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April 7, 1964
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196.E Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE alongside awaiting its turn. The workman is explaining to his friend that the small box contains an electronic data processing system and in the big box are, of course, the instruction manuals for the system. MAGNITUDE OF PAPERWORK COSTS To return to the serious side of our dis- cussion this morning, the paperwork prob- lem has been with us for a long time. As many of you know, back in 1810 the House of Representatives established a committee to determine what was happening to im- portant old public records and to provide for the orderly preservation of them. The emphasis then was on preservation, and while the list of paperwork management problems has expanded considerably, records preservation is still extremely important. The trick, of course, is to preserve the right records- and have reasonable accessibility to them. How many times have you set about to research a problem and found that a voluminous clutter of records is available to you, but that the one record which would, give you the answer to what you really need to know is nowhere to be found. I am sure much work was done on records management between 1810 and 1934 when the National Archives Act was passed which. established the Office of the Archivist of the United States, but it was not until 1943, during World War II, that the Records Dis- posal Act was put on the books. In tracing this history briefly, we find that there was a shift In emphasis over the years from rec- ords preservation to records disposal. Later, the Federal Records Act of 1950, put the Federal records manager in business, so to speak, and it was high time. Shortly thereafter, the Hoover Commission esti- mated the cost of the Federal Government's paperwork at $4 billion a year. I think this is a statistic we have been passing over all too quickly, so let me suggest we refresh ourselves about it for a minute. The Hoover Commission reported that the lion's share of the $4 billion, 70 percent or $2,800 million, goes for creating records. They estimated that 485,000 Federal Government employees, or about one-quarter of all Federal workers, were engaged in collecting, compiling, and analyzing reports of all kinds. Almost all of the remainder of the $4 billion was de- voted to maintaining files and records. About 1 percent of the total, which still is' a large sum-$30 million-was used for the records disposal program. THE COST TO THE PUBLIC _ Now, whether you accept the Hoover Com- mission's estimates or not, they are the best figures we have so far on the dimensions of our paper problem and, of course, they are now almost 10 years old. More recent in- formation leads us to believe that today we are about holding our own; or, in other words, we are disposing of about as many papers each year as the Federal Government is creating. And, if, as they tell us, the Fed- eral records created each year laid end-to-end would reach the moon 13 times, maybe we ought to turn this whole problem over to NASA. But I hate to think where we would be today if our records disposal program did not exist. A good example of records disposal has come to my attention, and I am sure you will enjoy hearing about it. The example is cited in an editorial which appeared in the Com- mercial Appeal of Memphis, Tenn., on Feb- ruary 6, 1964, and is one of the few kudos I've seen for good records management work outside of the trade journals. The editorial is entitled "Bouquet for Census," and reads as follows: "Someone ought to make up a bouquet and present it to the Census Bureau. "Despite the rise of the microfilm method of record keeping, there are times when we wonder whether the population can keep its head above the rising flood of stored Govern- ment records. "Now we are informed, by the Census Bureau, that 1960 questionn$ires on popula- tion and housing have already been de- stroyed. There were 837 tons of them. As wastepaper they were packed into 1,200- pound bales. It took 20 freight cars and 17 trucks to move them out. "But the main point is that this has been done, and less than 4 years after they were collected. A few more items like this will give us hope that we can hold back the flood." The ' second observation I should like to make is that if the cost to the Federal Gov- ernment is $4 billion to make, maintain, and dispose of its records each year, how much is it costing individual citizens, businesses, and manufacturing plants around the coun- try to meet the paperwork requirements of the Federal, State, and local governments? Let's look at the problem in somewhat more detail, and let's take first the situation in which the small businessman finds him- self. How much are Government reports costing him, and how are they affecting him otherwise? The example I am going to give you is actual and probably occurring more fre- quently than you and I would like to think. It comes to me from Congressman O'BRIEN, of New York, and describes the plight of a druggist back home in his district. The druggist has a small business and hires one or two employees to help him run it. After a full day at the store, ordinarily one would expect that the druggist could go home and relax, but not so. He must go home and do his bookkeeping, a significant amount of which is generated by Government report requirements. If this were the end of it, the situation would be bad enough, but I have not finished the example. The druggist finds it necessary to hire an accountant, who gets more money per hour than the druggist, to prepare his income tax return and other Government reports. This is the very point I have made before. Government reports can play havoc with the small businessman and can go so far as to turn his profits into losses. There are se- rious side effects, too. These good, honest people get the idea that the Government is breathing down their necks and that the Federal Government in Washington is al- most an enemy, because of this heavy bur- den of paperwork. These people want to obey the law, but it is becoming increasingly difficult for them because so much reporting is required. We simply cannot allow the causes of this type of feeling to go un- checked, nor do we intend to. Next, let's review the paperwork expe- rience of a private corporation. Some of you may remember that back in 1959 our subcommittee looked into this matter, using case histories of -individual companies. I would like to read from our "Report on the Business Reporting Requirements of the Federal Government," citing the case history of a large manufacturing company in the Midwest: "In 1 year, the company handled 173 dif- ferent Federal forms ranging in frequency of filing from daily to annual, and involving the filing of 37,883 reports. The workload amounted to 48,285 hours. In addition, the company received a number of other Fed- eral forms, presumably voluntary, which it did not respond to because it objected to the apparent duplication, felt that the data re- quested were confidential, or for other rea- eons. In this group were 33 different forms which would have involved 1,098 reports and an estimated workload of 424 hours. Requests from State agencies which were complied with included 63 different forms, involving the filing of 1,145 reports at a cost of 3,266 hours. State requests which were not filed included 6 different forms which 6943 Requests from cities, other local govern- ments, and private groups (e.g., trade asso- ciations, chambers of commerce) which were honored included 36 different forms requir- ing 385 filings and 676 hours. Requests from similar sources to which response was not made included 27 different forms which would have involved 110 reports and an esti- mated cost of 234 hours. It is noted that the proportion of total workload attributable to Federal forms was much greater in the case of this company than has been observed in other cases. This company deals largely in agricultural prod- ucts, and 61 .percent of its Federal workload comprised work on the U.S. Department of Agriculture forms. In addition, the work- load for the year included filing for the cen- sus of manufactures, which is conducted only once every 5 years. Hours chargeable to the census forms amounted to 26 percent of the total time spent on Federal forms. It is probably true, however, that the larger the company the greater the relative impost of Federal filing requirements. Many Federal inquiries are limited to the larger enterprises, or require more detailed reporting from the larger ones. The work- load tends to vary also according to the na- ture of the industry. Firms operating in - an economic area in which the Federal Gov- ernment has a strong regulatory interest, such as agriculture or railroads, or a strong procurement interest, such as aircraft and missiles, are likely to have heavier reporting burdens than firms in other areas. Now in fairness to the Federal agencies, I should say that they are often criticized by - persons who do not know all the facts. In our hearings last month on the 1963 Eco- nomic Censuses, one witness complained about a form used in the census of busi- ness for restaurants and cafes or as the Census Bureau calls them eating and drink- ing places. The census schedule asks for figures on sales of such things as clothing, shoes, hardware, and many other mechandise lines not usually associated with "eating and drinking places". Our witness who comes from New York, ridiculed this form and im- plied that this was typical of government bureaucracy at work. - Now in New York City, I'm sure that most eating and drinking places sell only food - and beverages, but out in my district in Montana, eating and drinking places sell everything under the sun. But some of these complaints are justified and our subcommittee plans to look into the businessman's cost for Federal reports in connection with hearings to be held in April and May. If we are unable to put a dollar value on these costs, I think we'll be able, at least, to state them in employee manhours. My impression now is that, on the average, the cost to the public for Fed- eral reporting may be as high as 10 times the cost to the Government. And, I will predict to you now that before long we will - require Federal agencies to submit a state- ment about the cost of a survey or form to the business community before the question- naire can be placed in the mails. We may not like to do this, but in my opinion, we will be forced to do it. PAPERWORK AND EDP - Now, I would like to turn to the subject of EDP and briefly discuss its effect upon the paperwork problem. I would liek to quote from my speech in the House on February 8, as regards EDP: "The possibilities of paperwork reduction through or as a byproduct., of electric data processing automation in the Government are enormous. Exploration of machine-to- machine reporting is only in its infancy, but a few applications reported by the agencies suggest what the future has in store. As Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 6944 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE April 7 described in this repor:, an outstanding ex- ample of paperwork reduction through in- teragency data exchange is the Treasury Department's arrangement whereby the Division of Disbursements receives check issue information on magnetic tape from a number of cooperating; agencies (Veterans' Administration, Department of Health, Edu- cation, and Welfare, Internal Revenue Serv- ice, and others). Another example Is the arrangement whereby the Bureau of Old- Age and Survivors 1n3urance (BOASI) re- ceives Federal Insuran:e Compensation Act (FICA) earnings statements on magnetic tape; some 4 million earnings items are re- ceived quarterly, 3 million from the Armed Forces and 1 million from State agencies and private employers. A third, which may point the way to greater paperwork savings, is the Census Bureau's use of BOASI Data and em- ployer identification r_umbers in the 1963 Censuses of Business e-id Manufactures." In my speech, I wens on to say that some of us are disappointed so far, in that EDP in some cases has actually Increased the paperwork flow and I cited the 600 million forms now used by the Internal Revenue Service in the collection of Income taxes. I may have been a little severe on the In- ternal Revenue Service In my remarks, and Mr. Caplan told me as much in a four-page single-spaced letter. But. I plan to pursue this matter further in our hearings. I have never understood why the financial and banking agencies are exempt from the Fed- eral Reports Act of 1942, especially when they are among the worst offenders when it comes to the proliferation of paperwork. Nor do I understand why It is necessary for the Treasury Department to retain In- come tax forms and other records for as long as 30 years. As a lawyer and former attorney general of my State, I can understand keep- ing records for a reasonable period of time, If only because of the delays in the courts and the statute of limitations, but what about the records storage costs involved in these systems. We wi;l soon have 100 mil- lion persons filing income tax returns each year and the information retrieval problems must be enormous. In contrast, we have the example of the 1300 census schedules which have already been destroyed, as I described earlier. Speaking of EDP, r wonder how many of you have actually stood In front of a high- speed printer. I don't mean the 1,200 lines per minute outputs of .he printers now gen- erally In use, but thenew generation printers with speeds up to 3,030 lines per minute. These machines spew out paper at such a tremendous speed that. If you do stand in front of them, you would literally be buried in paper in a matter of minutes. One of these machines could engulf this room In printed paper in no time at all. How important It is, then, that the entire EDP system be intelligently managed and monitored; and how important it is that we bring the best management tools at our command to this new technology. These and other EDP matters are discussed in consider- able detail In our subcommittee report on the "Use of Electronic Data Processing Equipment In the Federal Government," re- leased last October. WHERE DO WE GD FROM HERE7 In my remarks this morning, I have had to highlight certain aspects of the paper- work problem. I have not discussed. for In- stance, information retrieval via EDP and the work of my colleague, Congressman Pu- crNSxl, is doing In this area, nor the study the Library of Congress has undertaken re- garding the feasibility of automating some of its operations, your own correspondence management projects, and so on. I m afraid this is one of our problems. We have so many paperwork projects, there Is a real question as to whether we can do all of them justice and keep our eye on the ball at the same time. Before closing, I want to say that the Sub- committee on Census and Government Sta- tistics Is going tb continue to fight in this paperwork jungle. We are planning hear- ings in April and May. Throughout, we are hopeful that we will have your support and that you will use your excellent vantage point to lighten the Government paperwork burden on the citizens and businessmen of this country. I know that most of you have active programs in paperwork reduction, but If you don't, you certainly should. If you are in doubt as to how to proceed, you might contact the Interstate Commerce Commis- sion, which, In my opinion, hasdone an out- standing job In this matter, and I praised them for It on the floor of the House. Also, If any of you have any suggestions which should be Included in our forthcoming hearings, please get in touch with me or the staff. It may come as a surprise to some of you that under the Legislative Reorganiza- tion Act of 1946, the House Post Office and Civil Service Committee has jurisdiction in matters concerning the National Archives and this responsibility has been delegated to our subcommittee. So, your ideas and. sugges- tions are doubly welcome. One last word before I close. We don't as- sociate paperwork with the struggle In Viet- nam but if we're not doing too well over there, this report by Jim Lucas, of Scripps- Howard, might explain why: "Men in the field often work for three com- manders: the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the Military Advisory As- sistance Group (MA.AG), and the Military Assistance Command, Thailand (MACT). Theseare In addition to the 'Support Com- mand,' the 'country team' headed by Ambas- sador Lodge. Fleldmen must report to all three commands. The paperwork is horren- dous." Lucas goes on to say that organization on the Vietnam side is equally confused. This report from Vietnam only bears out what we've been saying right along that poor organizatioiland management breeds exccs- sive paperwork. So don't let anyone tell you that paperwork is not important. Thanks for asking me to come here this morning. I enjoyed being with you. TRIBUTE TO THE HONORABLE RICHARD F. TAITANO (Mr. O'HARA of Illinois asked and was given permission to address the House for i minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, on February 19, 1961, Richard F. Tai- tano, a native of Guam, became the Di- rector of the Office of the Territories In the Department of the Interior. It was the first time that a native of one of the territories had been placed in the com- mand post over the destinies of the islands in the Atlantic and the Pacific over which files the Stars and Stripes. Mr. Taitano Is retiring to become Dep- uty High Commissioner of the trust ter- ritories after an outstanding record of accomplishment. It is said of him by those closest in position to judge that in 3 years he has accomplished more, es- pecially in the field of education and health, than has been accomplished in the preceding half century. Here are the Islands under the juris- diction of the Director of the Office of the Territories: Virgin Islands In the At- lantic. Palmyra, and Canton near Ha- waii, Guam and American Samoa in the Far Pacific, and over 2,000 islands that comprise the Trust Territories of the Pa- cific. When Mr. Taitano was summoned from Guam by President Kennedy and Secretary Udall to take over the Trust Territories of the Pacific, although under American care' and guardianship, were perhaps the most desolate and neglect- ed areas in the world. Few of the island- ers spoke English. There were six native languages and the language spoken on one little Island might be quite differ- ent from that spoken on another island. There were no doctors, no medicine. That was 3 years ago. Now there are 75 schools and by next year the number will be 400. Several hundred teachers have been brought from the United States, more are being recruited. The children of these faraway islands are responding splendidly and already are handling English with ease and delight. Progress also has been made in im- proving health conditions. Three years ago there was one small school in American Samoa. Today there are school accommodations and quali- fied.teachers for every child on the Is- land. What Director Taitano accomplished, the miracles he worked, would not have been possible, of course, without the in- terest and the help of the gentleman from Ohio [Mr. KIRWAN], chairman of the subcommittee that handles the ap- propriations for the territories. Congressman KIRWAN spent days on some of the desolate and neglected is- lands observing painfully and uncom- fortably at first hand, came to the con- clusion that all this constituted a na- tional disgrace and came back to Washington to do something about it. As chairman of the subcommittee, the gentleman from Ohio has consistently and faithfully been the friend and cham- pion of the Virgin Islands, Guam and our other unincorporated territories. Credit also is due the gentleman from Colorado [Mr. AsprNALLI, the distin- guished chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, and the members of his committee who work to- gether on a bipartisan nature for the advancement of the interest of our un- incorporated and trust territories. Mr. Speaker, I know I speak the senti- ment of all my colleagues In extending to Mr. Taltano our warm congratulations on the outstandingly good job he has done in a post of the greatest importance and our every good wish for a future of expanding accomplishment and con- tentment. He and his charming wife, Magdalena and their children, Miss Taling and Master Richard, Junior, will be missed by the many friends they made during their 3 years in Washington,. ~,.. RESOLUTION CONDEMNING PERSE- CUTION BY THE SOVIET UNION OF PERSONS BECAUSE OF THEIR RELIGION (Mr. ROOSEVELT asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to in- clude a speech by the president of B'nai B'rith.) Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 1.96. vftvol N100 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66BQ0403R000200190034-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Mr. ROOSEVELT. Mr. Speaker, it is with the deepest and most heartfelt con- cern not only for the Jewish people in the Soviet Union but for all mankind throughout the world that I have intro- duced a resolution condemning persecu- tion bi the Soviet Union of persons be- cause of their religion. I hope that this resolution, which is similar to Senate Resolution 204, intro- duced in the Senate by the Honorable ABRAHAM RIBIcoFF and cosponsored by 63 fellow Senators, will receive equally representative backing in the House. The terrifying situation of Jewish persecution in the Soviet Union has reached such intensity and alarming proportions that leaders of 24 major na- tional Jewish organizations in the United States have gathered together in Washington these past 2 days to conduct a conference on Soviet Jewry. I would like to bring to your attention by including in my remarks the opening address of the chairman of the confer- ence, Label A. Katz, president of the B'nai B'rith, whose articulate thoughts and whose presentation of alarming facts on the treatment of the Jews in the U.S.S.R. must be heeded by every human being who cares for his fellowman. , I hope that the Committee on Foreign Affairs will take action on this resolution, so that somehow our voices may be heard by the Soviet leaders and will help to put an end to the insidious cultural and religious genocide that is being per- petrated on the Jewish people in the Soviet Union. ADDRESS BY LABEL A. KATZ TO THE AMERICAN JEWISH CONFERENCE ON SOVIET JEWRY I call to order the American Jewish Con- ference on Soviet Jewry. This is an assembly of historic dimensions. It is an assembly predicated on Jewish unity-unity of mind and of purpose. We, the representatives of 24 organiza- tions, are gathered to bear witness and to protest. We do so with that most formidable of witnesses and most potent of protesters: our collective conscience as a free people. We are here to speak that conscience. We are here to proclaim moral indignation that makes the free spirit shudder when an- other man's spirit is enslaved. We are here for a singular purpose. It is without political overtones. It is removed from cold war problems. We are here to speak for a community of Jews in the Soviet Union that is trapped in silence; it cannot speak for itself. We are here to articulate its plight; to appeal, in its behalf, for reason and civilized decency; to mobilize,. in its support, those for whom freedom of thought and conscience is an ideal to be cherished-and therefore to be shared. And with the Passover festival still fresh in our souls, we are here in obedience to the commitment of the Haggadah: "B'chol doer vo'do'er chiyov oh'dom: lee'ros ess ahtz'mo key'loo hoo yo'tzo mi'mitzryim. "In every generation, one ought to regard himself as though he had personally come out of Egypt." My assignment of the moment, as prelude to the eminent voices we will hear this eve- ning, is to examine briefly the problem of the Soviet Jew in its historic perspective. The core of that problem can be found in a current Russian joke that asks: "Why is the sputnik Jewish?" No. 35-16 And it answers: "Because it wanders around the'earth and has no place to stop." As with all grim humor, the jest is com- pounded of bitter truth. The Soviet Jew- who wants to remain a Jew-has no place to go and no place to stay. His is a dilemma foisted upon him by the conformities of a closed society, and by his unwillingness to fit neatly into orthodox pre- conceptions laid out by Soviet ideology. The Soviet Jew is a creature of Soviet law- and a victim of Soviet dogma. He is, in the promise of Soviet law, upheld as a full and equal citizen of his mother- land. In terms of his right to be Jewish, there is nothing wrong with the Soviet con- stitution-except that the ruling authori- ties choose to forsake it. But in the practice of Soviet dogma, the Jew is cast as an alienated element in Soviet society-this because his Jewishness has not freely and conveniently faded away, as So- viet dogma predicted it would. So the Soviet Jew finds himself between the colliding forces of Soviet law and So- viet dogma. A collision shatters; this one has fragmentized his Jewish community, crushed his Jewish culture, splintered his Jewish existence. Despite all this, the destructiveness has failed to achieve its ultimate: it has not yet been able to kill off his Jewish con- sciousness. Each of the two forces has made of So- viet Jewry a unique component, unlike any other, of Soviet society. The law has invested Soviet Jewry with a dichotomous status. It has recognized Soviet Jewry as a religious community, with a legal right to practice Judaism as it chooses. And it has established Soviet .Jewry as a major Soviet nationality, with a legal right-in fact, if you consider basic Soviet theory you would almost call it an obligation-to maintain a national culture and language. The dogma, with its perspective of a Jew- ish community disappearing through assimi- lation, has singled out Soviet Jewry for disabilities and oppressions that contradict, not only the law, but the dogma as it is interpreted and practiced for every other major Soviet nationality. Unlike any other Soviet nationality, the Jews are dispersed, without a province or land area of their own. The experiment of Birobidjan, ineptly conceived and haphaz- ardly implemented, was doomed from its start. Unlike any other Soviet nationality, the Jews are denied the national institutions- the schools, the books, the newspapers, the theaters-of their Yiddish culture. Unlike any other Soviet nationality, the Jews are without a structure or program- or even an identifying address. There is today in all of the Soviet Union only one "Jewish address"-that of the har- assed synagogue. And what remains of the synagogue is little more than a caricature of the old East European shul that had been the lively stronghold of piety, scholarship, and communal life. The suppression of Judaism in the Soviet Union is the suppression of all religions. But Soviet practice decrees that for Judaism it be more so. s . Unlike the Russian Orthodox Church- which has a privileged status-the Baptists, the Buddhists and others, each of which is able, in some fashion, to conduct an Organ- ized establishment, to produce Bibles and prayer books, to manufacture or import re- ligious articles, and to maintain some forms of contact with their denomination outside the U.S.S.R.-unlike these, the practice of Judaism is quarantined-insulated from its every means of sustenance. 6945 I recently came across a handsome and re- vealing volume that tells about the Russian Orthodox Church. It was published several years ago by the Moscow patriarchate. Its 230, pages, nicely illustrated with scores of photographs, report on the church's multi- tude of religious activities, its extensive edu- cational program of training seminarians, and its formal contacts with Christian churches outside the U.S.S.R. There is no such volume for Yudaism in the Soviet Union-there could not be. The number of synagogues in the Soviet Union has dwindled to 97. There were 450 in 1956. Each of the 97 is kept apart-unaffiliated with and unrelated to any other synagogue. The struggles of Judaism under Soviet dogma are summed up in this poignant in- cident of a visitor who met an old man at worship in one of the few remaining syna- gogues. The visitor's questions were really rhetorical. "Do you need siddurim-prayer .books?'," The old man answered with a shrug. "Have you enough talesim-prayer shawls?" Another shrug. "Do any of the children learn Hebrew?" A third shrug. "Can we help you in any way?" The old man stared back. "My friend," he finally whispered, "you have asked four kashes-four questions. This is not the time for such a dialog. Four kashes are for Pesach-and Pesach in the Soviet Union is along way off." We are this evening following in the tra- dition of those who aroused the conscience of this Nation against the persecution of Russian Jews during the days of the czar. The restrictions, the quotas, the pogroms, the pale of settlement-these were the in- dignities that an earlier American Jewish community protested about to the highest councils of our Government. Yet such is the character of Jewish per- sistence that in the very midst of the op- pressions and pogroms there flourished a rich and variegated Yiddishkeit-a throb- bing, vibrant culture that grew abundantly. And that culture was transported by those who fled to escape the barrieys-to America, to England, to Palestine. If Yiddishkeit bloomed in the dark shadows of these barriers, how much stronger a culture would it become when the politcal fetters were unchained? This was one of the false promises of the Rus- sian revolution. The Jews were certainly a nation when the Soviet era began. There were 31/2 million* Jews in Russian territory alone-another 11/2 million if you include the present borders of the U.S.S.R. Soviet Jewry had its own idioms-Yiddish and Hebrew; It had a vigor- ous press, communal institutions, hundreds of synagogues and schools, and a popular national culture. In the formative days of the U.S.S.R.., So- viet leadership encouraged these develop- ments. It did so while simultaneously seek- ing to suffocate the Jewish religion and the political philosophies of Jewish peoplehood, since these were anathema to an atheistic and closed society. But a proletarianized Yiddishkeit was evident wherever there were Jews in the Soviet Union. In 1920, for example, there were 96 Yid- dish or Hebrew newspapers and periodicals. Today, not a single Jewish daily newspaper. There is one bimonthly magazine-begun 3 years ago largely in response to protests from outside the Soviet Union. I was in Moscow the day the first copy of Sovietish Helmland came off the press. I was delighted to se a Yiddish vort in print- and said so to Aaron Vergelis, its editor. Yet Vergelis spent most of the time of our visit insisting that Jewish mothers did not Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE April 7 want their children kept separate in Yiddish eluded that only through assimilation could schools or familiarizing themselves with the the problem be solved. Yiddish language. This pose of a Yiddish But the Jews of czarist Russia did not dis- poet and editor rejecting any future for the appear through any such assimilation. And language to which he contributes his the Jews of Soviet Russia are not willing to talents was its own classic form of irony. bury their traditions or inter their heritage. In the midthirtie3, there were 17 per- Jewish consciousness has a survivalist manent Jewish theaters In the U.S.S.R. To- q silty. There is an ironic aftermatch to day there is none. the depotism of Stalin's black years. Ob- As late as 1938, there were 800 Jewish servers of the Soviet scene say that nothing primary and seconc.ary schools in White In the postwar years did more to heighten Russia and the Ukra_ne alone. Today there Jewish consciousness among Soviet Jews- Is no such school anywhere in the U.S.S.R. particularly among the untaught, Jewishly There were millions of copies of Yiddish Illiterate youth-than the tyrant's efforts to books coming off the presses; hundreds of achieve just the opposite. courts in Jewish districts that insisted upon We are called to order this evening to Yiddish as the officie.l court language. The strengthen that survivalist spirit-to help Soviet Communist party, the government, the Soviet Jew preserve and make meaning- the military, the diplomatic corps-all of the ful his Jewish consciousness. institutions of the state-were open to Jews. We do not seek special privilege or status Soviet posters shouted of a new dawn of for our Soviet brother-but the equality of justice and equality for all the national- st.$tus that is guaranteed him by Soviet law. sties-the Jews too. We do not challenge Mr. Khrushchev's view It was a short-livel promise. By the late of a world of good goulash and ballet. We 1930's it had already begun to fade. The simply propose that good goulash tastes bet- megalomania of Stalincrushed it completely. ter and ballet is more inspiring when the In 1948, with a sin?:le brutal sweep, Stalin human spirit is free and untrammeled. toppled every institution of Jewish cultural We are here to appeal for the restoration of and intellectual life. He did so with a show an Inalienable human right that cannot be of force, with hie famous trumped-up challenged in any civilized society. It is the charges-the Doctors' Plot, the secret purges right of the Jew to be Jewish; the right of the ~ ~ ~. ents a l l . g self. reign of terror that lasted until his death in 1953. +KKA There remains forever in Soviet history the infamous day of August 12, 1952-the AMERICAN JEWISH CONFERENCE day when 26 of the leading Soviet Yiddish ON SOVIET JEWRY writers and intellectuals were summarily (Mr. RYAN of New York asked and executed. These wcre not Zionists. They was given permission to extend his re- were not religious Jews. Most of them were marks at this point In the RECORD and practicing Communists. They were purged because they were the leading exponents of to include extraneous matter.) Yiddishkelt-which titalin intended to purge Mr. RYAN of New York. Mr. Speaker. with them. Soviet Jews still speak of that yesterday I called the attention of the era as the "shvartze yohrin-the black House to the American Jewish Confer- years." ence on Soviet Jewry which was held in Mr. Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization Washington on April 5-S. Sponsored policy have exposed ;he corrupt and fraudu- by 24 Jewish organizations and attended lent nature of that e:-a. But while denounc- ing Stalin, they have said little of Stalin's anti-Semitism, and have done nothing to re- was called to protest the Soviet Union's move It, or to restore cultural and nationality discrimination against its citizens of the rights to Soviet Jewry. Jewish faith. At the conclusion of the The standardized Soviet response to this conference yesterday the delegates Is that Soviet Jews are not interested in adopted an 18-point resolution which I maintaining a Jewish cultural life. But include at this point in the RECORD: even Soviet leaders have difficulty with this The American Jewish Conference on So- facts evasive and weary cliche; first, because the viet Jewry protests the denial to Soviet Jews f disprove it; second, because it leads of the basic institutions 'and facilities them into a mess of dialectical contradic- tionr. to other religions and nationality . It Is they who ha',e decreed a Jewish na- groups within the Soviet Union. require Considera- tionality in the Soviet Union. It is they who tions of humanity and justice require the have decreed that the Soviet Jew be iden- 1Soviet C}decr re Its policy of eradicating tifled as a Jew on his internal passport. by y re a vigorous Its Tadeueducational effort Semitlam It is they who single out the Soviet Jew bparty effort for exclusion from positions of special trust conducted . To permit the free government and functioning pa. of syna- in the government End In the economy. g es and meetings. It is they who indulge in the curious re- 8. He To remove private hindrances vh prayer rto the observance tionalization that tie Soviet Jew can best c8. cr rites al and such as religious he buburial d enjoy equality In the Soviet Union by being circumcision. treated unequally among other Soviet nationalities. 4. To make possible the production and distribution of phylacteries, prayer shawls, It is they who ha ,,e thrust the Soviet Jew mezzuzoth, religious calendars, a consummate contradiction, on the one , and other us articles. hand requiring him to maintain his identit re To restore as a Jew, and, on the other, forcibly pushing 5 e. . all rights and facilities for hili toward assimilation, the production and distrlbutlon of matzoh and kosher food. It Is they who have created a senseless, 6. To make available facilities to publish neither-nor world ic?r the Soviet Jew, which Hebrew Bibles, prayerbooks. and other rell- says to him: "You are a Jew-but you can't gious texts In the necessary quantities. be Jewish." 7 To permit the organization of a nation- The Soviet dogma that commands the dis- wide federation of synagogues. appearance of Jewish consciousness is -de- 8. To sanction the association of such a vied by history ant. by current events. It federation with organizations of coreligton- is worth recalling that 80 years ago a Russian late abroad. high commission, a liberal and, by the stand- 9. To permit Jews to make religious pil- ards of the times, enlightened body that gr[mages to the holy places in Israel. sought to reduce intensity of Russian 10. To make It possible to allow all qual- anti-Semitism, spent 5 years studying what flied applicants to attend the Moscow Yeshl- it called the Jewish problem. It finally con- vah. to provide facilities for the establish- ment of additional Yeshivot as needed, and to enable rabbinical students to study at seminaries abroad. 11. To provide schools and other facilities for the study of Yiddish and Hebrew, and of Jewish history, literature, and culture. 12. Topermit Jewish writers, artists, and other intellectuals to create their own in- stitutions for the encouragement of Jewish cultural and artistic life. 13. To reestablish a Yiddish publishing house and to publish books in Yiddish by classical and contemporary Jewish writers. 14. To reestablish Yiddish state theaters in major centers of Jewish population and to publish Yiddish-language newspapers with national circulation. . 15. To eliminate discrimination against Jews in all areas of Soviet public life. 16. To end all propaganda campaigns which use anti-Semitic stereotypes, implied or overt. 17. To halt the discriminatory applica- tion of maximum penalties, including the death sentence, against Jews for alleged eco- nomic crimes. 18. To make possible on humanitarian grounds Soviet Jews who are members of families separated as a result of the Nazi holocaust to be reunited with their relatives abroad. We appeal for a redress of these and other wrongs and sufferings; for the elimination of discrimination and for the full restora- tion of Jewish rights in the U.S.S.R. In addition to the resolution, the con- ference issued a general statement ap- pealing to the Soviet Government to grant equality to the Jewish community in accordance with the Soviet constitu- tion and law. That appeal follows: AMERICAN JEWISH CONFERENCE ON SOVIET JEWRY, APRIL 6, 1964 We, as representatives of the major na- tional American Jewish organizations, have met for the past 2 days in solemn assembly in Washington, D.C., to express with one voice our deep concern with and our deter- mination to protest the plight of our Jewish brethren in the Soviet Union. Soviet Jewry constitutes the second largest Jewish community in the world and is the last remnant of the once great East European Jewish community. This remnant exists largely because of the heroic resistance of the Soviet Union to the Nazi hordes which destroyed the great majority of European Jewry. The approximately 3 million Jews of the U.S.S.R. have a special claim on the con- science of all who are zealous of securing human rights, and, more particularly, on the conscience of all Jewry. Soviet Jews are the heirs of a tradition that stretches unbroken over 1,000 years of Jewish history in East- ern Europe. a tradition which produced an enduring heritage of scholarship, piety and ethical idealism. They are the kin of the millions who went forth from Russia to other countries, bringing with them the social idealism of their tradition enhancing the cultures of their new lands. With the lessening of repression and perse- cution so widely acclaimed following the death of Stalin, it was hoped that the Soviet Jews would share In the new atmosphere of relaxation of tensions. Now, however, with anguish and indignation we witness Soviet Jewry being denied its natural right of group existence. It is fragmented from within and kept Isolated from without. Though for- mally recognized as a nationality and as a re- ligious group, the Soviet Jewish community is deprived of those rights granted to other nationalities and other major religious bodies in the U.S.S.R. A process of attrition forces Soviet Jews to live only a most attenuated Jewish life and threatens to crush their spirit and sever their ties with the Jewish people. Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 1964 Approved For Release 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Soviet Jewish youth, traumatized by the Nazi holocaust and by Stalin's anti-Semitic excesses are now seeking to reestablish their links with Jewish life. But they are denied even the most meager Opportunity to learn, enhance and transmit their Jewish heritage. The whole of Jewish culture, and Yiddish artistic and literary expression in particular, once so flourishing in the U.S.S.R., are now represented by the merest tokens. The bonds of Soviet Jewry with their tradition are being destroyed by increasing restrictions against fundamental and sacred Jewish practices. Synagogues are closed down; the public pro- duction and distribution of matzoth and of other essential religious articles are banned. Soviet Jews are cut off from contact with their brethren at home and abroad. Jewish opportunities in higher education and in cer- tain fields of employment are being limited. Simultaneously, a campaign of vilification of the Jewish past and present is conducted in the press and other official publications. Judaism and Jewish history are falsified. Anti-Semitic stereotypes are exploited to portray the synagogue as a breeding ground of economic and social crimes. We are appalled at the discriminatory ap- plication of maximum penalties, including the death sentence, against Jews for alleged economic crimes and that they are singled out in the press in a calculated attempt to exacerbate public anti-Semetism. We are moved by the plight of thousands of Soviet Jews whose families were shattered or separated by the Nazi devastation and who are prevented from rejoining their remaining kill in the United States, Israel, and other countries. We appeal to the Soviet Government to redress these wrongs, to restore the rights of Jews and of the Jewish community and to grant the equality with other religious and nationality groups as required by Soviet con- stitution and law. We make this appeal within the framework of our ardent desire to see an end to the cold war and lessen and hopefully eradicate the existing international tensions. Our aim is to mobilize public opinion into a moral force which will save Soviet Jewry from spiritual annihilation. We who are assembled here are bound by the moral imperative of our history, which demands that we speak out on the fate of our brothers In the Soviet Union. We pray that our voice will be heard and heeded. Mr. Speaker, by bringing to the Ameri- can public the facts concerning religious discrimination in the Soviet Union, the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry has demonstrated the importance of vigorous action by the U.S. Govern- ment. The sponsors are to be com- mended for convening this important meeting. The denial of fundamental rights in the Soviet Union must not go unheeded. I.urge the Department of State to protest to the Soviet Government and to press the issue in the United Nations. WILDERNESS HEARINGS SCHEDULED (Mr. SAILOR asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. SAYLOR. Mr. Speaker, this is good news that our chairman of the Com- mittee on Interior and Insular Affairs has brought to us. I appreciate the ac- tion he has taken in scheduling these necessary further hearings here in Wash- ington, D.C., on the various wilderness bills that are before our committee. The chairman's arrangements give further hopes that we shall soon have some effec- tive agreement in our efforts to preserve wilderness, and in my own behalf, as well as in behalf of many others who have long been interested in establishing a sound national wilderness policy, I thank him. I am confident that the, way can now be cleared for committee and House action that can be satisfactory for all of us. We have just had delivered to us three volumes of printed hearings held, in mid- January of this year, in Olympia, Wash.; Denver, Colo.; and Las Vegas, Nev. In accordance with arrangements made by our committee chairman, our esteemed colleague from Colorado, these field hearings were conducted by the gentle- man from Nevada, WALTER BARING, as chairman of our Subcommittee on Public Lands. It was my privilege as a member of this subcommittee to participate in the Denver and Las Vegas hearings and to appreciate the fair, orderly, and expe- ditious way in which these hearings were conducted by our colleague from Nevada. I can say to you today it is good to an- ticipate the continuation of such hear- ings here in Washington. The record of the January field hear- ings and the testimony at the forthcom- ing hearings here in Washington, I am confident, will give our subcommittee and committee a good basis for considering the various bills now facing the House- and sending a sound measure to the floor. In addition to the Senate Wilderness Act passed and sent to us on April 9, 1963, a year ago this Thursday, and var- ious House bills similar to it that were introduced in the earlier days of this Congress, we have some more recent- ly introduced revisions designed to meet objections and facilitate effective agree- ment. Among these latter is one of my own offered in a spirit of cooperation in which, I am glad to assure this House and our committee chairman, I shall be glad to join in considering all the pro- posals now before us. In such a spirit I am sure we can deal constructively and effectively with the various proposals and see sound wilderness legislation enacted in this Congress. In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, I want to emphasize that I welcome the opportu- nity to work further with Chairman ASPINALL on this legislation, and I appre- ciate his willingness to work with us. I am glad the hearing dates have been set. I am optimistic that we can soon bring to a good conclusion the long efforts in this field of conservation to see established by Congress as a national policy and a program to make it effective. CORRECTION OF THE RECORD Mr. BEERMANN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent to correct the RECORD at page 6698 thereof of the proceedings of yesterday. The sentence which begins on the third line of the first column reads as follows: From .this background it Is not logical to assume that the, Secretary will dump wheat just like he did feed grains. 6947 The sentence should read: From this background is it not logical to assume that the Secretary will dump wheat just like he did feed grains. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Ne- braska? There was no objection. THE LATE GENERAL DOUGLAS ARTHUR MACARTHUR (Mr. BARRY (at the request of Mr. BATTIN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. BARRY. Mr. Speaker, the death of one of America's greatest generals, the gallant and heroic Gen. Douglas Arthur MacArthur, has ended an era. General MacArthur combined the rare qualities of military genius, a flare for statesman- ship, and political insight. Those of us who have lived through this era always will remember vividly his courage and bravery, often leading his troops under fire, his vivid rhetoric, his grand man- ner, and his decisive leadership. It was my privilege to have known him and to have had the benefit of his concise think- ing and insight during ' the Philippine war claims controversy. Perhaps his words upon retirement were not so pro- phetic, for the memory of this "old sol- dier" will never fade away. The entire country will remember him as the youngest and most brilliant World War I generals and the renowned leader of the allied forces in the Pacific during World War If. Called back from retire- ment, he assumed the command of the Southwest Pacific operations during World War II, leading the allies from Ausfralia to the Philippines and ulti- mately to Japan. Following the sur- render of Japan, General MacArthur be- came the first foreigner to rule that country and commanded unprecedented respect and admiration from the Japa- nese people. As United Nations com- mander in the Korean conflict, his deter- mination and strategy caught the enemy off guard, routing the North Korean army from Sedul. His promise, "I shall return," when his troops were routed from the Philippines, Will be as true to posterity as they were then. For General MacArthur will re- turn-in the annals of history as one of America's most brilliant soldiers, states- men, and patriots. UNEMPLOYMENT-PROFILE OF THE PROGRAM (Mr. CURTIS (at the request of Mr. BATTIN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Speaker, an excel- lent analysis of our unemployment prob- lem appears in the March 1964 issue of the Morgan Guaranty Survey. After pointing out the various type of unem- ployment, the article asserts that there is an important need for more informa- tion that now exists on the relative Approved For Release 2005/01/27: CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1 69.18 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE importance of different kinds of unemployment. It is also important to tighten up our loose definition of unemployment if we are to understand the causes of the prob- lem and the cures that are required. Marked shifts in the labor force also require greater attention than they have been given, particularly the remarkable growth in the number of women, par- ticularly older women, coming Into the labor market. About 65 percent of the increase In total employment in the United States between 1957 and 1963 came In the nuinter of women employed. Another factor of increasing impor- tance is rapidly advancing technology that is boosting the need for persons with high skills and pushing down de- mand for persons with little or no train- ing. The article points to the need to modernize vocational educational pro- grams as well as to orient the Nation's educational machinery to producing the kinds of talent at. the required rate. In conclusion, the Survey makes clear that trying to bulldoze unemployment down to some predetermined size with sheer force of increased demand-as the administration is trying to do-might re- quire a push so massive that Inflation would be sure to rise in its wake. I ask unanimous consent that the article be included in the RECORD as this point. UNI:MPLOYMENT-PaOFILZ OF THE .PROBLEM During the coming period of watchful waiting to see the effects of tax reduction on the broad economy, one of the leading ques- tions in observers' minds will be: can ex- pansion of total demand through the tax cut bring down to an acceptable level an unem- ployment rate that almost all agree has been too high too long? In the political realm, at least, the case for tax cutting has taken excessive unemploy- ment as its point c?f departure-and also as its basis for contending that a mighty fiscal shove to the economy will not rekindle the fires of inflation, bit rather will find unused resources of manpower ready and able to meet the new demand to be created. Put in its statist.cally bleakest terms, the unemployment problem as cited by the ad- ministration in support of tax reduction and other programs, has the following dimen- slons: By available yardsticks, 1 of every IS peo- ple willing to work is unable to find work. A net addition of some 1.4 million people. on the average, is e:cpected to swell the labor force each year between 1964 and 1975. Automation is a:leged to be eliminating 550 jobs every day in the year. The unemployment rate I has settled at progressively higher levels after each of the three recessions since the Korean war. While acknowledging that tax reduction Is no panacea for unemployment. and that other measures are required as well, the ad- ministration obviously is pinning high hopes on fiscal stimulus. Treasury Secretary Dillon stated the official r osition in testimony be- fore the Joint Economic Committee In late January: "Tax reduction, with its stimulating effects reaching into every corner of the economy, must be the centerpiece of any effective at- tack on unemployment and poverty, for the more specific remedies for these problems can be fully effective only in a more buoyant economic environment-an environment In which a trained man can "find employment for his skills and 1;r which there are strong Incentives for upgrading workers and over- coming barriers of race-and color." Actually, there Is little room to doubt that powerful fiscal stimulus will, In fact, have powerful Impact on the labor market. The Revenue Act of 1984, which already is pour- ing new purchasing power into the economy at the rate of $800 million a month, will give a hearty lift to hiring. At the same time, however, It is Important to recognize the limitations, as well as the potential, of fiscal policy In dealing with the unemployment problem. The problem, as It exists in the United States in early 1964, is a good deal more complicated than the simple statistics of an employment total or an unemployment rate suggest. An increase in the former need not mean a corresponding decrease In the latter. TAKING THE MEASURE To explain this paradox requires a search- Ing look at the causes, dimensidns. and meas- urement of unemployment In the United States today. It also requires an examina- tion of the very vocabulary of unemploy- ment. In basic concept, anyone of age 14 or older who wants a job (full time or part time) and can't find one is unemployed, In broad outline. analysts recognize four dis- tinct kinds of reason why the jobseeker may fail to'find work: He may be employed In an industry-con- struction is an example-where activity varies sharply depending on the time of year. This is what economists call seasonal unem- ployment. He may be between jobs, having been laid off or fired or having quit voluntarily and not yet having found new employment. This form is called frictional unemployment, and It exists In all free economies-even where, as in some Western European countries, job openings number several times the available workers. He may not qualify for the jobs that are available In his community; he may have overpriced his skills in relation to what em- ployers are willing to pay; he may be un- willing to surrender established union senior- ity and pension rights by moving to another line of work; or he may run into the in- visible barrier of discrimination on account of race or other reason. These are varieties of structural unemployment. Retraining and relocation programs such as the Labor Department is conducting in various parts of the country are part of the attack on this general type. Finally, employers generally may not be hiring as many people as are looking for jobs because the demand for goods and services does not warrant doing so-either because of recession or because of a too-slow rate of overall growth. It's the latter condition that administration fiscal policies aim to attack. For public policy to attack unemployment most effectively and efficiently, more infor- mation than now exists is needed on the rel- ative Importanceof different kinds of unem- ployment In the total. In some respects, the methods used to count the jobless tend to obscure, rather than clarify, the distinctions. The official measure of unemployment Is based on a monthly survey of 35,000 house- holds, selected to reflect the lives and habits of the whole Nation. In making the survey, the Interviewers' task Is to find out who In each family is working, who is not, and whether anyone 14 or over who are are not working are looking for work. The latter question Is the key, for an affirmative answer classifies the person concerned as "unem- ployed-" For February 1964 the results of the sur- vey-blown up to full population size- showed that 68 million people were at work during the survey week and 4.5 million were looking for work. This yielded a seasonally adjusted unemployment rate (the unem- ployed as a percentage of the civilian labor force, which includes those working plus those looking for work) of 5.4 percent, which April 7 is right In the narrow Band where unemploy- ment has been stuck since early 1962. In late 1981, in response to charges that the unemployment figures were being ma- nipulated for political purposes, President Xennedy appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Prof. Robert A. Gordon of the University of California to evaluate the statistical approach being used. The Gor- don committee gave both the Bureau of Labor Statistics (which computes the un- employment data) and the Census Bureau (which makes the actual survey) high marks for good will and good faith. Beyond that, it concluded that, although the unemploy- ment statistics are not perfect and prob- ably can never be, they are adequate as guides for public policy. DEMAND VERSUS STRUCTURE While the Gordon committee summarily disposed of questions about the integrity of the unemployment figures, their efficacy as a policy guide is still the subject of lively de- bate. In large part, critics center their fire on the looseness of the definition of un- employment and on the fact that the census interviewers do not even attempt to measure two crucial variables of unemployment: The Individual's degree of attachment to the labor force, meaning the urgency of his need for a job and the seriousness with which he is looking for one. and the extent of the individual's qualifications for the type of employment he says he wants. Because there Is no appraisal of attach- ment to the labor force, a suburban house- wife casually looking for part-time work gets the same weight In the overall finemploy- ment rate as a married man with five chil- dren to support. Even among the 1.9 million who; in an average 1983 week, collected un- employment compensation by certifying that they were seeking work, there may have been some not actively in search. State laws gov- erning compensation tend to be loose both in wording and In enforcement. Thus the labor-force concept is an extremely fluid one. The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not publish regular figures on gross flows into an out of the force; however, according to the Gordon report, during 1960 and 1961 an average of more than 3 million persons entered the force every month. In the same period, however, the net growth in the labor force was less than 100,000 a month. For every 3 million people coming into the labor market, this would Indicate, at least 2.9 million were dropping out-because of personal predilection, pregnancy, disability, death, discouragement at inability to find a job, or any number of other reasons. The composition of the unemployed group also is constantly shifting. The average level of unemployment for 1983 has been officially set at 4.2 million. During the year, however, more than 15 million people were classified as out of work at one time or another. Even among the "hard core" long-term unem- ployed--those without work 15 weeks or longer-turnover is at the rate of 25 percent a month. As a measure of the qualifications of the unemployed, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has only what the unemployed person says he Is able to do. Officials of BLS recognize that there Is a natural human tendency to rate Somewhat highly one's skills, but they have no way of discounting this factor. As one BLS economist has put it: "If a man says he is a carpenter, that's what we put down: we have no way to find out whether he's just a hammer-and-saw man." These considerations have an important bearing on analysis of the unemployment problem, on decisions as to how big it is and what should be done about It. The Presi- dent's Council of Economic Advisers Is fully committed to the proposition that the bulk of the unemployment problem may be traced to a failure of "total expenditures in the economy * * * to generate an adequate Approved For Release 2005/01/27 : CIA-RDP66B00403R000200190034-1