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January 1, 1964
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191% Approved For R r' ?NiygAL fttMgg 0 q 0190020-6 11861 While his friendliness .and reasonableness BELLIGERENT ARAB ACTIVITIES IN peace in the Middle East and elsewhere and must never be mistaken for weakness, one THE MIDDLE EAST the development of the economy and well- cannot help but think that the Eshkol touch being of nations recipient of U.S. aid: could turn such potentially heated talks into Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, the "Whereas the actions of the United States constructive channels which would advance Brooklyn Jewish Community Council, in supporting Nasser are wholly inconsistent the cause of peace in the Middle East. which represents more than 800 organi- with U.S. declarations of policy; It must be emphasized, however, that the zations in the largest Jewish community "Whereas there is imminent danger that Prime Minister clearly recognizes that Israel in the United States, is seriously alarmed Egypt shortly will be in a position to destroy can embark on a policy of patient discussion Israel overnight by the rocketry and sophisti- of long-term security and political problems over the continuing buildup among the cated weapons which Nasser is accumulating, only as long as her independent military Arab nations in the Middle East. suported by his now battle trained army; might is maintained. He knows that Israel's Mr.. President, while the United States "Whereas, although the Congress of the peace policy must still be based on the solid continues to offer economic assistance, United States provided by law that U.S. eco- foundation of her deterrent strength. monetary stabilization funds, and surplus nomic aid should not be given to any nation It is expected that Israel's security, the food to President Nasser, Egypt's own preparing for aggression against any other political situation in the Middle East, and resources, assisted by Nazi scientists and country aided by the United States, the seawter desalination will be high on Eshkol's diverted administration has not acted to stop aid to agenda in his forthcoming talks in Wash- Soviet weapons, are consistently Egypt; and in ton. into belligerent or wartime activities. g "Whereas President Nasser has admitted It is understood he will urge that any- Mr. President,. in the' Middle East openly that Egypt is preparing for an aggres- agreement between the United States and there is, as a result, an increasing arms sive war against Israel and is actively carry- the Soviet Union for a relaxation of world imbalance which undoubtedly will tempt ing on aggression elsewhere; tensions include the Arab-Israel dispute. Nasser into more and more aggressive "Whereas Nasser has alined himself with This subject has been the subject of fruitless military adventures. the Communist bloc in their efforts to con- discussion at the highest levels between The Brooklyn Jewish Community trol the African nations: Now, therefore, be American and Israel leaders for some time. It Ben-Gurion sought in vain a Washington Council calls upon our Government to "Resolved, That the actniinistration should initiative for a joint appeal with the Kremlin reverse its longtime policy of appeasing immediately reverse its longtime policy of for peace in the Near East, combined with a Nasser. It urges an end to U.S. aid for appeasing Nasser; guarantee of existing borders. In the alter- Nasser until he ceases his aggressive ac- "That the United States take a firm stand native, the former Premier suggested a pub- tions and calls for a treaty of mutual de- before all the world on behalf of the peace- lie U.S. guarantee of Israel's security. fense and support ffully intentioned, liberty loving Although rebuffed on previous attempts, with such as loving, democratic, those the United ed States h s Israel, has with and free people of Israel to ward off its de- de- Israeli officials feel changing world conditions struction; and have brightened chances for East-West other nations in NATO, CENTO, and "That to prevent this catastrophe the agreements, and accordingly Eshkol will SEATO. United States should (a) withdraw aid from urge that any such understandings cover Mr. President, I .ask unanimous con- Nasser as long as that aid is used for aggres- the Israel-Arab conflict. sent to have printed in the RECORD the sive purposes and (b) announce its readiness Of more immediate urgency, however, will resolution unanimously adopted on May to enter into a treaty of mutual defense and be the Prime Minister's effort to obtain help 5, 1964, by the Brooklyn Jewish Commu- support with Israel as it has with other in reducing Egypt's superiority over Israel nity Council. nations." Z", in some categories of modern weapons. 4.6 It is anticipated Eshkol will point out that There being no objection, the resolu- Egypt is engaged in a feverish arms race with tion was ordered to be printed in the THE KREMLIN'S PERSECUTION OF the support of the Communist bloc and will RECORD, as follows: RELIGION AND THE STATUS OF emphasize Israel's conviction that an arms The Brooklyn Jewish Community Council SOVIET JEWRY .balance in the Middle East-based on a duly assembled at its silver jubilee anni- strong and well-equipped Israel military versary meeting held at the Brooklyn Jewish Mr. HART. Mr. President, it is a establishment-is the best deterrent to an Center on May 5, 1964, unanimously passed matter of record that religion in the Arab attempt to liquidate his country. the following resolution: Soviet Union is under new assaults by Finally, the Prime Minister is expected to "Whereas for more than a decade the very the Communist government. Never be- place great emphasis on the need for assist- existence of the State of Israel has been fore has the power of a state been so ance in establishing a nuclear reactor in threatened with extinction by the repeated Israel to combine generation of electricity public declarations and preparations of the consistently employed to eliminate reli- Israel the desalting of sea water. Even a com- ruler of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser; gion from the public mind. At every pleted Jordan River project will contribute "Whereas since he came to power Presi- opportunity, administrative controls and only a small fraction of the water needed for dent Nasser has constantly declared over his other restraints are systematically im- the thirsty nation whose population Eshkol radio and in public his determination and posed by the Soviet Government. Con- estimates will eventually total 6 million. that of his associated Arab states to drive tinual erosion of their positions is the Completely new sources are required and the Israelis into the sea; lot of Russia's religious communities. the use of nuclear power to produce sweet "Whereas he has in recent years, in pur- The same situation generally holds true water appears to be the answer, although suance and preparations of such threats and Israel will necessarily be a junior partner in declarations of policy built up a formidable throughout the Communist orbit. such a venture, Eshkol will ' undoubtedly armament of jet planes, submarines, tanks It is a sad state of affairs when a pow- point out that the resultant reactor can and more recently offensive missiles, in the erful country, which glories in its society, serve as a model for other nations with Simi- building of which he has been aided by a self-proclaimed paradise, at the same lar problems and as a center for applied re- former Nazis who have found refuge in Egypt time and without apology denies its search in this vital field. from prosecution in Germany; people a most elemental right--the free- It is to be hoped that Israel's case will re- "Whereas for a year and a half he has kept dom of religion. ceive the sympathetic hearing it deserves in an army of Egyptian troops in Yemen which Apparently nothing more can be ex- Washington. were transported there by Russian planes Mr. Khrushchev's recent tour as guest of and supplied by Russian arms; petted from the Soviet regime. For Colonel Nasser has emphasized that Israel "Whereas contrary to his repeated prom- nearly 47 years, it has been battling reli- remains our only true friend in the Middle ises, he has not only not withdrawn his gion. It is dedicated to the destruction East, and that America's best interests will troops but has increased their number so of spiritual freedom and its byproducts. be served by steadfast support of Israel's that they now reportedly number 40,000 and, Numerous articles in the Soviet press security and independence. through rotation, has used the war in and official documents of the Govern- chosen It is significant that Levi Eshkol has Yemen to battle train his entire army; ment and party record the attitude of first trip as to visit the Israel united becoming on his "Whereas the United States has consist- the Communist leadership. Good ex- ex- first rir, g Prime ently supported Nasser with generous gifts amples appear in translation in the Minis of foreign aid in an amount now approach- It symbolizes the continuing bonds of lag nearly a billion dollars; March 25, 1964, issue of the Current friendship between the two nations, each "Whereas this policy encourages the ag- Digest of the Soviet Press, published dedicated to peace, justice, and human dig- gressive tactics and purposes of Egypt's weekly at Ann Arbor, Mich., by the Joint nity-and underscores the need for enduring dictator; Committee on Slavic Studies. To em- American concern for the fate of this bas- "Whereas the United States has repeatedly phasize the new assaults against the tion of freedom in the Middle East, declared its interest in the preservation of religious freedom of the Soviet people, No. 108-5 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 Approve d(,F ~l?fg?d Okfi~6%115-$p fiq"03R000200190020*6 t o 1 I ask unanimous consent that excerpts Intensifying the Atheistic Indoctrination of Terence on questions of improving the orga- from this material be printed in the the Population.' (Partlinaya zhizn. No. 2, nization and content of scientific-atheism RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks, January. pp. 22-28' Complete text) : The propaganda lectures. Ideological Commission of the CPSU Central Party committees are instructed to ex- as well as passages from a publication- Committee bas worked out "Measures for amine the question of the more active enlist- issued several months ago by the Radio Intensifying the Atheistic Indoctrination of ment in atheistic lecture propaganda of Liberty Committee III New York-en- the population." The CPSU Central Com- scientists, instructors, teachers, physicians, titled "The Beleaguered Fortress: A mittee, having approved these measures, has writers, journalists, and studentsat higher Survey of the Present Status of Religion Instructed the Central Committees of the educational inaitutions In the humanities, in the U.S.S.R." Communist Parties of the Union republics agriculture. and medicine. The people's The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- - and the territory and province party com- veraitles will be utilized actively for atheistic mittees. taking local conditions into account, Indoctrination. out objection, it is so ordered. to work out and implement concrete steps The U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State (See exhibits 1-A and 1-B.) aimed at a radical improvement in atheistic Committee for Cinematography envisages the SOVIET JEWRY work. release each year of feature films, popular Mr. HART. Mr. President, as all of The measures for intensifying the atheistic science films, newsreel-documentaries, and know well, Soviet Jewry is being singled Indoctrination of the population may be antimated cartoons on atheistic themes. out in the general Soviet assault on veil summarized as follows: The collegiums of the U.S.S.R. Ministry of The scientific elaboration of the problems Culture and the U.S.S.R. Council Of Min- gion. The situation iii spiritual and Cul- of atheism and the training of antireligious asters' State Committee for Cinematography tural genocide of the first order-blatant specialists: It has been decided to set up an and the secretariats, of the boards of the anti-Semitism, a shameful and scandal- Institute or Scientific Atheism in the CPSU artistic unions will discuss at a joint meeting ous affair. Central Committee's Academy of Social Scl- 'the question of enhancing the role of litera- As Columnist Rowland Evans, Jr., put ences. The institute is charged with gutd- ture and art in atheistic indoctrination. The ing and coordinating all scientific work in the holding of competitions (with incentive it some time ago: sphere of atheism carried on by the institute prizes) for the best artistic works on athe- The technique ,eini: used is strikingly of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, higher istic themes (in the fields of literature, differen, from the historical methods of educational institutions and institutions of drama, films, and painting) Is envisaged. bloodbath, extermination and violence, meth- the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Culture; the prepa- The question of improving the atheistic ods that have been teed in one country ration of highly skilled cadres: the organise- repertoire for amateur performing groups will after another back almost to the genesis of tion of the integrated elaboration of pressing be examined. time. The new method is Infinitely subtle problems of scientific atheism; and the hold- Measures are planned for stepping up the and varied, but its object Is clear: To put an Ing of all union scientific conferences and publication of atheistic literature, broaden- end to all the special qualities that, like a creative seminars. The Learned Council of ing its subject matter, utilising varied genres, kind of cement, have bound the Jews to- the Institute of Scientific Atheism is to be and raising its ideological-political and pub- gether .through the most rapacious persecu- composed of representatives of the CPSU licistic level. tions in all history. Central Committee's Ideological Department in the Interests of strengthening the pres- Mr. President, in the current Yearbook and of central scientific and ideological in- entation of atheistic themes-by newspapers, stitutions, and also of public organiza- magazines, and publishing houses, and on of the Central Conference of American tions. ? ` radio and television, it as recommended that Rabbis-CCAR- there appears a report The atheistic training of cadres: Beginning the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Com- on "Jews and Judaism in the Soviet Or- with the 1964-65 academic year. a required mittees for the Press and for Radio and Tele- bit," by the very respected rabbi of Tem- course (with examinations) in the principles vision and the Union of Soviet Journalists, ple Beth El, in Detroit, Dr. Richard C. of scientific atheism will be introduced in and their organs in the republics and pro- Hertz. Excerpts from the report by Dr. the universities and higher medical. agricul- vinces, conduct regular creative seminars for aural and pedagogical schools, and an elective journalists specializing in questions of athe- Hertz, who has served for 2 years as course will be offered at other institutions of lstic indoctrination, work out in practice chairman of the committee on Jews in higher education. The principles of scien- methodological recommendations on these the Soviet orbit for the CCAR, are print- tific atheism will also be taught in medical, questions, strive for greater attention on the ed in a recent bulletin of Temple Beth pedagogical, and cultural-enlightment acade- part of the press to the unmasking of reli- El. I commend this excellent report to rates. Programs and textbooks for the course gious ideology and the generalization of my colleagues. are being prepared that take into account the practical work in atheistic indoctrination, Another fine article on the status of different corms of instruction. Study plans and draw specialists more actively into the Soviet Jews appeared in the January and programs envisage a required course of work of the press. seminar' studies, the preparation of course The Ail-Union radio and central tele- 1963 issue of Foreign Affairs. The points work, and credit for practical atheistic work. vision, and also republic and province radio made by its author. Moshe Decter, are The atheistic orientation of courses in the and television studios, are called upon to even more relevant today. natural sciences and the humanities will be broadcast regular atheistic programs on radio Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- Intensified. ? ? ` and television for various categories of lis- sent that the report by Dr. Hertz and the Party and YCL committees are instructed teners and viewers (especially lecture cycles article by Mr. Decter be printed in the to make active use of the political-enlighten- and public events series, roundtable dis- RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks. ment system for the atheistic training of cussions, and question-and-answer sessions), cadres. For this purpose it has been decided to enlist the best propagandists of atheism The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- to set up in all areas-especially in regions and scientists in this work, and to produce out objection, it is sc ordered. where there is a relatively high incidence of television films on atheistic themes. (See exhibits 2-A and 2-B.) religious belief among the population--sem- it is recommended that the All-Union Mr. HART. Mr. President, freedom's mars schools, and circles for the study of Central Council of Trade Unions, the U.S.S.R. encounter with communism and totals- atheism, combining the instruction of stu- Ministry of culture and the knowledge dents with atheistic work. In conformity society strengthen the material and tech- tal ianism is in par on the intellectual with contemporary requirements, programs nical base for lecture and cultural- and spiritual level, on the level of human on atheism will be improved and appropriate enlightenment atheistic work, enliven the relationships, of human rights. One of materials on atheism for the political-en- atheistic activity of museums, especially his- the greatest challenges for America is lightenment network will be prepared for torical and regional-lore museums, plane- the kind of example in human rights we publication by the beginning of the 1964-85 tariums, traveling exhibits, and mobile clubs set within our own society. But our academic year. [aviokluby], Increase the production of leadership for human rights throughout it is recommended that seminars on ques- slide-projector films, etc. the world, our response to persecution, is tions of atheistic Indoctrination be put into it is planned to heighten the role of effect for party. Soviet. YQL and trade union medical workers in atheistic Indoctrination, also important. 'Ihe least the Senate workers and activists, teachers, physicians, to set up permanent courses on atheism for can do for the cause of religious freedom Young Pioneer group leaders and workers in medical workers at medical institutes, and in the Soviet Unioa is to adopt Senate children's preschool institutions, instructors also to organize atheistic work in houses Resolution 204, which expresses the deep' in vocational and technical academies and of health education, hospitals, maternity belief of Americana in freedom of reli- schools, cultural-enlightenment workers, homes, and women's and children's con- gion and our oppo:dtion to its infringe- journalists, administrative workers, chair- sultation clinics. ment anywhere in the world. men. and members of women's councils. In order to Introduce nonreligious holl- EXHIBIT i-A apartment house committees and pensioners' days and rituals more actively In the every- councils. day life of Soviet people, a conference of From the Current Digest of the Soviet Press. The utilization in atheistic indoctrination party. Soviet YCL. and trade union workers, Man :35, 19641 of all means of ideological influence: The ethnographers, propagandists, and registry NEW MEASURES T-] COMBAT RELIGIOUS All-Union Knowledge Society, together with office workers will be held on this question; SURVIVALS OoTLINYD the YCI, Central Committee, the All-Union local Soviets will provide for the construe- From the Ideological Commission of the Central Council of Trade Unions, and the tion of palaces of happiness in plans for CPSU Central Committee: "On Measures for U.S.S.R. Ministry of Culture, will hold a con- urban and settlement construction and for Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 Approved For RdJ~I~ C#6B060190020-6 11863 the active utilization of houses of culture society. Sometimes party organizations even reconcilability toward religious ideology and for these purposes and will establish cere- tolerate the observance of religious rites by a considerable attitude toward its victims, monial forms (taking specific local features Communists. They look with Indifference the believers. into account) for official participation in the on violations of Soviet laws by some clergy- Work with people is a complex matter, registration of births and marriages, the men, although life demands the organiza- And it is more so with believers, whose con- issuing of passports, and other important tion of effective control over the observance sciousnesses are entangled and clouded by events in the lives of Soviet people. of the legislation on religious cults. Weak- the narcotic of religion and who are already Seminar conferences will be held for the ness and passivity in atheistic work in fact biased against the atheist, mistrusting his purpose of generalizing experience and work- promote the dissemination of religious ideol- words and deeds. Therefore it is not only ing out recommendations foL work with be- ogy and clear the way for the activity of and not so much a knowledge of biblical lievers. The staff of propagandists and dis- clergymen and sect members. dogma that is required of everyone who cussion leaders on atheistic themes will be To conduct scientific-atheistic work exten- works with believers but a profound under- strengthened, and atheist groups will be as- sively and systematically, to struggle per- standing of life and strong spiritual quali- signed to organize individual work with be- sistently for the emancipation of the con- ties. We have a whole army of such Com- lievers in each community. Believers will be sciousness of every believer from the nar- munists, to whom different people come with drawn into general-education circles and cotic of religion, and to use all Ideological open hearts to talk about their thoughts and schools. means of these ends-this is the urgent task deeds. Chiefly because of their prejudices, The atheistic upbringing of children and of party organizations. believers do not always or easily find their adolescents: The antireligious trend in school "Atheistic Indoctrination Is the Concern way to such Communists. Our duty is to programs, especially in the social sciences, is of the Entire Party." (By I. Brazhnik. 'Par- find the way to the believers ourselves, striv- gaining strength. Methodological textbooks tiinaya zhizn, No. 24, December 1963, pp. Ing so that each of them will go with an for antireligious education in schools will be 21-26. 2,800 words. Condensed text:) The open heart to the representatives of the issued to teachers. The widespread utiliza- party program has set the task of forming party, which has not only interpreted but tion in the atheistic indoctrination of school- a scientific world view in all members of is transforming the world, society and man- children of various forms of extracurricular Soviet society, of fully emancipating their kind. It is important to be able to under- and after-school work (young atheists' clubs consciousness from survivals of the past, in- stand the believer, not to refuse him friendly and corners, lectures, discussions, evening cluding religious prejudices. This is a pre- support but to win his confidence and then meetings, excursions, cultural trips to the requisite for the building of commu- his spiritual world. movies and the theater, etc.) Is, directed, nism. * * * This is the only true path for our atheism. People's universities of pedagogy and As was noted at the June plenary session Therefore individual work with believers is schools for mothers will be actively utilized of the CPSU Central Committee, the im- the basic and most effective form of atheistic for the atheistic instruction of parents. perialist bourgeoisie in' its struggle against indoctrination. It allows taking into con- Control over the observance of Soviet leg- us is now placing its hopes chiefly in ideo- sideratfon the believer's age and level of gen- islatfon on cults: In order to put a stop to logical subversion. It is counting on religion eral education, his occupational Interests, groups of believers and indivfiual believers, . ideology into our midst * * ? control is being strengthened over the pro- In recent times, the scientific and ideologi- tection of children and adolescents from the cal-political level of atheistic work has risen influence of churchgoers and from parental significantly; it is becoming more and more coercion of children to perform religious rites. * * * The organization of atheistic work: Local party organizations are obliged to sglect Communists who will be responsible for the organization of atheistic work and who will unite around themselves groups of public- spirited people engaged in the propaganda and organization of atheistic work at enter- prises and construction projects, on collec- tive and state farms, in institutions, schools, young pioneer organization, etc., and to strengthen control over the fulfillment by Communists of the statutes' requirements for participation in the struggle against religious survivals. * * * Certain workers in the ideological depart- ments of the party committees should spe- cialize in questions of atheism, especially in those territories, provinces, cities, and dis- the reasons for his belief in God and many other factors. * * * It is necessary that local party organiza- tions first of all determine what workers in the collective or local residents are under the influence of religion and to what degree, how this influence 1s manifested and what means are best for winning over the believers. Tak- ing these requirements into account, agita- tors must be assigned to personal work with individual believers and to plan the organi- zation of their instruction. All Communists are called upon to be militant atheists. Strict exactingness must be shown toward those party members and candidate mem- bers who exhibit passivity in this matter and who at times even participate them- selves In religious' rites. If a party member has his child baptized, he is no longer a Communist but a philistine. Every collec- tive must be concerned with the creation of a public atmosphere in which every con- firmed atheist considers it his duty to ex- pose religious prejudices and in which all possible support is given to antireligfous ac- among the population is relatively high. ? + ? (by teaching the principles of atheism in tivity as a noble action aimed at the spiritual "Actively Conduct Athiestic Indoctrina- higher educational institutions and tech- The emancipation a party statutes obi. tion" (Pravda, Mar. 2, p. 2; 2,100 words). nicums, through the political-enlightenment to be gh r against Communiof (This article summarizes briefly the provi- network and schools for agitators, etc.) with the a staunch flinger against sprejvals of sions.of the central committee resolution de- the ability to expose contemporary religion, e past, including of mean prejudices. Scribed scribed in the article from Partiinaya zhizn to work concretely and effectively with be- one This, of course, t beean mean that every- translated above; it concludes: I No matter lievers, encompassing all strata and groups one o nse or. to But In racti legfous many Core- in what detail the measures for atheistic in- of the population. * * * munists counselor. But in practice many om- doctrination are elaborated, their success de- The inability to do battle against religion tf e tocan and should he spy fic c ndi-religion pends above all on the practical work of is manifested on the one hand by a com- tions tude of their work, rk, thereby in the spec mounting specific an of- ig of- party organizations. The June plenary ses- placement attitude toward it and on the ensiork, front against religious party of the CPSU central committee called other by the Impatient desire of some zeal- ideology. on a broad front against Communist who on the party to mount an offensive on all sec- sus administrators to be done with reli- is deoy If, for example, a has who tors of the ideological front. This demand gion as quickly as possible, to be rid of the an instructor in science has an attitude by the plenary session directly concerns the believers. of indifference toward the question of religion and fails to draw p, atheisti struggle against religious survivals. All It Is hard to say which of these extremes co nclusions from his researcch, by his neu- party organizations are called upon to take is worse. One thing is certain: Both of trality he plays into the hands of religion up an active offensive against religious ideol- them are inadmissible. But they also are, and fails to fulfill the requirements of the ogy, to forge a scientific world view, a scien- indicative of something else. Not everyone statutes. tific ideology in all Soviety people. sees that no alterations of church policies The discussion in the ideological commis- in specific conditions, no trimming of reli- sion of the question of atheistic work gious ideas, has ever changed or can change ExHrsrr 1-8 brought out that as yet, unfortunately, not their antiscientific character, which is alien THE BELEAGUERED FORTRESS: A SURVEY or all party organizations are waging a strug- to communism. The letter of church ser- THE PRESENT STATUS OF RELIGION IN THE gle against religious prejudices. In a num- mons and even canons can and does change, U.S.S.R. ber of cases there is complacency and un- but their spirit, basic content and objective (Radio Liberty Committee, 30 East 42d concern; no account is taken of the fact that meaning remain in opposition to a.scientiflc Street, New York, N.Y.) in our country religion is an ideological op- world view, and religion as a whole is a com- What the Soviet Government intends to ponent that openly preaches an ideology ponent part of the hostile bourgeois ideol- be a battle to the death against religion alien to science and to the Communist ogy world view and that is detrimental to our Truly militant atheism has recently begun. p 45 years, using presupposes ir- every means at its disspo osal, the Kremlin Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 diverse in form. Many people have broken with religion and become atheists, hundreds and thousands of religious communities have disintegrated. But many of our people are still held captive by religious ideology. In this connection, the decisions of tlfe June (1963) plenary session of the CPSU Central Committee pointed out anew the necessity of furthering by all possible means the inten- sification of work on forming a scientific world view and on the atheistic indoctrina- tion of working people. * * * If the struggle against religion is to be waged successfully, it is necessary to have a clear view of the extent and character of the religious beliefs of the population in every specific area of the country, every com- munity, collective, house and apartment, to know each believer, his views and atti- tudes and the reasons for his beliefs. Fiur- thermore, it is important to arm our cadres 11864 Approved FLW* MWA 1/ ; f?~ K fflA( 3R000200190020 6 ;June 1 has been striving to eliminate belief In God In addition, quasi-legal methods, new In- the U.S.R. Again in contrast to the other from the lives of Its 250 million Christians, terpretations of earlier laws or new ones churches, the Armenian Church maintains Jews, Moslems, and believers of other faiths. especially decreed. have been employed to fairly normal relations with Armenian The pressure on faith to Clod has fluctuated close churches and monasteries or to hinder churches abroad. with changes in the .political situation, or clergy of all faiths from normal activity. Of the Roman Catholics in Lithuania, lit- the prsvalling policy line of the Communist In literally thousands of books, periodicals, tle Is known outside the U.S.S.R., but the Party. But like the constant drive to films and TV programs, as well as thou- following official statistics from March 1. 1983, achieve Communist domination of the globe. sands of public lectures, the battle has been are revealing: the intent to wipe out all religions has never advanced. The atheist press (there is at -___-- faltered. least one militant godless periodical to every 1914 1962 Before World War II Stalin had practically Soviet republic) is constantly urging all broken up all religious organizations in the these mass media to heightened zeal and 3 U.S.S.R.; then, to assure the wartime toy- activity on "the godless front." ' ? ` Islshoi~s_______________________ 13 Trieste alt of the ant religious pressure was ----- - 1,293 680 y people, DSPFE$ENT FAITHS UNDER ATIIYISTPRE9$URx Pernla9rte54 1 relaxed. Most religious groups were enabled An information bulletin of the National Convents_____________________ 129 0 to reorganize with certain recognized rights Council of Churches (January 1983) gives such as limited autonomy and still more 12 of them In jail. limited publishing privileges. Since the the following data: "The major Christian groupings in the Churches closed since 1940: 319. , however, pressure has steadily risen, war, and now Khrushchev has evidently decided U.S.S.R., in order of the number of their ad- Government authorities threatened to religious herents, are the Orthodox, the Armenians, close the one remaining seminary because the that task of e3-terminating the Roman Catholics. the Lutherans, the bishop refused to ordain two candiates for faith is the to be pushed to completion, with religious a Union of Evangelical-Christian Baptista. and the priesthood, presented by the government. resort of violence comparable only to that the Reformed. These are registered, legal- Another body of Catholics of the Byzantine of the years just following the revolution. lied bodies. In addition, there are groups rite (Untates) in the Ukraine has recently NEW PRESSURES ON RELIGION of people who gather for prayer or worship occupied headlines. After 18 years of im- The reason for th:s suddenly Increased secretly, generally refusing to register be- prisonment, Archbishop Josyf Slipyi, of Lvov, atheistic activity Is evident from the Soviet cause some aspects of their religious prac- was released and permitted to go to Rome, press. In recent months, not only the of- tices conflict with Soviet law, or because they In 1945, at the time of the politically en- ficial antireliglous maggazinea, but what pass are of the type of sect which rejects any gineered mass transition of Ukranian Unfates for ordinary newspapers, have been sound- form of civil government. Among the latter to the Russian Orthodox Church, Archbishop ing the alarm because all too many or not are adherents. of such sects as Jehova's Wit- Sllpyi and other prelates opposed the move. a few young adults and teenagers are die- nesses and extreme forms of Pentecostals. He and six other bishops were arrested and covered attending church services. In esti- The total number of Christians may be 30 accused of political crimes under German mating total church attendance, Science and million. There are about 20 million Moslems occupation. All received sentences of 5 to 10 Religion, official atheist monthly, says, and over 2 million Jews. some of whom, how- years' imprisonment. Archbishop Slipyi was "Among the city's population there are ever, may have rejected religious belief. This later retried and resentenced, and is the only hundreds of thousands, and in the country would bring up a total of about 50 million one of the seven surviving. His release was many more." This was confirmed at the believers In God, which to a quarter of the reported due to papel intervention with the 14th Congress of the Iomsomol (Communist population of the country." Russian Orthodox observers at the Vatican Youth Organization) in April 1982, when (Because no census statistics on religion Council. this powerful organf:sation was spurred to are available in the U.SS.R., estimates by Lutheran churches in the Soviet Union are renewed battle against religion. "Without different authorities given in this booklet dif- almost all In the Estonian and Latvian Re realizing it, young people fall into the web far considerably.) publics. Here, again, little information is spun by the clergy." And the clergy report Further comparative figures appear in the available, but in these generally more cul- growing attendance. Priests from two sub- January 1983, issue of Foreign Affairs: For tured areas antireilgious activity appears to urban churches-one near Moscow and one the 40 million Russian Orthodox there are have avoided violence, up to this time. Zeal- near Odessa-report a weekly average of four some 20,000 churches and 35,000 priests- ous efforts In these two Republics to discover to five young adults who come into the one place of worship for every 2.000 believers, and apply Communist substitutes for church Orthodox Church, and the Baptist state.that For the 3 million Baptists-there are roughly rites and holidays are enthusiastically re- the number of their members (only baptized 8,000 parishes and pastors-1 minister for counted in the Soviet press-wedding and adults are counted) Is steadily growing. every 800 believers. The Lutherans of christening ceremonies are claimed to be al- This is a direct contradiction of the Com- Latvia and Estonia have 100 churches and most as attractive as those of the church, 150 pastors for about 850,000 communt- and Easter is supplanted by a festival of monists' claim that only old people have any cants-approximately I church for every spring, while Christmas was merged with the InterEst religion in ienc "and Rel from the phat, 8,500 believers and one minister for every New Year holiday. As is the case with the unfortunately. ee and Religion states that, 2 304 * * * There are 60 or 70 synagogues Orthodox Church, Lutheran clergy, almost even come of the Soviet In- and rabbis for the nearly 1 million Jewish always the same persons, travel abroad with telligentsia "have e become Infected with reli- faithful--one synagogue and one rabbi for churchmen of other confessions. gious views," and no see the case of a young every 15,000 to 18,00(1 Jewish believers. No Since groups of the "Union of Evangelical women, the of the history depart re- data are available for the Moslems, but their Christian Baptists" are almost all within the lent of the nibership who recently - situation In this respect Is known to be no central and Asiatic parts of the U.S.S.R., signed from membership in the Komsomol. better than that of the Jews. No figures are and since they are very active, more news of giving as her reason, "I am a Christian." given for the Roman Catholics. third largest them appears in the Soviet press. Moscow The article continuos, "Such Insufficient 'Idiots atheistic Christian communion. Other sources report Radio recently announced that the Baptists edu at' ore In the result of sool.What 1,470 priests In Lithuania where most Soviet were gaining, adherents, and charged them story Lion in the middle echo he What the with deliberately hindering the "building story does not dwelt 'on re is the make in- Catholics Pressure are on living. these different groups is ap- of communism." The work of Baptist cred bravery required to make such a plied unevenly. As the largest Christian preachers results in "capturing those who declible aration. To be td from the Kom- body, the Orthodox Church has received the are weak In spirit" and turning them Into solos is to become a social social outcast, probably quantitatively heaviest attack, while on the "creatures of despair and indifference to- all to lose one's job. Wien a university gradu- other hand, evidently with the Intent of worldly things." ate takes this step, it is not idiocy, but using the church to make a good Impression Science and Religion (December 1982) re- coumge of the highest order. abroad, it has enjoyed certain privileges, ports on the Baptist group in Tashkent What is happenin; now is a reversion to such as extensive foreign travel and a where the congregation raised 85,000 rubles earlier methods of suppression. In the first monopoly of the manufacture of can- for building a new house of prayer. "Before years after the revolution the rudest tactics dies. ? ? ? it was built, the pastor took 18,000 and dis- prevailed. Churches and mosques were de- The Armenian-Gregorian Church is in a appeared. Other leaders of the group appro- filed, or closed, or turned into cinemas or special position. Instead of being under the priated about 8.000 for their own use, and storehouses; the ciery were declared outside control of Moscow. It Is responsible to the with the remainder the chapel was built." the law, with no civic rights, not even food- government of the Armenian Republic. Gov- In slanderous attacks on religion, the Soviet ration cards. Hundreds of bishops and ernment relations are maintained through a authorlUles make no distinction among reli- priests, as well as clergy of other faiths, Council for the Affairs of the Armenian glous faiths. were murdered or sled in Siberian camps. Church related to the Council of Ministers Reformed churches exist only in those The government-organized Union of Mill- of the Armenian Republic. paralleling similar portions of Czechoslovakia and Hungary oc- tant Godless claim,d 3 million members, councils In Moscow. And since Armenians cupied by the Soviets after World War II. and its widespread publications carried abu- in general appear to be less infected with In respect to Information, these areas are as sive and blasphemous propaganda against atheism than some other Soviet people, the uncommunicative as Catholic Lithutania. the church, its clergy and its faithful pee- church under the Armenian Republica ap- They appear to have little contact with their ple. All these vicious methods are now be- parently has less difficulty than the churches fellow Reformed brethren on the other side ing revived. and other religious bodies in other parts of of the present boundaries. There is no Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 1964 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 CIA-RDP66B00403R0020 00190020-6 CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD - SENATE evidence that these areas are much different from the'Reformed churches in the satellite countries to the west of them, which have generally conformed to collaboration with their Communist governments. In Czecho- slovakia and Hungary the churches are sup- ported by the state. Smaller sects the most defenseless Russia has always proliferated small, often very persistent sects. Many such exist to- day. Whereas most other religious bodies- Christian, Moslem, or Jewish-are recognized by the Soviet Government, and thus have a certain standing, emphasized by the fact that they have coreligionists abroad, these often "fanatic" religious groups have no one to defend them and there are more reports of repression against them in the Soviet press. Incidentally, sectarians suffered spe- cial persecution under the czars as well, and for some of the same reasons: nonconformity or refusal to collaborate with the govern- ment (refusal to carry arms, for instance). Many of the sects, such as Jehovah's Wit- nesses, a recent importation into the U.S.S.R., have been declared illegal. Conse- quently, groups such as the "Witnesses," the Seventh-day Adventists, and the Pente- costals, are viciously attacked. Some of these assaults are. on purely legal grounds. These sects encourage their young men to refuse military service or they refuse to send their children to a "godless" school. The shocking story of the 32 Siberian mem- bers of one of these sects who traveled 4 days and 2,000 miles to Moscow and sought asylum from religious persecution in the American Embassy, is only one better publi- cized of many similar instances. The sec- tarians demanded permission to leave the U.S.S.R., protesting that if they were turned back to the Soviet Government they would be shot. Some of them had already had their children taken away from them for education in state schools, on the charge that the parents "discouraged their children from participation in the life of society." No word of this revolting incident was men- tioned in the Soviet press, but because it was reported in many foreign papers, the Government evidently felt compelled to issue an official explanation. This statement to foreign journalists alleged that the sectar- ians had "crippled their children, mentally. Their parents kept them away from all children's games and from school, forbade them to read books, and dragged them into meetings * * * beat them to make them keep the faith." The official statement ad- mitted that many children of such families had been taken from their parents and sent to state homes and schools, and the parents given prison sentences. * * * Distrust of "Nationalism in religion The two leading non-Christian faiths in the U.S.S.R. are distrusted by the govern- ment for the same two reasons. In both cases the problem is the double one of re- ligion and nationality, or national culture. Ethnic Jews, whether or not they are re- ligious, are accused of being Zionists. Mos- lem religious observances and traditions are so much a part of their folk culture as to be often indistinguishable. This causes them to be accused of Pan-Arabism and sympa- thy with a foreign government. This aspect of both Judaism and Islam stands in the way of the strong denationalization pres- sures the government has been exerting for decades. The Soviet Academy of Sciences points this out: "This combination of the national with the religious is no accident. It should be recognized as one of the im- portant vestiges of nationalism concealed under a religious camouflage." _ In line with this, it is notable that throughout Soviet history every time a new campaign against the Jews has been lattnched, it has been paralleled by similar action against Moslem institutions. During the. Stalin purges on charges of "bourgeois nationalism". both groups were equally af- fected. Another item these two groups have in common, -and one which increasingly con- ditions their treatment by the government, is that the majority of these national-social bodies live outside the borders of the Soviet Union. "Becaupe the Soviet Jewish majority has traditional ties * * * with Jewish .com- munities in the world outside the Communist orbit, it is subject to even greater suspicion." This remark from Foreign Affairs (January 1963) applies equally well to Moslems. Anti-Semitism is nothing new in Russia. As in Imperial Rome, Tsarist Russia often made the Jew the scapegoat in times of in- ternal difficulty. The Bolshevik revolution grandly abolished all racial discrimination, and Soviet law guarantees all nationality groups full rights of religious and cultural freedom. As with most other sections of the constitution, this guarantee is merely a scrap of paper, particularly in the case of the Jews. Jews in the Soviet Union are recognized, as a "nationality," but in certain aspects they are denied ethnic-cultural rights still en- joyed by other Soviet nationalities. Compe- tent authorities estimate the number of Jews at 2,500,000 to 3 million, scattered through- out the Soviet Union. Unlike the Moslems, Jews have no national organization, which fact increases their vulnerability to attack. This has been the situation for years, with government pressure varying from easy toler- ance in the early years to the open and vio- lent attacks under Stalin. Now a new, savage assault has begun. * * * Heavy handicaps for Judaism From the religious aspect, Jews are under even more cruel discrimination. Whereas all the major Christian groups have their central organizations, nothing of the sort is permitted the Jews. This is the case, also, in the matter of publications. In 1957 the Orthodox Church put out a 60,000-copy edi- tion of its 100-year-old Bible. A year later the Baptists issued 10,000 copies of the same scriptures, but in modern orthography. The same year three very small editions of the Koran appeared in the U.S.S.R. No Hebrew Bible has been published in Russia since 1917. Similar discrimination applies to the num- ber of houses of worship open for various religious groupings. The distinction ap- pears again in regard to theological educa- tion. The Russian Orthodox Church, at last reports, operated five seminaries and two academies. The Moslems have two "mad- rasehs"-the equivalent of the theological seminary. Until 1957 the Jews had no theo- logical school, but in that year a rabbinical academy was permitted to function as an adjunct of the great synagogue of Moscow. This school never had more than 14 stu- dents, In 1962 this number was reduced to four, by refusing residence permits in Mos- cow to students from Georgia and Daghes- tan. The stepped-up antireligious furor in 1962 did not spare the Jews. For the first time in Russian history the public baking of mat- zos, unleavened bread indispensable for the Passover observance, was forbidden. It was again forbidden for Passover in 1963. Even under the highest anti-Semitic pressures of the Czarist regime; this never occurred. Us- ing "legal" pretexts similar to those applied for closing Christian churches, the few syna- gogues remaining in the Soviet Union are already shut or threatened with closure. Following the arrest of some young Jews during the celebration of the "Rejoicing Over the Law" (October 20, 1962), in the only remaining synagogue in Leningrad, arti- cles in the press denounced the synagogue as "a smugglers' center." A year earlier, a prominent leader in the Leningrad Jewish community was imprisoned for "consorting with foreign agents." This Leningrad story is part of an all-Union conspiracy of slander and police action against Jews, Foreign Af- fairs (January 1963) summarizes the wide- spread charges, some of them inherited from days of the Empire, some of recent appear- ance. "Jews are money-worshippers. Worst among these are, the rabbis," portrayed as ex- torting money from the faithful. "The syn- agogue is the place where blackmarket deals are made, where illegal sums of money are hidden." Traditional Jewish religious practices are derided. Drunkenness and brawling in the synagogue, usually in con- nection with sharing the profits of "specu- lation," are often reported. For lack of synagogues, like Christians de- prived of churches, J-ws have taken to for- gathering for prayers in private homes. Such gatherings are illegal and have often been dispersed by the police. The names of per- sons found attending such home prayer meetings are published, together with com- ments such as:."The traditions bolstered by the synagogue are doubly harmful. First, they contribute to perpetrating a false re- ligious world outlook. Secondly, they serve as, an instrument for the propagation of bourgeois political views which are alien to us." As part of this general but unadmitted anti-Jewish campaign now proceeding in the Soviet Union, the impression is spread abroad that Jews are disproportionately responsible for the formidable economic crimes that characterize Soviet life today. These are so prevalent and so costly that speculation in foreign currency, embezzlement, and similar. economic offenses are now punishable by death. Of 70 persons so sentenced in recent trials, at least 42 were Jews. This fact is consciously emphasized in the press accounts. Recent news reports, from various parts of the Soviet Union, often use identical word- ing. In February 1962, where in one city eight Jews were tried for economic crimes, the city's entire population was urged to attend "the Jew show trial," spreading a wave of terror among all the Jews of the region. "Soviet policy as a whole then amounts to spiritual strangulation-the deprivation of Soviet Jewry's natural right to revere the Jewish past, and to participate in the Jewish present. And without a past and a present the future Is precarious indeed" (Foreign Affairs, January 1963). On December 7, 1962, the New York Herald Tribune and other papers across the United States published the text of a protest cable sent Premier Khrushchev by a score of promi- nent American religious leaders urging the lifting of the "official policy of oppression against its Jewish citizens." The message protested that the almost 3 million Jews in the Soviet Union were "denied minimal rights conceded to adherents of other creeds." "Hard pressed as they are by blanket re- straints," the message added, "none of the other major religions of the Soviet people, neither the Orthodox, Armenian, Catholic, nor Protestant churches, neither Buddhism nor Islam, have been subjected to the ex- traordinary disabilities inflicted on Judaism and its followers." The protest listed the following repressive measures against Soviet Jews: "Legally con- stituted Jewish congregations are isolated from one another. They are forbidden to organize a central body. They are allowed no contact with Jewish religious groups in other countries. Their leaders are singled out for abuse." Since June 1961, the message continued, the presidents of synagogues in six Soviet cities "have been arbitrarily removed from office; Jewish communal leaders in Lenin- grad and Moscow have been sentenced to prison for the alleged crime of meeting with foreign visitors to the synagogues." No bet- ter summary of the situation of Jews in the Soviet Union today could be devised. Approved For Release 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 Approvenor Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66Bfft403R000200190020-6 11866 Camouflaged persecution of Islam The situation of Moslems is In many ways similar t:) that of the Jews. One difference is that while there has been little attempt to disguise the Soviet Government's anti-Semi- tism, elaborate efforts are made to persuade the Moslem peoples outside the U.S.S.R. that their coreligionists enjoy complete religious freedom in the Soviet Union. For years, no Soviet Moslem was permitted a pilgrimage to Mecca, while under the Tsar, 40,000 Islamic faithful made the journey every year from Turkestan alone. Sine,) 1954 a handful of pilgrims per year, these being carefully screened individuals, are given exit visas. These men are required to spread propaganda among their fellow Moslems abroad, In line with the Soviet Government's foreign policies. One aush official pilgrim is now living in New York because he decided not to Ile about life in the U.S.S.R. anc: hence could not re- turn home from Mecca. When Nasser made his state visit to the Soriet Union a few years ago, it was learned teat he wan bringing some fine rugs as gifts to Soviet mosques. Two of the Soviet Union's beat known mosques were hastily readied for the Egyptian visit, and Nasser probably never knew that until that time they had been antireligious museums. NEW TACTICS IV PERSECUTION Besides Intensified application of all the old methods in fighting religion, the Soviet Government has begun using several quite new approaches. To arrive at the goal set in the now party prograra, "the complete liqul- datior, of religion in every believer," all methods are permissible. A recent atheist booklet for use In universities explains that "While methods of persuasion are of course basic in the struggle against religious prej- udices, compulsion R not excluded ? ? partlc:ularly against the sects whose activity is fanatic, antisocial, or anti-Soviet in nature." Not all the new tactics involve compulsion. For instance, the new use of apostates. those who have publicly renounced their religious faith. The most prominent figure In this picture is the renegtde priest Ossipofl who left ais poet .as professor in the Leningrad theological academy, announcing that he knew' all along that Christianity was false. Books, articles, and "letters to the editor" ex- plain why these individuals gave up their faith. Science and Religion, for Instance, prints a long exchange of letters between Ossipoff and a yountt man who was planning to become a priest. Ossipoff convinced him that he could "build his life without God." Similar statemenas In articles signed by Jew3 contain renun-riations of their faith. A formerly prominent Moslem leader, In re- nouncing Islam, brl.nds a number of his fel- low mullahs as "parasites, adventurers, idlers, and profligates-men without honor or conscience." Another tactic, now constantly recom- mended by atheist leaders, is just the op- posite of violence, It Is kindness. The Communists have discovered that men and women are often wan to church membership through the attention and sympathy shown them by religious people. The atheists argue that the fijane approach should be effective In the reverse direction. "Religious people often utill:;e some special situation In a man's persoral or family life, a tem- porary moral or material difficulty," to win new converts: "w'; must do the same." A Komsomol writer cites frequent cases of this approach: "That'; their game ? * ? with thousands of feelers the Baptists attract young people; at the home of a friend, at the workbench, at, their meetings." And he continues: "There should be more of this In Communist WE, Instead of the dry, boring Komsomol programs," where there are "no openhearted conversations about life" (Science and Religion, November 1962). "The Communist Party holds that (creating conditions that assure the easy transition of believers over to the atheist position) is a decisive means to success in Its propa- ganda." Practice in this new tactic may show some difference between kindness in- spired by Christian love, and kindness directed by the atheist party. A further new strategy now being urged upon an atheists is akin to neighborly at- tention. It Is work with Individuals. This is not only recommended, but ordered by Communist journals. "In many cases only the Individual approach to believers is ef- fective. ? ? ? There are believers who, be- cause of their type of work, cannot attend mass atheistic undertakings, or are under the spell of religious folk-tendencies" (Con- temporary Sectarianism. Moscow, 1062). The writer then proceeds with detailed in- struction on how "individual work" must be carried out. "First the agitator (an 'agitator' is a recognized profession In the U.S.S.R..) must establish contact with the believer, with his family and surroundings. ? ? ? Once contact is established, the agi- tator should take the second step-in the course of conversation drop a word to start doubt In the believer's mind about the truth of religious dogmas, open his eyes to the contradictions and falsehoods In the Bible. ? ? ? But this is still not enough. Every atheist agitator has a maximum program. This Is to steer the believer away from his religious organization, isolate him from religious propaganda. After this, the be- liever often * ? ? breaks with religion. It is very advantageous if then the former believer becomes a militant atheist," ? This use of force has now become wide- spread In the U.S.S.R., particularly In the new and perhaps the most vicious campaign yet, the drive against children. The newest departure has been in pre- paration for 2 years or more. The Young Communist (No. 10, 1959) published an ar- ticle, "Look at the Religious Families," which contains this significant quote: "It is no secret that the number of believers is growing. This Is doubtless because of be- lieving families. This means that neither the school nor the Pioneers nor the Kom- somol has been able to tear young people away from the influence of religious-minded families." Official action to follow this line was an- nounced by S. P. Pavlov, First Secretary of the Komsomol, at its XIV congress (April 1962), One section of his 211y-hour speech was entitled "Protect Children of Religious Parents." Pavlov declared that "freedom of conscience applies to adults, We cannot permit anyone to cripple a child, spiritually," One Western commentator thinks this her- alds a formal revision of the paragraph in the soviet constitution guarEntecing free- dom of conscience. Regardless of the text of the constitu- tion. Soviet newspapers during the past year have increasingly reported reprisals against parents who taught religion to their chil- dren : -Parents are responsible for their children before the people. They are bound to edu- cate them in conjunction with the school, and they are in conscience bound to help the school to form children in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism, and of the moral prin- ciples of communism" (Selakaya Zhizn ("Rural Life"), Dec. 19, 1082). The Siberian peasants who sought asylum in the American Embassy In Moscow brought their particular case of religious persecu- tion Into the foreign press, but from all parts of the Soviet Union similar instances are reported: children are taken from believing parents to be educated in state institutions. In many cases the offending parents have been sentenced to Imprisonment, usually convicted of "antistate activity." In one case June 1 a father was jailed for refusing to permit his child to join the Pioneers, thus "refusing to join In our splendid way of life." A new wave of repression seems to be directed particularly at religious groups not officially recognized by the government. In mid-January 1962, a court In Shelyabinsk tried four "leaders and active participants In an Illegal Baptist sect" for "enticing minors into their sect. and discriminatory instruction" among the citizenry. Two of the four mere sentenced to 5 years exile in far-distant parts of the Soviet 'Union, and the confiscation of their property. No mention of the Siberian peasant case involving the American Embassy has ap- peared in Soviet papers, but In the belated explanation to foreign journalists the For- eign Office called the peasants "clandes- tine fanatics," and accused them of "harming their children, In savage violation of human rights." The fate of these God-fearing parents, after the American Embassy-help- less to do anything else-turned them over to Soviet authorities, is unknown. We live in a period like that of Nero, when religious martyrdom has become an every- day commonplace. The outcasts from for- cibly closed monasteries, beaten to death; the mullahs deported to the frozen north and then lost from sight; the Protestant parents, risking death to save their children from godlessness, imprisoned on trumped-up charges of some crime other than belief in God, or those pitiful old believers, hunted down in the Siberian forests like wild beasts-these are as truly martyrs as any who died in the Roman arena. In launching this new battle to the death against religion, Soviet authorities seem to forget the results of similar procedures In earlier times-"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." After nearly half a century of persecution, different religious bodies in the Soviet Union report that their ranks are Increasing. Trud cries out against "the evil influence of Buddhist lamas and their increasing and spreading mysteries." The agitator reports a resurgence of religion in the Republic of Kazakhstan, admitting that "the Baptist society has doubled Its membership in the past 5 years, under the very nose of party and komsomol organiza- tions." Official reports tq Baptist friends In the outside world Indicate that not in one republic alone, but across the whole Soviet Union, their numbers are steadily Increasing. For several years Soviet author- ities have complained of the steady Influx of young people Into the Orthodox Church. All forms of pressure, forced education or violence have not yet smothered religion. ExNIBIT 2-A [From the Bulletin of Temple Beth El, Apr. 24, 1064) JEWS AND JUDAISM IN THE SOVIET ORBIT (By Rabbi Richard C. Hertz) THS GENERAL SrrUATION THIS YEAR Ten years have passed since Stalin's death. For the Jews of the U.S.S.R. who constitute nearly one-fourth of the total surviving Jew- ish population of the world, Stalin's death removed the fear of widespread deportations and violent reprisals. Actually, however, So- viet policy toward Jews and Judaism has re- mained essentially the some since 1948, ex- cept that the terror is gone. Jews occupy a dual status. As Jews they are members of a minority nationality group. Every Jew must carry the mark of his Jewish- nesa stamped on his identification passport- "Jew." Yet Jews are also a religious group, something that makes their status difficult In the antireliglous structure of Soviet so- ciety. While the terror of Stalin's black years has been removed along with the general relaxa- tion of Krushchev's de-Stalinization pro- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 1964 Approved F elease 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66 00463R000200190020-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 11867 gram, Jews, and Judaism suffer from restric- tions and discriminations which have wreaked havoc with their security and their future. Their situation has steadily de- teriorated, During the past year, we note five particular areas: 1. Khrushchev's reply to Lord Bertrand Russell on March 1, 1963, describing allega- tions of anti-Semitism in Russia as a "crude falsehood" and denying the existence of anti- Semitism in the U.S.S.R., conceded the West- ern World's interest in the situation of Soviet Jewry. It has long been recognized that the highest Soviet authorities are sensitive to Western criticism of the U.S.S.R.'s policy of anti-Semitism. Constant repetition of con- cern for the Jews of the U.S.S.R. at last brought this subject to the open level of public discussion by the chief of state. How- ever,. Khrushchev's reply to Lord Russell was the first time that- Khrushchev agreed even to discuss the Jewish question. Previously he has insisted on remaining officially silent, though he has not bothered to conceal his own private expressions of anti-Semitism in the past, nor to talk of other sins of Stalin. 2. The execution of Jews for "economic crimes" has been stepped up in the past year. Over 60 percent of those executed have been Jews, though Jews constitute but 1.09 per- cent of the total population, according to the last census done in 1959. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Jews are being used once again as political scapegoats for in- grained, deep-rooted prejudice against Jews. The Russian press deliberately highlighted the stereotype Jewishness of these "econom- ic criminals." The enormously dispropor- tionate number of Jews sentenced to death for currency offenses, speculation, or em- bezzlement suggest that a camouflage smoke- screen has been put up to use the Jews for political purposes. Russian leaders since the days of the czars have found the Jews a convenient scapegoat for diverting the peo- ple's attention from their grim standard of living and their rightful grievances, 3. As in 1962, Passover 1963 found no mat- zoth baked in Government bakeries for So- viet Jews, except in far-off Georgia. Rabbi Leib Levin at Central Synagogue, Moscow, told his people that they must bake their matzoth at home. Efforts of American Jews to secure permission to fly matzoth as a "Bundles for Russia" program met with no success. The ban on matzoth was one. more Government effort to whittle away at the ties that bind the Jews of the U.S.S.R. to their ancient religious faith. Since Passover tra- ditionally emphasizes the national group's redemption from slavery and the story of the freedom march to the Promised Land, Pass- over is becoming the particular butt of So- viet attack linking Jews and Judaism with subversion and disloyalty. , The Kremlin's propaganda stresses an umbilical cord of Jewish chauvinism that ties the religious leaders of Judaism in the U.S.S.R. to the Jewish homeland of Israel, and therefore makes Jews and Judaism suspect, Israel be- ing considered by the Kremlin as a tool of Western capitalist imperialism. Official antireligious propaganda affects all religious groups. Only against the Jews is the lack of patriotism injected into the prop- aganda. Prohibiting matzoth at Passover was the culmination to date of the discri- minatory pressures against Judaism. 4.'Synagogues are the one remaining in- stitution permitted to Jews in the U.S.S.R. Yet even these are being closed up one by one as a means of fragmentizing and atom- izing Soviet Jewry, isolating Jews both from their past and from each other as well as from their brethren in other parts of the world. Since June 1961, synagogue presi- dents in six cities have been arbitrarily re- moved from office. Jewish communal lead- ers in Leningrad and Moscow have been sen- tenced to prison for such alleged crimes as meeting with foreign visitors at the syna- gogue. Synagogues are never opened or rebuilt, only closed. - This steady policy of closing up synagogues one by one is part of the general antireligious policy in the U.S.S.R. Yet against the Jews such a policy has been particularly discriminatory. While commu- nism regards Christianity and Islam as "opiates of the masses," the Kremlin treats Judaism as if it were poison gas. Christian and Russian Orthodox groups are permitted national federations and central organiza- tions; no such communication is permitted between the synagogues of the U.S.S.R. No publishing facilities or theological seminar- ies, such as Protestant and Russian Ortho- dox have, are permitted to Jews. The major religions are authorized to produce whatever ceremonial objects are needed-candles, crucifixes, icons, beads. For Jews, neither talesim nor tefillin can be produced. Not even prayerbooks nor Bibles can be published for Jews. Hebrew is forbidden. The yeshi- vah in Moscow in which Rabbi Leib Levin took such pride, located in his Central Syna- gogue, went down to four students and now has been officially closed, according to Archbishop Nikkodin, who visited the United States in March 1963, on an official delegation. No such Jewish religious dele- gation has ever been permitted to visit out- side the U.S.S.R., nor to have any contacts whatsoever with any other Jewish religious or national bodies inside or outside the U.S.S.R. The Government's policy, then, is clear: cultural genocide for the Jews, spiritual strangulation for the Jews, group isolation from all other Jews, total assimilation en- forced upon the Jews. 5. Cancellation of a lecture tour to the United States of the prominent non-Jewish poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko, one of the most popular young Soviet poets, focused renewed attention upon his controversial poem "Sabi Yar," written in September 1961, in the liter- ary organ of the Soviety Writers' Union. The poem was a protest against the slaught- er by the Nazis of the thousands of Jewish martyrs who lie in nameless graves in a gully outside Kiev. Yevtushenko has been disciplined for writing nonconformist ideas; yet the more the Soviet authorities seek to censure him for deviating from the party line the more attention is focused upon the Jewish martyrs to terror and tyranny for whom no monument rises in Babi Yar. It seems clear Soviet policy to play down the martyrdom of Soviet Jews during the Nazi invasion. Even the Eichmann trial found scant notice in the Soviet press. THE FUTURE The plight of the Jews in the U.S.S.R. is no longer the world's best kept secret. Little by little their story is being told in the mass media, such as the New York Times and Saturday Evening Post, both of which should be commended for their articles this past year. Moshe Decter's article on "The Status of the Jews In the Soviet Union" in Foreign Affairs, January 1963, summed up the best capsule review to appear in print so far. While far from being a "White Paper" docu- menting the exact status of Jews and Juda- ism in the U.S.S.R., the Decter piece should be read by every one seeking reliable back- ground for his grim subject. In a full-page advertisement in the New York Times and other newspapers, the American Jewish Com- mittee published a long cable to Nikita S. Khrushchev demanding to know "When will synagogues and Jewish seminaries be reestab- lished, imprisoned synagogue leaders set free, the ban on unleavened bread rescinded, ritual articles and Jewish prayerbooks made avail- -able. * * * The world awaits your response. By deeds alone can your Governmens confirm that the Soviet Union in truth upholds the rights of minorities and the equal dignity of man" (Dec. 7, 1962). What should be done to help our brethren in the U.S.S.R.? Obviously Soviet Jews can- not defend themselves. It Is for those in the free world to raise their voices in protest. The CCAR, as a member of the Synagogue Council of America, has joined in making certain representations of common concern to the Soviet Embassy in Washington. As individual rabbis, we can help mobilize public opinion and present before our con- gregations and communities the truth behind the news. As private citizens, we can reassure the U.S. State Department of the need for a high priority of U.S. attention to be given this concern of American Jews, and for the need within the context of American foreign pol- icy to press for the-: exposure of the situa- tion of Jew's and Judaism behind the Iron Curtain before the international arena of the United Nations. The CCAR should know that at present the U.S. State Department believes that any direct U.S. Intervention or representations on behalf of Soviet Jews would only backfire and do more harm than good to Soviet Jews because of the tension already between the United States of Amer- ica and the U.S.S.R., and therefore become a further pretext for the Kremlin to link Soviet Jews with disloyalty and subversion, On the other hand, the rabbi's greatest tool-molders of public conscience-can surely- be used to cry out against the net of spiritual strangulation being drawn against the Jews of the U.S.S.R. By public resolu- tion and by individual protest, this commit- tee urges the executive board to bring the full influence of the Central Conference of American Rabbis to this exposure of the truth. After losing 6 million Jews to the Nazi juggernaut, no more pressing tragedy than the plight of another 3 million Jews held prisoners In Red Russia challenges the survival of the Jewish people today. EXHIBIT 2-B - [From Foreign Affairs, January 19631 THE STATUS OF THE JEWS IN THE SOVIET UNION (By Moshe Decter) During the past quarter century, enlight- ened public opinion throughout the world has become keenly sensitive to the treatment of minorities as a barometer of moral de- coney and social sanity. The awesome ex- periences of this period have drawn particu- lar attention to the symbolic and actual posi- tion of the Jewish minority. In this light, the status of the Jews in the Soviet Union warrants special concern. The situation of Soviet Jews can be com- prehended primarily within the framework of Soviet nationalities policy. That policy, as reflected in Communist Party directives, the Soviet Constitution and public law, is based on the ideological acceptance of the concept of national self-determination and on the legal recognition of the right of all national- ities within Soviet borders to cultural free- dom. Actual Soviet policy toward the Jews clearly violates these principles. It is tanta- mount to a policy of discrimination for it denies to the Jews such ethnic-cultural rights as are generally accorded all other Soviet nationalities. The Soviet Union officially recognizes Jews as a nationality. In the personal idenitifica- tion papers which all Soviet citizens carry (the internal "passport"), Jews must list their nationality as "Jewish" (Yevrei) just as other nationalities-such as Russians, Ukrainians, Georgians and others-must list theirs. Thus, in the official Soviet census. returns of 1959, published in Pravda on Feb- ruary 4, 1960, Jews are listed among the offi- cial nationalities.. In all previous censuses, Approved For Release 2005/01127 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 11868 Approved For FC> CdUMMAL: B~E BH66BBIiW5361tB00200190020-6 "~urGe 1 citizens were required to provide proof, In the form of t ielr continued passports, of their claim to belong to one or an- other nationality. In 195D, for the first time, they were allowed to volunteer, with- out proof, the nationality with which they chose to be Identified. Despite the possi- bility thus proviied for Jews to "pass," 2;- 268,000 people arecifled their nationality as Jewish (there arc reasons to believe that the total number mare closely approximates 3 million). Soviet Jews co-istitute 1.09 percent of the population, but they occupy a far more sig- nificant place than this-figure suggests. Of the considerably more than 100 diverse So- viet nationalities, the Jews are 11th numeri- cally. The great majority of them live in the three most -,>opulous Union Republics: 33 percent In the Russian Republic, 37 per- cent in the Ukraine, 7 percent In %White Rus- sia: but there is no repd'blic of the U.S.S.R.. inhere Jewish communities may not be found. And an Important reflection of their sense of identification after several decades of di- rect and indirect forcible assimilation Is that 472,000 (20.8 percent) gave Yiddish, which is the traditional language of speech and literature of Ea:.t European Jews, as their mother tongue. The Jews are also regarded, secondarily, as a religious group. This complicates their status and makes it even more precarious. For though their unique dual character is a natural outgrowth of Jewish history and tradition, it creates unusual difficulties for them under Sov-et conditions. An assault upon the Jewish religion, for example, will inevitably be tai' en, by Jews and non-Jews alike, as an attack upon the Jewish national- ity as a whole--upon Jews as such. And they have come i,icreasingiy to be considered an alien group In a land where they have resided for more than a thousand years. Their vulnerability is increased by the fact that, unlike most other Soviet national- ities, which have their own geographic terri- tories. the Jews a-e widely dispersed through- out the country, They are also the only Soviet nationality a majority of whose total world populatior lives outside the UB.S.R. Because the Soviet Jewish minority has his- toric and traditicnal ties of culture, religion, and family with Jewish communities throughout the world outside the Commu- nist bloc, It Is s-ibject to even greater sus- picion. Soviet Jews are especially sensitive to their vulnerable condition because their memory of what they themselves call the black years--the last 5 years of Stalin's rule, when his terror assun.ed a viciously and openly anti-Semitic form-has not been erased. One reason they have not forgotten is that Soviet policy toward Jews and Judaism has remained essentially the same since 1948 with the vitally important exception, of course, that the terror is gone. And they are not less keenly cognizant of the fact that, of all the crimes of Stalin cataloged by. Premier Khrushchev and his colleagues at the 20th and 22d Congre& es of the CPSU, his crimes against the Jews were passed over in utter silence. The significance of Soviet policy toward the Jews was dramatically highlighted in Sep- tember 1961 by the publication of a poem, "Babi Yet," in the Literary Gazette, organ of the Soviet Writers Union. This poem by a loyal Communist. Yevgeny Yevtushenko- one of the most popular young Soviet poets- caused a sensation. It Is a sefiring indict- ment of anti-Seriitism both historically and as a facet of contemporary Soviet society. Is, his opening line, the poet protests that there is still no monument to the scores of thousands of Jeu ish martyrs slaughtered by the Nazis in 194:- at Bahl Yar, a vale on the outskirts of Kiei. This is a pointed reflec- tion of the fact that Soviet authorities have been consistently silent abbut the nature, dimensions and even the very existence of the unique Jewish tragedy during the Second World War. Though not himself a Jew, Yevtushenko identifies himself in his poem with persecuted Jewry throughout history. He thus points up the existence of a historic Jewish people, which Soviet doctrine denies- and of Jewish history, which Soviet policy prevents Jews from learning. Yevtushenko is not alone in mirroring the mood and sensibility of the literate younger Soviet generation. There is a whole "under- ground" literature that passes from hand to hand among the university and literary youth, and one of its frequent leitmotifs is isolated, disadvantaged Soviet Jewry. in this, as in their general quest for a purified Idealism, Yevtushenko and his confreres are in the mainstream of the honorable tradi- tion of the liberal Russian Intelligentsia from Pushkin to Tolstoy and Gorky. is The Jews are the only. nationality which Is deprived of the basic, cultural rights ac- corded to all others In the U.S.S.R. These rights have recently been reaffirmed by no less an authoritative source than the new- party program adopted by the 22d Congress in October 1961: "The Communist Party guarantees the complete freedom of each citizen of the U.S.S.R. to speak and to rear and educate his children In any language- ruling out all privileges, restrictions, or com- pulsion in the use of this or that language." Until 1948 the Jews were permitted a cul- tural life In their own language, Yiddish (though Hebrew was forbidden), on a large scale: newspapers, publishing houses, thou- sands of books, a variety of literary journals. professional repertory theaters and damatic schools, literary and cultural research insti- tutes, a network of schoolss, and other means of perpetuating Jewish cultural values, al- beit in a Communist form, In 1948 (and in some cases during the purges of 1937-39), the whole vast array of institutions was forcibly closed. No basic change in this policy of cultural deprivation. occurred, despite Stalin's death and the gradual easing of the tyranny, until 1950. Since then, a grand total of six Yid- dish books has been published-by writers long dead. (None has been published In 1982 as of November.) They were put out in editions of 30,000 each, mostly for foreign consumption, but those copies that were available to Jews Inside the U.S.S.R. were eagerly and quickly snapped up. This total of six books is to be compared with the facilities made available to many ethnic groups far smaller than that of the Soviet Jews, and which do not possess as ancient, continuous and rich a culture. Two striking examples are in order. The Maria and Yakut, are two tiny primitive Asian groups which number 504.000 and 238,000, respectively. In 1901 alone, Soviet printing presses produced 62 books for the Marts and 144 for the Yakuta. In their own languages. The Soviet Yiddish theater was once con- sidered one of the prides of Soviet artistic achievement. Today there Is only a handful of amateur theatrical groups, made up of Jewish workers banded together after work- Ing hours, existing on a marginal basis; there Is not even such a group in Moscow or Len- ingrad. the two major centers of Soviet Jewry. together totaling nearly 1 million. In the autumn of 1961, for the first time since 1948. a Yiddish literary journal, Soviet- Iab Heimland, began publication as a bi- monthly. Welcome though this Is, It Is no more than the exception proving tile rule. But it does represent, along with the meager half-dozen Yiddish books (and the "con- cert-" of Yiddish dramatic readings and folk- songs which have been permitted and which have been attended by millions of Jews in. recent years) a tacit repudiation of the oft- repeated Soviet assertion that Soviet Jews, have lost interest in their culture. This state of affairs Is again to be contrasted with the press available to the Maria and Yakuts. The former have 17 newspapers, the latter 28. A frequent Soviet rationalization for the absence of cultural institutions for the Jews is that the Jews are so widely dispersed. This is invalidated, however, by the fact that tiny minorities like the Chechens (418,000), Oa- setians (410,000) and Komis (431,000), which do not have their own territories, yet have their own newspapers and literatures in their own languages, and schools where their lan- guages are taught. The Tadjik minority in Uzbekistan (312,000 out of a total Republic population of 8,106,000) has similar rights and Institutions, as have the Poles in White Russia (539,000 out of 8,055,000). It Is not just schools that are forbidden to the Jews? They are not even allowed classes In Yiddish or Hebrew in the general schools; nor, for that matter, classes In the Russian language (comparable to Sunday school edu- cation In the United States) on Jewish his- tory and culture. Nor are Soviet Jews per- mitted to have contact on purely Jewish cul- tural matters with Jewish institutions abroad. m All religions in the U.S.S.R. exist very pre- cariously within a context of official anti- religious ideology and propaganda. In a variety of fundamental respects, however. Judaism is subjected to unique discrimina- tion. Jewish congregations are permitted no variant of the right enjoyed by the others to maintain nationwide federations or other central organizations through which reli- gious functions are governed, religious needs serviced, religious belief bolstered and corn- mumloation between congregations strength- ened. Rabbis and synagogue leaders have nothing at all comparable to the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church, the All- Union Council of Evangelical Christians- Baptista, the National Ecclesiastical Assem- bly of the Armenian Church, the Lutheran Churches of Latvia and Estonia or the Moslem Board for Central Asia and Kazakh- stan. These churches are permitted a wide range of religious publishing facilities, publishing houses, and paper supplies. Thus, the Rus- sian Orthodox version of the Bible was re- printed in 1957 In an edition of 50.000. In 1958, 10,000 copies of a Russian-language Protestant Bible were published by the Bap- tists. The same year the Moslem Directorates In Ufa and Tashkent produced editions of 4,000 and 5,000 copies, respectively, of the Koran. And in May 1962 the Moslem Board for Central Asia Issued still another new edition. It should be noted that these edi- tions of the Koran are in Arabic, a language not spoken by Soviet Moslems, but used for religious study and other religious functions. This is comparable to what the status of Hebrew might be there. Judaism Is permitted no publication facili- ties and no publications. No Hebrew Bible has been published for Jews since 1917. (Nor has a Russian translation of the Jewish ver- sion of the Old Testament been allowed.) The study of Hebrew has been outlawed, even for religious purposes. Not a single Jewish religious book of any other kind has appeared In print since the early 1920's. In contrast, prayerbooks are available to other denominations in relatively ample supply: the Baptists were authorized In 1956 to pub- lish 25,000 hymnals; the Lutheran Church of Latvia has produced 1,500 copies of a psalter and Is now preparing a new edition of its 1954 hymnal. Religious calendars, indtr- pensabis guides for religious holidays and observances, are freely available. Other 1 Though Soviet law permits any 10 par- ents who request it to organize instruction for their children In their own language, Jewish parents have been understandably loath to take advantage of this provision. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 196.? Approved W MlIWCO R 403R000200190020-6 11869 types of religious publications are also permitted., The Russian Orthodox Church publishes the Journal of the Moscow Patri- archate, its official monthly organ. It has also published collections of sermons and several annuals. The All-Union Council of Baptists pass out a bimonthly, the Fraternal Review. No such prerogatives have been vouchsafed to the Jews. Until 1958, no siddur (Sabbath prayerbook in Hebrew) was printed. In that year, an edition of 3,000 copies of prerevolu- tionary siddur was provided by photo-offset- a ridiculously small figure for the hundreds of thousands of religious Jews whose prayer- books are tattered and worn. No edition at all has been allowed of special prayerbooks which Jews use on their high holidays and major festivals. As for calendars, the Jews have had to depend-on photographed copies of handwritten ones, surreptitiously circu- lated from hand to hand. A subtler but harsher form of discrimina- tion has resulted from the ban on Hebrew. The Russian Orthodox, Baptist, Lutheran, Georgian, or Armenian believer Is not handi- capped in his participation in religious serv- ices, for they are conducted in his native spoken tongue. But the half-century-old ban on Hebrew has made it impossible for Jews educated under the Soviet regime to make sense of their synagogue services. Thousands come-and must stand mute and dumb. The other major ecclesiastical bodies are authorized to produce a variety of religious articles-ritual objects such as church ves- sels, vestments, candles, beads, crucifixes, and ikons. The mass sale of such articles, es- pecially candles, is an important source of church income. But the production of such indispensable religious objects as the tallis (prayer shawl) and tefillin (phylacteries) is prohibited to Jews. A brief statistical examination illuminates the extent to which the faithful are served by churches and priests, synagogues and rabbis. For the 40 million Russian Orthodox there are some 20,000 churches-and 35,000 priests (quite apart from those in the 69 mon- asteries and convents). This comes to 1 place of worship for each 2,000 believers and l priest for each 1,100 believers. For' the 3 million Baptists (including women and children who are affiliated through family membership) there are roughly 6,000 parishes and pastors, which amounts to 1 place of worship and 1 minister for each 500 believ- ers. The Lutheran Churches of Latvia and Estonia have 100 churches and 150 pastors for about 350,000 communicants-approxi- mately 1 church for each 3,500 believers and 1 minister for each. 2,300. By contrast, there are some 60 or 70 synagogues and rab- bis for the nearly 1 million Jewish believ- ers-which. amounts to 1 synagogue and 1 rabbi for each 15,000 to 16,000 Jewish believers. Most religious groups also maintain edu- cational institutions to prepare men for the priesthood. The Russian Orthodox have two academies and five seminaries; the Moslems have a madrassa where their mullahs are trained. In addition, quite a few Moslem clerical students have been permitted to advance their studies at the theological seminary in Cairo. Young Baptist seminar- ians have attended theological schools in Great Britain and Cariada. Such programs serve the tviofold function of maintaining spiritual contacts with coreligionists abroad and of enhancing the quality of religious education at home. Until 1957, religious Jews had no institu- tion to train rabbis. In that year, a yeshiva (rabbinical academy) was established as an adjunct of the great Synagogue in 'Mos- cow. Since then, 'precisely two men have been ordained as rabbis, neither of whom has functioned as a synagogue leader. Of the 13 students at the yeshiva until April 1962, 11 were over 40-which means that very little provision was made for replacing the rabbis now serving in the U.S.S.R.,, all of whom are in their seventies and eighties. This Is to be contrasted with the "accent on youth" for Russian Orthodox seminarians. The Jewish community is thus being de- prived of needed religious leadership. A most serious restriction was imposed on the yeshiva in April 1962, when a majority of the students, who came from the oriental Jewish communities of Georgia and Daghes- tan., were forbidden to resume their studies in Moscow, on the ground that they lacked the necessary residence permits for the capi- tal city which is suffering from a housing shortage. This left just four students in an institution that has been transformed into a vertually empty shell. Nor has any Jewish seminarian in the last 5 years been allowed to advance his studies at institu- tions of Jewish learning abroad. In addition to their prerogatives at home, other Soviet ecclesiastical bodies have en- joyed the privilege of regular and permanent ties with coreligionists abroad, an incalcul- ably important boost to their moral. Since 1956 there have been Innumerable exchange visits of religious delegations-Russian Orthodox, Baptists, and Moslems-between the U.S.S.R. and Western Europe, the United States and the Middle East. The Soviet Moslems have for years been associated with a World Congress of Moslems. At the end of October 1962 a national conference of Moslem leaders, meeting in Tashkent, was authorized to establish a permanent depart- ment for international relations, with head- quarters in Moscow, which would speak for all Moslem Boards in the country. And within the past year, the World Council of Churches (Protestant) accepted the full- fledged membership of the Russian Ortho- dox Church and of five other major Soviet ecclesiastical bodies: the Georgian and Ar- menian Churches, the Baptists, and the Lutheran Churches of Latvia and Estonia. No Jewish religious delegation from the U.S.S.R. has ever been permitted to visit religious institutions abroad. Nor are syna- gogues in the Soviet Union allowed to have any kind of official contact, permanent ties, or Institutional relations with Jewish relig- ious, congregational, or rabbinic bodies out- side their country. The process of attrition and pressure against Judaism and Jewish religious insti- tutions and practitioners has been system- atically stepped up since the middle of 1961. In June and July of that year, the syna- gogue presidents in six major provincial cities were deposed. In the same period, six lay religious leaders in Moscow and Lenin- grad were secretly arrested. In September 1961, on the occasion of the Jewish High Holy Days, the authorities ordered the con- struction of a special loge in the Moscow Great Synagogue to seat the Israel Embassy officials who came to attend services-the better to cut off the thousands of Jews who came to the synagogue from their fellow Jews from abroad. In October 1961, the Moscow and Leningrad leaders were secretly tried and convicted of alleged espionage, and sentenced to lengthy prison terms. In Jan- uary 1962, Trud, the central trade union paper, published a notorious article that portrayed these devout religious Jews as agents of Israeli spies who, in turn, were described as tools of American intelligence. On March 17, 1962, Rabbi Judah Leib Levin of the Moscow synagogue announced that the public baking and sale of matzah (the unleavened bread indispensable to the observance of the Passover) would be for- bidden.. This was the first time in Soviet history that a total ban on matzah was en- forced throughout the country. The ban was actually part of the larger official at- tempt to destroy the bonds between Soviet Jewry and the traditional roots of Judaism that have a national historical significance. Since Passover is the ancient feast that com- memorates the liberation of the Hebrews from Egyptian slavery and their establish- ment as a religious people, this holiday is subjected to especially virulent assault in the Soviet press. It is linked with "Zionist ide- ology," the State of Israel, chauvinism and so forth. The propaganda goes so far as to brand Jewish religious holidays, and Pass- over in particular, as subversive. "Judaism kills love for the Soviet motherland"-this is a slogan from a typical press article. All this adds up to a systematic policy of attrition against religious Jews and their re- ligious practices. The synagogues are the only remaining institutions in the U.S.S.R. which still embody the residues of traditional Jewish values and where Jews may still fore- gather formally as Jews. The objective of this policy is clearly to intimidate and atom- ize Soviet Jewry, to isolate it. both from its past and from it brethren in other parts of the world, to destroy its specifically Jewish spirit.. rv This policy of cultural religious repression is conducted within the charged atmosphere of a virulent press campaign against Juda- ism. From it the image of the Jew emerges in. traditional anti-Semitic stereotypes. The majority of the articles appear in the pro- vincial press-in the larger cities, frequently the capitals, of the various republics, pri- marily, the Russian Republic, the Ukraine and White Russia. These are the regions where the bulk of Soviet Jewry lives and where popular anti-Semitism is still wide- spread and endemic. A study of a dozen such publications re- veals that the following themes recur re- peatedly: 1. The stereotype that emerges most bla- tantly is that of Jews as money worshipers. Rabbis and lay leaders of the synagogues are consistently portrayed as extorting money from the faithful for ostensibly religious purposes, their object in fact being to feather their own nests. Thus, whether it is the religious service itself or some ancient rite, it is all presided over by religious figures who are in reality moneygrubbing thieves. 2. Judaism is constantly denigrated. All its rites are mocked in a manner which con- trasts harshly with the Soviet Union's boasts of religious toleration. Circumcision, for ex- ample, is denounced in the crudest terms as a barbarous and unhealthful ritual: "The priests of the synagogue offer the regular sacrifice to their God Jehovah." 3. Drunkenness in the synagogue is an- other favorite theme. The scandalous rogues who pocket the money innocently con- tributed by the believers are shown as de- voted to drink-guzzlers who confuse their prayers under the influence of alcohol. The leader of a synagogue burial society is quoted as saying: "In booze-I believe; in God-I don't." 4. Brawling id alleged to occur frequently In the synagogue, invariably'over the division of the ill-gotten profits from religious specu- lation. The newspapers name the names of the religious misleaders allegedly in- volved and frequently give their addresses and public positions, if any. 5. In these articles Jews often are used to inform on fellow Jews and to denounce Judaism. Many articles are signed by Jews; some contain recantations, usually by elderly men, of their religious, faith. 6. A favorite device is for the writer to single out for special attention the adult children of elderly religious Jews. They are Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 11870 Approved For RVW&ngg ' AL C b6B(} 44 3 0200190020-6 usually named and their public positions (teacher, engineer, nurse, etc.) noted, as well as their places .31 work and, where relevant, their party membership. Thus not only the parents but the presumably loyal, nonre- ligious Communist children are held up to public obloquy, in a not very subtle effort to exert social blackmail on*them. 7. Propaganda assaults on private prayer meetings are also frequent. Since many synagogues throughout the country are closed, Jews have taken to foregathering in each other's horses for prayers. Such gather- ings are frowned upon, indeed unauthorized. and have regule.rly been dispersed, and their members warned and even punished. Arti- cles list those who organize and attend such prayer meeting[. 8. Perhaps the most ominous of all the themes is the consistent portrayal of the tenets and practitioners of traditional Juda- ism as potentially or actually subversive. The following references are typical: 'The Jewish clerical(: and bourgeois nationalists provide grist for the mills of our class en- emies, distract workers from their class and Communist intrerests, and weaken their con- aciousness with chauvinist poison." "The traditions bois';ered by the synagogue are doubly harmful. First of all, they contribute to the perpetuation of the false religious world outlook, Secondly, they serve as an instreiment for the porpagation of bourgeois political views which are alien to us." This must be contrasted with the resolu- tion of the Central Committee of the Com- munist Party, signed by Premier Khru- shchev on November 10, 1954, and reechoed in Pravda on August 21, 1959: "It must not be forgotten that there are citizens who. though actives,' participating In the coun- try's life and faithfully fulfilling their civic duty, still rema.n under the influence of var- ious religious beliefs. Toward these the party has already demanded, and will al- ways demand, a tactful, considerate attitude. It is especially stupid to put these under political suspicion because of their religious convictions." These stands,ds have been clearly violated where Jews and Judaism are concerned. In the Soviet Union official atheism affects all religious groups; but it Is only with regard to Jews and Judaism that the theme of lack of patriotism, disloyalty and subversion Is injected into tie propaganda. When the re- ligion of the Russian Orthodox, the Armeni- an Orthodox, the Georgian Orthodox, the Baptist, or the Moslem is attacked in the press he does :zot thereby come under po- litical suspicion, nor does he feel his loyalty impugned either as a member of a given na- tionality or ac. a Soviet citizen. By the same token, the mass of nonbelieving Rus- sians, Armenians, Georgians, or Uzbeks do not feel that they are involved when the religious members of their nationality see their religion attacked in the official propa- ganda. But with the Jews It is different. Because of the persiste:ice of "popular" anti-Semit- ism, subtly en'souraged from above, an at- tack upon the religious Jew and the por- trayal of the Jewish image in traditional anti-Semitic stereotypes is felt even by the nonreligious Jew as somehow involving him too. And he is not far wrong in feeling that many of his non-Jewish neighbors un- derstand It in ,he same way. Small wonder then, that-in the absence of a consistent educational campaign against anti-Semit- ism, such as was conducted in Lenin's time an assault upsn the Jewish religion will be sensed, by Jews and non-Jews alike, as an assault upon the entire Jewish group. .Q In such an atmosphere, it is hardly sur- prising that Jews should be subject to a sub- tle policy of discrimination in employment, education, and other sectors of public life. That policy may be summarized in the phrase attributed, perhaps apocryphally but none- theless aptly, to a top-level Soviet leader: "Don't hire, don't fire. don't promote." A few especially gifted or brilliant Jewish individuals can still be found within the So- viet leadership. Many occupy positions in the middle ranks of professional, cultural and economic life. But virtually all face potent discriminatory measures in key "security sensitive" areas of public life. The instru- mentality for this exclusion, carried out quietly and informally. Is the nationality listing on the internal passport. Thus. Jews have virtually disappeared from positions of major responsibility in the diplomatic serv- ice and, with rare exceptions, in the armed forces. This contrasts sharply with the situ- ation that prevailed from 1917 to the late 1930's. The proportion In higher education, science, the professions and political life has also been declining for many years. The key to the decrease is the system of nationality quotas In university admissions. A consid- erable body of evidence points to the exist- ence of a "numerus clausus" for Jews in the universities and, in some cases, or a "nu- merus nullus." This explains the decline of Jewish representation in important activities. The extent of the decline in higher edu- cation Is reflected lathe fact that Jews today represent 3.1 percent of all students in higher education, as contrasted with 13.5 percent in 1935. During this 27-year period, the Jewish proportion of the population decreased merely from 1.6 to 1.1 percent. There is no way of accounting for this drastic decline in a country with an expanding economy and growing opportunities-except by discrimi- nation. Even the present 3.1 percent Is a skewed figure, for it falls to taG account of two de- cisive factors. In the first place, the cate- gory "higher education," as given in Soviet statistics, lumps together both universities and many other types of specialized acad- emies such as teacher training schools, music conservatories and journalism Institutes. Jews have a strong position in the latter types, and this fact artificially raises the total by balancing out the much lower proportion of Jews in the universities as such. Second- ly, It is estimated that 90 percent of Soviet Jews are urbanized. Most universities are located in the larger cities and recruit .their student bodies from the children of the urban Intelligentsia, in which the Jews have traditionally occupied a leading position. To get a more accurate measure of Jewish rep- resentation In higher education in propor- tion to the population, the Jewish propor- tion would have to be compared not with the percentage of Jews in the total popu- lation of a given republic, but with the per- centage of Jews in an urban university area. As for the professions, the declining pro- portion of Jews has been as much as admitted by Premier Khrushchev and Culture Minis- ter Furtseva themselves as a matter of policy. (In making such admissions, they have re- ferred to the necessity of making room for "our own Intelligentsia"-clearly giving away their feeling that the Jews are not truly in- digenous.) In general, the proportion of non-Jewish nationalities among profes- sionals has been rising at a very rapid rate, but that of the Jews at a much slower rate. For example, since 1955 the number of Rus- sians and Ukrainians in science has increased by 40 percent, that of the Jews by 25 percent. In 1955. Jews constituted 11 percent of Soviet scientists; the figure was 10.2 percent by 1958 and 9$ percent by 1960. Even this fig- ure is deceptively high, for it Includes a substantial number of an older generation who had far freer access to the universities and the professions Inthe twenties and thir- ties. It is obviously the Jewish youths who are hardest hit by the declining rate; they June 1 have to be very good indeed even to get into the universities, and they find it increasingly difficult to enter the professions. The disappearance of Jews from leadership positions in political life has been striking and dramatic. Soviet spokesmen have tried to counter this fact by noting- recently that 7,623 Jews were elected to local soviets all over the country. This seems impressive until it is realized that, as of 1960, more than 1,800,000 such local deputies were elected. The "'large" number of Jews thus comes to lees than one-half of 1 percent. Moreover, In all but one of the Supreme Soviets of the 18 republics, the number of Jews is far be- low their proportion of the population. When this pattern of discrimination is linked to other facets of Soviet policy toward the Jews. it becomes clear that they are con- sidered a security risk group-suspected of actual or potential disloyalty, of essential alienness. vt Many nuances of the same pattern of hos- tility have been revealed in the massive cam- paign waged with increasing severity In the past few years against the widespread eco- nomic abuses that characterize so much of Soviet life. A series of decrees, beginning In May 1981, called for capital punishment for such offenses as embezzlement of state prop- erty. currency speculation, and bribery. The authorities have made no attempt to conceal their concern over these activities or the fact that vast numbers of the population engage in them. Major pronouncements by leading officials have, indeed, given a picture of a country shotthrough with corruption-iron- ically, of a "capitalist" sort. All organs of the party, the Komsomol, the state, the press, and other major institutions have been pressed into service in the campaign against it. The secret police, one of the last strong- holds of Stalinism, plays a key role. And the public at large has been strenuously urged on to be vigilant, with all the over- tones of vigilanteelsm. Though the campaign's objective may not be anti-Jewish, there to little doubt that it has had anti-Jewish implications and con- sequences, of which the authorities-and the secret police cannot but be aware. Thus the Soviet press has especially fea- tured those trials thathave resulted in death sentences (frequency -accompanied by the denial of the right of appeal). To date, 36 such trials have been reported In 26 different cities. In these trials, death sentences have been meted out to 70 Individuals-of whom 42 (and possibly 45) are Jews. In a number of cases, the Jewish religious affiliation of some of the culprits was made explicit: the synagogue was portrayed as the locus of Il- legal transactions, religious Jews were mock- ingly described as money worshippers, the rabbi was shown as their accomplice, their family connections in Israel and the United States were pointed out. In general, the Jews are presented as people "whose only God Is gold," who flit through the inter- stices of-the economy, cunningly manipulate naive non-Jewish officials, prey upon honest Soviet workers, and cheat them of their pat- rimony. They are portrayed as the ini- tiators and masterminds of the criminal plots: the non-Jews are depicted primarily as the recipients of bribes and as acccm- p1ices. The ominous significance of this publicity is clear. It Informs the conditioned Soviet reader that the Government thinks the tiny community of Jews, which constitute little more than 1 percent of the population, is responsible for nearly two-thirds-and in some areas 100 percent--of the economic crimes which warrant capital punishment. Anti-Semitic feelings are exacerbated. From many cities come reports of grumbling on the food queues: "The Jews are responsible Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6 196.4 ApprovedLF'%WMONAL01 CMABD M03R000200190020-6 11871 for the shortages." Western travelers who were in Vilna during and immediately after a major economic trial in February 1962- where all eight accused were Jews, four of them receiving capital punishment and four lengthy prison terms-reported that the au- thorities mobilized the entire population to attend what was universally called the Jew- ish show trial. The atmosphere of fright in the Jewish communities may be imagined. VII In sum, Soviet policy places the Jews in an inextricable vise. They are allowed neither to assimilate, nor live a full Jewish life, nor to emigrate (as many would wish) to Israel or any other place where they might live freely as Jews.- The policy stems, in turn, from doctrinal contradictions abet- ted by traditional anti-Jewish sentiments. On the one hand, the authorities want the Jews to assimilate; on the other hand, they irrationally fear the full penetration of So- viet life which assimilation implies. So the Jews are formally recognized as a nationality, as a religious group, as equal citizens-but are at the same time deprived of their na- tional and religious rights as a group, and of full equality as individuals. Though the Jews are considered a Soviet nationality, official doctrine has consistently denied the existence of a historic Jewish peo- ple as an entity, and official practice has al- ways sought to discourage Soviet Jews from feeling themselves members of that entity throughout the world. Soviet policy as a whole, then, amounts to spiritual strangulation-the deprivation of Soviet Jewry's natural right to know the committee admitted that Government shipping agencies are neither competent nor appropriately staffed to weed out unfair section 22 rates, and stated that they had no objection in principle to S. 2075. Despite this, other representatives of the same Government agencies in- formed me 10 days later that these agencies were now opposed to Interstate Commerce Commission review to deter- mine if section 22 rate deals are prefer- ential or prejudicial. Because of complaints received from many areas and groups, the Subcommit- tee on Surface Transportation of the Senate Committee on Commerce on May 8 and 11, 1964, held hearings on S. 2075, which would allow localities, ports, port- districts, gateways, regions, districts, and territories to apply,to the Interstate Commerce Commission for relief from discriminatory, preferential, or prejudi- cial rates accepted or negotiated by Government shipping agencies. Mr. Charles R. Seal, general counsel, Virginia State Ports Authority, appeared at these hearings on behalf of the Ameri- can Association of Port Authorities, and on behalf of the North Atlantic Ports Association which represents the ports from Portland, Maine, to Hampton Roads, inclusive. He testified: Jewish past and to participate in the Jewish 2075 Is urgently needed to overcome the present. And without a past and a present, pre."ent unfair competitive rate practices in- EFFORTS TO AMEND SECTION 22 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT TO REMOVE INEQUITIES IN- VOLVED IN GOVERNMENT TRANS- PORTATION RATES Mr. HART. Mr. President, for some time I have been concerned with the problem of insuring that transportation rates established for the Federal agen- cies under section 22 of the Interstate Commerce Act do not work to the dis- advantage of any region of the country. Recent hearings held by a special sub- committee of the Senate Commerce Committee on Great-Lakes-St. Law- rence Seaway shipping have made even clearer the need for a revised policy to remove Inequities which now operate against certain of our Midwestern States and Great Lakes ports. It is now time to ask who is trying to cover up preferential, prejudicial, and discriminatory Government section '22 rate deals. On August 23, 1963, I introduced S. 2075, which does not repeal section 22, but only subjects these rate deals to limited Interstate Commerce Commis- sion review to determine If Government traffic is moving under discriminatory, preferential or prejudicial rates. The Interstate Commerce Commission may now grant relief to citizens and areas that are being unreasonably prej- udiced or unduly disadvantaged by un- fair rates except rates under which the Nation's largest shipper, the U.S. Gov- ernment, moves its traffic. The Government witnesses who ap- peared and testified at recent hearings before the-Surface Transportation Sub- Feed Dealers National Association, ap- peared on behalf of that organization which has 2,150 direct memberships, held by individual grain and feed firms In 46 States, plus 53 affiliated State and re- gional grain and feed associations that represent approximately another 16,000 grain and feed firms. He testified: This national association believes that S. 2075 is a step in the right direction in that it would prohibit carriers from making tend- ers under section 22 which would subject any particular area of unjust discrimination or to undue prejudice or disadvantage, and would empower the Interstate Commerce Commission to hold hearings on complaints of such discrimination. The committee also received testimony supporting the need for passage of S. 2075 from Abe McGregor Goff, Chair- man, Interstate Commerce Commission, and James F. Fort, counsel, public affairs, Am.ericap Trucking Association. The committee received statements In support of the bill from Louis C. Purdy, general manager, Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority; A. C. Ingersoll, Jr., chairman of the executive committee, the Common Carrier Conference of Domestic Water Carriers; Terrance J. Hall, president, Colorado Grain and Feed Dealers; Harold W. Barton, chairman of the board, Central Soya; and Fred H. Tolan, freight traffic consultant, Seattle, Wash., on behalf of several hundred shippers in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, the committee received statements favoring outright repeal of peacetime section 22 rates from S. G. Tipton, president, Air Transport Asso- ciation; Austin L. Roberts, Jr., general solicitor, National Association of Rail- road and Utilities Commissioners ; L. James Harmanson, general counsel, Na- tional Council of Farm Cooperatives; and the Transportation Association of Amer- ica. Even the Government witnesses who appeared at the hearings did not oppose S. 2075, which would not repeal section 22, but rather subject these Government deals to ICC review to assure that they are free from undue preference and pre- judice. Maj. Gen. Rush B. Lincoln, Jr., com- mander, Defense Traffic Management Service, Department of Defense, testi- fied: Therefore, as a practical matter, the De- partment of Defense has no objection to ap- propriate provisions with proper procedural remedy to provide that Government rates shall not produce undue geographical dis- crimination. He conceded that the Department of Defense Is not "functionally competent nor appropriately staffed to make de- terminations with respect to geograph- ical freight-rate discrimination" in de- ciding whether to accept or reject a sec- tion 22 rate. Mr. Robert B. Conrad, Commissioner, Transportation and Communications Service, General Services Administra- tion, testified: As far as this particular portion of the leg- islation is concerned (ICC review of rates for discrimination) we would have no strong objection to this particular portion of the act. He also conceded that the only review that GSA makes as a user of transporta- tion is as to the level of the rate, and no review is made for undue preference or prejudice as far as marketing or ship- ping areas. - Mr. Edwin W. Cimokowski, Assistant General Counsel, General Accounting Office, testified: We have no basic objection to this type of legislation in. principle. Since the Government witnesses who testified had no opposition In principle to S. 2075, I urged them to meet with the ICC to iron out technical objections to certain 15-day notice provisions in the bill. A meeting was held, and a few days later the Commerce Committee staff was notified that the agencies were ready to make a report. Mr. President, I do not know who de- termined that there should be a shift in government policy, but between the close of the hearings on May 11 and the meeting on May 20, there appears to me to have been a definite shift. The Gov- ernment agencies who could not defend preferential, prejudicial and discrimi- natory rates at a public hearing were very much in favor of such section 22 deals-at least, they opposed the limited ICC review-at the meeting in which the press was not present. Mr. V. F. Caputo, Director for Trans- portation and Warehousing Policy, De- partment of Defense, advised at the meeting that Defense was now opposed to the bill in principle. Mr. Caputo did not disavow General Lincoln's public testimony or explain why there had been a shift in policy. He stated that if cer- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200160020-6 11872 Approved For R # i[%W3qXtC 6BQ0200190020-6 June 1 tain citizens believed that Government section 22 rail deals were discriminatory, preferential or prejudicial, they should raise the problem with the railroads. Mr. President, who Is afraid of having the complaints of the American Asp ca- tion of Port Authorities, and thb Na- tional Feed and Grain Dealers submitted to impartial soxutiny by the ICC? Mr. Frank Barton, Deputy Under Sec- retary for Transportation-Operations Department of Commerce. who submit- ted a statement but did not testify at the hearings, adv.sed at the meeting that the Department of Commerce was now opposed to S. 2075. Mr. Barton did not disavow the written statement of Mr. Lawrence Jones, Acting General Counsel, submitted to the Commerce Commission on December 23, 1963, supporting S. 2075: The principal purpose of the bill appears to be to bring clearly within the purview of the Interstate Commerce Commission any unjust discriminations or undue or unrea- sonable prejudices or disadvantages to any locality or region which might arise from the quotation of special rates to the Govern- ment under section 22 of the Interstate Com- merce Act. Tie Department of Commerce supports this objective and agrees that the Interstate Conunerce Commission should have clear authority to correct such dis- criminations by investigations and orders provided in section 13 of the act. Mr. Barton started at the meeting on May 20 that any bill to remove section 22 rate discrimin Won should await disposi- tion of H.R. 9903. It was his view that all deregulated rail rates under A.R. 9903-not only Government rates-will soon be freed fromICC regulation as to discrimination, preference, and preju- dice. In his transportation message to the Congress, President Kennedy called for a transportation, system that means "equality of opportunity for all forms of transportation and their users and un- due preference to none." When Mr. Barton spoke before the Great Lakes Shipowners Association in Elkhart Lake, Wis., on July 8, 1961, he stated that: Elimination of a favored position in trans- portation shou.d provide both the carriers and Government transportation officers with the opportunity further to improve traffic management. With such a change in section 22, the Government would expect all trans- portation services to be performed more efficiently with benefits spreading through- out the commoncarrier sector of our trans- portation system and in turn to the entire economy. Mr. President, I submit that Mr. Bar- ton's 1961 statement is correct and sound, and that the time has come to submit these privileged Government rates to scrutiny. Another participant at the meeting on May 20 who cid not testify at the hear- ings was Mr. Gordon Murray, Bureau of the Budget. Mr. Murray summed up the position of the executive agencies as fol- lows: S. 2075 would be an unnecessary harassment o' the Government because freight rate discrimination is not a prob- lem anymore. Mr. Murray said the Gov- ernment agencies would not even set up a committee to hear complaints. The time has come to end this section 22 skulduggery. S. 2075 is a limited bill designed to end such indefensible con- duct. S. 2075 would not-repeal section 22. It only allows areas of this country to get the ICC for review of unfair sec- tion 22 rate deals-a review job which the Government shipping agencies con- cede they are not equipped to perform. There is an obligation on the part of the Government shipping agencies to move Government traffic on rates that are not discriminatory, preferential, or prejudicial. In public, the Government agencies admit that they are not com- petent or staffed to protect the public from unfair section 22 deals and agree to ICC review. In private, these same Gov- ernment agencies are adamant In seeking to retain a privileged status for their sec- tion_22 rate deals. Who ordered this switch in policy on the part of the executive agencies? Who is trying to cover up preferential, prejudicial, and discriminatory Govern- ment freight rate deals? I call upon the officials of the executive agencies to re- consider their private statements and to adhere to their public testimony. Mr. President, there will be further hearings on these section 22 rates. If these Government agencies remain ada- mant on such limited ICC review, this Congress may have to give consideration tosubjecting all Government traffic. ex- cept emergency or secret shipments, to full and complete Interstate Commerce Commission review. AGAINST U.S. FINANCING OF EGYPT'S AGGRESSIONS Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, to- day there is growing throughout the United States a strong resistance on the part of the taxpayers to the continued pouring of our dollars into Egypt, for use in planning an aggressive war against Israel. We have sustained President Nasser in power in Egypt with our dollars, and at the added cost of straining our friend- ship with our traditional ally Great - Britain. Peace-loving people in the United States are becoming increasingly fear- ful of the image which the United States presents to the world by its irrational actions in the Middle East because of our constant appeasement of President Nas- ser. Mr. Emil N. Saar, acting president, Brooklyn Jewish Community Council, has written me saying: In-view of the fact that the U.B. Govern- ment has and is still giving economic aid to Nasser's Arab countries, the Brooklyn Jewish Community Council, with Its 800 affiliated or- ganizations. representing almost I million Jews residing in Brooklyn, has taken a strong stand in this situation, unless the Arab policy is changed into one of peace. I predict, Mr. President, that, unless the U.B. policy toward Egypt is drasti- cally changed shortly, we shall see the petition of protest against our current policies adopted by the Brooklyn Jewish Community Council adopted by Chris- tians and Jews alike in every section of the country. I ask unanimous consent that the let- ter of Acting President Emil N. Baar, as well as the petition, unanimously adopted by this council, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter and the petition were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BROOKLYN JEWISH CoMMUNrrY CouNcu? Brooklyn N.Y., May 22, 1954. Hon. NEST GsueNiNC, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR GRUZNING: The Brooklyn Jewish Community Council, representing more than 800 organizations in the largest Jewish community in America, is deeply' concerned and troubled over the repeated threats by President Nasser to annihilate Israel. In view of the fact that the U.S. Govern- ment has and is still giving economic aid to Nasser's Arab countries, the council, with its 800 affiliated organizations, representing almost 1 million Jews residing in Brooklyn, has taken a strong stand in this situation, unless the Arab policy is changed into one of peace. At a mass meeting sponsored by the coun- cil, held at the Brooklyn Jewish Center on May 5. the attached resolution was unani- mously adopted with the request that the matter be called to the attention of the President, to the Secretary of State, and to all Members of Congress. Respectfully yours, EM t, N. BAAR, Acting President. Whereas for more than a decade the very existence of the State of Israel has been threatened with extinction by the repeated public declarations and preparations of the ruler of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser; and Whereas since' he came to power President Nasser has constantly declared over his radio and in public his determination and that of his associated Arab States to drive the Israelis into the sea; and Whereas he has in recent years, in pursu- ance and preparations of such threats and declarations of policy built up a formidable armament of jet planes, submarines, tanks, and more recently offensive missiles, in the building of which he has been aided by for- mer Nazis who have found refuge in Egypt from prosecution in Germany; and Whereas for a year and a half he has kept an army of Egyptian troops in Yemen which were transported there by Russian planes and supplied by Russian arms; and Whereas contrary to his repeated promises, he has not only not withdrawn his troops but has increased their number so that they now reportedly number 40,000 and, through rotation, has used the war in Yemen to bat- tle train his entire army; and Whereas the United States has consistently supported Nasser with generous gifts of for- eign aid in an amount now approaching nearly a billion dollars; and Whereas this policy encourages the ag- gressive tactics and purposes of Egypt's dic- tator; and Whereas the United States has repeatedly declared its interest In the preservation of peace in the Middle East and elsewhere and the development of the economy and well- being of nations recipient of U.S. aid; and Whereas the actions of the United States in supporting Nasser are wholly inconsistent with U.S. declarations of policy; and Whereas there Is imminent danger that Egypt shortly will be in a position to destroy Israel overnight by the rocketry and sophisti- Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190020-6