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December 16, 2016
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January 3, 2005
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April 7, 1964
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196.4 Approved CFor Rel&We ONGSSIONAL/RECORD DPJ$Wbilii`00170077-6 the Atlantic traffic to and from the Panama Canal. And, what is often forgotten, Cuba geographically dominates the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico. Control of Guantanamo is necessary for U.S. policing and protection of the Wind- ward Passage. This is the 50-mile-wide strip of water between the eastern end of Cuba and Haiti. It is the "watergate" through which funnels much of the shipping between the Atlantic into the Caribbean and to the Panama Canal. Communist control of the Windward Pas- sage would go far toward sealing, in war, the northern entrances to the Caribbean area against U.S. and free-world shipping. Red strategists have carefully studied Ger- man U-boat tactics in World War II, and know that the Nazi "wolfpacks" sunk a huge allied tonnage in the Windward Pass- age Narrows. Red control of the passage would dovetail neatly into employment of Russian sub- marine forces in war or "high temperature" crisis. U.S. antisubmarine units, air and surface, based at Guantanamo Bay, virtually on the southern coast of the passage, would break up any monopoly of the passage. BLOCK TO TAKEOVERS A1681 States were to abandon Guantanamo, when the last U.S. ship sailed out, the first Rus- sian sub would sail in. It would, they add, be but a short time before Russian on Cuban subs (both Russian made with Russian crews) would be routinely patrolling the eastern and gulf coasts of the United States. In addition to its key location and stra- tegic role, Guantanamo has a day-to-day value in terms of naval efficiency. It is the principal training base for the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. Each year about half the ships in the Atlantic Fleet conduct their training out of Guantanamo Bay. This means that in a 2- year period the entire fleet uses the base for training. Navy officials are quick to point out that even as a training base Guantanamo Bay would be hard to replace. Off its entrance is deep water, with various temperature levels, providing proper training for antisubmarine forces. Weather seldom interferes with naval avia- tion training for carriers based in Guantana- mo. Beaches for small-scale marine land- ings are inside the bay, and larger beaches are within easy cruising distance. OUR TREATY RIGHTS leave. the United Nations, but they do be- lieve that such weapons as are at our dis- posal ought to be used more effectively against our enemies. It isn't enough just to ask members of our various alliances how to work ourselves out of our difficulties. Somewhere along the line we must act. These critics of the administration's policy don't want to quit the cold war. Gitmo Grows More Vital Eve' EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. L. MENDEL RIVERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF' REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, April 7, 1964 Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent, I in- sert in the Appendix of the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD the article which ap- peared in the Miami News, on Wednes- day, February 12, 1964, concerning the vital importance of our naval base at Guantanamo Bay. This article was writ- ten by a distinguished retired Marine Corps general, Brig. Gen. J. D. Hittle, who is known by many of us. He is an authority in his field and I believe the article he has written should be read by every American citizen. The article follows: GITMO GROWS MORE VITAL EVERY DAY (NOTE.-The author, director of national security and foreign affairs for the Veterans of Foreign Wars, has served in Guantanamo with the Marines, has been assistant to the Secretary of Defense for legislative affairs under Secretary Thomas S. Gates, Jr., and is the author of "History of the Military Staff," a standard text in staff colleges around the world.) (By Brig. Gen. J. D. Hittle, U.S. Marine Corps, retired) WASHINGTON.-It Was inevitable that Guantanamo would become the focal point of the Communist-generated trouble In the Caribbean. Ever since the Russian takeover of Cuba, the keener U.S. strategists have warned that Guantanamo Bay was a major Red target. . Why? Because our base there is one of the most strategically located in the world. There has been far too much careless talk to the effeet that our base at Guantanamo is outdated and not as important as it once .was. The fact is that it is just as important as ever before. And there are two reasons for. its increasing importance: First, the So- viet Union's conquest of Cuba; second,- the Russian submarine fleet, by far the world's largest. From the U.S. standpoint, a Red Cuba makes our hold on Guantanamo imperative. Here are some examples: Guantanamo dom- inates the Caribbean. Since Castro took over Cuba for the Soviet Union, the Carib- bean IS no longer "an American lake." Our continued control of Guantanamo is neces- sary to keep it from becoming a "Russian lake." Naval strategists point out that when the Communists went. after Cuba, they knew what they were doing strategically. Cuba is, in many ways, the strategic heart of the Americas. It stands directly astride the Atlantic sealanes between North and South America. It is in a position, if unchecked, to control As the communist propaganda guns are brought to bear against our position in Guantanamo Bay, demands for renegotiation of our treaty rights will become more in- sistent. It will be the same old claim of im- perialism and archaic treaties. But it will be difficult to make the charge of an outdated treaty stick. True, Our origi- nal rights stemmed from treaties of 1903-4. But with keen foresight those treaties were renegotiated and reaffirmed with Cuba by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1934. Thus we are in Guantanamo Bay through a treaty of the good neighbor era. This should pose a problem for Red propaganda. But it probably won't bother the Kremlin or Castro. They know how vital Guantana- mo Bay is to U.S. security. They also know how much it is needed as a Russian subma- rine base. They hope to force us out. Also Guantanamo's location helps block Castro's efforts to move into Haiti and the Dominican Republic. A Castro takeover there would outflank our bases in Puerto Rico. Were this to happen, the strategic position of the United States in the Carib- bean would be irreparably fragmented. Continuing Communist subversion in the Caribbean and Latin America Increases rath- er than diminishes the value of Guan- tanamo Bay by emphasizing its central po- sition. Navy-Marine "ready forces," if based in Guantanamo, would be but a short voy- age from Communist-created hotspots. For instance, the value of Guantanamo Bay as a base in the Caribbean area was well demonstrated when President Eisen- hower ordered a naval patrol between Cas- tro's Cuba and the mainland during the Honduran crisis. Guantanamo was even more conveniently positioned when President Kennedy put 2d Fleet units between Cuba and the Domini- can Republic to prevent Castro from moving in during the upheaval following the assas- sination of Trujillo. It would be impossible to duplicate Guan- tanamo as a base for stationing "on-call" Navy-Marine forces for quick movement to the political "brush fires" Castro's agents are lighting throughout the area. If the United States were forced out of Guantanamo Bay, the loss in terms of our strategic requirements would be tremendous. But, what is often overlooked, the damage to our national security would not be limit- , ed to losing what we must have. Rather, the damage would be vastly compounded by Guantanamo's value as a Communist base. One of the difficulties facing Khrushchev's naval strategists Is the lack of submarine bases beyond the territorial waters of the Soviet Union. Without such bases the Rus- sian subs have to spend a large portion of operating time cruising to and from Soviet ports and their assigned patrol areas. INTO AMERICAN WATERS Availability of Guantanamo Bay as a Rus- sian submarine base would have the effect, by cutting down traveltime to the Carib- bean, of increasing the efficiency of Russian submarine deployment. Mathematically it would mean that the Kremlin could keep far more submarines in American waters. From the standpoint of U.S. defense, it would make little difference whether the Russian submarines officially flew the ham- mer and sickle or operated under the fiction of Cuban control. The threat to the Ameri- ca's would be just as great. Naval strategists say that if the United Retirement of Distinguished Educator EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BARRATT O'HARA OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, April 6, 1964 Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, James W. Crowe, one of the Nation's foremost authorities in the field of voca- tional education, will retire in May as principal of Chicago Vocational High School, which under his administration has won national prestige and acclaim. He was recently named "man of the year" by the South Chicago Chamber of Commerce, as related in the news stor- ies in the Chicago Tribune, Southeast Economist and Daily Calumet that I am extending my remarks to include. The material follows: [From the Chicago (Ill.) Tribune, Jan. 30, 1964] VOCATIONAL'S PRINCIPAL IS MAN OF YEAR The South Chicago Chamber of Commerce has named James W. Crowe, principal of Chicago Vocational High School, its "Man of the Year." Crowe, of 2217 East 69th Street, was se- lected by a committee of chamber members for his civic activities. The announcement was made by Samuel C. Maragos of 9207 Yates Boulevard, group president, Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170077-6 A1682 Approved~FL N 1u ;s1 .. [01/~27COCIA-RDP6P ~ 4~03R000200170077-6 jv ~? APrzl 7 During his 14 years as principal of the high school, Crowe has been chairman of the chamber of commerce Youth and in- dustry Week, a program to familiarize high school students with occupations in busi- ness and industry. Before his assignment to the high school. Crowe was supervisor of the school board's bureau of veterans education and training. While supervisor of the city school's drafting department, he wrote a text on drafting now used in the public high schools. He and his wife, Helen, have a son, Brian, who is a senior at Indiana University. An older son, Mark, is employed in the Navy Department in Washington, D.C. [From the Chicago Daily Calumet] HONORS CROWE As MAN OF THE YEAR James W. Crowe, 62, of 2217 East 69th, Chicago Vocational principal, has been named "Man of the Year" by the South Chi- cago Chamber of Commerce. A committee of chamber members selected Crowe for his civic activities. Crowe, principal for the past 14 years, has been chairman of the chamber of commerce youth and industry week, a program to fa- miliarize high school students with occupa- tions of business and industry. Crowe is past president of the South Chi- cago chamber, having served two terms. Crowe and his wife, Helen, have a son Brian, a senior at Indiana University. Mark, an older son, is employed In the Navy De- partment In Washington, D.C. Crowe was supervisor on the school board's bureau of veterans education and training before his assignment to CVS. He wrote a text on drafting now used by public high schools while he was supervis- or of the city's school's drafting department. He is a graduate of Lane Technical High School, and Loyola University where he holds two degrees-a bachelor of science In educa- tion and a master's degree In education. Crowe is a member of Local 10. Carpenters' Union. American Federation of Labor. He taught shop and drafting at Lane for 18 years. He was supervisor of teacher train- ing for the U.S. Navy at CVS 1941-r42, and wrote the text for the course "Principles of Trade Teaching." Crowe was chief of training for War Man- power Commission of Metropolitan Chicago from 1943 to 1945. Crowe also served as; Educational adviser for Rehabilitation Commission, Department of Illinois American Legion, 1944-54; past treasurer, Illinois Industrial Arts Association; principal, CVS High School since 1950; prin- cipal, CVS evening school since 1950; presi- dent, Illinois Council of Local Administrators (industrial education ); coordinator, Region III, American Industrial Arts Award Compe- tition, 1960-61; member, Education Commit- tee, Association of Commerce and Industry, Chicago. [From the Southeast Economist[ CHICAGO VOCATIONAL SCHOOL PRINCIPAL Is MAN OF THE YEAR James W. Crowe, principal of Chicago Vo- cational High School, was named "Man of the Year" at the annual awards dinner- dance of the South Chicago Chamber of Commerce held In the Jovial Club, 9615 South Commercial Avenue. The coveted honor, awarded to outstand- ing chamber members, went to Crowe for his longtime civic activities in the community, including his work during the area's annual Youth and Industry Week. The special event is held to help young people select future careers and advise them of the quali- fications and opportunities available with the aid of business and industrial leaders. Crowe, who has been the principal at CVS for the past 14 years, is a past president of the South Chicago Chamber. Before his assignment at CVS, he was superintendent of the bureau of veterans education Ind train. ng of the Chicago public echo-)Is. Previ.nusly, he was supervisor of the draft- ing department of the Chicago schools and author of a drafting textbook still used at vocational schools. During World War II he served as Cttef of Training of the War Manpower Comals- sion ,f Metropolitan Chicago. Crcwe attended Lane Technical High Schad and holds both a bachelor and mus- ters degree in education from Loyola Univer- sity. He is past president of the Vocational Schoc I Administrators Association and p ust treasurer of the Illinois Industrial Edu, a- tiona: Association. Att,_rney Samuel Maragos, president of the cham'>er, said of Crowe: "The choice of the man .,f the year committee was an excellent one i i naming a high caliber of dedicated worker and fine person such as Mr. Crowe.' Committee members included Dr. Alvin Lieber man, 8148 South Kingston Avenue; George Rooney. 2152 East 78th Street, and John 3lovic, 9234 South Bennett Avenue. Corpurate Profits and Economic Growth EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. THOMAS B. CURTIS or MISSOURI IN '_7HE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, April 7, 1964 Mr CURTIS. Mr. Speaker, in his coiufr it in the Washington Post on April 6, Ha 'old B. Dorsey points to an under- tone ~If worry about the possible adverse effects on the economy of forthcoming wage negotiations. He notes that a mua- under tanding of corporate profits figure might create public support for excessive labor demands that would create infin- tiona?y pressures and/or lower profit margins. Cot Crary to the commonly held opin- ion, c )rporate profits are just beginning to sh)w signs of recovering from the subnormal level that has been stultifyir g econo nic growth for the past 6 years. This healthy improvement In corporate profl.t; has neither come out of the hic`e of consumers or of labor, according i-o the column. As Mr.. Dorsey points out, a misundel- stand ng of the corporate profits figures that 'eads to an excessive Increase In labor costs might very well lead to an inflationary boom-and-bust pattern In the economy. The article follows: Tam IMAGE Or EARNINGS TREND NEEDED (By Harold B. Dorsey) NEW YORK, April 5.-The budget of bus- ness n~'ws continued favorable last week and the str.,ck averages established another new record. Nevertheless, one can sense the dc- velopn ent of an undertone of worry abot.t the possible adverse effects on the economy of wags negotiations. The concern is not a fear of fair and rec - sonabi.~ wage adjustments. Rather, it cer - tars around the evidence that a misundet - standhag of the corporate profits figures might ,reate public support for excessive la- bor do mends that would create inflation pressu, es and/or lower profit margins. Infia,ionary price behavior would reatrala a resin volume of consumption-both here and abroad-with an adverse effect on em- ployment. Lower profit margins would re- duce the incentive of business to make the capital investments which lead to more and better products for consumers and more and better jobs for employees. The current Issue of the First National City Bank letter points out: "Because news- papers and other accounts play up the news of record profits, whether for individual com- panies or all corporations, earnings trends are easily misinterpreted and are not con- sidered In relation to the growth of the economy. Wage payments, taxes, sales or capital investment. Public opinion polls have consistently shown that people gen- erally have exaggerated notions about how large profits actually are." It is much more than a coincidence that record corporate earnings are accompanied by new records for employment, payrolls, sales, and practically all of the broad meas- urements of the economy's welfare. The good earnings should be looked upon as a favorable sign for continuing economic growth. It is unfortunate that they afe be- ing looked upon as a target for labor to shoot at. For example, the UAW's Walter Reuther has stated that the automobile industry could afford to reduce the price of cars by $200, give labor a very large increase in hourly pay, and still record a satisfactory re- turn on its capital investment. If his formula were to be applied to one of the automobile producers. It would seem likely that this company-and the jobs of its 33,000 employees-could not survive. A second producer would certainly operate in the red under this formula. The other two companies would show such a reduction in their earnings that they could not afford to make the large capital expenditures needed to create more jobs and to maintain the efficiency that is so important in this mass production business, One of the primary reasons why this col- umn became so optimistic about the out- look for business activity and employment last autumn was the evidence that corporate profit margins were showing signs of re- covering from the subnormal level that had been stultifying economic growth for the preceding 6 years. The corporate earning figuresare now justifying that anticipation, The First National City Bank letter gives a picture of the 15-year downward trend in manufacturers' profits as a percentage of sales and Capital Investment. These meas- urements were at subnormal levels from 1957 through 1963. The figures of 1982 and 1963 showed a moderate recovery from the lowest level in many years. There Is being created in the mind of the public the erroneous impression that this moderate recovery is exorbitant and that It is coming out of the hides of labor and consumers. This image is simply contrary to the facts. Prices have been unusually stable and the number of people employed and weekly payrolls per worker have risen to new record levels. An attack on business profits conflicts with the economic program now being espoused by the administration. One of the most Important objectives of that program is to encourage American and foreign capital flow Into American enterprise by improving the attractiveness of such investments. Business analysts and investment man- agers are beginning to appraise more care- fully the business prospects for 1965. All of the foregoing observations are an integral part of these calculations. If a misunder- standing of the corporate profit figures is going to encourage excessive increases in labor coats, then we may have an inflationary boom-and-bust pattern. If the higher costs are to come out of profit margins instead of higher prices, then the growth of activity Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200170077-6