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July 27, 1964
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bR~4LCIR mop 00170028-0 964-Approved For ReO" (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. MARsH), was given pe ssion to extend his remar`k's at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in` the Appendix.] WHAT'S BEHIND THE HARLEM" RIOTS (Mr. WAGOON1~1Ef (at the request of of Mr. }LARSHT) was given. permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to `include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker, I have listened for a week` now to the pious statements of the `mob leaders in New Rork City. Every possible excuse has been dredged up to explain, condone, sympathize and remove theresponsi- bility for the, mass ? terror the rioters have brpt ght to the Nation's largest city. Final1y, the=real reason has been nailed to the, wall tip Reporter Jimmy Breslin uvlting in Friday, July 24, Washington Post.., They are not rioting for jobs, votes, memory of the knife wielding at- te,cker_~Telnes._Powell, or for any of the other; high-flown reasons some would have us belieye As Isr Breslin puts it, "They riot in the streets for',thgmselves." Here is Mr,Breslin'sfull account. Again, r say that those who supported street riots a -a legitimate exercise of freedom, who have promoted civil dis- obedience and ellcourged_ what is now taking place in New Cork --it-,Can-wash their bands like Pilate and cry out that no mat,'s. blood Ls upon them, but they cannot escape this responsibility. The article referred to follows: tEy Jimmy Breslin) l~ r Ypax, July 23. This afternoon, every- body was getting ready for the fifth straight night of rioting in few 'York City and by now, the name,gf Jarries Powell is so far In the lzac -ground that It is only a symbol. A faint symbol, because you wonder how many of these kids who are running in the streets eVcn lbw James Ppwell's name, These kids who iavc made: we tide worst hi week in the history of the city ofIew or'- have not done it,$or the memory of anybody. They riot in the streets for themselves. You could see t at this afternoon, In a place ealle&D,~an l)iacplxnt end, which is a store on Broaway in Brooklyn. The kid came o#I the, hot street and into the store with lSZng steps and his shoulders it In up and down. When nobody came offer to take Care of him, he began to snap his fingers. ay there," he said. RAlN{.`OAT WANTED The.owner, Jack Lieblein, was at a counter, fixing a pile of shirts. He did not look up. "Say there," the kid said "Say, my man. es, can I help you?" Lieblein said. ` "Say there. Say, you know that raincoat you got out in the window there? I like that raincoat, That raincoat fit me pretty good, ' " won t it? Lieblein looked up. The kid was thin. He had on plaid bermuda shorts and a blue polo shirt and he was wearing sneakers. His Race was almost covered with sunglasses. TFf5EAT OF LOOTING "No, I ain't got time now," the kid said. "I be back later and get my coat." Then the kid gave you the stage wait. Then his mouth opened and the white teeth showed in a big smile. "Yeah, I be back later. I be back at I o'clock in the mornin' and we goin' kick In your window and I take that raincoat right out of your window and wear it home, you white bastard." The kid broke into a laugh and turned and walked out of the store and back onto Broad- way in Brooklyn. Lieblein went to the phone and called for carpenters. He had his place boarded up and he closed early and went home Thursday night and hoped the police could do some- thing during the night. "It's up to them," he was saying. "What can I do? It's a police matter." HOW LONG? It Is. And this is all that it is. These riots by now have nothing to do with civil rights. They are criminal acts and they are being committed by criminals and the most dan- gerous question of all, as darkness fell Thurs- day night and the police put on tin helmets, was how long can the police stand in the streets and have bottles thrown at them from rooftops, or iron bars aimed at them from someplace in a dark street? How long are they going to take it? How long? How long until it rains? How long until thin tempers give away? Or how long until these kids finally back off? THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM The SPEAKER. Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from Wis- consin [Mr. LAIRD] Is recognized for 45 minutes. [Mr. LAIRD addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the INTER-AMERICAN FOREIGN MINISTERS CONFERENCE The SPEAKER. Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from Ala- bama [Mr. SELDEN] is recognized for 30 minutes. (Mr. SELDEN was given permission to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. SELDEN. Mr. Speaker, last week the Pan American Union here in Wash- ington was the scene of an inter-Ameri- can Foreign Ministers Conference. The meeting, the ninth meeting of Consulta- tion of Foreign Ministers, resulted from a Venezuelan charge that Cuba was sponsoring subversive activities aimed at overthrowing Venezuela's democratic institutions. Venezuela accused Cuba of aggression after authorities discovered a 3-ton cache and a plan to use the smuggled weapons to capture the city of Caracas while the Venezuelan Army was guarding polling places throughout the country during elections. Venezuela demanded that sanctions, specified by the Inter-Ameri- can Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, be invoked against Cuba. It was my privilege to attend the For- eign Ministers Conference as a congres- sional adviser to the U.S. delegation. The other congressional advisers included Representative WILLIAM MAILLIARD, Re- 16413 publican, of California; Senator WAYNE MORSE, Democrat, of Oregon; and Sen- ator BOURKE HICKENLOOPER, Republican, of Iowa. At the Foreign Ministers Conference, there was never any question of Cuba's guilt. Last February a five-nation OAS Investigating committee incontestably substantiated Venezuela's charges. The only question facing the Foreign Min- isters assembled in Washington was: What should the OAS do in this proven case of Castro-Communist subversion? As chairman of the House Subcommit- tee on Inter-American Affairs, I have followed carefully developments in Latin America and often have been critical of the reluctance of the inter-American se- curity system to face up to the threat of Castro communism. Even after Castro's Marxist-Leninist ties were well established, even after 16 American na- tions had broken relations with Cuba in protest of Castro's machinations in their countries, a number of Latin American nations clung to a narrow interpreta- tion- of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance. In their legalistic view, the sanctions provided by the Rio Treaty could be invoked only in the case of direct armed aggression. This limited interpretation of what constitutes "aggression" created a huge gap in the machinery of the inter-Amer- ican security system. 'Thus narrowly in- terpreted, the Rio Treaty-created in 1947 before the Communists had em- barked from a hemispheric base on their more subtle tactics of subversion-stood impotent to cope with modern aggressive techniques. Congress was well aware that a dis- tinction between old-fashioned "armed aggression" and aggression by subversion was no longer relevant and that both constituted threats to the security of the hemisphere. A joint resolution passed both Houses in late September, 1963- Senate Joint Resolution 230, signed Oc- tober 3, 1963-which stated: The United States Is determined to pre- vent by whatever means may be necessary, including the use of arms, the Marxist-Len- inist regime in Cuba from extending by force Or the threat of force, its aggressive or sub- versive activities to any part of the hemi- sphere. In early 1963 the Subcommittee on In- ter-American Affairs of which I am chairman held hearings to explore the Communist subversive threat in the hemisphere. In our report of April 4, 1963, we found: -Although the inter-American collective security system is prepared to meet the pos- sibility of open military aggression by Com- munist forces against nations of the hemis- phere, no plan for collective action against Communist subversive aggression has been put into effect. We further stated: Communist potential for aggression can- not be measured solely in terms of regular military forces of "offensive" capabilities. The fact that Castro Communist forces in Cuba are incapable without outside assist- ance of mounting successfully a traditional military "offensive" blow in the hemisphere does not minimize the Communist threat to inter-American security. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0 Approved FC f $?gj?jQ 1 2 . RDFlf403R000200170028=A-- J., 27 Prophetically, we noted : Venezuela is the primary target for Cuban- based Communist subversive aggression. In its recommendations, the subcom- mittee stated: The distinction between "aggressive" and "subversive" activities is without slgniti- cance. Subversive activities, as conducted by -Communist forces in the world today, represent as certain a form of aggression as direct military aggression. It Is recommended that the threat posed by the aggressive capability of Castro Com- munist subversion be dealt with "by what- ever means may be necessary" in the se- curity interests of the United States and all the nations of the' Western Hemisphere. The subcommittee also recommended that "the United States should seek the complete diplomatic and economic quar- antine of Commuist Cuba by other na- tions of the hemisphere." In view of past efforts and frustrations with the inter-American collective se- curity system, it gives me satisfaction to report to you today the outcome of the deliberations of the Foreign Ministers Conference. The old arguments attempting to dis- tinguish between subversion and aggres- sion were present throughout the meet- ing. But realism prevailed. The final act of the ninth meeting of consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs at last brings the Inter-American security sys- tem into the 1960's. At the conclusion of my remarks, I shall Insert the entire final act of the conference. At this time I should like to examine more closely the first resolu- tion, for it is this resolution which final- ly abandons the anachronistic interpre- tation of the Rio Treaty and makes the treaty an effective instrument to cope collectively with modern aggression by subversion. What does the first resolution do? First, it brands subversion committed by -Castro's Cuba in Venezuela as aggres- sion, affecting all the member states. Hence, the Rio Treaty is applicable. Then it proceeds to apply some of the collective sanctions provided for by arti- cle 8 of the Rio Treaty. The Foreign Ministers agreed-by a vote of 14 yeas, 4 nays, and I abstention-that the American states not maintain diplomatic or consular relations with the Govern- ment of Cuba; by a vote of 14 yeas, 4 nays, and 1 abstention, that the govern- ments of the American states suspend their trade, whether direct or indirect, with Cuba, except foodstuffs, medicines, and medical equipment that may be sent to Cuba for humanitarian reasons; and, by a vote of 14 yeas, 3 nays, and 2 ab- stentions, that the governments of the American states suspend all sea trans- portation between their countries and Cuba, except for such transportation as may be necessary for reasons of a hu- manftarian nature. These sanctions are mandatory upon all members of the OAS. The resolution also contains a state- ment urging other states "that are ani- mated by the same ideals as the inter- American system to examine the possi- bility of effectively demonstrating their solidarity in achieving the purposes of this resolution." In short, the American Republics ask the cooperation of our non- Western Hemisphere allies in making ef- fective the trade quarantine of Castro's Cuba. Hence, we are no longer alone in requesting cooperation of our Western allies. Now, the entire hemisphere re- gional system is on record in support of the U.S. position in this matter. Fur- thermore, now that the Latin American Republics themselves have banned trade with Cuba, there no longer remains any ambiguity in the United States pressing countries outside the region to cut off their trade while some Latin American countries themselves engage in it. The first resolution also warns the Government of Cuba. and I quote: If It should persist in carrying out acts that possess characteristics of aggression and in- tervention against one or more of the member states of the Organization, the member states shall preserve their essential rights as sover- eign states by the use of self-defense in either Individual or collective form, which could go no far as resort to armed force, until such time as the Organ of Consultation takes measures to guarantee the peace and secu- rity of the hemisphere. This measure passed by a vote of 15 in favor, 4 against. Thus, the inter-American system has solemnly warned Castro and his cohorts that any new attempts to subvert an American Republic can bring quick armed retaliation, without the necessity of prior consultation. This sets the stage for prompt deterrent action. Throughout the Conference, I have seen press speculation to the effect that condemnation of Castro's Cuba and any sanctions voted, unless secured by unani- mous vote or near unanimity, would lose their psychological value and split the hemisphere. Singlemindedness on complex issues, as we know, is difficult to obtain even in national legislatures. Most legislation requires a simple majority. I would re- mind Members that the authors of the Rio Treaty, mindful of the seriousness of invoking punitive sanctions against a member state, specified a two-thirds vote rather than a simple majority.- The cry, now, for unanimity is indeed a spacious argument. The final act of the Conference passed by a vote of 15 to 4-Venezuela, having brought the complaint, could not vote. The fact is, then, that the OAS members, by more than the necessary two-thirds vote, have condemned Cuba's subversive acts and invoked both economic and dip- lomatic sanctions to further quarantine the culprit. The 26th of July first became signifi- cant in hemisphere history as the name of Castro's movement to restore Cuba to democratic processes. With the per- version of the original movement into a tyrannical Communist dictatorship, the 26th of July became synonomous with treachery. The date has again been ele- vated to an honorable place in the West- ern Hemisphere. Ironically, it was at 12:15 a.m., Sunday, July 26, 1964, that the American Republics voted to con- demn and punish Castro's Communist Cuba-an encouraging step toward the day when the original goals of the 26th of July will again be the guiding spirit of the Cuban people. As one who has consistently urged a strong position by both the United States and the Organization of American States with regard to Cuba, I personally will never be satisfied until the Cuban peo- ple have been freed from the yoke of communism. However, the resolutions just passed by the American foreign min- isters are a welcome step In the direction of that goal. FINAL Ac-r--NINTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MINISTERS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SzavINo AS ORGAN OT CONSULTATION IN APPLICATION OF INTER-AMERICAN TREATY OF RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE 1. APPLICATION OF MEASURESTo THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT OF CUBA The ninth meeting of Consultation of Min- isters of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in Application of the Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, Having seen the report of the Investigating Committee designated on December 3, 1963, by the Council of the Organization of Ameri- can States, acting provisionally as Organ of Consultation, and Considering that the said report establishes among its conclusions that "the Republic of Venezuela has been the target of a series of actions sponsored and directed by the Gov- ernment of Cuba, openly intended to subvert Venezuelan institutions and to overthrow the democratic Government of Venezuela through terrorism, sabotage, assault, and guerrilla warfare," and That the aforementioned acts, like all acts of intervention and aggression, conflict with the principles and aims of the inter-American system, Resolves: 1. To declare that the acts verified by the Investigating Committee constitute an ag- gresslon and an intervention on the part of the Government of Cuba in the Internal af- fairs of Venezuela, which affects all of the member states. 2. To condemn emphatically the present Government of Cuba for its acts of aggression and of intervention against the territorial in- violability, the sovereignty, and the political Independence of Venezuela. 3. To apply, in accordance with the provi- sione of Articles 8 and 8 of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, the follow- ing measures: (a) That the governments of the American states not maintain diplomatic or consular relations with the Government of Cuba; (b) That the governments of the American states suspend all their trade, whether direct or Indirect, with Cuba, except in foodstuffs, medicines, and medical equipment that may be sent to Cuba for humanitarian reasons; and (c) That the governments of the American states suspend all Bea transportation between their countries and Cuba, except for such transportation as may be necessary for rea- sons of a humanitarian nature. 4. To authorize the Council of the Or- ganization of American States, by an af- ilrmtive vote of two thirds of its members, to discontinue the measures adopted in the present resolution at such time as the Gov- ernment of Cuba shall have ceased to con- stitute a danger to the peace and security of the hemisphere. 5. To warn the Government of Cuba that If it should persist in carrying out acts that possess characteristics of aggression and intervention against one or more of the member states of the Organization, the mem- her states shall preserve their essential rights as sovereign states by the use of self-defense in either individual or collective form, which could go so far as resort to armed force, un- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0 1964. ,,:- "Approved For Rel aye, 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66B00403RO 0170028-0 tv OMWi RESSYC NAL IRECO l - HOUSE til such time as the Organ of Consultation takes measures to guarantee the peace and eecurit,_y of the hemisphere. 13 To. ur a those states not members of the Organzat3on of American States that are, animated by the same ideals as the inter- American system to examine the possibility of effectively demonstrating their solidarity in achieving the purposes of this resolution. '1. To Instruct the Secretary General of the Organization of American States to transmit to the United Nations Security Council the text of the present resolution, in accordance with the provisions of Article f, of the ifnited Nations Charter. 'r2. DECLARATION TO THENPEOpLE? OF btrea Whereas: The preamble to the Charter of the Or- ganization of American States declares that, "the historic mission of America is to offer to man a land of liberty, and a favorable en- vironment for the development of his per- sonality and the realization of his just as- pirations" and that "the true significance of American solidarity and good neighbor- liness can only mean "the consolidation on this continent, within the framework of democratic Institutions, of a system of in- dividualliberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man"; The Charter of the Organization declares 'thacthe solidarity of the American states Arid the high purposes "toward which it is dedicated "demand that the political organi- zation of these-states be based on the effec- tive exercise of representative democracy; - Ila.e Charter also proclaims "the funda- mntental r hts of the-individual" and reaf- Ttrnvsthattile""education of peoples should be directed toward justice, freedom, and The Declaration of Santiago, Chile, adopted by the Fifth Meeting of Consulta- tion of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and signed by the present `Cuban Government, pro- claimed that the faith of peoples of Amer- fCp_ in the eiiecti've exercise of representa- tive democracy, is the-best vehicle for the pro- , otion of their social and political progress (ResolutionXCV of the Tenth Inter-Amer- ican Conference), while well-planned and intensive development of the economies of the American countries and improvement in the standard of -living of their peoples rep- resent the best and firmest foundation on which the,practical exercise of democracy and ,the stabilization of their institutions Can be esta6lishieed; The Ninth International Conference of American States-condemned "the methods of every system tending to suppress political and civil' rights and liberties, and in par- ticular the action of international commu- nisni or any o'the'r totalitarian doctrine"; The present Government of Cuba, identify- ins Itself with the principles of Marxist- Leninist ideology, has established a political, economic, and social system alien to the :democratic and `Christian traditions of the American fainilyof Nations and contrary to the principles of juridical organization upon which 'rest the security and peaceful har- mCllious' relations of the peoples of the hemisphere; anti The exclusion of the present Government Of Cuba Tram participation-in the" inter- American system, by virtue of"the provisions of I$erblution - VI of the Eighth Meeting of or}sultation Of :Ministers of Foreign Affairs, 11y no 'means signifies any intention to deny the Cuban people their rightful place in the c tiunuinity of American peoples; e I?;nth Meeting of Consultation of Min- isters of l oreign airs, ervrng as Organ of Consultation to It placation of the Inter- American Treaty of ciprocal Assistance, Iec1eres; That .the free peoples of the Americas are :Convinced `that'the inter-American system 2 o.143-3 offers to the Cuban people unequaled condi- tions for the realization of their ideals of peace, liberty, and social and economic progress; That the peoples belonging-to the inter- American system are in complete sympathy with the Cuban people in all their sufferings, in the face of the total loss of their liberty both in the spiritual domain and in the so- cial and economic field, the denial of their most elementary human rights, the burden of their persecutions, and the destruction of a legal system that was open to improve- ment and that offered the possibility of sta- bility; and That, within this spirit of solidarity, the free peoples of America cannot and must not remain indifferent to or uninterested in the fate of the noble Cuban people, which is op- pressed by a dictatorship that renounces the Christian and democratic traditions of the American peoples; and in consequence Expresses : 1. Its profound concern for the fate of the brother people of Cuba. 2. Its deepest hope that the Cuban people, strengthened by confidence in the solidarity with them of the other American peoples and governments, will be able, by their own endeavor, very soon to liberate themselves from the tyranny of the Communist regime that oppresses them and to establish in that country a government freely elected by the will of the people that will assure respect for fundamental human rights. 3. Its firm conviction that the emphatic condemnation of the policy of the present Cuban Government of aggression and inter- vention against Venezuela will be taken by the people of Cuba as a renewed stimulus for its hope there will come to prevail In that country a climate of freedom that will offer to man in Cuba a favorable environment for the development of his personality and the realization of his just aspirations. III. REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COORDINATION Whereas: The objectives of liberty and democracy that inspire. the inter-American system, threatened as they are by communist sub- version, cannot be fully attained If the peo- ples of the states that compose it lack ade- quate and sufficient means for bringing about vigorous social progress and better standards of living; The persistence of a situation in which the world is divided into areas of poverty and plenty is a serious obstacle to any possi- bility that may present itself in the Ameri- can hemisphere for achieving an econom- ically more just society; Harmonious and decisive action is indis- pensable, In both the regional and the in- ternational spheres, to combat the causes of economic underdevelopment and social back- wardness, since prosperity and world peace based on the freedom of man cannot be achieved unless all the American countries attain, equality In the economic and social field; In particular, the continued existence of such a state of underdevelopment and poverty among large sectors of mankind, which becomes more acute in spite of the world increase in wealth and the advance of science and technology from which these sectors cannot derive full benefit; encourages the subversive action of International com- munism; The countries of Latin America expressed their aspirations in the Charter of Alta Gracia and declared their determined inten- tion to work together to build a better world in which there will be a more equitable dis- tribution of income; The Conference on Trade and Develop- ment, held recently in .Geneva, provided a forum for a full discussion of the problems of international economies and established '16415 the basis for adequate solutions to problems arising in the fields of raw materials, manu- factured products, and international financ- ing; and The instruments adopted at the two afore- mentioned meetings supplement and per- fect those signed at the Special Meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council held at Punta del Este in August 1961, and especially, the Charter of Punta del Este, The Ninth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in Application of the Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, Declares: That the aims of unity and peace with liberty and democracy pursued in the struggle against international communism, which threatens the stability of the insti- tutions of the inter-American system and of the countries that compose it, must be achieved by eliminating those obstacles that hinder social progress and economic develop- ment, and Resolves: 1. To reaffirm the determined will of their peoples to work, in the regional and interna- tional spheres, for the achievement of the objectives expressed in the Charter of Alta Gracia and at the Conference on Trade and Development, which are In line with the alms and purposes of the Alliance for Progress. 2. To request the inter-American Econom- ic and Social Council to continue the nec- essary studies In order to find adequate solutions to the problems involved. IV. DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS AMONG THE MEMBER. STATES The Ninth Meeting of Consultation of Min. isters of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Organ of Consultation in Application of the Inter. American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, Resolves: To transmit to the Council of the Organization of American States the draft 'resolution "Diplomatic Relations Among the Member States," presented by the Delegation of Argentina (Document No. 30, Rev. 2). V. VOTE OF RECOGNITION The Ninth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Or- gan of Consultation in Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assist- ance, Resolves: To congratulate His Excellency Mr. Vasco Leitao da Cunha, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Brazil, on the wise and intelligent manner in which he guided the deliberations of the Meeting. VI. VOTE OF THANKS The Ninth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Serving as Or- gan of Consultation in Application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assist- ance, Resolves: 1, to express to His Excellency Mr. Josd A. Mora, Secretary General of the Organiza- tion of American States, its appreciation for all the attentions and courtesies extended to the delegates In connection with this Meeting. 2. To place on record its gratitude to the Secretary General of the Meeting, Mr. Wil- liam Sanders, and to all who collaborated with him, for the manner in which the ad- visory and secretariat services of the Meeting were organized and carried out. 3. To offer its appreciation to the hemi- sphere and world press and other informa,. tion media for the efficient service they ren- dered to the Meeting' STATEMENTS Statement of Chile The Delegation of Chile abstained from voting on paragraphs 1 and 2 of the opera- tive part of Resolution I, because of its Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0 16416 Approv For Release 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66E!l0403R000200170028-0 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - H%.,JSE -. -July 27 doubts regarding the legality of the use of the term "aggression" in describing the acts. It, voted negatively on paragraph S. because it is _ firmly convinced that the measures agreed to are not appropriate to the particu- lar case that has brought about the applica- tion of the Inter-American Treaty of Recip- rocal Assistance. It also voted against para- gtapb 5, because it believes that there are discrepancies between the provisions of that paragraph and those of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and of Article 8 at, the Riot Treaty. With reference to its abstention on paragraph 8, its attitude is consistent withthe attitude taken with re- spect to the measures called for in para- graph 3. The Delegation of Chile abstained from voting on the Declaration to the People of Cuba since, although agreeing with Its basic content, it maintains relations with the Re- public of Cuba and since it believes precisely in the principle of nonintervention, It has deemed it preferable not to give positive sup- port to this resolution, Statement of Mexico The Delegation of Mexico wishes to make It a matter of record in the Final Act, that the Government of Mexico: I . Is convinced that the measures provided for in the third paragraph of the operative part of Resolution I (which the Delegation of Mexico voted against) lack foundation Inse- much as the Inter-American Treaty of Recip- rocal Assistance does not envisage, in any part, the application of such measures in situations of the kind and nature dealt with by this Meeting of Consultation. 2. Makes a specific reservation to the fifth paragraph of the operative part of the same resolution since it endeavors to extend, In such a way as to be incompatible with the provisions of Articles 3 and 10 of the Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, the right to individual or collective self-defense. 3. Reiterates without reservations Its "will to cooperate permanently in the fulfillment of the principles and purposes of a policy of peace," to which "is essentially related" the "obligation of mutual assistance and com- mon defense of the American Republics," in accordance with the provisions of paragraph Ave of the Preamble of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance. In witness whereof, the Ministers of For- eign Affairs sign the present final act. Done in the Pan American Union, Wash- ington, D.C? United States of America, in the four ofilclal languages of the Organization, on July 26, 1064, The Secretary General shall deposit the original of the final act in the archives of the Pan American Union, which will transmit the authenticated copies there- of to the governments of the American republics. For Chile: For Colombia: For Bolivia: For Guatemala: For Venezuela: For Brazil: For El Salvador: For Uruguay: For the Dominican Republic: For Ecuador: Por Costa Rica: For Paraguay: For Haiti: Per Nicaragua: For Panama: For Mexico: For Peru: For the United States of America: For Argentina: For Honduras: Mr, MAILLIARD. Mr. Speaker, will Mr. SEI..DEN. I yield to the gentleman conference at Punta Del Este. There was the gentleman yield? from Iowa. a feeling in the Congress that very real- Mr. SEMEN. I yield to the gentle- Mr. GROSS. Do I correctly under- istic assistance could be provided Mem- man from California [Mr. MAnLLUtan], stand that Mexico was one of the four bers of Congress even though they would also a member of the Advisory Group who attended the Conference of Foreign Ministers. Mr. MAILLLI RD. May I say that I would like to commend the gentleman from Alabama for the statement he has made, and in which I concur, and also to add, after having attended the meet- ings held during the past week, that while in connection with the end re- sults perhaps each of us could have added something, and each of us may have had our own Ideas and may not be In full accord with the resolution that was approved, I think It is an enormous step ahead and It greatly strengthens the Organization of American States. It gives promise to improvement In the situation as time goes on. I particularly think that our own rep- resentatives, the Secretary of State, as well as Assistant Secretary Mann and Ambassador Bunker, are deserving of thanks for the effective way in which they functioned during the negotiations at this meeting. Mr. HALEY. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. SELDEN. I yield to the gentle- man from Florida. Mr. HALEY. May I inquire of the gentleman if, in his opinion, In view of the fact that certain nations seem to adopt the attitude that they are not in- terested in protecting the United States in the situation we have in Cuba, our AID people will now begin to tighten the purse strings a little bit and keep the American eagle flying down there so that they will not build up the econ- omy of those five nations. Evidently they are not in sympathy with anything we are doing and not In sympathy with the democratic process of government. Z wonder if now there will be some move- ment on the part of the people In charge of the programs down there to forget the nations that forgot about us and aid the nations that have not. Mr. SELDEN. The resolution that was adopted is mandatory. I would hope the nations who voted against It will comply with its mandatory provisions. However, as far as the gentleman's question is concerned, that decision will be made by the executive branch of the Govern- ment. Mr. MAILLIARD. If the gentleman will yield, just to correct the record, the gentleman from Florida said five na- tions voted against the resolution. There were only four. There were 15 votes for the resolution and 4 against it on the final vote. Under the rule, Vene- zuela. that brought the charges against there were only four votes against It. I "' want to get a plug in here now for share with the gentleman from Alabama the continuation of the system which al- the hope that since this is mandatory lows Members of Congress to attend these these nations will do what they are ob- international meetings. As I recall, this ligated to do. I am hopeful that two has not always been the case. But if my will comply promptly, and possibly the memory serves me correctly, under the other two also. last administration the gentlemen from Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, will the Alabama and some other Members of the gentleman yield? Congress from both Houses attended the countries that refused to vote for the resolution? Mr. SELDEN. There were four na- tions that voted against it. They were Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay. Mr. GROSS. I want to commend the gentleman for his statement, but I must say I am deeply disappointed that Mex- ico, which has been in all too many re- spects a transmission belt into Cuba, de- clined to join in this movement against Cuba. I only regret that the bill that came before the House, I believe it was a week ago today, that provided some recognition on the part of the United States for Mexico, has been passed. Cer- tainly no bill of that nature could pass the House under unanimous consent today in view of the Mexican attitude toward Cuba. I am very disappointed that Mexico refused to vote against the repudiation of Cuban communism in Central and South America. In my opin- ion, the Mexican Government could have done far better in their relationship with this country than this. Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. SELDEN. I yield to the gentle- man from Louisiana. Mr. WAGGONNER. I would like to commend the gentleman from Alabama [Mr. SELDEN) for bringing to the atten- tion of the House the action taken over the weekend by the Organization of American States against Cuba. I must express, too, regret that there are some nations that still do not see the situa- tion as we do. I trust they will abide by the sanctions, however. I must express some satisfaction that we have made some progress. The situation Is improv- ing, and I am pleased we finally have taken further steps in the right direction after too much delay. Mr. SELDEN. I thank my colleague, the gentleman from Louisiana. Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. SELDEN. I yield to the gentle- man from Florida (Mr. FAscvLLl. Mr. FASCELL. As a member of the subcommittee headed by the distin- guished gentleman from Alabama, I wel- come the opportunity to listen to his report which he makes as one of the con- gressional observers at this ninth For- eign Ministers meeting of the Organiza- tion of American States. I want to compliment him for the years of personal interest that he has had in this entire problem of Cuba and Latin America, and also specifically for the time and effort which he and his counterpart on the other side of the aisle have spent In attending this con- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0 '+E 1964-.__ Approve d+ 1 0M REFi not be official members of the U.S. 'dele- gation.' Of course, as history has shown, this wasvery -true with respect to the con4erence `at Punta Del Este. The Members of the Congress there also made a very. significant contribution to the de- liberations. I know that the efforts of Members of Congress at this recent Con- ference of the Foreign Ministers of the Organization of American States, aided and reinforced the excellent work of the U:S. delegation. I want to commend the administration for, its realistic approach In allowing I embers of Congress `to participate in these meetings as} part of of the U.S. delegation. We would trust that this will continue to be a useful instrumentality for future conduct of these meetings. Does not the gentleman from Alabama agree and would he like to say something on this point? Mr. SELDEN. V agree with the views of the gentleman from Florida that the presence of Members of Congress from both Rouses has-been helpful to the dele- gation of the United States in the two last conferences of Foreign Ministers which I had the privilege to attend. I am convinced the Members present were able to effectively pass on ?to the repre- sentatives'of the executive branch, as well as to, the delegates from other na- tions, the ideas of the Congress and of the people. Mr. PASCELL. I appreciate the gen- tlemen's remarks. If the gentleman would yield further, I' would trust that this kind of cooperative effort will con- -tinue. We believe it is not only extremely helpful to the executive branch of the Governmentbute we know it is very, very helpful to the Members of`-Congress in getting a better understanding not only of what the executive is doing and is trying to do, but also as to what the Con- gress seeks to do and what its feelings may be on the subject. Mr. Speaker', I also want to associate myself with the remarks made by the able and distinguished gentleman from Alabama in ht' -"A to this Mouse. As one Who has also been critical not only of U.S. policy but 11 of lack` of action by the Organization of American `States, I must say that the ' action taken by the foreign ministers,is to,be commended as realistic and a stung forward step in dealing with thep roblem of communism in the West- em, Hemisphere and the Castro govern- ment particularly ,. can remember the time when the question was raised and not only by me but by many others as to whether the Organization of American States could suxvive the Castro s commu- nism and whether itwas,,usta paper organization because of its lack of action. This is not now the case. Significant recent events lave -indicated clearly to all people-particularly to the Castro government and to Castro himself-that the Organization of American States is indeed not a pa er organization but is an organization of action, willing to move and desirous ;of meeting the problems in estern Hemisphere, and deter- the Weste'rn' mined to eliminate the Communist gov- ernment of Cuba and communism., in the Western .Hemisphere. 'T46 Conference at Funta del rte was one of those, outlining the broad base of 16417 403R000200170028-0 principle for support of economic and the imperialistic designs of the Yankee social reforms and the Alliance for Prog- Government of the United States. ress,. When the American countries What would he call these leaders and acted unanimously in support of the their governments had they not fought blockade of Cuba during the missile Castro's design to subvert all other gov- crisis in 1963 was another instance. ernments and make them Communist This recent action of the ninth Con- reprints? Latin American governments ference of Foreign Ministers Is the most are very sovereign and justifiably proud recent significant event which shows of their fight for freedom, social and eco- that the inter-American system, as rep- nomic justice. They do not need a Com- resented by the Organization of Ameri- munist dictator to aid them by destroy- can States, the oldest organization of its ing all concepts of individual dignity and kind, is vital and active and prepared to freedom. Some people are critical that deal. with problems on a strong and the vote in the OAS was not unanimous. realistic basis. Of course, I would liked to have had such Nothing demonstrates more eloquently a vote. But is not this indicative of the the significance of this concerted action, sovereign right of diversity? After all. this two-pronged offensive, and its effec- free people act freely and democratically, tiveness than the reaction of self-pro- sometimes they even disagree when their fessed Communist Castro. His cries- interests are identical. we might say squeals-indicate that a Is not this democratic way better than vital spot has been hit. The recent to be clubbed into submission the way words of condemnation by the Commu- Castro wants to do it? nist leader of the government in Cuba Mr. Speaker, we should not forget that brings that point home-strongly. the head of the Communist government it is one thing to vilify the United of Cuba and other Communists make States and its Government because of its their appeal to the people of the world policies or actions. But the sound of by saying that they are going to bring damnation has even a more hollow sound about desirable political, social, and eco- when the railings are against the action nomic reforms, and that the end justifies of the other Latin Republics. The the means-that you can do it any way proven charges were brought by a Latin at all, just so you get it done. They will American Republic and the American engage in violence and subversion, in lies countries responded by adopting a policy and deceit, in every known method, in- of Isolating the offending government as eluding killing, to accomplish their pur- a cancer in the Western Hemisphere and pose. The majority of free and demo- as a danger to freedom and liberty. The cratic people in this country and else- political and economic significance of where have never subscribed to this un- this action certainly has not been lost on holy principle to achieve political domi- the head of the Government of Cuba. nance, either at home and abroad, and I We should not minimize in any way the hope they never will. will fight and tremendous impact which the diplomatic die when necessary to preserve our beliefs and economic sanctions taken by the Or- but we still adhere to the concepts of ganization of American States and by a ethics, morality, religion, difference of great majority of the Latin governments opinion, the worth and dignity of the against the Government of Cuba. individual, and the orderly transfer of Furthermore, for the first time in the power within our governmental system inter-American system, and perhaps embracing these concepts. anywhere in international organizations, In dealing with the obvious social and governments have gotten together to economic reforms in Latin America, the reach an agreement that subversion, as United States and other free people and practiced by the Communists, is as ag- governments in Latin America have, in- gressive and hostile as armed aggression. stead of subversion, violence, and Com- This is certainly a major step in dealing munist conformity, chosen another with the problem in the Western Hemi- method. A democratic way; achieved by sphere through the OAS since it requires conference and discourse. I am speaking no further meeting of consultation in of the Alliance for Progress, whereby that body in order to take any action for Latin countries and American States future, aggressive and subversive acts by have joined together in a massive pro- the Castro government. The warning is gram of private initiative, governmental clear that force can and will be used if assistance to bring about social and eco- necessary. nomic reforms. With things getting done This is not lost, either, upon the head and spectacular improvements every day, of the Government of Cuba, as he pro- lack of reforms as a Communist rallying nounces his purpose of subverting and of cry is becoming less and less effective and destroying all the existing democratic there is less appeal for Castro's kind of governments in Latin America in order to action which Includes subversion, vio- conform them to his system of govern- lence, terror, dictatorial conformity, and ment by dictatorship. doing anything to accomplish a purpose. An interesting political gambit occurs. These concepts are those of a govern- In his speech, the head of the Commu- ment which is dictatorial; a government nist Government of Cuba was very criti- ,which has no idea of a constitution; cal of the others heads of government in which does not believe in a free press Latin America because they took this or, free speech, individual rights, or a recent action concertedly to protect their representative form of government. own governments and freedom, liberty, Rather it is a method of government and, democracy in the Western Hemi- which would seek to crush all people into sphere; and, because the United States one mold so as to make all of them do haua single vote in this matter. he called what that dictatorial force wants done. the action of these sovereign American The free and democratic countries of countries the act of colonies conceding to Latin America and the United States in Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0 16418 i Approved For ReICM Q AfI# ,LE Q0 og%0200170028-0 this OAS action have taken a strong step for freedom and Castro cries, but I will not be satisfied until the Communist government of Cuba has been, replaced with a free and democratic government, Mr. SE=EN. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman from Florida for his con- tributions to this discussion. The gentle- man from Florida is a very able member of the Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs and of the full Committee on Foreign Affairs. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Members who have participated In this discussion may have permission to revise and extend their remarks. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Is there objection to the request of the gentle- man from Alabama? There was no objection. Mr. CRAM ER. Mr. Speaker, will the, gentleman yield? Mr. SELDEN. I yield to the gentle- man from Florida. Mr. CRAM. I am sorry I was not here to hear all of the remarks of the gentleman from Alabama, but I would like to reflect, as one person, that I did not feel that the Organization of Ameri- can States went far enough. I felt that the United States was a party to the definite effort to water down the demands made by Venezuela. I was sorely dis- turbed to see, for instance, the proposal that air transportation as well as sea transportation with Cuba be prohibited and there,be an embargo relating to air transportation as well, was knocked out. If #hat Is not done, then this airline route from, Mexico City to Havana re- mains open and there is a proven clear and open line of subversion that remains open. I thought that was to be one of. the key elements of the entire program to be developed at the. Organization of American States meeting. That was dropped and we did not fight against their dropping It. Second, I think the proposal that the wording be continued to maintain rec- ognition rather than initial stronger wording of the proposals is something else that we acceded to. Therefore, I think,, yes, there was much done in the right direction, but further I. think we did not go far enough and In particular in these two areas I think we should have retained _a firm stand. Mr. Speaker, I thank the gentleman for yielding. Mr. SELDEN. I am sorry that the gentleman from . Florida [Mr. CRAMERl was not here to hear my remarks, be- cause I pointed out that while nothing will satisfy me other than freedom for the Cuban people, I thought the confer- ence had taken some steps in the right direction. The words, "not to maintain" rather than "to break" relations were put in and agreed on by our delegation because there was the possibility that some nations-might break relations and then a 'new government might come in and reestablish those relations. We felt the words "not to maintain" were stronger than the words "to break" and would bind the nations affected until the freedom of the Cuban people was as- sured. The decision which allows the continuance of air travel to Mexico in- volves certain security matters which I am not at liberty to discuss. In view of the remarks of the gentleman from Florida [Mr. CRA,scERl, I thought it was necessary to make this explanation. Mr. CRAMER. Mr. Speaker, if the gentleman will yield further, I know full well the gentleman's position, and I am certainly not taking Issue with him and never have because he does back firm efforts to get rid of Castro's communism in this hemisphere just as many of us on this side do. I would like the RECORD so to indicate, that I am not taking issue with the gentleman, but I would further like the RECORD to show that I am very dissatisfied with our lack of firmness as It relates In particular to our failure to cut off airline transportation as well as dealings by sea with Cuba and our fail- ing to fully back Venezuela's demands for a complete economic and political quarantineof Cuba as well as assurances of positive setups to end subversion and arms drops by Cuban Communists. SUPREME COURT'S DECISION ON REAPPORTIONMENT (Mr. HANNA (at the request of Mr. MASSE) was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD, and to Include extraneous matter.) Mr. HANNA. Mr. Speaker, we may be missing the most important point raised by the Supreme Court's decision on ap- portionment of State senate seats. To me the crucial question raised is this: Are we to become a political society based solely on the quantitative assessment of citizenship? I do not intend t4 argue over the power of the Court to decide what It has decided. It is not productive to berate the logic or the basis of the decision. I am ready to and have always accepted the reality and the necessity of the principle that elected officials repre- sent people; not cows, not crops, not acres, not arbitrary county lines, What I am not ready or willing to accept is the purely quantitative Inference that flows from the deceptive, over-simplified phrase-one man-one vote. I ask, Mr. Speaker, that we pause to inquire of ourselves about the nature of the citizen we represent in the particular. Is this citizen just a unit, a mathematical cipher meaningful only in the signifi- cance of his power to vote? Of course not. The citizen has obvious qualitative content as well as qualitative unit meas- urement. A citizen does not operate in a vacuum. He is part of a physical and geographic environment which he acts upon and reacts to. He is a part of an economic activity, farming, fishing, man- ufacturing or the like from which he earns a living and acquires strong in- terests. He Is -a part of an ethnic group with greater or lesser meaning as to his choices and attitudes. From all of these Influences he becomes what he Is; his interests are what they are; his rela- tionships with others who share the com- mon boundary of his State. Ali of these and perhaps other factors determine the attitude and posture of compatibility of legislative Interest which prevails on a given measure before his State legisla- tive bodies. ably 27 It appears to me, Mr. Speaker, that the qualitative nature of the citizen of the several States is entitled to impor- tant consideration if the State can find any reasonable formula to determine it. We will all admit that it is far easier to reduce such matters to the simpler ap- proach of numerical consideration. We could argue that some alinement of these qualitative factors would be a byproduct. I have urged in my own State, and I would hope that the Supreme Court de- cision does not preclude here the argu- ment, that we could make an assignment of Senate seats based on an intelligent appraisal of the geographic, economic, and sociological factors where these have important, observable and rational meaning. We do not thereby suggest that the lower house in any given State Is at all times unmindful of such factors; but, we do maintain that apportionment solely of quantity will not necessarily reflect these factors and cannot be said to produce legislative bodies which will always respond to assure a careful, bal- anced consideration of the contending quality factors within the State. A plan for apportionment of the Sen- ate should not ignore reflection of some balance of districts but weighted factors might well be regarded as justifying some departure from quantitative equality. An approach which could give justifica- tion as a system of government which recognized both the quantity and the quality of its citizenry would be desirable. This would give us a philosophical basis for a bicameral legislature; a checks and balance system not depend- ent upon the false prop of federalism but reflecting concern to protect the inter- dependency in the longrun interest of the State which might suffer from short range advantages to the most populated areas. Since the qualitative factors ex- cept for geography are subject to shift and change just as is population, the need for decennial reapportionment would be equally rational. A careful and documented approach by State leaders should assure a two-house legislature that reflects a democratic consideration of the representation of people without a reference necessarily to artificial and irrelevant county lines. In seeking for what Is relevant and useful in the changes that our present outmoded approaches clearly call for, Mr. Speaker, may we hope that our lead- ers will not be blinded by passionate desire to retain old advantages nor will they be blinded either by single-minded, narrow desire to achieve new advantages. Rather can we not seek stability with progress? Give sensible recognition to the qualities of man as well as to his quantity? Could we recognize that, al- though the two are not separable, one body of a State legislature could be se- lected emphasizing numbers and the other body could be selected emphasizing the factors of quality? Regardless of the sound and fury that now wages between a Supreme Court which may ' have gone too far and legis- lative bodies which have unquestionably delayed too long in solving the problem of balanced representation, let us ad- dress our best efforts to the problem, not Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170028-0