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December 16, 2016
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January 3, 2005
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June 25, 1964
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1961 Cuba V lON OF R1;MARKS or HQN. _PAUL G. ROGERS OF FLORIDA IN THE Ilov,SE OF S EPRESENTATIVES -`hurssiay June 25, 1964 ease 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403 b0200170046-0 MRESSTONAL RECORD - APPENDIX powerful there. They are responsible only to Mr. Castro, and are acknowledged to be second, only to him in succession of strength, even ahead of the brilliant, ubiquitous Ernesto "Che" Guevara. They are Ramiro Valdes, Minister of the Interior, and Jose Matar, chief of the dread- ed Committee for the Defense of the Revolu- tion (CDR). INCLUDES G-2 The Minister of the Interior Includes 0-2, the counter-intelligence department. Not even Mr. Castro can free a prisoner held by G-2 until the prisoner's guilt or innocence has been determined. 0-2 is concerned mainly with espionage and armed insurrec- tion. The CDR is the organization charged with keeping the civilian population in line, and the one which most affects the lives of every- day Cubans. It is a pyramid which descends from Havana into each province, each city, each town, each village, each hamlet, each block, each street, each house. No one makes a move, no matter how inconsequential, that is not known to the CDR. KNOWN AS SADIST Mr. `ttdG %$' of Florida. Mr. Speaker, ' under leave to insert in the RECORD, I ask that the fifth installment of "Cuba Today," published by the Washington Star be included in order that it _may receive the widest possible circulation: This installment deals with ' Castro efforts to overthrow the Government of Spain, and points up even further the need for ridding this hemisphere of com- munism in Cuba. The article follows:, CUBA TODAY: CASTRO MOVES TO SUBVERT .SPAIN (By Bruce Taylor) Fidel Castro is preparing to extend his sphere of subversion to Spain. He has agreed to train Spanish Commu- nists in, guerrilla warfare, and will supply them With arms for a revolt against the re- gime of Generalissimo Francisco?F'ranco. The plan, until now, has been top secret. Cuba enjoys good relations with Spain and is, in fact, negotiating to Increase its trade with the European nation. But Communist members, of the Spanish underground now in Cuba have been As- sured by Castro he will support them man attempted ' overthrow of Franco. NO. I EXPORT,` Subversion has become Cuba's No. 1 ex- port. The chaos it has created `in Latin America already has ruptured diplomatic re- lations with all but four members of the Organization of American States. Latest to out ties was Brazil, . ,Diplomats In Cuba ,be1ieye, Uruguay may be next. Mexico,_phile, and Bolivia would be the only OAS members with ambassadors in Cuba. Opinion is fairly unanimous In Havana that the continuing deterioration of rela- tions between Cuba and the OAS indicates an Invasion of-,the island may be in the works. Brazil, prior to the coup which deposed the Goulart government, had-like Mexico, Chile, Bolivia, and Uruguay-resisted all ef- forts to be pressured into. adopting a hard -ARMED ACTION POSSIBLE But now that Brazil has severed relations, and with Uruguay expected to follow suit, tremendous pressure Is being applied 'to the three of ear Q4 embers still in Cuba to reappraise their policies. Eventual armed action against Mr. Castro is considered a dis- tinct possibility. It is generally believed that such action would coa e upplethe guise of the com- bined OA55 Ti e, excuse would be Mr. Cas- tro`s Conti ruing export o M of subversion, Mr. Castro ie aware O.the risk he is run ning. But he has dedicated himself, he says, "to the liberation of, all of Latin America," and he caI~ , stA,p now. Who is this Iri, who, pan create such tur- moil? l A9sQ2tT E itULEA He Is, first , and the absolute ruler of ki i lotion ?Recurring, and widely acceptedreportsthat he is merely the pup- pet of the other men about him are just so much holst}m, Mr. Castro's word is law.,, The task of l eeping his police state in order falls' to two highly trusted subordi- nates, "'T'heir names are little known outside Cuba, but they are becoming tremendously Today-Fifth of a Series CDR members cannot make an arrest, but they can order one by the simple expedient of denouncing the person they want picked up. People are denounced for all manner of things. Raul Castro, Fidel's younger brother and his Minister of Defense, Is fairly strong in his own right, but has nowhere near the power of Mr. Valdes and Mr. Matar. Raul is known in Cuba as something of a sadist. Mr. Guevara, Minister of Industry, remains at the top of the hierarchy and is generally considered to possess one of its keenest minds. He is one of the very few men in key posts who really knows what he is doing. His speeches, unlike the propaganda drivel spouted by the others, including Mr, Castro, are intelligent and always interesting to listen to. Mr. Guevara is the one government leader who is not afraid to lay the facts of life squarely on the line. Mr. Castro and the others tell the Cubans utopia is on the way. Mr. Guevara tells them they will get nothing without hard work, He is intensely loyal to Mr. Castro. Mr. Castro has botched the job of giving Cuba the utopia he talks about. And in- stead of contenting himself with attempting to rectify the situation, he has embarked on his dangerous scheme to spread com- munism through Latin America. He is a fanatic, but he is also a sincere and cou- rageous man, and his desire to improve the lot of his people was not always touched with madness. It began before he was 12 years old. (Much of the following Information about Mr. Castro's youth and the early days of his revolution was hitherto unknown. It was obtained in Havana from his sister Angelita, 49, who did not realize she was being inter- viewed.) Mr. Castro was born August 13, 1927, al- though the world believes he is a year older. His father, a Spaniard from Galizia, had been married previously and had sired two chil- dren, Lydia and Pedro Emile, He was 30 years older than Mr. Castro's mother, Lina Ruza, a Cuban. They had seven children, in this order: Angelita, Ramon, Fidel, Raul, Quena, Emma and Auguistina. ONE LIVES IN MOSCOW Emma married a Mexican engineer and has three children. They live in Mexico City. Auguistina, now 22, became a Protestant while studying in Zurich. She married a Cuban pianist and they live in Moscow. They have a daughter. Mr. Castro was married and divorced. He claimed he discovered his wife. was a relative of Fulgencia Batista, the dictator he deposed A3603 In 1959. Mr. Castro's son, nicknamed Fi- delito (Little Fidel), is 14 and lives in Ha- vana. Mr. Castro doesn't often see the boy, but has lunch with him on occasion. Mr.. Castro "grew up near Santiago, in Oriente Province, at the eastern end of the island. It was there he would launch his revolution. His father, a wealthy plantation owner, was, a conservative. His mother was a fiery revolutionist, and from her he inherited much of his zeal. RECALLS STATEMENT Before he was 12, his sister recalls, he announced to his family one day after re- turning from a trip through the slum sec- tion of Santiago: "When I am a man, I will buy shoes and clothes for all the world." From that moment on, she says, he be- came interested in the problems of the poor, and in his teens plunged into campus poli- tics. His father warned him: "You must be calm in a country like this. Don't get mixed up in public affairs." His mother, however, urged him on. Mr. Castro went to Havana to win his de- gree in law at the Catholic University there. He `since has nationalized the school and exiled its rector, Msgr. Masvidal, auxiliary bishop of Havana. The church plays no important role in the general affairs of Cuba now. WORKS IN SLUM Mr. Castro could have begun practice in the wealthy section of the city. Instead, he and two other young men opened an office in the Compostela slum area. They often handled cases without charge. Outraged beyond endurance by the mount- ing atrocities of the Batista regime, he re- turned to Santiago in 1953 to rally support for a revolution. On July 26, 1953--the day for which he named his revolt-he and 149 other young men, divided, into two bands of 75 each, left a farmhouse 7 miles outside Santiago, where they had stored arms, and attacked the Ba- tista fortress of Moncado In the heart of the city. It was the second largest stronghold in Cuba, and Mr. Castro's men were routed, but only after they had made their way over its walls and very nearly captured the machine gun that stopped their assault. Mr. Castro and his brother Raul, who had accompanied him on the raid, were found In the mountains not long after and brought to Santiago for trial. There was no death penalty in Cuba then. They were each sen- tenced to 15 years. But Batista wanted them killed. He organized a plot to do so. Several men, pretending to be Castro fol- lowers, would smuggle him out of prison, then shoot him for attempting to escape. But a priest, Msgr. Perez Serantes, bishop of Santiago, learned of the plot from a prison guard. He convinced Batista not to go through with it. Two years later, in 1955, Batista declared amnesty for all political prisoners as the prelude to a rigged election, and exiled them. Fidel and Raul went to Mexico, where they met Guevara, an Argentine Communist and professional bombthrower. They rounded up all the other Cuban exiles they could find and began to learn about guerrilla warfare. PATFIER DIES On October 21, 1956, Mr. Castro's father died on his Cuban plantation at the age of 82. Two months later, Fidel, Raul, Che Gue- vara, and .79 others, all armed to the teeth, set sail for Cuba aboard a pleasure cruiser called the Granma. Their plan was to land at Colorado Beach on Oriente Province's south coast, where the Sierra Maestra mountains are closest (about 15 miles) to the water. The Granma was spotted by a Cuban patrol boat just 2 miles from its target, and was turned at once to shore. The spot where Mr. Castro landed Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170046-0 A3604 Approved o ~ ~, Q0~510 ~ ~-RDAP66PQ R000200170046-0 June 30 IjiX was an incredible tangle of tropical growth and waistdeep marsh alive with crabs. Batista's commanders, alerted to the land- ing by the patrol boat, sent troops and air- craft into the area. The planes bombed and strafed the rebels. Of the 82 who came ashore, only 12-including Fidel. Raul and Guevara-reached the mountains. TAKE ON 50,000 The 12 set out to take on Batista's 60,000 soldiers. Batista was ignorant of guerrilla fighting. and never could launch an effective assault on the rebels. W. Castro's will-o'-the-wisp band, often near starvation, was constantly on the move, never more than a few hours In any one place. The revolution would have ended one night in 1957, but for one of those miracles which always seem to save the Hitlers and the Mussollnis-and the Castros-for bigger things. A small patrol led by a Batista captain found Mr. Castro and several others, ex- hausted after a long day's march, asleep in a shelter made of branches. MARVRLED AT CANDOR The captain, completely unaware he had discovered the rebel leader, woke the men. Mr. Castro stood and faced him, and put his hand on the captain's shoulder. "I am the man you are looking for," he said. "I am Fidel." The captain marveled at Mr. Castro's can- dor. He stared silently at the unkempt, fiery- eyed rebel for several moments. Then he asked, "Don't you know that it is my duty to kill you?" "Yes." "And you are not afraid?" ",vor the others who are scattered through- out tLe mountains?" The captain shook his head. He turned to his soldiers and told them, "Let these men go. It will do no good to kill them. It Is Impossible to kill an ideal." A month later the captain defected from Batista's army and joined Castro In the mountains. Today he is aide-de-camp to Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticos. Mr. Castro's band grew. If one member of a family joined him, the others went too for fear of being tortured or shot. Children of 14 and 15, both boys and girls, became guerrillas. Whenever an unarmed person-and most were unarmed-showed up to offer his serv- ices, Castro would take him to the edge of a clearing near a Batista patrol post and point to it. "These soldiers have guns," he would say. "Go and get one. Then you can join us." Men and women who fought with Castro say his revolution was dedicated entirely to social reform and the reversion of Iarge, private landholding to the state, but they insist he was In no way a Communist then, or that he gave communism even serious consideration. They blame his embrace of communism on the hatred he developed for the United States when that Nation refused pointblank to help him when he went there to seek fi- nancial assistance shortly after be came to power. PAY VISIT TO FAMILY In 1958, Fidel and Raul came down out of the mountains to spend part of Christmas with their family. They made their way past the soldiers guarding the plantation, spent several hours with their mother, their grand- mother and sister Angellta. Exactly 1 year and 1 week later, on New Year's Day, 1959, Batista, still in command of 30,000 soliders in Havana who had never been sent into battle, fled Cuba. Mr. Castro's mother who had Inspired him to revolution, lived to see his victory. She died last September at the age of 57. Mr. Castro held a family reunion shortly after be came to power. An uncle who trav- eled to it from Buenos Aires made a speech. He said: "1 am happy my family produced a man who will liberate his people from dis- crimination, corruption and bad govern- ment." Mr. Castro nodded. "Ours was a revolution not to change a man," he said, "but a system. I will begin to make that change now. My system will be one such as no Latin American nation has ever had." Pan American World Airways-47 Million Jet Overhaul Facility in Miami, Fla. EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. DANTE B. FASCELL OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 30,1964 Mr. FACE L. Mr. Speaker, just re- cently Pan American World Airways, a pioneer in Latin America, dedicated a $7 million jet overhaul facility in Miami. This dedication took place on the site of the United States' first permanent international air terminal. It was my pleasure to have been present and to take part in the ceremonies. Mr. Speaker, this new pioneering job Instituted by Pan American is further indication of the tremendously close co- operation existing between the airline and the Dade County Port Authority with whom Pan American has signed a long-term lease to pay off the entire cost of construction. When the $7 mii- lion obligation on the part of Pan Ameri- can has been liquidated, the building complex will become the property of the Dade County Port Authority. The new Miami facility is the biggest jet overhaul base in the Pan American system and has the mission of keeping flying the airline's fleet of 129 airliners, 79 jet and 50 propeller aircraft. Included In the big base complex are the huge maintenance building and an adjacent strikingly modern, gold-grilled headquarters building for the satin American division, as well as several small satellite buildings. The maintenance building consolidates under one 7-acre roof, 18 special shops, supply warehouse, engineering and pro- duction offices that have been dispersed in various locations around the airport, often several miles apart. Stretching the equivalent of more than two city blocks along Northwest 36th Street, 372 feet deep, the building con- tains 660,000 square feet of hangars, shops, and offices. Two huge jet clippers can be positioned simultaneously In the hangar area. The niaintenande unit is big enough to contain more than 50 buildings of the size of Pan American's original Miami base, built In 1929, which launched Miami as the country's first international air gateway. Pan Am's new Miami base represents a jet age overhaul complex as modern as any to-be found anywhere in the world, Executive Vice President Wilbur L. Mor- rison, in charge of the Latin American division, has told me. In addition, it has been carefully planned and engineered so that it can be expanded easily. Pan Am is confident that expansion will be needed to meet the growing air travel of the next few years, as well as the 2,000-mile-an-hour supersonic age which the next decade will usher in. The overhaul base represents a mod- em industrial version of the mountain coming to Mahomet-the shops come to the plane, instead of vice versa. When a jet clipper is rolled into the hangar for overhaul, nestled over, under, and around its sweptback wings and half-block-long fuselage are the repair shops, various special rooms, engineer- ing and production offices, and vast sup- ply warehouse necessary to support it. A worker, for example, can remove a delicate and complicated piece of radio or eltctronie gear In the two-story-high cockpit of a jet clipper and step directly outside onto a ramp which leads to the radio or instrument shop less than 50 feet away. Previously, and in less modem bases, these and similar components would have to be removed from the aircraft, loaded on trucks and be transported often several miles to the proper shop. Once overhauled, the part would have to be transported back to the plane. This uses up valuable extra time and poses problems of having components damaged or thrown out of adjustment during transit. All the shops and offices in the main- tenance building are air conditioned ex- cept the propeller shop, welding shop and plating shop. In these three areas a spe- cial ventilation system is provided. Air cooling also Is provided in the cavernous supply warehouse, where fans and power roof ventilators furnish a complete change of air every 6 minutes. The air conditioning required units to- taling 1,000 tons capacity, sufficient to air condition 300 average-size homes. Two 350-seat cafeterias, a medical de- partment. industrial relations offices, base security offices and credit union of- fices also are housed in the maintenance building. The administration building, Mr. Speaker, of contemporary design, is pat- terned after the prize-winning design of the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, India. It contains some 32,000 square feet of executive offices, in the form of a hollow square with an interior patio open to the sky. In the patio are a fountain, reflecting pool and colorful tropical plantings. Exterior walls of the two-story ad- ministration building are of bronze- pierced grilles with gold-anodized trim. The building is set 225 feet back from the street and twin driveways leading to the entrance are centered by a land- scaped 150-foot reflecting pool. Forming an impressive column march- ing up to the front entrance are 24 flag- staffs from which will fly the flags of the United States and Latin American Republics. In addition to the buildings, 3 sep- arate employee parking areas have been established around the base, with spaces for 2,100 cars. A 785-foot covered, lighted walkway leads from the main- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170046-0