Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 15, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 29, 2003
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
August 10, 1965
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8.pdf6.57 MB
19016 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 low an ebb as respect for the law in Mis- sissippi these days. Representative REUSS, who flew to Mis- sissippi from economic discussions in Eng- land as soon as he heard of his son's arrest, made it clear that his trip was not intended "to procure special treatment for him. I am sure he will want to take his chances along with other civil rights workers." The sentiment does honor alike to father and son; but one can hardly escape anxiety re- garding the chances of civil rights workers in Mississippi these days., Mississippians ought to recognize the senti- ment which sent Michael Reuss to their State and which prompts him to remain there in spite of peril. It is a sentiment which has ennobled the history of Mississippi as it has ennobled the history of the Nation of which Mississippi is a part. It has its roots in a sense of responsibility for one's fellow men-the indispensable condition of democracy-and in an unwillingness to be pushed around or to see other people pushed around. Mississippians ought to understand this. The motto of their State Is: "By Valor and Arms." Michael Reuss is helping to carry that rr;Gt~ g ect r them. RCAN''DO TI1 JOB IN VIETNAM Mr. PRO2iMIRE. Mr. President, a common illusion in this country is that the American soldier just is not up to the tough, guerrilla jungle fighting required in South Vietnam. In a surprising and mighty encourag- ing article in this respect, Jack Raymond, the crack Pentagon correspondent of the New York Times, puts this stereotype to rest. Mr. Raymond recently returned from a trip to Vietnam in which he had the chance to see the job the GI's and the Vietcong are doing out there. His con- clusions on the vigorous way American troops are standing up could mean a great deal. In spite of all the immensely powerful and sophisticated military developments of recent years, it is still true that in war-especially this kind of guerrilla war, 'much depends on the courage, strength, intelligence, and discipline of the individual fighting man. Considering all that has been written about the softening effects of American life, and the alleged disinterest or down- right hostility toward our efforts by some American critics. This article makes re- assuring reading. I ask unanimous consent that the ar- ticle entitled "When GI Joe Meets '01 Charlie" be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WHEN GI JOE MEETS OL' CHARLIE him. Americans make noise in the jungle- There are wild animals in Vietnam-ele- but so do the Vietnamese. 01' Charlie, too" phants, tigers, and leopards as well as Cpl. D. G. Williams, 19, of Winchester, Ky., smaller game, including wildcats. Monkeys wiry and boyfaced evenafter 21/2 years in the are found in the coastal forests. Crocodiles Marine Corps, sat with some of his comrades thrive in the delta region. There is much b t th d of 1st Battalion, 3d Marines in a tent on the side of a hill near Danang and told how it was to fight "Ol' Charlie," the Vietcong, in the jungle. He told about it with the air of a man born to it, a modern Bomba the Jungle Boy. But all up and down the confused battlefronts in South Vietnam he and other American jungle warriors emphasized that nobody is a born jungle fighter-not the Americans, nor the Vietnamese, Including the Vietcong. It takes training, equipment, good health and stamina, leadership and motivation- and experience. Inevitably the question arises whether American soldiers have a ca- pacity for jungle fighting, since many of them-in greater numbers than seemed likely only a year ago-will be called upon to cope with the jungle as the U.S. commitment in South Vietnam changes over from a support- ing to a leading combatant role. The question does not apply so much to the troops that are here now, in the van- guard of that commitment. Most of the Special Forces, paratroopers, marines, and many others who do not belong to elite out- fits have been specially trained and have been acquitting themselves with distinction. The question does apply to the tens and perhaps hundreds of thousands of American troops expected to join them in this tropical war. It concerns the adequacy of their train- ing, equipment, and physical well-being, for as one veteran sergeant here said, "This place is no longer a laboratory for battle or a training ground for the next war. The next war is now." The question is not posed with any sugges- tion of strong doubt, but only in recollection of tragic situations that developed early in World War II when men were rushed to stem the Japanese in southeast Asia and the South Pacific. In the panic atmosphere that fol- lowed Pearl Harbor entire units were shipped to do tropical battle with a minimum of training and inadequate indoctrination for special conditions of climate, weather, and terrain-and it cost lives. Nevertheless, Americans did accustom themselves to jungle fighting. They defeated the enemy in the tropics as elsewhere, but only after initial defeats and an unnecessary toll in malaria, foot ailments, skin diseases, diarrhea, heat exhaustion, and hepatitis- not to mention such relatively modest afflic- tions as Snake and mosquito bites. Conditions in South Vietnam are probably not as severe as in the Philippines, Burma, and New Guinea a quarter-century ago, but time may have served to exaggerate past sufferings and existing trials may make less of an impact. In any case, not all of South Vietnam is jungle, although a third is covered by some form of wild vegetation. In the delta region of the south the distinctive features are marshy rice fields and mangrove swamps. The southern tip, Caumau Peninsula, is dense jungle and for the time being has been hopelessly abandoned to the Vietcong. The narrow coastal plain that curves along the China Sea is hot enough-at least over suc u ey talk of snakes-cobras an are rarely seen. Despite this rather forbidding prospect for the troops that are due here, the experience of those who already are serving in Vietnam is somewhat encouraging. For they have shown that an American can perform well in jungle heat and rain, and can adapt him- self quickly to the terrain, as anywhere else. For one thing the troops sent here have been well-trained volunteers. They have had rigorous training in jungle warfare or other types of hardy combat and for the most part have completed special warfare training courses at Fort Bragg or Ranger courses at Fort Benning or have had a regu- lar diet of tough training on Okinawa or Hawaii. Moreover, they are keeping up with their training here. For example, members of the 173d Airborne Brigade, when not combing awesome jungles of zone D on combat opera- tions, have been practicing parachute jump- ing. The emphasis on training has paid off, a high-ranking officer in Saigon said, espe- cially since American forces have taken a more active role in the fighting. In the American officer's view, the South Vietnam- ese are "often timid and slow, even when we put good equipment in their hands. "Our officers and junior officers in these outfits here know their men, know how quickly they respond to orders and how they'll react to surprise. That's as impor- tant in the jungle as it is anywhere else." Another officer's experience is also reveal- ing. "I've found that I can go twice as far and twice as hard as most of the South Vietnamese," Col. Bruce Jones, 47-year-old adviser in the embattled Quangngai area, told an; interviewer. An Army man for 25 years, Colonel Jones is a heavy-set, lumber- ing six-footer from Sheffield, Pa. His aides say he shows none of the weariness under the heat and strain of war in the tropics indicated by South Vietnamese half his age. "Most of these men are small in. stature and come from families that could not af- ford much in the way of adequate diet," he said. "Even with afternoon rests many of them cannot keep going for more than 4 days, and you know many Americans can work every day." Others who have lived and fought with the South Vietnamese military forces make similar observations, although they are reluc- tant to draw invidious comparisons. "There's just a big difference between a 105-pound Asian and a 150- to 160-pound American," a general at headquarters in Saigon pointed out. An experienced Army sergeant who has just come off 6 months' steady duty in combat operation with a South Vietnamese outfit said: "Somehow it seems they take longer get- ting started in the morning. They rise and wash and dress and have breakfast as though they had all day. They just take their time, maybe 45 minutes altogether. When we Americans might be ready in 15 to 20 min- utes. SAIGON.-"Mostly it's listening," the young muggy when the monsoon shifts from the "Well, suppose we go out on patrol that Marine Corps corporal said. "You hold your- highlands to the west. Marshlands lie up morning. They'll start off smartly like any self stock-still in the jungle and you can't against the white sand beaches. good soldiers, rifles at ready and reconnais- see much. It's dark and there's only trees In the central highlands, where heavy sance men in proper places, but if it's a hot and brush thick with vines. fighting is taking place, there are large day we find they are far more vulnerable to "But you listen. Any sound that's out of stands of bamboo and hardwood trees. The heat than average Americans. By midmorn- the ordinary means something. Even insect rolling terrain rises- to 3,000 feet above sea ing they seem to need a break. Most Amer- noises change. Dogs in the village make tell- level and some of the mountains are as high icans judge whether we need a break by tale noises, barking or yowling when some- as 7,000 feet. Much of the highlands region what the situation is-whether there are thing attracts their attention and they can is considered good tank-fighting country Vietcong in the area or whether it might be help or hurt you, depending on who's doing when it is dry-but it is wet now in the better to go somewhere else, but the Viet- the movig. A man can't move through the summer monsoon season of incessant rain nanlese are more prone to time themselves. jungle without making some kind of noise or and low-hanging depressing gray clouds. "We both find it easy to skip lunch. You provoking some bug or animal to make it for The ground is soft underfoot. don't want to eat much in hot, humid weath- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE VVALTER FRANCIS FARRELL, DISTIN- GUISHED CITIZEN OF., RHODE ISLAND Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, Wal- ter Francis Farrell, distinguished citizen of Rhode Island, passed away Friday, August 6, 1965, at the age of 77 years. It is the glory of democracy that popu- lar government can command-without remuneration-the best brains of civil life to advise in difficult areas demand- ing highest skill and judgment. Especially in its fiscal needs, its policies of taxation and expenditure, the average State and its Governor leans heavily on the banking community. I say this both as preamble and as part of my eulogy of the late Walter F. Far- rell of Providence, R.I., preeminent bank- er, dedicated counselor in State and mu- nicipal finance, community leader, and community servant. As one of the Rhode Island Governors who drew upon the genius of Walter Far- rell, I speak the common gratitude of our people. As a personal friend through all these years I speak of the warm hu- manity of the man. As an object lesson of worthy ambition to lift one's self to the heights-and yet always to find time for public service in causes of compassion and patriotism, the life story of Walter Farrell will be a memory to inspire-as it inspired all privileged to know him and his career. If I record them here-and I shall ask unanimous consent that they may be here recorded-it is not to glorify one who is beyond praise. It is rather as a challenge-this chart of one man's life of service. it is a challenge to youth that one's future can be fashioned by one's will, one's ambition, one's determination, and that such future can be sweetened by dedication to community service. It is a challenge to the already success- ful man-that life is at its richest and fullest only when shared beyond self as the good neighbor, the good citizen, the good American. So I make the mere recital of one man's life and labors in this half century that so many of us have shared. If it seems long, it is the measure of a full life, and each line his its own lesson. Ii; is the newsman's view of a newsworthy life recorded in the Providence -Evening Bulletin of August 7, 1965. I ask unanimous consent that the arti- cle be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: W. F. FARRELL, RETIRED BANK OFFICIAL, DIES Walter Francis Farrell, retired chairman of the board of the Industrial National Bank and an authority on municipal finance, died last night at the Hattie Ide Chaffee Home, East Providence. He was 77 years old. Mr. Farrell had held a multitude of posts in the financial world during his banking career of a half century. He rose from a clerk in the old Union Trust Co. in 1913 at the age of 25 to becomepresi- dent in 1927 of what was then the third larg- est bank in the State. Then only 38 years old, he was the youngest bank president in Rhode Island at that time. When the Union Trust merged in 1951 with the Providence National Bank, Mr Farrell be- came president of the combination-the Providence Union National Bank & Trust Co. Three years later, when the Providence Union National was consolidated with the former Industrial Trust Co., Mr. Farrell be- came chairman of the board of the merged Industrial National Bank. He retired as board chairman in January 1.957, but continued as a director and mem- ber of the executive committee. In his phenomenal rise in banking, his eminence as a fiscal adviser to numerous city and State agencies and his active creation of many large corporations, Mr. Farrell was largely self-taught. :lie was born in Central Falls, May 11, 1888, the son of John E. and Caroline (Hale) Far- rell , and with only a public school education he began his business career as an estimator for a construction firm. In 1912 he married Margaret L. McArdle and the next year be- came a clerk in the Union Trust Co. There his rise was meteoric-assistant sec- retary shortly after he joined the bank, sec- retary in 1918, vice president in 1919, a di- rector in 1923 and president In 1927. Banking associates ascribed Mr. Farrell's rapid advancement to his eagerness to learn every facet of finance as he encountered it, his insistence upon perfection of factual de- tail and long hours of applications, belying the cliche of banker's hours. Until he was well into his 80's, he still worked Saturdays and most Sundays. As an expert on municipal finance, he had served at various times as fiscal advisor to city and State governmental agencies. These included the Providence Sinking Fund Commission, the State board of sinking fund commissioners from 1927 to 1947, the public assistance reserve fund, the Governor's fis- cal study commission, the advisory commis- sion to the Rhode Island Development Coun- cil, the State committee on postwar prob- lems in 1943, and a Governor's commission to study losses and recovery problems after the 1955 Blackstone Valley floods. He was incorporator in 1957 and vice pres- ident of. the University of Rhode Island Foundation, vice president of the Rhode Is- land Public Expenditures Council in 1943, financial advisor to the Providence Charter Revision Commission in 1938, chairman of the United Fund in 1944, vice president of the Providence United War Fund in World War II, treasurer of the Rhode Island In- fantile Paralysis Foundation, executive board member of the Providence Community Fund, one of three trustees for the Rhode Island Tercentenary Jubilee in 1936, and a director of the Providence Governmental Research Bureau and of the Rhode Island Medical Society Physicians Service. He had been president of the Rhode Island Bankers Association, an executive committee member of the American Bankers Associa- tion and a district members of the National Voluntary Credit Restraint Committee. Among Mr. Farrell's corporate directorships were the Speidel Corp., Outlet Co., United Public Markets, Inc., Paulis Silk Co., Inc., of Pawtucket; the former Franklin Process Co., and its South Carolina and Tennessee units, and Pawtucket Times Publishing Co. Mr. Farrell was appointed a member of the board of trustees of State colleges in 1955 and resigned in 1959. He was awarded the honorary degree of doctor of laws by the University of Rhode Island in January 1960. Mr. Farrell was a member of the Turk's Head Club, University Club, Rhode Island Country Club, and Bankers of America. His home was at 560 Cole Avenue, Providence. MICHAEL REUSS: BATTLER FOR RIGHTS AND EQUAL OPPORTU- NITY Mr. PROXMTRE. Mr. President, the son of Representative HENRY REUSS, of the Fifth District of Wisconsin, has re- 19015 cently been through some mighty trying experiences. He went to Mississippi this summer to help teach Mississippi youngsters; to teach them how to read and write and what rights they now have under the civil rights bills we passed last year and this year. Mike Reuss is quite a boy. He was an athlete and an excellent scholar at St. Albans School. He has been a guest at our home for dinner. We found him a quiet, well-mannered boy, courteous, thoughtful, a model of good behavior. He is now a sophomore at Stanford University, and there is no question that he has as bright a future as any young American could have. Mike could have done whatever he wished with his sum- mer vacation. But he made a choice that is a great credit to him and to those of his genera- tion who, with him, decided to take the risks and suffer the hot, rough work of teaching Negro children in Mississippi. He was arrested for peaceful, nonvio- lent demonstration and spent some 10 days in jail several weeks ago. Then only last week he was arrested again for the same kind of protest. While he was being searched, the searching officer died of a heart attack, and for an incredible few hours Mike Reuss was charged with manslaughter. He was of course cleared and freed. Then his lawyer and some of his asso- ciates were assaulted with shotgun fire in a little hut in retribution shortly after he was freed. The Reuss case is big copy all over America and, of course, it is sensational copy in Mississippi. Considering every- thing, the continued presence of this re- markable young man in Mississippi is highly dangerous. Yet he has decided to stay to continue his quiet work with children who need help in learning to read and write. And his father, Representative HENRY REUSS, has given his full assent. Mr. President, this is a rare and wel- come act of courage by both father and son. I proudly salute Representative HENRY Reuss, Mike Reuss, and the won- derful Reuss family. Their quiet, digni- fied, but persevering conduct in this regrettable matter has been a great credit to our State and our country. I ask unanimous consent that an edi- torial in this morning's Washington Post paying tribute to Mike Reuss be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BY VALOR AND Assis Young Michael Reuss' adventures as a civil rights worker trying to help Negroes vote in Mississippi make the State sound like a part of the Congo. He was arrested for taking part in a protest demonstration and then charged with manslaughter after a highway patrol investigator died of an apparent heart at- tack while searching him. He was released when his father, Congressman HENRY S. REuss, of Wisconsin, flew to his support. Then a house where his lawyer and some companion civil rights workers took shelter was made the target of a succession of shot- gun blasts early Sunday morning. Respect for human life appears to be at about as Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 19017 er. But if we do quit for a bite or a rest in "He is racked by the same ills and does not Then he dug a hole and covered himself the middle of the day the Asians customarily often have adequate medicine. We have been only moments before Vietcong who had seen want to take a siesta. The American may lie fighting them and capturing them. They the plane go down came looking for him. down but in a few minutes he will be indulg- make plently of mistakes." They went away. Forty-five minutes later ing in a bit of horseplay, whereas the Asian "We meet them on the trails," Staff Sgt. Duggan heard a helicopter. He got out of will simply lie down and even try for a Dean Towne, 32, of Fallbrook, Calif., said. the hole, fired a flare, and the helicopter snooze. "And we move faster-we shoot faster than came down and rescued him. "If we get into a fight the Asians can be they do. And we find they leave sloppy Still another wonderful innovation in mod- quite heroic but unlike Americans they are trails, too-cigarette butts, fish traps and ern war in the tropics is the air-conditioning inclined to let the Vietcong break off. Amer- other signs of their presence, of at least one or two rooms in buildings at leans would like to chase after the Vietcong "And they don't like to go out in the rain, base camps. The number of outposts so but South Vietnamese are just as likely to either, and now they're finding out we go on equipped should not be exaggerated, but suggest it's useless. night patrols and we don't meet them so enough of them, their air conditioners pow- "The difference in stamina really shows often." ered by mobile generators, can be found in up on the way back, when we have reached The American Forces seem to be satisfied some startlingly remote places. And on many the farthest point on patrol-maybe we have with their equipment, particularly the Army air bases where fliers and ground crews are been out a day, maybe four. On the way jungle boot, which is made of leatherbound constantly exposed to sun and heat there back, the Vietnamese will begin rushing, canvas, has a one-piece heel and sole (so the are air-conditioned trailers and clubrooms to eager to get back to base. They'll start heel won't rip off) and two holes near the help make life livable. snaking through the jungle Instead of comb- arch to let the water drain out after a mush And neither rain nor clouds nor heat nor ing it. Weariness begins to show in their through swamps and stream. Similarly other Vietcong seem able to stay the couriers of faces and bearing. Rifles that they held so items of equipment, such as the poncho that cold beer and fresh cigarettes-"to help make smartly at the ready when we set out they also is used as a bed covering-the bed may a man a better junglefighter," said one officer, now hold limply and sometimes-and this be made of twigs and other underbrush- winking broadly. Then he added seriously: is dangerous in case of ambush-sometimes and the light cotton battle fatigues, are com- "Do not draw hasty conclusions. We overran they sling their rifles over their shoulder. fortable in hot or cool weather. Indeed, some Vietcong villages the other day and "Much of the difference is due not only marines who arrived here with bulkier cloth- found one of their command posts stacked to stamina but to training and discipline. ing, including bulletproof liners for blouses, with cold beer and cigarettes, too. Morale If we have had adversities-if the weather's have abandoned these for the Army's battle Is important" Also high on the list of mor- been bad, or we have had a tangle with Viet- uniform, ale boosters is mail from home. Most letters tong-the Vietnamese patrol unit is likely The troops like their weapons. The para- take only 4 or 5 days from the States. to start questioning whether completion of troopers especially like the light M-16 rifle. As for food, the soldiers say they even like the mission is necessary and try to cut it The marines are satisfied with the M-1 and their field rations. Gone is the old R ra- short. The average American noncom would both the Army men and marines have found tion. The C ration, which can be hot or cold, be ashamed, even afraid, to report he did not the shotgun valuable in jungle areas. They seems to be flavorful-"especially when the carry out the mission, but these people are feel the heavy equipment, the M-113 person- taste is killed with the cheese ration," one fully prepared to do so and explain why. nel carrier, and the amphibious monsters are soldier observed more for the sake of a joke "Of course, these are generalizations. As a help rather than a hindrance, than an argument. you can imagine, many South Vietnamese it is true that the personnel carriers and "The rations are good and nutritious," have proved tough and not all Americans by other military vehicles can be a nuisance in Captain Spargo told an interviewer who via- any means are great jungle fighters. But by the paddies and jungles but they are still ited his detachment at Phucovinh. Spargo, and large the old adage prevails-a good big better than marching long stretches or car- who is married and has three children, has man can outdo a good little man." rying goods on human backs. In fact, the been serving and fighting with a South Viet- "It is a question of motivation," Capt. American soldier on patrol, with the excep- namese detachment in jungles south of Sal- Larry F. Spargo, 34-year-old Special Forces tion of the food and radio equipment he car- gon near Dongxoai, which was the scene of officer from Twin Falls, Idaho, said, enunciat- ries, travels as light as his Asian counter- bloody battle last June. "But we often just tag the views of many. Americans. "Our part. Furthermore, heavy as C-rations may eat the rice and fish of the men we are with troops come here for 6 months, a year, maybe be , they are less bulky than the rice pots in order to avoid envy," he said. 18 months if they extend and want to stay carried by the Asians. As for the radio equip- "And the mosquito repellent is important, with their outfit, but thesg, fellows [the Viet- ment, that is indispensable; no squad moves too," Specialist 5 Michael Bingo, 22, of Roch- namese] have been fighting since the French out on patrol without a set that can be used ester, N.Y., chimed in. "But I'll let you in were here. They're weary." to contact home base or friendly aircraft on a secret," he continued. "You start But certainly the question arises whether overhead, sweating and get a little raunchy and the the Vietcong is not tired as well, since he In sum, it Is not a question of whether mosquitoes stop bothering you. In fact, has been fighting for a long time, too. And Americans are loaded down, as compared even leeches begin to leave you alone." attached to that question is another: with the Asians. This is a war in which the All seem to agree that salt tablets taken whether this wily master of ambush is really guerrilla's advantage lies in deciding where regularly were important to the well-being a master of jungle warfare. a battle will take place. He prepares for it of a man exerting himself in the jungle. The answer to the latter question is a re- in secret. When he attacks he, too, has Apparently well equipped with material sounding "no" from American forces here. plenty of weapons and supplies. But in be- things for war in the tropics, the American "Vietcong successes are, for the most part, a tween he carries neither weapons nor extra soldier has personal, physical, and mental reflection of the nature of the war rather supplies. He hides simply by being one of postures that also must be considered. Here than a reflection of any innate superiority the population. Where and how he main- again, unit training counts. But there is as a jungle fighter," Maj. Thomas M. Henry, tains his stocks has been his secret. more to it than that. operations officer for the 5th Special Forces, What is significant is not that the Ameri- "The average American is a pretty healthy, pointed out. "The guerrilla has time to con- cans have been hampered by equipment but vigorous individual and he will think for serve his energy. He sets the stage for that they have been able to position so much himself," Major Henry pointed out. "The battle." of it to support the training is Important The Vietcong, of course, have well-trained members of the Third Marine patrols. Regiment, g because it makes , even tom- average soldier realize all he can d do, even forces increasingly well-equipped. Their unit manded by Col. Ed. Wheeler, of Port Chester, in the toughest circumstances." As an illus- leadership seems to be quite adequate, de- N.Y., have found the "Tipsy" especially val- tration he told the story of an American spite recent reports of lowered morale due uable. This is the nickname for the ANTPS- sergeant who was captured by Vietcong. to American aerial bombing and strafing. 21 (Army-Navy tactical personnel surveil- The Vietcong leader, overjoyed that he had As- such experts as Major Henry and Cap- lance). It is a radar device effective at 20,000 netted an American along with South Viet- tain Spargo point out, the Vietcong troops meters and Colonel Wheeler's men have been namese prisoners, began haranguing the can bid their time, rehearse their troops, rest using It to ambush the Vietcong ambushers. sergeant. He worked himself into such a them and exercise them with a single am- Certainly the role of the helicopter in state that he turned to one of his men, who bush or assault in mind. The Vietcong can jungle warfare, as conducted by Americans, was holding the sergeant's own carbine, or- wait weeks-perhaps months-for a single cannot be overlooked. Not only is the chop- dered, "Shoot him" and stalked off. ambush if they think it profitable and thus per used to deliver troops to patrol sites, to But the sergeant remembered there was do not tax the energies of the men. Mean- spray the area with rockets and machinegun no ammunition in the weapon, having fired while, the South Vietnamese and Americans bullets when the Vietcong is suspected in the the last bullet during the battle, so as soon are expending energy serching for them. On vicinity, it Is marvelous for the rescue of as the Vietcong leader had gone the sergeant the other hand, the Vietcong also have their men in a tight spot. turned the other way and ran off into the weaknesses. Air Force Capt. William Y. Duggan, 30, of jungle. He had almost disappeared before "Don't overrate the enemy," urged Capt. Austin, Tex., had reason to appreciate an other Vietcong soldiers realized the appointed George Squilace, a 38-year-old marine from Army helicopter when he was downed off- executioner was powerless and fired after New York City. The Asian, and that In- shore 60 miles south of Saigon. He swam to the fleeing prisoner. eludes the Vietcong In particular, is bothered a beach,'walked In circles, even walked back- "The sergeant caught a slug in his bottom by the heat and the jungle as much as we ward, and crawled around to confuse the but that only assured he would run faster are-maybe worse. Vietcong with false tracks, he later related. and get away," Major Henry related. No. 146-2 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19018 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 'CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 Ordinary Army training, as compared with that of elite outfits such as Special Forces, Marine corps, and certain paratroopers, does not normally focus on hardships of war in the tropics. Before troops are committed to battle in South Vietnam they should have at least 2 months' training in individual and unit techniques for operating in the steam.- ing heat of the jungles and wet, dismal marshes of ricefields. While most American units get some of this training, most U.S. Armed Forces are still geared to cope with the Soviet Union as the primary potential enemy and Europe as the primary battleground. But it is in the less advanced areas of the world--Asia, Africa, Latin America-where the Communist policy of so-called wars of national libera- tion is inviting American military responses these days. Knowing how to build a bed off the ground, to cook without making too much smoke, to keep clean, to make one's way through the jungle with or without compass, to shoot quickly and elude ambushers will spell the difference between life and death, victory and defeat in this new war. The troops who are here have learned to .use their salt tablets, conserve their ener- gies, interpret the sounds of the squeaking lizards and shrieking birds, and burn the leeches off their bodies. They have learned not to fear the dark but to take advantage of it. They have learned that small units, 10 men, with a trustworthy leader are the key battle formations of the jungle. They have learned to eat sparingly, walk lightly, and improvise swiftly when caught in inevitable ambush. Many of these lessons they acquired here by experience, the most effective teacher. But principles of jungle warfare must be learned in advance. The American can take It in the tropics. But he mustbe adequately prepared if he is to dish it out victoriously in combat. TRIBUTE TO LAWRENCE O'BRIEN Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, last week an excellent column by Mr. Joseph Kraft entitled "Applause for Dr. O'Brien" appeared in the Washington Post. I believe that Larry O'Brien has been the most valued member of the White house staff in its relations with the Congress as a whole, and more espe- eially with the Senate. His understanding and his political judgment are of the highest. His con- tributions toward easing the way for pro- posed legislation are well understood by all. He is universally recognized as a great political scientist-and I mean that term in its best sense. He has con- tributed much to the passage of legisla- tion wanted by the administrations of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. He has formed many solid and sound friend- ships with Members of the Congress on both sides of the aisle. He has worked with us on a basis of trust, tolerance, and understanding. I ask unanimous consent that excerpts from the column to which I referred by Mr. Kraft be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the excerpts were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: APPLAUSE FOR DR. O'BRIEN (By Joseph Kraft) The old system is now dead, and nothing proves it better than an obscure procedural vote taken in the House last week. It in- volved the new 21-day rule which makes it possible to call measures on to the floor if they have been bottled up for more than 3 weeks in the Rules Committee. The measure at stake was repeal of a pro- vision-14(b)-of the Taft-Hartley Law which authorized States to outlaw the closed shop. Credit for this great change is normally given to the President because of his long experience with the Congress, and because of the great majorities he swept in with him or disparage the President's role. er the present breakup will extend to worked it out day by day ever since, is the President's special assistant for congressional relations, Lawrence O'Brien. While all the political assistants all over the country were writing that hate was the normal state of relations between White House and Hill, O'Brien was already beginning to develop the possibilities of cooperation. His chief innovation was to set up in the White House a small staff charged entirely with responsibility for congressional rela- tions. The staff was organized along the lines of the various regional and interest groups in the Senate and House. It coordi- nated the congressional efforts of all Govern- ment agencies. It was in constant touch with the congressional leadership. "We don't even take a headcount," one of the leaders once said, "without O'Brien." A first gain was a far more intimate work- ing relationship between the administration and the little-known but extremely powerful giants in the House. As a supreme example, consider the case of the 1964 tax cut and the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, WILBUR MILLS. The administration, way back in 1962, proposed the tax cut to stimulate the econ- omy; it was afraid that tying tax reform to the bill would kill the whole measure. MILLS, for his part, wanted a tax reform bill with a little cut added to smooth the way for reform. Very slowly, month by month * * * the administration nursed MILLS along to its point of view. The bill that finally emerged from his committee, and that he steered through the House was almost all cut and no reform-just what Dr. O'Brien ordered. A second gain was that the White House was In touch not only with the congressional leadership, but also with the backbenchers. The 16 Agriculture Committee Democrats who supported 14(b), for example, were not the committee leaders. On the contrary, the six who opposed the administration on 14(b) were precisely the senior members of the committee. O'Brien is at last getting some public rec- ognition for his achievement. Indeed, the President and his friends are showering him with compliments. An educated guess is that Mr. Johnson would like him to stick around in the White House job. A good hunch is that O'Brien will leave to reenter Massachusetts politics. If nothing else the time is ripe for leavetaking. A way, a permanent way I believe, to promote co- operation between the Executive and the Congress has been worked out. From now on * * * the big problem-the second phase of the Johnson administration and the true opportunity for the Republi- cans-will turn on the matter of applying effectively the measures that are already on the books. DISASSEMBLEMENT OF MALAYSIAN FEDERATION Federation which was launched with so much hope so short a time ago is now being disassembled. The principal dif- ficulties apparently involve the heritage of suspicion and mistrust between Singa- pore Chinese and Malayans. But there have also been other strains from the beginning of the Federation in the rela- tionships of the indigenous peoples of Brunei, Sarawak, and North Boreno and the mainland Malaysians which have these other areas as well as Singapore. This Nation has had very satisfactory treatment of its limited commercial and other interests both in Malaya and in Singapore. It has not been involved in the political difficulties of either place in any way and discretion would certain- ly indicate that we ought to seek by every means-including and especially complete noninvolvement in the present political difficulties--to maintain these relations. What eventually emerges in the way of relationships in the Malaysian region is the primary responsibility of the polit- ical leaders of Kuala Lumpur and Singa- pore, and those in the outlying island- components. Both the Tinko Abdul Rahman in the former city and Premier Lee Kuan Yew in Singapore are men of exceptional ability and it is to be hoped that they will be able to work through the present difficulties to a new and satis- factory association. To the extent that any outside nation is involved intimately in this situation, however, that nation is not the United States. In our own in- terests as well as in the interests of the people of the Malaysian region, the back seat is the place for us. That is not to say that we do not have a shared con- cern with other nations in the peace and development of the region. It does mean that to meet that concern and to safeguard our legitimate Interests is by `striving to do less rather than more in this serious political crisis. I should like to call to the attention of the Senate an extract from a report of Senators BOGGs, PELL, former Senator Smith of Massachusetts and myself which was submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations in February 1963, after completion of a mission to south- east Asia which was undertaken at the request of the late President John Fitz- gerald Kennedy. This extract deals with the situation which existed in Malaya in the fall of 1962, a time which coincided with the beginning of the Malaysian Federation. The report reads as follows: The same general principle of strict non- involvement which is indicated as a sound basis for U.S. policies on Burma would ap- pear also to apply to the emerging. Malay- sian Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Bru- nei, Sarawak, and North Borneo. There has been, as noted, a serious outbreak of violence in Brunei in connection with this transition. Moreover, since a number of groups, con- scious of racial or tribal separativeness, will have to be joined in the Federation,- other inner resistances may well develop. There are also international repercussions with re- spect to the proposed Federation. Already Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, it is a serious strain has developed in Malayan- most unfortunate that the Malaysian Indonesian relations and there have been Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19024 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 lumber, mostly spruce, every 40 days. The new Alaska Pacific Lumber Co. at Wrangell, a $4-million operation, is shipping its entire output of lumber to Japan. Biggest project involving Japan is an agreement under consideration by the Union and Marathon Oil companies to supply the Tokyo Gas Co. with up to 230,000 tons of liquefied methane gas a year from Alaska. This would require investment, including cost of ships, of several hundred million dollars. "Japan needs practically everything we have," says a State resources official. In 1964, the Japanese took 89 percent of Alaska's exports. 'ALASKAN FISH STORY Fisheries, the traditional resource of Alaska and Its No. 1 industry, have made a big comeback under statehood, mostly in the Kodiak area. Production of king crabs in 1964 was 86.7 million pounds, more than triple the 1960 catch. The growing importance of the crab catch, an operation that goes on 10 months of the year, lessens the seasonal nature of the fish- ing industry. Value of the salmon catch has jumped from $6 million to more than $94 million in the 1950-64 period. Conservation and management of its fish- eries is a constant problem for Alaska, as a growing number of Japanese and Russian catcher and factory ships are busy seining the seas of the northern Pacific. "Japan is making a shambles of our con- servation program," says a Federal fisheries official. "They have been robbing us for years," complains Gov. William Egan. American fishermen are prohibited from fishing for salmon on the high seas with nets. Only on a limited number of days, depending on quantity and type of runs, are they al- lowed to fish for salmon at all. But there are no limitations, in use of gear or time of fish- ing on Japanese and Russian fleets. Forest products, Alaska's second-biggest in- dustry after fisheries, are a big and growing source of income. In the panhandle of southeast Alaska, a mild, moist climate en- courages natural reproduction of cut-over areas within 3 years without planting. There are spruce and hemlock along nearly 1,000 miles of Coastline from below Ketchikan to above Kodiak. Forest-product exports, almost all to Japan, made up 82.5 percent of Alaska's total in 1964, IRON-ORE DISCOVERY Other natural resources hold a long-range potential for the future of Alaska, but they will require Costly exploration and develop- ment. Pan American Petroleum, a subsidiary of Standard oil (Indiana), last year discovered iron-ore deposits of an estimated 1 billion tons about 200 miles southeast of Anchorage. Kennecott copper plans to start drilling a shaft this autumn in an area near Kobuk, a village 50 miles north of the Arctic Circle. one company official's estimate is that Alas- ka could produce $5 billion worth of minerals a year. WELCOME TRAVELERS Tourists are discovering Alaska in increas- ing numbers. Reconstruction following the earthquake has produced a large number of new hotels and motels---so many that prices are beginning to drop. Last year, 61,000 airline travelers passed through Anchorage on route between New York and Tokyo. Tours now are coming to Alaska during 6 to 7 months of the year, instead of only dur- "fng the 3 summer months. There are more places to stay, more things to do. Much of Alaska is not the ice chest so many have been aecustamed to think it is. Central Alaska, where the bulk of the people live, has temperatures from 75 below zero to 100 above, but can have pleasant weather for months. The southeast has cool The area to be flooded is inhabited by summers, and winter temperatures not much about 2,000 people and hundreds of thou- below the range of Vancouver, British Co- sands of ducks and other wildfowl and ani- lumbia. mals. A survey by the Fish and Wildlife BETTER TRANSPORTATION . Service found that "nowhere in the history Improved transportation has been the big of water development in North America have the fish and wildlife losses expected to result breakthrough for Alaska. Train ferries, barges carrying railroad cars and an improved from such a project been so overwhelming." State ferry system have increased the fre- HUCKSTERS GALORE? quency of service and have lowered rates over a wide area of Alaska. A Fairbanks grocer says shipping costs on canned goods are down 22 percent for van- load shipments. Trucks from Seattle reach Anchorage and Fairbanks in 80 hours. The Anchorage city dock in 1964 handled 159,000 tons of cargo, compared with 39,000 tons in 1961. Studies are underway for paving the Al- can Highway, which runs 1,221 miles through Canada from Dawson Creek, B.C., and 302 miles through Alaska to Fairbanks. Only short stretches of this route are paved now. Cost of the improvements would be about $175 million, and the big question is who should pay what share. Alaska is the only one of the 50 States with a homesteading program. But, says one would be-pioneer who tried it and sold out: "It's a terrible trap. It costs so much time, money, and effort to clear the land of trees, stumps, and rocks, and then it takes 3 years just to dry out the land to plant things." The Federal Government holds about 98 percent of Alaska's land. Over the next 25 years, the State can select 102,550,000 acres- an area the size of California and Connecti- cut combined-for sale by auction, plus some additional land for special purposes. Ap- praisals run from about $6 to $2,000 an aore. Land is sold for 10 percent down and 9 years to pay the balance at 5 percent inter- est, with a limitation of 640 acres. Leasing FROST PROBLEM The big problem, once land is cleared, is that there are only about 100 frost-free days in farming areas. Most crops cannot be grown. Those that are suitable, such as cabbage and lettuce, all mature at the same time, creating harvesting and marketing problems. Alaska produces only about 7 per- cent of the food it consumes. There are only some 400 farms in the en- tire State. About 70 of these are dairy farms, most with fewer than 50 acres. One food distributor who buys from farmers says: "Trying to farm in Alaska is a sad joke." POWER FOR INDUSTRY Power from the Yukon River is seen by many as the key to Alaska's future. Three dams would produce about 10 million kilo- watts of power, half at the proposed Ram- part site, 90 miles northwest of Fairbanks. "Since agriculture is not possible in Alaska," says U.S. Senator ERNEST GRUENING, a Democrat, "we need industry, and Rampart will attract that. Rampart is the most im- portant single force in developing Alaska." Mr. GRUENING predicts a population increase of 70,000 to 140,000 if the Rampart power project-still only envisioned-is built. The cost of a Rampart Dam power facili- ties, and transmission lines to the U.S. border would be in excess of $2 billion. Low-cost power, say proponents of the project, would more than offset high-cost labor, and would attract industry. Obstacles other than agriculture and un- certain power resources must be overcome, most officials agree. Chief among these is a vicious circle of high wages and high prices. One retailer, who has trouble keeping a staff, states: "The whole 49th State is filled with hucksters who are wild for a buck." The price-wage spiral was set off by Alaska's distance from labor, supplies, and services. Military construction set the pace for the economy. Contractors have had to accept the labor rates asked, says one builder who put up hundreds of housing units in Anchorage. A double standard of wages developed, one for construction, the other for regular work. A carpenter paid $5.17 an hour for construc- tion would be paid only $3.50 an hour for maintenance work at a lumber mill. A highly skilled sawyer in a lumber mill gets $4.86 an hour, compared with $5.13 for the lowest-paid construction worker. A building-supplies dealer in Fairbanks pays his salesmen $1,025 a month straight salary. In Fairbanks, too, a bartender gets $35 for each 8-hour shift. Still, many young people are leaving Alaska, contending that "you can hardly keep a family on what you make," because of high prices. "GUTS AND MONEY" Still, "For those with imagination, drive, a bit of guts and some money, Alaska holds an adventuresome future," says a Juneau res- ident who likes hunting and fishing. Those without special aptitudes may find it difficult, warns Edmund Orbeck, a labor leader in Fairbanks. "Unless outsiders have a job already lined up, they shouldn't come," he adds. "Anyone who does is looking for trouble" Unions give precedence to Alaska residents. Food prices have been coming down, espe- cially since the advent of chain supermarkets. Shopping for items that are sale priced, says one housewife, brings prices to about the same level as in Seattle, except for milk, which costs from 83 to 97 cents a half gal- lon. Most clothing prices run about the same as in "the outside." High cost of housing remains the principal bottleneck to lower living costs. Even a mod- est house goes for $25,000 and up. The new- est apartment building in Anchorage asks $425 a month for a two-bedroom apartment. A one-room efficiency brings $140 a month. Rising taxes and the growing costs of local and State government services concern many Alaskans. If it weren't for the huge sums poured in by the Federal Government--$500 million in the last 12 months-their financial problems would be overwhelming. A NEW UTOPIA? When Alaska achieved statehood on Janu- ary 3, 1959, optimistic Alaskans felt they had a chance to build "a utopian society." In the next few years, beset by problems of building a State government, many regretted the shift from territorial status. Construction work and filling the reservoir Now, after 61/2 years, visitors hear few la- would take 20 to 25 years. Studies of the ments. More and more Alaskans are sure project have been made by the U.S. Army that the 1964 earthquake was the takeoff date Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation. for the advancement of a new and successful opposition to the Rampart project centers nuclear power will be available sooner and TAINING A STRONG U.S. MER- at lower cost, and on the prospect of damage CHANT MARINE to wildlife by the lake to be formed behind the proposed dam. This lake would cover Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, the 10,500 square miles-larger than Lake Erie. Vietnam crisis has graphically illustrated Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE The next stage will embrace cities with .populations over 300,000. The third stage, Which the Government hopes to complete arithin 2 years, will extend the system to cities with more than 100,000 people. On the basis of the experience during the first 2 years the Government will then decide whether to extend the system to cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. The ministers decided today that the ration for manual laborers would be In- creased by 10 percent. By limiting consumption by all but man- ual laborers to 12 ounces, or 2.4 ounces un- der the national average, the Government hopes to do the following: Limit consumption in surplus areas and thereby provide more grains for deficit areas. Cut down on the import of grains, partic- ularly of rice which must be paid for in scarce foreign exchange. India imports 6 million tons of wheat a year under the U.S. agricultural surplus pro- gram. However, such imports are paid for In rupees. Two million tons of rice are imported every year, chiefly from Thailand and Cambodia, and are paid for in foreign exchange. PROPOSED REMOVAL OF TARIFF DUTY ON SYNTHETIC DIAMOND ABRASIVE CRYSTALS Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. President, on behalf of the junior Senator from Mich- igan [Mr. HART] who is necessarily ab- sent today, I make the following observa- tion with regard to H.R. 7969: Mr. President, I am very much Inter- ested in that section of the Finance Com- mittee report to accompany H.R. 7969, which pertains o so-called synthetic dia- mond dust. I say "so-called" because what we are talking about in section 27 of the bill is not what the layman would think of as dust. It would be better rec- ognized as diamond abrasive crystals and is referred to In industry as bort or grit used for grinding wheels, cutting tools, masonry saws, and the like. Industrial diamond bort or grit is very important in industry and is particularly important from the standpoint of being a strategic material, absolutely necessary to our In- dustrial economy and very important in any geared-up war emergency economy as evidenced by the fact that natural diamond has always been in the national stockpile. Because of its industrial and strategic importance, I believe that the Commerce Department and the Department of De- fense will have a definite interest In any proposed removal of the tariff duty on synthetic diamond. At such time as H.R. 7969 is considered by the House and Sen- ate conferees, I trust that the interested Government departments will have been given an opportunity to offer their views on this very important matter. ECONOMIC PROGRESS IN ALASKA Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, an excellent summary of recent develop- ments and economic activity in Alaska is found In the August 16 issue of U.S. News & World'Report, It ascribes some of this activity to the earthquake and properly so, but more pertinent would be to ascribe this activity to the coming of statehood 6 years ago and Its beneficial consequences. As a result of statehood, the fisheries, long Alaska's greatest economic resource and depleted almost to the vanishing point under Federal mismanagement while Alaska was a territory, have now experienced a strong comeback under the wiser conservationist policies of the State department of fish and game. The Statehood Act likewise provided that Alaska should receive 90 percent of the oil. royalties since Alaska Is not a reclamation State and does not get the benefits of reclamation legislation as do other Western States. Statehood voided the exclusion of Alaska from the benefits of the Mer- chant Marine Act of 1920, familiarly known in Alaska as the Jones Act. Statehood brought the inclusion of Alaska in the Federal-aid highway pro- gram, from which it had been totally ex- cluded from 1916 to 1956 and was only, partially included In the 3 years pre- ceding statehood. Whereas prior to statehood 99.2 per- cent of Alaska's land was in Federal do- main, the State is beginning to acquire some of the 103 million acres to which the Statehood Act entitled it. In addition to that and other bene- ficial changes wrought by statehood, State agencies are making possible de- velopment which was not possible under Federal control. While much remains to be done and Alaska still suffers and will suffer for some time to come the economic conse- quences of its 92 years of territorialism, with its discriminations and omissions, It is gratifying to see our State steadily moving Into high gear and demon- strating thereby the eternal soundness of that basic American principle of gov- ernment by consent of the governed, which statehood made possible. I ask unanimous consent that the arti- cle from the U.S. News & World Report of August 16, entitled: "The New Alaska: Ready To Take Off," be printed at the conclusion of my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From U.S. News & World Report, Aug. 16, 1966] THE NEW ALASKA: READY To TAKE OFF (Norf.-America's 49th State. a storehouse of resources, has been handicapped by its geographical position and by shortages of people and capital. Now, rebuilding after the 1964 earthquake, Alaska is humming with activity, confident of a bright future.) ANcHORACE.-Alaska's big earthquake of 1964, it is now becoming clear, jolted more than the earth. The Good Friday quake shook up the people of the 49th State, shocked them into action. And, as a result, Alaska for the first time is getting more of what it always needed-people, money, construction and a diversity of jobs. Fisheries, the State's biggest Industry, have made a comeback. Forget products are pro- viding more jobs than ever before. Oil and gas are hotbeds of activity, with new ex- ploration and discovery mounting daily. Tourist business is at a new peak. Hotels and motels are going up at a rapid rate. Transportation facilities are much improved. Some problems, particularly the high cost of living, remain. But even this barrier to development is being whittled away, and some prices have come down. 19023 The earthquake claimed 123 lives and caused vast property damage. But most Alaskans agree, the temblor also set off an economic spurt. "It got a lot of people to thinking about changing and Improving," says an Anchor- age real estate man. "We learned how to move materials fast." REAL BOOM COUNTRY Disaster aid and loans from the Govern- ment have poured $325 million into Alaska since the earthquake. This, with uncounted millions in private investment, is making the State what one Anchorage banker calls "a real boom country." Kodiak is described by a fisheries official as "the hottest area in Alaska right now." It has three new hotels, one of them a former passenger liner, and new airport facilities. Anchorage is getting $28 million worth of private and public construction this year. This includes the building of two high-rise hotels and an 11-story bank building. Other expansion projects in this, Alaska's largest city, include docking and warehous- ing facilities and three new shopping centers. People, too, are flocking to Alaska. Says an Anchorage hotel operator: "We were 80 percent filled all winter and haven't had a vacancy since April 1." For the first time in Alaska's history, growth Is on a broad basis, providing new goods and services and a diversity of jobs. There is a steady spread of the tax base once almost wholly dependent on Govern- ment spending. OIL: 30,000 BARRELS A DAY The oil and gas industry is becoming of increasing importance to Alaska. It is, says C. W. Snedden, Fairbanks publisher, "our biggest economic crutch." On two occasions, sale of oil and gas leases provided the funds for meeting large deficits in Alaska's budget. The State received $14.5 million last year from royalties and other fees. Since 1957, when the Discovery well was brought in by Richfield Oil, production has incerased to a rate of 11 million barrels a year. Current output from 62 wells exceeds 30,000 barrels a day. So far this year, several new oil and gas wells of major size have been brought in, expanding sizably the 460-million-barrel re- serve estimated at the start, of 1965. Ex- ploration and development spending this year will far exceed the $64.5 million spent in 1964. New platforms being built over Cook Inlet will, for the first time, permit year-round, drilling. Cook Inlet has 8-knot currents, 30- foot shifts in tide levels and temperatures that drop to 50' below zero--probably the most difficult and expensive drilling condi- tions in the world. Despite this, more than 20 companies have operations in Alaska, and the number is growing. Alaska recently offered more than 750,000 acres for leasing north of the Arctic Circle, eastward from Point Barrow. Major oil com- panies have teams in the area and are bring- ing in equipment for drilling. Availability of oil and gas has greatly re- duced fuel costs in Alaska. For example, the Matanuska Maid Dairy is saving about $3,000 monthly in power costs at its new plant in Anchorage by using gas produced in the State. HOW JAPAN HELPS Japan's need for raw materials in In- creasing amounts is another boon to the expanding Alaskan economy. There has been a steady exchange of trade missions between Japan and Alaska in recent years. Japan has provided most of the $70 mil- lion pumped into development of the Sitka Pulp & Lumber Co., which produces 520 tons of wood pulp a day for Japanese buyers. The same Japanese interests own the Wran- gell Lumber Co., which exports a shipload of Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 19025 again the need for maintaining a strong COUP son SHIPPERS should be no objection to foreign steel U.S. merchant marine. The fact that the first major movement of competition. I have spoken before about the supply troops being sent to the Asian battlefront is requirements of a modern army, which going by sea rather than air is considered a Mr. President, this is the underlying necessitated the use of 600 cargo ships major coup for the shipping industry which approach of our continuing efforts to for logistic support of our troops in has been waging an uphill campaign empha- amend the U.S. Antidumping Act. It is Korea. sizing the continuing need for passenger basic to the support given S. 2945 by A There is another critical use for Amer- poses as well as cargo vessels for defense pur- Senator HARTKE, the principal DemOCra- , ,. v-u.-u,p,vav. ratUllVlis21 aeereaary of Defense McNamara said 4 years ago that all future troop transport would be by air; last week the entire 1st Cavalry Di- vision, with 400 helicopters and all of its supplies, embarked for Vietnam by ship. Helen Delich Bentley, the maritime editor of the Baltimore Sun, reported on this embarkation and other possible requirements for use of the merchant marine in the Vietnam war effort. I be- lieve that Mrs. Bentley's article is a valuable reminder of the increasing stra- tegic importance of a strong American merchant fleet. I ask unanimous consent that Mrs. Bentley's article be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD; as follows: Secretary of Defense, told a congressional Nuuucan cosponsor. The same holds committee that there was no further need true for many of our colleagues in Cori- to build or subsidize American-flag passenger gress, including the 30 other Senate co- ships because all troop movements in the fu- sponsors of S. 2045, the 1965 Antidumping ture would go by air. Act Amendment. As we consider its aims A year later at the height of the Cuban to make the U.S. law a fairer, more effec- missile crisis, the Defense Department had tive antidumping measure, let us keep in alerted the owners of American-flag pas- mind the consequences of dumping senger liners to stand by for their employ- which interferes unfairly with this com- ment if troops were to be sent to the nearby . Caribbean island petitive mechanism that we have so long The SS United States, which has been im- nourished. mobilized by a seamen's strike since June, is I heartily invite my colleagues' atten- capable of transporting an entire division tion to Mr. Blough's statement in the be- with all of its equipment after only 1 week lief that its lucid analysis will be of of conversion work to transform her from a benefit to discussions of the nature of the luxurious Atlantic liner to a troop transport. clilmnino rirnhl r. _??~ -- -.yn~y +r+v "V, TRANSPORTED growth with which many of our Ai- The six troop transports which are being can industries, as well as American labor, ab removed from their regular Atlantic service are faced. ferried 200,000 military personnel and their Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- dependents between Europe and the United States last year. They are all o sent that Mr. Blough's letter b erat d b t i p e y he e pr nted FIRST CAVALRY To GO BY SEA-DIVISION To Military Sea Transportation Service. In the RECORD. EMBARK SOON FOR VIET WAR Should it become necessary to provide more There being no objection, the letter (By Helen Deitch Bentley) space In each of these transports, they will was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, WASHINGTON, August 3.-The 1st Cavalr have to be sent to shipyards so additional as follows: (Airmobil Division, its 400 helicopters and decks can be welded in their holds. UNITED STATES STEEL CHAIRMAN EXPLAINS the capacity of each again will be COMPETITION all of its support supplies, will be sent to doubled Vietnam by sea with embarkation of the In addition to the 35 to 40 strikebound To the EDITOR: troops to begin next week. freighters, 15 additional cargo ships have To compete successfully in today's dy- troops a "limited number of advance per- not enough ever-changing a usable quality r - sonnel" will make the 6,000-mile trip by air. been taken c out df the reserve shipyards y and are uct A company, produce to survive e In today's day'spod P Y being in reactivated the in private President Johnson last week announced participation rti Vietnam nam crisis. isis. for petitive any, must sitself t wit every m- that he ordered the 1st Cavalry Division "im- The 1st Cavalry Division with the "Air- modern weapon available to it and hat the mediately" to the Vietnam front. It will be mobile" inserted in the middle of its name Is same time, have in reserve the most imagina- the first full division on the battle scene, a described as being "a new organization with tive and resourceful minds in its field, prob- Department of Defense spokesman said to- a very large group of helicopters" and a "fast ing and searching the unknown for the an- night. There are units of divisions but no moving, light outfit." full division there, he added. seers to Its customers' present and future PORTS NAMED demands. The first units of the 1st Cavalry Division, ROGER BLOUGH EXPLAINS STEEL titi In the case of th, on has meant aelong steel succession o fun no- stationed at Fort Benning, Ga., will be em- COMPETITION-HITS FOREIGN vation, in es- barked on the ports of Charleston, S.C., and DUMPING to ter a facts are of care intense hat the struggle for facts of of today, rend Savannah, Ga., aboard at least two of the today's tomorrow, and six troop transports that are being removed Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, it is im- as in s other inare not those of dustries, the steel industry's from their normal Atlantic operation to portant that the United States, as a na- customers, markets, marketing, materials, enter Vietnam service. tion dedicated to the free enterprise Sys- f inance, technology, management, econom- Loading of the helicopters will also take tem under which our economy has grown ch and the labor force are ever in flux, ever Ics, place next week aboard the Navy aircraft carrier Boxer in Mayport, the naval base ad- and flourished, not lose sight of the need changing. jacent to Jacksonville, Fla., and aboard Mill- to preserve the chief ingredient of this mket In the prices result froe enterprise ices system, tary Sea Transportation Service aircraft fer- development-Spirited but fair competi- he sellers iand prices thatlbuyers are willing ries at Mobile, Ala. tion. Many of the laws to which our to pay. For while a producer is free to seek Aircraft engineering personnel will accom- domestic producers are subject are dedi- whatever prices he thinks are attainable, pany the craft loaded on each of the vessels. cated to this end. Yet only the basic the market always has the final word. In addition, some 35 to 40 "formerly strike- Antidumping Act of 1921 is available to bound" freighters bound" freighters have been chartered by the Steel, for example, sells at thousands of ,pick up the supha equip the insure that foreign producers, while pro- prices inasmuch as is is z s, si re l thousands of shapes, gtsfin- needed MSTS for the 1st Ca a s Division and the t the price levels in their home i hes, and chemical compositions. sFor the units already in Vietnam. markets, do not use U.S. markets as a most part, steel products are tilormade to TO GET SUPPLIES dumping ground for their surpluses. individual customer specifications. Steel Those loading for the division will pick up On this score, I noted with particular prices frequently differ by region; they are their supplies at East and Gulf seaports also interest the "Letter to the Editor" from not static; they fluctuate. To be sure, prices beginning next week, it was said. Roger M. Blough, chairman of the der for particular competition. tcu to converge feel el The six troop transports are capable of United States Steel Cor But acttual prices of ste handling an entire division of 15,000 men by p?, which acs products often vary among producers and a simple conversion which requires about 24 neared in the May issue of Nation's from published prices. hours simple work by the ship's rs a It Is Business. In it he outlined the many- Competition in steel, as in most industries, referred to as "immediate emergency berth- faceted nature of present-day competi- is worldwide. For practically all of the first ing" and enables the crew to make necessary tion in steel, and cited the danger of con- economy my decades was of a the nete 2eth century, the U.S, changes to the cabins and troop quarters tinued pricing of imports at dumping exporter of steel mill that will permit them to at least double their levels. He pointed Out: year since, Starting with 1e c and ale every normal capacity when carrying military per- Competitors Mar since, imports have exceeded ex sonnet. should compete under coin- Much of the imported steel has been sold at parable pricing laws. If they do, there prices substantially below those prevailing in No. 146-3 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19026 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 the country of origin and in the U.S.A. This practice of selling in export markets at prices below those prevailing in the exporting coun- try, when accompanied by injury or threat of injury to the industry of the importing country, is regarded as "dumping" and is condemned by most nations. And although prohibited by the signatory countries to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and by Federal law, such pricing of imports continues. International trade is vital. No country today is self-sufficient, and every country benefits by buying and selling in world mar- kets. But competitors should compete un- der comparable pricing laws. If they do, there should be no objection to foreign steel competition. Steel is indeed a highly competitive busi- ness. It is subject to the many varied price and cost factors that confront all competitive industry. Interference with this competi- tive mechanism can only result in reduced benefits for the consumer and the investor, reduced job opportunities for the worker, and reduced economic growth for the Nation. ROGER M. SLOUGH, Chairman, Board of Directors, United States Steel Corp. IVORY COAST complished the legal abolition of the call Mr, HARTSE. Mr. President, Satur- practices of segregation, and we have quest to answer h vehth, more anon, the I day, August 7, was the national ode- question: Do we have pas imagination, the obtained a grudging tolerance, slower- commitment, and compassion to construct pendence day for the Republic of Ivory ing of formal legal barriers, a removal a society which gives full meaning to the Coast. This new nation under the able of "white only" signs from drinking phrase "full citizenship," where every citizen leadership of President Felix Houphouet- fountains, school doors, and waiting has an equal opportunity in fact-not just in Boigny has earnestly undertaken its rooms. We must do more than achieve international responsibilities as a sover- minimum compliance with the law, mo- eign state. Six weeks after her inde- tivated more by the fear of jails than by pendence In 1960, the Ivory Coast was an honest request for one's fellow man. admitted to the United Nations and was While this is necessary and worthy of later elected to a seat on the Security our first efforts, it is merely an initial Council for the term beginning January goal. 1964. Within Africa the Ivory Coast Beyond this lies the true meaning of commands great respect, for President "integration." Beyond this lies accept- Houphouet-Boigny since his early career ance-acceptance of every fellow citizen In preindependence days has been a a man with heart and mind, body and dynamic and devoted leader for regional soul. This goal may remain unreached cooperation on the African continent, when every lunch counter in the Nation maintaining that the only true road to has dropped its formal barriers to Negro African solidarity is through step-by- entry. It may remain unreached when step economic and political cooperation every Negro is allowed the full and equal with recognition of the principle of non- right to vote and participate in the politi- intervention in the internal affairs of cal process of his State and city. It may, sister African states. as well, remain unreached when the last To this nation which shuns involve- Negro has stepped off the sidewalk and Negro enrollment in college and in profes- ment in cold war issues yet remains a tipped his hat to the passing white man. sional schools, of the rising income level friend of the West the United States has But we must begin now to reach the day among Negroes, of more challenging and provided modest economic aid, support- when we have a nation in which every responsible jobs available to Negroes, and ing the Ivory Coast's program of rapid, man is accepted at his own worth. of the declining rate of school dropouts orderly economic development. With Mr. President, I call the attention of among Negroes as compared to the popula- an economy already more diversified the U.S. Senate to this remarkable tion in general. than any other in west Africa, the Ivory speech, and ask unanimous consent that We know that Negro Americans are suc- Coast has undertaken to increase public it be printed in the RECORD at this point. seeding despite the handicaps of prejudice, p expenditure and encourage greater pri- closed doom, limited nonexistent There being no objection, the address educational l opportunities, and d of f the deep vate investment in the growing Indus- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, psychological wound of being a Negro in a trial sector, looking forward to 1970 as as follows: period where this usually meant second-class the terminal date for foreign assistance REMARKS sY VICE PRESIDENT HUBERT Hybl- citizenship and back-of-the-bus treatment. needs. PHREy, CONVENTION, ALPHA PHI ALPHA But despite the advances of this Negro Mr. President, it has long been the, F'RATZRNITT, CHICAGO, AUGUST 9, 1965 minority, we know also the pathos of count- belief of Americans that a people's in- It is an honor and a pleasure to be back less citizens in this country. These people terests are best served and the poten- with Alpha Phi Alpha tonight. In 1948, I are almost a nation unto themselves-an tialities for liberty most promoted spoke before your annual convention at it- underdeveloped country of urban ghettos and lantic City. rural slums whose inhabitants are only dimly through self-determinaIt it political At that time you were concerned with aware of the advances in civil rights and are and economic policy. It is this belief, awakening Negroes to the potentialities of only rarely touched by them. inextricably, bound up with our own full citizenship and fine education, with pro- President Johnson spoke about the stark heritage, that causes us to take pride in viding money through scholarships and loans dimensions of this other America in his the achievements of such newly Inde- to the talented who could benefit most from Howard University address. He pointed to pendent nations as the Republic of Ivory advanced learning, and with fighting legal the uprooted, the unemployed, and the dis- Coast. I know that many Americans battles to strike down discriminatory bar- 1epossessed. n Hype inted of stagge disease ngf p rob-- join with me in saluting the people of riers, the Ivory Coast as they celebrate their national Independence. THE CHALLENGE OF CIVIL RIGHTS Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, on Sunday night, August 8, 1965, I had the privilege of attending the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Convention In Chicago, M. In an address to the convention, Vice President HUBERT H. HUMPHREY brought to our attention inmeaningful fashion the real challenge facing the human rights movement in the United States. He emphasized that although we have created an adequate body of legislation for equal legal rights, we must begin to create a climate of equal respect in which the capacities of all men, whether Negro or white, for crea- tivity and the pursuit of excellence may flourish .and grow. We should remember that the law, in addition to being a coercive force, must function as well as a teacher. By direct- ing the actions of the citizen, it must produce a change in attitude. Without a change in public attitude, all the legis- At that time I was about to first enter the U.S. Senate. At that time this country was slowly be- coming aware of the critical social issue of the postwar period-the full entrance of the Negro into American society. Tonight, 17 years later, we have come a long way. We have seen legalized prejudice and dis- crimination stricken from the statute books of America. Many people of courage and dedication, with black skins and with white, have risked-and sometimes lost-their lives in assaulting the barriers of legalized discrimi- nation. The dignity and the compassion-the man- ifestation of true fraternal love-which has characterized these efforts is a source of pride to all Americans. With the series of Supreme Court deci- sions culminating in the historic Brown v. Board of .Education case in 1954-and with the sequence of congressional actions leading to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Vot- ing Rights Act of 1965--this initial phase of the civil struggle is now drawing to a close. Much remains to be done until these deci- sions of our Government are fully imple- mented-and, as the President's civil rights coordinator, I can report to you tonight that determined efforts are being made within the Federal structure. For the first time in history, this Nation possesses the intellectual strength and the economic resources to create the conditions in which every American can be a full partner in the enterprise of democracy. We possess the knowledge and the wealth. But do we also possess the determination and the will to complete this task? To be sure, a number of Negroes have over- come great handicaps and are able to com- pete on equal terms with other citizens. In- deed, all the men of Alpha-represented by such men as Thurgood Marshall, Whitney Young, Martin Luther King, John Johnson., and Judge Perry B. Jackson, Judge Sidney A. Jones, and Judge L. Howard Bennett-are notable representatives of the American Negro community today capable of both pro- ducing and enjoying the benefits of American society. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 19083 gan with one man firing a single shot, the Vietnam." The religious leaders were being Christian he could no longer serve his coun- shot heard around the world. No government asked to help communicate this information try as a soldier. fired that shot, no paid soldier pulled the to the White House. It was further stated If a nation would preserve its independ- trigger. The shot was fired by an individ- that according to the New York Times, ence today, it is necessary for it to maintain ual, and the shot proclaimed "I am a free President Johnson "carries around in his a national police force. The purpose of man." Yes, freedom began with an individ- pocket a series of private polls of public such a force is to preserve order, peace, and ual. opinion on American policy in Vietnam. to protect its rights and the rights of smaller So, if there is in this audience today, some. In Dr. Dohlberg's letter we were asked to nations. When justice, peace, and integrity one with teenage children, perhaps you will check one of the following: are endangered a nation must use its army. be good enough to explain to them what I 1. I favor intensifying and extending the In the world crisis today there are spir- have tried to say to you. war in Vietnam. I itual values that are at stake. We must re- Since this generation has chosen to aban- 2. I would like the United States to ini- sist, that which would destroy us and de- don freedom, perhaps someone in the next tiate efforts now to negotiate peace in Viet- stroy as well the faith that has made our generation will choose to stand up as an nam. Nation great. Judging from what commu- individual and fire a shot heard around the It may be noted that neither option gives nism has done wherever it now enslaves, we world, a verbal shot, if you please, which any hint that there is anything evil about should face frankly the fact that should it will choose freedom over security. Communist aggression nor that the United control the world the Christian witness could I dearly hope sn. States should be commended for coming to survive only through the suffering and mar- T J the defense of self-determination of a small tyrdom of faithful disciples. Freedom for motion. It might be pointed out that ourselves and for our children are worth A CHRIS INISTER SPEAKS clergymen who are opposed to our involve- dying for. Thank God for our men now giv- OUT ON VIETNAM POLICY ment in Vietnam aren't always opposed to ing themselves in Vietnam for our freedom. the use of Federal force. In the recent We should stay in Vietnam as long as it Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, be- demonstration in Alabama many of these takes to let the Communists know we won't cause of the fact that a number of clergy- same clergymen-who oppose our involve- stand for aggression. If need be we should men have been participating in some of ment in Vietnam-were highly in favor of intensify our efforts there to win the war the "peace at any price" demonstrations the show of Federal force in Alabama. against aggression. against taking a firm stand in Vietnam, I strongly protest the kind of pressure now Pacifism has been tried as a national pol- an impression has been created that a being exerted upon President Johnson by icy by other nations throughout history only firm stand in Vietnam may be Uri-Chris- many ministers urging us to get out of Viet- to find that sooner or later you have to stand nam. Not long ago in Australia a group of up to aggression or a nation will lose its tian and does not, therefore, meet with ministers were reported to have made their freedom. For a nation to be weak and ir- the approval of the clergy in this country. protests of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam resolute is to invite failure. If the Commu- The Calhoun Times of St. Matthews, known to one of their national leaders. He nists understand only the language of mili- S.C., has printed in its August 5, 1965, rebuked them and told them they did not tary power then we must give them a lesson issue an outstanding defense of U.S. in- know all that was involved. Many clergymen in their own language. volvement in Vietnam by Rev. Wallace N N. appear today to think themselves to be infal- Should we get out of Vietnam) No, a Taylor, lible and qualified to speak on any subject. thousand times no-not until the Commu- pastor of the First Baptist We are in Vietnam because North Vietnam nist world sees that we mean business and Church of St. Matthews. does not respect the sovereignty of South ceases their aggression. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- Vietnam and North Vietnam is committed to dent, that Reverend Taylor's statement aggression. To permit Communist aggres- be printed in the RECORD at the conclu- Sion in Vietnam is to say to the Communists, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND sion of these remarks. we will permit aggression anywhere in the URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACT There being no objection, the state- world wherever you make a move. Many of ment was ordered to ec printed in the our clergymen seem to want peace at any The Senate resumed the consideration ment was ordered price and never condemn Communist aggres- of the bill (S. 1599) to establish a De- RECORD, sion or ever seem to understand the nature partment of Housing and Urban Devel- [From the St. Matthews (S.C.) Calhoun of its threat. In Vietnam as elsewhere we opment, and for other purposes. Times, Aug. 5, 1965] should stand to defend freedom against ag. Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, REVEREND TAYLOR SPEAKS OUT ON VIETNAM gression and slavery. there is no stated which the POLICY As a Christian I see nn rnnfil,+ ', - -- written by the Reverend Wallace N. Taylor garding war. In fact, while studying for the Housing and Urban Development can be pastor of the First Baptist Church of St. ministry in 1943, I left college and went into justified. Matthews. It was written by Reverend the Army. I served in combat in Europe with Two words which are much in the news Taylor w response as a f riff letter he received the 26th Infantry Division receiving three these days are appropriate in considering from Edwin T. Dohlberg for the Clergymen's battle stars, the French Fourragere and the S. 1599, which would create such a de- Emergency Committee for Vietnam. We Purple Heart. I had four brothers who partment. These two words are "pro- commend Reverend Taylor for the stand he served in the Armed Forces and would have liferation" and "escalation." has taken on the matter. Our only wish is felt ashamed to stay home and let them that we had more ministers for Christ who offer their lives for my freedom. I see no The creation of new Cabinet-rank - would also take this stand rather than join- conflict in a Christian serving in the Armed Department of Housing and Urban the ing in civil rights debacles and the like. Force nor of using these forces anywhere velopment is but a further step in the Reverend Taylor's letter is as follows:) they need to be used to stop aggression. "proliferation" of Government agen- SPEAKING OUT: A CLERGYMANDEFENSE OF OUR While I do not glory in war, I feel that cies and resultant employees. The pro- INVOLVEMENT OUT: A ERG IN VIETNAM'S EFE there may be occasions when it is the lesser posed new Department would perform no of two evils. There are occasions when a functions which are not already being In recent weeks we have had a great deal particular war may be a just war, and it performed by existing Government agen- of discussion on the U.S. involvement in would be a Christian's duty to engage in it. Vietnam. Recently many young men and Sometimes we are confronted by two al- and It ons be assumed that the agen- women demonstrated in Washington, carry- ternatives, neither of which is Christian, and responsi bilities of existing agen- ing placards upon which were printed "Get both are evil but one is less evil than the cies are being performed adequately, or Out of Vietnam," "We Won't Fight in Viet- other. Sometimes it is less evil to go to war else their continued existence or present nam," and so forth. In participating in this than to go and let the enemy hold in slavery staffing would have to be considered in demonstration these young people have been millions who want to be free. jeopardy. encouraged from various sources. From a Biblical viewpoint we notice that One of these sources has been the clergy- the children of Israel were commanded to on If " thfsthe duties legislation approved, "eties es f men. Many of the clergymen have been engage in warfare. In the New Testament ti and responsibilities of saying, "we should get out of Vietnam." there is no specific word against warfare. the agency will naturally follow. The Recently I received a letter from Dr. Edwin After Christ healed the Roman captain's Cabinet-ranking Department has a way T. Dohlberg, former president of the Na- servant (Luke 8:13), he commended the sol- Of generating proposals and ideas de- tional Council of Churches. I understand dier for his faith and said nothing to him signed to extend its influence and further that this letter was sent to a number of against his military profession. John the ingrain its power over new and ex- ministers. Writing for the "Clergymen's Baptist had Roman soldiers to ask him what panded areas of concern. Many of Emergency Committee for Vietnam" of the they must do to prepare for the Messiah; he these would be responsibilities and Fellowship of Reconciliation, Nyack, N.Y., told them but gave them no lectures on the he urged us to express ourselves "as it was sinfulness of soldiering and the wickedness duties not contemplated upon the Crea- important that the President should know of war (Luke 3: 14). In the Book of Acts, tion of the Department, hjw the leaders in our Nation's religious life chapter 10, is recorded the conversion of The bill presents a fundamental ques- feel about this country's involvement in. Cornelius. There is no mention that as a tion of policy and constitutional author- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19084 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 ity. Although there is a multitude of Federal programs now on the books re- lating to urban and municipal problems, the primary authority and responsibility for dealing with these problems on a day-to-day basis remains with local offi- cials. Over the past few years, the Fed- eral Government has encroached upon these local responsibilities to an ever- increasing extent. The pending bill, if enacted, would indicate a shift in the primary responsibility from local to Fed- eral officials. This would be detrimental to effective and responsive local govern- ment. The primary justification advanced for the creation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development is the rapidly increasing urban population and the Increased urban problems which are -created thereby. This is said to require a Cabinet-level voice to represent the interests of this segment of our popula- tion. To fortify this conclusion, reliance is had on statistics which show that at the time of the adoption of the Constitu- tion, only 5 percent of the population was in the urban areas. Today, the urban population has grown to 70 percent. From now to the year 2000, it is esti- mated that approximately 80 percent of the population increase will occur in urban areas. Admittedly, these are impressive sta- tistics. Nevertheless, an important point is conveniently overlooked in dealing with people only as statistics. The in- crease in urban population is accompa- nied by an increase in productivity and in the tax base needed to meet the finan- cial burdens of the area. The increase Another danger inherent in the pro- member of the Subcommittee on Execu- posal to centralize all urban affairs under tive Reorganization of the Committee on a Cabinet officer is the bypassing of State Government Operations, I should like to officials. The Department of Housing respond briefly to the arguments made and Urban Affairs would, in most in- by the distignuished senior Senator from stances, deal directly with local officials South Carolina. These arguments are and the responsible officers of the State matters of substantial concern for us all. would have little, if any, voice in the They were considered most carefully by affair. The better approach would seem both the subcommittee and the full Corn- to be encouraging the States to assume mittee on Government Operations. a more responsible attitude toward their The pending bill is a very simple one. political subdivisions. When the Na- It would not increase the jurisdiction of tional Government is organized to exert the departments involved, nor would it more power over urban activities, State carry with it the requirement that addi- involvement will naturally decrease. tional funds be spent. However, it would The authoritative and responsible role simply, for reasons of efficiency, respon- of the States in assisting in local urban siveness, and responsibility on the part of affairs would be ended. Intergovern- the Government, place these various ac- mental relations would become a matter tivities concerned, functions already of two levels of operations, Federal-local, being performed by the Federal Govern- and lead to a dominance by the National ment, under one department with Cabi- Government, which must be avoided. net status, and, furthermore, focus Mr. President, the proposed new Cabi- emphasis upon the tremendous needs in net Department of Housing and Urban the urban areas of the country. Development is not desirable because it The agricultural and rural needs of the i prescribes a permanent expanding role for the National Government in areas where private enterprise would and should do the job. Urban renewal funds, which would be under the jurisdication of the new Cabinet Department, are be- ing increasingly used for nonhousing re- newal. There are many Members of Congress who question the desirability of using a larger percentage of these funds to build office buildings and other such projects. There is a strong likelihood that an expanded urban renewal pro- gram under the Department of Housing r- country have long been recognized by v tue of the provision of Cabinet status for the Department of Agriculture. I come from one of the great agricultural States of the country. I believe that it is well for the rural and agricultural needs of the country to be handled by a depart- ment with Cabinet status. But, Mr. President, some 70 percent of the people of this country now live in metropolitan areas. It is estimated that before very long 80 to 85 percent of the people of this country will live in metropolitan areas. and Urban Development will more and I am not certain that that is a good more concern itself with the construc- thing. I wish that people still lived back tion of urban and commercial facilities in the rural areas and in the small towns rather than housing. to the degree they used to. Their prob- The Department of Health, Education, lems then were much less than they are and Welfare is a striking example of the now in the great centers of mass popula- type of escalation which can be expected tion. However, the fact is that they if this new Cabinet-level Department is do not live in the rural areas and small created. In the few short years since towns to the extent they once did. The its creation, the Department of Health, people live in metropolitan centers. The Eduaction, and Welfare with all its sub- Government must face up to the facts of sidiary agencies has increased its ex- life. I believe that the Government must penditures by more than 300 percent. today give Cabinet status to those func- The employment in the Department has tions of the Federal Government in more than doubled and the payroll costs which an attempt is made to come to have almost quadrupled. It is obvious grips with the great problems of our ur- that the same growth rate will result if ban areas and the centers of mass popu- Congress creates a new Cabinet-level lation. Department of Housing and Urban De- The other argument was that this velopment. would reduce the authority of the States Mr. President, aside from those rea- and municipalities. Some other oppo- sons, I remind the Senators that many nents consider that the new Department of the programs to be administered by of Housing and Urban Development the new Department are of doubtful con- would be a rival to State and local stitutionality. governments. Nowhere in the Constitution of ththe e I point out that the distinguished and United States is there al Gove tovernmeent nt able chairman of our subcommittee, the authority subsidize the r ccGo governmentSenator from Connecticut CMr. Rrsz- or to the goe gacity or of county t any other subdi- , COFF], is himself it former Governor of government his Yreat State In population provides all the potential resources required for the urban areas to meet their own responsibilities, if they are correctly utilized. By no means least among the potential gains from popula- tion increases is the manpower, both mental and physical, required to cope with the challenge. Mr. President, I want to stress the use of the term "responsibility." Not only do the urban areas have the authority to solve their own local problems, but they have the duty and responsibility to do so. The pending.bill would do no more than to superimpose a Cabinet position upon existing Federal agencies. The Cabinet position is designed to be the focal point in the administration and coordination of urban programs now on the books. While the proper interagency coordina- tion of urban programs is a desirable goal, this is not the best, or even a proper way of achieving the desired result. There are dangers inherent in such a position which mitigate against its crea- tion. Coordinating all Federal programs went heacl would create a vehicle so vision of a State. powerful at the national level as to make There is, therefore, very serious goes- In addition to that service, and service a mockery of local authority and respon- tion as to whether a bill such as this in the U.S. Senate, the Senator from sibility. Cities, towns, and counties would be constitutional. Connecticut has also served as a Cabinet would tend to rely more and more on For these reasons I am opposed to S. officer. The Senator from Connecticut assistance, both financial and otherwise, 1599. I ask the Senate to reject the bill. understands rather well the respective from the national level for the solution The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. responsibilities of States, municipalities, of local problems. Local initiative would MONDALE in the chair). The Senator and the Federal Government. That take a back seat to Federal direction and from Oklahoma is recognized. philosophy, recognizing the rights and supervision. Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, as it responsibilities of all divisions of gov- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE The situation is grave enough for the Fed- eral authorities to invoke the existing laws against sedition and treason. Congress has not so declared it but the Nation is at war. A soldier in uniform who did what the agita- tors are trying to get Negroes subject to the draft to do, and who are urging Negroes in the services to stage hunger strikes, would be subject to a court-martial at least. A soldier who behaved in such a fashion in battle would be subject to being shot to death on the spot by the nearest ranking officer. As for the draft-card burners, they deserve to be drafted, not for service in uniform alongside honorable men, but for labor bat- talions digging latrines and trenches as close to the enemy positions as would be safe for the guard details that would be necessary to get them there. MAN ARRESTED FOR FOURTH TIME THIS YEAR ON CHARGE OF RAPE IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, I call to the attention of my colleagues an article from the Evening Star of August 9, 1965, reporting on a man being ar- rested for a fourth time this year on a charge of.rape in the District of Colum- bia. This time the man was actually caught in the act of committing the crime. According to another report in the Washington Post of this morning, the police brought in the arrested man on three previous occasions, but one indict- ment was dismissed by the District Court on a technicality and another indictment was dismissed because the complainant committed suicide prior to the time of the trial. Mr. President, on June 29, 1965, I made a speech in the Senate on the increasing crime rate in America and my remarks were based around an article from the Evening Star reporting on the release of this same man who has been arrested for the fourth rape charge this year. This article reported that the judge had to release the defendant "reluctantly." In commenting on the action, Judge George L. Hart, Jr., refuted the idea that decisions of the courts in the District of Columbia have nothing to do with the crime rate in Washington. He stated, and I quote : The U.S. court of appeals sets the law. This court has to follow it ? * ? this man has not been found guilty, but certainly jus- tice seems to cry out that he should face a jury of his peers. I do not know all of the specifics in this matter, Mr. President, but this case is illustrative of many of the cases here in the District of Columbia and throughout this country in which the rights of the individual have been placed above the rights of society in administering justice in our land. J. Edgar Hoover, the president of the American Bar Association, and countless others who are. learned in the law and who are recognized authorities in the field of law enforcement have warned time and again against decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court which have served to effectively tie the hands of our police officers in trying to bring criminals to justice and protect the public against the ever-increasing crime rate in this country. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Presi- dent, that this article from the Evening Star be printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of these remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: - MAN SEIZED ATTACKING WAITRESS A laborer with three arrests for rape this year was charged with rape and robbery early today after police said they found him attacking a woman in a garage in Northeast Washington. Police charged Thomas H. Washington, 22, of the 200 block of Kentucky Avenue S.E., with rape and robberty of a 24-year-old waitress. The woman told police she was walking home at 3:30 a.m, when a man approached her in the 1000 block of C Street NE., threw his arms around her neck and told her he would kill her if she screamed. As she struggled with the man her hand was cut by a linoleum knife he held, and as he dragged her into an alley garage with his hand over her mouth she left a trail of blood from her wound. Meanwhile, someone had called police and reported seeing a woman being dragged into the alley. Detectives, uniformed officers, and members of the canine corps responded and followed the trail of blood to a garage in the 300 block of 11th Street, where, they found the attack taking place. Police said that as they came upon the pair Washington put $24 he had. taken from the woman back into her hand. Police said Washington had been charged with raping two women in February and raping one of them a second time in May. Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, I wish to thank my friend the distinguished Senator from Oregon for his courtesy in yielding to me. Mr. MORSE. It is always a pleasure to cooperate with the distinguished Sen- Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, yester- day, the White House sponsored another of its attempts to disguise the war in Vietnam to make it palatable to Mem- bers of Congress. All the same Old dogmas were repeated, just as though nothing had changed since Mr. Mc- Namara went over to Vietnam in October of 1963, and told us when he returned that things looked so good the boys would all be back home by 1965. Ambassador Taylor went through his customary ritual of evading the entire issue of why and how the United States has flopped completely in the Taylor- inspired enterprise of aiding and advis- ing the Vietnamese in a guerrilla war. The Taylor concept of fighting insur- gencies has totally failed in Vietnam, under his guidance and direction. He has proved that the United States cannot win guerrilla wars, at least not under the policies of a Taylor. All we do is what we have done in South Vietnam, and that is to drop all pretense of helping one side, and making the war a western- style affair with large conventional American forces, including use of the Strategic Air Command. Thanks to General Taylor and Secre- tary McNamara, the Communists have proved to the world that the United States cannot cope with insurgency on its 19107 own terms, but can only fight it by turn- ing a guerrilla war into a conventional one fought by American forces. Of course, nothing of that kind was admitted at the White House yesterday. General Ky was pointed out to us as still being the titular head of South Vietnam. it is a largely honorary office, of course, and General Ky must always bear in mind what happened to President Diem when Henry Cabot Lodge arrived in Sai- gon as American Ambassador. But the war is an American war. No longer do we advise; in fact, we give some status to the South Vietnamese Army as advisers. They are to conduct their end of war by being attached to American Army units to interpret and give us ad- vice on how to proceed in relations with the local natives. The recitation of how things are im- proving in Vietnam is a depressing thing to hear when a comparison with a year ago, or 2 years ago, or 4 years ago, or 10 years ago, shows only that the American position and the position of the South Vietnam Government have steadily eroded and deteriorated. It is a remark- able thing to be able to go up to the White House periodically and hear how things are improving when each visit is occasioned by a new step the United States has had to take in order to stabil- ize a deteriorating situation. It is an Alice-in-Wonderland exhibition of how the unpleasant can be evaded and the failures ignored. POLITICAL FRAMEWORK OF WAR EFFORT BEING IGNORED In light of this most recent exhibition, I have no hope or confidence whatever that the conventional war we are now undertaking in Vietam under the same men who failed to win a guerrilla war, will have any more favorable result. For another element in the so-called briefings of the administration is a total vacuity on the political surroundings of the struggle itself. It has been the ignorance of the poli- tics of war that has brought us into this situation. But the same ignorance con- tinues at the highest levels, and one need only report that no mention was made Of the collapse of Malaysia at the White House briefings until the question was raised by a Senator. To the administration, the war in Vietnam is a matter of military tactics. That is the sad but plain truth. We have based our policy there on nothing more than military tactics and we have been losing. We are continuing to base our policy there on military tactics and we are going to continue to lose. Look at the map of Asia, at the famous dominoes. If the dominoes are falling, they are all falling on top of the United States. The Malaysian federation is col- lapsing. The American effort to hold up Vietnam as a bulwark against Commu- nist expansion has been completely out- flanked. All that were left of the domi- noes on the Asian continent were Thai- land, South Vietnam, and Malaysia. Now, it appears to be only a matter of weeks before the only ones will be Thai- land and South Vietnam. Press reports today indicate not only that Singapore expects to establish trade Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19108 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 and diplomatic relations with Indonesia and China, but that other noncontiguous areas of Malaysia may very likely break away also. The disposition of the large British military installations in.Singa- pore is in total abeyance, and there is already talk that Britain may abandon those installations and reestablish its de- fenses on Australia. The implications of the dissolution of Malaysia brings into question the entire purpose of the American war in Vietnam. The ramifications are truly far reaching. Malaysia is still held up as a model of how guerrilla war can be fought and won. I have no quarrel with the model. But it is obviously no model for how a victory over guerrillas can be consoli- dated. It leaves totally unsolved the question of how a Western nation-be it Britain or the United States-can ar- range to leave behind it an Asian politi- cal organization of its own choosing. I do not suppose that the Malay penin- sula itself will again become the battle- grouhd of a Communist insurgency. I pray it- will not. But the failure of the various ethnic and widely scattered states to make a go of nationhood is not simply a victory for China or Indonesia, but a total defeat for the Western con- cept that governments of Asians can be controlled and manipulated to serve Western purposes. Malaysia was an artificial state, cre- ated by Britain to serve British interests. In that respect, it was the Jordan of the Far East. Now, its wealthiest element is gone, and the racial balance that held the country together this long is de- stroyed. Indonesia, which is totally anti-West and pro-Chinese, has scored an undeniable political victory. Anyone who thinks that Sukarno is not going to be vastly more influential in Asian af- fairs as a result of these events is whis- tling past the graveyard. And anyone who thinks that the war in Vietnam is unaffected by these events, not to men- tion.the events that may yet flow from them, is deluding himself. Yet all this caused not an eyebrow to be raised down at the State Department. The Secretary of State did not even see fit to mention it in his turn at the brief- ing yesterday. When asked about it, he dismissed the whole affair as relatively insignificant. Obviously, the State De- partment, too, sees the war in Vietnam as one of military tactics. Its virtual resignation from its duties is a major reason why no large nation anywhere in the world has joined us in Vietnam. The Secretary of State is gratified that Thai- land and the Ivory Coast are expressing verbal support for us. He Is delighted that 36 flags are "with us" in Vietnam, although he neglects to mention that they do not fly over much more than 36 flagpoles. Mr. President, he talks about some contribution from Australia. But, by and large, when the State Department talks about 36 flags flying in South Viet- nam, the manpower those flags repre- sent is insignificant. I find no sense of feeling that we are getting any allied support by way of token support. Let the American people also recog- nize that a vast propaganda drive has been directed toward those nations by the Government of the United States. Let the American people understand that the Government of the United States has been putting great pressure upon government after government to give us at least some symbolic support in South Vietnam so that the Secretary of State can make the statement that we have so many flags there, that now there are 36 and it may very well go up to a larger number. But, the test so far as the mothers and fathers of America are concerned, and so far as the boys of America who are dying in South Viet- nam are concerned, is how much man- power, muscle, and blood those flag poles represent in South Vietnam. I am not going to be hoodwinked by State Department and Defense Depart- ment propaganda. Nor am I ever going to be silenced as a result of the deception of the State Department and the De- fense Department in regard to their propaganda, short of a declaration of war. Only when that war is made consti- tutional and the President and the Con- gress live up to their constitutional obli- gations by putting before the American people the issue as to whether or not we shall go to war, by way of a declaration of war, and such declaration is passed by Congress, will the lips of the senior Sen- ator from Oregon ever be silenced in the continual plea for peaceful approaches to this threat of a third world war. We are making history. I want my country to write a different chapter of history than it is writing now in respect to its absolutely inexcusable and illegal course of action in Asia. We stand not only in violation of the Constitution of the United States, but, In open violation of the Charter of the United Nations. One must ask the administration, Where are India, Pakistan, Japan, and Indonesia? These are the five great non-Commu- nist powers that will dominate Asia for decades and . decades to come. They oppose U.S. intervention in Asian affairs, and I include Japan because her people oppose it. I would have the American people remember my warning again to- day that if we continue this policy, no matter how many decades it takes for them to drive us out of Asia, they will eventually drive us out of Asia. We shall finally end reaching the negotiated' settlement that we ought to seek to reach now without the sacrificing of thousands of Americans whom we are on the way to sacrifice in the months ahead, unless the American people say to this admin- istration, "Halt your war in southeast Asia." Only the American people are the re- maining power that can stop this tramp, tramp, tramp to world war III, being led primarily by the United States. So where are India, Pakistan, Japan, and Indonesia? There is not a mention of them from the Secretary of State, though they are the great powers of Asia. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands-where are they? No men- tion of them either, although they are the great powers of Western Europe. Not even a mention of Great Britain, although she is the only significant coun- try in the world that is actively support- ing our activities in Vietnam, and now her support, too, is drawn deeply into question. We reached the stage yesterday where the Secretary of State drew encourage- ment from the fact that Burma and Cambodia were not opposing us as bit- terly at the moment as they have in the past. That is the most than can be said for the state of our relations among af- fected nations on the question of Viet- nam. ROLE OF UNTIED NATIONS The most depressing aspect of the ad- ministration's position is its continued failure to lay the Vietnam war before the United Nations. Some lipservice was given to our obligation to the Organi- zation in recent weeks by the exchange of letters via Ambassador Goldberg. But they have been nothing but a buck- passing. They have sought to pass the buck to the Secretary General, U Thant. In his capacity as Secretary General, U Thant has consistently reflected the position of his own country of Burma. He wants to be left alone in his neutral- ism. Like Burma, and like so many other new nations of Asia and Africa, Thant gives me the impression of having no capacity at all for dealing with the is- sues among the great powers. To him, the issues for the U.N. are those affect- ing emerging nations, particularly their economic and cultural development. But problems of war and peace are too much for him, because the real threats to world peace are the conflicts among- the United States and Russia or the United States and China. Burma is a small country; like Cam- bodia and many of its other neighbors, it senses that it must accommodate to the prevailing presence of a large and powerful nation. It does not want to be torn apart, like Vietnam has been torn apart, by becoming a battleground for American and Chinese interests,and con- flicts. U Thant reflects his country's position exactly. He appears to be afraid of great power issues, as are so many of the new nations and their representa- tives at the United Nations. To them, the U.N. is a place to come to condemn all Western countries, Communist and non-Communist alike, for the paucity of their economic aid. But it is not an organization to keep peace. That, in their view, must be done by the great powers. If we take any question to the United Nations which might lead to giving more and more American money to more and more small nations, we get an enthusias- tic response. However, when we take to the United Nations the issue of peace, involving the threat to peace which exists because of the conflict that has developed among the great powers of the world, the small nations want to be left alone. We cannot justify leaving any member of the United Nations alone, In respect Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 19109 to its clear treaty obligations to follow it by the means . Indicated in that article, game of musical chairs over the ques- a course of action through procedures they shall refer it to the Security Council. tion of who has the first responsibility. of the United Nations that will help There is nothing permissive about They all have a responsibility which create and enforce peace. that language; it is mandatory language. they are failing to live up to. This is why I have been heard to say Their before that the only The United States has failed to carry failure must be the despair of mankind. advantage to the out the mandate of article 37 of the But as a U.S. Senator, I have no con- great powers of the U.N. is its peace. charter, and therefore stands in viola- trol or authority over the actions of the keeping function. If it fails this mission, tion of it. Secretary General or the other members then the U.N. has little value for the We are constantly being told that we of the Security Council. I do have a United States, or for the Soviet Union, are not the only violator. Of course not voice, however small, in the Government or Western Europe, either. The Communists violate it, too. But of the United States, and I shall continue It is traditional to have a Secretary that is some company to be keeping. raising it to demand that the United General from a relatively neutral coun- Mr. President, it does not make any States not proceed further into this try. But the Secretaries General from difference, so far as our legal obligations Asian war in disregard and in disobedi- Norway and Sweden were not afraid to are concerned, how many other nations ence to the solemn treaty which we tackle the big issues. They may have are also violators. We profess to stand signed in 1945. felt themselves above the battle in terms for an order of law. We ought to prac- I am not interested in the feeble ex- of their personal views, but they never tice our professings. felt above the great power bin cuses offered by this administration, felt o he the great of girt battles ttle organiza- in So I say all the letters to U Thant ask- which are no more than the feeble ex- tiont of function ing him to help us bring North Vietnam cuses for the past 2 years that U Thant So we heard it said at the White House to the negotiating table will not fulfill has not come up with any ideas. that the Undid States had asked the that American obligation under article U Thant is not the idea man of the U.S. tha t and U Thant to make any asked the 37. Government. We are supposed to have U N. they could to to o make settlement c tr the Today's New York Times reports: people in our own Government with s won, and they had come with of t The search for a Vietnam peace formula ideas, and I hope we have one or two g? undertaken by six Security Council mem- left somewhere who still have the idea I do not know why they think U Thant bers has reached a standstill, diplomatic that the United States ought to live up would come up with anything, anyway. sources said tonight. to its U.N. Charter obligations. He never has exercised any capacity for dealing with issues that have threatened The story indicates that the six non- nOs must are told that delicate private world peach I think that prefers not to permanent members of the Security oes must be members of the Security have tUhe exercise any Council were divided on whether Viet- basis among members some thSecurity hive the e United function at all. nam should be made the subject of de- Council to work out some course of ac- That es ping function at many new na- bate. ton that can produce progress. Well, bons. They the pos Chino and many new and The six nations are Jordan, Malaysia, that been ormal procedure. But why have differ- , and Netherlands, Ivory Coast, Bolivia, and we beefighting a war for 4 years, and the Unthe States h na settle their a theca between toes to sett and leave the Uruguay. only now saying that some ry delica befo tie we new nations out of it. The New York Times story continues: nations would be necessary before we to the What will befall all these bystanders if Privately, some diplomats have expressed It could is go obvious us hat e Russia and China and the United States irritation that the United States has placed made any decision that even now United not fail to settle their differences peacefully- tion. Tri y complainin th ti withouteasking jurisdiction, because sif we eek Undid Nations as we have failed in Vietnam-is some- for a debate, the United States has seemed engaged in such negotiations g ti had, ourselves thing they prefer not to think about. to be expecting some action from the Coun- and would not be leaving the matter up They prefer not to consider what will cu and they do not see what the Council to U Thant and to the six nonpermanent happen to Burma and Cambodia if the usefully can do at the moment. war in Vietnam continues to escalate, members of the oat the ity Council. Seour bli If we and results in a massive war between the can uefully do t the moment is to full under intending e we our obligations United States and China or between the fill its obligations under the United Na- engaged undthe charter, we withlother mem- United States -on one side, and China tions Charter to take under considera- hers bens the negotiating and Russia on the other. of f t the Security Council on taking up But whatever the inadequacies of the tion threats to there for. Inefapeace. ct That is what shall in the the Vietnam problem and working out Secretary General to deal with the main some possible action for the Council to world it is there for. take. purpose of the United Nations, the i should like to say to those members United States has no out in leaving the of the Security Council, the nonperma- istratio have My oneh is, What bout our cle 37? matter up to him. We are a party to nent as ve to say about article 37? the dispute in Vietnam, and as such we "Each and every one of you has the clear a How o 1 y thattis?everybibe to llow t aslmuch in v o- have clear and definite obligations under legal obligation to raise the matter be- a tilic the U.N. Charter to lay such a dispute fore the Security Council. The fact that Union lation in the gas y?erIndeed, the record before the Security Council. U Thant Is Hun not a you have not, or, if it is true as the New in Vietnam in Vietnam shows that we are making party to the dispute; other U.N. York Times story seems to indicate, you war with as much disregard for the members are not parties to the dispute. are not anxious t, my country, as a bel- United Nations as are the Vietcong and But we are. And as such, article 37 ap- ligerent, under article XXXVII has a North Vietnam. plies directly to us. How many times in clear duty to raise it." the last 2 years have I read this article We have walked out on that obliga- ator When was majority fromeT as, now P esident- of the and other articles of the charter to the tion. Senate? How many times during the The Security Council has no other to nli States, was for etdanything come to ae vote until lhe last 2 years have I pointed out that, after function, I say, under the United Nations had worked out some compromise that he all, the procedure for laying this threat Charter. If it is unwilling or afraid knew would guarantee success. We hear to the peace of the world before the Secu- even to debate the greatest threat to that policy applied now to the Security rity Council is a very simple procedure. peace which exists in the world today, Council, and the public is told by the All the President needs to do is to in- then I suggest that it disband and that Secretary of State that it would be em- struct his Ambassador to send a letter its members go home and stop pretend- barrassing to the United States to have to the current President of the Security ing to be representatives of the United an acrimonious debate at the Security Council, asking for a meeting to consider Nations. the threat to the peace in Vietnam. It is Council and a veto of a proposed course that simple. We do not even have to The Security Council, the Secretary of action. propose a solution, or a particular U.N. lea are trying the to outdo each States other In the tration embarrassed tat being an action. Passing of the buck. Among them, they outlaw nation under the charter. It can Listen again to article 37. It states: are signing the death warrant of the only mean that we are less embarrassed Should the parties to a dispute of the United Nations. It already has little at embarking on war in violation of our nature referred to in article 33 fail to settle enough international respect without this treaty commitment to the U.N. than we Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19110 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 would be at having a U.N. peace move turned down. This is nothing but doubletalk. It is pure doubletalk to say that we cannot go to the U.N. until everything is worked out in advance. We are not even trying to work anything out. We have only asked U Thant and other members for some ideas. Z The United Nations is not the U.S. Senate; and a conflagration in Asia is not a piece of proposed legislation in the American Congress. Surely even the former majority leader would not be em- barrassed to be vetoed in the United Na- tions on a sincere peace proposal. -I know the sottd voce argument that is being made. It is that relations with the Soviet Union are at stake, and if we press anything at the U.N. without prior Soviet approval, we will only exacerbate other pending issues with Russia, such as disarmament. In my judgment, that is a complete non sequitur. I find it hard to under- stand the argument that we must not do anything to put Russia on the spot. :[ am for putting Russia on the spot. For 2 years, I have urged putting Russia on the spot. I have urged my Government to take this issue to Russia in the Security Council-and to France, too. No one knows what the position of France would be in the Security Council. We should find out which nation, if any, in the Security Council is not willing to ob- serve the peacekeeping obligations of the charter. I do not buy the argument that that would make It difficult for Rus- sia in regard to her relations with China. It is important that we make clear to Russia that we think Russia and the United States should each and both as- sume their obligations under the United Nations. That is a good lesson for China also. No, Mr. President, I have never bought the argument of the Department of State that we must not proceed be- cause it would mean in effect that being a law-abiding nation and keeping our obligations might make it difficult for poor Russia. Such an argument would be almost humorous if it were not such a tragedy. It would be almost humorous If it were not for the fact our failure to prosecute to themaximum extent possible our ob- ligation under the procedures of the United Nations involves the killing of American boys. I find myself aghast at the statements of spokesmen for this administration that we have got to continue as we are for the time being. For that "time being" and for that period, I say that many American boys are going to die- and not only American boys, but thou- sands of other human beings. I am aghast that so many persons seem to think that because political ideology of a group of human beings is not liked, it is all right with God to kill them. Every human being is a creature of God, and every human being is a child of God. I cannot reconcile this philos- ophy of this administration, at least with the religious teachings on which I was nurtured In the development of my spir- itual beliefs. I believe we have a clear moral and spiritual obligation to follow our obli- gations under the charter to which our country has affixed its signature; that we ought at least to exhaust all the pro- cedures available to us in an endeavor to reach peace through the application of the procedures of international law be- fore we accelerate a war which will lead to the killing of increasing numbers of human beings on each side of that war, undeclared and illegal, in the months ahead, while apparently we wait for U Thant to come up with an idea that would lead us to peace. In my judgment, we shall wait a long time, and the blood will flow in streams, before we get a solution through the present policies of the United States in the United Nations. Our relations with the Soviet Union are already poisoned by the war in Vietnam. The Soviets have already put into the deep freeze almost every sub- ject under discussion between our coun- tries. They are using the disarmament discussions as a forum to attack us for our war in Vietnam. Each escalation of the war In Vietnam will see a further deterioration In our relations with the Soviet Union. The more we put into the war against North Vietnam, the more the Soviet Union is obliged to come to their aid. Keeping the war out of the U.N. so that we can fight it unencumbered by opinions that might be expressed there is only another case of ignoring the political surround- ings of the whole issue in southeast Asia. If the war continues on its present course, and the escalations by the United States are matched by North Vietnam, and ultimately by China, we shall not have anything more to worry about in our relations with the Soviet Union because she will be a belligerent on the other side. So I am astonished, and I fear much of the world is astonished, to hear the Secretary of State say that for an Amer- ican-sponsored peace proposal to be vetoed at the U.N. would be embarrass- ing to the United States. Apparently, to the State Department It is another case of saving face. But the face of peace does not need saving. To make a bona fide peace proposal to the Secu- rity Council, whether it is vetoed or not, will save a lot more face for the United States than more war in violation of the U.N. Charter will save. CONGRESS MUST REMAIN IN SESSION I restate to the American people today that they must make clear to the Mem- bers of Congress that it is their job to stay on the job until January 1, when the 2d session of the 89th Congress will convene. The administration is presenting us with sophistries and excuses for the prosecution of the war. The only conclusion that can be drawn from the briefing given Congress yes- terday is, that the war will continue as before for some time. The President has already counted the days that Congress will be out of Washington, assuming it leaves on Labor Day. He is willing that the war be prosecuted at existing levels during that time, while we give U Thant a chance to persuade North Vietnam to negotiate. We do not plan to make the job any easier by halting the bombing or by eas- ing our own war effort. But we would give U Thant 116 days to make a peace in Vietnam. After that, when Congress returns in January, I am satisfied that the Ameri- can war in Asia will be put Into high gear. That is the warning that I issue to the American people today. I urge the American people to make perfectly clear to Members of Congress that they should remain in session all this fall to carry out their constitutional obligation to be available at all times to exercise constitutional checks upon the President, the State Department, and the Department of Defense in connection with the prosecution of the war in Vietnam. I am not asking for any sacrifices from Members of Congress. They are all well paid. I do not know of any of us who is underpaid. We ought to earn our money. We will not be earning our money in days of great national emergency when we are outside Washington. The major business of the Government, as far as the vital interest of the people of this country is concerned, happens to be the war In southeast Asia. My advice to Members of the Congress Is that they will find, if they adjourn sine die on Labor Day, or shortly there- after, large numbers of their constituents will want to know why they are back home and why they are not in Washing- ton attending to the business of Congress in connection with its responsibility to maintain its congressional checks 'under our form of government, in days of emergency, upon the executive branch of the Government. I am satisfied that if we follow a pro- gram of adjourning sine die on Septem- ber 1, and coming back 116 days later, that then the national emergency will be declared. Reservists and Guardsmen will be called up and all the statutory powers that come into play upon the calling of a national emergency will be exercised. The United States will be placed on a war footing that will be en- tirely comparable to that which existed during the Korean war. I base that judgment and opinion on the fact that, unless we remain in ses- sion and do what we can to check the escalation of that war, preparation for the escalation will go on. As the prepa- rations continue, we are more and more endangered of returning in January only to be faced with an accomplished fact. I also predict that all of this will take place without the United States ever once laying the war before the United Nations in accordance with the United Nations Charter. After that, there will be no turning back, and there will be no effort to seek United Nations or other third party ne- gotiation. After that, it will be a war to the end, but to the end of what, the White House briefing does not yet say. Under the best possible circumstances, the use of a million or so U.S. troops could suppress the Vietcong. That as- sumes that North Vietnam does no more Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE. 19111 than she is doing now to help them, and Council, for its jurisdiction, the threat supporting material for some of the ob- it assumes that neither China nor Russia to the peace in Asia and the world which servations in my speech. steps up their aid to the Vietcong. has been created by the warmaking that I also ask unanimous consent that These are assumptions that are a mil- is going on in Vietnam. We should make there be printed in the RECORD state- lion-to-one shot. I do not believe for a clear in that letter that we will coop- ments and the program of the Assembly minute that North Vietnam, China, or erate with the Security Council in car- of Unrepresented People that met in Russia will limit their, aid to the Viet- rying out whatever peacekeeping policies Washington to protest the war in Viet- cong to current levels when we increase are agreed upon by the Council for bring-, nam. our participation. ing an end to the war and substituting There being no objection, the articles I warn the American people that they the force necessary, on a multilateral and statement were ordered to be printed and their Con re b i d g ss are e ng prepare basis, to keep the peace. in the RECORD, as follows: for an all-out war in Asia. That is what mhngA f-- ,.,I? ,,,,,,,,?? ..? +w,. ,,,..... ---- _ _ _ _ _ "a" 1_1U-T AT A STANDSTILL-SIX in achieving negotiations before the end making forces. Tney will be peacekeep- COUNCIL MEMBERS SPLIT ON FULL DEBATE of this year. We are being prepared for ing forces. True, they will fight if fired OF VIETNAM the sending of hundreds of thousands of upon, just as similar United Nations (By Kathleen Teltsch) our forces into southeast Asia, where peacekeeping forces in the Gaza strip UNITED NATIONS, N.Y., August 9.-The they will die like flies unless China and have functioned for years and prevented, search for a Vietnam peace formula under- North Vietnam and Russia do us the in the Middle East, an outbreak of a taken by six Security Council members has favor of staying out of a war that is major war; just as the'United Nations reached a standstill, diplomatic sources said being fought on their doorstep. forces now on Cyprus are functioning to tonight. Even if they do stay out, what are keep the peace. They are not there to - Private negotiations will go on, these was that rep the prospects for the future? What are make war. However, they will respond the rs x were split onrwhether lit on heth ethe chances that South Vietnam can ever if fired upon. issue should be aired at an open, formal maintain itself as an independent na- The same procedure was followed by meeting of the Council._ tion? The example of Malaysia darkens the United Nations peacekeeping force The six-Jordan, Malaysia, the Nether- what was already a very dim outlook. in the Congo when the United Nations lands, Ivory Coast, Bolivia, and Uruguay- Malaysia was an artificial creation, just moved into the Congo. began their private talks in response to a as South Vietnam is an artificial crea- letter July 30 from Arthur J. Goldberg, the tion. I do not believe that the United We have other examples, but of a U.S. delegate. This letter did not ask for a States will do any better with its handi- lesser degree, in which the Security Council session but appealed to members to work than Britain has done. Council has intervened to keep the peace help find an acceptable solution and was tanl Britain done. . faced with when there was a growing threat of taken up by. some states as compelling them Event breach of the peace. the respond. the necessity of drawing our military The Soviet Union is known to have been outposts back out of the Asian mainland This is the course of action I plead sounded out by at least one of the six over to areas where our way of life not only that my Nation follow. This is the course the weekend, but a delegation source would is better understood and received than of action which is the treaty obligation say only that the Soviet attitude was not very it is on the mainland of Asia, but also of my Nation. It is this course of action encouraging. where it is. politically and militarily more that my Nation has defied ever since it in considering a U.N. debate, at least some defensible. has been making war in Asia, seeking members expressed reluctance to see the to alibi its action on the ground that the Council summoned because it would precipi- The United Nations could help us to tote a Soviet-American clash. Others rs have do that. But the Strategic Air Command Communist nations, too, are making war. insisted that they have a commitment to and a million American marines will That fact does not change the fact that fulfill and should seek a meeting, regardless never help us remain on the Asian main- we are a member of the U.N. and an open of this possibility. land. They will only swell the number violator of its charter. IRRITATION EXPRESSED of Asians who will fight to the death to So I say most respectfully to my Presi- Privately, some diplomats have expressed drive us out. dent, for whom I have great admiration irritation that the United States has placed The American people had better start personally, and with whom I find myself the Council members in an impossible posi- warning Congress to remain in session in agreement on most issues, but com- tion. They complain that, without asking this fall. They had better begin to com- pletely in disagreement with respect to for a debate, the United States has seemed municate to their representatives in Con- this aspect of our foreign policy, "Change to be expecting some action from the Council can gress whether Coun- your instructions to Ambassador Gold- oil and they not see what the. Co they contemplate a costly, usefully do y do at t the moment. long-term Asian war in their future and berg." Stop making him a letter carrier. Disputing this view, a U.S. spokesman has in the future of their children. Send him back to the United Nations indicated that the intention was to put the The administration has served warn- with a resolution to be submitted in be- matter "in the lap of the Council," not with ing on Congress that it is eager to see it half of the Republic of the United States the idea that it would act at once but that leave town so that the war can proceed and its people to the United Nations, it would gear itself for future needs. and the halfhearted efforts to encour- asking the United Nations, through the As an alternative to a formal debate with its age someone else to find a negotiated Security Council, to formally take juris- the six ix Council eof members hope pe for for wrangling, psome rivate re- private e- settlement can remain undisturbed in diction over the threat to world peace gotiations either by Secretary General Thant their present rut until January, in southeast Asia, and carry out its ob- or by outside mediation efforts. However, The administration desires to be free ligations to maintain peace in this area a diplomatic source said Mr. Thant had of criticism during that period so that of the world, where a war is going on indicated that he saw no immediate pros- when Congress returns in January, the that may very well develop into a nuclear pect of following up the initiatives he has administration can say that all peace ef- war that will endanger the survival of made in the past, which have been rejected by one side or the other, forts have failed and there is nothing to most Of mankind. do but to make a real war out of it. That Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- [From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] is the prospect. Only the American peo- sent that there be printed in the RECORD UNITED STATES DENIES IT REJECTED BID ple can change the course of the war in at this point an article from this morn- WASHINGTON, August 9.-The State Depart- Asia. The time remaining for changing ing's New York Times entitled "U.N. ment denied today that the Johnson admin- the course of the war is fast running out. Peace Hunt at a Standstill," written by istration rejected last fall a proposal by Mr. President, I close by making the Kathleen Teltsch; another article from North Vietnam for peace talks aimed at end- same suggestion that I have made over this morning's New York Times entitled ing the Vietnam war. and over again for 2 years. The United "Singapore Plans To Seek Accords With "We are not aware of any initiative that States, through its Ambassador, should Communists," by Seymour Topping; and could have been described as a bid for peace send a letter to the Security Council of another article from this morning's New talks," said the State Department press offi- cer, nceRobert J. McCloskey, at a news confer- the United Nations in accordance with York Times entitled "Britain Assesses e the procedures of the charter itself, Singapore's Move-Review of Defense nc. YorkHead which we signed, in which we should ask Accord With Malaysia Indicated." These article published h been asked for com on published by the New ew York Herald that there be laid before the Security are articles that I cite as background Tribune Sunday that said such a Communist Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19112 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 10, 1965 peace overture was made through a non- The Malaysian police in Singapore, now last night. Prime Minister Rahman said Communist Asian diplomat and was rejected transferred to the control of Prime Minister some of his own Cabinet members did not by the administration. Lee, reinforced patrols tonight in Geylang know about the move until today. Mr. McCloskey was then asked about re- and other sensitive areas of the city where Prime Minister Rahman said the decision ported Communist approaches through See- rioting last year between Malays and Chinese was made by a small group of Government retary General Thant and through Adlai E. resulted in the killing and wounding of leaders Friday night, a day ofter he returned Stevenson, the late U.S. delegate to the hundreds. No serious incidents were re- from 2 months abroad. On Saturday, Prime United Nations. ported. Minister Lee was summoned to Kuala Lum- "There had been reports of feelers and Singapore's population is 75 percent pur. An agreement on separation was signed soundings," Mr. McCloskey said. "We have Chinese and 12 percent Malay, Indians, that night. had contacts through third parties, but were Pakistanis and Ceylonese, who make up RELATIONS HAD DETERIORATED not satisfied we had ever received a bid for about 10 percent, and the rest, mostly Eu- Prime Minister Rahman told Parliament peace talks." rasians, have not been directly in com- that relations between Kuala Lumpur and munal tensions. Singapore had become so bad that he had From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] Prime Minister Lee appealed tonight to had only two courses of action open. One SINGAPORE PLANS To SEEK ACCORDS WITH COM- the Malay population to remain calm. to take "repressive measures" against the MUNISTS-BUT NEW INDEPENDENT STATE "We shall be united regardless of race, leaders of the Singapore government. The WILL CONTINUE COOPERATION WITH BRITAIN religion, or culture," he said. "We are going other was to amend the constitution and drop IN DEFENSE-INDONESIAN TIE WEIGHED- to have a multiracial nation. We shall set Singapore from the federation. SECESSION FROM FEDERATION LAID TO TEN- the example." "I believe the second course of action is SION BETWEEN CHINESE AND MALAYS Under the Independence of Singapore the right one, sad as it may be," he said. "We (By Seymour Topping) Agreement, reached between the Govern- had pledged to form Malaysia with Singa- SINGAPORE, August 9.-Prime Minister hoe ment at Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, there will be close cooperation in matters pore. But having given it a trial, we found today that newly inde- that if we persisted in going on with it there Kuan Yew declared y of commerce and defense between the two would be more trouble to Malaysia than what pendent Singapore would cooperate with .states. However, passports soon will be re- Britain in defense matters, but would seek quired to pass over the causeway that links Singapore is worth to us." new understandings with Communist coun- the island of Singapore with Malaya. CHALLENGES DY KUALA LUMPUR tries and with Indonesia. Singapore is obligated under the agree- In recent months the People's Action Party, The Prime Minister said Singapore wanted ment to continue to afioed to the British led by Prime Minister Lee and centered in trade ties with all Communist countries, Government bases on the 217-square-mile Singapore, had been challenging the multi- would accept a trade mission from the Soviet island "for the purposes of assisting in the racial Central Government on many issues. Union and was ready to reestablish consular defense of Singapore and Malaysia and for Mr. Lee had become the principal spokesman relations with Indonesia. He made these Commonwealth defense and for the preser- for the scattered small parties making up the arrangements conditional on respect for nation of peace in southeast Asia." opposition. Singapore's sovereignty. The British maintain their Far East mili- The disagreements had an undertone of The 43-year-old Prime Minister, who is of tary headquarters in Singapore under the " racial discord between the Malays and the Chinese parentage, his policy state- command of Air Chief Marshal Sir John ethnic Chinese. ment during a tearful explanation of the Grandy. They also operate the Changi Air In a speech following Prince Rahman's, weekend events that resulted in the surprise Base and the Singapore Naval Base. Tan Slew Sin, an ethnic Chinese who serves withdrawal of Singapore from the Fedora- as Minister of Finance, said: t16n of Malaysia at 12:01 am. today and its MOVE SURPRISED AMERICANS establishment as an independent nation. The secession announcement made in "A Chinese-Malaya clash in Malaysia, with the two races roughly equal in numbers dnd RELATIONS STRAINED Singapore and Kuala Lumpur shortly after in many places inextricably mixed, would The secession has put a severe strain on 10 o'clock this morning, produced stunned have been the kind of holocaust beside which between the three remaining mem- reactions throughout Malaysia. British ofd- relations racial riots in other countries would be a hers of the Federation of Malaysia, which vials had only a few hours' notice and Amer- mere p nn ." was founded September 16, 1963, under the ican officials were caught completely by Singapore and Kuala Lumpur agreed to aegis of the British Commonwealth. surprise. continue cooperation in economic affairs "for The remaining members are Malaya and In Kuching, the Sarawak Government an- their mutual benefit." They also agreed to pounced after an emergency cabinet meet-establish *a, ioint defense council. wak and Sabah f S . ara the Borneo States o Indonesia, In a militant "crush Malaysia" ting that Singapore's secession would "not policy has sought to detach the Borneo in any way affect our policy and position States, which are defended by more than within Malaysia." The Sabah Government 7,000 Commonwealth troops, from the Malay- reserved comment until the return of Peter dominated federation government in Kuala Lo, the. Chief Minister, from Kuala Lumpur. Political observers were dubious that the Lumpur. federation would survive the shock of Singa- an oaked voice, news conference r pore's withdrawal. Apart from the pressures Le asserted ed that the Malay , GoPrime vernment ment Minister had exerted by Indonesia through the threat of Lee es the guerrilla raids, Singapore's secession upset 2 milillion the secession , his island state the political balance that pulled the federa- He people, predominantly Chinese. . tion through past crises. With the two mil- leader derd who that Prince Abdul Rahman, the Bela lion Singaporeans out, the Malays have tion la Prime , had Minister to the that com- become heavily preponderant over the indig- Malaysia inig hindicated that come enous peoples of the Borneo States. munal strife might explode between Chinese One of the aims of the Malay leaders in and Malays if Singapore insisted on remain.- forcing Singapore out had been to overtake ing in the federation. the Chinese, who had gained a slight edge In Kuala Lumpur, Prime Minister Rahman in numbers in the total Malaysian popula- said he had found it impossible in secret talks tion of about 10 million. Saturday and yesterday to reach agreement with Prime Minister Lee. [From the New York (N.Y.) Times, Aug. 10, "obviously," he said, "the present setup 1965] could not go on." BARMAN CITES TENSIONS The Prince has been under strong presure from ultra-nationalist Malay leaders of his (By Seth S. King) Alliance party to take militant action to block KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA, August 9.- efforts of Mr. Lee to expand his political in- Prince Abdul Rahman told a stunned House fluence from Singapore into the rest of the of Representatives today that Singapore was federation. being "separated" from the Federation of The ultranationalists have interpreted Mr. Malaysia because it was impossible to go on Lee's activities as a challenge by the Chinese working with the ethnic Chinese leaders of residents to Malay political paramountcy. the island state. COMMUNAL VIOLENCE rEAREn Both houses of the Malaysian Parliament Prince Rahman, who has sought to mod- voted later, without opposition, to reject crate the quarrel, noted in a speech this Singapore and recognize her as an independ- before the Malaysian Parliament ent country. i ng morn that irresponsible people, "unfortunately The move came as a complete surprise. from both sides," had been making utter- Even the British upon whom Malaysia is al- ances that might cause a communal holo- most totally dependent for protection against caust. Indonesia, were not told of the plan until Singapore will now be free to conduct her own foreign affairs. At a news conference Prince Rahman said Malaysia would sponsor Singapore's application for membership in the United Nations and the British Common- wealth. At present, Singapore is economically self- sufficient. But her promising industrial growth has been based on the prospect of a Malaysian common market in which Singa- pore's goods would be sold without duty in the three other states. Singapore Is also totally dependent on reservoirs in Malaya for her water supply. One clause of the separation agreement stipulates that neither Singapore nor Kuala Lumpur will sign treaties or other agreements affecting both without the agreement of the other state. This, in theory, would prevent Singapore from unilaterally making peace with Indo- nesia or signing a treaty with Communist China. But Mr. Lee faces a Peiping-oriented op- position that could, now that the Malaysian plan has been overturned., seriously threaten the People's Action Party's control of the Government. [From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] BRITAIN ASSESSES SINGAPORE'S MOVE-REVIEW OF DEFENSE ACCORD WITH MALAYSIA INDI- CATED LONDON, August 9.-Singapore's decision to leave the Malaysian federation thrust a wide range of problems at Britain today. It called into question Britain's defense agreement with Malaysia, British policy in the area and Singapore's relationship with Britain as a member of the Commonwealth. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 . Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Although many of the members of the government were on holiday when the news came, the Commonwealth Relations Office said it had been informed of Singapore's deci- sion in advance, [Radhakrishna Ramafii, the Malaysian representative at the United Nations, was stunned when he heard a radio report of Singapore's secession, Later, at his office, he found a cablegram from his government in- structing him to advise the Secretary General, U Thant, of the move.] WILSON ON VACATION There was no indication that Prime Min- ister Wilson, on holiday in the islands off Britain, was planning to return to London. Arthur Bottomley, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, was in Accra, Ghana, and Michael Stewart, the Foreign Secretary, left for the Scilly Islands today. Despite the statement by the Common- wealth Relations Office, it was believed that any advance notice had come only hours be- fore the announcement from Singapore. DEFENSE PACT TO BE STUDIED The office said Britain's defense agreement with Malaysia "and possibly other aspects of our relations may have to be reconsidered, but we cannot say anything definite or indi- cate what changes, if any, may be needed until the matter has been considered in detail." One of the "other aspects" of relations with Singapore, which has been associated with Britain since 1819, when it was ceded to the British East India Co. through the efforts of Sir Stamford Raffles, is whether Singapore will remain in the Commonwealth, of which Malaysia is a member. Observers here assumed that Singapore would want to remain. The big problem Is Britain's defense policy in Malaysia as it pertains to Indonesia, which contends Malaysia was set up by Britain as a device to encircle and eventually over- whelm her. Indonesia has sent `guerrillas into Malaysia and fierce clashes have ensued. British troops have helped Malaysia under the defense pact. Late tonight the Commonwealth Relations Office issued a statement announcing British recognition of Singapore as an independent state. Britain's interest in eventually shifting her strategic base in the Par East from Singapore to Australia was viewed here as having re- ceived strong new impetus from Singapore's secession. The British base is now an economic neces- sity'for Singapore, whose trade with Indone- sia has stopped. The secession agreement provides for the. continuation of the base. But observers believe that if Indonesia rec- ognizes Singapore's independence, as seems likely, trade will be resumed so that ulti- mately the base will not be so important to Singapore's economy. [From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] AUSTRALIANS DISMAYED SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, August 9.-News of Singapore's withdrawal from Malaysia was greeted with dismay today by Australians. It was feared that the break would weaken the capacity of both Singapore and Malaysia to resist Indonesian pressure and make more difficult Australia's commitment to assist them militarily and economically. Paul M. C. Hasluck, Minister for External Affairs, issued a statement in Canberra ex- pressing regret that the union "had not worked out" but voicing the hope that "there security and stability would remain sound." Australia has dispatched a battalion of troops and air force and naval units to help protect Malaysian territories from Indonesia and has also been providing economic aid. [From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] JAPANESE SURPRISED Toxyo, August 9.-Singapore's secession caused surprise and concern in the Foreign Ministry and in some business quarters here. Foreign Ministry sources said there seemed to be no legal problems involved in Japan's recognizing Singapore as an independent state. But they said Japan faced further difficulties in her efforts to mediate the dis- pute between Malaysia and Indonesia. The sources said Japan's business ventures in the region might feel major effects from the secession, depending on the future course of economic relations between Malaysia and Singapore. [From the New York Times, Aug. 10, 1965] UNITED STATES WEIGHS RECOGNITION WASHINGTON, August 9.-The State Depart- ment has under consideration recognition of Sinapore as an independent nation. U.S. officials privately expressed concern that the secession would weaken Malaysia's ,capacity to resist Indonesia incursions. This concern was heightened with the news that Singapore would follow a neutral policy and recognize both Indonesia and Communist China. ASSEMBLY OF UNREPRESENTED PEOPLE This assembly does not contain representa- tives. Nobody has been elected to it. It might be better called an assembly for un- represented people. We hope people who take part in work- shops will talk about the work they are do- ing or would like to do. We think there are a lot of people doing good work that other people do not know about. We hope the assembly will help these people find out about each other. We hope they will discuss concrete ways in which they can support each other. We hope that groups who al- ready have plans for the late summer and fall will circulate them so that other people can see how they can support them. We hope new programs will come from some of the workshops. HOUSING If you do not have housing tell a registrar. There will be a central registration table at the Sylvan Theater (indicated by X on the map) Saturday and Sunday. There will be a registrar at each workshop. At the registration desk a card with your host's name, address, and telephone number will be given you. Call your host and tell him when you are coming. Get directions to his house. The host is expected to give you a place to sleep. You must provide your own food. For those who can afford it, housing- is available at: Gauntt House, 1716 North Street NW., HU 3-9791, $2 per night. Cairo Hotel, 1615 Q Street NW., HO 2-2104, $6 per night (double). FRIDAY, AUGUST 6, SCHEDULE The 4-day Assembly of Unrepresented Peo- ple begins with a solemn, silent, unmoving vigil line in front of the White House in prayerful commemoration of the 20th anni- versary of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. At 11 a.m.: Assemble in front of White House (registration), Watch for wandering registrars with armbands. Noon: Silent prayer vigil in front of-White House, At 12:30: Mass meeting at the Federal Of- fice Building or In Lafayette Square across from White House. Speakers, (1) Joan Baez; (2) Rabbi Fein- stein; (3) Robert Parris; (4) A. J. Muste and others. SATURDAY, AUGUST 7, WASHINGTON MONUMENT At 9 to 11 a.m.: Assemble at Sylvan Theater (on the Monument Grounds) for folksing. (Registration will also be at this time. Reg- ister at information table by Sylvan Theater or with roving registrars.) (Refer to map X, not printed in the RECORD.) At 11 to 12: Lunch break (bag lunches will be sold in the area). At 12 to 6 p.m.: Workshops (number in- dicates location, see map). 1. The House Un-American Activities Com- mittee. 2. Washington, D.C.: Area problems. 3. Apartheid in South Africa. 4. 5. Dominican Republic. 6. Conscientious objection to war. 7. Religion and social action. 8. Puerto Rico. 9. 10. The congressional challenge and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. 11. Community organization, 12. Free university. 13. Free student union. 14. 15. At 8 to 10 p.m.: Possible regional meetings in area churches. WASHINGTON MONUMENT, SUNDAY, AUGUST S At 9 to 11: Folk-sing at Sylvan Theater on the monument grounds, At 11 to 12: Lunch break (lunches will be sold in area). At 12 to 5: Constituency workshops. (Let- ters designate areas on map.) A. Community people: (7) Union mem- bers; (8) unorganized labor; (9) community organizers; (-) Housewives (next to 9). B. Academic community: (1) College fac- ulty; (2) high school teachers; (6) grade school teachers. C. Student community: (3) High school students; (5) college and university students, D. Other: (10) Folk singers; (11) doctors; (12) lawyers; (13) labor organizers and labor people; (14) writers, artists; (15) peace workers and peace people. At 7 p.m.: Meeting of all participants with reports from all the workshops. The agenda for the assembly on August 9 will also be decided on at this meeting. Any action to be taken on Monday will be the decision of the assembly on Sunday night. Place of meeting will be announced Saturday morning. MONDAY, AUGUST 9 At 11 a.m.: Assemble at area to be desig- nated Sunday night. Declarations of peace will be read on this day. DECLARATION OF PEACE, AUGUST 9, 1965 Because for 20 years the people of Viet- nam have been tortured, burned, and killed; because their land and crops have been ruined and their culture has been destroyed; and because we refuse to have these things done in our name, we declare peace with the people of Vietnam. Because millions of Americans had hoped and expected that their votes in the 1964 presidential election would move our country away from war toward peace, and because these hopes and expectations have been be- trayed in Vietnam, we declare peace with the people of Vietnam. Because the Congress of the United States, without adequate discussion, has permitted the waging of an undeclared war, we sym- bolically assume its responsibility for this day in the name of those people of the United States and of -the world who oppose this war, and declare peace with the people of Vietnam. Because we believe that the steady escala- tion of the war in Vietnam threatens all people with nuclear death, we declare peace with the people of Vietnam. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RD.P67B00446R000300130016-8 19114 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Because we believe that people all over the world must find ways to make peace with each other and to keep their govern- ments from ever waging war, we declare peace with the people of Vietnam. We commit ourselves to a continuing effort to implement this declaration. of peace. You are invited to write a declaration of your own. In case of emergency, call: Washington Summer Action, 819 Independence Avenue SE., phone: 543--2203. Mr. MORSE. I yield the floor. THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT OF 1965 Mr. COOPER. Mr. President, the Ele- mentary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 will be administered under regu- lations issued by the Office of Education. I understand draft regulations have been circulated to State superintendents of schools and others, discussed at local meetings throughout the country, and that final regulations may soon be issued by the Secretary. I am deeply concerned that under these regulations a principal purpose of the act-to lift the quality of education in the neediest school districts, those hav- ing the largest proportion of children from low-income families-may not be met. I am worried that the funds pro- vided by the act may be diverted- from the first priority needs of these districts. Supplemental projects, however desira- ble, are not fundamental it seems to me, and in many of these neglected areas should follow and build upon improve- ments made in the regular, basic educa- tional program. I understand that representatives of the Office of Education have reiterated and emphasized that the act is not a general aid-to-education bill, is not a school construction bill, and is not a teacher salary bill. It is true that the formula in theact is directed to school attendance areas hav- ing large numbers of "educationally deprived children"-deflned as those from low-income families. For example, title I of the act contains in section 205 (a) the requirement that payments will be used for programs and projects "designed to meet the special educational needs of educationally deprived children In school attendance areas having high concentrations of children from low- income families." But section 205 (a) also requires that these programs and projects be of "suffi- cient size, scope, and quality to give reasonable promise of substantial prog- ress toward meeting those needs." In many districts, I believe that require- ment would comprehend a general im- provement in the regular school program. I can understand that in a compara- tively wealthy State such as New York or California--where the numbers of chil- dren from poor families in any school district may amount to 4, 5, or 6 percent, or even 12 or 14 percent, of those in the school district-the purposes of the act can best be accomplished by designing special projects for those children. But in States like Kentucky, West Vir- ginia, and many others, the first prior- ities are often school construction and teacher salaries. The committee's own tabulations, secured through the Office of Education, show county after county in such States having eligible children amounting to 35, 40, even 50 percent of the school-age population. I fail to see how any program can meet the needs of the children in many of these districts unless it can be directed to the general improvement of the whole school and its regular program-includ- ing classroom construction and better salaries for teachers, if those are the most pressing problems. The needs of these schools, with their large proportions of "educationally de- prived children" to use the terms of the act, surely can not be met simply by superimposing special-purpose projects, important as they are, on a foundation fundamentally weak in facilities or staff. I do not believe it was the intention of the Congress in enacting the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to insist that the neediest school districts in the Nation-those having one-room or old wooden buildings, the lowest paid teach- ers, and the largest numbers of children from poor families--use the Federal funds allocated to them by this act solely for the kind of special-purpose projects which can usefully supplement the cur- ricula of other school systems which have already met minimum - basic standards. I say this because page 9 of the Senate committee report, discussing the use of funds under the act, states: There may be circumstances where a whole school system is basically a low-Income area and the best approach in meeting the needs of educationally deprived children would be- And I emphasize- to upgrade the regular program. I am deeply concerned that this in- tention is being ignored by the Office of Education. I hope the Senate and House committees will consult with the Office of Education respecting the pro- posed regulations, to determine whether they will carry out this intention as ex- pressed in the committee report. For I think it would be unfortunate if in the neediest districts In the Nation-having the oldest, most overcrowded buildings and the most overburdened teachers- local officials were prohibited from using the assistance provided by the Congress to meet their most immediate problems first. I urge the Commissioner of Education to write into the regulations now under consideration specific provisions for any school attendance area in which 35 per- cent or more of the school-age chil- dren meet the criteria established by the act. Such provisions could insure that these schools will be encouraged to use the Federal assistance, as approved by the States, for the general improvement of their facilities and regular program-at least in those places where the school building or quality of instruction does not now meet minimum standards es- tablished by the State. It seems to me that a provision of this kind would help provide the sound and proper basis for any effort, to use the terms of the act, "of sufficient scope to give reasonable promise of substan- August 10, 1965 tial progress" toward meeting the needs of educationally deprived children in these areas. I hope that interested Senators, in- cluding the distinguished chairman of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Mr. MORSE, will examine this question, and consider whether the regulations formulated by the Office of Education have been directed solely to the supplemental needs of groups of "educationally deprived children" in well-established school districts, or whether they properly take into account the basic and fundamental needs of the neediest school districts having the high- est population of such children. HOUSTON SPACE MUSEUM- RESOLUTION Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, the phenomenal success and achieve- ments of this Nation in pioneering in the field of space exploration is well known to all of us. who have been fortunate enough to personally witness these ac- complishments. However, I have concern for the future generations of Americans who will know of these feats only through historical means and will not be able to personally view the achievements of this age of pioneering in space. For this reason I have supported and urged that a space museum be established to preserve the evidence of this marvelous age, and the citizens of Houston, Tex., share that same interest. Due to the proximity of the NASA Center to Hous- ton, and the major part which that city has played in our space efforts, I feel that the location of a space museum in that area would be an excellent action. To illustrate the interest which the cityof Houston has in establishing such a museum, I ask unanimous consent that a resolution which the city council has passed be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the resolu- tion was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION EXPRESSING THANKS AND APPRE- CIATION To CONGRESSMEN ALBERT THOMAS AND BOB CASEY AND SENATORS RALPH YAR- BOROUGH AND JOHN TowER FOR THEIR HELP IN ATTEMPTING To ESTABLISH A SPACE MU- SEUM IN HOUSTON AND PLEDGING SUPPORT TO THEM Whereas the city of Houston is undis- puta.bly the space capital of the United States; and Whereas it would be only fitting and proper that,a space museum be established in this city so that present and future generations may more fully inform themselves of, the achievements of the United States of Amer- ica in the field of space exploration; and Whereas various proposals have been made as to the form such a museum might take, either as an entirely new structure or as an adjunct to the present Houston Museum of Natural Science and the Burke Baker Plane- tarium, which are located on 41/2 acres of Hermann Park ground; and Whereas regardless of the site eventually chosen, the establishment of such a museum is of vital concern to all the citizens of Houston; and Whereas both of the distinguished Con- gressmen from the city of Houston, the Honorable ALBERT 1"HOMAs and the Honorable Bo1 CASEY, and both U.S. Senators from the Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 19167 spectful journal, Newsweek. And I think had a horrifying look at what man has done be prepared for what could be a long war. the least that could be offered by the edi- to despoil not only the shores but the river It was present when he said the increase in tors of this publication is a sincere itself. Interior Secretary Udall last year our military strength in Vietnam from 75,000 apology to the distinguished chairman called the Hudson an "open sewer." The to 125,000 men probably will be followed of the House the sCommit- Congressmen discovered what he meant as by the commitment of additional forces. they cruised through oil slicks, dead fish, It was present when he said that doubling tee, and his son, Captain Teague. garbage, detergent foam, beer cans, and other the draft calls from 17,000 to 35,000 a month debris, and watched raw sewage pour into its may not be sufficient; that, depending on waters. the course of events, Reserve units may have HUDSON'S FIRST NEED There is room for differences of opinion to be summoned to duty. (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of about how and by whom the Hudson is to be The statement achieved an almost perfect protected and its grandeur preserved, but balance between determination never to Mr. DYAL) was granted permission to there can be no dispute about what it needs knuckle under to Communist aggression or extend his remarks at this point in the first. To be cleaned the counsel of appeasers, and a willingness RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ~~ always to negotiate an honorable peace. ter.) -:;t -e tiz^, The heart of the statement lies in these Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, with THE U.S. CO NT IN VIETNAM words: every day that pcomes new sup- "These (present) steps, like our actions in port for the at passes, as Highlands National (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr, the past, are carefully measured to do what DYAL) was granted permission to ex- must be done to bring an end to aggression Scenic Riverway legislation. tend his remarks at this point in the and a peaceful settlement. Originally proposed to cover only a RECORD and to include extraneous mat- "We do not want an expanding struggle short stretch of the river from New York ter.) with consequences that no one can foresee, City to Beacon, N.Y., and from the New Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, a great nor will we bluster or bully or flaunt our Jersey State . line to Newburgh, N.Y., it power. has now been embraced by Congressmen deal has been written about the U.S. "But we will not surrender and we will representing areas from Albany south to commitment in southeast Asia, but per- not retreat. New York City and the New Jsouth to hags one of the finest insights was an "Once the Communists know, as we know, report Jersey ers as shore. this editorial by William Randolph Hearst, that a violent solution is impossible, then a I am pleased City and Jr., which appeared in the New York peaceful solution is inevitable. legislation has found support among the Journal American of August 1, 1965, en- "We are ready now, as we have always been, legislative representatives, it has been titled "The President's Finest Hour." to move from the battlefield to the confer- hailed as well by the residents and news- As Mr. Hearst so aptly pointed out ence table. publicly y papers in the areas that would be affect- "I have stated many times, again ed papers bill: the President's news conference state- and again, America's willingness to begin y byst rebill. support has come from ment on Vietnam was truly "a big day unconditional discussions with any govern-M s great New Jersey paper, the Newark for L.B.J." The situation in Vietnam ment at any place at any time." is a complex one and one not suscepti- The President enlarged that willingness Evening News. I would like to insert ble to easy answers. President Johnson by saying the United States is prepared to the thoughtful editorial comment this made this clear in his report to the listen to Hanoi's terms for ending the fight- paper published: Nation. He asked the American peo- ing providing Hanoi is willing to listen to [From the Newark (N.J.) Evening News, ours. July 27, 1901 plc to prepare for a long struggle, but a He added later, in answer to a question, HUDSON'S FIRST NEED struggle which must eventually prove that even the Vietcong guerrillas "would that freedom and democracy are have no difficulty in being represented and New Jersey has more than a neighborly stronger than totalitarian communism. having their views presented if Hanoi for interest in pending Federal legislation to pre- Mr. Hearst stated that the President a moment decides that she wants to cease serve the scenic beauties of the Hudson Val- aggression." ley. Although New York sometimes appears "leveled with the American people, he to regard itself as the sole proprietor, 25 miles treated them, as they should be treated, Finally, he energetically and dramatically encouraged efforts by the United Nations or so of the Hudons's western shore are in as adults, his intellectual equals." to work for an honorable peace. New Jersey. I am sure that every American ap- The President Instructed Arthur J. Gold- One bill, by Representative OTTINGER, of proves the candor of President Johnson berg, who stepped down from the Supreme Pleasantville, would create a Hudson High- as well as his commitment that we will Court last week to become our U.N. Ambas- lands National Scenic Waterway, extending be resolute in our demands that the sador, to make it his first business to pre- 1 mile inland on both sides, from the sent a Presidential letter to U.N. Secretary Bronx to Beacon. A supplementary measure quest for freedom shall not be defeated. General Thant. The letter asked that "all by Representative RYAN, of Manhattan, would Mr. Hearst's editorial follows: the resources, energy and immense prestige extend the national waterway from the Bronx EDITOR'S REPORT: THE PRESIDENT'S FINEST of the United Nations be employed to bring south to the river's mouth. HovR peace." Since the Bronx and Manhattan are oppo- (By William Randolph Hearst, Jr.) It is significant that the policy statement, site Bergen and Hudson Counties, both bills Big day for L.B.J. and the way it was would affect New Jersey's interests, to an g Y proclaimed, either drew extent not yet disclosed. That just about sums up my impression of to the President's support, or substantially Governor Rockefeller has attempted to the President's policy statement at his press modified, some influential voices in Congress forestall Federal action by creating a Hudson conference this past Wednesday as well as that had been openly dubious before. the way he delivered it and the way he Representatives GERALD R. FORD of Michi- Valley Scenic and Historic Corridor, from y handled the subsequent an, House minority leader, and MELVIN R. the mouth of the river to the Adirondacks. questions from g He has appointed a commission empowered reporters. LAIRD of r, chairman of the Repub- He was at his masterful best and it was- lican conference Wisconsin, had been demanding ing an to acquire thousands of acres for parks and to date-his finest hour. all-out air attack on North Vietnam instead to build scenic roads. The Governor's case There was no bravado, no jingoism, in his of a buildup of ground forces. against Federal intrusion has merit; it would statement nor in his demeanor. It became After the President spoke they shifted be stronger had he moved earlier. clear as one listened to him that the Presi- position, saying they would "wait and see." The Regional Plan Association has sug- dent had spent hours of soul searching in Mr. FORD added that he supported the Presi- gested this jurisdictional dispute be resolved preparing his guidelines of future U.S. policy dent's "firmness against Communist aggres- by the appointment of a commission to draw in Vietnam. His manner was serious, de- Sion." up a master plan for the valley. The com- liberate, and at times deeply moving. It was Senator GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont Repub- mission would represent the Federal Govern- not surprising to read that some of those lican, and a member of the Foreign Relations ment, New York, and New Jersey, their coun- at the conference including Mrs. Johnson Committee, Who also had been a critic, swung ties that border the Hudson, and the munici- were close to tears when the President spoke over to support. He said the policy state- palities along the river. of his personal distress in sending "our ment "won't satisfy those who have been The association would have the planning finest young men" into this nasty war. advocating a great expansion of the war or commission go beyond the recreation, con- And he leveled with the American people; those who say 'get out, lock, stock, and bar- seivation, and scenic concerns to which the he treated them, as they should be treated, rel."' He continued: Rockefeller corridor and the Ottinger water- as adults, his intellectual equals. For ex- "The President's middle course will find way are limited. It observes that industrial ample, he had the candor to say of the general acceptance throughout the country development, river transportation, port fa- situation in Vietnam that "this is really and probably will be more conducive to ulti- cilities, and housing also require considera- war," not trying to mask it in some evasive mate peace than a more extreme statement tion. To these should be added sanitation. catch phrase. would have been." A congressional subcommittee which has Candor was also admirably evident when I second that. been holding hearings on the Ottinger bill the President advised his fellow citizens to ^s, it was a big day for L.B.J. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19168 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 10, 1965 TRIBUTES TO LAWRENCE F. OBl,IEN writing that hate was the normal state of paign organizer in charge of congressional - relations between White House and Hill, relations early in 1961. While it was difficult (Mr. BOLAND (at the request of Mr. O'Brien was already beginning to develop for many of the Kennedy people to remain DYAL) was granted permission to extend the possibilities of cooperation. on the White House staff after November 22, his remarks at this point in the R1scoiu His chief innovation was to set up In the 1963, O'Brien and his crew seemed to be and to include extraneous matter,) White House a small staff charged entirely driven by a desire to get the Kennedy pro- Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, Addi- with responsibility for congressional rela- gram enacted. tions. The staff was organized along the And in the 20 months since the assassina- tional tributes have been written about lines of the various regional and interest tion, the administration has enjoyed untold the amazing legislative accomplish- groups in the Senate and House. It coordi- success at the Capitol, thanks to a polished merits of Lawrence F. O'Brien, Special nated the congressional efforts of all Govern- professional job by O'Brien and the basic Assistant to the President for Congres- ment agencies. It was in constant touch know-how of a President who has not hesi- sional Relations. with the congressional leadership. "We don't tated to put the weight of his office behind The articles were written by two ex- even take a headcount," one of the leaders his ambitious social proposals. perienced and respected observers of the once said, "without O'Brien." Johnson is said to have liked the formal- Capitol Hill scene, columnist Joseph A first gain was a far more Intimate work- ized liaison office at the White House which ing relationship between the Administration Was created by O'Brien 4 years ago. It came Kraft and Donald R. Larrabee, - Wash- and the little-known but extremely powerful into being, O'Brien suggests, because Presi- ington correspondent for many New giants in the House. As a supreme example, dent Kennedy didn't have the votes in Con- England newspapers. Both columnists consider, the case of the 1964 tax cut and gress and needed a team of contact men to recognize the valuable contributions the chairman of the Ways and Means Com- help sell his ideas and smooth the legislative Larry O'Brien has made in the field of mittee, WILBUR MILLS. path. It was always tough going, but the White House-congressional liaison, and The administration, way back in 1962, bugs were being worked out of the machinery major role he has played in the - proposed the tax cut to stimulate the econ- at the time John Kennedy died. the ma the omy; it was afraid that tying tax reform The remarkable legislative triumphs are actment of the New Frontier played programs e 't15 to the bill would kill the whole measure. being written daily and the essential ingredi- of our late beloved President John F. MILLS, for his part, wanted a tax reform bill ent, In O'Brien's view, Is the strength of the Kennedy, and the Great Society pro- with a little cut added to smooth the way Chief Executive and his leadership, with its grams of President Lyndon Johnson. for reform. deep roots on Capitol Hill. O'Brien operates Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent Very slowly, month by month, by discreet on the theory that Congress is receptive and to have Mr. Kraft's column, which ap- little favors (a Presidential visit to Arkan- ready to cooperate with L.B.J. because it peared in yesterday's Washington most, sas) and almost invisible pressure (well-or- believes the President has thepeople behind and Mr. Larrabee's column, which ap- ganized business testimony against reform) him. The O'Brien office has been quick to the administration nursed MILLS along to its pinpoint the weak spots and Mr. Johnson has peared in the Saturday, August 7, Hol- point of view. The bill that finally emerged gotten on the telephone himself to prop them yoke, Mass., Transcript-telegram, in- from his committee, and that he steered up. cluded at this point with my rerriarks: through the House was almost all cut and O'Brien claims the arm-twisting stories [From the Washington Post, Aug. 9, 1965] no reform-just what Dr. O'Brien ordered. are exaggerated and the President has en- INSICIrr AND OtTLook--A PPLAUST F'on A second gain was that the White House gaged in no extraordinary wheeling and deal- DR. O'BRrEN was in touch not only with the congres- ing with Congress. The standard operating sional leadership, but also with the back- procedures of the President and O'Brien's (By Joseph Kraft) benchers. The 16 Agriculture Committee office axe probably tantamount to this, though Not very long ago the Congress was orga- Democrats who supported 14(b), for ex- more subtle. nized against the White House by means of ample, Were not the committee leaders. On Basically, for the first time in history, there a union of race prejudice and the acquisitive the contrary, the six who opposed the "ad- is a formal arrangement whereby the 40 per- instinct. ministration on 14(b) were precisely the sons who hold liaison jobs with Congress Northern Republicans would unite with senior members of the committee, for the various Federal departments and southern Democrats to block civil rights laws. O'Brien Is at last getting some public agencies are filing weekly progress reports to The two would also collaborate in measures recognition for his achievements. Indeed, the White House. These are digested and that brought money to farm constituents in the President and his friends are showering summarized for the President's night reading the form of subsidies, aild to business sup- him with compliments. An educated guess on Mondays. porters in the form of anti-labor laws, deple- is that Mr. Johnson Would like him to stick Mr. Johnson can thus assess-at a quick tion allowances, tariffs, and. defense and space around In the White House job. glance-his standing with Congress and the contracts. A good hunch is that O'Brien will leave status of his legislative program. Next day in gertain quarters that unholy alliance to reenter Massachusetts politics. If noth- he meets with the leaders of the House and against the administration In power was ing else the time is ripe for leavetaking. Senate for strategy talks'and the signals are celebrated as the club. A way, a permanent way, I believe, to promote called. The old system is now dead, and nothing cooperation between the Hxecutive and the There are important functions for the it better than an obscure procedural Congress has been worked}out. White House liaison office besides counting proves noses when a bill is about to be considered. vote taken in the House last week. It From now on the big problems will not These range from securing special tours for involved the new 21-day rule which makes be getting bills through the Congress. The a Congressman's friends or constituents to its possible to call measures on to the floor big problem-the second phase of the John- making sure the Congressman is notified if they have been bottled up for more than son administration and the true opportunity when a contract is being awarded in his Z- 3 weeks in the Rules Committee. for the Republicans-will turn on the mat- trice-notified, that is, before anyone else The measure at stake was repeal of a pro- ter of applying effectively the measures that hears about it. vision-14(b)-of the Taft-Hartley Law are already on the books. The President, of course, has asked every which authorized States to outlaw the closed ~-- Congressman and his wife to the White House shop. [From the Transcript-Telegram, Aug. 7, this year. He has made himself and his home In winning that vote the big city and labor 1965] accessible. When bills were to be signed into Congressmen favoring repeal were ,joined by "BEST LEGISLATOR" IN THE WHITE HOUSE Is law, he has made a special point of inviting 16 of the 22 Democrats who, because their JoHNSoN's LABEL FOR LARRY O'BRIEN everyone to the ceremonies who had any rea- prime interest is farming, sit on the Agri- culture {By Donald R. Larrabee) son to be there. Committee. Presumably those rural Last week, for instance, Members of Con Independence, will get their own back when WASIIGTON.-Who is the "best legislator" greys and others were flown to Independence, the labor representatives support a farm bill in the White House? In terms of getting an No where 76 pens were used in the signing in the next few weeks. But the significant unprecedented program enacted by Congress, of the landmark medicare bill. Every Con- thing is that the old alliance has been re- the answer has to be Lyndon B. Johnson. gressman on all the committees involved in versed. The club has been stood on its But the President himself has pinned the the legislation received a ceremonial pen, as head. title on a Kennedy man from Springfield, did many others who were influential-peo- Credit for this great change is normally Mass.-Larry O'Brien who has never run pie like former Representative Aime Forand given to the President because of his long for office or written the draft of a bill. of Rhode Island who filed the first medicaxe- experience with the Congress, and because O'Brien was working for ex-Congressman, social security bill on his own. of the great majorities he swept iii with him ex-Governor Foster Furcolo, of Massachu- A Republican Congressman who wasn't at last fall. And certainly no one would deny or setts, at about the time Lyndon Johnson was the ceremony received a fountain pen in. the disparage the President's role. elected to the V.S. Senate in the late 1940's. mail, even though he was a late-starting But the strategist of the change, the man He would take Furculo's constituents on cosponsor of medicare. One freshman in the who planned it 5 years ago, and who has guided tours of the Capitol. Now he takes House has received three pens already in his worked it out day by day ever since, is the Congressmen on a different kind of tour first year and he prizes every one. Small President's special assistant for congressional through Johnson territory. tokens can pay big dividends. relations, Lawrence O'Brien. While all the The President "inherited" O'Brien from It was at the medicare signing that Mr. -political assistants all over the country were John F. Kennedy who had placed his cam- Johnson, when he had named all of the Con- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 1-0, 1 roved For 1e& 2fffi A CIA- .RDP 7B HOUSE000300130016-8 19169 gressmen who bad worked on the bill through by private persons, law enforcement officers, access to them. Unquestionably, technically the years, pointedly added, "and, of course, State or Federal agencies. It is a misde- qualified persons could develop additional the White House's best legislator, Larry meanor on the first offense and a felony on safeguards to hamper the practice of wire- O'Brien." Larry Isn't expected to remain in the second offense after one conviction. A tapping and more adequate methods for de- the position much longer-he promised to man that has been convicted for a second tecting it when it occurs." stay through this seesion of Congress-but he time faces a mandatory sentence of 15 years Again, Mr. Chairman, let me emphasize, seems to have created one of the more per- in the Florida State penitentiary, our subcommittee was impressed by the ease manent fixtures in a fast-moving bureauc- Now, Mr. Chairman, I do not know what with which unauthorized persons, such as racy, your investigation in this great State will re- Lieutenant Shimon, could invade the privacy veal, but if you find that one agent in the In- of telephone conversations. These were law- WIRETAPPING INVESTIGATION IN ternal Revenue Service has placed a wire tap enforcement agents who took the cloak of MIAMI, FLA. anywhere in the State, then I say, Mr. Chair- authority and misused it for their own man, that the American democratic system purposes. (Mr. PEPPER (at the request of Mr. has been severely abused. No Federal agent, In the short time that those hearings were DY'AL) was granted pto extend no matter how special or secret, has a right held, my subcommittee discovered that an his remarks granted this point permission i the RECORD come into Florida and break our laws. officer of the law who had frequently vio- his a include extraneous in the laws were set up to protect the rights lated the rights of privacy and had been so and to PEPPER. extraneous matter.) Speaker, of the people of Florida. If the Federal offi- deeply involved in wiretapping and snooping Mr. Mr. Yesterday cials do not respect our laws, then what faith activities at the time of hearings was pro- I was in Miami in my district appearing can we have in the American system of Gov- moted by the District of Columbia Metro- before the Honorable EDWARD LONG Of ernment? politan Police force to captain in 1954 and Missouri, chairman, and the Honorable Already you have shown that the laws of inspector in 1960, but it was not until 1962 QUENTIN BURDICK of North Dakota, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania have been that was he indicted for wiretapping, and it member of the Subcommittee on Admire- ignored by Internal Revenue Service agents. is my understanding that last winter he was istrative beer Practice and Procedure of the Let no one misunderstand me, Mr. Chairman, convicted. Senate Judiciary Committee which is the people of Florida and the people of I can only regret et that my term in the U.S. Miami will not tolerate a Federal Govern- y gr y Sena investigating wiretapping and the inva- ment which has no respect for laws of their this fe did further. not The last long enough to mmit- sion of the private rights of citizens by States and the individual rights of decent this work of your profoundly vital and Government agents and private parties. citizens. long overdue. d ue. In 5 pt seemed vital and Since this distinguished committee of I have confidence in the Internal Revenue e upping could n be stopped it seemed y to minimum the other body had invited me to appear Service of Florida and I hope that confidence wiretapping cbe sd by a minmum has not been and will not be found un- amount id restrictions, we had no idea that before it and to present my views upon justified. We have all read in the papers agencies this insidi the ous A evil m was erican gcrevprng through the subject under inquiry I believed that the shocking way which the Internal Reve- ha no idea that n and electronic nment. We the matter being investigated by the able due agents have treated taxpayers In other d wiretapping and electronic committee was most important to the States. Theirs is an agency whose sole task eves dropping ayng would become the big business rights of the citizens of my district and is to collect taxes from the American pea- compared is today. with Yet the sse Mistier were ectonic Dade County, indeed of all the country ple. We must not permit this agency to turn u mavailable the to the mos casual nif and, hence, I appeared before the sub- aneIton under into a ffrighAmericantening gestapo snoopers today. Tiny transmitters in cigar- committee and gave a Statement, I in- protectd by the laws of hino feel s own State. ette lighters, desk staplers and martini olives elude following my remarks a copy of Mr. Chairman, for the next few minutes, surround us. Black-light viewers penetrate de- the statement I made. let me recall the Senate hearings which I the darkness. Ultrasensitive listening away. On account of such actions in my conducted 15 years ago this month. At that vices tune in conversations a block away, district I was not present to answer two time I was the chairman of the U.S. Senate These people have done nothing but to bring quorum calls in the House and to vote subcommittee which investigated wiretap- the world of Dick Tracy and 1984 to life and on H.R. 9918 amending the Fire and ping In the District of Columbia. We were cast that horrible he aeri an the e Casualty Act and the Motor Vehicle concerned only with relatively simple de- stitutional rights of t the American people. Safety y Act andty Act of the District vices-direct wiretaps, crude induction coils As a result, a man's home is no longer his for listening through doors, and simple prim- castle. It is a public preserve of every of Columbia. Since an important part itive eavesdropping mechanisms. We found peeping Tom, Dick, and Harry who can afford of this bill created a fund out of which that even these crude devices constituted a miniature listening device and a midget judgments obtained by parties injured a real danger to privacy and simple decency recorder. The only way a man can avoid in motor vehicle accidents by persons not in our society. They were violating the con- an illegal search of his mind is to stop insured I would have voted for this bill fidence of Howard Hughes with his lawyers. talking to anyone-even his wife. had I been present. I was paired with They were intruding into the privacy of the Mr. Chairman and Senator BURDICK, I be- the gfrom Alabama with personal and official telephone calls of a re- have Congress should enact legislation for- MARTIN of e gentleman 7, spected U.S. Senator, the late Josiah Bailey bidding the shipment in interstate commerce th The statement referred to is as fol- urllaw-enforcement lofficers who knew such which these lend various themselves to and the invasion evicesof lows: practices were illegal and immoral, the citizen's privacy and against which the WIRETAPPING INVESTIGATION IN MIAMI, FLA. In the conclusion of these hearings my citizen now has no known defense-at least (Statement of the Honorable CLAUDE PEPPER subcommittee made certain recommenda- in the great majority of cases. The harm before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on tions and I would like to read the second such devices can do in invading the right of Administrative Practice and Procedure, recommendation of that committee. "Our privacy of the citizen far outweighs, in my August 9, 1965) subcommittee is impressed by the ease with opinion, the right of anybody to manufacture Mr, Chairman, let me first welcome you and which unauthorized persons, such as Lieu- and sell these devices until science has de- t11e Chairman, your sub welcomed t my tenant Shimon, can invade the privacy of veloped a way by which the citizen can pro- theat members s of your my district and my telephone conversations. Lieutenant Shi- tect himself or herself against such snooping- great"af to of Flori and Miami Beach. I have man testified that by allowing the persons Furthermore, I believe that the use of i long admMia the work that you, Senator on the repair deck of the Chesapeake & Po- such devices should be forbidden under ade- Lo'g and your subcommittee have been tomac Telephone Co. to believe that he was quate penalty except by a representative of LONG, on behalf of the mml tee hav of been a telephone repairman, he was able to get Federal, State, or local government author- American ehale. the location of the telephone box and the ized to use such device by order of a com-p The task which your subcommittee has appropriate telephone pair number. These potent court or without license for specific now undertake which lour s gate the use of boxes are located, usually one for each city case by the Attorney General. All court wiretapping and snooping should receive the block, In the basements of apartments or orders should be required to be reported full praise of the American It is a hotels, or on telephone poles, and the like, promptly to the Attorney General of the full pt is o hearings which p- where they may readily be reached without United States and he in turn should be re- pare gs whic you have held being observed. A pair of wires and a head- quired periodically to report all instances that you have been able to show that honest, set are adequate for the purpose of listening of where he has authorized the use of such average and garden variety Americans have in on conversations at these terminal points. devices and where he has been advised of been subjected to police state tactics in a Our subcommittee recommended that the authority to use such devices by courts to country where we have long been given to Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. address the Judiciary Committees of the Senate and believe that honest government is essential itself to the technical problem of protecting House. for true democracy, the secrecy of telephone conversations; for When a man Is not free to speak his mind Mr. Chairman, let me, make one thing ab- example, the relatively simple device of plat- in the privacy of his own home he has Ioat solutely clear-wiretapping in Florida is a ing locks on such terminal boxes would ma- one of the most treasured of his liberties-- crime. It is a crime whether it is carried out terially assist in preventing unauthorized he is no longer a freeman. N6.146-21 Approved-For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 19170 CONGRESSIONAT RECORb - HOUSE August 10, 1965 Mr. Chairman, let me say again how Stadnik is credited by doctors of the selfishly. On behalf of the Florida-Colombia deeply grateful I am for this opportunity to Hospital Infantil San Francisco de Paula Alliance effort, I want to express my deep appear before your subcommittee. I know appreciation to all those who had a part in with helping to save the lives of several this mission of mercy, and particularly to I speak for the people of Miami and the hundred indigent children during an John Stadnik, Aerocondor Air Lines, Baxter people of this great State when I say you are performing an outstanding service in epidemic of gastroenteritis this summer. Laboratories, and Johson & Johnson. uncovering this disgusting disrespect that Stadnik, a member of the Florida State Florida-Colombia Alliance pro- our Federal agents have shown for the rights Board of Pharmacy, is president of The established is October pro- of the American people. Miami Springs Pharmacy, Inc., and gram following was a weeklong establi he good will r 1963, 3, In spite of my long knowledge of the ex- Terminal Rexal Pharmacy, Miami Inter- istence of wiretapping, I remain shocked to national Airport. He is a registered Adams to Colombia. The trip was spon- flnd that our Federal Government has taken cored by the Organization of American up the banner of lawlessness in too many pharmacist. States in hopes of generating a "State to cases. The American Government simply His role in the humanitarian act was Nation" program between the individual does not have the right to do that it pleases. to arrange for the donation of medicines States of the United States and the individual re- Too many American lives have been lost in and supplies from two large U.S. phar- States of the n America. the protection of our American ways, Ameri- maeeutieal firms to fight the epidemic. publics can freedom, and American rights for us to Baxter Laboratories of Morton Grove, The Florida-Colombia Alliance Com- give them up to Government lawbreakers. Ill., and Johnson & Johnson contrib- mittee is a partner in the U.S. Alliance I am confident you are making a great uted some 30 cases of dextrose solution, for Progress and engages in such coop- task button and I urge you to pursue this intravenous feeding apparatus, hospital erative efforts as student and teacher ex- society relentles until this cancer on our tape, first aid supplies and other mate- changes, encouragement of commerce is stopsly ped. riots for Colombia. and exchanges of technical advice and Dr. Ramiro Parias Burgos, director of training. To date, the alliance has ar- FLORIDA-COLOMBIA PARTNERS OF the children's hospital, said: ranged for 90 scholarships for Colombian THE ALLIANCE PROGRAM Without those medicines, many Colombian students to attend universities and jun- infants would have died. for colleges in Florida. A like number of (Mr. FASCELL (at the request of Mr. These supplies enabled us to succ;ssfully scholarships are available to Floridians DYAL) was granted permission to extend treat several hundred babies and young chn- in Columbian universities. his remarks at this point in the RECORD dren. I hate to think about how many of and to include extraneous matter.) these might have died had it not been for the Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, recently timely arrival of the medical supplies. THE MIRACULOUS RISE OF a dramatic errand of mercy took place More than 500 infants had perished in NICHOLAS KATZENBACH that happily resulted in the saving of the epidemic in the Colombian coastal children's lives. A number of Floridians city when the mercy shipment arrived on (Mr. PUCINSKI (at the request of responded to an urgent cell from Chil- July 20. Within a few hours after Stad- Mr. DYAL) was granted permission to ex- dren's Hospital in Barranquilla, a coastal Rik delivered the supplies, the Children's tend his remarks at this point in the city in Colombia, for medicines and sup- Hospital used the last of its dextrose RECORD and to include extraneous mat- plies to fight an epidemic of dehydra- solution. ter.) tion suffered by youngsters in the area. said: Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, Mr. A supply of dextrose solution was flown The doctor Willard Edwards has performed a most from Miami to the stricken city and suc- There was no place in all of Barranquilla noble public service in putting together cessfully administered. The supplies ar- we could obtain more dextrose. an excellent biography on the U.S. At- rived only hours before the hospital's The shipment from Florida was truly a godsend: torney General, Nicholas deB. Katzen- stock was exhausted. bath. Mr. Speaker, Florida is participating Gastroenteritis, commonly known as Mr. Katzenbach today ranks as one in the Partners of the Alliance program, dehydration, is a fly-carr'ed disease of the most important members of the which seeks to draw private sector re- which causes infiamation of the inner President's Cabinet. As Attorney Gen- sources into the Alliance for Progress. wall of the stomach and subsequent loss eral, the responsibility of enforcing civil Their partnership is with the northern of body liquids. Its prime victims are rights laws and restoring order out of coastal states of Colombia, wherein Bar- children between the ages of 6 months chaos falls upon his shoulders. The vast ranquilla is located. Here was a dra- and 2 years. scope of his responsibility transcends to matic instance of spontaneous help ex- Stadnik's mercy flight came in re- the lives of virtually every American. tended by one partner to the other to sponse to an urgent plea for assistance In addition to all of these responsibili- prevent further loss of life. A happier from Dr. Parias. The request was re- ties, President Johnson has recently ending resulted because the coordinator layed to Florida Secretary of State Tom named Mr. Katzenbach as Chairman of of the Colombia Partners Committee Adams, who is cofounder of the Florida- the newly formed National Commission alerted their Florida counterparts to the Colombia Alliance Committee. The on Crime. It is significant to note that impending crisis. Here was a ready and alliance is a good will and mutual assist- everything Mr. Katzenbach does, he does helping hand extended to a neighbor in ance program between the State of well. need. Florida and Republic of Colombia. I was most pleased to read Mr. Ed- Playing an important role in the mercy Adams then called on Stadnik, a per- wards' penetrating article about our U.S. flight was Secretary of State Tom sonal friend, for assistance in obtain- Attorney General. Mr. Edwards has Adams, who helped launch the Florida- ing the much needed medical supplies. made a most significant contribution Colombia Alliance Committee. Mr. Stadnik, through the offices of Dr. Aus- toward a better understanding of this Larry Benson, who serves as adminis- tin Smith, president of the Pharmaceuti- dedicated American whose stature and trative assistant to the secretary of cal Manufacturers Association, contacted and responsibility grows daily and who state, and as coordinator of the Florida- Baxter Laboratories and Johnson & today represents one of the President's Colombia program, made the trip to Bar- Johnson who quickly offered to donate most trusted aids. ranquilla to personally deliver the medi- the necessary supplies to the alliance. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Edwards' article fol- cines and supplies, donated for the mis- Aerocondor Air Lines, a private Colom- lows: sion by Baxter Laboratories and John- bian airline, volunteered to Immediately son & Johnson. Aeroconder Airlines, airlift the supplies to Barranquilla with- THE MIRACULOUS RISE of NICHOLAS Dcii, a private Colombia airline, handled the out charge and to fly Stadnik to Colom- KATZENDACH shipment without charge. bia so that he might formally present the (NOTE: -Attorneys General are m u'lly men of long and Mr. Speaker, because of the very hu- medicines to the hospital. Also accom- successful political exp-ri- once. Many managed the campaigns that man appeal of this recent and highly panying the shipment was Laurence put their Presidents in power. In 1?60 successful Florida-Colombia partnership Benson, Coordinator of the Florida- Nicholas deB. Katzenbach didn't even vote, activity, there will always be a warm Colombia program. Yet today he runs the most politically senei- glow in the hearts of the people ofBar- Said Adams: tive department in Washington with t`ia ranquilla, Colombia, for Miami Springs This is a wonderful and heartw_ raring ex- courage, coolness, brains, and savvy that have Pharmacist John Stadnik.' And for good ample of what great things can be accom- made him a key figure in the administratlo s reason. plished when people work together un- of two hard-to-please Presidents.) Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 A4438 aPP orj~ff sRlIR/W R&6713 RP300130016A8 ugust 10, 1965 Support JrCSii'1eat in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS Or HON. CLAIR CALLAN OF NEBRASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. CALLAN. Mr. Speaker, there is in this country a great reservoir of sup- port for the President regarding the sit- uation we face in Vietnam. I commend to the attention of my colleagues edi- torials which appeared recently in the Omaha World-Herald and the Lincoln Star on this subject. No greater support can be forthcoming. [From the Omaha (Nebr.) World-Herald, - July 24,. 1965] MR. JOHNSON'S REPORT If President Johnson's Wednesday morn- ing-address to the Nation had not been pre- ceded by thunderous advance publicity and a prediction about a callup of Reserves, his words might have had more, impact than they did. Even so, the President committed his coun- trymen to a substantial mobilization of America's military might to fight what he indicated most plainly will be a long, hard, and probably bigger war in Vietnam. The number of American fighting men there is to be stepped up from 75,000 to 125,000. These are men now on active duty, not Reserves, and many of them have doubt- less been expecting to be called. . But the increase in the monthly draft is to be more than doubled-from 17,000 to 35,000-and here the impact upon tens of thousands of young men and their families very likely may not have been anticipated by them. Finally, there was the President's solemn comment about the likelihood of more men being called up later. The number was unspecified but it will be whatever the American commander, General Westmoreland, says he needs. The Presi- dent's repeated pledge to stand fast, to refuse to retreat or to surrender, has lost nothing in its plain wording or its emphasis in these recent months of hard going in Vietnam. Aside from the increase in forces, there was little that was news in the President's speech. As he pointed out, he has said over and over again that America will stand and fight In Vietnam, that the United States cannot go back on its word, that our country has to face up to Communist aggression in Vietnam or its promises to defend free men elsewhere will not be believed anywhere. What was perhaps most important about the speech was its demonstration that Mr. Johnson has not flagged in his determina- tion. Neither the ear' nor the eye could detect the slightest evidence of sagging resolution. And the clinching proof that Mr. Johnson meant what he said was the reluctant com- mitment of more American lives to the brutal battle. We believe that Mr. Johnson has so far done about all that can reasonably be de- manded of him in informing the people about the progress-or more properly, the lack of progress-of the dismal Asian war. This newspaper feels that the President has acted with prudent firmness in trying to impress upon the enemy the all-important fact that the United States has no intention of losing this war. Mr. Johnson has now followed through with the commitment of more men and mili- tary power. He has asked his countrymen to support him through what are sure to be more dark days. He deserves and will almost surely get that support. [From the Lincoln (Nebr.) Star, July 29, 19651 A TIME OF COURAGE President Johnson gave the world little relief from the troubles that beset it in his analysis of the Vietnam situation but the American people can find pride in the posi- tion he took. _ The President made no bones about the fact that we are at war in Asia and he announced the sending of 50,000 more troops to that torn land. At the same time, he fell considerably short of full mobilization of the Nation and gave equal emphasis to the cause of peace for which we are fighting. Toward this end he has instructed the U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. to press that world organization for a greater effort In solving the Vietnam conflict. Ma-?y are the details of the situation that can be debated but our fundamental course of action seems unquestionable. Rightly or wrongly in the beginning, we have committed ourselves to the defense of the freedom of the people of South Vietnam and we can no more walk out on that commit- ment than we can withdraw from the world itself. The President has made clear to the world a course of action on our part that is honor- able in all respects. We seek peace within the framework of freedom for all men but we recognize that such a goal must be fought for when challenged by an aggressive force. Escalation of the war is a threat we face but we do so without flinching. Red China and Russia hold the real key to the future. Either they forgo the tyranny by which they live or they thrust a terrible burden and great suffering upon humanity. The Presi- dent has made it clear to them that they will not prevail through default of the free world. Sergeants' Stripes Saved EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. CHARLES E. BENNETT OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Speaker, in June of this year it was brought to my atten- tion that many enlisted members of the Army were about to be downgraded be- cause of action by the Department of the Army which would have stripped certain noncommissioned officers of their earned stripes. The stripe is a symbol of achievement and authority just' as the uniform is a symbol of military service for all service personnel. The noncommissioned officers who were to have their stripes taken away by administrative action had done noth- ing to deserve this humiliation. As a former Army sergeant I understood how today's sergeants felt about this and I was deeply concerned about this pro- posal, which would have gone into effect on September 1, 1965. On June 15, 1965, I introduced H.R. 9046, a bill to specify the insignia of grade for certain enlisted members of the Army. This legislation was referred to my committee, the House Armed Services Committee, for action. In the meantime, I wrote to the Secretary of the Army, and urged him to make an adjustment, to spare the humiliation for thousands of our noncommissioned of- ficers. Today I am pleased to report to thes ; men and to the Association of Regular Army Sergeants, who fought this battle *ith me, that the Department of the Army has sympathetically decided upon the indefinite suspension of the directive which led to this situation. I am very grateful. With permission I in- clude the Secretary of the Army's state- ment in the RECORD: ENLISTED STRIPE REVISION The Department of the Army decided today upon the indefinite suspension of the direc- tive which would have required a chevron change for many noncommissioned officers on September 1, 1965. In the spring of this year, the Army initiated a review of selected noncommissioned officer positions and the relationship between these positions. It has now become evident that a more searching analysis is required in order to establish definitively the proper proportion of non- commissioned officer grades in the organiza- tions that the Army has created as a result of conversion to the reorganized infantry division 3 years ago and the conversion to r, new combat logistics structure this year. Since insignia is an identification of an indi- vidual's position, the Army has decided that the finite examination of positions is re- quired prior to the time that further In- Th s Peace EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, I com- mend to the attention of our colleagues the following article by Roscoe Drum- mond, from the July 30, 1965, edition of the New York Herald Tribune. The action taken by President John- son to increase U.S. military strength in Vietnam is the inescapable result of the decision made by the President more than 3 months ago. This decision was enunciated in the President's April 7 address at Johns Hopkins University, "We will not be defeated. We will not grow tired. We will not withdraw." The President has declared his determi- nation to do "whatever is necessary" to oppose Communist aggression in Viet- nam, while making efforts to secure an honorable peace. The American people must apply the costly lesson of Munich and Korea to Vietnam-when aggression is not resisted it invites worse aggression. The President is applying this lesson in his firm action in Vietnam to avert worse war and to find a safe peace. The article follows: THE GOAL IS PEACE-JOHNSON FOLLOWS UP EARLY VIETNAM DECISION (By Roscoe Drummond) WASHINOrON.-The actions President John- son is taking to build up U.S. strength in the defense of South Vietnam are inescapable. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00 4 000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPEN I In his report of one general meeting of the foreign AFS students during their Washington bus stop. He also recorded some candid observa- tions of these bright, knowledgeable, ob- servant youngsters which should be worthwhile for all native U.S. citizens to read and ponder: EXCHANGE STUDENTRY (By Robert Cahn) WASHINGTON.-Abraham Minawa Is taking home to Uganda a "Big M" sweater from Murray High School, St. Paul, Minn., as well as a new appreciation of how the United States is trying to solve its racial problems. Protima Nag will tell her young friends in Calcutta that Americans work hard. and play hard, that the moral standards are really high despite what they may have read about Hollywood. Pedro Miele hopes to spread some of the ideas he has gained about how a democracy works when he returns to Caracas. And Dagmar Schramm is taking back to Austria, among other things, some American cookbooks. ions of the United States and to exchange views with those who spent the year in other parts of the country. .They heard presidential assistant Richard N. Goodwin explain the Great Society pro- gram and say to the students from develop- ing nations: "You must insure that in your own revolutions there is widening room for the human heart and the human spirit." On the south lawn of the White House, they heard President Johnson thank them for leaving behind a better understanding of their countries. "While you have been here I am sure you have seen things that you don't like, things that you would like to change," Mr. John- son said. "If you have, then you can know that you have seen America as Americans themselves see it. "FUNDS COLLECTED "We have been concerned more with how our children shall live than with emulating how our fathers and how our grandfathers lived. So this spirit of America, I think, is present in our policies and our purposes toward other peoples of other lands. "We hope that wherever you go you will work always, as we work, to try to change, to try to improve the life of mankind on this earth, and most of all, to try to win peace for all peoples," the President said. The American Field Service, which was widely lauded for supplying ambulance drivers during World War I, started its scholarship program in 1947. A total of 19,- 075 students have come to the United States under the program. Local chapters of AFS in each community raise funds to sponsor a student and arrange a home for him. The foreign student's own family is expected, if possible, to pay the transportation to and from the United States. The United States State Department, through Public Law 480 funds, picks up some of the transportation costs. If the American family or local AFS chap- ter cannot provide spending money, the scholarship program gives each student $14 a month. The end-of-the-year bus trip is paid for by the scholarship program. A4437 found that Americans behave and react much the same as my own people. Lina Jacinto, Cavite, Philippine Islands (spent year in Washougal, Wash.). "I like your school system here better than our system of French schools. Your system builds independence and gets into subjects very deeply. * * * Your Negro problem should be settled more quickly. A great nation shouldn't have a problem like this." Ibra- him Mertturk, Istanbul., Turkey (spent year in Santa Ana, Calif.). "I carry back home two impressions: good and bad. Your people are really friendly and really nice. But some of your teenagers are not very polite. * * * Also some teen- agers drive too fast and act it little crazy. But most of them were real fine." Phay Darapheth, Arroyo, Laos (spent year in Merced, Calif.). "I found out that Americans are really behind my country. * * * This year meant a lot to me; I felt I really grew up. And I found that my earlier impressions about America were wrong. Americans are not naturally rich. They have to work hard for their money." Thuy Van Nguyen, Saigon, Vietnam (spent year in Clinton, Iowa). "I learned from Americans to be more openminded and to make friends easier. I Abraham, Protima, Pedro, and Dagmar are 4 of the 2,904 American Field' Service inter- national scholarship students from 59 foreign countries who have just completed a year in the United States. In communities throughout the Nation, they and their colleagues have been "adopted" for the year by American families with teenage children. PRESIDENT HEARD They have gone to American high schools. They have taken a 3-week bus trip through part of the United States. And they have climaxed the year with a get-together in Washington which included an address at the White House by President Johnson. . Many of the youngsters have had such a good time that they would like to stay longer. But their parents signed agree- ments that the students would come home on time and not return to the United States for at least 2 years. The whole purpose of the AFS scholarships is to promote better international under- standing. And it is hoped that these youths-and the 1,100 Americans who have been spending a year or a summer in for- eign countries under AFS scholarships-will become good will ambassadors among their compatriots. SPORTS ENJOYED With a bright smile flashing across his dark face, Abraham Minawa relates how he won fourth place in the State championship at Murray High when he pole-vaulted 12 feet 8 inches. "Yeah, Murray," he shouts, while banter- ing with other AFS students here. Abra- ham has a lot to tell the homefolks about American sports and American life. But he also knows of the problems. "My 'father,' " he says (most AFS'ers refer to their American parents-for-a-year as if they were their own):, "took me to Nashville so I could see for myself about the race situ- ation" Abraham was refused service in one Nash- ville restaurant. But he also knows he was accepted as an equal at Murray High. And he lived as a member of a white family. He says that in Uganda, all he heard about the United States was that Negroes were being beaten. "Now that I have been here, I realize the race problem is something that can't be solved In a few days," he says. "But Ameri- cans are making a good start." vfEWS EXCHANGED During their days in Washington, the stu- dents had opportunities to evaluate opin- also liked it that your country does not try to cover up its problems. * * * I didn't get any credit for my schooling here because I took only five subjects. In Sweden I regu- larly take 1.3 subjects." Karsten Nordstrom, Sweden (spent year in Minneapolis). "In Uganda, about all we would hear of the United States was that Negroes were being beaten. I didn't hear about any of the steps being taken in the civil rights movement. Now that I have been here, I realize the race problems can't be solved in a few days." Abraham Minawa, Kampala, Uganda (spent year in St. Paul, Minn.). "I found it a lot easier in America not to be prejudiced on the race situation. I am for civil tights. I had to work It out in my own way, and now I find myself able to treat anybody as an equal." Rob Jackson, Johan- nesburg, South Africa (spent year in Pon- tiac, Mich.). "If everybody here could have learned as much as I have about human relationships and the ability to understand people, it would help lead peace. This experi- ence in the United States has expanded the world of all of us." Cheryl Thomas, Salis- bury, Rhodesia (spent year in Tonawanda, N.Y.). "This year helped me see there is little difference between peoples of various coun- tries except their customs. * * * I don't see why there is so much trouble between whites ant Negroes in the South. * * * Negroes were treated equally at my school." Seiji Furuta, Gifu, Japan (spent year in west Phil- adelphia). "When I came I had a completely different concept of the United States. I thought that everybody was rich and the teenagers just had fun. But I learned that North Americans have the same problems that we have." Miriam Levano, Lima, Peru (spent year in Hibbing, Minn.). The story requires one slight correc- tion: AFS is a volunteer program, pri- vately financed without governmental direction, sponsoring, or financial aid. This is one reason for its tremendous growth and strength. AFS does, how- ever, greatly appreciate the splendid cooperation and accommodations it re- ceives from the many governments within which AFS operates, including the U.S. Department of State and Presi- dent Johnson. "I like the informal atmosphere of your schools. I like your food very much and your dances. The dances are getting a lot like our dances, but they have different names. * * * I enjoyed hearing your Attorney General speak to us. I think he just spoke for my benefit." Barbara Thornton, Bridge- town, Barbados (spent year in Horicon, Wis.). "I used to think that everyone in America had low moral standards. * * * But I found the moral standards very high. I also learned a lot from American- youth. They don't just spend all their time having fun." Protima Nag, Calcutta, India (spent year in Jacksonville, Ill.). 'II learned a lot about democracy in my year here, and I hope I can spread it in my country. * * * In one way, President John- son was wrong when he talked about our coming to 'America.' I have lived in Amer- ica for 17 years. We are as much America as you are." Pedro Miele, Caracas, Venezue- la (spent year in Girard, Ohio). "I can only hope that other countries treat their foreign visitors as well as you do in America. * * * I like your school system where all the students, bright and average and not so bright, are put together. In Germany, we have separate schools for. those of different abilities."_ Ingrid Zuendorf, Hamburg, Germany (spent year in Rantoul, Ill.). "From what I had seen on television and read about America, I had a vague idea that it would be a strange country to me. But I Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A4439 They are wise actions because their goal is peace, not war. The President had no hard decision to make this week. He had already made the hard decision more than 3 months ago. Everything we are now doing in Vietnam flows from it. The really hard, soul-searching, come- what-may decision was made by Mr. John- son on the eve of his April 7 address at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. It was embodied and embedded in these three in- candescent sentences: "We will not be defeated. We will not grow tired. We will not withdraw"-until peace is assured. No further decision on policy or will or commitment had to be made. All that re- mained was to determine the means to im- plement that decision-larger U.S. forces in Vietnam, larger draft calls, larger defense budget, and-in the end-"whatever is neces- sary." Mr. Johnson rightly says that three Presi- dents have given their word that the United States would help. But there is a dif- ference. It is not putting it too bluntly to say the difference is this: President Eisenhower decided to aid South Vietnam. President Kennedy decided to continue aiding South Vietnam. President Johnson decided to succeed in aiding South Vietnam. Because President Johnson is committed to successfully defending South Vietnam against the Communist use of force to take over the country, he has decreed "whatever is necessary" to do it will be employed. This is not a decision taken by the Presi- dent alone. It is shared by Congress which earlier approved the President's course. And will have to approve again when more defense appropriations are sought. Mr. Johnson well knows there are mis- givings and doubts and puzzlement about why we are fighting in Vietnam. There couldn't possibly be a harder decision for a President to make than to send American soldiers into combat when the nation itself has not been directly attacked. When World War I and World War II came to the shores of the United States- through the German U-boats and at Pearl Harbor-no painful decision of whether or not to resist had to be made. It was auto- matic and self-evident. Today the President Is asking the Ameri- can people to ponder carefully the lessons of Munich and of Korea. The world invited Hitler's terrible aggression by trying to buy him off through appeasement. It didn't work. It led to more aggression. Before the Communist attack on South Korea, we had withdrawn most of our forces and left the door open to another aggres- sion. It came and, too late to avert it, Presi- dent Truman. bravely decided it had to be resisted. Today the United States is helping defend South Vietnam because we are applying the grimmest, the most costly and the most crucial lesson of war to date. It is that, if aggression is not resisted-and resisted successfully-when it begins, it will grow and spread and the end result of failing to resist will be worse aggression, worse war, under worse conditions. To withdraw irf the face of the aggression against South Vietnam would mean only that we would have to prepare for the next aggression-and the next. This is the lesson of Munich. This is the lesson of World War II._ This is the lesson of Korea. President Johnson Is applying this lesson to save lives, to avert worse war, and to find the way to a safer peace. Applause for O'Brien EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS P. O'NEILL, JR. OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, I insert in the RECORD at this point an article from the Washington Post by Joseph Kraft entitled "Applause for Dr. O'Brien." This article recognizes the outstanding achievement of my good friend, the President's Special Assistant for Congressional Relations, Lawrence O'Brien, in helping to gain congressional acceptance for the programs of the Great Society. Mr. Speaker, Larry O'Brien is one individual who deserves a great deal of credit for the outstanding legislative victories of President Johnson's pro- grams. The article follows: APPLAUSE FOR DR. O'BRIEN (By Joseph Kraft) Not very long ago the Congress was or- ganized against the White House by means of a union of race prejudice and the acquisi- tive instinct. Nothern Republicans would unite with Southern Democrats to block civil rights laws. The two would also collaborate in measures that brought money to farm constituents in the form of subsidies, and to business sup- porters in the form of antilabor laws, deple- tion allowances, tariffs, and defense and space contracts. In certain quarters that unholy alliance against the administration in power was celebrated as the club. The old system is now dead, and nothing proves it better than an obscure procedural vote taken in the House last week. It in- volved the new 21-day rule which makes it possible to call measures on to the floor if they have been bottled up for more than 3 weeks in the Rules Committee. The measure at stake was repeal of a pro- vision-14 (b) -of the Taft-Hartley law which authorized States to outlaw the closed shop. In winning that vote the big city and labor Congressmen favoring repeal were joined by 16 of the 22 Democrats who, because their prime Interest is farming, sit on the Agri- culture Committee. Presumably those rural Congressmen will get their own back when the labor Representatives support a farm bill in the next few weeks. But the significant thing is that the old alliance has been re- versed. The club has been stood on its head. Credit for this great change is normally given to the President because of his long ex- perience with the Congress, and because of the great majorities he swept in with him last fall. And certainly no one would deny or disparage the President's role. But the strategist of the change, the man who planned it 5 years ago, and who has worked it out day by day ever since, is the President's Special Assistant for Congres- sional Relations, Lawrence O'Brien. While all the political assistants all over the coun- try were writing that hate was the normal state of relations between White House and Hill, O'Brien was already beginning to de- velop the possibilities of cooperation. His chief innovation was to set up in the White House a small staff charged entirely with responsibility for congressional rela- tions. The staff was organized along the lines of the various regional and interest groups in the Senate and House. It coordi- nated the congressional efforts of all Govern- ment agencies. It was in constant touch with the congressional leadership. "We don't even take a head count," one of the leaders once said, "without O'Brien." A first gain was a far more intimate work- ing relationship between the administration and the little known but extremely powerful giants in the House. As a supreme example, consider the case of the 1964 tax cut and the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, WILBUR MILLS. The administration, way back in 1962, pro- posed the tax cut to stimulate the economy; it was afraid that tying tax reform to the bill would kill the whole measure. MILLS, for his part, wanted a tax reform bill with a little cut added to smooth the way for reform. Very slowly, month by month, by discreet little favors (a Presidential visit to Arkansas) and almost invisible pressures (well-orga- nized business testimony against reform) the administration nursed MILLS along to its point of view. The bill that finally emerged from his committee, and that he steered through the House was almost all cut and no reform-just what Dr. O'Brien ordered. A second gain was that the White House was in touch not only with the congressional leadership, but also with the back benchers. The 16 Agriculture Committee Democrats who supported 14(b), for example, were not the committee leaders. On the contrary, the six who opposed the administration on 14(b) were precisely the senior members of the committee. O'Brien is at last getting some public rec- ognition for his achievement. Indeed, the President and his friends are showering him with compliments. An educated guess is that Mr. Johnson would like him to stick around in the White House job. A good hunch is that O'Brien will lave to reenter Massachusetts politics. If nothing else the time is ripe for leavetaking. A way, a permanent way I believe, to promote co- operation between the Executive and the Congress has been worked out. From now on the big problems will not be getting bills through the Congress. The big problem-the second phase of the Johnson administration and the true opportunity for the Republicans-will turn on the matter of applying effectively the measures that are already on the books. The World Population Explosion EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PAUL H. TODD, JR. OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. TODD. Mr. Speaker, debate and positive action on the subject of the pop- ulation explosion has come a long way in the last 10 years. Many of our States presently have laws setting up birth- control programs for those in need. Discussion in my own State of Michi- gan has perhaps proceeded farther than in many other States because of the rationality and concern of lawmakers, public-spirited citizens, voluntary orga- nizations, and members of the press. I might stress that concern o n this issue is fully bipartisan. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 A4440 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX August 10, 1965 An outstanding example of the con- cern that this issue has raised in my own State is to be seen in an editorial pub- lished yesterday by the Detroit Free Press. As the editorial points out: Birth control, a subject once thought un- speakable, suddenly is being talked about. The Free Press could not have been more to the point. The editorial follows: DUAL PROBLEMS OF MAN: WAR AND THE BIRTH RATE -- Birth control, a subject once thought un- speakable, suddenly is being talked about. President Johnson' spoke- about it at the U.N. There was scarcely a ripple of pro- test. A decade ago, President Eisenhower, fear- ing a bitter national debate, said birth con- trol was not a business of Government." Now he points to the futility of foreign aid programs where population outdistances progress. Testimony that would have frightened the most intrepid lawmaker was recently given at a hearing conducted by Senator ERNEST GRUENING. The reasons for this change are as diffi- cult to judge as the public thoughts on any controversial subject. It may be a sud- den maturity or it may be, as we suspect, that earlier fears were magnified, Witnesses on Gruening's bill, a measure to establish offices of population problems in the Department of State and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, show the need for such a national debate. The international danger was voiced by Dr. George B. Kistiakowski, former special assistant to President Eisenhower for science and technology. Two great problems face all of us: pre- vention of war and prevention of a world population explosion," Kistiakowski said, ""they are not completely unrelated." The domestic problem was described by John Martin, of Grand Rapids, a spokesman for the Planned Parenthood Association of Kent County. "The indiscriminate production of un- Wanted and rejected children has resulted in a large measure of our delinquency and crime," Martin said. Any program should include unwed mothers or it would ignore the most pathetic cases. It would also leave out a growing percentage of mothers. In 1950 the ratio of illegitimate to legitimate births in Mich- igan was 2.78 percent. It has risen each year until now it is 5.56 percent. Some de- prived areas now have a 22-percent illegiti- macy rate. The success of planned parenthood pro- grams was shown by a pilot project in Meck- lenberg County, N.C., Martin said. The pub- lic welfare department enrolled 182 clients in the program in 1960, including many unwed mothers. Today 75 percent of these women are still In the program and none of them has become pregnant. Previously, these women had had 3,440 pregnancies. The most pathetic evidence was a Mich- igan Health Department study of maternal deaths. It showed that 77 Women died in the State from 1960 to 1964 as a result of "criminal or self-induced abortions." These deaths were most apt to occur with women "who are 20 to 34 years of age, mar- ried, and who have one to six children." It concluded: "These women resort to criminal or self-induced abortion as a means of limiting family size." This and other evidence are the Ingre- dients of a debate called fpr by Catholic as well as Protestant spokesmen. Answers will be difficult. But before we started talking about the problem, they were impossible. The Space Challenge EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. GEORGE P. MILLER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. MILLER. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to make available to the Mem- bers of Congress and those who are in- terested in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD a speech entitled "The Space Challenge," delivered by Dr. Edward C. Welsh, execu- tive secretary, National Aeronautics and Space Council, on the occasion of the 10th Symposium on Space and Ballistic Missile Technology, held in San Diego, Calif., commencing August 4. As usual, Dr. Welsh has done a mag- nificent job in defining our space efforts. His address follows: THE SPACE CHALLENGE (Keynote address by Dr. Edward C. Welsh, executive secretary, National Aeronautics and Space Council, San Diego, Calif., Aug. 4, 1965) It is an honor and a pleasure to partici- pate in the opening session of this 10th Symposium on Space and Ballistic Missile Technology. I appreciate the opportunity afforded me. Before making a few remarks regarding our national space program, I want to convey the Vice President's regrets at his being un- able to be present and to express his sincere wishes for a successful symposium. He asked that I encourage this distinguished audi- ence "to step up the Nation's technological progress, as peace and freedom rely heavily upon our technological leadership." MISUNDERSTANDING There exists a serious misunderstanding about our space program. All too many peo- ple seem to have the impression that part of our program is peaceful in intent and nature while the other part is something dif- ferent, presumably nonpeaceful. This mis- conception goes further by attempting to identify the nonpeaceful and the non- scientific with the military and to credit the peaceful and the scientific to the civilian. This distinction could not be more wrong. There are those, however, in the Govern- ment as well as outside the Government who foster this type of confusion. Such inac- curacy of expression and of thinking causes unwarranted friction between Government agencies, unnecessary suspicion of our inten- tions on the part of other nations, and seri- ous difficulties for those who attempt to ex- plain our space planning to the Congress and to the public. PEACEFUL PURPOSE The fact is-in both policy and practice- that all of our space activities are peaceful. Moreover, no arm of the Government has a monopoly over our peaceful space projects. Just in case it may have been forgotten, let me quote from our highest policy level. In 1962, President Johnson, then Vice President and the Chairman of the National Aero- nautics and Space Council, stated: "The United States does not have a division be- tween peaceful and nonpeaceful objectives for space but rather has space missions to help keep the peace and space missions to improve our ability to live well In peace." In 1964, as President, he said: "Our space program, in both its civil and military as- pects, is peaceful in purpose and practice." If it were not for the currency of miscon- ceptions. It would seem to be unnecessary to recall that the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 states: "It is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind." In so stating, the act referred to all space activities, in- cluding those of the Defense Department as well as those of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Surely, everyone should be able to agree that there is no ac- tivity more peaceful than that which dis- courages aggression and thereby encourages peace. Those who drive wedges of adverse intent between. the space activities of the Defense Department and NASA, :For example, do a dis- service-to the national effort and act to con- travene national policy. Perhaps I am belaboring the obvious. Per- haps I am emphasizing a principle concern- ing which you have sensed no misunder- standing. If the latter is the case, I will have to say that you are indeed in the minority. A very large number of writers and speak- ers-expert or not on the subject of space-- attempt to make a distinction between the peaceful and military phases of our space program. Such contrasts distort the truth. COMPLACENCY I hasten to add, however, that I am not saying that space cannot be used for pur- poses of aggression. Of course it can. No arena within the reach of man is free from the possibility of being exploited by an ag- gressor. Moreover, no nation should bury itself in the sands of complacency and there- by neglect to develop the technological and military strength so necessary for deterring potential aggressors. The maintenance of such strength in no respect conflicts with the policy of peace. In fact, the more competent we are to prevent surprise, to discover aggressive maneuvers, and to intercept hostile weapons in any medium, the better chance we have of liv- ing in peace. That is why I have taken such a keen interest in our military space developments. When I state, therefore, that our entire national space program is peaceful, I mean that we have no aggressive intent, that we seek no domination over other peoples, and that we are eager to share the benefits of space exploration with all mankind. I do not mean, however, that we intend to be naive, complacent, or weak. COOPERATION Cooperation between the Defense Depart- ment and NASA takes continued effort and attention. It is not enough to legislate that cooperation. Rather, it is something which has to be worked on at all times-and that is being done. As I pointed out previously, those who drive wedges-like claiming that one agency is peaceful and the other is not, or that one agency's activities are essential while the others are not-tend to undermine what is generally a condition of healthy com- petition and constructive cooperation. I also believe in international space co- operation whenever such joint endeavor will improve technology, increase our store of knowledge, or further the pursuit of peace. This means that international space coopera- tion, in order to be justifiable, must be mu- tual in its benefits and must not in any case diminish the relative strength of this country.. GROWTH As much, however, as I favor international cooperation in space-and I do so emphati- cally-cooperation within our country is even more important. If one looks backward to the beginning of the development of bal- listic missile technology and follows that rec- ord of growth through to the present time, he will see step-by-step progress. Some- times the steps were hesitant or slow ones and sometimes very rapid. But whether slow or fast, the net result was a vastly in- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 A4444 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R0003001300 6-8 . CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX August 10, 1965 Sponsored by Senators HOLLAND 2 and SMATHERS, the lobby's bill consists of two provisions, both embodied in single sentences of inordinate length. First, the bill states that a utility which is not "directly con- nected" with an interstate power network is to be exempt from the regulations of the FPC "as a matter of local concern." A sec- ond provision repeals the FPC's jurisdiction over wholesale transactions, sales of electrical power from one utility to another when the utility making the sale has substantial retail revenues in the State in which the sale is made. If there is any logical or functional justifi- cation for the provisions of the Holland- Smathers bill, it is elusive. Under the first provision, a giant utility which generates power and sells it in its home State would be exempted from FPC regulation even though that power is resold to utility com- panies in a dozen other States. To treat such transactions as matters of local concern is an absurdity that can only undermine the public welfare. The second provision cuts into the Federal protection afforded small customers in wholesale power transactions, the small private utilities, and municipal cooperatives which cannot stand on an equal footing in bargaining with the large sellers that participate in the great interstate power grids. As a strategic ploy, the supporters of the Holland-Smathers measure are threatening to attach it as a rider to a bill (S. 1495) that would exempt Rural Electrification Adminis- tration cooperatives from regulation by the FPO. The latter bill is neither necessary nor especially wise, but its fate is of small con- sequence. What is important is that every effort be made to defeat the Holland- Smathers bill. Its passage would utterly destroy the Federal regulation of electrical rates and revive an era of. abuse that was ended with the passage of the Wheeler-Ray- burn Act in 1935. Tourists Praise National Park System pXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. JOHN C. CULVER Or IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 nattily, I feel that all too often the dedi- cated efforts of the Department and its employees have gone unheralded. I am pleased to add my personal note of appreciation and commendation to the grateful and thoughtful comments of my constituents. At this time, I place the letter from Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hyde, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in the RECORD: CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA, August 6, 1965. Hon. JOHN C. CULVER, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CULVER: Recently we and our family returned from our vacation along the eastern coast of the United States where we visited many historical monuments. We were most impressed by those that are designated national historical monuments and are under the guidance and care of the National Park Service. The men who are on duty at these monuments are most cour- teous and very knowledgeable about the his- tory of the monuments they serve. We were extremely impressed with those we visited at Lexington and Concord, Con- stitution Hall in Philadelphia, and every- where we went in Washington, D.C. We just thought we would take this opportunity to pass on to you our deep appreciation of the fine service rendered by our Government. Sincerely, Mr. and Mrs. THOMAS HYDE. Minimum Wage on Farms Boon and Bane ber of the House interested in the well- being of farm people should have the op- portunity to read the editorial in this great newspaper, before any further ac- tion is taken on H.R. 10275. Therefore, under unanimous consent, I am publish- ing this in the Appendix of the RECORD. The editorial follows: (From the Raleigh (N.C) News & Observer, Aug. 6, 19651 BOON AND BANE A bill to place farmworkers under the minimum wage holds out hope for the eco- nomic improvement of those on the bot- tom of the ladder. Yet, it may also fore- cast their elimination from any jobs at all. The truth is that even though there are an estimated 700,000 farmworkers now who would come under the bill--about 40 per- cent of the total farm employment-ma- chines may out that number in half by the time the bill would go into full effect. Farmers have found that with machines they can get more done at far less cost than when human hands did most of the work. Automation and the accompanying loss of jobs for people came first in many ways to the farms. One need only drive through the countryside of North Carolina to see what has happened. The empty houses are mute testimonials to the efficiency of the machines. Where fields were once filled with farmhands a lone man rides a tractor. More money for farmworkers is reason- able and long overdue, but the fact is that any wage increase will without much doubt hasten their ouster from jobs because of machines. The farmer cannot be blamed for seeking cheaper ways to raise his crops. HON. HAROLD D. COOLEY OF NORTH CAROLINA IN THE HOTYSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. COOLEY. Mr. Speaker, I com- mend any Member of this body who has it in his heart to raise the income and the living standards of farmers and of farm labor. But today I am concerned that in seeking to improve the pay of farmworkers we may eliminate many thousands of farm jobs completely-that in helping some people we may hurt many people. I speak now to H.R. 10275 by Mr. ROOSEVELT, of California, recently ap- proved by the General Labor Subcom- mittee of the House Committee on Edu- cation and Labor, which proposed a minimum wage for farmworkers. The conflicting thrusts of this legis- lation are analyzed, evaluated, and force- fully presented by an eminent newspaper in my own congressional district, the Raleigh, N.C., News & Observer, under an editorial heading, "Boon and Bane." The News & Observer is published by one of the Nation's most distinguished news- paper families. The late Josephus Daniels, editor and publisher from 1894 Mr. CULVER. Mr. Speaker, as we are all aware, our Government is currently engaged in a most notable program to encourage greater travel' within the United States in order to intensify the awareness of the beauty and great his- torical significance which is our rich heritage. In this spirit, I wish to call attention to the outstanding contribu- tion to this program being made by the National Park Service. This week I received a letter from resi- dents of my district describing a recent trip in which they visited several national parks and monuments. I am pleased that they took this opportunity to very graciously commend employees of the National Park Service for the courteous and knowledgeable manner in which they perform their duties. War T. His assistant then was Franklin The effective work of the National Park D. Roosevelt, later to become President Service is just one example of the capable of the United States and to lead the Na- and imaginative leadership which Secre- tion out of the great depression and to tary Stewart L. Udall has brought to the victory in World War II. The News & Department of Interior and to its pro- Observer now is published by the distin- grams to preserve and utilize the great guished sons of Josephus Daniels. natural beauty of our Nation. Unfortu- Mr. Speaker, I think that every Mem- those who will De pusnea Irom sarm sous into places where they are unskilled and un- wanted. The retraining of farmworkers has been receiving some attention under the Presi- dent's war on poverty program. Of necessity, this retraining must be stepped up and made more effective. The blessing of a possible better wage for the farmhand is not unmixed. The boon of maybe a better living can instead be a bane of no farm work at all. Economy Set for/ie1na Warms EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GLENARD P. LIPSCOMB OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 9, 1965 Mr. LIPSCOMB. Mr. Speaker, the Los Angeles Times, in an August 3, 1965, editorial, analyzed the impact of the de- cisions to Increase our commitment in Vietnam on our overall economic situation. The editorial correctly warns that the "present estimates of the war costs, and of future tax collections, may prove overly optimistic." If this were to hap- pen, some adjustments would be needed within the competing demands of our economy. A proper question is raised as to whether or not the Nation should cut back on other areas of anticipated spending. The editorial raises an important warning in this connection: Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 to 1948, was Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX ' and Training Act (MDTA) class of 1965 Mr. Stevenson, a master of English in radio and TV servicing, which was rhetoric himself, would have been proud taught in the Connelley Vocational Tech- of this journalistic effort by Mr. Robert nical High School in Pittsburgh. Lerner. Because of recent criticisms we have I should like today to add to the REC- heard on various programs designed to ORD a eulogy written by Mr. Lerner for help the unemployed and disadvantaged the Lerner Nawspapers in Chicago. It among us, I feel the Members of Con-. can readily be seen that young Mr. fires would appreciate the message these students felt impelled to send. When the Manpower Development and retraining Act programs were in their early stages, there were some rough spots that had to be smoothed out-but-now that we have had our trial and error period, success stories are appearing throughout the Nation. This, I am sure, will be the pattern followed in our more recent endeavors to help others not elig- ibel under Manpower Development and Training Act. The students, in expressing their thanks to certain. individuals, stated "We know there are many more," and be- cause our last recorded vote on amend- roent to the Manpower Development and Training Act program showed a unani- mous House, this letter is actually di- rected to each Member. For this reason I am inserting it in the CONGRESSIONAL CONNELLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, MDTA, Pittsburgh,'Pa., June 25, 1965. Manpower retraining program. DEAR Sias: We, the members of the man- power retraining program class of 1965, radio and TV servicing, wish to express our sincere thanks to all who made possible and were a part of this program. That the program is worthy we all know, for it has put into our hands a tool or skill which will enable us to go out and meet the world with more than just our own bare hands. We particularly wish to express our appreciation to those re- sponsible for the creation of this program; to the personnel of the State employment agency for placing us; to the administrative staff at Connelley; Mr. Savero DonGiovanni, Mr. Edwin Riebel, Mr. L. J. Borelli, Mrs. Mary Smith, and to Mr. R. E. Beaumont our in- structor who, by all means In his power, did drive the know-how of this craft into us, for which we are indeed grateful. We know that there were many more who contributed toward this program,of whom we know not and to them also we wish to express our ap- precigtion. Sincerely, Ronald J. Adamsky; Robert W. Hughes; Henry Kondy; Fred A. Knoll; Adam Visoikis; Carter Nugustine; O. Wayne Strawden; Frederick Hoffman; Peter J. Kochick; LaVaughn M. Turner; Rich- ard Chappel; Robert W. Domhoff; Richard Cline; Arthur H. Eichenberg. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROMAN C. PUCINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, the flow of eulogies of our late Ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson, has produced some of the best writing that we have seen in many years. These eulogies speak well for the stature of the art in American journalism. of the pen from his late father, Leo Lerner, who was considered one of America's outstanding writers. Mr. Robert Lerner has brightly cap- tured the true spirit of Adlai Stevenson in this magnificent eulogy of the former governor of Illinois. Mr. Lerner demon- strates that the principle of his father has been preserved in the image of his son. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Lerner's very impres- sive eulogy to Adlai Stevenson follows: PROUD To BE AN AMERICAN (By Robert M. Lerner) What kind of tombstone do you erect for Adlai Stevenson? A mass of granite, a pile of books, a collection of flags? The dirt of more than 100 nations upon his grave? Do we pile flowers of affection in tribute to a man who gave the world his soul, and finally asked for nothing more than to sit on the grass with a glass of wine and watch people dance? Do we make contributions to UNESCO and UNICEF, and rename parks and playgrounds A4443 the kind of thing that had to be said, in the manner that would be appropriate and mem- orable. Adlai was a humorist, and we loved him for it. But that was his camaraderie, not the complete man; at his most profound and dynamic,, we preferred Stevenson the hon- orable-American, the man who took the issue to heart and without a single smile whipped into the enemies of the Republic or defended its principles. Now let no man write his eulogy for no one can cut out his own heart and lay it on the altar of humanity. Let no man erect his tombstone for no man can chisel into it what must be there-although, in his way, a small child might. For myself, I wore my buttonhole shoe to- day, a memory of glorious campaigns of the past, a memory of the sensitive man who made me proud to be an American. I remember the tombstone erected to the selfless village dentist in Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," who had second floor offices where for decades he practiced hard for little if any fees, and lived on love rather than money. They put his shingle over his simple grave, and by changing the name maybe we should have a simple shingle that reads: "Adlai Stevenson, Office Upstairs." A Menacing Power Play streets and civic buildings Do we establish EXTENSION OF REMARKS scholarships for highminded young people of who will try to make public service their HON. Do we build a monument in Wash- HUN. JOHN E. MOSS inpton or Springfield, do we write eulogies of CALIFORNIA for public bodies, do we fire the cannons in IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ancient salute? And what men, of what wit and literary Tuesday, August 10, 1965 accomplishment, are worthy enough to write Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, I am placing the tributes to the man whose wisdom they in the RECORD at this point an editorial borrowed, whose humor they stole, and whose from the Washington Post of August 10, integrity lifted them above their own mortal standards and made them proud? 1965, in the hope that many Members Just as in the fateful days after the death will read and, in the reading, take cogni- of President John F. Kennedy, a thousand zance of the problem so ably stated in the editorial writers on a thousand newspapers editorial. sit with tears in their eyes unable to find > my judgment, failure to preserve the words to convey what they feel. The mem- ories flood, but the words don't-1952, the authority of the Federal Power Commis- Draft Stevenson committee; 1956, the loss sion over rates for electrical energy mov- they knew would be sustained; 1960, the ob- ing in interstate commerce would Con- vious convention defeat but the beauty of stitute grave disservice to the consuming the little people who begged for Stevenson in Public. It would leave them naked of quiet demonsfration in Los Angeles. protection they are not only entitled to And the man who made famous the hole expect of their Government, but which in the shoe frightened Mr. K. out of the one he didn't they must have if they are to receive pound on the table, Stevenson was a Teal American, not a value for their dollars. The very nature phony flag waver. As the United Nations of the electrical industry is that under Ambassador he performed brilliantly, up- either Federal or State regulation, its holding American foreign policy with his right to adequate profit is fully protected. greatest ability, even when in his heart many No State government has the legal means of us knew he disagreed with it in part. to protect the consumers within its And Adlai became a politician, too. In the boundaries from gouging which could back rooms of the United Nations he could take place on the price of energy im- trade votes, convince recalcitrant delegates, and play power politics in a manner that ported into the State. Only the Federal makes a precinct captain out of Boss Tweed. Power Commission can perform that im- For his country, nothing was beneath Adlai portant chore. The public interest will Stevenson. When he spoke in anger it was not be served through the enactment of our anger, and when he spoke in praise, it the bills mentioned in the editorial. was our common eloquence. The editorial follows: We called him "governor" because he was A MENACING POWER PLAY most proud of that office, for that was the office to which he was elected by the people. If the lobby of State regulatory officials Was Adlai Stevenson an "egghead," a mem the and Senate e will power enact a companies measure is that would ure that would ber of the "intr nicenf.oia ? o ~,aa+ . " an-' too far over the heads of the people to serve the public trust? Never. He was the Nation in every sense- and he had the best of manners and best of taste to underscore his courage and his sym- pathy. During the 1964 convention it was he who was selected to deliver the eulogy for Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, for only he could say which the Federal Power Commission now exercises over electric power rates. And without effective rate regulation by the FPC, there will be a sharp increase in the $14 bil- lion electric bill that is now paid by the Nation's households, business enterprises, Government agencies, and nonprofit institu- tions. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD- APPENDIX A4445 Finally, we must remember that Vietnam is only one c'anger spot. Defense spending must not be held down by stripping units here or abroad that may be needed for other crises. That would be economy of the most false and dangerous sort. Many voices in and out of Congress, military and nonmilitary,. have been questioning the status of our military readiness. The Los Angeles Times by raising this question serves a very useful purpose in alerting our leaders and the people that it is a question which must be recognized and considered. False economies in defense would not only hurt our military readiness, but could tempt potential aggressors into believing that we either lack the capability or will- ingness to defend our interests. Under leave to extend my remarks I submit the editorial from the August 3, 1965, issue of the Los Angeles Times for inclusion in the RECORD: ECONOMY SET FOR VIETNAM WAR War, by its nature, Is a dirty and dangerous business. For the men who do the fighting, the expanding conflict in Vietnam will not be any different. However, the war may have remarkably little impact on the Nation's economic life unless it escalates far beyond what is now contemplated. Not that it won't be expensive. The direct cost of fighting the war was running, until lately, around $1 billion a a year. This did not include the cost of maintaining the Navy's 7th Fleet, the jet bombers on Guam and Okinawa, and the long supply line reaching from America. With U.S. Involvement growing, the cost will grow-by just how much is unclear, al- though officials have been talking in terms of $1.5 or $2 billion extra. (Some key law- makers say it will be much more.) The surprising fact is that America's econ- omy is so vast, and is growing so rapidly that a considerable effort can be absorbed without a noticeable burden on our people. The explanation is that we are starting this time from a much higher level of pre- paredness and national Income. When the war in Korea began in 1950, the American military machine had been prac- tically dismantled, and the defense budget had to be quadrupled. Today, we have a large permanent defense establishment, and It is doing much of the fighting in Vietnam. Our gross national product-the total value of what we all produce-was $285 bil- lion in 1950. Today, it is approaching $860 billion. This means that today's defense budget Is well under 10 percent of our gross national product, compared with 14 to 18 percent in the Korean war and 40 percent during World War H. The national income Is still soaring. At present tax rates, Federal revenues are ex- pected to increase by $7 billion a year. Thus, we can pay for a considerable jump in Viet- nam war costs by merely foregoing a hoped- for future tax cut. Supplies of a few Industrial materials may be in shorter supply, but the guessing is that consumer goods won't be affected, and wage and price controls will not be needed. Some warning flags must be hoisted, how- ever. Present estimates of the war costs, and of future tax collections, may prove overly op- timistic. President Johnson may have to be more forceful in discouraging strikes, un- warranted price increases, and inflationary wage settlements. It may turn out, too, that the President will have to hold back Great Society spend- ing, however much it pains him. Finally, we must remember that Vietnam is Only one danger spot. Defense spending must not be held down by stripping units here or abroad that may be needed for other crises. That would be economy of the most fal3ge and dangerous sort. A Record of Accomplishment EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JEFFERY COHELAN OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, if this Congress were to adjourn today, if it were to adjourn without acting on a single further measure, It would stand without question as one of the most pro- ductive sessions of any Congress in our entire history. Enactment of a strong voting rights bill, of health protection for our older citizens and of new ap- proaches to improving the educational opportunities of our children woud alone mark this as a Congress of achievement. But the list is much longer and its length is equaled in most respects by its quality. This does not mean, of course, that there is no further work to be done. Reform of our immigration laws, further protection for our dwindling natural re- sources, improvement and extensions of our unemployment compensation system, and stronger and more equitable pro- tection for our migrant farmworkers all demand attention and action. But at a time when we are faced with both a difficult and dangerous situation in Vietnam, I' believe it is appropriate to call attention to the fact that Congress has been acting responsibly and vigor- ously on those issues which are its direct and primary responsibility. Mr. Speaker, I include a thoughtful editorial by the New York Times dis- tinguished columnist, Mr. James Reston, which speaks further to this point: [From the New York Times, Aug. 6, 1965] WASHINGTON: THE QUIET REVOLUTION (By James Reston) WASHINGTON, August 5.-President John- son is beginning to make Franklin Roose- velt's early legislative record look like an abject failure. He's getting everything through the Congress but the abolition of the Republican Party, and he hasn't tried that yet. It is a political miracle. It has even sur- passed his own expectations, which were not modest, and while he's still a long way from achieving a Great Society, he is at least mak- ing progress toward a more equal and com- passionate society. In a single evening this week, the Senate passed the most liberal voting rights bill in the history of the Republic, and sustained the Supreme Court's ruling that the State legislatures must be reapportioned to give equal voting rights to the steeply rising urban and suburban population of the Nation. AN IMPRESSIVE RECORD In this first session of the 89th Congress, the Federal legislature has also passed the medical care bill under social security, a housing bill with an experimental system of Federal rent subsidies for the poor, education and poverty bills that "bypass the ancient conflict over Federal aid to religious institu- tions, a constitutional amendment to deal at long last with the danger of Presidential dis- ability, a bill for the relief of the depressed areas of Appalachia-all this and a lot more and a tax cut too. Mr. Johnson is giving us a revolution in the binding of a hymn book. He has broken the consolidating spirit of the Eisenhower era. He hps sounded more conservative but acted more radical than his mentor, Roose- velt, and he has presided over more legisla- tive innovations on the home front than any other President in any other single session of the Congress in this century. This is not, of course, due entirely to Lyn- don Baines Johnson's particular brand of political magic, though that hasn't hurt. The New Deal's day has finally come. The radical ideas of the early thirties are now winning instead of losing. There seems to be a new sense of social responsibility in the country-a growing feeling that racial dis- crimination, bad education, inadequate med- ical care and degrading poverty are intoler- able in a fabulously wealthy Nation. Other factors have helped. The Demo- cratic landslide in the Presidential election of 1964 gave the President's party large majorities in the House and Senate; the new Members in the 89th Congress have been overwhelmingly for the President's program; the old conservative coalition of the south- ern Democrats and middle western Republi- cans has been broken, and the Republican leadership has not only gone along with but sometimes has led the fight for equal civil rights. This is a development of worldwide signi- ficance. It is not so long ago that students of government in other lands were perplexed about the erratic nature of the American economy, the verbal violence of American politics, and what they regarded as the rigidity of the American Constitution. THE DOUBTERS They were not sure that the United States could maintain economic growth and stability, that it would apply to new tech- niques of tax and monetary policy, that it could provide continuity of purpose from one political party to the other, or that a Federal Government of proud and numerous States with an attic full of hobgoblins about the welfare state and the planned economy, could achieve social progress over an entire continent and bring its military power to the defense of freedom in other parts of the world. Well, it begins to look as if the people will take the welfare state and the planned economy if you just don't mention the names, mainly because, wicked or not, they seem to work. The gross national produce rose by $9.2 billion in the second quarter of 1965-from a 1964 level of $622 billion to an annual rate of $658 billion. THE OLD ASSUMPTIONS Something, in short, seems to have hap- pened to the old popular assumptions that the American economy wouldn't work if the Government tinkered with it; that the White House and the Congress couldn't get along unless both were reorganized; that Federal money couldn't be channeled to the private and parochial schools without the immediate retaliation of a vengeful God. So maybe there's some zip in the old system yet. In his state of the Union message, President Johnson said the time had come to give more attention to the home front. He promised to try to keep the economy growing, to extend the prosperity to more people, and to try to improve the quality of life for all. And even his critics here concede he has kept his promise. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 A4446 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX August 10, 1965 China Hews at Its High Birth Rate ExTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. PAUL H. TODD, JR. . OF MICHIGAN IN THE SOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. TODD. Mr. Speaker, by now it has become clear that the solution of economic problems facing developing countries of the world lies in the estab- lishment of an effective program to con- trol the ever-spiraling rate of birth. Indeed, it has been said that that coui-: by which first solves its population problem will take the lead in providing a better life for all of its citizens. The case of Japan is particularly instructive. Some Years ago that nation launched a full-scale birth control program which halved its birth rate in a decade; Japan is currently enjoying an unprecedented prosperity. The fifth in a series 'of six articles entitled Our Crowded Earth," by Jean M. White, currently running in the Washington Post, discusses such pro- grams in various developing nations around the world : CHnvA Hews A'r Its HIGH BIRTH RATE: OUR ? CsowDZD EARTH-V (By Jean M. White) If Communist China decides to throw the persuasive power of its totalitarian govern- ment behind a fun-scale campaign to con- trol population, the results could be spectac- ular. There have been signs that the Chinese are coming to realize there can be weakness, not strength, in numbers. Irene B. Taeuber, a leading demographer, thinks Communist China may be ready to launch a systematic birth-control campaign. She backs up this view in a paper being pre- pared for presentation at an international conference on family-planning programs In Geneva August 23 to 27. "They now have the means with the IUD and a simple touch method of induced abor- tion," Mrs. Taeuber, points out. "The public health network goes into every village to reach the masses. The youth can be indoc- trinated through the Communist Youth League." EARLY WEDLOCK DISCOURAGED Early marriages are discouraged in Com- munist China today, and couples are encour- aged to delay the first child. Party members receive no extra allowances or maternity leaves after the first two children. What happens in Communist China could have far-reaching political consequences in the alinement between the free world and the Communist bloc. The Asian country that controls it population growth probably will be the first to achieve an economic takeoff to offer people a better life. Philip M. Hauser, University of Chicago demographer and former Acting Director of the Census Bureau, has pointed out that the other underdeveloped countries are closely watching the race between India and Com- munist China. BIRTH RATE MAY DECIDE Both are trying to achieve a higher stand- ard of living--one by Communist methods and the other by a modified democratic way. "Success or failure in this fateful contest may well hinge on the ability of the nations involved to decrease their rates of population growth," Hauser emphasizes. Burdened down by a high birth rate, India Is in a painful struggle to modernize for economic growth. Its official family-plan- ning policy has shown few results over a decade, partly because of Indifferent govern- meatleadership and bureaucratic snarls. In 1956, Communist China launched a family-planning drive, stressing contracep- tion, sterilization, and induced abortion. In less than a year the campaign was turned off and the government turned its energies and verbiage to the "great leap forward." The reasons for the abrupt about-face never were explained-there was a good har- vest that year, the family-planning drive ran into peasant resistance, and justification required some nimble flip-flops In the Marx- ist line. REVIVED ON LOWER KEY The population-control campaign soon was revived in a lower key, with emphasis on de- layed marriages and children. In an interview last. year with Journalist Edgar Snow, Premier Chou En-lai supported planned parenthood as "conducive to rais- ing the standard of living." China, he told Snow, had sent a delegation to Japan to study how that country had reduced its birth rate. It also has had its scientists at work on a birth-control. pill, Chou said. No one knows for sure how many people live behind the Bamboo Curtain or how fast the population is growing. The estimate is that the population may be around 750 million and the growth rate about 2.5 per- cent. The international political situation gives special significance to population growth, and the Implications extend far beyond the race between China and India. POOR AREAS BURSTING Today a little more than two-thirds of the world's people live in the underdeveloped areas of Asia. Africa, and Latin America. Within 35 years, these areas probably will hold four-fifths of the world population. To- day 6 of every 10 new persons added to the world population are born in Asia. An- other two are born in Latin America and Africa. The overvfeighted racial imbalance is obvi- ous. But more significant in the long run is the widening gap between the have and the have-not nations. This is something that could have a profound impact on world peace and world order. Hauser points out that this widening gap between the rich and poor nations could lead to a north-south division of the world to replace the present polarity between the east and west. The have-nots now have had a glimpse of a better life; if their aspirations are blocked, they may blow off their frustra- tions in revolutions and convulsions of un- rest. ASIA'S BIG PROBLEM The world's biggest population problems are concentrated in Asia, which now has 56 percent of the global population. The only Asian nation that has succeeded in controlling Its population growth is Japan. And that country-highly literate, modern- ized, and industrialized-cannot serve as a model to guide the other underdeveloped countries of Asia. In just a decade, Japan halved its birth rate, the fastest decline in history. In 1947, the rate was 34.3 per 1,000 of population. Ten years later it had dropped down to nearly 17. Japan, a crowded island with a population half that of the United States crammed into 5 percent of the land space, came out of the war with its industry smashed. More than 5 million men came home from the Pacific Islands. JAPAN ACCEPTS ABORTIONS In 1948, the Japanese Government passed a national eugenics act that liberalized the laws on legal abortions. But even before this, the Japanese people had made their decisions and started limiting families. The birth rate had been failing even before World War II, but rose temporarily with the postwar baby boom. The Japanese have no religious qualms over abortion and relied largely on this method to limit their families. Now, with improvements in contraception in recent years, there are moves to encourage greater use of more conventional birth control meth- ods. But there still are about 1 million abortions each year in Japan. Within the last 2 or 3 years, there have been hopeful signs that other Asian nations are making gains in population control. RATE DIPS IN HONG KONG Taiwan and South Korea have turned to the intrauterine device (IUD) to push family planning and have expanded pilot programs into national policy. In Taiwan, the birth rate dropped from 42 per 1,000 in 1958 to 35 last year. Ceylon, with technical assistance from Sweden, is now moving ahead on its program. In Hong Kong last year, the birth rate fell below 30 per 1,000 for the first time, This island city is incredibly congested because of the immigration of mainland refugees. It Is an artificial situation, but it does point up what can happen as population swells-:in low-income public housing only 24 square feet, perhaps the size of a railroad compart- ment, is allotted to each person. Rats, given ample food but jammed in crowded pens, have become neurotic and frustrated and develop rat societal prob- lems. How human society will bear up un- der the stfess of such crowding is something for speculation. For the present, the heart of the world's population problem does lie in Asia. But it is tropical Latin America that has the fastest rate of growth. Though rich in space and natural re- sources, Latin American countries are having serious population difficulties. Their people are poor, and more and. more are being born without any hope of adequate food, housing, or clothing. The late President Kennedy took note of the situation in his 1961 message on foreign aid: "The magnitude of the problem Is stag- gering. In Latin America, for example, the population growth Is already threatening to outpace economic growth-and in some parts of the continent living standards are ac- tually declining." BABY BOOM IN BRAZIL In many South American countries the population growth rate is 3 percent or better. Brazil, the giant of South America, has a birth rate of about 45 per 1,000 and is grow- ing at a 3.5-percent clip. At this rate, the population of 80 million will double in two decades. On the hills around Rio de Janeiro, more and more poor crowd into the miserable slum favelas, looking down. without hope on the bright lights of the beautiful city. The picture in Latin America is grim. Some Asian nations are at least beginning to talk about their population problem"s. No one seems concerned in many of the Catholic countries of Latin America. However, concern over the rising number of abortions is growing in a few countries. In Chile, which has added family-planning services in hospitals, about a fourth of the maternity beds have been occupied by post- abortion patients. The estimates are that there are three abortions to every live birth in Uruguay. PUERTO RICO CUTS RATE Puerto Rico, which had some pioneering private family-planning programs as early as the 1930's, has slowly reduced her birth rate. Part of the drop undoubtedly is due to the emigration of young people. But one survey hasshown that 1 in 5 women between Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CFA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX A4441 creased base of technical knowledge and ex- perience which has contributed directly to this country's military strength and eco- nomic well-being. On such a technological foundation we have built an effective missile deterrent, whose value can be judged by the fact that we have not needed to employ it in anger. On this technological base also, we have taken a few strong strides toward developing a real space competence. The Nation owes a debt of gratitude to those who pioneered the research, the development, and the pro- duction of ballistic missiles. Had it not been for this early effort, much of it under ad- verse circumstances, the national space pro- gram could not have made the great ad- vance it has made in recent years. This far- sightedness, this growth, this interrelation- ship of manpower and facilities, show how national assets can be put to constructive use so long as we have the will and the deter- mination to do so. Those who are impatient for even greater progress in space-and I am to be counted among them-should try to establish per- spective by attempting to enumerate some of the many accomplishments which have taken place in less than a decade of space activities. In a sense, that reference to a period shorter than a decade is somewhat misleading as it has been much more than 10 years since we first started in rocket technology. However, it has been only recently that we have had what can really be called a viable space pro- gram. We need go back only to 1956 to find the first year in which space expenditures reached the grand total of $100 million. Fis- cal year 1965, with its expenditure figure of $6.6 billion was only the fifth year in which space spending exceeded $1 billion. Those few figures attest to the tremendous rate of growth of our national space program. This rapid rate of growth undoubtedly will not and should not be expected to continue, but I feel quite confident in predicting steady and constructive growth for the future. While there are indications of some leveling off of total space expenditures, it is hoped that they will continue to grow over the years at least consonant with the rate of increase in our gross national product. ACCOMPLISHMENTS As I suggested, a quick look, at space ac- complishments in the last few years reveals successful satellites in communications, navi- gation, nuclear detection, scientific investiga- tions, weather and other observations, radia- tion measurements, geodetic surveys, the garnering of data regarding the moon, Venus, and Mars, and a wide range of other space activities. It is also worthy of note that since 1958 this country has placed more than 300 space- craft into orbit about the earth and put 12 on escape missions. About half of that amazing total has been launched during the past 24 months. COMPARISON WITH U.S.S.R. As we bask in the glow of self-congratula- tion, however, let us not forget for a moment that the Soviets also have an orderly, bal- anced, and vigorous space program. More- over, their program continues to accelerate. Instead of a slowdown, which some had pre- dicted, the U.S.S.R. has experienced a steady expansion in its space efforts. For example, so far this year they have put almost twice as many payloads into earth orbit as they had by this time last year. Indeed, the last few weeks have shown a record amount of Soviet space activity, and I see no evidence that the pace will diminish. Although the Soviets have not had as not- able success in their escape space attempts as they have had in their earth-orbiting missions, they have put a larger percentage of their total effort into far-out space mis- sions than we have. They are still ahead .of us in manned space flight experience and in total weight of payloads orbited, while we are ahead in number of payloads and in space applications in such areas as commu- nications, navigation, and nleteoroiogy. Both countries have made great progress in scientific experiments, in the reliability of space equipment, and in the development of larger and more powerful launch vehicles. NATIONAL EFFORT Our space program is truly national in operation as well as in policy. For example, the Defense Department has developed rockets used for both their launches and for NASA's launches. The Defense Depart- ment has also supplied all the astronauts for Mercury and most of them for Gemini. Since the former is a completed program, it supplies an excellent illustration of inter- agency cooperation.. In a single manned Mercury operation, 28 ships, 171 aircraft, and over 18,000 military personnel were de- ployed in primary and contingent recovery areas throughout the world. Those who like to find divisiveness in our space program find little comfort in the Mercury project. This was a case in which we had NASA spacecraft placed into orbit by Air Force- developed boosters, launched from an in- teragency coordinated launch site, and piloted by individuals on detail from the armed services. That cooperation was in addition to the recovery support just men- tioned. Exchange of technology and experience should be a mutual one. For example, NASA's considerable success in manned space flight could assist the Air Force substantially in the development of a manned Orbiting laboratory. Such interagency cooperation should not impair our peaceful image or modify our peaceful intent. One of the most important facts about the space program is one which is so fre- quently overlooked. I refer to the fact that those engaged in the program are creating national assets and national resources, which can be devoted to the best interests of this Nation-whether such use be to im- prove man's well-being or to protect man- kind from aggression. A GLANCE AT THE FUTURE And now I would like to outline briefly a few general features of our space activities for the future: 1. We will not only land men on the moon, but, if conditions warrant, we will make many other trips to explore the various parts of the lunar surface and possibly establish a base or bases there. 2. We will not only send unmanned probes throughout the solar system to learn more about the planets, but we will send manned expeditions into space wherever they seem feasible. 3. We will develop a growing family of manned earth-orbiting stations, from rela- tively small orbiting laboratories to large multimanned permanent stations. We would expect to operate a regular ferry serv- ice to transfer personnel and supplies to and from such stations on a regular basis. 4. Global communications via satellites will be a fact in the very near future and should be followed soon by direct broadcast of both voice and TV by satellite to home receivers throughout large sections of the world. 5. The future will find us in a continu- ing rate of growth in improved propulsion- faster, more powerful rockets using nuclear as well as chemical energy. 6. Orbiting spacecraft will increase annu- ally in numbers, in size, and in sophistica- tion. Through such activity we will greatly increase our knowledge about the earth as well as about the heavens. 7. We can expect a marriage of the major features of both aeronautics and astronau- tics. In other words, lifting bodies and winged spacecraft with maneuverable re- entry ability will be launched into near and distant space by means by recoverable and reusable launch vehicles. Drastic reduc- tion in the cost of space travel will result. And, finally, 8. As our competence in space increases and as such competence becomes part of the institutional structure not only of this coun- try but of many countries throughout the world,, we can expect to see greater economic progress and international cooperation. Then we can truly say that our space efforts have made major contributions to world peace. - In the coming sessions of this symposium, highly complex and technical subjects will undoubtedly be explored. I am sure they will be stimulating and productive. As you pursue these scientific and engineering in- tricacies, I hope you will keep in mind some of the policy implications and national ob- jectives which I have touched upon this morning. - Welcoite-Rdves in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. SILVIO 0. CONTE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, I am no expert on the complex and unhappy sit- uation that our Government faces in Vietnam. I am however, as we all are, deeply concerned-concerned about the waste and destruction that comes with war, concerned about the lives of young Americans, concerned about the safety and well-being of all people. Sensible men everywhere agree that peace and stable democratic government in South Vietnam are the ultimate Amer- ican objectives. I was greatly heart- ened, therefore, to read an editorial in last Friday's Christain Science Monitor indicating that the first step toward a meaningful peace-negotiation-is closer than ever before. The points made in the Monitor editorial were new to me, and they may be new to many of my colleagues. With this in mind, I would like to call the editorial to their atten- tion. It reveals at least a ray of hope in a dark and gloomy picture: WELCOME MovES Therre is at least one welcome and hope- ful aspect to the Vietnamese situation to- day. This is that never before has there been as widespread an effort to bring all concerned to the negotiating table as there is at the present moment. Leaving aside the continuing American readiness to begin unconditional discussions for peace, there are no less than three peace moves afoot. The first of these are the quiet soundings which United Arab Repub- lic President Nasser in making in both Peip- ing and Hanoi. He is doing so at the behest of Yugoslavia's President Tito and India's Prime Minister Shastri. The second is the recent visit of a representative of Ghana's President Nkrumah to North Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh. The thirdis the re- invigorated United Nations initiative follow- ing President Johnson's recent letter to Sec- retary General U Thant. There is not as yet any indication that any of these efforts have swayed Communist China, North Vietnam or the Vietcong to a more reasonable stance. All three still speak of total victory and continue to lay down Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 A4442 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX August 10, 1965 patently impossible conditions for peace talks. Yet we do not believe that these various initiatives are either fruitless or a waste of time. If nothing else, they are proof that wider and wider segments of world opinion are ready to step forward and help find a solution to perhaps the thorniest interna- tional problem on the globe today. They also indicate that this same world opinion in- creasingly recognizes that the greatest road- blocks to peace talks do not lie in Washing- ton but in Peiping and Hanoi. They also prove to these latter that Communist efforts to line up world opinion against the Ameri- can position have so far not been particularly successful. These constructive efforts on the part of Asian, African, and European statesmen underline President Johnson's -wisdom in declaring that America will neither carry on all-out war in Vietnam nor engage in total withdrawal. To do the former would griev- ously offend much of world opinion. To do the latter would . reward aggression and render future American pledges worthless. Thus a gradual increase in American mili- tary pressure plus a continued readiness to begin honorable and reasonable peace talks at any time seem a combination well suited both to impress the Communist powers and to encourage further peace efforts by well- intentioned neutrals. Rules Committee and Culture EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. WILLIAM S. MOORHEAD OP PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, August 5, 1965 Mr. MOORHEAD. Mr. Speaker, I would like to call to the attention of my colleagues an editorial that appeared in the Washington Post of Sunday, August 8, regarding the status of legislation to establish a National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities. This legislation, which was recently ap- proved by the Senate, has broad, bipar- tisan support. In addition, President Johnson has endorsed the proposal as a vital part of his Great Society program. Under permission granted, I include this editorial in the Appendix of the RECORD : Ru.Es COMMITTEE AND CULTURE 'A bill that would establish a National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities is now before the House Rules Committee. The administration bill, passed by a voice vote in the Senate and endorsed by a large num- ber of Representatives, should be brought to the House floor in the near future.- The Foundation would consist of an en- dowment for the arts and an endowment for the humanities, each administered by a 24- member council. The councils would be au- thorized to make grants that could total $10 million a year with the Objective of encour- aging and supporting the Nation's cultural commitment. Advocates of the legislation, pointing to Federal support of the sciences, claim that although the sum: of money in- volved is not large when spread throughout the 50 States, formal Federal recognition of the importance of the arts and the human- ities will help right the balance with the sciences and the grants will provide an incen- tive for increased private, State and local spending on culture. As an important part of President John- son's Great Society program, as a major in- novation and as a Federal involvement in an area which the U.S. Government has tra- ditionally avoided, the proposed Foundation deserves to be fully considered before the rush toward adjournment begins. Merchant Marine Still Vitally Necessary SPEECH OF .HON. EDWARD A. GARMATZ Or MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. GARMATZ. Mr. Speaker, many times in recent years I have heard it stated by persons in Government that the American merchant marine has served Its part in the Nation's defense. "We can do without ships now," these people say. "They are too slow. We have airpower now sufficient to take care of any military needs," they argue. Anyone with a reasonable modicum of sense knows, of course, that statements like this are foolish. Day by day, news reports indicate the need for ships to take our men and military supplies to Vietnam. Along this line is a story in the Balti- more Sun of August 4, by the Sun's mari- time editor, Helen Delich Bentley, con- cerning the shipment of the 1st Cavalry- Airmobile-Division, by sea. The divi- sion's 400 helicopters and practically all its supplies will be sent by sea. Only a limited number of advance personnel will make the trip by air. The Sun article, inserted below, speaks for itself-and no one speaks more clearly and convincingly as to the need for adequate shipping support of every military movement overseas than Mrs. Bentley, long one of America's leading shipping experts: THE 1ST CAVALRY To Go BY SEA-DIVISION To EMBARK SOON FOR VIET WAR (By Helen Delich Bentley) WASHINGTON, August 3.-The 1st Cavalry (Airmobile) Division, its 400 helicopters and all of its support supplies, will be sent to Vietnam by sea with embarkation of the troops to begin next week. Only a "limited number of advance per- sonnel" will make the 6,000-mile trip by air. President Johnson last week announced that he ordered the 1st Cavalry Division immediately to the Vietnam front. it will be the first full division on the battle scene, a Department of Defense spokesmen said to- night. There are units of divisions but no full division there, he added. PORTS NAMED The first units of the 1st Cavalry Division, stationed at Fort Benning, Ga., will be em- barked in the ports of Charleston, S.C,, and Savannah, Ga., aboard at least two of the six troop transports that are being removed from their normal Atlantic operation to enter Viet- nam service. Loading of the helicopters will also take place next week aboard the Navy aircraft carrier Boxer In Mayport, the naval basead- jacent to Jacksonville, Fla., and aboard Mili- tary Sea Transportation Service aircraft fer- ries at Mobile, Ala. Aircraft engineering personnel will accom- pany the craft loaded on each of the vessels. In addition, some 35 to 40 formerly strike- bound freighters have been chartered by the MSTS to pick up the support equipment needed for the 1st Cavalry Division and the units already in Vietnam. TO GET SUPPLIES Those loading for the division will pick up their supplies at east and gulf seaports also beginning next week, it was said. The six troop transports are capable of handling an entire division of 15,000 men by a simple conversion which requires about 24, hours of work by the ship's crew. It is re- ferred to as "immediate emergency berthing" and enables the crew to make necessary changes to the cabins and troop quarters that will permit them to at least double their normal capacity when carrying military per- sonnel. COUP FOR SHIPPERS The fact that the first major movement of troops being sent to the Asian battlefront is going by sea rather than air is considered a major coup for the shipping industry which has been waging an uphill campaign em- phasizing the continuing need of passenger ships as well as cargo vessels for defense purposes. More than 4 years ago, Robert S. Mc- Namara, Secretary of Defense, told a con- gressional -committee that there was no fur- ther need to build or subsidize American- flag passenger ships because all troop move- ment in the future would go by air. A year later at the height of the Cuban missile crisis, the Defense Department had alerted the owners of American-flag pas- senger liners to "stand by" for their em- ployment if troops were to be sent to the nearby Caribbean island. The SS United States, which has been immobilized by a seamen's strike since June, Is capable of transporting an entire divi- sion with all of its equipment after only 1 week of conversion work to transform her from a luxurious Atlantic liner to a troop transport. TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND TRANSPORTED The 6 troop transports which are being removed from their regular Atlantic services ferried 200,000 military personnel and their dependents between Europe and the United States last year. They are all operated by the Military Sea Transportation Service. Should it become necessary to provide more space in each of these transports, they will have to be sent to shipyards so addi- tional decks can be welded in their holds. Then the capacity of each again will be doubled. In addition to the 35 to 40 "strikebound" freighters, 15 additional cargo ships have been taken out of the reserve fleets and are being reactivated In private shipyards for participation in the Vietnam crisis. The 1st Cavalry Division with the "Air- mobile" inserted in the middle of Its name is described as being "a new organizatio7} with a very large group of helicopters" and a "fast-moving light outfit." Manpower Retraining Program EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ELMER J. HOLLAND OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. Speaker, several weeks ago I received a letter from the students of the Manpower Development Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 194pproved F ]ReJ J@' 0/ ft? QPJ f 000300130016-8 to discourage future "wars of national libera- tion"? Does our basic purpose require the aim of literally suppressing guerrillas through- out South Vietnam? If so, are we willing to commit the huge military force required to police such inhospitable terrain against an enemy who rises and vanishes like a will-o'-the-wisp? Is it our aim merely to force the Com- munists to negotiate, ignoring that nego- tiations are an instrument of policy and not a substitute for it? What kind of nego- tiated settlement would indeed be consistent with our proclaimed fundamental objective? Surely not the "graceful" withdrawal some urge, nor any kind of elections Communists have ever consented to in areas they con- trol, nor a coalition government vulnerable to Communist coup. And if a settlement did meet our objectives, would the Com- munists agree to it while they still have the means for military mischief? The question of war aims exposes the cruel dilemma of the Vietnamese war, It may be that the military goals which would accomplish our grand purposes can be won only by much larger forces than we so far have been willing to commit. The aims our current forces can attain might throw away or seriously compromise the funda- mental objective which justifies our fighting in the first place. This dilemma, in turn, threatens the same imprecision of purpose which has so plagued American wars in the past. Given the whole murky situation, the im- precision is perhaps understandable. Per- haps, though it seems a long shot, the latest addition of troops will be enough to paper over the problems. The administration may well feel that it's best to buy time before facing the decision of whether to compromise its larger purposes or take the larger risks those purposes imply. Whatever the eventu- alities, it is myopic to question the justice in our basic purpose of trying to check the Communists often enough to dull their lust for world enslavement. All the same, the history of American wars rings with a warning: When we send troops to fight, much of their sacrifice may be in vain unless our leaders have a clear idea of what, exactly, w- are fighting to accomplish. Ambassador George J. Feldman EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PHILIP J. PHILBIN OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, August 5, 1965 Mr. PHILBIN. Mr. Speaker, I was honored, delighted and truly grateful yesterday to be privileged to attend the swearing-in ceremonies of my dear, cher- ished and esteemed friend of long stand- ing, the Honorable George J. Feldman, newly appointed Ambassador of the United States to the historic nation of Malta. He will be our first Ambassador Ambassador Feldman comes to the dis- tinguished post for which President Johnson has so wisely appointed him, with a most impressive record of suc- cessful endeavors in the practice of law, in business and in the public service. It is my good fortune to have known George Feldman since his early youth when he was first associated with our mutual, great and dearly beloved friend, the late eminent David. I. Walsh, for many years the illustrious U.S. Senator from the great State of Massachusetts. As a career public servant, the new Ambassador made a most auspicious start during the time he was with Senator Walsh, and early marked himself as a young man of outstanding ability and dedication. George Feldman is highly trained and educated, and is endowed with a fine legal mind. He is a well-known legal scholar and writer, a very successful law- yer who has handled with great distinc- tion many important legal causes. His opinions, views and specialized knowledge, have been frequently sought by eminent counsel and by congressional committees. At a great sacrifice to himself and his devoted family he came to Washington to serve in the initial stages of the orga- nization of the House Committee on Sci- ence and Aeronautics, first launched under the leadership of my late, esteemed beloved friend and colleague on the House Armed Services Committee, the Honorable Overton Brooks, of Louisiana, and later by another very distinguished House Armed Services colleague and dearly beloved friends of mine, the esteemed and outstanding gentleman from California, the Honorable GEORGE P. MILLER. During this experience, Mr. Feldman made invaluable contributions to the work of this new epochmaking, pioneer committee which has done such tre- mendously valuable work in fearlessly extending outward into the deep, infinite reaches of space the presence and handi- work of man. Only the Lord himself could predict where this great adventure may lead mankind. Mr. Feldman also served as one of the original trustees of Comsat, a most im- portant, vital adjunct of the space pro- gram which has brought nations much closer together through the transmission of radio and televiews from long dis- tances across continents and oceans from widely separated areas of the world. George Feldman has engaged also as a brilli nt leader in many religious and charitable activities and humanity causes to which he has lent his great talents, abilities, generosity, and dedi- cated and inspiring spirit. In him, the President has made a mag- nificent selection of a great American to represent the United States at Malta and in our diplomatic service, and I know that he will achieve great success in this role as he has done in other positions of great trust and responsibility to which he has been called in the past. I appreciated and was deeply im- pressed by the remarks at the exercises of the very distinguished Secretary of State, the Honorable Dean Rusk, who on this occasion spoke so eloquently, feel- ingly and appropriately concerning Mr. Feldman's record of achievement and high qualifications and spirit of dedica- tion and broad experience and warmly welcomed him to the Department of State. All of us who know George Feldman realize his fine qualities as a human being and his constant search for ways and means to offer his talents and serv- A4451 ices to the inarticulate and the helpless, who are not always able to speak and act for themselves in ways to promote their well-being and interests and thus strengthen the moral bonds of the Na- tion. His charming, gracious wife will be of constant support and assistance and help to Ambassador Feldman as he dis- charges his most important duties and his lovely son and daughter will round out a very happy partnership which, I am sure, will do a magnificent job in strengthening, the bonds between the United States and Malta and promoting the interests and posture of our Nation in the important area in which the new Ambassador will serve. I feel very happy and confident that my valued and dear friend, George Feld- man, will give an excellent account of himself in his distinguished ambassa- dorial post and measure up to the high- est standards and traditions of our great diplomatic service of which he is now such a distinguished leader. In heartily congratulating Ambassa- dor Feldman, his gracious wife and family, I wish them Godspeed and every measure of good fortune in their new tasks, and I hope and pray that the good Lord will shower upon them his choicest blessings of good health, success, happi- ness, and noble achievement in the great work which they are undertaking for many years to cop.w. -. i EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. DONALD J. IRWIN OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, July 27, 1965 Mr. IRWIN. Mr. Speaker, we are en- gaged in a difficult struggle against a re- lentless enemy in Vietnam. We are be- ing challenged in a difficult type of war- fare on an unfavorable terrain. It is a test of our commitment at its most vul- nerable link. It is a test against an enemy convinced that we cannot and will not fight his kind of war, .where the innocent farmer by day becomes the ruthless terrorist by night, where the enemy is seldom seen, yet sniper fire, mines and booby traps give evidence that he is everywhere. Victory against this type of enemy will not come. easily, quickly, or cheaply. This must be made clear to the American people. Therefore, I would like to call the attention of my colleagues to an article by Hanson Baldwin in the August 6, 1965, New York Times, which gives a realistic idea of the price tag in Vietnam. The article follows: THE COST OF VIETNAM-ARMED FORCES ESTI- MATE THAT EXTRA $12 BILLION MUST BE APPRQPRIATED (By Hanson W. Baldwin) The Armed Services have estimated that additional appropriations of more than $12 billion will be needed over a period of several years to finance the war in Vietnam and to remedy existing or potential military defl- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 q 9 W30013001Jk gust 10, 1965 A4452 Approved For& J 61VAV W.67R ciencies. President Johnson requested this able replacement for this plane, outside of sentation, He attends to the needs of week $1.7 billion more for the current fiscal the very small Air Force Reserve, is one Air his district with great care. year's budget to meet some of the extraordi- National Guard squadron of 19 planes. He has also contributed two of the nary costs of the Vietnamese war. Last More than 6 months ago the Navy urged most outstanding books on the subject spring about $700 million was provided by the reopening of a production line for the of the FGovernment. "How Our Congress as a supplemental appropriation for Douglas propeller-driven Skyraider, Which Are Federal Made" and "Our American the last fiscal year. Next January a supple- Is flown in Vietnam by the Navy, the Air Laws mental appropriation for $2 to $4 billion will Force, and the Vietnamese. But no more Government" continue to be two of the be needed, the administration has indicated. Skyraiders have been manufactured, al- most popular publications in their field. The total additional funds so far re- though according to some estimates about I could talk for hours about the ac- quested-$2.4 billion-will some nowhere 200 more could be used now in Vietnam complishments and the distinction of this near meeting all the needs of the services, it The Martin B-57 light bomber has long great public servant. His competence was generally agreed yesterday by officers and been out of production; those that have and his dedicated service, however, are a number of Senators. been lost In Vietnam have been replaced, Sc) Last Sunday Senator RICHARD B. RUSSELL, far, by converting photoreconnaissance well known to the Members of the House. chairman of the Senate Armed Services Com?- 8-57 planes flown by the Air National As a relatively young member of the mIttee, estimated that the price tag of the Guard to bombers. Texas delegation, I offer my congratula- Vietnamese war "could easily reach $10 or New types of aircraft, some of them still tions and my best wishes to my dean. $12 billion." under development or unproven in war, may Senator JOHN STENNIS, chairman of the be substituted for those models now out of Senate Preparedness Subcommittee, agreed production. The Northrop F-5 and it new that military spending for Vietnam might Navy attack plane-the Ling-Temco-Vought run at the rate of $10 to $14 billion annually, A-7A-and the Grumman A-6 may fill some between now and January 1, or about $800 of the gaps, with the help of the older North million to $1.2 billion a month. American F-100 and the Navy's A-4E light Senator STENNIS, whose subcommittee has attack plane. conducted a long study of service shortages, The Navy's new Grumman A-6A attack mentioned trucks, spare parts, and various plane and a high-speed fighter, the McDon- weapons as the type of equipment in short nell F-4, are in limited production, which supply, and said it was "time to remedy those could be increased fairly rapidly. shortages." A new counterinsurgency plane may also REASONS FOR SHORTAGE be ordered and many more helicopters and 14,,ht Army , tmi- ft arp nraeded_ In addition. Military men cite specific reasons for the current shortages. They mention the failure to provide extra funds over the course of the last 2 years for the increasing expenditures In Vietnam, the marked reduction of defense stocks and inventories, required by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in the last 4 years, and a decision to limit procurement funds to a fraction of what was required for the acquisition of all new weapons, supplies and equipment, and for annual replacement of over-age equipment. Senator Rvs5ELL's figure of a $10 to $12 billion cost for the Vietnamese war is be- lieved to have been derived in part from the rough calculation made by the services, prior to the President's recent decision to send 50,000 more troops to Vietnam, that an extra $12 billion will be needed to cover a period of several years to remedy -all existing de- ficiencies. This figure, which was viewed as "utopian" by some civilian officials, has been met so far by the President's official request for an. additional $1.7 billion and an Indication that more billions will be asked next ianu- ary. The services agree that, as yet, there are no significant shortages in Vietnam, except for specialized items such as the new jungle boot, But there is considerable worry about the state of the 7th Army in Germany, about 2.75-inch rockets, 750-pound bombs and small caliber ammunition are also in short supply. The shortages of trained personnel, which were becoming acute because of the large turnover each year and the priority demands of Vietnam, will be met gradually under the President's program by providing funds for some 340,00 more men for the regular serv- ices. These are to be acquired, acccording to present plans by increased draft calls, inten- sified recruiting and a limited extension of naval enlistments. However, the existing severe shortages in certain categories of spe- cialists may continue for months to come. Vietnam has received priority in all these specialities, but the drain has made itself felt elsewhere. It has been estimated by the Army_ that the captains and majors assigned to Vietnam would staff more than three di- visions; there are consequent shortages in these ranks in Europe and in this country. The 72d Birthday of the Honorable Wright Patman EXTENSION OF REMARKS serve units in this country. These have played "second fiddle" to Viet- HON. GRAHAM PURCELL nam, service sources say, and the very fine or TExAs line that once existed between peacetime, IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES adequacy and insufficiency for wartime or for national emergency is disappearing. Tuesday, August 10, 1965 There are no reserve stocks of certain types Mr. PUCE L. Mr. Speaker, the of ammunition, which are being shipped al- most directly, from the factory to Vietnam. of the Aaan of the TPxsL? dela- of conventionalLbombsland other weapon:; gation,the Honorable WRIGHT PATMAN. are being depleted rapidly and new produc?. WRIGHT PATMAN came to the Congress tion lines to replace them have barely start- in 1929 and only three Members now ed. serve In the House who were here when Furthermore, the reserve stocks of newer WRIGHT PATMAN arrived. types of weapons, such as certain types of His achievements in this 37 years of missiles, are said to be very low. service would take many pages to detail. .The Air Force, Navy, and Army are con- He has served with distinction on the cerned about the lack of replacements for Committee on Banking and Currency types of aircraft now being used in Vietnam. which he now chairs. Despite the heavy In one day's attacks recenty, six Republic work schedule which his committee F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers were lost to ground fire. , chairmanship demands, he has never The' production line of the Thunderchief failed to provide his constituents, singly closed down sometime ago the only avail- and collectively, with outstanding repre- Renaissance in Long Island EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. LESTER L. WOLFF OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, August 10, 1965 Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, the 20th century has been chided and berated for failing to appreciate the arts; we no longer look to the poet or the stage for inspiration; we are called an age without esthetic values. And in these precarious times, especially, we need the bard to call attention to the beauty we are ignoring and the foibles of human nature we are oblivious to, the pathos and drama of our daily lives. It was a thrilling experience, therefore, to be privy to a whole new Renaissance in my own backyard. Through the co- operative efforts of the American Na- tional Theater and Academy, and the North Shore Community Arts Center of Roslyn, N.Y., the development of pro- fessional theater of quality is being pur- sued and perfected on Long Island. With the advent of radio and television, the death knell of the traveling trouba- dor sounded. But the imaginative and creative efforts of dedicated individuals are being pooled today in a project that is worthy of emulation on a nationwide scale. The State University ofNew York at Farmingdale has graciously lent the use of its facilities. The Courtyard Theater? after months of preparation, was on Saturday, August 7, revealed in all its, splendor, presenting "The Shavian Woman in Love and Marriage." A superb performance by Jo Ann Sayres and others capped a refreshing evening. We of the suburbs have often been. called Babbitts-the Courtyard Theater should prove to many that Bosell would, be a better analogy. To the Greater New York Chapter of ANTA, Virginia Inness- Brown, president, and the North Shore Community Arts Center, Stanley Swerd- low, Nettie Good, Norma Reiner, Irving Stewart, Harriet Rosenson, Miriam. Belenky, Judith M. Levitan, belongs the credit for still another innovation in. bringing the arts to our community. I commend to my colleagues careful study of this project. It Is a refresh-, ing breeze of the best in American com- munity spirit. We are the richer for it. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 August 10, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE - Mr. Speaker, last year the average pay of employees in manufacturing averaged $2.53 per hour while the earnings of all farm labor and management averaged $1.05. When the bakers and truckers and labor demanded and received a raise, the baking companies did not go out of business. But now they are intimidating their employees with threats to close down their plants. Mr. Speaker, I say again the salary and additional compensation of the president of Nabisco went from $123,000 a year to $175,000. There are not very many farmers in this country who can report a corresponding increase in profit in personal es. fear the Chinese it is not so much because of Chinese communism and it's proselytizing fervor as for historic reasons that go back to the times China dominated that area of the world. These natural historic differences, how- ever, become muted in the face of American military intervention. They cannot see this intervention in a benign light. It is merely another instance of white imperialism and tends to make them identify with Ho Chi Minh and even with Mao Tze Tung. The charity we bring with one hand is over- shadowed by the big stick we carry in the other. I shall not soon forget a burnt con- tainer in a village 30 miles from Saigon. It bore the legend: "A gift to the people of Vietnam from the people of America." It was among the rubble left from American shelling of a communication artery of the Vietcong. The artery, unhappily, was in- habited by Vietnamese. One of the most rewarding interviews we had was with the Buddhist monk, Thich Nhat Hanh, a charismatic figure who wrote a mas- terful letter: "In search of the enemy of man" to Martin Luther King. The fact that we had a representative from King in our committee gave us great prestige and opened many doors to us. Thich Hanh was grateful to our mission for giving a demon- stration that religion could become involved politically without losing its integrity. The burning of the monks was a form of spiritual concern-a token of one's deep suffering for our human sins. He agreed that the time was at hand for Buddhists to become con- cerned with external changes so that the plane of higher striving might not become obscure. He recognized that communism was an evil, but war was even a greater evil, and he could not understand how justice could be established on the dead body of peace. Buddhism carries great spiritual re- serves which if ever tapped for social change could make a far more profound and benign revolution than any Marx ever advocated. Let me also share with you the searing ex- perience I had in my visit with the Hiba- kusha (the survivors) of the Hiroshima bomb. They work in their various ways for peace. There are literally dozens of peace movements in Japan, unhappily divided among themselves. The group we met with are pure devotees of peace. They make paper cranes (the symbol of peace) and give them to those who will accept them in the hope that man will not repeat the great sin of Hiroshima. As one of the survivors placed a wreath of paper cranes about my neck, she said: "Please tell the people of America that we hold no ill feelings in our heart toward them. We are not so blinded as to believe that our country would not have used the bomb if we had possessed it. But do tell them that they can save those of our friends who died from the mean oblivion of futility by outlawing nuclear war and every other kind of war. Help us convert these scars and these deaths into the substance of peace." We went away with the feeling that our generation stands under the shadow of the Deuteronomic choice: "See, I set before thee life and death. Choose life." I end this letter with the statement I gave to the Japanese press after a meeting with the Japan Christian Council for Peace in Vietnam. We share with many Japanese the religi- ous -conviction that war is more than a mistaken strategy. It is an act of blasphemy, and in the very shadow of Hiroshima and Nagasaki it is clearer to us than ever that it is the anti-Christ, the destroyer of the root, the betrayal of all that has made us human. We are convinced that whatever else may survive the war toward which our present policy seems directed, faith in God and man will not survive. 19147 We of the church and synagogue, and you of the shrine and temple, must remind each other of our shameful bending of the knee to Moloch in the past wars of our century, and strengthen each other in the sacred re- solve to hold ourselves loyal to God and His creatures whatever comes. Sincerely, RABBI JACOB J. WEINSTEIN, President. REPORT FROM VIETNAM The report of the clergymen's commit- tee to Vietnam follows: Pope Pius XII, 1939: "No good can come from war." Buddhist leader, in Vietnam, 1965: "No good can come from this war." We have visited Vietnam. We have met with leaders of many reli- gious faiths and established relationships which we hope will be enduring and will im- prove understanding and cooperation among us. We have talked also with students, sol- diers, news correspondents, young volunteer workers, labor union leaders, teachers, offi- cials of the United States and South Viet- nam Governments, defectors from the Viet- cong, neutralists, and supporters of North Vietnam and the National Liberation Front, political arm of the Vietcong. We have vis- ited in Saigon and in the provinces and have walked the streets of towns and hamlets within the sound and sight of gunfire and still actively contested by the combatants. We have found a deeply complicated situa- tion in which we could not judge either side to be wholly right or wholly wrong. We have received differing sets of data relative to each side, and these seem to be irreconcilable in the midst of war. Whatever the origins of the war, rooted in violations of the 1954 Ge- neva Accords and other historical develop- ments, both sides are now trapped by their own interpretations of these developments. We have been moved and impressed by the courage and conviction of participants in the war on both sides, even as we have shared outrage at the violence and terror that, in varying degrees, have become the tactics of each. We have been moved too by the pas- sionate and repeated expressions of concern by persons on both sides that the war must be brought to an end. We could find no in- dication of an early end to the war through military victory of either side. Americans must realize what the agonies of the Vietnamese people have been during the past 25 years of war. We contemplate with abhorrence the prospect of the con- tinuation of that war, to say nothing of its escalation. We do not equate peace with the simple absence of military conflict; true peace is inseparable from justice. We recog- nize that there are issues in Vietnam of jus- tice, freedom, and the need for social change, but we deplore the way in which major pow- ers have used and are using the villages of Vietnam as a testing ground for ideological positions such as "wars of national libera- tion" or "containment of communism by military force." For millions of Vietnamese, war has become aw ay of life. Human existence is degraded and brutalized on both sides of the conflict. These, rather than the abstract moving of impersonal political forces, are the conse- quences of the assumption that communism can be contained or social improvement achieved primarily by military means. The United States does not face as its only choice the moral dilemma of whether to esca- late the war or to withdraw its troops uni- laterally from South Vietnam. It does face the moral choice of whether to persist in its present military policy or to take every pos- sible step to initiate neg6tiation and to broaden the base of decision and action to include all other nations whose welfare is involved in what transpires there. The first REPORT VIETNAM BY THE CLERGYMEN'S EMERGENCY COM- MITTEE (Mr. O'HARA of Illinois asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to in- clude extraneous matter.) Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. Speaker, Dr. Jacob J. Weinstein, rabbi of Temple KAM in the district I have the honor to represent, has returned from Vietnam as a member of a clergymen's emergency committee of 12 Americans and 1 in- ternational associate representing the World Council of Churches. Rabbi Weinstein is one of the out- standing spiritual leaders of the Nation. He has been on National Advisory Com- mittees named by, Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. Ambassador Arthur Goldberg, the voice and conscience of the United States at the United Nations, is a member of Tem- ple KAM and a long-time close friend of Rabbi Weinstein. I am extending my remarks to include, first, the letter to the Central Conference of American Rabbis, of which Rabbi Weinstein is president, transmitting the report of the clergymen on their find- ings in Vietnam; second, the report of the clergymen; and, third, the names and identification of the participants in the Vietnam project. The letter to the Central Conference of American Rabbis, 790 Madison Ave- nue, New York, follows: - JvLY 30, 1965. DEAR COLLEAGUES: I am pleased to enclose a. copy of the report which was issued by the clergymen's emergency committee for Vietnam, under the auspices of the fellow- ship of reconciliation, on which body I was privileged to represent the conference. I hope that you will, if you agree with it, make its content known to your congregation. I was immensely impressed with the una- nimity of feeling on the part of the re- ligious leaders, both Christian and Buddhist, that the American Nation must find peace- ful means of solving the problems of the Far East. They want only the military to go home, not our Peace Corps, not our stu- dents, our missionaries, our technicians, or our businessmen. If we can provide them with economic .and technical assistance to meet the problem of population pressure on inadequate resources, they feel that they can meet the Communist challenge even though they might have to compromise on some form of cooperative economy. They are not as absorbed with communism as we Americans seem to be and while the peoples of Vietnam,Thailand, Cambodia, and Burma Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 10, 1965 such step is to stop the bombing of North Dr. Dana McLean Greeley, president, Uni- But the strategist of the change, the man Vietnam as a demonstration of good faith tarian-Universalist Association of America. who planned it 5 years ago, and who has in calling for a cease-fire. Alfred Hassler, executive secretary, P'e71ow- worked it out day by clay ever since, is the With most Americans, we wish that this ship of Reconciliation; vice president, Inter- President's Special Assistant' for Congres- whole conflict could be , referred _ to the national Confederation for Disarmament and sional Relations, Lawrence O'Brien. While United Nations for settlement. The t1 N. Peace. all the political assistants all over the coun- should be asked to intervene, but its capacity Miss Elmira Hendricks, president, National try were writing that hate was the normal to act is severely limite dby the absence from Student Christian Federation. state of relations between White House and its membership of North and South Vietnam The Reverend James M. Lawson, minister, Hill, O'Brien was already beginning to de- and the People's Republic of China. Even so, Centenary Methodist Church, Memphis. velop the possibilities of cooperation. we urge that It be asked to convene a con- Rt. Rev. Edward Murray, pastor, Sacred His chief innovation was to set up in the ference on Vietnam, in which those nations Heart Parish, Roslindale, Mass.; consultor, White House a small staff charged entirely and all other parties to the conflict will be Archdiocese of Boston. with` responsibility for congressional rela- included. No permanent peace or political Dr. Howard Schomer, president, Chicago tions. The staff was organized along the settlement is possible without their partici- Theological Seminary. lines of the various regional and interest pation. (Mrs. Howard) Elsie Schomer, Women's In- groups in the Senate and Houe. It coordi- The negotiations of such a conference must ternational League for Peace and Freedom. nated the congressional efforts of all Govern- seek to reconcile the interests of the National Rev. (Mrs.) Annalee Stewart, former presi- ment agencies. It was in constant touch Liberation Front and the Government of dent and current Washington director, with the congressional leadership. "We don't South Vietnam and arrange for the possible Women's International League for Peace and even take a headcount," one of the leaders independence or reunification' of South and Freedom. once said, "without O'Brien." North Vietnam as they may determine, with Rabbi Jacob Weinstein, rabbi, K.A.M. Tem- A first gain was a far more intimate work- adequate international guarantees against ple, Chicago; president, Central Conference ing relationship between the administra- outside military or political intervention. of American Rabbis. tion and the little known but extremely pow- The negotiations must encompass consider- INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATES erful giants in the House. As a supreme ation of the inclusion of other southeast example, consider the case of the 1964 tax Pastor Martin Niemoeller, copresident, Asian nations under such guarantees, make World Council of Churches, Wiesbaden, out and the chairman of the Ways and Means provision for the resumption of trade and Committee, Wn SUR Mn,I s. exchange between the two Vietnams, ar- Germany. The administration, way back in 1982, pro- at Tor the withdrawal of all forei n troops Pasteur Andre Trocme, St. Gervais Re- posed the tax cut to stimulate the economy; at an agreed upon time, and prove e maxi- formed Church, Geneva, Switzerland. it was afraid that tying tax reform to the mum guarantees of freedom of conscience bill would kill the whole measure. MILLS, and religious practice. for his part, wanted a tax reform bill with The achievement of a cease-fire and the APPLAUSE FOR DR. O'BRIEN a little cut added to smooth the way for setting up of peacekeeping machinery are (Mr. ROGERS of Florida asked and reform. only the prolog to the great work of heal- was given permission to address the Very slowly, month by month, by discreet tog and international cooperation that must House for 1 minute, to revise and extend little favors (a presidential visit to Arkansas) follow. Large-scale programs like the Me- his remarks, and to include extraneous and almost invisible pressures (well-organi- kong River development project and small- nized business testimony against reform) the scale person-to-person and group-to-group matter.) administration nursed MILLS along to its projects, both governmental and nongov- Mr. ROGERS. Mr. Speaker, for the point of view. The bill that finally emerged ernmental, are natural steps in this direc- last 5 years one man has played a very from his committee, and that he steered tion. Such programs should be increasingly important part in securing better co- through the House, was almost all out and international in conception and direction operation and understanding between no reform-just what Dr. O'Brien ordered. and on invitation from the recipient country, _ the executive and legislative branches of A second gain was that the White House with personnel grounded in the language and our Government. That man, Mr Law- was in touch not only with congressional . customs of the people with whom they will leadership, but also with the beak-be s. work as equal partners in a common enter- rence O'Brien, the President's Special The 16 Agriculture Committee Democrats prise. Assistant, has always maintained a high who supported 14(b), for example, were not Creation of a peaceful world requires Sc- degree of loyalty to both President Ken- the committee leaders. On the contrary, the ceptance of the principle of common respon- nedy and President Johnson whom he six who opposed the administration on 14(b) sibility and interdependence in the family has served with distinction, and while so were` precisely the senior members of the of nations. War must be totally rejected, serving has gained great respect from Committee. but it is not enough to seek peace; we must Members of Congress on both sides of O'Brien is at last getting some public rec- discover nonmilitary forms of active In- the aisle ognition for his achievement. Indeed, the volvement in the struggle for justice as well. President and his friends are showering him We have lived too long within the trade- We here in the Congress are well aware with compliments. An educated guess is tional concepts of nation against nation, of the many problems which are inherent that Mr. Johnson would like him to stick ideology against ideology, race against race. in the smooth functioning and Coordina- around the White House job. Today we see the true enemies of man to tion of two major branches of Govern- A good hunch is that O'Brien will leave be what they have always been: injustice, ment, thus our high regard for Mr. to reenter Massachusetts politics. If noth- poverty, disease, national pride, the abuse of O'Brien's efforts. ing else the time is ripe for leavetaking. A power, afid the hatred and war that are their Larry O'Brien has been a man with way, a permanent way I believe, to promote creatures and creators. To be complacent whom all Members of Congress could feel cooperation between the Executive and the about these Is ,to deny humanity itself. To Congress has been worked out. focus our attack on these evils rather titan to free to discuss problems and be assured light 'within the Tamil of man is to Stand of a fair and helping hand. He has made From now on the big problems will not be with the god of history a real contribution over the years to the prgetting bills through the oblem lithe second phase on fr the Johnson We wish to express our appreciation for the Congress. administration and the true opportunity for South Vietnam Vieand tnam cooperation by th In the States author- Washington Post, August . 9, 1965, Joseph Kraft edition devoted the effectively turn a the matter of applying ying effectively the measures that are sties throughout the trip. his "Insight and Outlook" column to Mr. already on the books. PARTICIPANTS IN PROJECT O'Brien and entitled it "Applause for Dr. I am sure that all Members of Con- The following is the list of participants O'Brien." Mr. Kraft stated that strong gress recognize that Larry O'Brien has in the Vietnam project, with titles and support that the President had received been the most effective Presidential as- associations included for purposes of by the Congress was greatly due to the sistant for congressional relations that identification only: work of the President's Special Assistant we have seen. Dr. Harold A. Bosley, minister, Christ for Congressional Relations, Lawrence (Methodist) Church; New York City; former O'Brien. Rather than constant war be- dean, Duke University Divinity School. tween the White House and the Congress, Rt. Rev. William Crittenden, bishop of Erie, Pa.; chairman, Peace Advisory Commit- tee of the Executive Council of the Episcopal Church; vice president, National Council of Churches. Dr. Edwin T. Dahlberg, minister in resi- dence, Crozer Theological Seminary; former president, American Baptist Convention and National Council of Churches. a greater degree of understanding and cooperation had developed. Kraft fur- ther stated: Credit for this great change is normally given the President because of his long ex- perience with the Congress, and because of the great majorities he swept in with him last fall. And certainly no one would deny or disparage the President's role. EAST The SPEAKER. Under previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from California [Mr. ROOSEVELT] is recog- nized for 60 minutes. (Mr. ROOSEVELT asked and was giv- en permission to revise and extend his remarks and include a bibliography.) Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300130016-8