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July 9, 1964
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'Approved For Release 22~0p ~/ ` 66 00100080029-0 15649 CONGRESSIOWAT R~-~ R 1964 have provided to civilian and military users, affected most severely by this polity are the bulkar~t es for the carriage of rtypes vices oft low to sell all-caro the new aircraft which they introduced, and all-cargo carriers and the supP hav Income trunk scarier wowith rries eir outesmoving on time-consuming service no . ir now the stimulation which * * ? theall indie The combination that the wpurpose carriers, do now afforded hate Cata e that renewal of all-cargo carriers will meeting even more than the 60-percent om- withThe inBthe powertvested nwit byverCongreit can ower serve the public convenience and necessity. mercial income test. think that lose, this sup the of reve ule-their Individually tions should besmade~to the rCongr snde_ cient, pu p se and theis all clearcargothcarrat s h ve ape- a other soplercmentals culiar advantages and can make. special con- ticketed business. One of the all-cargo car- questing authority to take whatever steps tributions to the industry. In our judgment, riers has lost almost all of its mail revenues are needed. these carrierrs. They perform a the portation adapted to the Nation's a needs will partment and Post Office change policy ne defor Board transpo vital to syaintenanve of apprl- best be accomplished through their com- regarding the allocation of oversea military ry function bined efforts." and civilian mail transported by s have e he growth omade these classes of carriers must I am in wholehearted agreement with these course, domestic any great degreern the move- base forffort statements by the There is a vital participated to Board. ing necessity for the continuation and p pre eserve- ment of mail. Postal rules effectively pre- b Ora~ssinnthe ahrl neeindust y. d It lwould be -tion of the all-cargo carriers. They have clude their, paticipation. with tra stimulated aircraftaand new these developments, asawelliasf~fers, but I forgiertifl atesxof publict onvenencelland They have pioneered development techniques. state them to apprise you of the specific necessity, these carriers should have the The Aviation Subcommittee of the Senate problems which trouble me. Among other Board turn its back on them and fail to show" things the Congress has vested in the Board any concern over whether they survive ror die. f1 balanced air transportation system through Lion system according to the needs of our the issuance of Certificates to both large and commerce, the postal service and the our small airlines and to encourage the develop-, to ment of new areas of air transportation. One tional ditions tad ns to mafoter csound ompetition. c one terest results of this joint effort and in- Member of Congress I feel that I should caese has been the creation of l- different views in this public forum classes of carriers such as the all-cargo go car- make consideration by the Board. riersfand the the supplemental carriers. The malady of the supplementals and the I am greatly disturbed by the impending all-cargo carriers cannot and should not be crisis which threatens the balance achieved approached as a subsidy matter. These cr- in our gostcar and whi t bankrupt the riers are ineligible for subsidy and should so ll -car carriers ers and h the suop ass s carriers taken d soon open n greater remain. The solution lies in opening up new business steps r a groups avenues of commercial revenue for them so of cneis s opportunities aafraid the these progress two of many gmany they may compete on a fair and effective of carriers, I am basis with combination carriers for a slice of bears will be lost. That a whhy some action the aviation dollar. The Board must study by the Board is so imperative. and consider new approaches which can be The Defense nnprtmet recently reviewed taken to remove the operating restrictions its policy in uremen program with the MATS pro- resentl imposed on these carriers. These cecamen6 program and has now awarded its presently rriers must be granted an exclusive niche t al 1965 ard w contracts. I uonn tectioonn in the airline industry and a part of the that the Boned was oonyulted i o cough nn the De overall traffic must be reserved for them with the review of policy. alone. The Board's consideration of the tense Department affirmed the wisdom of amendments to parts 207 and 399 is a start the Presidentially approved courses of action in this direction. which were implemented by the Air Force by the in 1960 and has indicated its intention to Without o out is additional that promotion classes o ted and congressionally authorized continue factors have policy, appears that certain certificait unlikely other factors have changed significantly o the ngng carriers will have sufficient revenues to sur- allocation of the total And this is the among vive as sound, safe, and profitable carriers. nee competing carriers. this s the and busi- They have acquired modern turbine powered carg upon` which supplementl equipment for the military which they will coe eacriers must now rely prim, until have difficulty in paying for on drastically commercial carriage can be securea rilyd in great- reduced military contracts. It is unlikely er amounts. that any repossessed aircraft would remain Among these factors are by the the Board, reduction 2) in this country as part of the CRAF pro- in rates tio ofy approved e aircraft to t2)he gram. It is also improbable that these cr- proamof many new jet air the will be able to meet the military 30 rogrram, an, and (3) the awarding of contracts percent and 60 percent requirements, assum- r t did no p 1965 Ing a normal market growth and no change to airlines which previously pate in the MATS program. For fiscal 1965 in existing operating authority. alone the above three factors will result in Ways and means must be found to enable a reduction of about 5o percent in the per these carriers to increase their commercial jet in aircraft e allocation and son- The 30 total percent business and to obtain profitable business. a the per CI-44 business for r allocation- fiscal 1965 5 is I do not know whether the proposed amend- mound from to 1 to $129.2 million. , ments are the answer. But it is an encour- thhe share e which will go to those carriers ing sign that the Board is giving considers- the which go Thus, which did not add new aircraft in 1964 has tion to some change which will give relief. been cut drastically. The Board should also investigate through actual proceedings the feasibility of granting SECRETARY RUSK URGES NEV IMMIGRATION LAW Mr. HART. Mr. President, yesterday the Secretary of State the Honorable Dean Rusk, testified before a House sub- committee on the urgent need to reform and modernize 'the outmoded Immigra- tion and Nationality Act of 1952. The Secretary's appearance is an event of importance. It is the first time in several years that a Secretary of State has appeared before Congress to support long needed reform in America's method of selecting immigrants. The Secretary's statement is forth- right and articulate, a lucid statement on the need for reform. It puts on the line, especially, the adverse eff ect the national origins quota system, basic in our immi- gration law, has on the operation of our foreign policy. At one point the Secretary reminds us, that "what other peoples think about us plays an important role in the achieve- ment of our foreign policies." He continues : We in the United States have learned to judge our fellow Americans on the basis of their ability, industry, intelligence, integrity, and all the other factors which truly deter- mine a man's value to society. We do not reflect this judgment of our fellow citizens when we hold to immigration laws which classify men according to national and geo- graphical origin. It is not difficult, there- fore, to understand the reaction to this policy of a man from a geopraphical area or of a national origin, which is not favored by our present quota laws. Irrespective of wheth- er the man desires to come to the United States or not, he gets the impression that our standards of judgment are not based on the merits of the individual-as we pro- claim-but rather on an assumption which can be interpreted as bias and prejudice. In- asmuch as our immigration laws are regarded as the basis of how we evaluate others around the world their effect on people abroad and consequently on our influence, can readily be seen. Later the Secretary states: What is needed, basically is to bring our immigration laws into line with the real character and disposition of the American blep kindly disposedaand me rested oini all races and cultures. This is so because we know from actual experience that immigrants previously admitted, regardless of race and colace of ntribution to what isaAme icar to day. distinctive The Defense Department has also put in o effect specific rules to implement its pre- supplementals the right to sell all-expense viously announced policy with respect to tours along the lines being used so success- using air carriers which have an appropriate fully in Europe. The Board should work balance between civil and military business. closely with the Department of Defense in For fiscal 1966 the MATS contracts will be matters relating to the award of MATS con- awarded in such a way that the carriers who tracts. Without stable and sound supple- receivg contracts \vill derive at least 30 per- mental and all-cargo carriers the strong Civil cent of their reveif to from commercial Reserve Air Fleet built in recent years will sources. The Defense Department goal is for vanish. Further, the Board and the Post p the ercent iris theirhrevenueui orm t stammers tai loafing Drulest ands reshoul gulationsx affectingl the sources. While this is a laudable policy and movement of mail. These rules preclude all- one with which I am in. general agreement, cargo carriers from obtaining anything but -I am concerned about the 30- and 60- a miniscule amount of mail. In particular, should Post Office oint their b b plemellttio rtTheacar fthe ors whiichowill be made to determine whether Itdwould be ode Approved For Release 2005/01/05 CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029-0; 15650 Approved For Release 2005/01/05 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029-G'' `-- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 9 I4r. President, Secretary Rusk is to be come to the United States or not, he gets President Johnson in January 1964 said: commended for his excellent statement. the impression that our standards of judg- "This bill applies new tests and new stand- It is my understanding that otllera.,in ment are not based on the merits of the In. ards which we believe are reasonable and the executive branch will testify shortly, dividual-as we proclaim-but rather on an fair and right. I refer specifically to: What including the Attorney General. Here assumption which can be interpreted as bias is the training and qualification of the immi- we see the administration giving firm and prejudice. Inasmuch as our Immigra- grant who seeks admission? What kind of a tion laws are regarded as the basis of how we citizen would he make, if he were admitted? leadership in a significant area of public evaluate others around the world their effect What is his relationship to persons in the policy. on people abroad and consequently on our United States? And what is the time of his I would hope that we in Congress will influence, can readily be seen, application? These are rules that are full proceed expeditiously to consider the There have been times in the past when we of commonsense, common decency, which pending legislation, S. 1932 and H.R. have been accused of preoccupation with the operate for the common good. 7700. The companion bills have broad peoples of the West to the neglect of Asian "That Is why in my state of the Union peoples in the Far East. Unfortunately, the message last Wednesday, January 8, 1964, I support on both sides of the aisle and national origins system gives a measure of said that I hoped that in establishing pref- throughout the country. Their passage support and credence to these observations. erences a nation that was really built by would put on the books an immigration Actually, Mr. Chairman, we are not quite immigrants-immigrants from all lands- which befits our tradition and ideals. as prejudiced as we sometimes appear. Con- could ask those who seek to immigrate now: It would mark a great achievement for gress has progressively liberalized our immi- What can you do for our country? But we the American people. gration laws to permit the reunion of fam- ought to never ask: In what country were you Mr. President, I hope Secretary Rusk's ilies. We admit the native born from our born?" sister Republics in the Western Hemisphere The administration's proposal would eliln- statement will be widely read. I ask on a nonquota basis without discrimination mate the national origins system on a grad- unanimous consent that it and an article as to origin or place of birth. Congress has ual basis by reducing; all established quotas entitled "Change in Immigration," writ- also found it desirable over the years to pass by 20 percent each year for 5 years. The ten by Howard A. Rusk, M.D., and pub- special laws providing for the admission, present total of quota authorizations would lished in the New York Times of July 5, generally on a nonquota basis, of Immigrants be maintained, except initially all minimum 7.964, be made a part of my remarks at of different races and circumstances who have quotas and subquotas would be increased this point in the RECORD. been uprooted and displaced by political from 100 to 200. These minimum quotas upheavals. would have the 20 percent reduction each There being no objection. the state- In these special laws we have exhibited a year applied to them. lntnt and article were ordered to be generosity of spirit and a complete absence A quota reserve pool is established by see.- printed in the RECORD, 'as follows: of concern about the origin, race and place tion 2 of the bill before the committee STATEMENT BY THE HONORABLE .DEAN RUSH, of birth of the refugees whom we have under which all numbers would be allocated SECRETARY Or STATE, ON THE ADMINISTRA- admitted to our shores under circumstances by the fifth year. In each of the 5 years TIOJZ'S PROPOSALS FOB ' AMENDMENT OF THE of need. constituting the period of transition, the IMMIGRATION LAWS (H.R. 7700 AND S. 1932), I don't have to remind you, Mr. Chair- pool would consist of (1) the numbers re- BE,F'ORE THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY man, and the members of the committee, of leased from national origin quotas each year, SUBCOMMITTEE, THE CoMMrrTEz ON THE JU- the fine record Congress established in pass- under the 20 percent progressive reduction DIcIARY, HousE of REPRESENTATIVES ing the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, the plan and (2) numbers assigned to the old Mr. Chairman and members of the com- Refugee Relief Act in 1953, and the "Fair quotas but unused the previous year be- mittee, I appreciate this oportunity to appear Share" Refugee-Escapee Act in 1960. These cause insufficient demand for them existed before you to discuss a very important prob- acts, for all practical purposes, exempted in the assigned quota area. lom. I refer to the effect on the operation refugees from the quota restrictions which Experience has shown that we have ap- of our foreign policies of the national origins would have delayed their entry into this proximately 50,000 visa numbers annually system which is the basis of our immigration country for many years. which are unused and are not available for laws. More recent legislation has clearly re- reallocation to other quota areas. These The administration has proposed in H.R. flected the intent of the Congress to relieve unused numbers are chiefly from the United 7700 and S. 1932 the progressive elimination pressures created by quota restrictions. On Kingdom and Irish quotas. Of the national origins system from our im- five separate occasions since 1957 the Con- In the fifth year all quota allocations would migration laws. I should like to discuss with gress granted nonquota status to quota im- be made from the quota reserve pool which you the foreign policy aspects of our immi- migrants who had been waiting for visas for would then become a worldwide quota. So gration laws and of the administration's pro- an extensive period of time. While I shall that no one country could enjoy as dispro- pasals from the point of view of the De- not indulge in a statistical presentation, I portionate amount of numbers from the pool psrtment of State. Others will discuss in.. should like to remind this committee that, based on registrations or relatively long- ternal or national aspects of the administra- as a result of this liberalizing policy of the standing, the bill provides that no one coun- tion's proposals. Congress, only 34 percent of the 2,599,349 try could receive more than 10 percent of the Under the national origins system, the immigrants who came to the United States total authorized quota numbers. primary objective was to maintain the ethnic from 1953 through 1962 were quota immi- A strict first-come, first-served basis of al- balance among the American population as grants. locating visa quotas would create some prob- it existed in 1920. This system preserves What is needed, basically, is to bring our lems in certain countries of Northern and preferences based on race and place of birth immigration laws into line with the real Western Europe, which under the national in the admission of quota immigrants to the character and disposition of the American origins system enjoyed a situation where United States. This results In disorimina- people, who are at heart and in fact hospit- quota numbers were readily available to visa tion in our hospitality to different nation- able, kindly disposed and interested In all applicants. alities in a world situation which Is quite races and cultures. This is so because we To apply the new principle rigidly would different from that which existed at the time know from actual experience that immigrants result, after a few years, in eliminating im- the national origins system was originally previously admitted, regardless of race and migration from these countries almost en- adopted. place of birth, have made their distinctive tirely. Such a result would be undesirable, Since the end of World War II, the United contribution to what is America today. not only because it frustrates the aim of the States has been placed in the role of critical President Kennedy, in a special message bill that immigration from all countries leadership in a troubled and constantly to the Congress on July 23, 1963, said: should continue, but also because many of changing world. We are concerned to see "The most urgent and fundameptal re- the countries so affected are our closest that our immigration laws reflect our real form I am recommending relates to the na- allies, character and objectives. tional origins system of selecting immigrants. At a time when our national security rests What other peoples think about us plays Since 1924 it has been used to determine the in large part on a continual strengthening an. important role in the achievement of our number of quota immigrants permitted to of our ties with these countries, it would foreign policies. We in the United States enter the United States each year. Accord- be anomalous indeed to restrict opportuni- have learned to judge our fellow Americans Ingly, although the legislation I am trans- ties for their nationals here. Therefore, the on the basis of their ability, industry, in- mitting deals with many problems which re- bill allows the President to reserve up to 50 teiligence, integrity, and all the other factors quire remedial action, it concentrates atten- percent of the pool reserve for allocation to which truly determine a man's value, to so- Lion primarily upon revision of our quota qualified immigrants, who could obtain visas ciety. We do not reflect this judgment of immigration system. The enactment of this under the present system, but not under the our fellow citizens when we hold to immigra- legislation will not resolve all of our im- terms of the bill before the committee, and tion laws which classify men according to portant problems In the field of immigra- whose admission would further the national national and geographical origin. Itis not tion law. It will, however, provide a sound security interests in maintaining close ties difficult, therefore, to understand the reac- basis upon which we can build in developing with their countries. tion to this policy of a man from a geo- an immigration law that serves the national Also involved in this is the issue of our graphical area or of a national origin,, which Interest and reflects in every detail the prin- Immigration policy toward Asian persons, Is not favored by our present quota laws. ciples of equality and human dignity to to which I now wish to address myself. Irrespective of whether the man desires to which our Nation subscribes," Perhaps the most discriminatory aspect of Approved For Release 2005/01/05 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029-0 1964 "Approved For Release 2005/01/05. CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE triangle which requires persons or Asian stock to be attributed to quota areas not of their place of birth but according to their racial ancestry. This feature of the present law is indefensible from a foreign policy point of view. 11 represents an overt statu- tory discrimination against more than one- half of the world's population. Here again our request is not that the Congress drasti- cally depart from existing policy, but rather that it pursue to a conclusion a develop- ment which began more than 20 years ago. As your Committee is well aware, the Con- gress, at the request of President Roosevelt, eliminated in 1943 the a Chinese exclusion laws and established for the first time a quota for the immigration of Chinese per- sons. This well-considered and cautious be- ginning of a revision of our policy of exclud- ing Asian persons has been followed by progressively liberal amendments to our laws. In 1952, the drafters of the Immigration and Nationality Act eliminated race as a bar to naturalization and thereby to immigra- tion, Asian spouses and children of Ameri- can citizens were given the same nonquota status as enjoyed by any person of non- Asian ancestry. The only discriminatory features affecting Asian persons which then remained were the establishment of an upper limit of 2,000 for the so-called minimum quotas in the Asian area, and the rule that the quota of an Asian person born outside the Asian sphere be governed by ancestry, rather than by place of birth. The Congress in 1961 removed the 2,000 limit on the number of Asian immi- grants from ' minimum quota areas. The only remaining discriminatory provision of the law now, therefore, is the one requiring that an Asian person be charged to an Asian quota even if he were born outside the Asian area in a quota or nonquota country. The restrictive effect of this rule has been 'significantly tempered during the last dec- ade as a result of the special legislation to 'which I referred earlier. The very liberal policy which found expression in these spe- cial measures, as distinct from the letter of the general law, is best illustrated by the volume and composition of immigration from some of the major countries of the Far East. During the 10-year period from 1953 to 1963 a total of 119,677 immigrants came to the United'States from China, Japan, and the Philippines; 169,654 of these were non- quota immigrants and less than 10 percent were quota immigrants. These facts may startle those who read in our Immigration laws that Japan has an annual quota of 185, the, Philippines a quota of 100, and that China has a total of 205 quota numbers a year. Any increase in the volume of immi- gration resulting from the proposed amend- ments would be rather limited against the actual volume of Asian immigration into the United States between 1953 and 1963. We deprive ourselves of a powerful weapon in our fight against misinformation if we do not reconcile here too the letter of the law with the facts of immigration and thus erase the unfavorable impression made by our old quota limitation for Asian persons. I urge you most earnestly to eliminate this last vestige of discrimination against Asian persons from our immigration laws. This action would bring to a logical conclusion the progressive policy the Congress has fol- lowed since 1943. Coilsl tent with the foregoing, I should like to urge you to'accord equal status to all immigrants born in our American sister republics. It has always been the policy of the Congress to recognize the common bond uniting the Americas by exempting froniny quota restrictions those immigrants who were born in independent countries of the Western Hemisphere. When the Con- gress in i96~ formulated the'pertinent pro- visions of the. 1m igration and Nationality Act It included in the list of nonquota coun- tries all those which were independent at that time. Meanwhile, our neighbors in the Caribbean, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago. have become independent. The wording of the law required that we proclaim for each of these areas quotas of 100. We have had serious representations from these coun- tries concerning these quota restrictions which are interpreted as discriminatory measures. Jamaica and Trinidad are among our best friends in this hemisphere and their friendship is of considerable significance to us. Assistant Secretary Mann will expand upon this in later testimony. Mr. Abba P. Schwartz, Administrator, Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, will also present a statement on the refugee aspects of the ad- ministration's proposal. Finally, Mr. Chairman, without going into the economic aspects of the administration's proposals, on which others will testify, I wish to conclude with a few general con- siderations. Present-day immigration is very different in volume and makeup from the older mi- gration on which most of our thinking is still based; and its significance for this coun- try is considerably different. Immigration now comes in limited volume and includes a relatively high proportion of older people, females, and persons of high skill and train- ing. The significance of immigration for the United States now depends less on the num- ber than on the quality of the immigrants. The explanation for the high professional and technical quality of present immigration lies in part in the nonquota and preference provisions of our immigration laws that favor the admission of highly qualified mi- grants. But still more it depends on world conditions of postwar economic and social dislocations, discriminations, and insecuri- ties in various parts of the world that have disturbed social and occupational strata not normally disposed to emigrate and has at- tracted them to the greater political freedom and economic opportunity offered in the -United States. Under present circumstances the United States has a rare opportunity to draw migrants of high intelligence and abil- ity from abroad; and immigration, if well administered, can be one of our greatest national resources, a source of manpower and brainpower in a divided world. It should be emphasized that there has been no relaxing of the qualitative criteria for admissibility to the United States, and that no relaxation of these mental, moral, economic, and ideological criteria is proposed in S. 1932 or H.R. 7700. I urge you, Mr. Chairman and members of this committee, that you give most care- ful consideration to the President's proposals embodied in H.R. 7700 and S. 1932. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. [From the New York Times, July 5, 19641 CHANGE IN IMMIGRATION-PRESIDENT URGES EASING OF STRICTURES ON LETTING SKILLED SCIENTISTS STAY IN UNITED STATES (By Howard A. Rusk, M.D.) After hearing preliminary reports by a Subcommittee on Manpower, the President's Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke took its first official action last Tues- day. It issued a resolution urging a change in immigration laws to facilitate immigration of highly skilled health" research specialists. Each year several thousand research sci- entists from abroad come to the United States on visitors' exchange visas. Such persons can stay in the United States only 6 years. Should they wish to emigrate to the Unit- ed States and take up permanent residence, The action of the President's Commission was taken the day before hearings were to begin in the House Judiciary Committee to amend the immigration laws. One of the proposed changes would permit increased numbers of highly skilled persons to immigrate into the United States. The committee is headed by Representa- tive MICHAEL A. FEIGHAN, Democrat, of Ohio. A KENNEDY MEASURE The bill being considered is an adminis- tration proposal introduced by Representa- tive EMANUEL CELLER, Democrat, of Brooklyn, at President Kennedy's request a year ago. It was reintroduced in January at the re- quest of President Johneon. The bill would establish an Immigration board that would make continuous studies of such conditions within and without the United States that might have any bearing on our Nation's immigration policies. After consultation with the appropriate Government agencies, the board could rec- ommend changes in admission policies to the Attorney General. The bill specifically mentions consulta- tions with the Secretaries of Labor, State, and Defense, but for some strange reason does not include the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Inclusion of the latter is particularly im- portant if the objectives recommended by the President's Commission on Heart Dis- ease, Cancer, and Stroke are to-be realized. THE CURRENT POLICY Under current policies and procedures, for- eigners in the United States on visitors' ex- change visas may petition to be granted permanent visas. The Department of Justice then asks the appropriate Government agency for its rec- ommendations. From 1957 to 1963, 985 such requests were acted upon by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Of these, 234 were persons holding positions in research and teaching in colleges and universities. Six hundred eighty-five were physicians, most of whom were engaged in research or teaching. Under the current policies and criteria, only 207 of these 985 applications could be approved. This meant that many highly skilled re- search workers were forced to return to their own countries, where they lacked the facili- ties and equipment to continue their im- portant research efforts. ONE PROJECT HALTED One distinguished professor of biochemis- try told the President's Commission that his first assistant, who is engaged in a most promising highly sophisticated research proj- ect, will be forced to leave the country within the next few months. Since he cannot be replaced by an Ameri- can, the research project will come to a halt. The scientist will either return home where he has no facilities, equipment or funds and waste his time or will emigrate to another country. Many such persons who are forced to leave the United States go to Canada. This same story has been repeated many times since. Under the new legislative proposals, such persons could be admitted to the United States on permanent visas. It is because of this that the President's Commission unanimously adopted and for- warded to the President its resolution point- ing out that "scientific research is of uni- versal and international benefit." THE RESOLUTION The resolution continues: "Contemporary research requires facilities and equipment of -great cost as well as or- Approved For Release 2005/01/05 CIA-RDP66B00403R000100089029-0 15652 Approved For Release 2005/01/05: CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029--Q` "? CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-, SENATE July 9 "`Such facilities and research environments are often more readily available in the United States than in other countries. "Gifted scientists who are forei .fi na- tionals but who have received extensive training in the United States are normally compelled to return to their own countries to the considerable detriment of their ca-reers,the loss of their potential scientific contribution, and to the permanent-injury of the research on which they are engaged." In view of this, the Commission recom- mended that foreign scientists and"physi- clans of demonstrated accomplishment or recognized potential should be given Indefi- nite extension of their visas. It also recommended "that the ilnigra- tion laws should be so revised as to facili- tate the immigration and naturalization of scientists and physicians who can make spe- cial contributions to the intellectual re- sources of the Nation." A MORE MODERN VIEW The bill would also regard epilepsy, mental illness and mental retardation in a more modern light. .At present, it is impossible for a person with a history of any of these conditions to be admitted to the United States. This i connotes an official Government attitude tthat such conditions are hopeless, which simply is not true in terms of modern medi- cal knowledge. 'The United Epilepsy Association, for ex- ample, reports that 50 percent of the esti- mated total of 1,854,000 persons in the United States with epilepsy are so amenable to modern medical treatment that all mani- festations of their, problem can be completely eliminated. Medical science should have no interna- tional boundaries. Highly skilled research workers should have the opportunity of conducting their studies in the best available environment. Our Present immigration policies by deny. Ing many this opportunity hinder the possi- bilities. of research advances that might be of great value not only to our own Nation but also to the entire world. Mr. -PELL. Mr. President, I heartily subscribe to the remarks of the distin- guished Senator from Michigan. I, too, hope that individuals may be admitted to the United States upon the basis of worth,, rather than upon the accident of birth, and that this may become our na- tional policy. REDISCOVE1%Y OF RAILROAD TRAVEL Mr. :FELL. Mr. President, I am al- ways happy to note when people of au- thority-and in particular, men of the press-rediscover the railroad train. A few months ago I was able to call atten- tion to an excellent and interesting arti- cle about a recent transcontinental train ride, written by Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times. Today I am pleased to report that an- other distinguished columnist of the New York Times has stumbled upon the al- most-forgotten mysteries of the Iron Horse, I refer to Russell Baker's column In the New York Times of Sunday, July 5, entitled "Westward With Pride of Pio- neer. Mr. Baker apparently has been par- tic1pating in the current westward politi- cal migration of the news media, but he chose to make his trip, at least as far as Denver, by train. In the process he dis- covered some of the pleasures and satis- factions of traveling in comfort and re- laxation close to the countryside, and he also discovered some of the drawbacks ir'o rail travel which have kept passengers off the trains. In a subsequent column on July 7, entitled "Encounter on the Oregon Trail," Mr. Baker reports some ironic ob- servations on the second leg of his jour- ney, from Colorado to Oregon, which was accomplished by a more common means of transportation, the automobile. As an advocate of the rehabilitation of Our railroads, I wish to commend Mr. Baker for his thoughtful, entertaining ar- ticles. We need more of the kind of re- discovery which Mr. Baker experienced if we are to bring commonsense and bal- ance to the planning of our national .transportation program. In particular, I hope that we can start to achieve that commonsense and bal- ance along the main arteries of travel of our crowded northeastern States. My pending bill, Senate Joint Resolution 18, authorizing an interstate authority to run high-speed rail transportation be- tween Washington and Boston, would offer many people the opportunity, I be- lieve, to rediscover the pleasures Mr. Ba- ker describes. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD Mr. Baker's articles of July 5 and 7,1964. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the New York Times, July 5, 19641 WESTWARD WITH PRIDE OF PIONEER (By Russell Baker) DENVER, July 4.-Here is a fascinating new idea in travel. It is called the train. It is marvelous. It hugs the earth and bears you along at one-tenth the speed of sound, with frequent stops to allow close scrutiny of the American landscape. It is especially recommended for the ruling classes, who suffer from the delusion that being shot across the continent in a metal cylinder is the ultimate in fancy living. A substantial train trip-as from Washing- ton to Denver-takes two nights. Trains provide ingenious private rooms complete with plumbing and beds. Seasoned air travelers will be delighted to find that, once seated or reclining in these rooms, privacy is absolute. Young women with glass smiles do not barge in to ask if a seatbelt is fastened, or to offer chewing gum, or to push coffee, tea, and milk. AIR TRAVEL NERVES The fast trains west out of Washington depart at teatime. There is no luggage weigh-in at the terminal and no psychic compulsion to buy $65,000 worth of life in- surance before boarding, though the first few hours may put heavy strain on the person unaccustomed to train travel. After half an hour-a period in which he would normally expect to be approaching Pittsburgh-he may start wandering the train nervously, asking how far it has gone. It will be just outside Silver Spring, Md., perhaps 20 miles beyond Washington, As the evening wears on and the great diesels start their labored curve over the darkening Appalachians, he will discover the diner and the lounge and begin to notice features of America that are invisible from 30,000 feet. That theeastern countryside is carpeted with black-eyed susans. That country children still stand by railroad tracks to wave at people bound for Chicago. ORDEAL IN CHICAGO And then, with nightfall, the train is a cocoon of soft light rushing through the starred tunnel of night, its whistle baying at mountain towns. Over the rough Appa- lachian roadbed, the thing creaks and groans like a ship at sea, and in the black hours with a screech and jolt of brakes it wakes the sleeper to witness the fires of Pittsburgh. With morning, it is racing across the Indi- ana flatlands and by breakfast it is gliding into the steel labyrinths of Chicago, already shimmering under a hot brass sky. It is still necessary to change trains to cross the Mis- sissippi. The explanation is a mystery to all but railroad men. Hogs can cross the conti- nent without changing trains, as someone used to say, but people can't. The result is a day of toil. Baggage must be unloaded, shipped to another station, stored. Hours must be killed in Chicago. Nobody can say for certain how many hours, for the trains have their own time, and only mathematicians understand it. In Chicago it is 98? in the shade. The streets are melting. One begins to curse the train. And, also to fee] heroic about making such a hardship journey West. TWO WHOLE DAYS Back to the station through layers of heat for the night train to Denver. Get the baggage out of storage. Fight for a bag- gage cart. Then agony. The train leaves at 6 p.m., central standard time, and not 5 p.m., central daylight time. Another steaming hour to kill with the baggage. Do not ask why the trains refuse to operate on local time. It is a mystery, like why they force people to change in Chicago. The trains have their dignity. They do not put them- selves out for people. And then, at last, it is moving again through the dusk. Across the Mississippi and into Iowa and hurtling down across Ne- braska, restoring serenity. By morning it is a new world of vast crystal sky and sage- brush, pounding toward the Rocky Moun- tains. Fifty miles across the prairie, the peaks are still creased with snow. At Denver the air is hot, dry, and sparkling, and the west- ering man who could have made the whole trip in 5 hours by jet arrives with a sense of having made an expedition. He has not merely been on an elevator ride. He has traveled, and he feels it. He has traveled, and he feels it. Two whole days from Washington to Denver. The pioneers couldn't have arrived with a great- er sense of pride. [From the New York Times, July 7, 1964] ENCOIINTER ON THE OREGON TRAIL (By Russell Baker) PENDELTON, OREG., July 6.-Back down the road a,piece, along the Snake River, there was a grizzled mirage standing in the sage brush. There was nothing to do but photo- graph him, but he was obviously uneasy and it was necessary to jolly him along with small talk. "Hello, there, oldtimer. You're a mirage, aren't you?" "Yup," he said. "Lost?" "I'm looking for the Oregon Trail," he said. "You haven't seen the wagons along this way by any chance?" "Well, you see, oldtimer, we don't travel by wagon train any more. Nowadays we have cars." He looked nonplused. "See that box sitting over there on wheels? That's a car. It goes 600 miles a day. When you people wanted to get to Oregon it took you 5 months from Missouri. We make it now in 3 days." FOOD AND SNAPSHOTS He whistled in disbelief. "What's it like?" he asked. "Traveling In one of those cars, I mean." Approved For Release 2005/01/05 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000100080029-0