Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
January 3, 2005
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
July 21, 1964
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170041-5.pdf2.05 MB
} (pa/iA-C89&S6B0ft4A02M70041-5 Equal time and minority parties Anonymous, "British Parties Rule Out Reston, James, "The Fourth Debate," New Midwestern lemocratic' Senator: "I feel I Great Debates," Broadcasting, March 9, 1964, York Times, October 22, 1960, 10. must express s`ome concern about the ten- 91. Roper, Elmo, "Who Really Won the Elec- denCy ?o ignore completely the candidates Anonymous, "Debate No. 2," Time, vol. tions of '62?" Saturday Review, December 16, of minor parties. I am fully aware of the LXXVI, No. 16 (Oct. 17, 1960), 17-23. 1962, 13. problems which radio and television net- Anonymous, "Facing the Televoter," Econ- Rovere, Richard; "Letter From Chicago," works face in giving equal time to minor omist, April 20, 1964, 222. the New Yorker, October 8, 1960, 167-174. as well as major candidates However, I do Anonymous, "Goodbye, Great Debate," the Salant, Richard. S., "The Television De- not thinks we can let our concern for their New Republic (Sept. 26, 1960), 5. bates: A Revolution That Deserves a Future," economic ,problems overshadow the basic Anonymous, "Money Is Not the Object," Public Opinion Quarterly, volume XXVI, No. Amer[Can principle that all sides have a Broadcasting, April 20, 1964, 52. 3, fall 1962, 335-350. right to'be-heard' Anonymous, "Political Television," the Sarnoff, Robert W., "The Time To Plan for Western D~mooratic'senator: "I am mind- New Republic, August 15, 1960, 6-7. the 1964 Presidential Campaign Is Now," ful it rs claimed by minority parties that Anonymous, "Should a President Be Re- McCalls, September 1961, 16, 174. suspension of equal time would deprive them quired To Debate His Election Opponent on Shayon, Robert Lewis, "A `Political Clinic' of their,ampaign'opportunities and rights. TV?" Senior Scholastic, May 8, 1964,16-17. Program,'! Saturday Review, November 17, This is unwarranted. The broadcasters Anonymous, "Small Screen, Super Weap- 1962, 38. proved to us in 1950 they could operate un- on," Newsweek, August 19, 1963, 76. Shayon, Robert Lewis, "Elections by Elec- der the etlapei3sion with"appropriate respon- Anonymous, "Talk About Debates Tones tronics," Saturday Review, March 14, 1964, aibillty.' Down, but Keeps On," Broadcasting, 22. fllino1p Republican ' Representative: "If December 2, 1963, 82-83. Shayon, Robert Lewis, "Pavlov and Foli- networks provide free time for debates be- Anonymous, "Television Politics: All Star tics," Saturday Review, January 23, 1960, 28. tween? the Republican and Democratic can- Cast?" Economist, February 8, 1964, 486-487. Stanton, Frank, "Case for Political Debates d,islatQ g, they should be required to do the Anonymous, "The Campaign," Time, vol- on TV," New York Times Magazine, January as a ,30j each, national, candidate for the ume LXXVI, No. 18 (October 31, 1960), 9. 19, 1964,16. Presidency. Lifting the equal time require- Anonymous, "TV Debates in '64, the New Stern, Philip M., "The Debates in Retro- mpnt,to, pejiet,tAti e two, major parties gives Republic, November 7, 1960, 6. spect," the New Republic, November 21, 1960, them ,4i3~dvanta e which they neither need Anonymous, "TV Zooms in on GOP," Bus- 18-19. nor, d~ e~?V?j jaction tends to give the mess Week, February 22, 1964, 32. Stevenson, Adlal, "Plan for a 'Great De- two parties a favored, quasi-offlcial position. Alsop, S., "Coming Attack on Lyndon bate; " This Week magazine, March 6, 1960, A~tli9ugh I believe firmly in the two-party Johnson" (debate issue), Saturday Evening 14-15. system, _f am eually firm in believing the Post, March 28, 1964, 15. Willis, Edgar E., "Little TV Debates in twp parties us tbemseives`lirovide the sys- Apple, R. W. Jr., "The Little Debates," Michigan," Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol- t tl virility. Todayy s Republican Party the Reporter, December 6, 1962, 36-38. ume XLVIII, No. 1, February 1962, 15-23. began a third party in 18'56, built on a splin- Ascoli, Max, "Intermezzo," the Reporter, Reports and pamphlets ter from the g Party. Other third party November 10, 1960, 18. " Equal Time," moVel el i 11 ,,~ mt,ributed significant Braden, Waldo W., "The Big Shows Versus CBS Television Network, Ideas to 0111. L ni11 life, and frequently the Solemn Referendum," Vital Speeches, point of View, December 1960. have 4 i afi i fghtily the principles of volume XXVII, No. 17, June 15, 1962, 542-544. Federal Communications Commission, re- w 'Cater, Douglas, "Notes From Backstage," port to the Congress of the United States, the tties o a or ar the Reporter, November 10, 1960, 19-20. March 1, 1961. Submitted pursuant to San- MoCA% Commager, Henry Steele, "Washington ate Joint Resolution 207, 86th Congress, in r $Ao .-, -: Would Have Lost a TV Debate," the New hearings on review of section 315 of the Angle, haul M., "Created Equal? The Com- York Times magazine, October 30, 1960, 13, Communications Act, Senate Committee on pieta Lincoln-Douglas rebates. of 1858," Chi- 79-80. Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 87th Con- oapo, University of Chicago Press, 1958. Cortney, Phillip, "Responsibility of Tele- grass, 1st session, 1961. Amps Leon and l1tay, Mark A., "Television vision to the People," Vital Speeches, vol. Federal Communications Commission, and Iil.r n ,ayier New York, Appleton- LXXVI, No. 8, February 1, 1960, 252-254. "Survey of Political Broadcasting," Wash- Cent1}rZyrolts 1963. Cousins, Norman, "Presidents Don't Have ington, D.C., May 1963. Aver, ellrey and Ew-banks, Henry Lee, To Be Quiz Masters," Saturday Review, No- Federal Communications Commission, "Discusslpn a,hbate Tools of a Democ- umber 5, 1950, 34. "The Communications Act of 1934 with i'.rac~+ Slew `Fork, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Crawford, K., "TV or Not TV P' (cameras Amendments and Index Thereto," Washing- nc 194 barred at Baker Investigation), Newsweek, ton, D.C. John b I% ohn El., "Freedom and Responsi- March 9, 1954, 32. File of editorial comment on the equal casting," Northeastern Uni- Dennis, Lloyd B., "Lincoln Debates Easily time debate distributed by the Columbia v f$1 Press, 1961. Arranged," New York Times, September 26, Broadcasting System. ire y, Stanley Jr., "Political Campaign- 1960, 25. House of Representatives, committee on Problems in Creating an Informed Elea- Freeley, Austin J., "The Presidential De-. conference, conference report, "Suspension tpateti. Washington, D.C., the Brookings In- bates and the Speech Profession," Quar of Equal Time Provisions of the Communica- 8titur4Qn 1960. terly Journal of Speech, vol. XLVII, No. 1, tions Act for 1964 Presidential Campaign," Dapper, Joseph "The Effects of Mass Com- February 1961, 60-64. report No. 1415, second session, 1964. minications," New York, Free Press of Glen- Gould, Jack, "Candidates on TV-The Kellogg, V. S., "The Kennedy-Nixon De- Coe 1960., Ideal and Others," the New York Times bates," unpublished report, Boston Univer- I?*raus, Sidney, The Great Debates, Back- magazine, October 28, 1962, 27, 95-96, sit y, 1962. ground-Perspective Effects," University of ,Hamilton, William, "The Victory Was Sarnoff, Robert W., "Television's Role in A )4 India press, 1962. Video's," the Christian Century, volume American Democracy," NBC pamphlet, March ,tine, Yale, "The Television Dilemma," New LXXVII, No. 48, November 30,1960,1409-1410, 1963. York, Hastings House, 1962. Harrington, Alan; Kleine, Don W ; Sarnoff, Robert W., "What's Right with teixler Gary, The People Look at Tele- McLaughlin, W. G.; Roxroth, Kenneth; Television," NBC, December 1962. Vision," New York, Knopf, 1963. and Wheeler, Harvey, "Debating the Great U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Th9ms Charles. A. H., "Television and Debate," the Nation, November 5, 1960, 344- final report, "Freedom of Communications," PresidentjalPolltlps," Washington, D.C., the 347. report No. 994, part 3, 87th Congress, 1st F,ookings Institution 1956. Hughs, Emmet John, "52,000000 TV Sets- session, 1961. Trenass}an J, and McQuail, D., "Television How Many Votes?" The New York Times Mag- U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, and tale P optical Image," New York, Hillary azine, September 25, 1960, 23, 78-80, report, "Suspension of Equal Time Provi- House 'slblishers, Ltd., 1963 (1959 British Kelley, Stanley, Jr., "Campaign Debates: sions of the Communications Act for 1964 eleot)ou) . Some Facts and Issues," Public Opinion Presidential Campaign," report No. 501, first White, Theodore H., "The Making of the Quarterly, volume XXVI, No. 3, fall 1962,351- session, 1963. President 1960," New York, Pockbooks, Inc., 366. MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION 1962 Krock, Arthur, "The Polite Debate," New Carl J. Friedrich: Harvard University since Ar i York Times, October 9, 1960,E i 1. 1926, Eaton professor of science of govern- Anonymous, "A Great eat TV Debate?" the McCrory, Mary, "Ladies and Gentlemen: In Commonv(e41, vol. LXXI, No. 26 (Mar. 25, This Corner * * ? I" America, volume 107, No. ment at Harvard Graduate School of Public 1960) 687-688. 25, September 22, 19.62, 767. Administration since 1956; director, radio Petersmeyer research project at Harvard Anonymous, At CBS, Blank Check for yer C. Wrede, "A Broadcaster University, 1937-42; served as Government 1964 .hgp tes" Broadcasting, November 25, Looks at His Industry," Vital Speeches, vol- affairs adviser in U.S. military government, 1963, 66. ume XXVII, No. 16, June 1, 1962, 497-500. 1946-48; member, American Political Science Anonymous, "At Last, Action on Section Reston, James, "The Second Debate," New Association (president, 1962), International 315." Broadcastinv Februar 24 i964 70 y Approved For Release 2005/01/27 CIA-RDP66B00403ROO0200170041-5 15826 Approved ~fiW0%01&RD0N03R000200170041-5 July 21 1961-) ; the American Historical Association: the American Philosophical Association; and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; author of "Man and His Government" and numerous other books and articles. Evron M. Kirkpatrick: Executive director, American Political Science Association, 1954-; professor of political science, University of Minnesota, 1935-48; chairman, social science division, University of Minnesota, 1944-48; wartime service ORS; Chief, external research staff, U.S. State Department, 1947-52; Deputy Director, Office of Intelligence Research and chief, psychological Intelligence and research staff, Department of State, 1952-54; member, President's Commission on Registration and Voting Participation, 1963-64; trustee of sev- eral research and educational organizations; author of a number of books and articles on politics and International affairs. Harold D. Lasswell: Professor of law and political science, Yale University, 1952-; fel- low of the Center for Advanced Study in Be- havioral Science, Stanford, Calif., 1952; di- rector of war communication research, Li- brary of Congress, 1939-45; member: Ameri- can Political Science Association (president, 1955-56), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Sociological So- -ciety. Member of the committee of freedom of the press and research advisory board. Committee for Economic Development; au- thor of many books and articles. Richard E. Neustadt: Professor of govern- ment, Columbia University, 1954-; visiting lecturer, Nuffield College, Oxford, England, 1961-62; economist, OPA. 1942; staff member, Bureau of the Budget, 1946-50; White House staff, 1950-53; special consultant to numerous congressional committees and Government agencies, 1959-; consultant to President Ken- nedy, 1961-1983; member American Political Science Association, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Institute of Stra- tegic Studies (London); author of "Presi- dential Power" (1960) and numerous arti- cles. Peter H. Odegard: Professor of political science, University of California, 1948- (de- partment chairman 1948-56); assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, 1942-45; mem- ber of and consultant to numerous govern- mental commissions including the Atomic Energy Commission, 1947-54; the President's Commission on Migratory Labor, 1950-51; member: American Political Science Associa- tion (president 1951); the Academy of Po- litical Science; American Academy of Politi- cal and Social Science; author of numerous books and articles In the field of political science and associate editor of the Public Opinion Quarterly. 1940- Elmo Roper: Marketing consultant since 1933; former radio commentator, newspaper columnist, and professor of journalism; consultant, director, and member of several wartime governmental offices including Dep- uty Director of ORS; research director for Fortune Survey of Public Opinion, 1935-50; editor at large of Saturday Review; active participant in numerous Connecticut study commissions and former chairman of the Connecticut Civil Rights Commission; dep- uty chairman of the NATO citizens delega- tion to Paris, 1962; and a member of the National Planning Association, American Marketing Association, Market Research Council (president 1942-43) and the Amer- ican Statistical Society. Telford Taylor: Lawyer and writer; visit- ing lecturer, Yale Law School since 1957, Columbia Law School since 1958; professor, Columbia Law School, 1963-; attorney and counsel for numerous governmental offices and agencies, 1933-42, Including general counsel, Federal Communications Commis- sion, 1940-42 counsel for the Joint Council for Educational Television, 1951-61; briga- dier general of the U.S. Army serving In military intelligence; author of "Sword and Swastika" and numerous articles on politi- cal, legal, and military subjects. Charles A. H. Thomson: Member of the senior staff and administrative officer, de- partment of social science, Rand Corp. since 1959; staff member. Brookings Institution, 1946-59; consultant, Department of State, 1948-49; President's Communications Policy Board, 1950-51; member of task force staff, oversee operations of Second Hoover Com- mission, 1958-54; visiting lecturer. School of Advanced International Studies, John's Hopkins University, 1953, I955-57; author of "Television and Presidential Politics," 1956, and many articles related to political com- munications and politics. Gerhart D. Wiebe: Dean of the School of Public Communication, Boston University, 1962-; research associate for Bureau of Edu- cational Research, Ohio State University, 1940-41; research psychologist CBS, 1942-43, 1946-55; assistant to the president, 1955-58; partner, Elmo Roper & Associates, 1956-62; communications research consultant: USAF; USIA; National Recreation Association; Na- tional Council of Churches; member of American Psychological Association, Ameri- can Association of Public Opinion Research (president 1956-57); coauthor of "Casebook In Social Processes" (1960) as well as numer- ous articles on varipus aspects of communi- CUBA Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, re- cently a series of articles appeared in the Montreal Star on the recent history of Cuba and life under the Castro regime today. They were written by Bruce Tay- lor and accompanied by pictures taken by Adrian Lunny. They are an excellent analysis of re- cent developments in Cuba. Mr. Taylor lived in the country prior to the Castro takeover, so he is well qualified to com- pare the life there today with the condi- tions under the oppressive Batista re- gime. Taylor maintains a high standard of reporting on economic conditions, the U.B. trade blockade, the agricultural sit- uation, the educational system, Castro's personal history, and a concluding arti- cle on what we may expect from this island in the next few years. I call par- ticular attention to Mr. Taylor's obser- vations on Cuban activities which are directed toward the subversion of Cuba's neighbors. Castro Is dedicated to the concept of "the liberation of all Latin America." By liberation he means bringing com- munism with its onerous state control to every country south of our borders. Castro's attempts to indoctrinate Cuban children are particularly disturbing. Taylor's articles describe in detail the "rewriting of history" which is part of the educational program of filling young people's minds with the doctrines of Stalin and Lenin. If Castro Is success- ful in his educational practices, in 15 years all Cuba's younger generation will have closed minds. These articles point out to all Ameri- cans the oppression of the Castro regime in Cuba today. Castro will stop at noth- ing to destroy freedom in our hemis- phere and bring communism to all the peoples of Latin America. Mr. Taylor has performed a great service In describ- ing so vividly the situation in Cuba to- -day. I am sure that many people will read these fascinating articles with great interest. It is a lesson and warning for Americans and Canadians alike. I ask unanimous consent to have this series printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Montreal Star, June 15, 1984] CASTao WIELDS IRON FzsI'-CUBA EXILES FACE FAILURE (By Bruce Taylor) The Cuban exiles who have begun to infil- trate their homeland to organize a revolt against the dictatorship of Fidel Castro face almost certain failure. Cuba Is coming apart at the seams, Its economy Is shattered. Conditions overall are far worse now than at the time of Castro's ascendancy 5 years ago, and are deteriorating relentlessly. But there will be no widespread civilian uprising on the island now. Cuba is totally a police state. Castro is its supreme ruler, and his incredibly efficient internal security network has the nation's 7 million people-who are overwhelmingly dissatisfied with his system of government- tightly In control. If Castro can keep his island alive for an- other 15 years-and his only hope of doing so is continuing commerce with Canada and other NATO partners of the United States which have elected to ignore the U.S. trade embargo-Cuba will be Irrevocably Commu- nist. He needs that length of time to imbue Cuba's schoolchildren with a thorough hatred of "Yankee imperialism," and to pre- pare them to carry his political philosophy through all of Latin America. His program of Indoctrination is similar to that used by prewar Germany to rear its fire-eating Hitler Youth. The adult population, meanwhile, is being restrained by terror, helpless to prevent the brainwashing of its children. Castro Is not endangered by the returning exiles. It would take major military action to destroy what he has built. He stands ready today to resist even the full-scale in- vasion he believes is imminent. His army of 200.000 fit, well trained, and dedicated soldiers is equipped with the best weapons In the Russian arsenal. There is no reason to believe it would not fight, or that It could be beaten by anything less than a force of comparable size. Anti-Castro leaders in Cuba. who hope rather than fear that an invasion is inevita- ble. are concerned that the United States underestimates Castro's real strength. And they have little but prayer and pity to offer the exiles who are landing in Cuba. The exiles are scattering into the Sierra Mestra and Lscambray mountain ranges of the 700-mile-long island, where they hope to set up guerrilla bases from which to rally open resistance to Castro. WELL ISOLATED They are finding themselves almost en- tirely without help. Castro Is isolating them. He does not in- tend to give them the kind of toehold he grasped-and held-in his own revolution against Fulgenclo Batista, the dictator he deposed In 1959. Batista didn't understand guerrilla war- fare; he merely tried to keep Castro's rebels bottled up In the hills. He lost Cuba in 3 years. Castro, on the other hand, probably knows more about guerrilla fighting-and certainly more about the mountains-than the exiles who have come back to overthrow him. He is going into the hills after them. He is using 20.000 and 30,000 soldiers at a time to encircle individual mountains and root out pockets of as few as four or five of them. The civilians are too frightened to move. They are waiting for "the Invasion.- Their first question to me often was a despairing "When are the Americans coming?". But even if a major Invasion is launched, few Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170041-5 A~ pr`oved For D2 ~5 9.1 7T: q1&[ .q6B%kq j Q0200170041-5 are being used, literally, as slave labor where manpower is short, such as in sugar cane cutting; the others are being given full polit- ical Indoctrination and are being trained as fighters. Augmenting the armed forces are 100,000 ?militia men and women, all volunteers. They are used to guard nonstrategic civilian sites which could be targets for sabotage: ,department stores, hotels, banks, theaters, .government buildings. Half the milicianos have been given mili- tary training-many are ex-servicemen-and can be counted on to fight. Not so the other half. It is compromised of clerks, secretaries, stenographers, book- keepers, ushers. They take turns guarding the buildings in which they work. Each =puts in 6 to 8 hours of duty a week. The -women are used mainly in daylight hours. Most have volunteered only to show that, on the surface at least, they are with the -Government. They have had little or no military train- ing-many have never even fired the rifles -issued to them-and might reasonably be counted on to run for their lives at the sight of an aircraft carrier off Havana. . So Cuba has at least a quarter of a million people under arms it can depend on in an emergency. It is clearly alert. We are not to worried about the exiles Who are coming ashore, says a Castro aid. We are well able to cope with internal for the U.S. machinery that is breaking down through misuse and old age are proving woe- fully inadequate, both in quantity and in caliber. Most serious of all, Cuba's 7 million people are fed up. with the Government that has been promising them pie in the sky since 1959, and are growing increasingly loath to cooperate with It. Resentment toward Castro is rising. De- liberate work slowdowns are reaching criti- cal proportions. Castro, nonetheless, continues to make grandiose claims of progress. Rigid press censorship in Cuba prevents the escape of editorial comment to the contrary. And most visiting correspondents-confined to Havana or taken on carefully guided tours of the 700-mile-long island-have little way of investigating the truth of his assertions. But Staff Photographer Adrian Lunny and I have just ended 2,200 miles of travel within Cuba-the freest movement ever accorded North American newspapermen behind Cas- tro's Palm Tree Curtain-and have seen at first hand the tragedy that has been wreaked by communism. Many correspondents who are permitted to go there now have little with which to com- pare conditions than the standards of their own countries, and that isn't fair. I lived there in 1957, however, and am able to make comparison with Cuba then and today. CANADA A SAVIOR trouble. Foreign correspondents must acquire offi- cial .authorization to travel outside Havana. Even the chaos that might be created by assassination of Castro would be short-lived. Lunny and I were approved for our extensive We are prepared for that eventuality. movement because Castro is going a long way "Our main concern is a military invasion. these days to curry favor with Canadians. "We have every reasons to expect one. He sees Canada as a savior. The United States already has supported one It is one of the few countries able to supply invasion. It has blockaded us. It is flying him with essential material no longer avail- U-2's over us. It had stated publicly it- able to him from the United States, and he considers the present situation intolerable. claims he will do about $60 million worth of Many of its leaders have called for a new business with it this year. (Official figures attack. ' are far less than that amount, but it is ac- "But we are going to give the United States -knowledged that many Cuban purchases, one hell of a surprise if it thinks it can take -made for cash, are not recorded as such.) us with its famous 'handful of marines'." ?Even so, there were numerous restrictions Cuban underground leaders agree. -on our travel and there was a not entirely "Any new exterior action against Cuba subtle warning that an' unfavorable report must not be another Bay of Pigs," one 'told, -by us would mean detention and deporta- me. "It must be a full-scale Invasion, or ft tion from Cuba if we later attempted to re- will fail horribly, turn. "The invaders must not count on an in- Cubans, generally, were delighted to see tern bl uprising to help them. There would us and would go to great pains to talk to us ;privately. Sometimes, it wasn't easy. not be one. - The state of terror in which Cuba is held "Most of Cuba wants desperately to be rid is not readily apparent in Havana, where Is wait t annsd communism. nism. But all it can do movement is reasonably unhindered. Ha- hope' vans still is one of the world's most beauti- And' n it has to wait too long, there will ,ful cities, although Castro has done his best be nothing t will gbe too that ca late." noe done for it, .to blight Its esthetic attraction by draping "It will it with building-sized propaganda signs, and [Prom the Montreal Star, June 16, 1964] this is the Cuba that most visitors to the island see. "ECONOMY RUNNING DOWN-CUBA $EING St is only when you go into the interior CHOKED BY U.S. TIi./iDF. Cugp that you are made very much aware of the Cuba is being strangled by the U.S. trade embargo. It cannot survive at its current rate of im- -port and technical assistance from the Sa- viet bloc nations. It would perish, slowly .but certainly, but for its expanding com- _merce with Canada and other NATO partners _of the United States. .Even that may not be sufficient to keep it alive. Its sugar production-the core of its econ- .omy-will be the lowest in history this year. -Its agriculture and livestock programs are failing. Its internal- transportation system ,is about? to callapse. Its factories-when they operate at all-are turning out products that cost two and three times more tp manu- The people there are in virtual slavery. Everything they do, down to the simplest action, is known to the secret police. They speak to strangers only where they cannot be overheard, and then only after looking over their shoulders. % .Some of our travel among them was closely escorted by secret police or members of the ....Cuban Communist party (Partido Unido de la Revolution Socfalistica) who were charged with preventing us from speaking to anyone other than government officials, or seeing anything other than that which previously had been designated acceptable. Escort was particularly close in Oriente Prpvince, biggest of. Cuba's six, at the eastern end of the island. There were three men- one of them armed-,to meet us when we Approued for Release 2005101/2:7 CIA-RDP66B0040 RO 0 170041-5 ians wt],l teem t to support it until they are convinced s succeeding ,They feel mere Is Food reason for `their reticence , Theyy say they were taught a;bft- ter and bloody lesson by tTie',lsco at the Bay pf Figsyears a the o. 'they learned n that Castro's omniscient IlSy;stpolice had`far greater knowledge of the then ubs an?ihl Unde ground than was sus- etted, and knew where "to find its leaders beor .thy could organize an uprising to c inpide yglth the. at ck. They were rounded up within hours` of is landings at the Bay of Pigs, and were butchered or imprisoned. The uxidergrouild has never regained even a_emblance o its tgmcr strength. Arid -l Cubans '. read_a repetition of the military blunders that caused the attack to abort when, 1t shoved every indication of $11eces,S, &fid left them wide open to repercus- sioxi It can be s atfd or the first, time now that the assut gnhe island was within Inches pt viclp-ry Yt failed only, because early ad- va1'itages were not pressed, and because there was no real all _- p port for the invaders. Castro,'i n Q a subordInates admit iiow hey Were _afmost owerfess to stop the invader , an"'d `that the latter had been T given even min ra'dl support'the island would have faile "We l ad no air strength then, ' a ranking Cuban ariy officer concedes "A few Amer- ca~A F~=T04 (supersonyet lighters would "We, were lsin obsolete jet trainers and just about anytng else that would fly. "Thy 26omers which attacked us ;Collie $ op3 ep , far away they had fuel for only a few miputes over Cuba. We were able tQ-SVnd, tropps ana armor unhindered aver ol5en mds` o Mlle Ba~y of Plgs yen :so we ran mt`o trou i e Immediately and probably would ' have' been destroyed If there had been S ppart far the invasion. The lnercexlaPee (lie Cuban government's epithet. for the anti bastro forces it claims- we're- iu.he pay of fife t7.S. Central Intelli- pence agency) shot up the first three tanks we se nt n against them: (These were Russian tonics. However, baba .later xq,ased ,photographs of them 'lying useless on the beach and claimed they wele Americai ric9which had come ashore wi h 1g 1nya ears and which had been stopped by dastros arm +.) GVe wer@ cjywea fat only stupidity pre'veuitec us from bem beaten" the officer sa "'> -tut the'sltuation has changed con- eraly since then ' `Ca9t}'p realizing how close he'd come to being topp1ed by an invasion he hadn't ex- pected, set out at once to build the army he now baasts,7e, spcQnd-Ony to that of the United, Sates the Americas, lie has modg Ml fighters and the men fiy them (both Cuban and Russian), a like-i of fast it'ussian Ina-tar torpedo boats, the best arms anfT ammunition the Soviet has to of er and: a thoroughly communistic- indoctrl ted ~rzny that"'is Russian-trained. AId mover the zslansi there. are Russian sfCCface-tp air ty iesiles capafi)e of bring ng dpwh QVgn the bfgh fiyfng i1 2 reconnai.s- ea7ace Tones - D - make Baily sorties over ?Cuba r tm F3orida, ,lust 96 miles away. ST he ussianssay they Have removed their --ixltere , tlnental:a osplo missiles from Cuba, but rgrourid Teaclers there rnsist that r' some 7~$ an that they have seen. them,- and that the are well hidden from the pying cath fthetl s) "Crubajs espandln~ Its armed forces. It has begun compulso~r,y~ military ?raininp"for all ri i between tk#e ages" of 1`! and "4b. Z7hose It deem too solidly entrenched in .'''their szpposition' ?o 'Castro to be converted 15828 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R0002Q0170041-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE July 21 that exists. All legal food purchases are ra- tioned. The meat quota, for example, Is three-quarters of a pound per person per week In Havana, less in the interior. A Cu- ban may legally buy six eggs a month. Eggs are 6 cents each in the grocery atores. They are $2 each on the black market. The government makes no real attempt to stamp it out. It knows if it did the many small farmers who keep It going would cut down production altogether, rather than sell at government prices. Then, there would be no food at all. There Is a black market for everything. Automobile parts are particularly precious. Only government-approved people can pur- chase new East European can which come to Cuba in extremely limited quantity. All other cars are American, and all are of 1959 vintage or older. Most are barely hangipg together. A 1957 Chrysler in bare running order, for Instance, can be sold for the equiv- alent of $7,000. Clothing-what little there Is of it-is ra- tioned. and new consumer goods are non- existent. Cubans take you aside to ask in whispers if you can smuggle something-or- other to them from Canada. You expect them to ask for luxuries, and are startled to hear that what they want, as In the case of one tearful young mother, are items such as baby pacifiers. The cost of living in Cuba Is particularly hard on foreigners because the Government there Insists the peso Is at par with the American dollar. It relieves you of your dollars Immediately on arrival at Havana airport, and replaces them with pesos--one for one. stepped from the Russian Ilyusbin-18 air- liner that brought us to Santiago from Ha- vana. They were with us until we left that province 4 days and several hundred miles later. It wasn't too difficult to elude them late at night-usually through a back door some- where-and getting away from them to talk to people became somewhat of a game. One night, however, when Lunny remained in our room to give the impression we both still were there I got into animated political conversation with what I thought was an ordinary Cuban-who turned out to be chief of the area's secret police. We were not surprised by the close escort in Oriente. There was a report of Impending trouble in the province the day we arrived. The day after we left, the big sugar mill at Pilon was blown up. Some of our travel in other provinces was in the company of a driver selected for us by the government. He spent a great deal of time at the outset attempting to convince us he was a "gusano"-a worm-Castro's word for Cubans who are opposed to him. But he gave up In disgust eventually and lapsed into long, daily propaganda orations. When necessary, however, as in Oriente, we generally were able to slip away from the various agents entrusted with keeping an eye on us. We met and talked to a wide cross section of the population. And it soon became evident that Cuba today is In far more terrible condition. materially, than when r lived there during the dictatorship of Fulgencia Batista. Batista was a venal man. His government, devoid of ideolpgy. was unbelievably corrupt. As opposition to him mounted, be took in- creasingly severe measures to repress it. At length he gave his secret police, comprised In the main of sadists, a free hand. They tortured and killed. It became common- place to find the children of his opponents dead in the streets. Therg was no sense of predictability then; a man could be arrested for anything. Probably more than 80 percent of the population was opposed to him, and would have supported any man who could topple him. Castro was given overwhelming sup- port because he promised reform and a high standard of living. He even promised free elections. He appeared to be blessed relief from the long line of dictators who successively had bled the Cuban treasury. Batista, for ex- ample, is said to have banked $800 million In other countries before he fled. And if you understand Cubans, you know that politics are of secondary if even of any. Importance to most of them. They wouldn't have cared whether Castro was Communist, Fascist, or Democratic, so long as he gave them enough to eat, enough to wear, and enough to spend on simple luxuries. But he didn't. He imposed a dictatorship that Batista's could not even begin to match for the manner in which It holds its people in subservience. Castro has held no elec- tions, and doesn't intend to. He has failed in every promise to make Cuba a better place to live, and the Cubans say they are worse off than ever, that hardship is more wide- spread now than In the days of Batista. There is no question but that poverty existed in some sections of Cuba, particularly among the sugar workers, before 1959. IDLE BOAST But even then the country as a whole was far better off. Castro has slightly improved the welfare of the sugar workers, but greatly decreased that of almost everyone else. He boasts that no one in Cuba goes hungry today, despite the gigantic failure of his na- tionalized farm system, That is true, but only because of the vast black market in food OMELET COSTS $e That makes the price of eating, for in- stance, enormous. Soup is 2 pesos; $2. Tomato juice is 11/2 pesos. An omelet Is 8 pesos- Hotel rates, are unexpectedly low, about $6 to $8 per person per room, and service in the major hotels is good. But if you plan to do business around the city you must hire a taxi by the day because you seldom can find one away from the midtown area, In Cuba, there Is a huge black market in American dollars. You are offered 7 and 8 pesos for 1. All of Cuba, It seems, is hoarding U.S. money for "the great escape." The story of what communism has done to Cuba Is written In the frantic desire of its people to get away. Four hundred thousand already have left. Tens of thousands more have applied for the permission to leave that takes up to 2 years. if at all, to acquire. Most will not get It. Many will. Spain's Iberia Airline, which maintains service between Havana and Madrid, is completely booked for the next 3 years. Hardly a night passes but that a small boat does not set oyt from some obscure cove for Key West or Jamaica or the Bahamas. Most are discovered before they get far. Their occupants are shot. Castro. like his counterparts in East Ger- many who built the Berlin wall, knows he has lost his bid to convert the adult popula- tion to his system of government. He is missing no bets to insure he does not lose it entirely. A young soldier with a machinegun is the last person to board any domestic Cuban airline flight-to prevent It from becoming an unscheduled International flight. He comes through the doorway after all passengers are seated and the crew is in the cockpit. He. backs all the way up the aisle to the cockpit door, his gun at the ready. Then, he lets himself into the cockpit and bolts the door behind him. He remains in there until the flight is com- pleted. [From the Montreal Star, Juno 17, 1964] CASTRO HAS TALENT-FOR RuiNING THE ECONOMY (By Bruce Taylor) It is not despite Fidel Castro's best efforts that Cuba is grievously ill. It is because of them. There Is no realism in his programs to make thecountry self-sufficient. He establishes himself as the ultimate au- thority In a project, becomes entirely en- grossed in it, sets unattainable goals for it, makes mistakes, loses Interest, leaves all of it to be puzzled out by subordinates who know less about it than he does, and moves on to something else. The results are disastrous. Cuba's economic welfare is determined almost wholly by its ability to produce sugar. It is Cuba's only real currency. Last year's production was 3.8 million tons, the lowest in the nation's recent history. Premier Castro Is talking about 10 million tons by 1970, but this year's production will be even lower than last year's. FORCED TO BUY SUGAR He is committed for 3.84 million tons, and has admitted In speeches he has been forced to buy sugar on the open market to meet that commitment. Mr. Castro is unable to plan ahead. Last year's low production was caused by the shortage of experienced canecutters he created by bringing them into the cities after the previous season to work in industry. He was unable to free them to return to the fields at harvest time. Wielding a machete is backbreaking work, and it is definitely an art. Amateurs not only can ruin the current crop, but the suc- ceeding one. IMPORTS CANECIITTERS This year, Mr. Castro thought he had the problem beaten by Importing new, specially designed Russian mechanical canecutters. They did notprove effective. So he ordered practically all of his army into the fields. This improved the situation to some extent- although we saw thousands upon thousands of acres of cane that could never be cut in time-but this year there was a new prob- lem: transportation. Where it was relatively good last year, it broke down this year. The old American trucks he has been using were another year older. There ar# not nearly enough Soviet vehicles In Cuba to replace them. He used oxen. Next year, he doubtlessly will be plagued by the increasing malfunction of the ma- chinery in the American-built sugar mills. All of it Is at least 5 years old, and no re- placement parts for it are available to him. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT This second successive sugar crop failure has had a tremendous psychological effect on the Cubans. It has heightened anti- Castro emotion everywhere on the island, but most particularly in the agricultural areas where his main strength originally lay. It Is not generally known that Mr. Castro last year carried out a second agrarian re- form. It nationalized the farms of the very people who had given him his most solid support. His first agrarian reform law was enacted In 1980, a year after he became dictator, and was the one which he had promised. It took over for the state all farms of more than 30 "cavallerias." There are 33 acres to a caval- lerla. Most of these farms and plantations be- longed to absentee United States and Cuban landlords, and there was little general sym- pathy for them. The land was not turned over to individuals, however; the individuals were turned onto it, to work It for the state. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170041-5 Last year, reports begin to fly that Mr. Castro was contelolating further agrarian measures. ANI~, an association of-owners of small private.farms, wa"s~vorried. It called a con- vejition'last summer to ask Mr. Castro what, if any plans lael ad." Mr. Castro assured the &ss ationhe was satisfied to take no more 'hat 7 ercent"of all land under cultivation' an4 to leave tyi-e balance ;to the ANAP. Less'than 2 inont'hs later he-quietly en- aeted his second agrarian r form law' It nationalized all farms" of more than five cavalierias WAP 'was de`stroye "but If that wasn't bad enough Mr. Castro had more bad news. To it. AL'1; Yi AND The, state took every last acre of every farm of more han ve cavallerias. It also took all buildings on fife farms, and turned out their owners vltti` nothing more than the clothes on teiriacs: "' ` OonipensatTonvared;'from a minimum of 106 pesos a m'o'nth to` a" maximum of 260 pesos a rrihitth for it) years, according to the size of the Parma faller with even -656 '-& two children 'f ooixld not survive o maintain a stable diet he would: have to bu 'food on the black Yeiarket, and fie wou d'nOw have to pay rent-if i e 'was lixcky enough to find a place to live Premfe} Castro's typical lack of foresight coiriiiouii&ed " tfielr troubles even further. He had neglected the mechanics of a system by which` the compensation payments could be made A great number of the evicted farmers received' no money at all for several months. The reasons for their mounting antagon ism toward Mr.-Castro do not end even there. 5:He has begun compulsory military service for, all-able bodied men `bet 'eeri 17 and 45. method of 'conscr tion is to go into small towns seemingly at random and strip them, of all men whofit the bill. Mr,, Castro bean his reign with a great rash of" construction He had reasonable sucees , p Itting up homes for laborers and farmers =fn the`"interior "but his project in Eapt 11'avand-across--e bay from the city proper'- Ras a flop 1 C1NT wa fiO / LACE It was to, have been a showplace. He put up beautiful seven 'and eight-story apart- meut, buildings. They" are impressive, and government officials delight in pointing them out to you. But when, you get away from-the officials and ta~lf "to the people who live there, you flnd,thq~ buildings are anything but practi- 15829 RUSH GIVES ors grade six, for children and adults alike. Only The fishermen earn up " to 400 pesos a a shortage of teachers prevents him from h hi h hool SC ht roug g montli, three to four times the national making it compulsory average. He has. begun an intensive teacher-training Mr. Castro's early gush of construction program, but the process admittedly is slow. has petered out now. There is a sign in Meanwhile, university undergraduates are Havana that tells people who can't get past tutoring high school students; high school the city to see for themselves that 70 per- students are teaching grade school students; cent of the population lived in "bohios"- grade school students are helping in kin- huts made of palm leaves thatched over dergartens. wood frames-when Castro came to power, ALL STATE SCHOOLS and Implies this condition no longer exists. Education is totally a state affair. But it is an outrageous lie. The bohios still Castro is compensating for shutting down are there. So are the mud-floor hovels that all private schools and colleges-such as line every roadway through the interior. those operated by the Jesuits-by spending Castro is attempting to inject some reality millions of dollars for new school construc- into his planning now, but without notable tion, even in the remotest areas of the in- achievement. terior. and lectures at great length on the subject island Las Villas Province, and at Santiago .in-speeches and in private conversation. He de Cuba in Oriente Province, at the eastern wants to export beef, and says he is experi-, end of the island. menting with natural feeds that will enable Cuba boasts that it is the first country in him to raise cattle without having to import Latin America to rid itself of illiteracy, and the fertilizers of which he is so desperately the first to launch a widespread program short. of training in technical fields. At the moment there is, not enough good "In the area of education," says a Castro beef in Cuba for his own people. aid, "even our enemies must acknowledge Cuba's climate is such that it should be a what we have accomplished." prolific producer of food. Properly tended, The huge fortresses former Dictator Batista its soil can be induced to give three crops maintained as barracks for his troops of corn a'year, for instance. But the island's within the limits of Cuba's biggest cities have agriculture is in a mess. The Russian and been converted to schools. Red Chinese technicians brought there to Largest of these at the moment is Ciudad much raighten it out do not appear to be making Libertad (Liberty City) on the site of the old much headway. Camp Columbia. It is on the outskirts of CANADIANS' FARM SUCCESS Havana, and used to house 30,000 of Batista's They are being shown to great disadvan- soldiers. tage by several Ontario tobacco farmers The buildings have been renovated "to rid working on contract in Cuba. Their suc- them of the barracks look" and 7,000 children cess has been spectacular. They have intro- go to school there. More than 2,000 of them duced Canadian seed and methods to Cuban are boarders; the others live in Havana. tobacco farming in Pinar del Rio Province, Construction is being carried out to increase and have increased production there in the high school and technical school facilities. past year by 300 percent. It eventually will handle 10,000 children. Mr. Castro's own inadequacies are largely It serves as the model for other such centers. responsible for the failure of his programs Biggest of them all will be the still un- Cuba accordingly, the condition In which completed Ciudad Escolar Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuba finds itself today. high in the Sierra Maestra Mountains near But he also is handicapped by the fact Manzanillo, in Oriente Province, birthplace that the only people he can trust are the of Castro's revolution. people who fought with him in his revolu- tion, and they are the ones he has had Officials at the school say Castro conceived to install in positions of wide authority. it one day while he was still in the moun- Most are totally unfit to hold them. " tains, brooding down over the squalor he AVOID DECISIONS hoped to eradicate. It is seldom that the head of one depart- The squalor still is there. But right in the ent or ministry knows what his counter- middle of it is the incongruous, architec- ment in another is doing; it is even more turally attractive concrete-and-glass com- p plex that has been named for one of Castro's seldom that one of them will make a decision. closest aids in the revolution. Camilo Cien- Cubans have always been famous for get- fuegos dissappeared on a flight over the inte- ting" things done "manana"-tomorrow. rior not long after he helped Castro take With the addition of inept Communist Cuba. His body has never been found. Cas- You ,learn thatvlr Oastro couldn't get bureaucracy, you're extremely fortunate in y elevators for th -- em so' in one on the upper ,Cuba today if you can get things done by tro is enshrining him; a tremendous number .doors i _ ha p 111 transportation to the ?la semana proximo"-next week. of state projects have been named for him, city is so unpredictable the people can't and his image adorns the 50-peso note. co fprtably get to and from their jobs. There are 2,700 students at the school now. From the Montreal Star, June 18, 1964] Most 9f them would move=if there was It is being built to accommodate 20,000 by somewhere elseto go CASTRO ATTACKS ILLITERACY-VICTORY IN 1974. All of them will be "becados"-special g11IL7f PQWEitPCANTS EDUCATION scholarship students in science and techni- Cuba is in the process of constructing two (By Bruce Taylor) cal courses-and all will board there from therni.oelectric powerplants, "one'at each end Of all the programs Fidel Castro has ini- the time they enter first grade until they are of the Island. These; however, are b_ eing tiated in his 5-year dictatorship in Cuba, ready to enter university. built by Russians and are progressing well. only one has been entirely successful. It Is The "becados"-there and in other scholar- To file-very bare credit side 6T Mr. Castro's in the field of education. ship schools-are Cuba's elite. They are the construction ledger must be 'inscribed his No other program will do more to solidify children upon whom Castro is building com- his brand of communism in Cuba, or to munism for his nation, and all treatment of fishernen s cooperative atNfarizanillo; on the .Carib$ean coast of Oriente Province. Al- spread it through Latin America. them is directed to that end. The method of most -6I6 flsherinen and their families live He has swept the island of illiteracy- indoctrination for them is the same as that in small. biitvery attractive 'prefabricated almost 1 million adults in a total population utilized to instill nazism in the Hitler youth n f G y. prewar erma concrete "homes. They pay no rent. of 7 million could not read or write when o The`developmefit has a'barber shop, a hos- he came to power-and he has made all edu= There are 125,000 of them at present. pital a pharmacy and- other, `such services. cation, up to and including university, free. Plans are being formulated to triple and Approved or Release-'200,5/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403ROA_0200170041-5 i oved For Come ) SI0INAL:,RECORD66Bg $ 0200170041-5 4.1 15830 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R0002001700417.5_; F CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 21 All Cuban schoolchildren are given politi- cal indoctrination. The "becados" are satu- rated with it. They are taken from their parents, and are permitted to visit them only for short periods. Their school year is 11 months long, but even during vacation periods most of them are kept busy In enterprises of value to the state. They attend class from 8 o'clock in the morning until 4 in the afternoon. About one-quarter of their time in the classroom Is taken up by Marxism, Leninism, Castroism, and anti-Americanism. They are given 8 hours of homework 6 nights a week. The "becadoe," unlike regular schoolchil- dren who live with their families, are housed in large dormitories or in groups of 40 to 46 in slogan-adorned homes which once be- longed to the wealthy. They are subjected to further political indoctrination every evening. They are completely regimented, but they are pampered like no other children In Cuba. When food is scarce, as it often is, and the mothers of other children hunt fran- tically for sustenance, the "becadoe" have the best of everything. They are dressed well, they receive the finest medical and dental services available, and are kept in excellent physical trim by wide-ranging sports activi- ties. Even entertainment-most of it politi- cally slanted-is arranged for them. And it doesn't take them long to learn that their first duty is not to their parents, but to the fatherland. Good students are "re- warded," for example, by being allowed to "volunteer" to go out Into the mountains under the broiling sun to pick coffee beans on, their summer vacation, instead of spend- ing the time with their families. Most of the "becados" are selected from among farming and laboring classes. The scholarships, a Ministry of Education official told me, are awarded for "merit, aptitude, and discipline." "What kind of discipliner' I asked, "Party discipline?" He shrugged. "Of course." HISTORIF3 REWRITTEN The emphasis in all Cuban schools today, scholarship and otherwise, is on political economy. And Cuba's history books have been rewritten to conform. For Instance: "Our history books used to teach that Cuba was a free and independent republic," says the principal of the Karl Marx scholarship school at Habana's Ciudad Libertad. "But that wasn't true. It was only half a republic before Fidel destroyed the capitalists. The other half was under the control of the United States. "Ali we had was a flag and an anthem, The riches of Cuba were owned by reaction- aries and American Imperialists. Our history books now teach the truth." They also teach that history previously had been falsified to create the impression that the United States helped Cuba gain inde- pendence from Spain. And that it Is a lie to credit Briton Sir Donald Ross with the discovery that malaria is transmitted by mos- quitoes; Cuban textbooks now assert that the real discoverer was Carlos J. Finlay, a Cuban. English is the official second language of the Cuban school system. It is taught from the fQUrth grade onward, mainly because English is the international language In the technical fields, and most textbooks and man- uals are published in English. There are about 800 English teachers in Cuba now. Other languages are taught at advanced school levels. Cuba is in desperate need of physicians. Most fled the country when Castro came to power. There are 2,000 medical students In the universities now, but even some govern- ment officials fear they are being rushed through too quickly. TL&IN TLCHNICiANs Of even more pressing importance to Cuba's chances of survival as a Communist country is its need to develop skilled techni- cians. Thousands of boys and girls are being sent to school to learn how to operate the toolmaking and other industrial machines Imported from the Soviet bloc nations. But Cubans are by no means Inherently in cllned toward things mechanical-the coun- try previously had imported almost all of Its manufactured goods-and the youngsters are driving their Russian and Czechoslovakian instructors to distraction. What they learn one day they are apt to forget the next. And if they aren't disap- pearing halt a dozen times a lesson for cof- fee, they are wandering off for a siesta. But, on the whole, Fidel Castro's education factories are turning out the kind of product he needs. He knows, and makes no bones about the fact, that if he can retain control of the country for another 15 years. Cuba will be solidly Communist; be Is twisting the children's minds to assure it. It is interesting to note, therefore, that in every classroom of every school in Cuba today there are emblazoned the words of Jose Marti, the Cuban who led his country's tight for in- dependence from Spain: "Ninon nacen pars ser felices." They mean: "Children are born to be happy." (From the Montreal Star, June 19. 19641 CAsTao Now TAcxi.uro FaAxco--A Lms or STRUGGLE (By Bruce Taylor) Fidel Castro is preparing to extend his sphere of subversion to Spain. He has agreed to train Spanish Commu- nists in guerrilla warfare, and will supply them with arms for a revolt against the regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. The plan, until now, has been top-secret. Cuba enjoys good relations with Spain and Is. in fact, negotiating to increase its trade with the European nation. But Communist members of the Spanish underground now in Cuba have been assured by Castro he will support them in an at- tempted overthrow of Franco. Subversion has become Cuba's No. 1 ex- port. The chaos It has created in Latin America already has ruptured diplomatic relations with all but four members of the Organization of American States. Latest to cut ties was Brazil. Diplomats in Cuba believe Uruguay may be next, Mexico, Chile, and Bolivia would be the only OAS members with ambassadors in Cuba. Opinion is fairly unanimous In Havana that the continuing deterioration of relations between Cuba and the OAS indicates an In- vasion of the Island may be in the works. Brazil, prior to the coup which deposed the Goulart government, had-like Mexico, Chile. Bolivia, and Uruguay-resisted all efforts to be pressured Into adopting a hard line against Cuba. But now that Brazil has severed relations, and with Uruguay expected to follow suit, tremendous pressure is being applied to the three other OAS members still in Cuba to reappraise their policies. Eventual armed action against Castro is considered a distinct possibility. It is generally believed that such action would come under the guise of the combined OAS, The excuse would be Castro's con- tinuing export of subversion. Castro is aware of the risk he is running, But he has dedicated himself, he says, "to the liberation of all of Latin America," and he can't stop now. Who is this man who can create such turmoil? He is, first and foremost, the absolute ruler of his nation. Recurring, and widely ac- cepted. reports that he is merely the puppet of the other men about him are just so much hokum. Castro's word is law. TOP Anfn The task of keeping his police state in order falls to two highly trusted subordi- nates. Their names are little known outside Cuba, but they are becoming tremendously powerful there. They are responsible only to Castro, and are acknowledged to be second only to him in succession of strength, even ahead of the brilliant, ubiquitous Ernesto !head Guevara. They are Ramiro Valdes, Minister of the Interior, and Jose Matar, chief of the dreaded Committee for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR). The Ministry of the Interior Includes G-2, the counterintelligence department. Not even Castro can free a prisoner held by G-2 until the prisoner's guilt or innocence has been determined. G-2 is concerned mainly with espionage and armed insurrection. The CDR is the organization charged with keeping the civilian population in line, and the one which most effects the lives of everyday Cubans. It is a pyramid which descends from Havana into each province, each city, each town, each village, each ham- let, each block, -each street, each house. No one makes a move, no matter how incon- sequential, that is not known to the CDR. CDR members cannot make-an arrest, but they can order one by the simple expedient of denouncing the person they want picked up, People are denounced for all manner of things. Raul Castro, Fidel's younger brother and his Minister of Defense, is fairly strong in his own right, but has nowhere near the power of Valdes and Matar. Raul is known in Cuba as something of a sadist. He also is a fanatical believer in the Com- munist philosophy of fatherland above all else. He demanded in a recent Havana speech that Cubans inform on members of their own families who are opposed to the govern- ment. He said mothers must turn in sons, daughters, their fathers, sisters, their brothers, "for the good of the country." NOT AFRAID Guevara, Castro's Minister of Industry, re- mains at the top of the hierarchy and is generally considered to possess one of its keenest minds. He Is one of the very few men in key posts who really knows what he Is doing. His speeches, unlike the propa- ganda drivel spouted by the others, includ- ing Castro, are intelligent and always inter- esting to listen to. Guevara is the onegovernment leader who is not afraid to lay the facts of life squarely on the line. Castro and the others tell the Cubans Utopia is on the way. Guevara tells them they will get nothing without hard work. He Is Intensely loyal to Castro. Castro has botched the job of giving Cuba the Utopia he talks about. And instead of contenting himself with attempting to rec- tify the situation, he has embarked on his dangerous scheme to spread Communism through Latin America. He is a fanatic, but he is also a sincere and courageous man, and his desire to improve the lot of his people was not always touched with madness. It began before he was 12 years old. (Much of the following information about Castro's youth and the early days of his revolution was hitherto unknown. It was obtained in Havana from his sister Angelita, 49, who did not realize she was being inter- viewed. The accompanying photograph of her and Fidel and Raul-previously unpub- lished-was indirectly obtained from her.) Castro was born August 18, 1927, although the world believes he is a year older. His father, a Spaniard from Galizia, had been married previously and had sired two chil- dren, Lydia and Pedro Emile. He was 90 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170041-5 OOAor-,d,ve_o,,ForR'Xa,se20Q,51G1/27,:qlA-R zP669,00403R0 200170Q41-5, a Cuban,', They-had seven children, in this on his Cuban plantation at the age of 82. 08 f the mountains to spend part of Christmas order: Angelita, Ramon; eY IEaul, Quena, Two months later, Fidel, Raul, Che One= with their family. They made their way past Exxlma and Auguistina vara and 70 others, all armed to the teeth, set' the- soldiers guarding the plantation, spent l?axnarxie ltipxican englneer and has sail for Cuba aboard a pleasure cruiser called several hours with their mother, their grand- three ch ldren they live in Mexico City, the Grdnma. 2 mother and sister Angelita. Auguistina now 2 , became a Protestant Their plan was to land at Colorado 13each' Exactly 1 year and 1 week later, on New while st}~ dyin in gurich. he married a on Oriente Province's south coast, where the Year's Day, 1969, Batista, still in command Cuba,,, anis Aand they live in Moscow. Sierra Maestra mountains are claiest (about of 30,000 soldiers in Havana who had never T'hey_liave a daughter 15 miles) to -the water. ' The Cranma was been sent into battle, fled Cuba. Caso was'xnafri d? end cTivorgec); Ile spotted by a Cuban patrol boat just 2 miles Castro 's mother, who had inspired him to Yp~e,WaS a relative from its target, and was turned at once into revolution -lived to see his victory. She died cl"0411edl Vie, d eovere }i. y of k"ul encia atista the dictator he deposed shore. the spot where Castro landed was an last September at the age of 57. in 11, Ca trp'S , n riicknained Fidelito incredible tangle of tropical growth and Castro held a family reunion shortly after (Little' Ffidel} is i4 and lives in Tlavana. Waist-deep marsh,' alive with crabs -he came to power. An uncle who traveled Castro d S1I t ,P ten beg the boy, but has Batista's commanders, alerted to the land- to it from Buenos Aires made a speech. He 1 i1Gh 5ui h hixn, op occasion ing by the patrol boat, sent troops and air- said: "I am happy my family produced a man Castrp,,,grew up near Santiago, in $riente craft into the area. The planes bombed and who will liberate his people from discrimi- Province, at the eastern end o the Island. strafed the rebels. Of the 82 who came nation, corruption and bad government." It was pre,-.e Wq laj Gll Iai" eyoluton, ashore, only f2 including Fidel, Raul and Castro nodded. Il/s fa es a wed illy plantation owner, Guevara-reached the mountains. Ours was a revolution not to change a was a 66 se y UP, ts;mother,was a fiery The 12 set out to take on Batista's 50,000 man," he said, "but a system. I will begin reVOlutI isL and from her he' inherited soldiers. to make that change now. My system will be Batista was Ignorant of guerrilla fighting, one such as no Latin American nation has in~ich o~ zeal , .. .. Before c$ 2 his sister recalls, he an- and never could launch an effective assault ever"had. not}ncedifa am}iy one day after return- on the rebels. Castro's will-o'-the-wisp band, - lug from a trip through the slum section of often near starvation, was constantly on the [From the Montreal Star, June 20, 1964] Sa ti-ago "When I am a man I will buy move, never more than a few hours in any INCREDIBLE HEARTBREAK-No CHA-CHA-CHA IN ` O t~e w o orl one Shpes p xil5. clo k~P a` place. _ .. _? __ CC7i3ASJ LIFE revolution would have ended one night ron }Iet iioIx}cpt on she says, he be.. The (By Bruce Taylor) 440 ', ixire? tJp problems of the poor, in 1957, but for one of those miracles which and In hlii } plunged into campus politics. always seem to save the Hitlers and the The people who run Cuba tell you that His fathu warped m Xou must be callxm? Mussolinis-And the Castros-for bigger what is happening there today is "soctalism in a ,'e nf,', iur, Wm n+ .+ ,,,t, .4 ,,r, 1? things. with a cha-cha-cha." The inference, of found Castro and several others, exhausted anair. after a long day's march, asleep In a shelter it is difficult to conceive of anything more wade of branches, removed from the truth. Cuba is a nation of The captain completely unaware he had despair. , }n law :t. thealiglic uniVerrity there. He .discovered the rebel leader, woke the men. You see it in the incredible scenes of heart- BinGe 11a]i a ipt aired the ficll?ool and exiled Castro stood and faced him, and put his break when one or more members of a family its recto Monsignor Masvidal, auxiliary hand on the captain's shoulder. "I am the who finally have been given authorization bishop ofavana. man you are looking for," he said, "I am to leave the island are being seen off at H The GhurGlays no important, role_in the Fidel." avana Airport by those who must stay be- generai affairs of Cuba now The captain marveled at Castro's.. candor. hind. They know they may never see each Other a astxn ould ha he un ractice in the He stared silentl at the unk t fl gain. em d you?" have been allowed to leave, have been waiting 'Yes.,, more than 2 years to get the exit visas for "And you are not afraid?" Which the entire family applied. They must can he ers ill _ ..,,~ be pe - '---/ --- . _ __itt~ "Nor the others who are scattered through- med to follow in time. out the mountains?" They are stripped of everything but the "No." clothes on their backs. A pin of no value LET THEM co that belonged to the man's grandmother is The captain shook his head. He turned to taken from him, as is his tie bar. His watch his soldiers and told them, "Let these men is demand8tl. So is every last centavo in his go. It will do no good to kill them. It is pocket. impossible to kill an ideal." The little boy is afraid of the guard who A month later the captain defected from is searching him. His only possession is a Batista's army and joined Castro in the pocket comb and he cries when the guard mountains. Today he is aide-de-camp to takes it from him. He tries to retrieve it. Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticos. The guard shoves him away. Castro's band-. grew. If one member of a The man says nothing. He has heard of family joined him, the others went too for people getting all the way to the plane, only to their at be omentdragged fo seats the last fear of being tortured or shot. Children of m 14 and 15, both boys and girls, became guer- m- Nor does sha he say anything any- rillas. one other than the boy while le the he plane is in flight. Whenever an unarmed person-and most He walks stiffly from the aircraft at Mexico were unarmed-showed up to offer his sere- City holdin his l g son c ose to him The man ,. killed ;e organized a plot to do so. ices, Castro would take him to the edge of is crying when he comes into the immigra- retendfn to be Castro fol- a clearing near a Batista patrol post and tion area. Sevexal,~rlen point to it. lowgx? ayould priiggle him out of prison, TWO people near him are talking. One is ? their ehopj h ,,_ qr ,#ittempting to escape . "Those soldiers have guns," he would say, a self-described freelance writer from Can- $llt apriest Msgr Perez Serantes,_ of "Go and get Urge. Then you can join us." adds west coast. The other is a Belgian bis Santiago, learned of the,, plot from a? prison Men and women who fought with Castro woman. They have come over from Cuba on guard. Ike convinc say his revolution was dedicated entirely to the same flight, and are discussing Castro e atjsta not to go social reform and the reversion of large, pri- In glowing terms. through with it?, vate land-holding to the state, but they in- The man looks at them in disbelief. "You Ai Nisyy ECLARFA slet_he.was in no way a communist then, or are Communists?" he asks in heavy accents. Two years later, in 1956,. Batista declared that he. gave communism even serious con- The woman smiles condescendingly. "So- amnesty for all political prisoners as the sideration. cialists." prelude,to a rigged election, and exiled them. They blame his embrace of communism "You are fools," the Cuban says. "Crazy Fidel a7dgu,&t ?, ic9 where they on the hatred he developed for the United fools." He takes his son to the other side met.-040#a, an,. Argentine Communist and States when that Nation refused point-blank of the room. professional bo hthr ex 'rd yV ro d d kithhex however urged him on. strq, wc, tWa~'a:?ga to win. his degree p y p cry-eye g ASanta Clara man and his 4-ear-old son we-d 4, LV ' section of t ie city. Instead, he and rebel for several moments. Then he asked. Y h two Ae; young men opened an office in the t Copipostea slum area. They often handled .'. Ca8`e Wil o }t o1.ar,ge. ~l#tra?g d beyond endurance by the mount- Ing atrocities of the Batista. regime, he re- turned,,,9 Santiago in 19b3 o_rally support for a revvlutioi . On Judy 26, 1953 the day for which he named bid xeyo t-k; ajgfi 1 ~ other young men divided, into two bands of 75. each, left a._ r> p e niie outside Ban- tia,ggo where they had stored arms, and at- ta~d ed._tk Bats-ta sirtxess of , dl oncad0 in the k cart of tkle city. It was the second largest stronghold in Cubaand Castro's men were routed, but, oniy after they had made their .way over its Walls and very nearly cap- titred tlle.?xnacnegun that stopped their as - sal t , Castro ` td his brother haul who had ac- doinpaniehim on the radd, were found in =the }pgppanot to gaiter_and brought to snttago fortrial litre ae.,no death penalty in Cuba then ?_ They were each sen- m,. g . eY un e to help him when he went there to seek up all the.otiler G?ibap elcllea they could find, financial assistance shortly after he came to bf;. Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403RO0020Q1TQ 41= CASTRO HATER And you see despair in the eyes of the beautiful young mother of 22 who has be- 15832 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66BOO4O3ROOO2OO17OO41-54 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE July 21 with most of It. but some of it causes great bitterness. WOMEN BITTER Cuban women are unable to buy linen and other white wear. There Is little avail- able In . the stores. Yet, every time there is a parade or special event, tens of thousands of banners and streamers made of white wear flutter out all over the country. Women, In fact, are among Castro's most dissatisfied subjects. They cannot buy things to make themselves pretty, as in the days of Batista. The only stockings available to them are from East Europe, and are heavy and un- attractive. Lipstick is hard to come by, and a $2 cake of mascara sells for $25 on the black Market. Brassieres are sturdy, but hardly flattering. There is an acute shortage of razor blades, and the women are horri- fied by the prospect of being unable to control the growth of hair on their legs. Castro now wants them to stop wearing scanty bathing suits and the form-fitting sheath dresses that are their trademark. Cuban women are among the most beau- tiful in the world, and are aware of it. They wilLabide all manner of shortages and inconvenience. But their pride Is severely hurt now; and that is the one thing they will not accept. It is the small things, far too numerous to chronicle in detail, which, piled upon the continuing failures of Castro's major pro- grams, have produced the great resentment toward, and growing lack of cooperation with, his government. He now is preparing to nationalize the taxi industry, one of the very few remaining fields of free enterprise on the Island. Al- most all Cubans now will be working directly for the state. DIFFERENT VIEW Cubans are not by nature self-sacrificing people. They are not at all pleased by the growing awareness they will never again revert to the overall material well-being of pre-Castro days, and that everything now is projected in terms of succeeding generations. That was all right for the Russians and the Chinese." says a disgrunted former member of the Castro government still liv- ing, but precariously, in Havana. "They had nothing to begin with when they adopted communism. "We had plenty. Now we have less." He went Into the bathroom of my Capri Hotel room for a glass of water, and spewed it into the sink. it was sea water. The fresh water plumbing had broken down. If there are two positive points of Castro's revolution. they are the education he has made available, and the Increased sense of dignity he has brought to such people as the sugar workers who had been so cruelly exploited by the US. companies. They are no better off materially now, but at least they feel they no longer are serfs of for- eigners. All others are opposed to him, including a proportionate number of the Negro third of the population, against whom official dis- crimination has been ended and to whom most miracles have been promised. Castro is making ever louder threats against the United States. He warns now he will shoot down the U-2 reconnaissance planes which are of such great annoyance to him as soon as the Russians fulfill their promise to turn over control of their surface- to-air missiles to him. His opponents in Cuba hope he will, in- deed, shoot one down and that the action will trigger armed repercussion by the United states. However, for all his threats, Castro so far has stopped short of anything that might be considered an act of aggression. An ex- ample was his threat to take over the U.S. come a prostitute in Havana in order to feed "Because we aren't mad at the American and clothe her 2-year-old daughter. people," explains an official in the Cuban She knows she will go to jail If she is Foreign Ministry. "We hate only their gov- caught. Prostitution once was a flourishing ernment." industry in Cuba, but is outlawed now. But it is the American people who elect She comes from a family which was the government, be Is told. wealthy before the revolution, and is well "That's a lie," he retorts. "The govern- educated. She was married in her teens to ment Is elected by the capitalists and the a prosperous businessman from another Litt- monopolls*. The people have no voice." in American country and went there to live He believes it. Everyone who Is close to with him. He died while she was pregnant. Castro believes it. The entire population of She wasn't really aware of what had hap- Cuba is coming to believe it. Their propa- pened to Cuba In her absence, and returned ganda tells them so. to Havana to be with her family when she It blares night and day from radios and gave birth. Now, she can't leave. sound trucks. Television is one continuous She has been able to buy only two pairs political harangue. Every available space on of shoes for her baby. She cut the toes homes and buildings and streets is taken out of them as the child grew. She says up by signs and banners. The country's she has difficulty buying enough milk for newspapers are no more than propaganda her daughter, even on the black market. sheets. They are subscribers to Tass news Twice the baby was sick, and she couldn't service and to Prensa Latina, a service which get a doctor. does little more than rewrite United Press Is prostitution the only answer? International and Associated Press to con- She shrugs. "They know I am a gusano form with Cuba's political line. (a worm, someone opposed to the govern- We ran Into two outstanding examples of ment) and will give me a menial job at the this. minimum pay of 85 pesos a month. It cost One was a story carried on the front pages me more than that for food." of all newspapers in Cuba to the effect that She, like most: other Cubans, cherishes a Prime Minister Pearson virtually had told dream of escape. She says she belongs to President Johnson to go fly a kite In the a group which is planning to steal an air- matter of Canada's continuing trade with plane. She knows the penalty for even-plot- Cuba. The stories indicated there had been ting such a scheme, but says she is not a great deal of vituperation In Pearson's re- afraid. marks, and quoted him at great length. "My daughter and I would be better off We were in Pinar del R:o at the time. dead than have to live here," she says. "I A copy of a newspaper containing the story will kill her before they can take her from was shown to us by a government official me for one of their schools." - who was very pleased. "Good for Canada," he SINCERrrs he said. We learned from the Canadian Embassy She speaks with such quiet sincerity you when we returned to Havana, however, that believe her. - all Pearson had done was answer "no" to Cuba is controlled by a minority which a question by Opposition Leader Diefen- has created the means of maintaining con- baker whether Canada was planning changes trol. It performed a very necessary task 5 in its trade with Socialist countries. There years ago, and set off on a path of noble In- had been no mention of Cuba. The whole tentions. Along the way it went awry. thing had been made up by an Imaginative It wallows now In the eminence of Its Prensa Latina hack on orders of the Cuban position. It takes for itself the best of what- Government. ever Is available: the good ears, the good The second example concerned me di- food, the good clothes, the good homes. rectly. Lunny and I were photographed Photographer Adrian Lunny and I spent when we arrived by air In Santiago. I told 2 days and a night in Manzanillo at the home the reporter who interviewed me that we maintained for visiting party leaders. It was were on a tour of the country to see what the very epitome of opulence. It had a swim- changes had come about since I lived there ming pool and huge, immaculately kept gar- In 1957, prior to the revolution. That was dens. Its table setting would have done all. justice to a maharajah. The next day we were on the front page At our final dinner, one of our party of the newspaper Sierra Maestra. Among leader hosts pushed away the remains of other things. I was "quoted" about how im- one of the finest meals I had ever shared, pressed I had been by the May Day cele- and leaned forward to wipe hiA, mouth on. brations in Havana. And to top It off, the the hem of the exquisite damask table cloth, newspaper called me "El Companero Tay- "Well now," he asked, interrupting him- for"-Comrade Taylor. self with a belch, "do you still believe the Castro's May Day parade does more to lies of the Yankee imperialists that there is impress foreigners than the Cubans. Pro- a food shortage in Cuba?" paganda ordering Habaneros to the parade Across the street, other Cubans were com- begins to build up about 6 weeks before the Ing home to their palm-thatched huts with event. It is Intense in the week just prior their meager quota of rationed foodstuffs. to It The "Yankee Imperialists" are the con- Few dare shun It. As the marchers pass venient scapegoat for everything that goes Castro's reviewing stand at the base of wrong on the island. Castro runs his coun- the towering monument to Jose Marti. the try like a crooked labor leader runs a union; man who led Cuba's fight for independence he talks about all the wonderful things that from Spain, they shout: "Fidel! Fidel!" are going to happen, uses force to beat down If you don't listen too closely, it sounds opposition, and tries to take his people's like: "Sieg Heil! Sieg Heil!" minds off what he is doing by keeping them The Cuban propaganda machine is aimed angry at someone else. now at Havana's next big parade, July 26, In Castro's case, the target is the United to mark the 11th anniversary of the start of States, it has been blamed for everything Castro's revolution. imaginable, including last year's failure of The third big parade of the year is January the tomatoes to grow. 2. It commemorates the fall of the Batista Oddly enough, the Stars and Stripes are government on New Year's Day, 1959. It Is carried In all. Cuban parades, and Cuban held a day late to give the Cubans time to soldiers on the far side of the S when This is themoneein Year's shows off wide no man's land salute the flag it is lowered every evening at the U.S. Guan- his miltiary strength. tanamo Naval Base. Castro spends untold fortunes on internal Why? propaganda. Cubans have learned to live Approved For Release 2005/01/27 :,CIA-RDP66BOO403ROO0200170041-5 enr-'~:=.t51~. IV V~.M 1 V1. 1 V I VIA-1\ 1 VVIJV V~VV \\/VVLVV 11 VV~.1-V 196 S AL REC RD - SEN TE 15833 embassy building in Havana, now occupied falo. That decree was given by the school was distracted, the teacher and the cat-o'- by Swiss diplomats. The Swiss warned him board to its students 127 years ago and nine-tails would "help him along the path of of possible consequences, and he relented. learning." was discovered by one of the students at -in a Mos In tot' 1, t hate the ' system sand` want i?de the Cleveland Hill North Elementary from conversations i with MrslPauline tTau- stroyed. But they know that the only way School during her search into the his- riello, who is the most experienced teacher it can ,']7e destz dyed is by a full-scale inva- tory of her school. It was considered in the district and Mrs. Morgan's mother, sion supported by the tinned States. quite an improvement back in the days Mrs. John Hofmann. And they certainly do not want to -revert when Buffalo was the. wild West, Mr. Walter J. Heifley's thesis, written for to unrestricted IT.$. exploitation. The students have decided that the his master's degree, was very helpful because 3oxxievhere, they hope is an answer. United States has made !Treat nrouress its topic was the "History of Our District." ECONOMIES AT, BROOKLYN N3 7Y ADD Mr. President, through the' years the Brooklyn Navy Yprd has exhibited. v s ?ri and main- tained high 'standards which are most impressive. Decently the Navy's Bureau of Ships has announced that the Brook- lyn Navy 'yard has reduced its operating expenses during the last fiscal year. $11.2 mil Ioil, This, Js- indeed an nimpressive figure and ,is yet another example of the team- wOrhich-that yard has exhibited for years; 'T'he Brooklyn Navy Yard has a tra it>wfln of doixi$ work that can be no- world; this tradition is being maintainer today and I have -seen it. in fiction, oil xiy several visits to the yard. M. President this pride and spirit can never be duplicated. It would be a seri- ous 1x3is}ake.to close the Brooklyn yard when its employees continue to exhibit a desire n n ability to perform some of the? best? s ipbuild`ing work in the world I ashknahnqus consent that the. a,r- tlcle der}hing the savings in operating cOSts,3elized at the Brooklyn Navy Yard tl}ls: past fiscal year be printed in the `here beui no objection, the article wad ordered to be printer} in the RECORD, as follows: . CITE NAVY YARD FOR AXING COSTS `Employees at the Brooklyn Navy Yard were cheered thifi week by praise from the Navy's Bureau of Ships for effecting an appreciable reduction in operating costs. The cost-,c utting kudos came from the Chief, of the_,ixeap, Rear Adm,, William "A. rockett In a letter to Rear L~d;II ,Ernest C. Holtz- wortli, Commander of the Brooklyn yard, Admiral rockett reported; .1 _1 j`Tt has been. easily recognized by the Bu- reau's staff ,t11 t,,tlae _employees of the New York Naval Shipyard at all levels have been changed from the Indian "Jik constantl,yy alert to the need to effect reduc -i to the d "Ch k ' mo ern ee towa bons in shipyard costs. g "Please extend my thanks to the shipyard Teachers have changed quite a bit also. personnel responsible for this superior per- The first teacher in 1836 earned a salary of formance $52 for 4 months, and was obligated to arrive The `xooklyn Navy Yard is one of two of much earlier than the pupils to start the fire the Navy's 11 Shipyards to have attained sav- in the potbellied stove. lap of over'$10,million an fiscal year 1964. She had to teach all grades and all sub- The Navy s fiscal year runs from July 1 to jects. In 1885 the salary jumped to $288 for June 30 ,pf the follpwi fig year. Brooklyn's the school year. savings, as validated ,by Navy auditors, The primative school mentioned here is a amounted to An;impressive $11.2 million for far cry from the 167-teacher 2 380-pupil , , the 12-month, period. school system that exists today. CT EVEt,AND HILL" NORTH ELEMEN TA.R SCHOOL EDITORIAL CON- TEST Mr, KEA'I`ING Mr.. ,President, there are to be no more guns, or tobacco in the schoolrooms of the Cleveland Hi11 schools In Cheektowaga, N.Y., a suburb of Buf- for 4 weeks' work. What impressed me the most, however, in reading the ele- School Reporter] KEEP INFORMED To KEEP FREE .the students' knowledge of the. type of (By Kevin Bradley, age 12) men who made this country great as well For the past 18 or more years, the prime as of the major problems that face our-- danger to our democracy has been -com- country today. munism. This menace, however, cannot be This elementary school paper spon- defeated If we, as Americans, all sit back in our easy chairs and watch television. sored an editorial contest in AmelYean. One of the best ways to combat this chal- history and current Communist activities lenge is to keep informed. People who are affecting our Nation. This was done, informed are less likely to believe com- under the sponsorship of Mrs. Eve Allis, munistic propaganda and lies. a fifth grade teacher who has recently We must take the responsibility of a good, won an award for her article on.teaching active American citizen. What is a good, of Americanism through newspaper active. American citizen? A good American takes interest in his or her government, work. I was very interested in these whether it's in the community, county, editorials from,the Cleveland Hill North State, or Nation. Elementary School Reporter and think Even at our young age it is our duty to they set unusually high standards for have knowledge of the numerous advan- elementary school journalism. I there- tages of a democracy and the many disad- fore ask unanimous consent to. have vantages of communism. printed in the RECORD articles by Daniel Urge our government. your parents Help to to take an strengthen interest in your Johnston, Kevin Bradley, and Peter family's knowledge of the Communist threat. Dunghe. Try to make your friends and neighbors There being no' objection, the articles aware of this constant danger to our freedom. were or to be printed in the RECORD, Point out that for them, for our country, as follows: and for our flag the blood of many patriots [From the Cleveland Hill North Elementary has been shed. Cleveland Reporter] Let's be a good example for other nations. And remember, it's our choice between free- GuNS, TOBACCO FORBIDDEN, SCHOOL BOARD dom and communism. Which will you pick? DECREES " (By Daniel Johnston) [From the Cleveland Hill North Elementary "What, no more tobacco and guns in School Reporter] school?" Parents and children in district 3 Boys AMERICANISM ESSAY: AMERICANISM AND are astonished at the new directive passed THOMAS JEFFERSON by the board of education. (By Peter Dunghe) No, you are not reading a story found in When we say the name of Thomas Jeffer- the attic. This is part of district 3's history son, what do we think of? Most people told from scratch a program presented gard him as an American President who wrote re- during Education Week. the Declaration of Independence. were History discovered One`facts presented the play Of course, he did write our "great declara- Catherine Gunning after much Marie ar research by Mrs. tion" but that wasn't all. He did many Cening and Mrs. . MMorgan, more things. Cleveland Hill's third-grade teachers. Jefferson was always wealthy. In his boy- , containing two elementary t $ es million beginnings s as and schools school 'nd hood, his home was on the Piedmont Plateau. one hschool, had Its grew up with the Piedmont farmers and one high as a 20- their families. Thus, Jefferson had a better by 25-foot schoolhouse built of the "finest understanding of the common people. materials" for $150, 127 years ago. The name of our community has also Because of this understanding of common -do-wah-gah" people they are now allowed to hold political office. tong ago walking many miles barefoot to school to save his shoes; one pail and one dipper for water, used by everyone; lunch buckets with cold lunches. Arbor Day was an important celebration. A tree was planted along with jars contain- ing names of all the children in that class. Every ' child's education was affected by the cat-o'-nine-tails. If a child's attention During Revolutionary times, Jefferson made many statements that aroused the peo- ple. His ideas are still used today as inspira- tions. For example, he said "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants." In his day, the tyrants were the English. Today we can use the same thoughts, but the tyrants of today are the Communists. We schoolchildren can benefit by Mr. Jef- ferson's boyhood statements. Once while studying, he was about to get upset, but he calmly said to himself, "While I am still young, I am supposed to stick to my studies,' and not contradict. There will be enough time for that later." Most people give Lincoln credit for saying "All men are created equal," but actually Jefferson said that. In his home at Monti- cello, he had slaves but he treated each and every one of them like one, of the family. Approved For. Release 2005/01/27 CIA-RDP66b00403R000200170041-5 15834 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R00026017t041-5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE J'am 21 Today, Congress is trying to pass a civil rights bill, based on the fact that all men are created equal. Now you can see that this great states- man deserves more credit for his contribu- tions every day. Don't you think so? [From the Cleveland H111 North Elementary School Reporter) GIRLS AMERICANISM ESSAY: AMERICANISM AND TnomAs JEFFERSON (By Nancy Umfreville) Thomas Jefferson, more than any other man, has formed and molded the American mind and spirit. Every later generation has turned to his mementos and writings for inspiration and never in vain. "I have sworn upon the altar of God, eter- nal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man," he declared. Through 60 years of public service he was faithful to this vow. Sefierison was not merely a theorist, but a very practical man. He held that all men are created equal, and did more than any man of his time to bring about equality of opportunity among Americans. Thomas Jefferson cherished liberty in every form and was largely responsible for the guarantees of freedom of speech. press, and religion in the Federal Constitution and in several State constitutions. Just as Abraham Lincoln did, he wanted to abolish slavery. His family had slaves, but they were treated like members of the family. Although he was very rich, he un- derstood how the common man felt and wanted to do something for him. He be- lieved all men are endowed with Inalienable rights. His writings have stood as a torch to the defenders of individual freedom. His plans for the future helped America grow. Jeffer- son's beliefs have been the foundation for many of our beliefs today. "Give the people light, and they will find their own way," he declared. metropolitan, urban, and industrialized living. New York Is a big city and there- fore its problems cannot be small. Let us recognize the full dimensions of the problem facing the governing officials and law enforcement officials in a city the size of New York. It is a stupendous challenge. If we learn nothing else from these troubled days and from these most un- fortunate circumstances, it Is that we have not yet come to grips with the prob- lems of urban life. We believe in law enforcement. Essentially it is the re- sponsibility of State and local govern- ments. I hope that we will not grow up with the idea that it is necessary to have a national police take over law enforce- ment on every occasion. The responsi- bility, essentially, is local. If we truly value freedom in America, it should re- main local. Having spoken about law enforcement, let us also remember there is no substi- tute for social and environmental condi- tions which contribute to a peaceful and tranquil community. As the editorials point out so vividly. such serious social and economic prob- lems exist in this area that it is no won- der there are moments of disturbance and troubled times. I do not wish to be misunderstood. Many good citizens in this area have made It clear that these acts of violence are committed by a limited number of citizens, some of whom have bad records, and some of whom are nothing but hoodlums. However, there Is tension. There Is trouble. There is frustration. There Is a sense of being cut off from the free- doms and opportunities of white Amer- ica. We should not be too surprised that trouble will break out in these condi- y ti It is a trtil tragic situation not have happy living and good eco- nomic conditions in crowded tenement conditions. We must expect a sense of growing bitterness, and the frustration that comes over a person living in such circumstances. The potential for an ex- plosion is indeed high. If we were to pass the poverty bill, we would be able to provide many thousands of jobs for young people who are drop- outs and potential delinquents and po- tential troublemakers. It would give them a constructive outlet. Since the 85th Congress, I have been the author of legislation to establish a Youth Conservation Corps. Twice this legislation has passed the Senate. It is nothing short of tragic that we have not done something along this line. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed In the RECORD the two editorials published in the New York Times and the editorial published In the Washington Post. I stand here as one citizen who once served as a mayor of a great city, respon- sible for a police department. I know that the law must be enforced and that law and order must be preserved. I real- ize that violence cannot be Condoned,- and that the ransacking and destruction of private property cannot be permitted. I also say that there are not enough policemen in the world to hold doom a section of a city or of a nation that lives in misery and poverty, frustration, hope- lessness, sickness, and illiteracy. What we see here in our local areas is what has been taking place around the world. I have visited such cities as Ca- racas; I have been In the cities of Lima, Peru, and Santiago, Chile, and I have seen the filth and dirt of those slums. As I insist that the law be enforced, I also insist that we fulfill our social re- onB THE RIOTS IN HARLEM I believe that the New York Times edi- sponsfbilities. It is a rotten shame that Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, i in- torial states the situation quite well when America, the land of the free and the it says: home of the brave, the richest nation on of Senators to perceptive vita the and attention thoughtful ghtful editorials three Harlem at the moment is a sick commun- the face of the earth, should condone which appeared In the New York Times itY. Many thousands of decent, law-abiding conditions of poverty and despair which and the Washington Post this morning. people. jammed into its miserable housing are a disgrace to humankind. I am sure there are many similar edi- and suffering from its high incidence of The press of our country and the other crime and delinquency, its lack of job op- news media have brought out some of torials in the Nation's press which ex- portunities and discriminations of many the sordid facts. 'Me coverage of this press the same thoughts. Both relate to kinds, are being drawn into emotional tur- situation has been nothing short of the violence, the disorder, the troubles, moll. New York City owes Harlem the duty miraculous in its completeness and fair- and the difficulties which have taken of treating it with firmness, with kindness, n~ I hope that we finally will b- place during last weekend's rioting in and with understanding. Harlem is in great need of the long-range shocked into doing something construc- 8arlem. r that the Federal and city govern- tive, something which can stand as a These editorials do not seek to eksts- mats are planning for it in the war against bold beginning to these despartely seri- gate or chastise; nor do they seek to poverty. But riots will not help the people ous problems of poverty and urban life. arouse further the emotions of our peo- of Harlem In the long run. There being no objection, the edi- pie. They seek, rather, to bring the searchlight of truth and understanding I have said before, civil wrongs do torials were ordered to be printed in the follows: upon some of the most difficult social not make civil rights: disobedience does RECORD, the New York Times, Julp 21, 1864] problems which exist In certain areas not make for law enforcement and law [From AND THE POLICE HARLEM of our country, problems of race rela- observance. tspokesmen for the Negro com- met spokesmen tions, social relations, economic oppor- The 88th Congress must do its job when Acting Mayor Negro co at city and education. In these times of domestic turmoil. Boon m unity the city hall yesterday to discuss the recent As one who is not a resident of the we shall have before us a bill to do some- horrifying riots, they advanced four recent of New York, I believe the great city thing about this situation. We must do pal .demands which, In their judgment at of New York oftentimes receives more something about poverty in Harlem and least, would allay the bitter resentment than its share of blows and blackeyes In In other sections of America. The New against the police department that pervades terms of public relations. These stories York Times appropriately refers to this Harlem. One a oelatiho a f frankl b warned the that e do not portray the other face of New subject in its next editorial entitled "De- unless the Negro community and the de- York, for it is truly a magnificent city. bate Over Poverty." It indicates that partment. there would be more riots. Basically, it is well governed. It is the something needs to be done of a con- The first of these was for the Immediate cultural and financial capital of America. structive nature. Some of our cities suspension and arrest on suspicion of homi- However, it is the largest metropolitan need to be completely rebuilt In their cide of the police lieutenant who killed a area in our Nation, and therefore it poses tenement areas In a way which does not 15-year-old Negro boy last week, asserting for us problems which go along with displace thousands of residents. We can- that the boy had attacked him with a knife. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170041-5