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1964 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX, A2401 the Soviet Union. The RU- have consistently built bombers that fly under the complete domination of the nla> fan x e i~,,stjr n, a pDL yageous faster and higher than Russian aircraft. Kremlin. people, however a have inereasin _ Why build bombers that will be outclassed? g Better to concentrate on ICBM's. This Is For nearly two decades now, the coun- ty resisted~viet efforts tp maintain good logic for Russians but not good logic for try has been sealed off from the free them in ale n er or.,position of a pri- Americans. However, original thinking is world and some 17 million Rumanians manly agricuituralFcountry. _ They have not something for which the U.S. military live in what is, practically a vast prison taken an independent line in the-Soviet- Is noted. One wonders how many present camp where they are continually sub Chinese dispute, They have sought to day Billy Mitchells there may be mutter- ject to the worst excesses of Communist Increase t ieir contacts with the West. ing-strictly to themselves-about the situa- totalitarianism. As a result of Russian True independencd lies yet ahead. But tion. _ .control, these sturdy peasants are forced let us hope that it is nearer today than Military history is full of cases where there to till their fertile land mostly for the it has beep in many years, and that in was an overlapping of weapons, if it may be benefit of the Soviet Union. Denied all called that. Thus in many of the battles of y an n an ryman fought with a stone traditional 'independence day in free- mounted on the end of a stick. And when dom. the iron age arrived it had no significance The Bomber 'OF OF NEW Yo1dK 11 1 11 democracy, as we in the free world know It, is not permitted. - We, in the free world, must hope that the Rumanians will continue to retain the strength and will to fight for inde- pendence as they always have in the past. And it is on this 87th anniversary of Rumanian Independence. Day that we look with sorrow at the present unhappy state of the Rumanian people and wish that the future will soon allow the Ru- manians to regain their lost freedom. IN T IE DOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES for many years, as the price of an iron knife oi' dagger was about 15 times what the price would have been for a similar weapon made of solid gold-if anyone had wanted a blade trade of solid gold. Gunpowder was Invented, so far as Euro- peans were concerned, in about 1270. It was of course destined to become a chief ele- ment in military science. .Yet the English longbow was decisive when the English and French fought the Battle of Crecy in 1346, the Battle of Poitiers 10 years later, and the Mr, BAi RY, Mr. Speaker, there has Were other factors, but cannon used by the been,a great deal of,cpntrgversy over our French case the was French hardly far one of them. outnumbered In every the Eng- military force structure, ,At one time lished, and in every case the English, not the cold War Was Such_, that,. the, 711oSt knowing their bows and arrows had become urgent task was to provide for a deterrent obsolete, won the battle. against massive aggression-.a, nuclear It. is entirely conceivable that the ICBM EXTENSION OF REMARKS superiority that would protect the West has not yet been perfected to a point where front total destruct1 j,7 by a potential nu- we can be sure it will arrive at its destina- clear attack. But wa'rs chang and an tion. It is entirely conceivable that the do the implications of the threat as well romper, wnlcn taxes the bomb to the tar- get, will be the decisive weapon in the next 4a the methodsby which wars are fought, emergency. At least there is sufficient pos- SOmetimes tl? Se changes Come about - sibility of this that the bomber should not more . swiftly than philosophers of war- yet be abandoned. fare can keep abreast. The cold war threat is now no~longer limited to mass military destruction. Rather, the menace is qurlack of conven- Rumanian Independence Day tional weapons to.m_ eet the threat of lim- ited wars. ,If as a nation, are to be unprepared for limited wfare., we are then compelled ?to rely upon desperate strategies of vast mutual destruction. I would like to call to the ,attention -of my colleagues an editorial from a small weekly newspaper, the .Feather River Bulletin in Quincy, Calif., which makes a point of emphasis in the present con- troversy now before the Nation, The ,editorial follgws: T#rr 1}olYlBER 'T'here has been disagreement for some years between Congress, which appropriates money for military purposes, and the mili- tary brass which actually spends it. The point of disc eement has to do with certain proposed mi~ary _airplanes; Congress wants them built and kept ready for use, and the EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JOHN D. DINGELL OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 5,1964 Mr. DINGELL. Mr. Speaker, yester- day was Rumanian Independence Day. We remember this day in honor of those many Rumanians who joined together in 1877 to establish their own nation. Rumania's unification andndepend- ence came after nearly 400 years of alien rule by her neighbors and the Ottoman Empire. Never, however, during this whole time did the Rumanians cease to work for the attainment of their free- dom. In 1877, with the Russo-Turkish If the military had a record of being right about new military methods and devices one. War raging in the Balkans the Ruma would be much more inclined to agree that, nians saw their opportunity and joined indeed the bomber is,obsolete and that the the Russians against the Turks. At the next war, ii there is one, will be decicled with end of the war their efforts were re- intercontinental ballistic missiles fired warded when the Congress of Berlin rec- thousands oI, miles from their targets. one ognized their newly won independence. cannot, help recalling that whenthe tank was a new weapon it was necessary to give Unfortunately, the Rumanians did not the military establishment-in this case retain their true independence for very British-positive orders not, to, Ignore, it but long. Although this nation fought with to use It; the Allied and associated powers In the One may suspect the chief reason the U.S. First World War, she was inevitably in- military does not propose to use bombers is that the Russian military does not propose volved as a helpless victim in the Nazi to.ute,them, Well, the reason the Russians struggle. during the Second World War wont use them may well be that Americans and by the end of the war found herself Umpire Jackie Robinson Calls Errors He Sees-By Black and White HON. FRED SCHWENGEL OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, May 11, 1964 Mr. SCHWENGEL. Mr. Speaker, the problems of civil rights were just as com- plicated, if not more so, 100 years ago as they are today. During the war Lin- coln found civil rights as a problem. He explored a number of different answers to the problem and finally found the problem had to be dealt with in America. His plan for exporting the Negro was Im- practica and impossible. The thought of setting them aside in their own com- munity was inconsistent with American policy-so he changed his position on this matter. His final decision on this matter was reflected to Nathaniel P. Banks, who was in control of the 17 of the 48 parishes of Louisiana, in 1863, where he said he hoped they would adopt the Proclamation of Emancipation and while at it, adopt some plan where- they could live themselves out of their old relationships to each other and both come out better prepared for the new, adding, "that education of the young blacks should be part of the plan." Then later in letters to Gen. Michael Hahn, who had been appointed Governor, he voiced the desire to allow the Negroes a vote. He then, of course, recommended the passage of the 13th amendment to the Constitution, and I am sure would have recommended the 14th and 15th amendments which came after his death. I am sure, however, that Lincoln would have backed only those plans that pro- vided the gradual extension of basic freedoms by a plan that would have made progress certain. This, of course, is what the legislation before the Con- gress is doing, ;Approved For Release 2005/01/27 CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170069-5 t .e ,nQt too distant future, P~umanlans antiquity, though the bronze age had arrived, forms of freedom, they have no choice will. once, more,be able_to observe their man i f t but to obey all Communist dictates, for HON' ROBERT . R,. BARRY Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170069-5 A2,102' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX May 11 Mr. Speaker, while the minority, with rights cause. It does not mean the-Same thing outside help, did a great job and should as If the statement had come from master be given great credit for the job and extremists like DICK RUSSELL or STSOM TsUa- leadership, it is true that this controver- YIOND. Congressional misleadership and the sial question could have been dealt with stall-in example set by certain members of more effectively and adequately had they Congress is not the only cause for today's had the advantage of a larger staff to favorable climate for civil rights phonies. do many of the necessary studies and There are other causes. In my telegram to take care of the details involved. Mr. the Senators. I raised a question which has Speaker, the minority staff problem re- distrubed me for some time. I cannot un- mains as a challenge and should not be derstand why the national press-and I cer- tainly do not mean the Negro press-persists ignored if we want to have a kind of in a policy of glorifying on their front pages effective and active Congress the people the very persons they condemn in their edi- have a right to expect. torlals. A thoughtful article has been written An outstanding example of this schizo- -by Jackie Robinson in which he points phrenic handling Is former Black Muslim .out some of the areas which have been minister Malcolm X. Mr. X, as he is pro- made by both sides of the debate. jected by what we regrettably call the "white press." don't even exist. As Dick Gregory Because Republicans have to depend has said, Malcolm was "invented" by the peo- upon their own resources while the Dean- ple who edit big newspapers, control big tele- ocratlc majority has access to the huge vision and radio and publish big newspapers facilities of the Justice Department and and magazines. the Civil Rights Commission and other Malcolm has big audiences, but no con- branches of the executive, it is essential lfrtlcttve program. He has big words, but no that if the Republican Party is to remain records on deeds In civil rights. He Is ter- the party of Lincoln that it have adequate of Neggrioes ghettos. pY t, henhase not faced staff to explore more of the pros and southern police dogs In Birmingham as Mar- cons of various complicated matters in tin Luther King has done, nor gone to jail which are raised in Mr. Robinson's arti- for freedom as Roy Wilkins and James this important legislative battle, some of Farm lr have done, nor led a march Randolph d1dW sh- cle from the New York Herald Tribune, gm Philip April 26: brought about creative dialog between busi- ness and civil rights leaders as Whitney Uaerraz JACKIE ROBINSON CALLS ERRORS HE Young does daily. BEES-BY BLACK AND WHITE DlgpwNED (His first few years in professional base- ball, he was under strict orders to keep his In fact, here is a man who has been ex- mouth shut. But ever since then, Jackie posed and disowned by the very organization Robinson, the man who drove Jim Crow out which he had so eloquently espoused-the of the big leagues, has been a laud and in- Black Muslims. In spite of all this. Mr. X fluential voice in theNegro battle for equal receives more publicity in national media rights. Mr. Robinson, who is now a member than is given to all the responsible Negro of Governor Rockefeller's campaign forces, leaders we have mentioned above. White Is bitterly opposed to the forces fighting colleges flood him with speaking engagement civil rights legislation in Congress; but he offers. You can count on one hand Negro is equally opposed, as he explains here, to colleges which have Invited him, if there are irresponsible Negro leadership and to ir- any responsible tactics.) r It is the function of media to report. yes. By Jackie Robinson) But the Malcolm X Image has been distorted ( rather than reported; distorted so that many Flying to Detroit, 48 hours before the whites imagine thatMalcolm has a popular threatened World's Fair stall-in, I read in following; distorted so that a number of my morning paper a warping issued by two whites and colored people, more concerned U.S. Senators-California s Republican Tom with public attention than with civil rights. KucHEL and Minnesota's Democrat HUBERT more hungry for headlines than for jobs and HUMPHREY. These two proven fighters for justice, have suddenly reached for mantles of the civil rights cause expressed their con- leadership which they are not prepared to cern about northern white reaction to the wear. planned tieup of New York City traffic. of themselves, this small, but growing They said this reaction was making much band of rebels without an honest cause is more difficult their task of getting the civil unimportant. But the grievious truth is rights bill passed. that more and more misguided sincere people Immediately upon landing. I sent a lengthy of both races are apparently lining up be- wire to these congressional leaders. In my hind the misleaders, believing in their hearts message I agreed that the planned stall-in that they are helping to stand up for justice. was an unwise and dangerous tactic. I also These people are obviously Impressed by the made a suggestion. I proposed that some publicity given to the sensationalists and body of Congress take a searching look into extremists. Perhaps some of the news media the atmosphere now prevailing In our coun- are guided by the fact that sensational news try which has made it possible for anyone, sells papers. The exaggerations voiced by overnight, to become a "civil rights hero" extremists, both black and white, of left and a "militant leader" simply by advocat- and right, make sensational news. tag extremist and sensationalist tactics. RESPONSIBILITY I sent my wires to the two Senators be- But the privilege of a free press, guaran- cause they are men I trust. In opposing the teed by our Constitution. carries with It a stall-in at Flushing Meadow, they were being concomitant responsibility-that of project- consistent. For they are also fighting ing responsible journalism for the good of against a stall-in on Capitol Hill, a stall-in our country. When news media more Inter- which seeks to Immobilize the increasingly estect in circulation than in humanity give flowing traffic of human dignity for every wide currency to such news and play down American. legitimate and progressive leadership, they OBSTRUCTIONISM tail in their responsibility and perform a dis- The Capitol Hill stall-in, which has been tinct disservice not only for their fellow perpetrated year after year, is a classic piece man, but, more Important, to the entire con- of obstructionism which would wreck the cept of freedom of the press. The American "engines of freedom." When Senators press must recognize that leadership is KUCHEL and HvMPHEEY assert that certain equally as Important as readership. extremist methods are hurtful to the civil I honestly did not believe that the planned stall-in was a genuine demonstration for justice. I believe that its leaders sought to be leaders of a demonstration rather than leaders In the fight for freedom. Some months ago, shortly after the March on Washington, I sensed the coming of this counterrevolution. I approached several re- sponsible and liberally oriented white lead- ers of this Nation and suggested that they sit down around a table with responsible Negro leadership to develop honorable plans. I warned that, if this were not done, the ex- tremists would take over civil rights activi- ties. The white leaders were offended by the use of the term counterrevolution. They ig- nored my argument that a northern white counterrevolution could spark an interna- tional counter-counterrevolution which could inihln" the world In a conflict of color. I pointed out that three-fourths of the world is comprised of colored people, many of whom are wavering between the choices offered by communism and democracy. They are wavering because they cannot equate our passion for freedom In Burma with the hollow roar of police dogs in Bir- mingham. EXAMPLE I am no race leader, no social scientist and claim ro special wisdom as a spokes- man or analyst. Yet, every dire develop- ment which I had envisioned when I vain- ly sought to talk with these white men of good will, is coming to pass. I think there is a double challenge which our society black and white, must face. I think the white leadership must learn to listen to the voices of the legitimate Negro leaders who opposed last Wednesday's stall- in plan, but who, in their hearts, knew the reasons why those plans came into being. I think the black leadership must speak up and speak out more boldly and with more authority so that the press agentry of a Malcolm will not be the only influence projected in our communications channels. I think the Congress of the United States must set an example of leadership and must not compromise in the civil rights challenge. I think that the President must do more than band out big jobs and say moving words. I think my own people and others involved In the civil rights struggle must move ahead with creative, not destructive protest. Although our Nation's legislators have given us the blueprint for stall-in, we must reject it if we are to vindicate a just cause. For two wrongs do not make a right- not even a civil right. I have participated in demonstrations- creative, thoughtful, unmalicious and posi- tive demonstrations. I will continue to do so. I will also continue to speak up and speak out. But I am concerned not only for the liberation of black Americans but also for the salvation of all Americans and the authentication of the American dream. After all, my ancestors helped to create it. on Cuban s is EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. PAUL G. ROGERS OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, April 23, 1964 Mr. ROGERS of Florida. Mr. Speaker, one of Florida's most astute observers of the Caribbean and Latin America is Mr. Ralph Renick. Mr. Renick has also earned distinction as a journalist and well-known television commentator for WTVJ, the CBS affiliate in Miami. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170069-5 1961 Approved ForRel e2,005/01/27 CIA-RBP66BQ0403R06mb0170069-5 Speaking recently before a large audi- e in l h l l R k nee A a mBeac a Ra ph enic _, , put fort his seven _point plan for action p against communism in Cuba, you can see, . Mr Renick s plan has great merit, and the following is a writeup of that meeting which appeared in one of the lo- cal newspapers. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES I ask that t?be included at this point in the re'oord in, order that it may receive Monday, May 11, 1964 the widest possible audience. Mr. LIBONATI. Mr. Speaker, the i~-ri c i91vTME1JTS ON, CUBAN CaisIP Committee on Appropriations on recom- "CommunistCuba is as much a threat to emendation of its several subcommittees our Nation .am the rest of the world as any- considering deficiency appropriations for thing in the world today, and if she is a departments and agencies in Government th;eat t , 4ay, she will' be much more of one for the fiscal tomorrow, Thousands ,of Cuban school- year June 30, 1964, ap- ;children are being daily indoctrinated in proved and submits to the House the communism, Gibe, is one of the best following items for its consideration to- ,equipped and bustling Communist camps taling $1,162,800,000, a reduction of $42,- outside i ussia,". 467,100 from the requests received. These are the v~ords of Ralph Renick, CBS About 92 percent of the bill represents Miami fit 66nimentator wlio spoke Tuesday military pay costs and public assistance afternoon . tp.,a..large audience at the Society matching grants. of the . our .Arts. ilia subject was "The Cuban Situation," Based in Miami, Mr. The various amounts appropriated Renick has had anopportunity not only to represent those supplemental and defi- observe toe trend of events but to secure ciency appropriations for the current information concerning them, year to budget requests that are excep- He .explained how in the whole of South.. tions to the appropriations prohibited in America propaganda and lies are being the antideficiency statutes against ac- spread to even the smallest villages, often by C 1 t d e e d fi "Argentina: Within the last 2-_ weeks the sixth training center for Communist guer- rillas was uncovered. Dominican Republic: Over 100 Communist .trainees in the Lincoln Hotel. Colombia: At least six states controlled by "The Violets" a Communist group who have received $20,000 from Castro. Honduras: Communist supplied ammuni- tion, radios, maps. Submarine activity and guerrilla fighting in the heart of the coun- try. Chile: A. youth group of 5,000 are presently convening, called the Congress of Latin American Youth. They are Communists organized by one of Castro's brainiest .fol- aowers. Bolivia: The Vice President of the nation is the leader of the Communist Party. Venezuela: The number one Communist .enjoys diplomatic immunity. Puerto Rico: Early last month a large cache of ammunition was found just off Panama,:, Turns, Put Communist. agents were in the heart of the trouble,.. Peru: Stores of arms and ammunition dis- covered, Mr. Renick showed films of the prepara- tion for the revolution up to the final over- throw of Batista. and the takeover by Cas- :tro "an extrardinary actor and true master of deceit." He degeribed, the tpngtipity of the United States and their falluxe to take. advantage of the three opportunities to stop the Commu- fist momentum-at time of Castro's take- over. Bay of Pigs, and the missile crisis. He ,suggested that the United States should now, embark, on the following course . p ration to the world that with the a state of limited Department of Health, Education, and problem before the economic hostility exists. Welfare-increased wages; St. dislocations thregatened by reductions in 2. Bstaj~l sh a CubaThaps' Elizabeths 3. ull support coertt of exile Hospital increased costs of operating and inf hundreds of combecome munities all across groups. perhaps Welfare Admini.rtratinn-;,,_ ., b to es f i o pu `~--? ""`"` v - St`~l as- Recently, Ed Lambeth of the Gannett American nation., fighting Cuba,-or mutual sistance. The future indicates need of r secu ity pact. additional funds for this program. Papers did a series of three fine articles b. A harp, anii, clear-,C_, that U.S. Soldiers' Home, approves with- on the conversion problem. He outlines any 'boats onside the 3 mile ,limit Will be drawal of funds for Soldier s tink' s' I-lome's per- toedatGovernment response to the e and catalogs the complex ba and 6. Constazit surveillance of the island. manent fund-increases of wages and varied problems we must handle if we 7 Make it as expensive as possible for the operational and contract costs. to avoid severe dislocations and a U.S.S.R. to maintain the Cuban economy. are Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R00020G170069-5 ra a or e ciency spending rates. The, Department of Defense-military; for military deficiency appropriation, re- serve personnel accounts, and retired pay accounts. District of Columbia-oper- ating expenses (schoolchildren, trans- portation), public safety (payments to widows and children of deceased police- men and to those retired) ; caseload in- crease in public assistance, service costs for Police Department of District of Co- lumbia in connection with the funeral of our late martyred President, John F. Kennedy. The independent offices- Public Buildings Service, increased costs of selective service procurement opera- tion, selectee. travel costs and pay in- creases of personnel. Veterans' Admin- istration pay increases, employees. Serv- ice-connected cases increasing costs per case-disability compensation cases. Loan guarantee revolving fund-program activity to quickly honor valid claims and obligations-Department of Agricul- ture-forest protection and utilization- A2403 wage increase and deceased members widow gratuities. Department of Defense-civil. In- creased wage costs-Department of the Interior-operation and wage costs for Bonneville Power project and costs in- cidental to Canadian contract under the Columbia River treaty. . Department of Justice: Costs inciden- tal to fees and expenses of witnesses. Increases in wages of employees in pris- ons. Also increases of costs by State and county institutions for housing and feed- ing Federal prisoners awaiting trial or disposition of their cases. The Judiciary: Increases in wage costs. The Treasury: Increases in wage costs, .retired pay, and military increased pay. Claims and Judgments: To meet nec- essary payments of claims and judg- ments against the United States by the Court of Claims and the U.S. District Courts. Thus the heavy responsibility of Chairman MAHON and his committee in presenting this bill to the Congress-the consolidation of the meticulous work of each of the respective subcommittees of the Appropriations Committee, whose re- sponsibilities to determine these separa- tive and respective demands for money to carry on the business of Government was twofold: First. The study of the request in terms of present expenditures already allotted in their general appropriation; and Second. The adjudication of the vari- ous requests both in projected estimates in some cases and the amounts to be appropriated. The committees functioning in this consolidated bill and the respective chairmen are to be congratulated in their efforts as well as Chairman MAHON and his committee. Defense Cutbacks Spurring Civilian Production Needs EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF --a- 111C31gu&ing costs and HON. F. BRADFORD MORSE provide for emergency firefighting, De- partment of the Interior-fire suppres- OF MASSACHUSETTS sion, Bureau of Indian Affairs-also fire IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES suppression, National Park Service-the Thursday, April 30, 1964 same. Also maintenance and rehabili- tation of physical facilities for pay in- Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, it is grati- creases. The same for Smithsonian and grati- fying to note that the growing problem National Gallery of Art. of economic conversion is receiving in- Department of Labor increases in costs creasing attention from the press all over of injuries, costs of medical care, wages the country. Hopefully, businessmen, of civilian employees have a direct effect educators, labor union officials, and gov- ernments at all levels will come to gri on the cost of benefits s Appropriations EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. ROLAND V. LIBONATI Approved For Release 2005/01127 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170069-5 A2404 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX May 11 Under unanimo'.is consent, I include Another signer was Representative Joan contractors can best diversify to meet the Mr. Lambeth's articles, as they appeared MONAGAN, whose southern Connecticut dis- Pentagon procurement. In the Elmira, N.Y., Star-Gazette on trict includes employees and subcontractors In brief, Pentagon officials foresee, in the April 29, April 30, and May 1, 1964, in the for the huge, defense-oriented United Air- years ahead, a slow decline in the market craft Co. Said Monagan? for strategic hardware-such as missiles and CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. "I'm not a ban-the-bomber at all. But bombers and their electronic components, The articles follow: with so much of United's work with the but continued high funding for research and [From the Star-Gazette, Elmira, N.Y.. Apr. Pentagon and the prospect of an overall general purpose forces. 29, 1964] decline in spending, we should begin focusing As matters now hat the Pentagon won't SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARF.s: DEFENSE CUTBACKS attention on the problem.- know SPURRING CrVILIAN PRODUCTION NEEDS- In this same category is Senator KENNETH say, Binghamton, N.Y., or Hartford, Conn., PART I B. BEATING, Republican, of New York. who until Defense's Comptroller Charles J. Hitch (By Ed Lambeth) proposed a regional economic commission and his aide complete their elaborate and for hard-hit Long Island that would "coon- complex early warning system on the impact WASHIxc entagohe likelihood of a ngtea- dinate declining defense production with of projected trends In defense spending, n fe sep contractors to rethink spending is forcing do booming civilian needs ' ? and men with In the meantime, forecasters turn to such forging swords orge forging swordsinto o plowshares. new jobs" the prospects of studies as the one recently completed for the BEATING a member of the Senate Space Pentagon by Murray L. Weidenbaum, former To the big suppliers in the New York- Committee, cautioned against expecting the chief economist for the Boeing Co. and now New Jersey-Connecticut industrial complex, National Aeronautics and Space Adminlstra- senior economist at Stanford Research and elsewhere, the $1.1 billion cut in the 1965 lion to take up most of the slack in Pentagon Institute. Pentagon budget looks like handwriting on Weidenbaum concluded that a major shift the wall. It marks the first real reduction is contracts. The specific focus In Congress is on a bill In the size and/or composition of the de- defense spending in a decade. by senator GEORGE McGovzaN, Democrat, of fense budget would fall most heavily on the ind missiles, electronics, aircraft, and sbipbulld- Also contributing to the reappraisal are South Dakota, to set up an economic conver- the nuclear eat ban treaty, the mutual but shifts from de- mg industries. epenendent Soviset-American ican cutback in the lion committee to plan for fense to civilian production. Although Weldenbaum found west coast rate of plutonium stockpiling and a fuzzy In the Senate 12 Senators-all Demo- firms would be hit hardest, the eastern sea- yet persistent feeling that arms limitation crate-are sponsors. Twenty Congressmen, board would also feel the impact, as seen in accords with Russia cannot be ruled out in Including both Democrats and Republicans, the distribution of defense dollars within the years ahead. With Americans dying in have introduced similar measures in the these States: Vietnam and an guard at the Berlin Wall. House. Hearings are planned in the Senate New York-Aircraft (28.1 percent), elec- nobody claims that peace is breaking out all but, thus far, not in the House. ironies (23 percent). over. And almost no one foresees a drastic In the opinion of Senator HARaxsoN A. New Jersey-Electronics (41 percent), air- cut in arms procurement. JR., Democrat, of New Jersey. a craft (20 percent). That few defense firms are genuinely WrLLIA Ms. Senate sponsor of the McGovern bill, "the Connecticut-Aircraft (68 percent), ships alarmed about the $51.2 billion budget, stems (18.3 percent). most significant indicator of a new slats- Qualitatively, the problems of diversifying from thed f ict that much the for reduction Polaris la and phere on the Hill (toward conversion) is the into nondefense products are more easily been em ntab. Spending foe Pand receptionaccorded (recently) to Dr. Seymour peak. Minuteman missiles has passed its the Melman, the ubigltous Columbia University defined. Weidenbaum, like other students Behind, also, are the e doubled budgets for r the of conversion, found that: scholar and activitist." I. Highly specialized defense Industries Army's "beefed up" conventional forces. Meiman's continuing seminar on arms In- hold forth today in a business world where Former Deputy Defense Secretary Roswell dustry conversion at Columbia University atric summed up the trend in congres- stems from his views on "overkill." His existing firma already meet civilian con- sionai testimony last November: theory, disputed by the Pentagon, is that nu- sober needs. In contrast to the postwar era, aton"Unless some currently unforeseen change there is today little pent up consumer de- r clear weapons can be cut back sharply be- mand. takes place Inthe nature of military threats cause enough are already on hand to destroy 2. Big defense contractors, thriving in the which the Nation faces we do not see the need Soviet cities many times over. 2Upius-fixed-See environment of the Pen- s e * ? of a recurrence of the rapid increase in Peace groups such as the committee fora tagon, emphasize quality and reliability in defense spending that has been necessary in sane nuclear policy have picked up Melman's contrast to the compromises between price the past 3 years. thesis and have put conversion at the head and quality made daily by firms in the com- "Instead, we anticipate a relatively stable of their 1964 agenda. mercial markets. overall military budget, but with conditions But many who reject Melman's position 3. Past attempts at diversification by de- which would create economic problems for on overkill-including Congressmen with fense Sims-much as powered wheelbarrows, certain industries that would then have to loud-hit defense plants in their districts- stainless steel Collins and wall paneling- find alternative, nondefense uses for their regard conversion as a pressing Issue. have failed. resources." The administration has told Congress that . The surviving attempts," says Weiden- As the implication of this forecast sinks "we are not persuaded that enactment of baum. "are actually losing money, barely into the consciousness of Congressmen and the McGovern bill would be an effective breaking even, or showing profit results con. communities already feeling the effects of approach at this time." siderably below military earnings." defense cutbacks, the old "swords into plow- It asked Congress to defer action on the According to former Boeing economist shares" debate has been revived with new, bill until the President's Committee on the Weldenbaum, even for the exceptions to this more sophisticated wrinkles. Economic Impact of Defense and Disarma- rule--such as the commercial 707 jetliners- item: Leaders of the New York and New ment "has had an opportunity to explore "the profit performance has been extremely Jersey district of the International Union of theseproblems further and to see what ad- orr, Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers-rep- ditionai legislation may be called for to deal ." losses Incurred." he adds, "have resenting 100,000 members in the two with them." depleted the venture capital available to seek States-recently urged their communities to other commercial business and have reduced establish civilian conservation corporations [From the Star-Gazette, Elmira, N.Y., the enthusiasm of other defense companies where private corporations refuse or perform Apr. 30, 19641 to diversify." in a dilatory manner in converting from de- SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES: FINANCING, But, taking the longer view, the conversion tense production to new civilian products. MARKETS CHALLENGES or CONYEESroN- picture Is not so bleak. .Item: At the RCA plant in Camden, NJ., PART II Connecticut's United Aircraft Corp., al- hard hit by the completion of work on the (By Edmund B. Lambeth) though still 80 percent dependent on defense ballistic missile early warning system, the markets, has doubled its commercial prod- issue of conversion has been put on the WASHINmroN -Money, markets, and iris- uct line in the last decade. agenda of a joint union-management study matched manpower are the big headaches One of its brighter prospects for more committee that would face defense firms in the event of diversification is the fi et'cell, which con- Item: In the wake of the phaseout of the a major cutback in Pentagon spending. verts chemical energy directly to electricity Rome, N.Y., Air Materiel Area and the can- That, in short, is the message of experts without the use of rotating machinery and cellation of a Skybolt missile subcontract, in hired to advise the Defense Department on with greater efficiency than conventional Utica, both conservative Republican ALExAN- the economic effects of disarmament or- conversion systems. DEE Pxasnz and liberal Democratic Repre- more likely-a limited arms control accord Military airframe and electronic manufac- sentative SAMUEL S. STRA'rroN, of Amsterdam, with the Soviet Union. turers claim that once the switching prob- put their names on a bipartisan letter to Neither of these contingenciesassumed lems of Monorail Rapid Transit (a conver- President Johnson, which read, in part: In the experts' studies--is predicted for the sion prospect) are solved, the harassed West- "Thorough study of the conversion prob- near future. chester County commuter-now a slave to lem by the executive branch, which will lead Yet the basic points made in the studies the New Haven schedule-would have to to concrete, affirmative action, must, in our the current considered debate over how the big defense two, nnooy on g rgfoor his train than a minute or view, be instituted at once,' Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170069-5