con- control the pereoaceptiona will cealed from us. To criticize intelligence, weighting of the facts as events unfold is evident. even softly, simply because It is not accu- rate is to retreat once more into an un- And again: realistic dream world of absolutes that It appears that on this point [about stra- bears no relation to reality Itself. To in- tegic missiles] the analysts were strongly in- silt that our intelligence services must fluenced by their philosophical judgment have nothing but perfect scores would be that it would be contrary to Soviet policy to like insisting on an airplane flying with- introduce strategic missiles Into Cuba. In retrospect, It appears that the indicators + out the wing drag-without which sus- the contrary were not given proper weight. tained flight itself, of course, would be Now, Mr. Speaker, this statement too of he case be done. Cannot in the nature makes no sense to me. I am sorry to say. i Now, Mr. Speaker, on the basis of this it crystal clear that whatever may have been the erroneous preconceptions and hil hi l osop ca judgments of certain ana- It was not until the photographic evidence p vras obtained on October 14 that the Intel- Iyata within the intelligence Community, ligence community concluded that strategic they had not the slightest control or In- missiles had been Introduced Into Cuba. In fluence over the weighting of the facts, reaching their pre-October 14 negative because from the very moment the re- judgment the intelligence analysts were ports of strategic missiles in Cuba came strongly influenced by their judgment as to in, the Government d4d everything with- Soviet policy, and Indications that strategic in Its power to determine the truth of missiles were being Installed were not given these reports. Checked them out, as the proper weight by the Intelligence coin- subcommittee itself commented, "scru- munity. pulously." That is a pretty strong word. Now, Mr. Speaker, I regret to say that Mr, Speaker. What more could it have this statement simply makes no sense to possibly done? Whatever erroneous me. The report itself has already stated, philosophical judgments there may have as I mentioned Just a moment ago, that been, they had absolutely no Impact on until the LT-2 flight of October 14 there our actions. We were not lulled asleep, was not a single bit of confirmation of as at Pearl Harbor. We did not refuse to analysis, I think It should now be clear that as far as the facts developed by the distinguished subcommittee of the other body are concerned, record of our Intelligence services during the Cuban intelligence victory-and one which has been almost as much overlooked and de- preciated In recent days as the military and diplomatic victory which was won by President Kennedy between October 22 and October 28. Only when we leave the realm of facts behind, Mr. Speaker, and retreat into another world of absolutes and unat- tainable perfection can there be any basis for criticizing the performance of Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 1963 Approved For GONU~RESSI40NAL :C gG65$32000200240024-0 8289 our intelligence agencies in Cuba or for suggesting that the attacks which have been made against them have any real merit whatsoever. I deeply regret, Mr. Speaker, that there has been this strange blend of fact and fancy. On the facts the committee de- veloped there certainly could have been and I believe there should have been, a clear, forthright, unmistakable, and con- clusive rejection of all these unwarranted and irresponsible attacks that have been made against our intelligence -agencies. The facts were there. The call could and. should have been given, loud and clear. Instead, Mr. Speaker, the trumpet has given forth an uncertain sound. Those who in months past -have gained fame and notoriety by the supsicions they have tried to create about the performance of our intelligence agencies have unfortu- nately been given aid and comfort by the inconclusive nature of this report. Indeed, already they are citing the sub- committee document as proof of all their earlier charges. But there remains one ray of hope, Mr. Speaker. This report is after all an in- terim report. Others, we' are told, will be issued later on. I am indeed hopeful that when the final report is in, these curious contradictions will have been eliminated. Unanimity is a great thing, Mr. Speak- er. But let me say that I am hopeful that if the final report on this vital issue cannot come down unanimously solidly behind the ability and integrity of our intelligence services in the Cuban crisis, at least we will have a minority report to read which will state the record with- out hesitation or apology, as one chapter in American military history of which we L22 1 be proud. FOREIGN TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SHOULD BE LIMITED The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New York [Mr. HALPERN] IS recognized for 15 minutes. Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, I would like to congratulate the Members of this House for approving legislation that, upon enactment, would restrict. foreign travel expenses of Members of Congress. The legislation is, of course, House Joint Resolution 245. I feel strongly about this legislation and I trust it will win overwhelming sup- port in the other body. My only regret is that the measure did not come before the House in the original, stronger and broader version as introduced by the distinguished chairman of the Commit- tee on House Administration, the gentle- man from Texas [Mr. BURLESONI. However, the legislation as passed by the House is a long step forward and I hope the first of many steps to follow. It is true that the House Rules Com-, mittee during this Congress has tight- ened authorizations for matters pertain- ing to congressional travel. It is also true though that the Rules Committee actions - do not have the permanence of law, and therefore, can be relaxed. at will. It is important therefore that travel reform legislation is enacted. Other- wise, Congress will once again be open to charges of practicing temporary and ineffectual cures, and of neglecting permanent and effective ones, in spite of the Rules Committee's notable efforts. Commendable as this legislation is, it should be considered as only a first step by Congress in putting its Houses in order. The reform of travel expendi- tures, after all, is only. one of many necessary reforms, few of which have been seriously considered lately by Congress. The next reform measure that Con- gress should consider would provide for the examination of all congressional re- form proposals. My bill; H.R. 1952, and several similar bills would establish a Commission on the Organization of Con- gress. I trust that the Rules Committee will give priority to this legislation and afford an early opportunity for hearings on it. This Commission would recommend legislation that would take up where the Reorganization- Act of 1946 and relevant legislation left off. Generally speaking, the Commission would study Federal leg- islative conditions, and then recommend improvements in the organization and operation of Congress. The study would be undertaken with a view to altering Congress in the follow- ing ways: strengthen it, simplify its op- erations and make them more efficient, improve its relations with the other branches, and enable Congress better to meet its constitutional responsibilities. The Commission's studies would in- clude, but not be limited to, the organiza- tion and operation of the House and the Senate, and the relations between those two bodies. The Commission would also study the minute workings of Con- gress, including the structure and work- ings of all congressional committees and the relations'among them, and the em- ployment and pay of congressional em- ployees. Furthermore, the Commission would study, the relations between Con- gress, the executive, and the judiciary. The Commission would be composed of at least seven Members from each House, with an initial party ratio of 4 to 3, in favor of the majority. These 14 Mem- bers would be supplemented by 2 more, with distinguished records of interest in public affairs, and appointed by the President of the United States, regard- less of political affiliation. A majority vote of the Members repre- senting each House, taken separately, would be necessary for approval of Com- mission recommendations. The Commission would make avail- able to Congress not only stiffer organi- zational standards, but also standards of behavior. Standards in the latter re- gard have been, and continue to be, poorly defined, and as a result have con- tributed to unfortunate and misleading publicity. The rules of Congress have been taken for granted at a time when nothing should be taken for granted. If Con- gress continues to neglect revision of its rules, the work upon public business will become only more haphazard. We shall be charged with relying on rules that appear to be sound chiefly because Congress has endured, and not because such rules have aided in the dispatch of business. It would indeed be tragic if Congress would change only when an aroused Na- tion forced it to change. Force breeds haste, violence, and unsound reform. Therefore let this Congress act not from forced impulse, but rather from sea- soned deliberation; in order to provide for the inevitable. NEW TEST-BAN PROPOSAL (Mr. FARBSTEIN asked and was given permission to address the. House for 10 minutes.) Mr. FARBSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, on September 26, 1961, President Kennedy affixed his signature to a document. It was not an ordinary document, for it proclaimed to the whole world the desire of the American people to challenge the Soviet Union, not to an arms race but to a peace race. The document which the President signed on that day was the Arms Control and Disarmament Act. This -legislation, of which I was a spon- sor, received extensive consideration in the Congress and in the House Foreign Affairs Committee, of which it is my privilege to be a member. It passed by an overwhelming bipartisan vote of 73 to 14 In the Senate.and 290 to 54 in the House. The purpose of the act was to create the Arms Control and Disarma- ment Agency. By congressional man- date, it was to explore, recommend, and if approved by the President, negotiate possible alternatives to the arms race in order to enhance our national security. Ever since its establishment, I have closely followed and strongly supported the activities of this Agency for peace. This year I introduced the first of many bills in the House to remove the $10 mil- lion legislative ceiling on appropriations which was contained in the original act. Out of this $10 million, $8.33 million has been appropriated to the Agency during the year and a half it has been in ex- istence. By comparison, almost $50 bil- lion was appropriated to the Department of Defense for fiscal year 1963 alone. If the work of the Agency is to continue, and if we are to continue to pursue safeguarded and informed negotiations in the field of arms control and disarm- ament, the legislative ceiling on appro- priations obviously must be lifted. I admit that I may not be as knowl- edgeable as some of the experts and technicians who are concerned with working out the details of arms control and disarmament agreements. Perhaps, though, this permits me, as it permits other Americans, to be more objective in my judgments. You have all read and heard about the controversy over wheth- er or not our test-ban proposals are ade- quately safeguarded. Arguments have raged over whether or not our proposed verification system is adequate to detect Soviet cheating under, a test ban. For the most part, this concern has been directed at possible secret Soviet tests with a magnitude less than one- quarter the size of our first nuclear ex- Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 Approved For CONGRESSI0ONAL2RECORD P HOUSE 38000200240024-0 May 16 plosion in New Mexico almost 20 years ago and less than one ten-thousandths the size of the largest recorded Soviet ex- plosion. It is the view of the State Department, the Defense Department, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Arms Con- trol and Disarmament Agency that sig- nificant Soviet advances would require a series of tests; that the probability is high that any meaningful series would be discovered by seismic or other means; and that such occasional small tests as might evade detection, if the Soviets were prepared to risk getting caught, would not have a damaging Impact on the military balance. Weighing the risks of continued unlimited testing against the risks involved in a test-ban treaty, both this administration and the El- senhower administration concluded that such a treaty would be in our national interest. Now let me mention just briefly a few of the advantages of a test-ban agree- ment. It would: First, be a first step toward slowing down the nuclear arms race; second, be a first step toward in- hibiting the further development of nu- clear capabilities by other countries-a development which would increase the chances of nuclear devastation; third, eliminate the expense of conducting nu- clear tests, an expense which is in the hundreds of millions of dollars for each series; fourth preserve for a longer time our present advantages in nuclear weap- onry; and fifth, eliminate radioactive fallout. Despite these overwhelming advan- tages, the Issue has been beclouded and misunderstood. In addition to the dis- proportionate and sometimes manufac- tured fears of Soviet cheating. arguments have also raged over the so-called con- cessions we have made in the number of annual onsite Inspections. These critics ignore the fact that, when the United States was proposing a greater number of annual inspections, we be- lieved there were almost four times more earthquakes annually in the Soviet Un- ion than has proved to be the case. This greatly diminishes. the number of nat- ural earthquakes which would be likely to be confused with the tremors caused by nuclear explosions. These opponents of a test ban also ignore the fact that research has given us improved ability through seismic and other means to dis- criminate at a distance and without in- spections, between earthquakes and ex- plosions. If these are "concessions," they are concessions to peace, to the greater security of America and all na- tions, and to scientific progress. The President, the Secretary of State and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency have all stated that a test ban agreement would be in treaty form, subject to the advice and consent of the Senate before it could be put in effect. Some Senators in Con- gress have recently speculated that if the present proposal were submitted to them, the required two-thirds majority would be lacking. One Senator recently suggested, on the basis of a study his staff had made, that the proponents of a test ban treaty would be lucky to get 57 out of 100 votes. I speak to inquire if the country feels the same way-if American mothers and fathers want to continue to face the prospect of nuclear annihilation for themselves and their children-if they want to face the con- tinuing and ever-increasing threat of radioactive fallout as more and more countries start testing and building up nuclear arsenals of destruction. In an address before the United Na- tions on September 25, 1961, the day be- fore the Arms Control and Disarmament Act was signed Into law, President Kennedy said: Today, every inhabitant of this planet must contemplate the day when it may no longer be habitable. Every man. woman and child lives under a nuclear sword of Damocles. hanging by the slenderest of threads, capable of being cut at any moment by accident, miscalculation or madness. The weapons of war must be abolished before they abolish us. I do not believe that the estimates for U.S. Senate support of a test ban treaty, if correct, reflect the sentiment of the vast majority of Americans. I say that it is Imperative that we make some effort, in however small a measure, to strength- en the slender thread by which the nu- clear sword of Damocles hangs. I say we must break the stalemate which again exists at Geneva. Although I am not a military technologist or an expert on seismology, I am an American and a human being. I personally do not be- lieve It is either realistic or In the interest of our national security to let technicalities of comparatively minor import blind and distort a goal which two administrations have concluded to be in our national interest. Over the years the distance between the Soviet and U.S. positions has been narrowed by changes on both sides. Who knows if time and the possibility of a new regime in the Soviet Union will render impos- sible the goal we so earnestly seek and obliterate forever the frail opportunity that we now have? I say let us make clear evidence of our overwhelming de- sire to go forward in the cause of peace and security. I say, let us split our di- vergence down the middle. I say, let us propose an agreement for 1 year with the option of renewing that agreement for longer periods. I say further, let us propose an agreement calling for five effective, meaningful onaite inspections. The Soviets are satisfied to permit two or three Inspections only. We have been asking for six or seven Inspections. I suggest here a compromise of five mean- ingful, onsite inspections under a 1-year treaty, with the option of renewal. In this way we could promote the cause of peace, security, and trust, and test the validity of our proposals. Thus we may accomplish the results sought through- out the world by the man In the street- a test ban treaty. Certainly, this may involve taking some chance, but is It comparable with our continuing gamble on international nuclear annihilation? If It Is determined that the proposed agreement Is found unworkable, we could always return to the uneasy peace pres- ently existing. As Senator CHURCH of the Senate For- eign Relations Committee said at a re- cent hearing on test ban negotiations: Practically no attention is given at all- which would permit the people of the United States to put this question in perspective- to the risks that we are taking and continue to take if, somehow, we do not begin to turn this nuclear arms race down. We are like passengers on a train that is headed toward a terrible precipice, and we know the bridge is out, and yet, we are arguing with one another as to what the dan- gers are in jumplnk off the train without taking into account what the inevitable end result will be if we continue on the tracks. What do I seek? An avenue, an ap- proach to attain a goal which the world seems to be crying out for-s goal that may be just beyond the touch of our fingertips. I am not unmindful of cer- tain disadvantages that may be inherent In my proposal and I would not want it to be put Into effect unless our security experts agreed that, on balance, it was in our national interest. However, un- less some means is found to break the stalemate, this illusive thing called peace may not be attained in our lifetime-and who knows how long this lifetime might be under present world conditions? RUSSIAN TRAWLERS IN THE CARIBBEAN The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Florida [Mr. ROGERS] is recog- nized for 60 minutes. Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ROGERS of Florida. I will be glad to yield to the gentleman from Florida [Mr. FASCELLI. (Mr. FASCELL asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks and tb include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, last March 4 there appeared in the southern- most newspaper of the United States The Key West Citizen of Key West, Fla., a news story by Jim Cobb, supported by photographic evidence of a Russian- made fishing boat, the Omicron 50, which was reportedly hijacked by its two Cuban crewmen. At this time, as a prelude to the discussion which is about to take place I would like again, Mr. Speaker, to draw my colleagues' attention to this incident and to refresh their memories on the subject. The headline was: "Russian-Made Fishing Boat Is Brought Here; Hijacked by Cuban Crewmen." The story follows: A new '50-foot dahing vessel, identified as Russian-made and reportedly hijacked, dock- ed here yesterday and its two Cuban crew- man were taken into custody by Immigra- tion officials. The vessel-the Omicron 50-is believed to be a part of the huge Soviet-backed develop- ment program of the Cuban fishing indus- try announced last October by Premier Fidel Castro. It arrived under its own power about 8:30 a. in. The two Cubans were immediately whisked off to Miami by immigration au- thorities. Their identities were not released. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 1968 Approved F 04/ 6/23: CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 O N L RECORD' APPENDIX A3097 has become more and more complicated, farm living and fully investigate farming We know now what was going on-those The capital requirements to farm has sky- and agriculture before you decide' your fu. were the first Soviet troops, missiles, and rocketed from an average of $40,000 to ture. A satisfying, rewarding, and exciting missile-site crews. But "administration spe- nearly $60,000 in the last 10 years and it future awaits those who train for a future cialists in Cuban affairs," the August 21 story is further estimated this figure will leap in agricultur . said, doubted that those Russians were com- to $90,000 to $100,000. All of this merely bat troops-just technicians. points out the need for more formal train- The point is, those administration see- ing in farming. Where will we be 10, 20, yes, ' t know what they were talking even 50 years from now if we fail to train cialists didn a fair share of our most talented rural We along Our Eyes Off Cuba? about, because they didn't have the facts. p on of farming.. _ Cuba monthly. In those days, although we EXTENSION OF REMARKS did have detailed reports from the Cuban Perhaps former President Eisenhower has or underground. said this better than r can and so I Would Now, if the HeraL;'s reports are true, we like to quote our former President from a HON. DONALD C. BROTZMAN are back on the two-U-2-flights-per-month speech given in 1953. "Our great cities, our schedule. But now we don't even have as mighty industries, our business and pro- of COLORADO good a flow of information from the Cuban fessional accomplishments, our educational IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES underground as we did then, for which this institutions, our high living standards, are Thursday, May 16, 1963 administration may bear some blame, and possible because of the efficiency and produc- Castro has just returned from another long ~ivlty of the American farm." Mr. BROTZMAN. Mr. Speaker, the visit to Moscow. i Yes, indeed, the need for formal training Kennedy administration has sharply This reconnaissance letup is, we repeat, In vocational agriculture is greater than curtailed reconnaissance operations in foolish and dangerous. The Soviets being over before. Vo-ag can help with this prob- Cuba at a time when we badly need the kind of tricksters they are, it is the ad- lem of supplying sufficient agricultural ministration's first duty to know what is leadership. every bit of information obtainable about in- This can be done if the farm youth, their "what is going on in Cuba?" going on in Cuba, no matter what effect in-tensive parents, educators, and others who advise The administration's decision to fol- gotiationareconnaissance may have on any ne- farm gotiations. youth learn of the great future there low this course while negotiating with if the Soviets have nothing to hide, they can be in agriculture and help point out Khrushchev and Castro is shortsighted will not object. If they do object, that is these possibilities to our farm-reared boys. and absurd. I commend the editorial proof po;_ttive that recorinaissalice is esseri- Vocational agriculture can help the farm from the May 12, 1963, issue of the Den- tial. youth by giving him instruction in_ ; !! training, with practice and study, ARE WE TAKING Qua EYES OFF CUBA? RUBS rength :Increasing in Cuba 2. Leadership. N -- - - M o on _ o. n formal background that will help in newspaper reportsv that U.S. military of. employment for farm related occupations, ficers are worried about the appearance of EXTENSION OF REMARKS 4. Build a cash reserve that will help for large numbers of Russian tents-some big of getting started in farming, other business, enough to enclose a missile and its or pay college expense., launcher-in Cuba, and heavy transport HON. BOB WILSON 5. Preparation for more advanced train- traffic from areas in Cuba where there are OF CALIFORNIA ing. known to be large caves. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES I urge you not to sell vocational agricul- What's worse, the Miami Herald reports, ture short, The latest studies of high school the Kennedy administration has so sharply Thursday, May 16, 1963 graduates show vocational agriculture gradu- curtailed our intelligence operations that Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, Un- ates hold a decided edge over nonvocational military leaders don't know any details on agriculture graduates now engaged in farm- this latest Soviet activity in Cuba. RECORD, der lRI to include extend the a remarks In the ing. For example, they average larger farms, There have been no low-level reconnais_ following article grown 22 more acres of corn; save more pigs lance plane flights over Cuba since February from the Spokane Spokesman-Review of per litter, use more of the newer, more pro- 9, the Herald reports; there have been. only. May 10, 1963: ductive methods of farming and average occasional high-level U-2 plane flights, and RUSSIAN STRENGTH INCREASING IN CUBA from $1,500 to $2,000 more net income than U.S. suppression of anti-Castro guerrilla Senator KEATING'S claim that Russian mili- nonvocational agriculture graduates, raids has cut off the flow of information tae 10 When looking for a job actual experience from those sources. than y it was strength last In Cuba is s times greater ich is the best qualification. The first part of Why the cutdown on reconnaissance July points st a s ration nu which pa- rent in the Federal administ our motto points this out: "Learning to do; flights? Because, the Herald' reports, Presi ap doing to learn." dent Kennedy is determined that nothing should be changed immediately, Our FFA chapter gives valuable experience shall be allowed to "rock the boat" while Officials are constantly releasing informa- in leadership. All members are urged to take he is attempting to negotiate the Russians tion regarding Cuba which either is refuted part in contests for learning by doing is an out of Cuba. ' or challenged to the point where most people important factor in training. If so, this is ridiculous. Whether Khru- have little idea as to the magnitude of the Vocational agriculture can provide train- shchev or Castro like it or not, the United Cuban threat. ing for other occupations besides farming. States has the strongest kind of right-that This fact was apparent last fall when ad- Each year my adviser receives several phone of simple self-defense-to keep the closest, ministration and congressional leaders made calls asking for references for such jobs as most intrusive kind of watch over Soviet comments throughout the Nation that there management in grain elevators, gas stations, activities in Cuba.' was no threat of aggressive action from Cuba. and farm corporations. Employers have often Whatever negotiations Kennedy may be Yet, while these comments actually were stated that vocational agriculture graduates carrying on with the Soviets-and there is being said, President Kennedy made his dra- possess skills that are needed for successful age net worth of $2,340 more than other to immobilize our continuous day-by-day Administration leaders have frequently re- seniors. The cash reserve is possible because inspection of that island so near our shores, ported that Soviet troops are being with- of money invested in livestock and farming Such inspections, in the light of what hap- drawn. But other sources, including Sen- instead of cars. This cash reserve or in- pened there starting last July and climaxing ator KEATING, claim that the actual number creased net worth can be used for an actual October 22, are n t only a right, but a duty. on the island has increased. start in farming, a business, or pay for part A look at our files shows that on August There may be legitimate reasons why cer- of 1, 2, 3, or even 4 years of college. 8,. 1962, the Post carried its first report of tain information should not be made public. Recent studies have shown that vocational Russian troop landings in Cuba. The If there is a security risk involved, certainly agriculture graduates do decidedly better in troops, a Miami radio broadcaster said then, no one. would be critical of such a policy. agriculture college and equally as well in had landed in Cuba late in July; 8 days But congressional leaders, regardless of general college as nonvocational agriculture after Fidel Castro's brother, Raul, returned political parties, should either be given ac- graduates. from a 10-day visit to Moscow. curate information or informed that there is Farming is our largest. Industry. If you on August 21, there was another story,. sufficient risk so that no statements should want to farm your chances are doubled if 8 this time from official Washington sources, be made on the subject. years of vocational agriculture are taken. that 14 Soviet ships had docked secretly in Reliable sources recently reported the ar- Vocational. agriculture ..teaches leadership, Cuba, and unloaded mysterious cargoes at rival of 6,000 Russian troops in Cuba, quar- management, farm training, and college night. Three days later, from another Miami tered in underground barracks. There have preparation. I am sure that there is a source, came the first report that Soviet per- been other reports that the original Russian, future in agriculture for you if you are inter- sonnel were setting up a rocket or missile goal was 100,000 troops in the island this ested. Make use of your rich heritage of site in Cuba. year. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 A3098 Approved FQf)eft/f6/DP *JqftNW00200240024-0 KEATINO is a frequent critic of communist Infiltration in Latin America and of Demo- cratic policy In Cuba. He may not be as critical if the administration would inform him of all the knowledge they have on the matter. Apparently, the lines of communi- cations in Washington. D.C., are not func- tioning well. Until his claim concerning Russian mili- tary strength just 90 miles off our coast is officially refuted, however, we must assume that the Information he has received on his own is accurate. The lesson of the frog is clear-We must remain alert to the political and economic forces that seek to destroy our freedom. We must let our elected representatives know that we are not asleep and that we will not tolerate the gradual eroding of these free- doms. The frog could have done something about his plight if he had not been so complacently asleep. How about us? Are we going to be asleep? Who Manages Wbat?-Editorial Do It Gradually-It Is Far Less Painful EXTENSION OF REMARKS or EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. THOMAS P. GILL GEORGE ~+ ai~+ or HAWAII HON. GEORGE A. COODLINC IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF PENNSYLVANIA Thursday, may 16, 1963 accepting IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES prMriG , Mr.~nke aker, whose the Thursday, May 16, 1963 being gored, I can understand, but not on ox many of the newspaper edi- when esiser S Mr d G , con p . one, . Mr. DOODLIN an editor wrote In the March 30 Issue of torials which have been written about Baking Industry he must have, by some management of news. --natural power predetermined the it is indeed refreshing when a news- s su May 16 his legal limit of trout in a Colorado moun- tain stream * ' '." President Kennedy's activities in the news field, he observes, are "well established." But Herman says that Kennedy's "'cold,' the fiction which brought him back to the White House during the Cuban crisis, was no worse a deception that the 'stomach trouble' which President Eisenhower's aids already knew to be a heart attack. "Certainly Kennedy had more right to mis- lead the Russians over Cuba than Eisen- hower did to lie about the U-2 plane (which the United States first maintained was only a weather research vehicle). Cuba presented a clear and present danger of war; the U-2 did not.' The smoke following the recent explosion over news management is rapidly lifting. When it's all gone, Herman feels "perhaps we will find a healthier state of affairs, Witt newsmen and officials confronting one an - other with new alertness, each side trying to protect Its own interest and guess what sly gamit the other fellow is trying to con- ceal."" EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF p action-of this House, Wednesday, May I5? paper editor is willing to examine the The complacent frog was heated grad- substance of this issue and make his own HON. VICTOR WICKERSHAM ually in water until he succumbed. Yes- unmanaged judgment. o'r OKLAHOMA terday this House gave the general public on May 13. Mr. George Chaplin. editor IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES more of the same but in gradual steps, of the Honolulu Advertiser, wrote an Thursday, May 16, 1963 hoping to lull it-the public--into cos- editorial which I think deserves the at- Mr. Speaker, placencY so no voice will be raised. To tention of those people who have been Mr. WICKERSHAM. increase the debt ceiling from $305 to flailing away on this subject. under leave to extend my remarks in $307 to $309 billion appears to be the Under unanimous consent I include the RECORD, I include the following painless way, but when the full impact Of the editorial in the Appendix of the article from the Daily Oklahoman in the heat Is felt, Mr. and Mrs. Taxpayer RECORD. tribute to former Congressman Jed will undoubtedly raise a voice in protest The editorial follows. Johnson: that might well reecho in the Halls of WHO MANAGES WHAT? FORMER STATE CONGRESSMAN JED JOHNSON Congress and reecho it should. Let's Dras AT AGE 74 There was some discussion of "managed learn from the lesson of the frog. news" at the recent editors' convention In Jed Johnson, 74, former OklahomaSixth UA. The editorial follows: Washington and the publishers', convention District Congressman ma1047. died n and a in a NCustoms THE COMPLACENT FROG in New York-but, in every instance, the court judge If you should ever want to boll a frog alive antidote was the same. City hospital Wednesday of a heart attack. The antidote Is the capable, sharp-nosed He suffered a previous attack Sunday and and make him enjoy the whole thing, just reporter, possessed of a healthy skepticism had been hospitalized since. follow this simple advice. Above all else, and the determination to seek out the facts Funeral will be in Chickasha at 3 p.m. don't do it all at once. If you drop froggy behind official releases. Saturday in the First Baptist Church, with into a pot of boiling Water, naturally he will Any government---whether city, State, Or Browne Funeral Home in charge of arrange- jump right out. national-tries to maintain the most favor- ments. Instead, place him in a pot of lukewarm able image possible. Its Dews announce- Johnson, a Democrat, served In Congress water. The unwary frog will find the water ments and its answers to questions by the 20 years. He hgd maintained a legal rest- more comfortable and probably relax and press will always be In this framework, dance in Chickasha since moving to New take a nap. Increase the beat slightly, but This Is old stuff, as old as the Republic York City to take the court appointment not too much. He may wake up. but since and the whole issue of managed news would made by former President Truman. the water still is not too hot, he will prob- never have arisen as emotionally as It did if Johnson's life was a colorful one. Al- ably go right back to sleep. Assistant Secretary of Defense Sylvester bad though he was a lawyer, he was interested Continue making the heat changes, always not put Into words what had long been in farming and started a breed of turkeys making them gradual and pretty soon the silently acknowledged-that in the most which now bears his name. water will actually be boiling. You will have critical emergencies a government will go to Born in gills county, Tex., Johnson came boiled the unsuspecting frog without his even the most extreme lengths to create the kind to Oklahoma as a boy in 1898. As a youth. knowing it. As a matter of fact, he actually of news it feels is needed to serve Its policies. he worked as a rural mall carrier. Later, slept through it all. a victim of his own com- Some of the most pertinent comment we've he was a salesman, then a schoolteacher, and placency. seen on this is in a New leader magazine subsequently, a country newspaperman with There are forces In America today which article by George E. Herman, the White House a string of weekly newspapers. are raising the temperature of our political correspondent for CBS. He was first elected to Congress from the and social environment while we sit back Be calmly notes that nee mans iaent. Sixth District In 1926 and served six consecu- not noticing the gradual changes. One day always with us. hit no great the tive terms. Johnson was twice a delegate to we will wake up to And that we have been Eisenhower administration and has risen "to the inter-parliamentary Union at Geneva. "boiled alive" and are living in an environ- no great new peak today-" Switzerland, once in 1927 and again in 1929. ment of Federal control and regulations. Museums "contain castings of a monolith Among the champion "go-getters" In Con- When this time comes, we will have nowhere on which, 6.064 years ago. a Pharaoh pub- grew, Johnson fought successfully to keep to place the blame except on our own Cosa- liahed an account of his great victory in a Fort Sill and acquired the Federal reforma- placency. battle which he actually lost. tory at El Reno for Oklahoma. Most politicians are well aware of the pub- "Gen. Douglas MacArthur once fired a Johnson had the distinction of being tlu ilea apathy to most governmental and legis- censor who permitted me to report that first person appointed to the same position lative affairs. Just as the frog slept unaware American troops had 'retreated' under prea- by two U.S. Presidents. of the changes going on around him. we sleep Sure; the correct word, it turned out, was President Franklin D. Roosevelt nomi unaware of the creeping encroachment of 'withdrew.' federalism and socialism Which ors day may ?James Hagerty did his bit to keep re- naked him for the U.S. Custom Court judge control our lives and destroy the freedoms porters from letting the public know that ship in 1946. Johnson, who was deeply em which we value so highly. President Eisenhower had caught more than broiled at the time in a personal feud wit] Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 1963 Approved Fordgpj3 BP65?00383R000200240024-0 REN APPENDIX Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, turned down the nomination to remain on a House appropriations subcommittee of which he was chairman. In 1947, he was nominated to the same postion by President Truman. Johnson worked his way through the Uni- versity of Oklahoma Law School and topped off his classes in L'Universite de Clermont, Prance. After his admission to the Okla- homa bar, he set up an office at Anadarko. He saw service in France with the AEF during. World War I. From 1919 to 1926, he served as a, member of,the Oklahoma Senate. He married Bea- trice Luginbyhi of Chickasha In 1925. Johnson is survived by his wife, three daughters, Mrs. Jean. Fisk, .Norman;' Mrs. Joan Stauffer, Tulsa, and Mrs. Janell White, Ban Francisco; a son, Jed Johnson, Jr., New York City; two brothers, Carroll .Johnson, Guthrie, and Dr. L. L, Johnson, Shawnee, In Latin America, southeast Asia and in the heart of Europe,. the White House, despite an occasional flash of spirit, has been pur- suing a, policy of appeasement. Day by day and step by step, in consequence, the Com- munist tyranny ha's gained ground; the forces of freedom, contrariwise, have been in steady retreat. In a desperate quest for "peace in our time," as the author of "Why England Slept" must know, Neville Cham- berlain unwittingly paved the way for World War II. To prevent history from writing a catastrophic sequel, the President and his official family would do well to learn from it. A prerequisite to 'learning, of course, is the willingness to face facts. On this score the White House and its advisers have proved sadly deficient. A case in point is wait W. Rostow, a man whose global knowledge of economic and political affairs is. matched only by his apparent lack of Insight.. In a far-ranging speech in Philadelphia recently on the cold war, Professor Rostow (who serves as Counselor and Chairman of the Policy Planning Council, Department of State) reported progress on all fronts. To J l agenda .,., ... -- anua y 1.961 has From Cuba to Lao s U.S. Foreign Policy been finally and satisfactorily settled. The t t n Smacks of Appeasement EXTENSION OF REMARKS Or, HON. . ROSS ADAIR rea y arrangeme ts in Laos remain precari- ous, still violated by the continued presence in that country of Vietminh units under the control of Hanoi. * * West Berlin stands,firm, confident and prosperous, but the threat to its future remains. And evi- dently the crisis over Cuba is, not at an end." Nonetheless, in a stunning non- sequitur he proceeded to conclude: "W e IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES have achieved something substantial in e 26 months: the momentum of Thursday, May 1B, 1963 . thes Khrushchev's post-Sputnik offensive has Mr. ADAIR. Mr. Speaker, the follow- been halted, and in the vast areas which ing reprint from Barron's is particu- have been threatened by it free men breathe larly appropriate at this time. It brings easier:' . . into focus weaknesses in our foreign dangerous nonsense would be hard to come by these days.. Under the hapless lead- policy from Cuba to Laos and points up ership of the New Frontier, as even its again the dangers of appeasement: stanch supporters now concede, the free FROM CUBA TO LAOS: U.S. FOREIGN POLI.CY World has' Buffered a dreary succession of de- SMACKS or APPEASEMENT feats.- Regarding Cuba, for example, Wil- The Kennedy administration, as its most liam . Shannon, Washington columnist for leftwing New York Post, recently ardent critics must admit, has consistently the no punches. Two years ago, ,he ulled observed displayed admirable skill in. the use of words, last week, "a brave and 'active underground. Last week the President. himself was, in rare nedy on Thursday snapped the tension-and sent the stock market skyrocketing-with one of the most adroitly phrased political pronouncements on record. While remaining firmly opposed to: "across-t"e-board" in- creases in steel prices, he. stated, the powers- that-be are willing to accept "selective ad- justments up or down, as prompted by changes in supply and demand." ,before the steel crisis,, at a ceremony con- ferring honorary, American citizenship upon Sir Winston Churchill, the Chief Executive .rose to the occasion no less nobly. In a glowing tribute to his new compatriot, the .President said in part: "In the dark days and darker nights when England stood alone, he mobilized thg English language and sent it into battle. Whenever and wherever tyr- anny threatened, he has always championed liberty." In saluting the verbal prowess of ;Sir Winston,. the President was speaking not merely as head of. state but also as one professional to another. Since taking of- fa J h ce o n F Kennedy more th h .an onceas sought to rally his. countrymen with stir- h.- in muonaa were alive with hope' for his early overthrow." Since then, however, A3099 witless gamble), Washington promptly com- piled. The Reds did not. On the contrary, they quickly set about demonstrating once again that every treaty with a Communist is an open invitation, to trouble. The Pathet Lao first tried assassination-one -of, the trusted lieutenants of Kong Le, the mis- guided neutralist who originally launched the revolt, was murdered a few weeks ago. Next came subversion, a tactic revealed last month when a loyal Laotian soldier shot the Foreign Minister, and denounced him as a traitor. Finally, in early April the Pathet Lao launched an unprovoked attack against the neutralist forces on the Plains des Jarres, capturing several strongholds and other strategic real estate. To the latest outburst of naked Commu- nist aggression, the New Frontier reacted with its customary vigor.. Even as his diplo- matic handiwork was collapsing, Averell Harriman was promoted to Under Secretary of-,State. 'His boss, Dean Rusk,- appealed for a cease fire., And the, SEATO Alliance, at United States behest, announced plans to stage an impressive show of force, not in Laos, where the shooting, happens to be, but in neighboring Thailand, where free men (Mr. Rostow to the contrary notwithstand- ing) today surely breathe no easier. "Don't worry, they're still 90 miles away," proclaims a satiric Republican car sticker. Evidently. Washington- hasn't gotten the message. Even as fighting broke out afresh in Laos, the White House was recording its elation over another dubious diplomatic stroke, the tentative' agreement to set up a direct line to the Kremlin. Even as Presi- dent Kennedy was eloquently hailing a now- retired champion of freedom, the cause of freedom was suffering. Appeasement. Is. an ugly word, and one which even Nelson Rocke- feller, who sounds more like .'a party stand- .dard-bearer every . day, backed away from last week. History has no such qualms. Unless the current disastrous course of events is reversed, there will be only one place In history for the Kennedy adminis- tration. And it won't be among-the profiles in courage. Maryland University Given Data System EXTENSION OF REMARKS to the incredible blockade imposed by the . HON. RICHARD L. LANKFORD U.S. Coast Guard, not against the Commu- nist:regime in Havana, but against its mortal of MARYLAND foes. Such perfidy now has led to the rup- IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ture of 'friendly ties. between Washington Thursday, May 2,1963 and the Cubans in exile, a denouement .which, wrote Mr. Shannon scathingly, Mr. LANKFORD. 'Mr. Speaker, it "Brings to a close a cycle of defeat, political gives me great pleasure to announce that ignorance and moral confusion. Everything the University of Maryland Computer has how been surrendered, including honor." Science Center has recently, acquired an .In Laos, too, the once farm U.S. posture has ; IBM computer system valued commer- developed a perilous sag. Until 1961 this country actively supported a regime in Vien- daily at $3 million. The computer sys- tiane which, despite its defects, was pro- tem is described as an all-transistorized Western and willing to resist the thrust of Computer ,With' a high speed memory Communist aggression, launched years be- capacity of 32,768 words. The on-line fore by native Reds aided and abetted by equipment consists of 'a card reader, a North Vietnam and Red China. However, in cara punch, a, printer and 10 magnetic the ill-founded hope' of restoring peace to tape drives attach the embattled land, the Kennedy adminis- Qd to, two.ifiput-output tration, through its roving Ambassador, W. channels. Averell Harriman, began urging-and finally The installation, known as -the IBM pressuring-its Laotian allies to form a cdali- 7090/1401 computer system, was made tion government with a t l neu ra ist group andilabl avae under the IBM educational al- ,ring calls to arms;, at .times he has sue- the local Communist Pathet Lao. Last sum- ceeded in sounding almost Churchillian.- 'mer at an international conference the three bWanCe program. Part of the research Unfortunatel how e t Of this f y ev r he resemblance factioninedge 111tStaildingcenter is,td ,,s, sg an arement which'estab- suppore e nds right there. For in translating words: `fished such a 'troika- government` and de- by the ;National Aeronautics and, Space into dilecim- th. W.,-1- has acted not. with. the boldness Of the great Prime minister, but with the Irresolution and timidity of his inglorious predecessor. mantled the withdrawal of all foreign forces Administration; Federal grants and from'LaOtian'soil. contracts awarded to individual depart- Describing the settlement as a calculated' `ments of the' University for. -computer- risk (Barron's chose at the time to call it a related research provides other support. Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0 A3100 Approved CFQr QI' ,L 6k&&Jb RDF?( 3KR000200240024-0 May 16 to capitalize on our own people's gam- bling thirst, we could raise over $10 bil- lion a year which could be used to cut our taxes and reduce our national debt. What is wrong with us? Departments of the university who will utilize the new system include physics and astronomy, psychology, sociology, speech, animal and dairy sciences, and the school of medicine. The ultimate goal of the Science Center is to establish an educational program, with concepts and computer applications being inte- grated into existing courses, This fine center, located in College Park, was established in February of 1962 and is under the direction of Wer- ner C. Rhelnboldt and his assistant di- rector, John P. Menard. Twenty admin- istrative programing and operating per- sonnel complete the staff. Government-Run Lotteries of Argentina, Bolivia and Brasil EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. PAUL A. FINO or NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 16, 1963 Mr. FINO. Mr. Speaker, while we in the United States continue to wear blind- ers and stubbornly refuse to accept the obvious, most of the civilized countries throughout the world recognize the wis- dom of a national lottery. Out of all the countries with which we maintain diplomatic relations, 77 of them utilize a government lottery not only as a compromise with the gambling problem but as a revenue-raising device as well. All 77 countries have found that re- straining rather than prohibitive meas- ures are best, as with most other moral legislation. Today, I would like to point out three countries in Latin America which utilize government-run lotteries as the best pos- sible revenue-producers. Argentina, in 1962, took in over $39 million. The government's profit came to $17 million which was used for emer- gency medical centers, for the under- privileged, for construction of the San Martin General hospital and for other public works and social programs. Bolivia, last year, sold almost $870,000 worth of lottery tickets. The net Income to the government was about $128,000 which was used for the Red Cross, public health and welfare programs, and for mental health institutions. Brazil, in 1962, the gross annual re- ceipts amounted to $5,356,000. After payment of prizes which represented 70 percent of the receipts, the balance of over one-half million dollars was ear- EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. WILLIAM FITTS RYAN or NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 16, 1963 Mr. RYAN of New York. Mr. Speaker. yesterday the New York Times in an editorial approved of the cancellation by the United States of three small nu- clear tests which were scheduled for later this month. The editorial points out the minimal scientific significance of the tests. The effect of these tests would have been further to undermine the effort to achieve a test ban agreement and to stimulate a new round of nuclear testing with more contamination of the atmosphere. Mr. Speaker, the nuclear test ban talks must continue. As the editorial points out, "the stakes are too high for either side to let the talks end in failure." It often requires years of prolonged nego- tiation before an agreement can be reached between major world powers. The road to disarmament under effec- tive international control will be rocky, but it must be traveled if mankind is to survive. The New York Times editorial follows: BAYING THE TEST-BAN TALKS aboveground teats, and though some un- certainty might remain regarding under- ground tests, these have been found of lesser military value. Detection techniques are al- ready such as to make it too risky for the Soviets to cheat. The treaty might not last, but as long as It lasts, it would leave our nuclear deterrent capacity intact, reduce the speed of the armaments race, help to inhibit the spread of nuclear arms, reduce the likelihood of nuclear war, and prevent further lethal fallout. Other scientists, of course, and most mili- tary men disagree, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They argue that further tests are necessary to perfect our defensive weapons, in particular, an antimissile missile in which a Russian breakthrough could neutralize our whole nuclear arsenal. Also the Rus- sians must still clarify the methods of the three inspections they are ready to admit. Many issues are still to be resolved, but the Stakes are too high for either side to let the talks end in failure. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BOB WILSON or CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 16, 1963 Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, un- der leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include the following article from the News of May 14: MAN OVERBOARD (By Henry J. Taylor) Nearly 6 years before his retirement age, America loses a first-class, highly trained, forthright fighting man in the head-chop of Adm. George W. Anderson, Chief of Naval Operations. In government there are always ways of disagreeing with your boss, most of them dangerous. In the armed services Congress makes the problem an agony-sometimes tragic-as the pitfall eliminating the life- time career of fine officers. The Nation is the loser; our enemies the gainer. Yet what can an honorable man do? Admiral Anderson was helpless when the Senate subcommittee ordered him to testify In the Boeing-General Dynamics plane dis- pute. A man like this will always put his view of the national Interest first. And Ad- miral Anderson's testimony, unavoidably. contradicted many of Defense Secretary McNamara's statements; politely but with the respected weight of proved competence and long experience. Air Force Chief of Staff Curtis E. LeMay's expert testimony likewise contradicted the boss. Whatever the reasons, his reappoint- ment is cut to 1 year. But Admiral Ander- son was tossed entirely out. A key factor in the present action is Paul H. Nltze, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. As one re- sult, the next question mark Is Gen. Earle G_ Wheeler, Army Chief of Staff. A House Appropriations Subcommittee ordered him to testify on the Nation's ability to withstand a Soviet ground assault. Along with Arthur Schlesinger. Jr., Walt W. Rostow, etc., Mr. Nitze is one of our leading assurance-mongers. He is likewise as Innocent of military experience as Ferdinand the Bull. But he had followed the fashion by blandly announcing a "myth." He stated: "It is a myth that the Soviet has overwhelming nonnuclear superiority In another move to save the S-year-old nuclear test-ban. talks from collapse and avert another East-West testing race, the United States has now canceled the three minor tests It had scheduled for later this month. This is a wise and welcome decision. In fact, considering President Kennedy's determined efforts to reach a test-ban agrea- ment, the scheduling of the tests in the first place poses a mystery. It may be explicable as a compromise In the Infighting now going on In Washington between the proponents and opponents of new tests. For tpe bene- ficial scientific value of the tests could be only minimal, but their adverse political and psychological effect was bound to be great. As might have been foreseen, the U.S.S.R. promptly pounced on the tests to accuse the United States of starting a new round in the nuclear arms race. The Soviets threatened to retaliate with a massive test series of their own. which they are suspected of already preparing. The cancellation of our testa deprives them of any propagandistic pretext for resuming theirs. But cancellation is not enough. Even more determined efforts are necessary to break the present deadlock. President marked for municipal projects such as ne-dy has found new and powerful support water supply and sewer projects and the in such an effort from 27 distinguished sct- building of schools, hospitals and hour- entists, Including three Nobel laureates. ing. They have issued an appeal to Congress and Mr. Speaker, if we opened our eyes the public to back a teat-ban treaty as being and followed the example of these coon- In the beat Interests of the United States tries as well as the example set by New and of world peace. They urge, aq does this newspaper, that the risk of continuing the Hampshire, we could easily, painlessly arms race without a test-ban treaty is con- and voluntarily pump into our U.S. siderably greater than the risk that a ban Treasury over $10 billion a year in much might be violated by secret testing. For needed revenue. If we had the courage such a treaty would stop Immediately all Approved For Release 2004/06/23 : CIA-RDP65B00383R000200240024-0