Congressional Record Senate

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December 15, 2016
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October 6, 2003
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October 21, 1965
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29' Approved Fo . MAD 20p~ p~ R0003001 gA~1' 21, 1'965 C j IOp'~T RtG ..M leg Iation Which gives everything to-Canada. d nothing to the United States. Why itn can't we learn from the teachings of our' distinguished colleague Senator WAYNE MORSE, of Oregon? We should realize by now that one-way deals with foreign countries cannot possibly win the gratitude or pro- mote the political stability out, ththe ose caver- tries. As Mr. Flaherty points age, Canadian will only view this tariff deal in terms of a $50 million loss in tariff revenues. He will still have to pay a high price for his automobile while the American automo- tive "giants" will accrue larger profits at Canadian expense. And how can Canada, a country with a chronic balance-of-payments problem, afford this added drain on their dollar reserves? I tell you we have had enough of these one-sided errors in our for- eign aid policy. And finally, how can our Government rec- oncile itself to the fact that it imposes strict "voluntary" restrictions on the fight of capi- tal to foreign countries and then turns around and enacts legislation which en- courages this flight. I am sure that I can- not reconcile it to myself. [From the Miami (Fla.) Herald, Oct. 4, 19651 Wn,L AUTO AGREEMENT WITH UNITED STATES HURT PEARSON? because they'll have longer iiiis on fewer models. In taxes The Government stands to gain more than it loses. ? More business' will lift returns from income tax and corporation profits taxes. The main reason for the Canada-United States auto trade deal on both sides escapes notice in the current Canadian political de- bate. It has not escaped notice in the de- bates in the Senate at Washington. There it is recognized that the United States is buy- ing protection against Canadian restrictions on American trade. Canada has a tough balance-of-payments problem, aggravated by the fact that Cana- dians pay out about $70 million for imported cars and parts.. Canada is the second biggest car market in the world. Countries that use fewer cars, such as Britain, France, and Ger- many, see that their own people use home- made cars. Canada could do the same. The Canadian Government had to reduce. its balance-of-payments deficit. It could have imposed restrictions, forcing Canadians to use more Canadian cars by higher tariffs or Import quotas. This would have raised prices and restricted the range of choice of Canadian car users. It would also have closed out a big market for American cars and parts, (By Frank Flaherty) THE RIGHT TO SNEER-THE O revue, ON rARIO:-Prime Minister Lester WAR. ON POVERTY over $50 million. Mr. MCIN'I`YRE. Mr. President, re- who only a year" ago had nothing to do but the street corner, and little It has nothing to do with campaign funds. cently I was privileged to read in the hang around It is an estimate of the ''amount of duties Argus-Champion, a weekly newspaper in hope of anything else, go to work each day yeaear ected by the Canadian Government in a Newport, N.H., an outstanding editorial in technical, complicated jobs for which parts. y Cana autos , trucks, and Under theCanada-United States auto uto free entitled "The Right To Sneer." they have been especially trained. trade deal-now before Congress, the Govern- This editorial is in support of the war They are happy. They are earning their meat won't get the $50 million from here on. on poverty and the Great Society. It own. way. They are helping produce the Government opponents say this means a points out the needs for these programs wealth of America. handout to the big American auto com- and asks for a better understanding of Let those who must sneer "whatever that panies-General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, the accomplishments that we are trying is? either try to convince the people that American Motors, 'and Studebaker-who there is no such thing as poverty, or come forth with a better program. make most of the cars and trucks sold in to meet by these programs. In conclusion the editorial asked those Th n they will have earned the right to Canada. ld sneer at the probYem of poV parts and Who WOU Up to now they've been making aria mostly standard model cars in Canada, sell- arty either try to convince people that overty or to Ing them at somewhat higher prices than the there is no such thing as p r program. United States. ith a bett th e e n ome forth w some cars bring i c Canadians who want fancy or luxury cars Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- VIETNAM POLICY-AN OPEN LET- get them from American plants through the sent to have this editorial printed in the TER TO THE MEN OF THE SECOND er higher prices because CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. BATTALION, 7TH MARINES IN same 'dealers, also of Canadt s 1 h/z percent teed last January; There being no objection, the editorial VIETNAM The auto tariff deal, signed will establish limited free trade between the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, without two countries on cars and parts. It will be as follows: commenting on the number of student limited because only auto manufacturers [From the Newport (N.H..) Argus-Champion, protests and demonstrations regarding - pro Vietnam policy, I athought my tions regarding Col- will 'be able to import cars or parts duty free. Sept. 23, 19651 p Col- Any Canadian individual who orders a car THE RIGHT To SNEER from the United States must pay the duty. Granite State politicians and leagues would be interested to learn of So opponents of- the Government are say Some of our observers of the public scene have developed a student and his wife at the College ing: a knee-jerk reaction to the terms, "Great of Business Administration, University Canada, will lose $50 million. The Cana- Society" and "War on Poverty." Whenever of Oregon, Eugene, Oreg., who wrote an dian car user still will pay-a high price, they use the terms up comes a conditioned open letter to the men of the 2d Battal- The American car manufacturers will earn reflex and they add, "whatever that is?" ion, 7th Marines,, in South Vietnam, to bigger profits from their Canadian opera- This is a little sad. Some listeners-or express their pride and gratitude to the tions. readers-could interpret that reflex as evi- men of that unit. The Government has counterarguments dence that the politician or observer really The letter was written by James A. but is having trouble getting them across to believes there is no such thing as. poverty, the average voter. It predicts that Canadian or if there is, there is nothing that can be O'Brien, Jr. and Sandi O'Brien. Jim Is car prices will work around to the American done about it. the son of one of my constituents, Mr. level in a few years, but it can't promise that. Maybe the war on poverty will result in James A. O'Brien, of Honolulu, execu- It can't promise cheaper cars because a catastrophic defeat. Maybe we'll never tive director of the Hawaii Association chances are prices I. both countries will achieve the Great Society. But it's better To Help Retarded Children. move up. to have tried and failed than never to have If there are no objections, I respect- lette Canadian general benefits its expects for the tried at all. tterr Canadian economy are more important than And even if we don't stamp the ware o r and response from COO. Leon s' U a raving of a few dollars on the price of a entirely, the way we're waging USMC, commander of the 2d Battalion, car. poverty ty will at least reduce it. The auto companies are parties to the Those politicians and observers evidently 7th Marines, on behalf of his men, be agreement. They're committed to increase have failed to understand the basically dif- reprinted in the RECORD in full. production, capital investment and employ- ferent approach in the 1965 attack on pov- There being no objection, the letters ment in Canada. They're expected to manu- erty from that of 1933. facture a lot more cars and parts in Canadian in the great depression we thought the were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, plants than before and make them cheaper best way to attack poverty was to create as follows: job opportunities,' with vast public works projects, public buildings, highways, refor- estation, dams, sewers, hospitals, audito- riums, national parks, harbors, histories, art projects, most. of which were built, made payrolls possible, and are being enjoyed today. There was no time then, as there is now, to attack poverty at its roots. `There was little or no work for those who wanted work and had the training, skill's, and experience to perform it. We had to make jobs and do it fast. Today's war on poverty is attacking pov- erty where it starts. We are recognizing that America's great system of free public edu- cation is the most important ingredient in her enormous economic growth and power. So our 1965 war on poverty is geared to wipe out Inherited poverty, by making sure that each child has a real educational oppor- and by helping those who missed out tunity , on education to make up the deficiency. The new war on poverty is aimed to in- spire us all with the will to work and the ability to perform useful work. Whether it be Head 'Start, the Job Corps, Volunteers in Service to America, or the other valuable programs, they are all aimed at helping the individual help himself, not at being a mere dole. This kind of battle takes longer. The fruit of the Head Start program won't begin to ripen for 15 or more years. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, I~ved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 00NGRESSI0NAL RECORD - SENATE 917M?1 tauti ar as last a member of the faculty at Purdue Univer- by r. Thoma s F.yeaegele oft asJ,esigned world and about the efforts of the inter- city's Life Insurance Marketing Institute and Thompson Co. Mr. Naegele, a brilliant ar- c es et meetlthe n ee dsxi of theserefugees.nF is the author of several books, including tist, is called Mr. Christmas by some of his "To the best of my knowledge, this pub- "Estate Planning" and "Tax Planning for friends; he was the designer last year, not lication is, the only place where this Informa- Today and Tomorrow." One of his unique only of our gift wrap, but also of the series tion is available in such useful form. Many contributions has been the development of of five Christmas stamps issued by the U.S. of us know of and participate in the work charitable endowment funded by life Insur- Post Office. voluntar agencies and we ance. The design has been executed and the are all proud of the widespread and generous Active in philanthropic and community paper manufactured by the Dennison Man- interest of the American public in this most activities, Mr., Goldberg Is a trustee of the ufacturing Co. We hope our friends will unhappy problem. Many private and public New York Law School, a member of the buy it in great quantities and encourage groups find this information to be essential board of governors of the American Jewish their friends to buy it also. Committee, a director of the New York re carrying out their efforts in behalf of chapter of the NSCouncil, and USCR SCHOLARSHIP FUND refugees. a chapter of the National aother Safety tynization and For several years there has been a felt need "We all feel a sense of indebtedness to a direct utor of several organizations from Vi for scholarship assistance to both young the U.S. Committee for Refugees for their ived President Hvr2Pe recently award of the Nce refugees who need help in completing their persisting efforts in helping the American tional Cof Senior Citizens for his con- college or university training and also refu- public to understand the gravity of the tional Council o in behalf of medicare legislation gees of more mature years who may need refugee problems around the world. Their and ib hasons been cited in the care legislation vocational or professional retraining in order work is an encouragement to us all to con- RECORD for his services in behalf of inter- to adapt to employment opportunities in one our efforts to solve these refugee faith understanding. the United States. problems." Richard FSmith, director of immi- Mr. Daniel F. Cary, a member of the board The effect of Mr. HUMPHREY'S generous gration c d Ferree e rs of the American Friends of USCR, has made an Initial grant to the action was that the World Refugee Report graie Cornices of was on the an team USCR scholarship fund which is available was circulated to all the subscribers to the APSC Serv served the e, was o refugees In the to acceptable candidates on a revolving-loan- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD including many pub- Gtha Palestine Strip In 1949. After the AFSC team fund basis. lie libraries. In addition, copies were re- Gaza S 1949. another year C Gaza Mr. Cary believes that, in addition to loans, quested for circulation by the U.S. Informa- a dre o e re of the United year in Gaza the Committee should be in a position to tion Agency to its overseas libraries; it was and Works Agency (UNRWed offer "grants-in-aid" in many situations reprinted in full in "The International Al- and ksh was n formerly on the staff of the where repayment of loans is unfeasible. truan," and the statistical information delphia P mith Health and Welfare Council Mr. Cary strongly hopes, therefore,* that about refugees was reprinted in a number and is a graduate of the and Welfare School it there will be further contributions to the of other publications including the Bulletin ancial Work, scholarship fund which can be made avail- of the International Council of Voluntary cia. Worth has been responsible for the able, either as loans or grants, as circum- Agencies In Geneva. APSC refugee resettlement s ber responsible onsible for the stances may require. We recite this record for readers of the United refugee This tam program has in the We believe that there is no more satisfy- current issue, many of whom will be seeing helping East Europeans, program has Chinese, Ing investment than this; that donors will the World Refugee Report for the first time. helpin and Dutch o eans Cubans, ns new receive deep satisfaction from the knowl- It is the major publication of the U.S. Com- Ar Ss, and catch Indonesia. edge that their gifts are being used in the mittee for Refugees and we think we may Mr. Smith Is a member, of the Executive education of young men or women trying to be justly proud of its growing usefulness. Committee Stec of the American If the became established in their new homeland. In the preparation of this Issue, we have Citizenship Con f re a e, a , member of the We know from experience that this is an had the cooperation of 50 agencies-private, Church World Service Department Come investment in America's future, and we governmental, and intergovernmental. The mince of the Division of Overseas Minis- commend It to the utmost generosity of our global work of these organizations in behalf tries a the the DCouncil Overseas Minis- friends, of refugees, represented by their reports to as well as National committees dealing JACOB BLAUsTEIN HONORED BY SPECIAL GIFT of the continuing refugee problem. We want Mr. Henry Zarrow, president of the Sooner to express our thanks to the officers and - COMMTITEE FINANCES Pipe and Sup 1 Co help. is of these organizations for their . of Tulsa, ., has In the 12 months ending June 30, 1965, made a contrbution of $500 to the work of help. the Committee received $53,775 in contri- the U.S. Committee for Refugees in honor We wvd also to have express tour ai gratitude e butions from individuals, corporations; or- of Mr. Jacob Blaustein. the individuals who havcontributed ganizations, and foundations. This total is Mr. Blaustein, who was a founder member providing background information for this articles almost exactly equal to the income for the of this Committee and is an active member issue: William P. Bundy, Assistant Secretary previous year. Expenditure for staff and of its board, was honored by Mr. Zarrow Cl State for Far Ambassador ffairs; Harlan TO, program has remained constant. because, as Mr. Zarrow wrote, "Mr. Blauste4 Cleveland, U.S. Amassato NATO; The Committee's staff of four persons is is a wonderful person who gives much of his Charles H. Jordan, director general, Joint at the irreducible minimum; its expenses time and talents working in the cause of Distribution Committee; Senator EDWARD M. very small in relation to the size and impor- humanity." KENNEDY, U.S. Senate; tance of its program. George Meany, Mr. Blaustein was a member of the U.S. president, AFL-CIO. The Committee is greatly indebted to a Delegation to the 10th General Assembly _ number of corporations who assist us in our of the United Nations; Consultant toe work-the J. Walter Thompson Co., the American Delegation at the San Francisco THE AUTO PARTS AGREEMENT Irving Trust Co., Dennison Manufacturing United Nations Organization Conference; WITH CANADA Co., and others. Their generous assistance Member of President Truman's Mobilization Mr. RIBICOF'F. Mr. President, I ask helps to make possible the Committee's work Policy Board during the Korean War; for- at minimum cost. mer President of the American Jewish Com- unanimous consent that a statement by The Committee's accounts are audited an- roittee; and cofounder of the American Oil Senator HARTKE be placed in the RECORD nually by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. Co. He is on the Board of Directors Of at this point, with an article which ap- We strongly urge our readers to use the Standard Oil Co. (Indiana). peared in the Miami Herald on Octo- contributor 's envelope inserted in this is- The Committee is deeply grateful to Mr. ber 4. sue. We des ed eop ely on the In. this Is- Zarrow for this generous and graceful trib-giftsboth large and small --of our friends, and we are ute to a great American. There being no objection, the state- most hopeful that you will make your cone went and article were ordered to be tribut most ion now for the work of the Commit- AN ENCOURAGEMENT TO Us ALL printed in the RECORD, as follows: tee, and for assistance to refugees. On August 2, 1964, Vice President HUBERT STATEMENT BY SENATOR HARTKE Contributions to the U.S. Committee for H. HUMPHREY, then a Senator, entered the I would like to bring to the attention of I . Report I into the RECORD of the U.S. Senate, Refuers, Inc., are tt deductible. annual survey Issue of the World Refugee the Senate a Chicago Daily News article USCR GIFT WRAP On that occasion Mr. HUMPHREY said, "Mr. Auto Agreement by With U.S. nHU ttiPearson " The Committee has once more sponsored President, the U.S. Committee for Refugees, which a the sale of its "Tree of Life" gift wrap during a private citizens committee with whose work ppeared in the Miami concerns Herald the Oc- the tober autumn and pre-Christmas weeks. The many of us are familiar, has recently cently 4, as a This uncle concerns thee- paper is offered In an attractive gold refu- passed Canadian Auto Parts Agree- paper on red, fished its annual survey of the world's ru- ment, packa, in tern on con, greng 8 sue, a d thei4.colo he gee pro Vlems. This survey, unique of its .I am sure the Senate is well aware of my information about the opinion f this as well as 10 gift tags, is being sold at $2. various refugee i communities around the felt his legislatiorr legislation. wholly one sided; No. 197-32 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October R1, 1,000roved For F&OWIMRW - tfk-9,$P67Bbb 'kb00300140003-1 ". UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, SCHO6L OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, Eugene, Oreg., August 9, 1965. MEN OF THE 2D BATTALION, 7TH MARINES, Care of Lt. Col. Leon Utter, USMC, Qui Nhon, Binh Din Province, South Vietnam. DEAR Sias: After reading about you in the enclosed news story we decided to write to let you know that we are proud of you all and grateful for all you are doing for the United States. We follow Vietnam develop- ments closely and this is the first story we've seen which shows that we Americans can beat the Vietcong at their own game. If this dirty war is ever to end, I'm sure it will be more beca,14se of actions like yours, than by air strikes or naval bombardment. I attend the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oreg., and my wife and I thought that after reading or hearing stories about college student and faculty protests against American in Vietnam you might appreciate hearing some praise for a change. Thanks again for what you're doing and good luck. Sincerely, JIM AND SANDI O'BRIEN. HEADQUARTERS, 2D BATTALION, 7TH MARINES, 3D MARINE DIVISION (REIN), FMF (MAR. No. 14), FPO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. OUTSIDE, QUI NuoN, SOUTH VIETNAM, August 21, 1965. Mr. and Mrs. JIM O'BRIEN, c/o University of Oregon, Eugene, Oreg. DEAR MR. AND MRS. O'BRIEN:_ We of the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, are deeply apprecia- tive of your letter of August 11. I took the liberty of having the letter re- produced and distributed to all our outlying detachments. We have a few more than 1,500 men here and we are scattered in outposts over 92 million square meters of hills and valleys. Morale is exceptionally high-our casualties have been light and mail service is regular. The reception your letter received was en- thusiastic throughout the entire command. Comments ranged from, "How about that?" to "I told you most college guys were smart. Only a few are the beatnik types." We are all of the firm conviction out here that our job is a necessary one. While the student and faculty protests are irksome and somewhat undermine the positive results we achieve in the field, we sometimes rationalize such behavior with the question, "Where else in the world could they do it except in the United States?" Needless to say, it makes us all particularly proud when someone like you exercises his right of free speech in a positive manner: Your letter has more than compensated for what we've read, and 1,500 U.S. Marines send their thanks. Most sincerely, LEON N. UTTER, Lieutenant Colonel, USMC (for the men of 2d Battalion, 7th Marines). THE ROLE OF TAX POLICY IN THE GREAT SOCIETY Mr. McCARTHY. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an address entitled "The Role of Tax Policy in the Great Society," delivered by the Honorable Stanley S. Surrey, Assistant Secretary of the Treas- ury, at the Financial Analysts Federation Conference. There being no objection, the address was ordered to be printed in the REC- ORD, as follows: THE ROLE OF TAX POLICY IN THE GREAT SOCIETY (Remarks by the Honorable Stanley S. Sur- rey, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, at the Financial Analysts Federation Con- ference, Washington Hilton Hotel, Wash- ington, D.C., Tuesday, October 5, 1965) Under President Johnson's leadership, this Nation has begun the challenging task of building a Great Society. Substantial progress has been achieved and a sound foundation for the structure is being laid. The Great Society will rest upon two ma- jor supports-national consensus and eco- nomic prosperity. As the Congress finishes a session which is outstanding in our history for its achieve- ments and as our economy continues strong in a recordbreaking expansion, these two supports appear sound indeed. Prospects for future achievements are bright. The goals are many, but some stand out. Clearly, we must do all in our power to: Give the 35 million people who now suffer the despair of poverty the opportunity to earn a decent life for themselves and it better life for their children. Give all our children full opportunity to educate and equip themselves to take a con- structive part in carrying this society forward. Give all Americans the opportunity to ful- fill their own best hope of achievement, that we may fulfill the promise offered when this land was born. Make our countryside and our cities more beautiful, healthier, safer, and better places in which to live and work. Meet our commitments, written and un- written, throughout the world to those peo- ple who look to us in their need for release from ignorance, misery, and hunger. I would like to conisder what role tax policy has to play in achieving the goals of this Great Society. GROWTH OF THE ECONOMY Certainly the Great Society will involve Federal expenditures and our tax system must raise the funds to meet those expendi- tures. In an earlier day this could mark the end of my talk. But today's knowledge has brought us deeper insights. The accomplishment of the Great Society will require an ever-growing economic base- a base adequate to meet the demands which that society will place on Federal expendi- tures, State and local government expendi- tures, and private expenditures. In our war on poverty, in our efforts to foster education, equal opportunity, health and natural beauty, and in our campaign to improve urban life, economic prosperity is not only essential-it is the most powerful weapon we have. Government policies must therefore be directed both to achieving an economic growth that matches our potential and to enabling us to keep that potential constantly expanding. We must achieve full employ- ment and then go on to provide an adequate rate of economic growth at full employment. The use of fiscal policy in meeting these demands is today, as a result of the accom- plishments of these last 5 years, far more broad and flexible than most had supposed. The success of the tax reduction involved in the Revenue Act of 1964 has marked the turning point. This tax reduction, though it came in a period of deficits, brought the larger GNP and larger revenue base that the administration and many economists fore- saw. Recognition of this success of the 1964 act tax reduction was a large factor in the speed with which the Excise Tax Reduction Act-involving a further $4 billion staged reduction-was enacted this year by the Congress. 27061 If We did not have the investment credit of 1962, the depreciation reform of 1962- which was liberalized early this year-the 1964 and 1965 individual and corporate in- come tax reductions, and the excise tax reduction of 1965, next year the Federal tax burden would be more than $20 billion heavier than it will now be. . That is the reduction in tax liabilities measured at a constant income level. But there was no corresponding reduction in actual revenue receipts. As President John- son said recently: "I am happy to report that even with such massive tax reduction, we anticipate that Federal revenues for the 5-year period, fiscal 1961 to 1966, will have increased by over $18 billion-almost twice the increase over the previous 5 years when there were no tax cuts at all." All this has permitted us, I believe-Gov- ernment economists and business analysts alike-an increasing objectivity in assessing the role of Federal budget policy in our financial system. We are no longer ham- pered by such rigidities that a budget deficit is always bad-we cannot automatically identify the villain by seeing if he writes in red ink. For we are now aware that adding a group of expenditures that differ widely in their form-loans, grants, current expenses, capi- tal items-and then achieving a zero bal- ance when these are subtracted from rev- enues in itself can guarantee nothing as to the direction the economy will move. And. we are also aware of such things as fiscal drag and the power of our revenue system yearly to increase its take from the private sector of the economy-at present by about $7 billion annually-and of the need each year to offset that fiscal drag. That doesn't mean that tax reduction is always desirable and must occur every year or that it is al- ways preferable to increased expenditures and is never to yield to debt retirement. Each year will require its own decisions. They will depend on our expenditure require- ments-in terms of domestic needs and for- eign obligations-and on the economic out- look-in terms of the need to maximize employment and avoid inflation. We have balanced these things well in moving toward an interim goal of 4 percent unemployment. This course is not an easy one to pilot. Like hidden shoals, we will encounter un- expected developments. At times these developments will require rapid temporary adjustments in our fiscal policy-such as. quick tax cuts. It would be beneficial, now that the effects. of tax reduction on the economy are better understood, to reach a consensus on the form that a temporary tax change should take so that we thereby would be able, with that consensus in hand, to achieve a speedy enactment if a temporary reduction were ever needed. An appropriate congressional hearing held now for this purpose, before the need ever arises, would be useful in reaching such consensus. I have talked so far in aggregate terms, and in these terms tax reduction has mainly meant a broad attack on inadequate private expenditures and investment incentives. In the Revenue Act of 1964, and in the recent Excise Tax Reduction Act, we provided a' substantial stimulus to consumer demand which serves, of course, to provide the mar- ket to induce and support our remarkable increase in business investment. We have also reduced corporate tax rates, and pro- vided the special measures of an investment credit and the depreciation guidelines. To- gether these business tax measures have meant an increased cash flow and consider- 'ably higher after-tax rates of return. In the Treasury we have begun an inten- sive study of the investment experience in Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 217062 Approved FcIF40-46aWSOMIMlXfCOOVDP6$BbY4UR000300146k)~3iher.~l' the past few years to isolate if we can the impact of depreciation reform and the -in- vestment credit. We are trying to learn more about our depreciation system., the guidelines and the reserve ratio test through a complex computer study of the effects of varying depreciation rates and lives against the manifold patterns of asset holdings, replacements and retirements that our businesses present. At the same time, through trips abroad by our experts, we are bringing up-to-date our knowledge of the handling of depreciation under the tax systems of other countries, so that we can consider the comparative posi- tion of the U.S. approach. Finally, in the area of business taxation we are aware of the need for more research regarding the appropriate relationship be- tween the corporate tax and the individual income tax. But a look at the recent foreign changes illustrates the complexities involved in. this relationship, and the need to define the goals before coming to any conclusion about whether a change is either necessary or appropriate. The U.S. approach is basically that of a corporate tax separated from the individual tax, with no adjustment (apart from the $100 dividend exclusion) for the possibility that corporate profits may be taxed at two levels, once as profits to the corporation and once as dividends to individuals. I call this a possibility in view of the considerable un- certainty about whether the corporate tax is shifted. However, many economists have favored tile so-called British approach, under which the two taxes are integrated through the shareholder getting a credit at his level for the corporate tax, and with his dividend grossed up to reflect corporate profits before the corporate tax. Some would even go further and apply this credit and grossed- up inclusion in shareholder income auto- matically, without the need for a actual distribution by the corporation. But the British this year abandoned their approach in favor' of the U.S. approach, though with a lower corporate rate, probably 40 percent. Meanwhile the French, who previously had the U.S. approach, shifted this year halfway to the former British approach, by giving the shareholder on the gross-up approach a credit for one-half of the corporate tax. Both the British and the French did not follow the German technique, which grants the corporation a much lower corporate rate (IS percent as against 51 percent) on the corporate profits that are distributed to the shareholders. The Canadians, who now use a very rough version of the former British approach-they give the shareholder a credit of 20 percent of the dividend without any grossing up of the dividend-are, through their Royal Com- mission, studying whether they should con- sider a change. The key to all these different approaches- bewildering as they are in their variety and susceptibility to change-is probably that the changes are designed to achieve different goals. The British desire to encourage more cor- porate investment and hope their change will achieve that by favoring the retention of corporate profits over their distribution. The French appear to desire a greater share- holder participation by,their investors, and hence have focused on inducements to the distribution of dividends--a factor which underlies the German approach though with a different technique. Here in the United States we have stressed corporate investment witness the invest- ment credit-and hence adequate corporate cash flow and after-tax rate of return. We have recognized that we already possess through bur developed capital markets and other institutional factors strong forces In the direction of shareholder participation. Hence our present needs exert a strong pres- sure for retention of the status quo in the structure of corporate taxation-still leaving room for rate reduction at an appropriate time. The British have also recognized the re- lationship between these corporate patterns and the capital gains tax. Thus, along with their move to strengthen corporate reten- tion of profits they have adopted a capital gains tax on the American model, but with inclusion of one-half of the gain, a maximum 30-percent rate, a 1-year holding period for long-term gains (3 years in the case of real estate), taxation at death of unrealized ap- preciation in value, and with corporate gains subject to tax at regular rates. ELIMINATION OF POVERTY Probably the most important goal of the Groat Society is the elimination of poverty. This is an extraordinarily complex problem and we are only now beginning to learn about it as we grapple with it. It is an area where the human needs are so compelling that they demand the best we have to offer in both innovation and ingenuity in devis- ing measures-both Government and pri- vate-to meet them. Our tax system must make a maximum contribution to this effort. The 1964 act lessened the tax burden in this area-with its reduction of the starting rate from 20 to 14 percent and with the adoption of the minimum standard de- duction, so that a single individual became taxable at $900 instead of $668, a married couple at $1,600 instead of $1,333, and a married couple with two children at $3,000 instead of $2,667. Moreover, the Excise Tax Reduction Act of 1965, by eliminating many Federal excise taxes, further reduced the burden of Federal taxes on this group. Looking at our system as it now stands, the, poor pay primarily, as Federal taxes, the excises on alcohol and tobacco and the in- come tax where poverty levels may be above the present dividing line between taxable and nontaxable income. They also pay the gasoline tax, which is a user charge asso- ciated with the highway trust fund, and the social. security and medicare payroll taxes, which involve a saving for pensions and medical care. In looking at the tax struc- ture, it is clear that the income tax impact deserves our first attention, and the Presi- dent has said that any future Income tax reduction should cover those who live in the shadow of poverty. This suggests at` least a change which raises to a higher level of income the dividing line between taxable and nontaxable Income. This Nation cannot. . afford to continue indefinitely to tax people who cannot afford to pay. As incomes increased in past years for the population as a whole, the nature of our tax structure over those years-relatively fixed rates and exemption levels-increased the tax burden on lower income taxpayers, as they moved from a nontaxable status to a taxable status, from the lowest bracket rate to a higher rate. Even our massive income tax reduction in the last 2 years has only set this process back about 5 years. And even with such reduction, over the past 15 years an examination of effective tax rates (the percentage of overall income actually paid In tax) shows: A family earDID. gg half the national aver- age income ($2,200 in 1950, $4,000 today) went from an effective tax rate of zero to almost 4 perent; A family earning the national average in- come went from an effective tax rate of 61/Z to 9 percent; A family earning double the national aver- age income stayed roughly the same; Higher income families either held their own or realized reductions, often' ubsta2i- tial, in their effective tax rates as in,*eased incomes were offset by increased deductions or a greater proportion of capital gains. Indeed, the spread of effective tax rates is greatest for higher income taxpayers, varying from zero to around 66 percent. Correspond- ingly, the average effective rate for very high income taxpayers is much lower than is generally realized. For instance, all tax- payers who in 1962 reported adjusted gross incomes of more than $1 million would-at present tax table rates-pay an average effec- tive rate of only 26 percent of their overall income (including capital gain income in full). Furthermore, only 9 percent of those taxpayers would have effective rates of over 50 percent on overall income under present tax table rates. All this reinforces President Johnson's view that the next tax reduction should focus on the lower income groups. We are constantly gaining more knowledge of the weapons with which to carry out our war on poverty. Some of the approaches are associated with the sheer alleviation of des- titution, through providing funds directly. Others involve programs of income mainte- nance to counteract the forces which can undercut a person's income. Others look to programs of education, relocation, training and the like to help people raise themselves and their children out of poverty, and to provide employment for those who are em- ployable. As we gain this 'knowledge we will be in a better position to judge the contribution which a tax system can make in this effort. TAX EQUITY AND TAX SIMPLIFICATION A nation that seeks improvement in its society is likely to insist on the improvement of that aspect of Government which exerts a widespread and significant effect on that so- ciety-the Federal tax system itself. The tax activity of the past few years has in- creased public interest in obtaining the fairest and simplest tax system possible. Tax equity is a complex matter. Two per- sons may have the same amount of income- wages, net business income, net investment income, capital gains--but the income tax on one may be far higher than on the other. The variance comes about because the in- come tax has differing treatments for various types of income and for various types of family expenditures, primarily those involv- ing personal expenses. Thus, for example, on the income side, capital gains are taxed at lower rates; on the expenditure side, de- ductions are allowed for charitable contribu- tions, personal interest, State and local taxes, medical expenses, and so on. The difficulty in all this lies in deciding which differences in income source and ex- penditures should be significant for income tax purposes. While economists may, as a whole, agree that the significant differences are few, the Congress has taken a much broader approach. It has shaped our present income tax structure by giving recognition to a wide variety of these differences. And yet there is constant change. Thus, in re- cent years Congress has said that moving ex- penses involve an expenditure difference to be recognized under the income tax, and has increased the effect given to child-care ex- penses. But through restrictions on deduc- tions for certain State and local taxes, casualty losses and entertainment expenses, the significance of these expenditures was lessened. Through elimination of the divi- dend credit,,the significance of receiving cur- rent investment income from stocks as against employment income was almost eliminated. Through Inclusion of certain group term life insurance, the significance of this difference in the composition of em- ployment Income was lessened, Through the adoption of averaging, the significance of yearly variations in income receipt was Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1,965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORDS SENATE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE AIDS IN GOOD INVESTMENT Mr. HRUSKA. Mr. President, the American Enterprise Institute of Wash- ington, D.C., has just published its hand- book for the current national intercol- legiate debates entitled "Crime and Law Enforcement." Most of us in the Senate share a great concern that the crime problem has be- come one of our Nation's most serious and pressing domestic concerns. I have already expressed my deep belief 'that the .alarming rapid rise in crime demands that we mobilize all the Nation's re- sources to combat this scourge on every front. It is, therefore, timely and appro- priate that the sponsors of the national intercollegiate debates have selected as the topic to be argued by the young men and women of our universities and col- leges this year the proposition, "Re- solved: That Law Enforcement Agencies Should Be Given Greater Freedom in the Investigation and Prosecution of Crime." The AEI debate handbook is designed to serve as a guide to start the student's research but, more importantly, it is in- tended to stimulate the individual to explore and consider all the varied impli- cations connected with the critical ques- tion of crime and law enforcement. Such encouragement of thoughtful consid- eration of today's major public policy issues by our young people does much to create an informed and interested generation, essential for the future wel- fare of our Nation. The handbook is another example of AEI's public service of the same high quality as the legislative analyses series which AEI offers to all Members of Con- gress to assist us in our study of impor- tant legislative issues. Over the years I have found the AEI legislative analyses to be concise, scrupu- lously balanced and factual analyses of the significant legislative measures pend- ing before us. I know that the analyses have been of immeasurable assistance to me in my deliberations. I commend AEI on the high standards of scholar- ship and objectivity which it has achieved in this most worthwhile public service. Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, I am pleased that Senator HRUsKA has spoken of the American Enterprise Institute. The publications of this unusual organi- zation have been of considerable as- sistance to me. I have found their an- alyses to be objective and reliable, which is no small achievement when analyzing proposed legislation that is almost always controversial. Last month, AEI sponsored a seminar on the balance of payments. Sixteen eminent international economists from the United States, England, Switzerland, Peru, Brazil, and Canada gave diverse opinions on proposals to solve our intri- cate, perplexing payments problem. The Institute will publish the proceedings of this seminar. When this book is issued, I am sure we will find another valuable contribution from the academic world toward the solution of another difficult public problem 27Q39 But currently Marshal Lin is the most discussed, read, and debated individual among the Pentagon's top echelon, by the State Department's policy planners, and in most foreign chancelleries. Marshal Lin is vice chairman of the cen- tral committee of the Chinese Communist Party, vice premier of Communist China, and the Minister of National Defense. Ile has suddenly grabbed the Washington spotlight because some weeks ago, on the 20th anniversary of the defeat of Japan, he delivered an 18,000-word manifesto which the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Cyrus R. Vance, says is "no ordinary commemorative article." In fact, Mr. Vance and his colleagues in the Pentagon, not to mention some in the State Department, in the White House and along Embassy Row, consider Marshal Lin's political document just about the most im- portant thing to come out of Peiping since mainland China's Communist Party boss, Mao Tse-tung, advanced his famous thesis: "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun." thanks to the American Enterprise Insti- tute. AEI has been of considerable as- sistance to me and my staff during my time in Congress. Their analyses of some of the important legislation we have discussed this session have been thorough, factual, and nonpartisan. Their research is a very real contribu- tion to good government. As a member of the Joint Committee on the Organization of the Congress, I appreciate the fact that AEI is sponsor- ing a task force of 13 political scientists who are putting their minds and experi- INTENTIONS PROBED This Lin Piao document not only tells what Peiping's intentions are in Asia, in Viet- nam, toward the United States, but what its intentions are on the question of the whole expansion of world communism. It is Peiping's "Mein Kampf." It is Peiping's blueprint for world domination for a thousand years. The Lin Piao manifesto should, say Mr. Vance and others, be "must" reading for all those who wonder what the United States is doing in Vietnam, who appear to have never given any thought to what Peiping is doing in Vietnam, what its ambitions are in south Asia, in Africa, and Latin America. The Pentagon thinks seriously enough of Marshal Lin's pontifications to have had its No. 2 man, Deputy Secretary Vance, discuss it at length the other night before the cream of the country's industrial and military leaders. In speaking of the Russian revolution and the Chinese Communist revolution, Marshal Lin says: "The Russian revolution began with armed uprisings in the cities, and then spread to the countryside; while the Chi- nese revolution won nationwide victory through the encirclement of the cities from the rural areas, and the final capture of the cities." And then he goes on to assert: "The rural areas of the world today are Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The cities of the world are North America and Western Europe." His thesis, then, is that just as commu- nism in China succeeded by capturing the countryside, and then encircling and defeat- ing the cities, so the global Communist movement will ultimately succeed first by capturing Asia, Africa, and Latin America thereby encircling North America and West- ern Europe-and then by finally and deci- sively defeating the United States and its Western allies. And where is this to pegin, asks Marshal Lin rhetorically? It has already begun, he says, in Vietnam. Vietnam, he says, is the "focus" of the revo- lutionary movement against the United States. "The seizure of power by armed force, the settlement of the issue by war, is the central task and the highest form of revolution," he continues. And he falls back on another famous Mao Tse-tung thesis to urge on the Vietcong: "The imperialists and all reactionaries are paper tigers." FIGHTING IN VIETNAM Marshal Lin, therefore, does not deplore the fighting in Vietnam-he welcomes it. What the Communist world needs, he makes clear, is more of these "wars of national liberation"-"people's wars launched In dif- ferent parts of the world." ence to work on finding methods through which Congress might be strengthened and streamlined. The contributions of men and women from the academic world to our society have been of great worth, in the past, and I am sure that this study will be most helpful to the Orga- nization Committee. . Mr. MONTOYA. The American En- terprise Institute inaugurated this ses- sion a new publication that I find an excellent timesaver. It is the new press summary. I am sure there is not a Senator present who has the time to read, the number of newspapers that he would like in order to keep informed on varied opinions. I have found the AEI press summary to be an essential timesaver by provid- ing meaningful excerpts from the daily press. This publication has permitted me and my staff to keep abreast of the thoughts and opinions of our leading journalists on the most important stories of the day. The format of the press summary pro- vides easy access to news topics. The excerpting techniques are commendable for their thoroughness without being SOUTH VIETNAM-WHY WE ARE THERE Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President; many people in my State write about South Vietnam. The net of their inter- est is more explanation as to why we are there. Nowhere have I seen those reasons presented more logically than in a recent address by Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance at the annual dinner of the National Security Industrial Association. I would hope that all people who are interested in preventing a general war, and who look forward to a more peace- ful world, would read this short address. In that connection, I ask unanimous consent to have inserted at this point in the RECORD an article by Neal Stan- ford in the Christian Science Monitor, "U.S. Intrigued, Peiping Manifesto Studied." I also ask that the full text of the ad- dress of Secretary Vance be inserted at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article and address were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 11, 1965] PEIPING MANIFESTO STUDIED (By Neal Stanford) Mr. BOGGS. Mr. President, I would WASHINGTON-Not one American in a to join the Senators who are taking a thousand-possibly a million-knows who moment this morning to give a word of Lin Piao is. - Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 27040 'CONGRESSION`AL RECORD = SENATE October 21, 1965 And he winds up his manifesto with this tory through the encirclement of the cities a better life for the people of South Vietnam. challenge to the United States: "If you want from the rural areas, and the final capture of We are engaged in a major program of eco- to send troops, go ahead. The more the the cities." nomic and social development there, and better. We will annihilate as many as you Now, he comes to his central point. The we want to see it extended to the whole can send." "rural areas of the world" today, he asserts, South Asia region, including North Vietnam. That is bold, tough talk. are Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The Everything that we do in Vietnam is gov- But, asks Mr. Vance, who is this "we" who "cities of the world" are North America, and erned by those simple reasons for being there. are to do the annihilating? Western Europe. Our goal is a peaceful settlement. We In Vietnam, at least, says Mr. Vance, it Just as communism in China, says Lin are ready-now-to go to the negotiating is not Peiping that is doing the fighting. It Piao, succeeded by capturing the country- table. We lay down no preconditions for I. Hanoi. "Mao is not risking his own troops side; and then encircling and defeating the such discussions. We seek a cessation of to achieve his ends. Rather, Hanoi is being cities; so the global Communist movement aggression by North Vietnam. We seek a used to attempt to prove the validity of Lin will ultimately succeed first by capturing just peace-and we have made that offer Piao's thesis," Mr. Vance points out. Asia, Africa, and Latin America-thereby en- clear on many occasions. We seek the with- "For the whole point of Mao's doctrine is circling North America and Western Eur- drawal of all foreign forces--including our that Hanoi and the Vietcong should fight ope-and then by finally and decisively de- own-from South Vietnam once peace has on; and they should reject any offers of rea- feating the United States and its Western been restored. And we seek a peace that sonable settlement or negotiation; that they allies. guarantees freedom of choice for the South should be prepared to wage a prolonged and Win Asia, Africa, and Latin America Vietnamese people. dirty war-whatever its cost in North Viet- through "wars of national liberation," says Our purpose is firm; our patience is long; namese blood." Lin Piao, and the United States and its and our perserverance is unshakable. It was Gen. Nguyen Giap, the North Viet- Western allies will be surrounded, will be en- But, as both Hanoi and Peiping have namese strategist who defeated the French circled, will be overwhelmed. pointed out, the issue is larger than merely at Dien Bien Phu, who candidly said re- And where is all this to begin? he asks. Vietnam. cently: "South Vietnam is the model of It has already begun, he replies. And the General Giap, the North Vietnamese starts- the national-liberation movement of our place in which it has begun is Vietnam. gists who defeated the French at Dien Bien time. If the special warfare that the U.S. Vietnam, says Lin Piao, is now the focus Phu, has put the matter candidly: 'South Imperialists are testing in South Vietnam of the revolutionary movement against the Vietnam is the model of the national libera- is overcome, then it can be defeated any- United States. No matter what action Amer- tion movement of our times.. If the special where in the world." lea may take in Vietnam, he adds, the Com- warfare that the U.S. Imperialists are testing If Americans want to know why the United munist Chinese determination is unshakable in South Vietnam is overcome, then it can States is fighting in Vietnam, concludes Mr. to drive the United States out. be defeated anywhere in the world." Vance, they can read President Johnson's re- But, ladies and gentlemen, it is not Peiping And-as we have seen-Lin Piao describes peated explanations--or they can read Mao that is fighting in Vietnam; it is Hanoi. Mao the struggle in Vietnam as :merely the cur- Tse-Tung, Marshal Lin, and General Giap. is not risking his own troops to achieve his tain raiser in the whole global drama of ends. Rather, Hanoi is being used to attempt Communist expansionism. REMARKS BY DEPUTY SECRETARY of DEFENSE to prove the validity of his thesis. The issue, then, in Vietnam, important CYRUS R. VANCE AT THE ANNUAL DINNER For the whole point of Mao's doctrine is as it is, is not the only task facing the or THE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL that Hanoi and the Vietcong should fight on; United States and its partners in freedom ASSOCIATION that they should reject any offers of reason- around the world. Distinguished guests, ladies and gentle- able settlement or negotiation; that they It is an essential task. But it is not the total task men, I am honored to be here, and to par- should be prepared to wage a prolonged and task. ticipate in your 22d annual dinner. dirty war-whatever its cost in North Viet- The total task of free men on this planet I deeply appreciate this opportunity to namese blood; whatever its cost in North is to preserve and nurture freedom every- speak before a group so concerned as you are Vietnamese well-being. where that it is growing. with the security of our country, and so Hanoi might well ponder whether its fu- Lin Piao sees a major crisis in human directly involved with the preservation of ture is best secured by fully submerging its society in the second half of the 20th cen- its strength and freedom. own separate interest to Peiping. The North tury; he sees it taking place on the perimeter Exactly 5 weeks ago tonight-in a distant Vietnamese people deserve a better future of the industrialized world-in Asia, in country-a political document appeared. than that. Africa, and in Latin America. It was writen by the defense minister of Meanwhile, the leaders in Hanoi-much to I think we can agree with him on that. the most populous nation on earth.. Peiping's pleasure-continue to make a rea- Let us examine why. It was written by Lin Piao (the vice chair- sonable settlement impossible. They con- We can begin by reminding ourselves that man of the Central Committee of the Chinese tinue their aggression in the south. They the Communist mind is a curious combina- Communist Party--Vice Premier of Red continue to infiltrate soldiers, equipment, tion of ideological rigidity-and tactical sup- China, and the Minister of National Defense. and supplies across the border. They con- pleness. Ostensibly, it is an article commemorating tinue to employ the twin pressures of temp- The Communist mind is, at one and the the 20th anniversary of the defeat of Japan tation and terrorism-tempting the peasants same time, philosophically closed-and in World War IT. But that was merely a to renounce their loyalty to their village pragmatically open. convenient occasion for its publication. For leaders in return for hollow promises; and In the past half century we have wit- it is no ordinary commemorative article. terrorizing them if they refuse. nessed an imaginative display of aggres- I want to talk to you about that document Ladies and gentlemen, there could be no sive Communist tactics. tonight. For it tells us not only what Pei- clearer justification of why we are standing The goal has always been the same: po- ping's intentions are in Asia-not only what firm in our resolve to help defend the 14 litical domination. But the path to that Peiping's intentions are in Vietnam-not million people of South Vietnam, against goal has often switched direction. only what Peiping's intentions are toward communist aggression and subversion from In our own lifetime, Communist tactics the United States--but what Peiping's plans the north. have ranged through a broad and brutal are for the whole expansion of world com- What is the U.S. policy there? spectrum: everything from outright occu- munism. Our policy is simple and straightforward. pation by the Red army in Eastern Europe, The document begins with a lengthy analy- it is not complicated by any doctrinaire through conventional aggression in Korea, sis of the Communist revolution in China. theories of world domination. to the guerrilla operations in Greece, Malaya, - Lin Piao states bluntly: First, we are determined to keep our com- the Philippines, and now in Vietnam. It was on the basis of the lessons derived mitment to the people of South Vietnam. Communist tactics have sometimes fo- from the people's wars in China that Conn- We are going to continue to assist the South mented revolutions, and at other times have rade Mao Tse-tung, using the simplest and Vietnamese to resist aggression. We are go- captured those initiated by others. most vivid language, advanced the famous ing to continue to make it clear to Hanoi m Co at rhom esist aggto tics lhave egal learned, tae o be as thesis that "political power grows out of the and to Peiping that terrorism, murder, sub-with barrel of a gun." He clearly pointed out: version, and infiltration from the north can- asew t means; with ones; sophistica with t eghs otedi s, The seizure of power by armed force, the not-and will not-succeed. primitive settlement of the issue by war is the central As President Johnson has pointed out: tators, as with leftist demagogs. task and highest form of revolution. This "We are * * * there to strengthen world Thus, if one surveys the total Communist Marxist-Leninist principle of revolution holds order. Around the globe from Berlin to movement of the past half century, one can- good universally, for China and for all other Thailand are people whose well-being rests not fail to be struck with a profound bit countries. in part on the belief that they can count on of irony; that the Communists in their ulti- Lin Piao then goes on to note that the us if they are attacked. To leave Vietnam mate view of history are almost insufferably Chinese Communist revolution differed from to its fate would shake the confidence of all dogmatic and doctrinaire. But in their ef- the Russian revolution in one essential re- these people in the value of an American forts to manipulate that history, they are spect. The Russian revolution, he says, commitment and in the value of America's almost incredibly pragmatic and practical. "began with armed uprisings in the cities, word. The result would be increased unrest What, then, is our answer to the Commu- and then spread to the countryside; while and instability, and even wider war." nist manifesto of Mao Tse-tung, as written the Chinese revolution won nationwide vic- Second, we are committed to help create by Lin Piao? Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 2z;,,p.b,$'d For Rele /10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 SSZnN E 1 e First, our answer is that we agree that the focus of the challenge lies, at the moment, in Vietnam, But the Government of Vietnam and the c .,. OA,-O4-AL E ,#2EOAl Those men in 1776 fused, primed, and set State Adjutant General is an adminis- off a political explosion that has had more trative rather than a line assignment, ultimate effect on society than all the di - -r-? .~~ v u~ acvviu- -- - .w. wag siaiiueu un august lb, continue our support of the people of South tion still fly, igniting the tinder of human 1961. Vietnam, until a just and reasonable settle- aspiration all over this globe. Against this background of the events ment is reached-whether by agreement at One of the greatest challenges to this gen- surrounding this action by the Senate, I a conference table or by a cessation of the eration of Americans is to refine the formu- have the honor and the pleasure to re- agression, as in Malaysia, the Philippines, las for creating the driving sparks, for cul- and Greece. tivating the leadership talent, for unleash- port that the confidence expressed by Second, we agree with Mao that the lands ing and organizing the earth's bountiful nat- both the Senate Armed Services GOm- arching across the southern half of the oral resources, for breaking down the out- mittee and the Senate as a whole in globe-Asia, Africa, and Latin America-are of-date barriers to progress throughout the General Williams' character and ability to play a decisive role in the future of world. We have an enormous challenge to has been more than justified. humanity. perfect the formulas to dO all of these things In the 4 years since his a But we disagree that their role is to be to permit what Lin Piao calls "the country- General omed en- the the hapless victims of Communist externally side" to find their way up the rocky path. Williams has performed out- so-called wars of national libera- We must meet that challenge. We must standing service in carrying out a major tion. On the contrary, we believe that offer the more durable stuff of true, creative armory construction program, in admin- these nations desire to remain fully and revolution. istering the mobilization of the largest freely themselves-uncoerced by subversion Lin Piao's statement of Communist combat force of the West Virginia Army stage-managed and supplied from without. China's goals for the world is 18,000 words National Guard, and in bringing to We believe that these nations desire, with long. fruition a project to greatly improve the wisdom and dignity, to seek their own na- President Johnson has summed up our tional progress in their own national way. goals for the world in three simple sen- And we stand ready to assist them to do tences: precisely that. Our own freedom and growth have never Third, we agree that Mao's clear intent is been the final goal of the American dream. that his brand of communism should even- We were never meant to be an oasis of lib- tually surround, encircle, and finally cut off erty and abundance in a worldwide desert and defeat Western. Europe and the United of disappointed dreams. Our Nation was States. created, to help strike away the chains of But we disagree that that is going to hap- ignorance and misery and tyranny wherever pen. Our defenses are strong, and we re- they keep man less than God means him to main alert and ready for whatever the future be-" may bring. But more important is the fact Ladies and gentlemen, it is for you and that the free nations of the world offer a me-and all of us on this small, whirling better future for the individual, and a peace- planet-to insure that this forecast will ful path to that future. prevail. Finally, we agree with Mao that just as there are cities and countryside within na- tions, so the world at large-in its current uneven rate of technological advance--can be viewed as a series of industrialized centers, surrounded by a less-developed countryside. But we disagree that the historical process suggests that the global countryside will storm these centers, and put them to the torch of Communist insurgency. On the contrary, we believe that the his- torical process will be precisely the reverse; that the industrialized centers-the fortu- nate nations of the world-will increasingly seek to bring to the countryside-to the poorer nations of the world-the very assist- ance and skill that will help these nations to close the poverty gap. And the rich na- tions will do this by measures that will share talents and resources-by measures that will increase the self-confidence and self-reliance of the poorer nations to achieve their own self-sustaining political and economic growth. In the United States we issue no global manifestos. But we do indulge in one dream. We do entertain one grand vision. We do look to one great goal. We are dedicated to continuing the dialog with the rest of the world that began in an obscure hall in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776. The men in that hall were revolutionaries. The men in that hall did not believe that true 'political power can grow out of the barrel of a gun. They believed that true political power can grow only out of the people themselves-for that is precisely where it is: within each individual human being. Those men did not rant about struggle. They said bluntly that all are created equal. class men Those men did not theorize about a dic- tatorship of the proletariat. They proposed something far more explosive than that. They declared that all men had an inalien- able right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. CONGRESS LOSES A HELPING HAND Mr. MUND'T. Mr. President, I note from the RECORD of October 20 that Col. Ralph E. Vandervort, Jr., will retire from the U.S. Army on October 31. It is with deep regret that I note this action. For the past 6 years I have con- sulted on many occasions with Colonel Vandervort on problems dealing with the military establishments in South Dakota and in my capacity as a member of the Defense Department Subcommit- tee on Appropriations. He has always been most cooperative and efficient in the handling of the problems which I have placed in his hands. His good services are going to be missed by members of the Congress and I am sure the Department of Defense is going to miss this good emissary which represented them on Capitol Hill. Col- onel Vandervort has been a good and valued friend and a dedicated public servant. I wish him the best of success in his future endeavors. THE ADJUTANT GENERAL OF WEST VIRGINIA Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. President, in August 1961, the Senate was asked to confirm the appointment of the then newly appointed Adjutant General of West Virginia, Gene H. Wil- liams, in the grade of brigadier general as a reserve of the Army. Questions were raised within the Sen- ate and elsewhere at that time as to the qualifications of General Williams for the appointment. The Senate Armed Services Commit- tee, recognizing that the position of training of Army National Guard Spe- cial Forces units, nationwide. Under General Williams' direction, a total of 30 armories and armory-related structures have been completed, greatly increasing the resources available to West Virginia Army and Air National Guard units in achieving greater readi- ness status. When President Kennedy found it necessary to mobilize forces in response to Soviet threats against Berlin, in, 1961, one of the major units ordered into Fed- eral service was the 150th Armored Cavalry Regiment of the West Virginia Army National Guard. The perform- ance of this organization throughout its year of Federal service reflected credit- ably upon the soundness of the support and administrative procedures provided by General Williams' office during the transition period from State to Federal status. General Williams and his staff suc- cessfully administered the return of the 150th Armored Cavalry from Federal to State status, and the necessary re- constitution of the regiment following discharge of men whose term of service had expired. Today, the 150th Armored Cavalry has returned to, and exceeded the level of readiness that it held at the time of its mobilization. Most significant of all, General Wil- liams recognized early the importance of providing extensive and realistic train- ing areas for the special forces units then being expanded to cope with guer- rilla and counterguerrilla warfare. Thanks to his initiative, a State special forces camp, with access to some 600 square miles of ideal training areas is now nearing completion after 4 years of active planning and supervision by Gen- eral Williams personally, and his staff. As a result of this outstanding work, not only the West Virginia Army Na- tional Guard, but the Special Forces of the entire Active Army, Army National Guard and U.S. Army Reserve nation- , wide, will be provided with a training facility ideally suited to the types of terrain in which they possibly may be employed. In the course of this work, General Williams has taken the time to com- plete successfully the resident course of instruction at the U.S. Army Command Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B0.0446R0003001, OP c NGRESS AL> tECPORP ,-- SENN 'E , c.3ber 21, 19 Ff 5 and General Staff School, Fort Leaven- warth, Kans., meeting all qualifications since established by the senate Armed Services Committee for granting of Fed- eral recognition to State adjutants general. The record made by General Williams in the 4 years since his name came be- fore the Senate gives ample demonstra- tion of the vigor and vitality, not only of the State-administred National Guard system in West Virginia, but of the National Guard system in the Nation as a whole. I welcome this opportunity to publicly commend General Williams for the dili- gence, initiative and demonstrated ability that has characterized his ad- ministration as the adjutant general of West Virginia, and for the manner in which he has thereby justified the faith placed in him by the Senate. WEST VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE STUDENTS SUPPORT U.S. ACTION IN VIETNAM Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD a statement that I have made, relating to and commending the action of 1,800 students at West Virginia State College at Institute, for endorsing the present Vietnam policy in a letter to President Lyndon B. Johnson. The PRESIDING OFFICER. out objection, it is so ordered. The statement is as follows: and public service in seeing to it that their pages include not only Sargent Shriver's announcements and pro- nouncements but also the legitimate and well-founded complaints of mismanage- ment and poor administration. I think the Tribune should be commended for its efforts. As an example of its thor- ough reporting on the poverty program, I ask unanimous consent to place an article by Mary Pakenham of the Chicago Tribune of Sunday, September 5, 1965, covering the efforts of Senators MURPHY and PROUTY to keep politics out, of the poverty program by placing key em- ployees under the political prohibitions provided by the Hatch Act. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: tive ADAM CLAYTON POWELL, Democrat, of New York. "The Democratic members of the confer- ence committee," PROtrrY told the Tribune, "struck a blow on behalf of every Democratic ward heeler and political flunky in America when they threw the MURPHY-PROUTY po- litical activity amendment into the ash can." Other Republican conferees said they were shocked by what they called undue inter- ference by Macy. "The commission believes," Macy wrote, "that it would be unwise to extend the gen- eral political activity restrictions of the Hatch Act to such a sizable group of persons in the private sector of community life." "OPENS PANDORA'S BOX" Murphy said Macy's letter and the con- ferees' action on the amendment "opened a Pandora's box of political chicanery." "On top of the supersalaries, supergrades, and supersalesmanship that have character- ized the poverty program," Murphy said, "we now see the administration has stepped in to add superpressure. "I have always understood the function of the Civil Service Commission to be that of administering the civil service system and not of lobbying or parroting the views of Shriver (OEO Director Sargent Shriver) forces at the OEO." PROGRAM WORKERS--WANTS EMPLOYERS TO FE COVERED BY HATCH ACT (By Mary Pakenham) WASHINGTON, September 4.-Senate Re- publicans are massing for a last-ditch at- tempt to keep politics out of the program covered by the administration's new anti- poverty bill. The Chicago Tribune learned today. House-Senate conferees agreed Thursday night on a $1,785,000,000 final version of the authorization bill. It is expected to come to a vote in both chambers this week, un- less the Senate forces succeed in having it sent back into conference. The Democratic majority in the conference struck from the bill an amendment extend- ing the 1939 Hatch Act to cover federally paid employees in the Office of Economic Op- portunity's community action and domestic Peace Corps programs. LETTERS FROM MACY The Hatch Act, entitled "an act to prevent pernicious political activities," forbids parti- san political activity on the part of anyone on the public payroll. Tens of thousands of community action programs employees and a growing number of domestic Peace Corps volunteers would have been affected. At the time the conference committee was considering the amendment it had before it a letter from John W. Macy, Jr., chief of t]ze Civil Service Commission and President Johnson's personal talent scout, urging that Congress allow the antipoverty staff to en- gage in politics. Ever since the so-called war on poverty got under way last November, the political potential of workers in these categories has been a key target for critics. DESIGNED FOR POLITICS The letter to President Johnson signed by 1,800 West Virginia State College students in support of U.S. policy in Vietnam was a demonstration of civic responsibility which brings honor to their school and our State. This spontaneous and orderly action by the majority is in sharp contrast to those staged demonstrations by the few students in other schools in other States who were duped and manipulated by what J. Edgar Hoover terms, "trained agents and provoca- teurs of the Communist Party." To my knowledge, there have been no such staged anti-Vietnam. demonstrations at any West Virginia school or college. Our State can be proud of that fact, too. I believe in the administration's policy in South Vietnam. I have said this over and over again. We must fight to contain com- munism on that line in southeast Asia. For if we do not do it there, we will be fighting a war on a broader front and nearer home. THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY Mr, WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, despite the enormous public relations efforts of the Office of Economic Opportunity, I feel that much of the press of our Nation has been very help- ful in giving the public an accurate re- port on the questionable success of this program throughout the country. If one were to only listen to Office of Economic Opportunity Director Sargent Shriver you would think the admin- istration's entire poverty program was Each such worker is in a position to earn the gratitude of large numbers of the poor and undereducated, dispensing aid under the aegis of the party in power. That, politicians agree, is the stuff good precinct workers are made of. In many cases, community action programs have been specifically designed to organize residents of given poverty areas into po- litical pressure groups. Complaints already have been heard from Mississippi and from cities including Syra- cuse, N.Y., that antipoverty workers taking part in voter registration drives have failed to distinguish between the democratic process and the Democratic party. HEADED BY POWELL Senators in the forefront of the effort to one us w...N..,,, -- , combat this situation win uiciuue vv a. o.v.. administrative error or mismanage- L. PROUTY, Republican, of Vermont, and Do you realize that, unless soil erosion and m merit. GEORGE MURPHY, Republican, of California, destructive farming methods are overcome, The public knows only too well this is coauthors of the stricken amendment. population may outstrip the supply of food? not the case. For example, the Chicago PROUTY was a member of the conference More than 100 years ago Malthus, an Eng- Tribune has shown exceptional diligence committee, which was headed by Represents- lish economist and sociologist, predicted that HEADED BY SHRIVER PROUTY said he also will try to restore to the bill a Senate amendment which would have strengthened the role of the National Advisory Council on Economic Opportunity. The Council, as established last year, has a maximum membership of 15 persons ap- pointed by the President and is headed by Shriver. The amendment would have pro- hibited the Director of the OEO from serving as Council chairman. CAN OUR EARTH FEED ITS PEOPLE? Mr. MONDALE. Mr. President, 17 years ago, in 1948, a young member of the Walters, Okla., Future Farmers of America Chapter won his State's FFA oratorical contest with a speech entitled "Can Our Earth Feed Its People?" In that speech, the young man pointed out: The problem of world food production is no temporary crisis, but a permanent world problem. * * * The people of the world can no longer afford poor, wasteful, and de- structive agricultural practices if they are to survive. What a great experience it must have been for members of the Future Farmers of America attending their national con- vention in Kansas City, Mo., Friday, Oc- tober 15, to hear that same former FFA boy, FRED R. HARRIS, now the distin- guished U.S. Senator from Oklahoma, deliver another speech of great signif- icance for America and American agri- culture. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that both speeches by the distin- guished Senator from Oklahoma [Mr. HARRIS], his FFA speech in 1948, and his most recent address to the national FFA Convention, be inserted in the RECORD at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the speeches were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CAN OUR EARTH FEED ITS PEOPLE? (Address by Senator FRED R. HARRIS in 1948) Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, a great newpaper chain-Scripps- Howard-has as its masthead on the edi- torial page the slogan: Give light and the people will find their way. This is very true. Referring to this slogan leads me to denounce a present Defense. Department policy and that of top officials of the ex- ecutive branch of our Government. In changing the policy heretofore followed in reporting casualties-dead and wounded-in our conflict in Vietnam, information is being denied the Ameri- can people. I refer to accurate informa- tion to which they are entitled. I de- nounce the present policy of reporting light losses or moderate losses. This is as misleading as is the statement re- garding some Air Force strike or battle and then reporting 128 Vietcong dead or some other estimate of Vietcong dead. Those of us who served in World War II recall reports of the number of enemy killed in action and know that some of those reports were subject to 90-percent discount to give them accuracy. Ameri- can people should be accurately informed by official statements issued at least once a month informing them of the total number of American killed, wounded, and taken prisoner in that period. Of course, I am not advocating that at the end of each battle or airstrike we report anything other than that losses losses were light or moderate. Giving complete detailed information at that time might be of aid to the enemy. ' The American people are entitled to know the extent of the loss of life in the fighting in southeast Asia to which we are committed and intend to see through to ultimate victory or cease fire or armi- stice sustaining the integrity and inde- pendence of South Vietnam. Further- more, they can take it, as the saying goes. I am not proposing that following each battle or airstrike, when some of our planes are shot down or casualties incurred, that we immediately disclose those casualties at the time. This might give information to the enemy which would be to our prejudice. . Our President and officials in the De- fense Department should however issue an accurate news release at the end of this month, informing the American peo- pie fully as to the total killed in action, the total wounded in action, and the total taken prisoner during the month of Octo- ber. Then, this policy should be fol- lowed each month hereafter. I urge this. I ask that an announce- ment that such policy will be followed be issued from top officials of the executive branch of our Government, and without delay. TYPICAL SMALL BUSINESS ENTER- PRISE IN THE EXPLORATION OF INNER SPACE Mr. - KUCHEL. Mr. President, the dramatic nature of experiments and ex- ploration in the limitless realm of out- er space has captivated the American people to the point where regrettably very limited attention has been given equally significant efforts to expand knowledge of an area in what might be termed "inner space." In more prosaic fashion, bold and imaginative endeavors have been in prog- ress during recent years to unravel se- crets of an equally important aspect of man's environment, the vast expanse of undersea regions of the globe on which we exist. By virtue of the fact that much of this effort is technological and at- tempted primarily through scientific and engineering instruments, the element of, suspense and fascination with persever- ing and often hazardous exposures of hu- man beings has been missing. Recently three 'teams of venturesome individuals dubbed "aquanauts" com- pleted unprecedented research off the southern California coast with an oceanographic operation centered on Sea Lab II. Over a period of a month, dedi- cated personnel ascertained the possibil- ity of living and working for prolonged periods at considerable depth. The ef- fects of submerged environment were measured carefully in a variety of novel experiments. The desire to obtain first-hand per- sonnally gained knowledge in the under- water realm presents unique problems. One of the most perplexing stems from limitations of visibility and necessitates employment of artificial aids of unique character. I have been informed that a small en- gineering-manufacturing firm in Cali- fornia made a contribution of tremen- dous value to the success of the Sea Lab II undertaking and I believe the Amer- ican people would be interested in the role played by Birns & Sawyer Cine Equipment Co. In order to carry on underwater photography and to expand the area of human observation, artificial illumina- tion was essential. Experience quickly demonstrated the inadequacy of most common underwater lights generally utilized near the surface. Customary equipment proved disappointing at the lower levels, extending to a depth of 205 feet. Working life of usual lights for some reason was extremely limited and the process of replacing burned-out bulbs was both time consuming and costly. After many exasperations, unusual lighting equipment perfected by Birns & Sawyer, a Los Angeles firm, was put to use. The lights lasted a much longer time. When bulbs eventually burned out, replacement was simple since the act could be accomplished inside Sea Lab itself in a matter of minutes, in- stead of sending a diver down, from the surface or raising the equipment to topside. The experience was a grueling test and the performance a most reassuring accomplishment. It is most gratifying that a small company with only 47 em- ployees contributed so significantly to the success of the venturesome under- taking. Equally pleasing is the fact that the development of the equipment did not entail any expenditure of public funds as no research or development money from Federal sources was spent in conceiving and producing the lighting apparatus. I believe this accomplishment is a no- table tribute to the imagination and competence of a typical small business enterprise and merits an expression of gratitude on behalf of mankind. ORDER OF BUSINESS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum, with the proviso that I do not lose my right to the floor. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, once again I shall have to do a little backtracking. I ask unanimous con- sent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. PROXMIRE in the chair). Without objec- tion, it is so ordered. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may re- tain the floor, yield 10 minutes to the distinguished junior Senator from Ken- tucky [Mr. MORTON], and then propose another quorum call, which will be a "live" quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. The Chair recognizes the Senator from Kentucky. PROMOTION OF SMEAR CAMPAIGN BY NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS OF DEMOCRATIC PARTY Mr. MORTON. Mr. President, I would like to address myself briefly today to a matter which involves the good name and the integrity of both our great po- litical parties. As a Republican, I jealously guard, the good name of my own party and its lead- ers. I believe my friends on the other side of the aisle do the same with respect to theirs. For that reason, I believe that my Democratic colleagues have as much interest in the matter I have in mind as do I. I gave this matter my first public at- tention during a speech I delivered in Cleveland last week. Th t speech, inci- dentally, was given in conhection with a series of dinners across the country hon- oring a great Republican and a great former President, Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower. At that time I expressed amazement that the national headquarters of the Democratic Party was using its money and its influence to promote a smear against some of our most honored cit- izens, General Eisenhower among them. I cited a three-volume blacklist prepared by an organization known as Group Re- search, Inc., which professes to maintain a vigilant watch over-and I am quot- ing-"extremists of all shades who threaten American democracy." During those remarks in Cleveland, I also drew attention to the fact that this list of dangerous extremists who are threatening our country carries the name Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved FQr Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October .21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE proposed plan of development. Land re- quired for administrative sites, campgrounds, rights-of-way for access, and other similar purposes Is not covered by this provision. It is not the intent of the committee, as the language of the bill makes clear, that the authority to waive acquisition shall be eser- cised in favor of development plans--subdiv- isions, for instance-which will not serve the needs of the general public or the Govern- ment. At the subcommittee hearing, concern was expressed on behalf of holders of patented mining claims within one of the units of the proposed national recreation area, that language in the bill might be construed as indicating that permits for use of national forest land adjacent to, or so located as to be needed in connection with the operation of, the mining claims could no longer be issued. The committee wishes to make clear that nothing in the bill is intended to change the authority for, or prohibit the issuance of, permits to make such use of national forest land in the national recreation area, subject to reasonable conditions, including those that may be appropriate to lessen the ad- verse effects of the mining operations on the recreational and esthetics values, taking into consideration that effective utilization of mineral and other resources of the area may properly be made. Section 10 of the bill limits the amount authorized to be appropriated for land acquisition and for development of recrea- tion facilities to $21,600,000 and $22,700,000, respectively. Nearly 59 percent of the costs which are expected to be incurred during the first 5 years of the program will be con- nected with the Whiskeytown unit, 28 per- cent with the Clair Engle-Lewiston unit, and 15 percent with the Shasta unit. Should the amounts authorized to be appropriated prove to be insufficient, whether because of rising land prices or for other reasons, the depart- ments concerned will have to seek additional authorization. The committee points out that a substantial part of the development costs of the area might well be incurred even If H.R. 797 were not included, since the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior already have authority to install certain recreation facilities at the reservoirs covered by the bill. ADDITIONAL FUNDS TO INVESTI- GATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to the consideration of Calendar No. 911, Senate Resolution 154. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The resolution will be stated. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A resolution (S. Res. 154) providing additional funds to investigate juvenile delinquency. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Is there objection to the present consideration of the resolution? There being no objection, the resolu- tin (S. Res. 154) was considered and agreed to, as follows: S. RES. 154 Resolved, That S. Res. 52, Eighty-ninth Congress, agreed to February 8, 1965 (au- thorizing an investigation of juvenile delin- quency), is hereby amended on page 3, line 1, by striking out "$220,000.00" and inserting in lieu thereof "$240,000.00". Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an excerpt from the re- port (No. 92,5) , explaining the purposes of the resolution. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Senate Resolution 154 would increase by $20,000, from $220,000 to $240,000, the ex- penditure authorization of Senate Resolu- tion 52, agreed to February 8, 1965, for use by the Committee on the Judiciary (acting through its Subcommittee on Juvenile De- linquency) from February 1, 1965, through January 31, 1966 "to examine, investigate, and make a complete study of any and all matters pertaining to juvenile delinquency in the United States, including (a) the ex- tent and character of juvenile delinquency in the United States and its causes and con- tributing factors; (b) the adequacy of exist- ing provisions of law, including chapters 402 and 403 of title 18 of the United States Code, in dealing with youthful offenders of Federal laws; (c) sentences imposed on, or other cor- rectional action taken with respect to, youth- ful offenders by Federal courts; and (d) the extent to which juveniles are violating Fed- eral laws relating to the sale or use of nar- cotics." During the 2d session of the 88th Congress the Committee on the Judiciary was au- thorized to expend $211,000 for the same pur- poses. PRINTING OF ADDITIONAL COPIES OF HEARINGS OF SUBCOMMIT- TEE ON VETERANS' AFFAIRS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to the consideration of Senate Concurrent Resolution 62. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The resolution will be stated. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 62) to authorize the printing of additional copies of the hearings held by the Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs during the 89th Con- gress, 1st session, on S. 9, the cold war GI education bill. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Is there objection to the present consideration of the concurrent resolu- tion? There being no objection, the concur- rent resolution (S. Con. Res. 62) was considered and agreed to, as follows: S. Cox. REs. 62 Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That there be printed for the use of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare two thousand additional copies of the hearings held by its Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs during the Eigthy-ninth Congress, first session, on S. 9, a bill to provide readjustment assistance to veterans who serve in the Armed Forces dur- ing the Induction-period. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an excerpt from the report (No. 912), explaining the purposes of the concurrent resolution. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Senate Concurrent Resolution 62 would authorize the printing for the use of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Wel- fare of 2,000 additional copies of the hearings held by its Subcommittee on Veterans' Af- fairs during the 89th Congress, 1st session, on S. 9, a bill to provide readjustment assist- ance to veterans who serve in the Armed Forces during the induction period (the cold war GI education bill). The printing cost estimate, supplied by the Public Printer, is as follows: Printing cost estimate Back to press, first 1,000 copies____ $2,146.84 1,000 additional copies, at $513.03 per thousand__________________ 513.03 Total estimated cost, S. Con. Res. 62__________________ 2,659.87 PRINTING ADDITIONAL COPIES OF HEARINGS ON ANTITRUST AND MONOPOLY Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to the consideration of Senate Concurrent Resolution 63. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. The concurrent resolution will be stated. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 63) providing additional copies of hearings on anti- trust and monopoly. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. is there objection to the present consideration of the concurrent resolu- tion? There being no objection, the concur- rent resolution (S. Con. Res. 63) was considered and agreed to, as follows: Resolved by the Senate (the House of Rep- resentatives concurring), That there be printed for the use of the Senate Commit- tee on the Judiciary two thousand addi- tional copies of volume 2 and volume a of the hearings held by its Subcommittee On Antitrust and Monopoly during the Eighty- ninth Congress, first session, on economic concentration. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an excerpt from the re- port (No. 913), explaining the purposes of the resolution. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Senate Concurrent Resolution 63 would authorize the printing for the use of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary of 2,000 additional copies each of volumes 2 and 3 of the hearings on economic concentration held by its Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly during the 89th Congress, 1st ses- sion. The printing cost estimate, supplied by the Public Printer, is as follows: Printing cost estimate Pt. 2: Back to-press, 1st 1,000 copies ----- $2, 449 1,000 additional copies, at $803 per thousand------------------------- 803 Estimated cost, pt. 2---------- 3, 252 Pt. 3: 2,000 additional copies, at $557 per thousand ------------------------ 1,114 Estimated cost, pt. 3-------------- 1, 114 Total estimated cost, S. Con. Res. 62 --------------------- 4,366 ORDER OF BUSINESS Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, it was agreed that the Senate would start on the nominations at 10:30, but I am glad to yield briefly to the senior Senator from Ohio. No. 197-18 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26910 Approved FLj g1 t0j 5) bRDP 4468000300 a9 y.121 1965 In the third section of "The Ombudsman: Citizen's Defender," the editor presents some current proposals. One of these is sponsored by Congressman HENRY S. REUSS, Democrat, of Wisconsin, who urges the creation of an administrative counsel of the Congress to take some of the load of constituent com- plaints from Congressmen's shoulders, thereby permitting more time to be devoted to the consideration of legislation. The staff of an administrative counsel could develop an expertise which would enhance the efficiency and efficacy of representatives to the executive branch. Besides providing more boon and less doggie, the administrative counsel might be able to pinpoint trouble- spots whose manifestations today are dif- fused in the offices of 100 Senators and 435 Representatives. Finally, Professor Rowat has collected 10 short essays in a concluding section designed to "present some of the arguments for and against transplanting the institution." Ombudsman countries range in popula- tion from New Zealand's 2,500,000 inhabi- tants to Sweden's 7,500,000. Would the office be able to function if there were 18 million potential customers (Canada, California, or New York), or4f there were 50 million (Great Britain), or 190 million (the United States) ? The New Zealand ombudsman has testi- fied that with additional staff assistance he could handle four times his present work- load, which is somewhat in excess of 1,000 complaints a year. In Sweden, the civil ombudsman, the deputy civil ombudsmaAr and the military ombudsman have recently combined forces to allow for more rational distribution of cases. Though not raised in the book under review, it might also be argued that there is a minimum size-per- haps under 500,000-below which a city or state has small need for an ombudsman, due to the accessibility of its political lead- ers. Must the population in question be homo- geneous, as are those in Scandinavia and New Zealand? Would the implementation of an ombudsman office keep us from attack- ing more serious problems of public admin- istration? To resolve these doubts, "the best test is a practical trial, preferably as a limited and reversible experiment," according to Prof. Fritz Morstein Marx' essay. In this vein, but independently of the Rowat study, Prof. G. V. V. Nicholls has secured the coopera- tion of the government of Nova Scotia in permitting the law students at Dalhousie University to serve as unofficial ombuds- men-a form of legal aid in the administra- tive sphere. Further scholarly research might also be useful. For example, legislators sometimes argue that they are already functioning as ombudsmen. Yet no systematic investiga- tion has ever been made of complaint-han- dling procedures, or of the number and kind of grievances which enter an elected official's office, whether in the executive or legisla- tive branch. A study in this domain is be- ing carried out by the Institute of Govern- mental Studies on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. Such inquiry is valuable whether or not an ombudsman office is instituted, because it permits an appraisal of the adequacy of existing com- plaint machinery. The trouble with the lawmaker{ as- ombudsman approach is that some legis- lators are more able, more interested, and more influential than others. At the State level, many citizens are not aware of this avenue of complaint. In my opinion, the availability of elected officials as buffers between citizen and bureaucracy ought to be widely publicized, particularly if poli- ticians insist upon a monopoly. Throughout the Western World, legis- latures have been declining in importance vis-a-vis the executive. The underlying rea- son may be found in the vast complexity of modern life, which provides the experts of the executive branch with an automatic fait accompli. Even as to grievances, lawmakers reply greatly on executive agencies for the evaluation of complaints which legislators receive. To restore the balance, legislatures need to create tightly knit highly qualified counterparts of administrative mammoths. Praiseworthy efforts in this direction may be seen in Congress Joint Economic Com- mittee, in Federal and State comptrollers general, and more generally in the profes- sionalization of staff assistance for Congress- men and State legislators, their committees and reference libraries. There has, however, been little professionalization of the com- plaint handling function. The Rowat book, then, is timely and pro- vocative. But if the ombudsman idea is going to be more than words, it will have to burst the confines of academic speculation and be tested in one or more of our 50 State "laboratories." Success in Scandinavia and New Zealand would seem to justify the ex- periment: the ombudsman has served as a homeopathic cure for some of the common ailments of bureaucracy-slowness, rudeness, obtuseness and error-and proved to be a prompt, inexpensive and flexible means of helping to keep administration prompt, in- expensive and flexible. / ,V - THE COMMUNISTS KEEP FIGHTING (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. CHARLES H. WILSON) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, last weekend we witnessed a shocking spec- tacle as the antidraft movement reached a new peak with demonstrations all over the country. These latest demonstra- tions are shocking not only because many of the demonstrators are violating a new Federal law by destroying their draft cards, but also because the demanstra- tors-supposedly well-informed, well- educated college students-are demon- strating incredible ignorance about the situation in Vietnam. I want to make it clear that I firmly believe in the right of assembly. I be- lieve in the right of free speech. I be- lieve in the right of assembly. But I also believe in the law, and those who are breaking and perverting it by destroying draft cards and seeking to undermine the Selective Service Act are a disgrace to this great Nation and should be pun- ished to the fullest extent of the law. The tragedy of -these demonstrations against U.S. policy in Vietnam is that they are having an effect directly con- trary to that which apparently is de- sired. The demonstrators, most of them misguided and uninformed youths, are not promoting peace but postponing it. They are not convincing President John- son and the Congress that we should ter- minate our commitment in Vietnam. But they are misleading the Communist leaders in southeast Asia into believing that the antiwar demonstrations will eventually force the administration into pulling out of Vietnam. Mr. Speaker, I suggest in all serious- ness that if these young demonstrators really want the fighting in Vietnam to end, they should take their placards and signs to the Communist capitals, for there lies the ultimate responsibility for the continued bloodshed. The demon- strators must awake from their naivete. They must realize that not only are they playing right into the hands of the Com- munists, but are in many cases actually being led and controlled by Communists. Back in January, I was gravely con- cerned over the situation in Vietnam and the lack of any clear definition of our policy in southeast Asia. I was among the first to call upon President Johnson to enunciate our goals and aspirations in that strife-torn corner of the globe, and to take the initiative in seeking an honorable, peaceful settlement of the conflict. Beginning with his speech at Johns Hopkins University, the President has done just that, but all our overtures have fallen on deaf ears in Hanoi and Peiping. Let there be no doubt who is prolonging the fighting in Vietnam. If our young demonstrators do have doubts, they would do better to spend their time in the classrooms and libraries getting the facts, rather than creating the illu- sion that they can force our Government to end its commitment in Vietnam and permit another Communist puppet state to be born. This is not to say that our policy in southeast Asia should not be subject to full and open discussion. Certainly, no phase of our foreign policy is sacrosanct and beyond question. But we are now colximitted to spare no effort in seeking a just peace and the antidraft and get- out-of-Vietnam movements are having no effect other than to hinder those efforts. By their lack of responsibility and disrespect for the law, the demon- strators are putting this country in a dis- graceful and dangerous position. We cannot escalate the military con- flict, as the radical right would have us do, to the point where a world war and nuclear holocaust would be likely, but neither can we abandon the people of South Vietnam and the freedom-loving countries of the world who rely an our strength to protect them from Commu- nist domination, as the radical left and the antidraft demonstrators advocate. NELSON CRUIKSHANK (Mr. BURTON of California (at the request of Mr. CHARLES H. WILSON) was granted permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BURTON of California. Mr. Speaker, on October 1 of this year, Nel- son Cruikshank retired from the post as director, department of social secu- rity, AFL-CIO. Nelson Cruikshank is an eloquent and forceful fighter whose ef- forts span the development of the social security system in the United States from its inception to the most recent enactment of medicare. The bill we passed this year bears the mark of his efforts. His long and distinguished career started as director, social service de- partment of Brooklyn, N.Y., Federation of Churches. He had worked his way through Ohio Wesleyan University and Union Theological Seminary by working Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP.67B00446R000300140003-1 October wlip1965 ved FRele CONGRESSIONAL .RECORD 04 HOUSE 00140003-1 His plan provides for no direct access to the ombudsman by citizens, as in the Scan- dinavian countries. All matters would have to come through the offices of Congressmen and Senators. The answers would go back to the inquiring citizens-by the same route. REuss said his office spends about half its time serving these needs of constituents. An ombudsman, he argues, "would let the Congressman concentrate on central issues in domestic and foreign policy, and he could vote more wisely." [From the Congressional Quarterly, Editorial Research Reports, Oct. 14, 19651 AN AMERICAN OMBUDSMAN (By Richard Spong) An idea which has been kicking around the U.S. Congress without much attention for the past several years is certain to be given another and more studious look when Brit- ain's Parliament approves legislation estab- lishing the new office of Parliamentary Com- missioner for Administration. , This Is the British version of the Scandinavian Ombuds- man, who is charged with investigating and pressing citizens' complaints against the gov- ernment and public officials. Several measures to create an American Ombudsman have been introduced in recent sessions of Congress. Senator CLAIBORNE PELL, Democrat of Rhode Island and Repre- sentative HENRY S. REuss, Democrat of Wis- consin are sponsors of measures (S. 984, H.R. 4273) pigeonholed in committees at present that would establish what they call an ad- ministrative counsel of the Congress. This individual, in the language of Rep- resentative REuss, "shall review the case of any person who alleges that he believes that he has been subjected to any improper pen- alty, or that he has been denied any right or benefit to which he is, entitled under the laws * * * or that the determination or award of any such right or benefit has been * * * unreasonably delayed." The Ombudsman has proved a successful device for democratic government in Sweden, where it was established in 1809. Since then it has spread to other countries, to Finland in 1919, Japan In 1948, Denmark in 1955, and Norway and New Zealand in 1962. Now the British Labor Government, in a white paper of October 12, proposes the estib- lishment of a Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration who would be an Om- budsman with a special British complexion. He would be entirely independent of the gov- ernment, but-and the point is important- the public -would make its complaints through Members of Parliament. "In Brit- ain," the white paper explains, "Parliament is the place for ventilating the grievances of the citizen-by history, tradition, and past and present practice." It's also good politics for M.P: s to handle the chores of their con- stituents. - Most British papers welcomed the Ombuds- man proposal. The Times reasoned sedately: "The development of the French Conseil d'Etat and the Scandinavian Ombudsman shows that such institutions are capable of becoming not merely valuable means of re- dress but a positive influence, making for competent and fair administration---an as- sistance not an impediment to officialdom." But the Daily Express sees the proposal as just another Labor gimmick, arguing: "Parliament, the press, and the judiciary are well able to look after the rightful interests of the public. If the Ombudsman emerged as a serious rival for the protection of the public interest there might be a danger that the traditional safeguards of the people would be undermined." In a welfare state the British Ombudsman will have plenty of complaints, though na- tionalized industry is to be off limits for him-along with local government, judicial proceedings, and military and foreign affairs. A congressional Administrative Counsel would be equally busy. An American Ombudsman would lighten the "casework" load of Senators and Rep- resentatives and still-by handling only complaints funneled through Capitol Hill- leave the flow of political power undisturbed. Representative .REuss, in testimony before the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress some time ago (May 11, 1965) so- berly observed: "I do not believe that Mem- bers of Congress, who want to be reelected, would consent to remove themselves entirely from dealing with constituents' problems." In a radio broadcast on October 14, 1965, David Brinkley argued for an American ombudsman, albeit one whose role would be somewhat different from what I have envisioned. The script of his broadcast follows: The British and four other countries have, or will have, somebody in the Government citizens can write to and get answers. We could use one here. Back in a moment. Sweden has had for 150 years a public official called an ombudsman. His job is to accept complaints from the citizens about their dealings with the government, investi- gate, see if they have any substance, and if they do, take some action. Now the British are adopting the idea. Finland, Denmark, and New Zealand already have, and it is occa- sionally recommended that the United States try it. If we did, the results surely would be interesting, because it appears that you can scratch any American and find somebody with a complaint, a question, a suggestion, or a criticism he wants to take up with the Government. And if we were to have an ombudsman, all of these would immediately fall into his lap. Where they fall now are in the White House mailroom and on the desks of Con- gressmen, Government officials, newspaper and broadcast reporters. Most of them are in two categories: Questions and complaints about social security payments, generally from those who think they ought to be get- ting more and questions and complaints about veterans' benefits, generally from those who think they ought to be getting more. Plus the other Government welfare programs where people think they have had a bad deal. And with all the new welfare plans now going into effect-medical care and the others-this kind of complaint is bound to increase. Complaints sent to the White House are routinely referred to the agencies involved: Social Security, Veterans' Administration, the Health and Welfare De- partment. And, eventually, they will an- swer. But the agency answering the com- plaint is the same agency being complained about, so it is unlikely the answer will say anything the writer has not already heard. Complaints to Congress get roughly the same treatment. All congressional offices are understaffed for this kind of thing. They have neither the people nor the time to make - personal investigations of complaints about veterans and social security payments. So they ask the agencies involved for the an- swers, pass them along in their own replies, and that's about all they can do. In addition, there are always those who want their poems printed in the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD or broadcast on the Voice of America, those with plans for saving the world, paying off the debt, and other good ideas that, regrettably, appear unworkable. If there were a Federal Government ombuds- man, a sort of national Mister Fixit, all this would go to him. He would have to have the power to force the right answers out of the bureaucrats, keep a tabulated record of the complaints so ha could detect unusual centers of bungling and incompetence in the Federal Establishment and help repair them and so perform a service both to the public and to the Government. The bigger the Gov- ernment gets, and it grows every day, the more complaints there will be and the less chance of getting adequate answers. So, sometime,. we may come to it, somebody to write to in the Government who can and will do something. As for the poems and the plans for saving the world, he could just send them back with a polite note. In addition, I include a very thought- ful review of a new book on the ombuds- man edited by Prof. Donald C. Rowat of the University of Toronto and entitled, "The Ombudsman: Citizen's Defender," University of Toronto, 1965. The re- viewer Prof. Stanley V. Anderson of the University of California at Santa Bar- bara is one of the leading experts on the ombudsman. He is a professor of politi- cal science and a lawyer. [From the New Republic, October 23, 19651 COMPLAINT DEPARTMENT (By Stanley V. Anderson) The ombudsman is an independent com- missioner appointed by the legislature to investigate citizens' complaints of bureau- cratic abuse. He has the power to compel testimony, the duty to form an opinion, and the right to publish his views. He does not have power to change an administrative de- cision nor to punish civil servants other than by reprimand. As a result of ombudsmanic inquiries, the administration may choose to alter a previ- ous position or to subject an employee to disciplinary proceedings. The former is com- mon, the latter rare. In either case, the authorities act because they are persuaded by the reasonableness of the ombudsman's views, and not because they are bound by his judgments. Equally important, an agency may revise a troublesome regulation or the legislature may amend an unworkable law, pursuant to the ombudsman's sugges- tion. Sweden provided for a (JO)--literally, an "agent for justice"--in the constitution of 1809. Finland, for cen- turies a part of the Swedish kingdom, fol- lowed suit in 1919 after breaking ties with Russia. In the decade from 1952 to 1962, the institution was 'adopted in Denmark, Nor- way, New Zealand, and West Germany--in the last, for military affairs only. More re- cently, proposals have been put forward in Australia, Canada, England, Holland, and Ire- land. This year, ombudsman bills were dropped in the legislative hoppers of Cali- fornia, Connecticut, Illinois, and New York. Another was introduced in the New York City Council. Gov. Edmund G. Brown accorded the California bill emergency status before it was defeated in the senate committee on government efficiency; the measure is under interim study awaiting reintroduction by by Assembly Speaker Jesse M. Unruh. The literature on Ombudsmen is extensive, but scattered and repetitive. Professor Rowat, chairman of political science at Carleton University in Ottawa, has provided a benchmark by putting 28 articles between two covers. Nearly half of the text explicates existing Ombudsman systems. Next, a few related institutions are described, such as the Army Inspectorate-General and the erst- while Philippine Presidential Complaints and Action Committee (PCAC). The demise of the latter suggests that the effectiveness of an Ombudsman is limited to marginal defects in administration, and "does not meet the [more basic] need for a rationaliza- tion of government power and structure.`" With a population three times that of Sweden, the PCAC received complaints at a rate of 30 to 1 over the Swedish total of about 2,000'a year. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26968 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 Small Business Administration disaster loans-the principal form of Federal assist- ance now available to individual disaster vic= tims. These SBA home and business rebuilding loans, which carry an interest charge of only 3 percent, can now be offered for a term of no more than 20 years, and only to borrow- ers who can't qualify for private credit. The Senate bill would extend the maximum loan term to 30 years and, more important, make low-cost SBA credit available to all comers in any area the agencry declares to be dis- aster stricken. (Portions of 38 States have been so designated within the past 18 months.) "This may take some business away from private mortgage lenders," concedes one of the bill's proponents, "but why should a provident man whose home has been washed away have to pay 6 percent for rebuilding money when his neighbor with a lousy, credit rating is only paying 3 percent?" The Senate bill's provisions for reimburs- ing property owners for their losses would make the States handle damage claims and require them to put up one-third of the funds. The money would only go out for damage categories against which insurance can't be obtained "at reasonable rates" and total reimbursement would be limited to 75 percent of the amount of a disaster loss. Also, high-risk areas especially vulnerable to repeated flooding would be excluded from coverage; States would have to adopt "flood- plain zoning controls" that would rule out such areas. NO WIND PROTECTION Thus a man whose $30,000 home is com- pletely washed away by a flood could qualify for the maximum $15,000 Federal grant, plus $7,500 from his State government-provided he hadn't built in an area ruled off limits by his State's flood-zoning plan. If, on the other hand, his home were destroyed by a tornado or by hurricane winds (as contrasted with hurricane waters) there would be no Federal-State reimbursement because he could have obtained private insurance against wind perils. Eligiblity of an earth- quake victim would depend on the avail- ability and rates for earthquake insurance in his locality. "We feel we've taken care not to discourage sound business practices in any way," says Senator BAYH. And neither insurers nor mortgage lenders have any great quarrel with his assertion, though the lenders are far from pleased with the bill's broadening of SBA loan eligibility standards. The insurance industry, for its part, has long agonized over its inability to offer flood insurance and is glad to have protection against the torrent of abuse that invariably follows rejection of mass water damage claims. There are misgivings, to be sure, about just where a Federal intrusion into the indemnity field may ultimately lead. But the Bayh bill, at least in the judgment of in- surance industry envoys in Washington, poses no imminent threat. COULD AID INSURERS LATER "It doesn't discourage purchase of any form of insurance that's on the market now, and by encouraging the States to develop flood-zoning systems, it could pave the way for making private flood insurance practical," observes one industry man. Should flood zoning ever become refined enough to permit accurate scaling of insurance rates accord- ing to flood risks, the Bayh bill is designed to cede jurisdiction back to the industry, at least in lower risk areas. But what may be good for insurers and money lenders may not represent "sound business practice" for Uncle Sam, some flood control experts suggest. Average flood and tidal damages of around $400 million yearly over the past decade, as compiled by the U.S. Weather Bureau, could soar much higher, the weathermen concede. Even the estimated $1.9 billion in damages inflicted over the past 12 months-a high water mark-could be dwarfed in a few hours, it's acknowledged, if a wayward hurricane should ever blow into the New York area at full tilt. Once before, in 1956, Congress authorized creation of a flood indemnity fund, built on an insurance framework under which persons seeking protection would pay 60 percent of the premium, Uncle Sam 20 percent and the States the balance. But the Federal Flood Indemnification Administration, set up to run the program, quickly became mired in ratesetting quarrels. And when it came back to Congress in 1957 for $500 million just to get the program going, the House Appro- priations Committee balked. Without any funding, the program perished. THE WAR IN VIETNAM AND THE GENEVA CONVENTION Mr. DODD. Mr. President, not so many months ago, our defeatists and our doomsday criers, as well as our enemies, were telling us that the war in Vietnam could not be won. Some of them said we could not pos- sibly win, because the French who knew southeast Asia so much better than we do had not been able to win with an army of 500,000 men. This is an argument which I have al- ways found singularly unimpressive. Indeed, on the basis of their entire record in Indochina, the French colonial- ists should be the last,ones to be held up as an example or to be asked for advice on how to conduct a counterguerrilla war. Some said that we could not possibly win because we ourselves were un- equipped to fight a guerrilla war in the jungles of Vietnam. But their pessi- mistic appraisal has been' given the lie by the events of recent months in Viet- nam. And there were those who said that we could not possibly win because Hanoi and Peiping were prepared to fight for 10 or 20 years if necessary. They said that Communist regimes are infinitely more stubborn and persevering than demo- cratic governments can ever be, and that these regimes are inherently too proud to admit defeat. this appraisal of Communist staying power was proved wrong in the Korean war, and it is my conviction that it will again be proved wrong in Vietnam. Communist pride is a contradiction in terms. The Communists have no pride. They are history's supreme opportunists. When hard pressed, they have always been willing to call a halt to the battle, even at the cost of important diplomatic concessions. In the days after the Bolshevik revolu- tion, Lenin lectured some of the more stubborn of his party members on the need for knowing how to take one step back, so that they would at a future date be able to take two steps forward. And, at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Lenin purchased peace with the German Army by major territorial and other conces- sions. So it simply is not true that Commu- nists are too proud to back down or to compromise. When I returned from the Far East last May and reported that the war in Vietnam was going much better than could be gleaned from a reading of the press and that there were many reasons for being sanguine about the future, I was accused by some editors and by some of my colleagues of naivete and wishful thinking. I know that one Senator said on the floor of the Senate later that I did not know what I was talking about. But today I do not think that anyone will challenge the statement that the war is going very much better for our side. Virtually all the accounts from Viet- nam are now agreed that the much- touted Vietcong monsoon offensive failed to make serious headway; that our side has, by and large, had the better of the Communists in the important engage- ments that have taken place since last June 1; that morale on the Government side has improved tremendously; and that there are clear signs that the morale of the Vietcong is beginning to crack. This is the theme of an article in this week's issue of Time magazine, which I ask unanimous consent to insert into the RECORD at the conclusion of my re- marks. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 3.) Mr. DODD. I ask unanimous consent that an article entitled "Back to Geneva 1954? An Act of Political Folly" be printed at the conclusion of my remarks. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 2.) Mr. DODD. Mr. President, the Time article makes it clear that the vastly improved situation in Vietnam could not possibly have come about without large scale American intervention. But it also underscores the fact that it is the South Vietnamese Army, and not the American forces, that is doing most of the fighting and suffering most of the casualties. And the South Vietnamese forces are now fighting better because, with our assistance, they are now confident of the final outcome of the struggle. Time points out that in the 4 months after U.S. combat units went into ac- tion, some 3,000 Government soldiers were killed compared with 275 Amer- icans. It also points out that, as the U.S. buildup has grown larger, Gov- ernment losses in action have gone down dramatically-from 1,300 in July, to 800 in August, to 567 in September. There are many evidences of declining Vietcong morale. Their dead, whom they previously used to remove from the bat- tlefield even at the risk of their lives, are now frequently left on the field of battle in large numbers. Their weap- ons, which they previously considered far more precious than lives, are now frequently left behind by the retreating Vietcong. But perhaps the most important single piece of evidence of the declining Viet- cong morale is the fact that during the month of September defections from the Vietcong to the Government side reached the all-time high of 1,654. Against this figure, the Vietcong was able to boast of Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE ently under consideration we come to the point of recognition by the Federal Government of its obligation to provide some sort of assistance in this, field. Once the HHFA has completed the 9- month study of flood insurance factors and an equivalent study of earthquake insurance factors the Congress will be in a better position to determine what form Federal assistance in this area should take. It may be that the study itself once completed will provide sufficient data for the insurance industry to use in setting up a privately financed program. This, however, does not seem likely as the insurance industry has for many years studied the problem_ and determined over and over that privately supported flood insurance is financially unfeasible. Thus it may be then that what will come out of this study will be a proposal for a Federal reinsurance or upper, lguar- antee which, in the manner pioneed by Federal Housing Administration insured loans, will encourage reasonable flood in- surance schemes to be proposed by pri- vate industry. Or, it may be that nothing will induce the industry to establish flood and earth- quake insurance programs at reasonable rates. In this case the Federal Govern rlaent will have no alternative but'to es- tablish its own Federal disaster insurance program. If this becomes necessary all that remains is to implement a statute which is already on the books, the Fed- eral Flood Insurance Act of 1956-Public Law 84-1016). If merited at that time Public Law 84-1016 could be, expanded to Include earthquake insurance as well. Those of us who have worked to assure passage of language authorizing and ap- propriating money for a flood and earth- quake insurance study trust that the blousing and Home Finance Agency- incorporated now in the newly created Department of Housing and Urban :De- velopment will bend its efforts toward providing for the Congress the most thorough-and all-encompassing study of the factors involved in earthquake and flood insurance. Thus, when the report is received, we will be in a position to make an intelligent decision as to what sort of Federal program is needed in this area. Surely the massive loss of real and per- sonal property which occurs yearly in the United States can, in some measure, be insured against through some sort of federally supported or federally assisted program. The study which H.R. 11539 authorizes is the first necessary step to- ward this goal. Mr. President, the Wall Street Journal of June 9 and again of October 18 of this year discussed proposals being consid ered here in the Congress and elsewhere In the country for a Federal disaster in- surance program. These articles will, I am sure, be of interest to the Senate. I ask unanimous consent that they ap- pear at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Wall Street Journal, June 9, 1965] STATE AIDS BELIEVE ANY FLOOD INSURANCE REQUIRES FEDERAL AID-COMMSSSIONERS LIKELY To SOUND OUT WASHINGTON AS FIRMS ARE RELUCTANT To HANDLE PROBLEM NEw YoRx.-Any workable program to in- sure property owners against flood damage will require large-scale Federal participation. That view appeared to be gaining support among State insurance regulators at the semiannual meeting of the National Associ- ation of Insurance Commissioners here, de= spite wide misgivings among insurers and State officials regarding Federal "encroach- ments." An NAIC committee on property and cas- ualty coverages will meet late today and is expected to recommend that the organization schedule conferences in Washington to find out what kind of Government participation might be arranged. It will act on the basis of a report of a subcommittee to which the flood insurance question was assigned more than a year ago. This report includes the findings of a group of insurance industry representatives who were asked last year to explore the ques- tion of private concerns' capabilities in the field of flood coverage. That panel indicated earlier this week that after extensive studies it could make "no recommendations of any specific program for flood insurance on dwelling buildings." That report in effect tossed the problem back into the State offi- cials' laps and left no way out but an indem- nification plan based largely on Government aid. Basically, the view of insurance men is that flood damage is not an insurable risk in the same sense as fire or hurricane losses, in which the premiums paid by many persons provide funds to compensate the relatively few who have losses. It is argued that hardly anyone would buy flood insurance unless he is in a location, such as a river valley or the seashore, where damage would be probable-a situation inconsistent with the insurance principle of risk spreading. The insurance industry panel said it had considered a mandatory approach, in which all dwelling policies would include a charge for flood coverage, and a plan in which flood coverage would be optional. It said it found neither approach workable "on a feasible business basis." [From the Wall Street Journal, Oct. 18, 19651 CONGRESS MULLS A PLAN To AID FUTURE VIC- TIMS OF FLOODS, HURRICANES-FEDERAL IN- SVRANCE WOULD GIVE PROPERTY DAMAGE COVERAGE. NOT OFFERED BY COMPANIES (By Joseph W. Sullivan) WASHINGTON.-Protection for property owners against a major hazard that U.S. in- surance companies have never been willing to cover at any price may soon be made available by Uncle Sam, without charge. The hazard, which already has inflicted damages of well over a billion dollars on U.S. homes, farms, and businesses this year, is water-water propelled by a flooding river, high tide, hurricane or just plain windstorm. Because these perils are capable of inun- dating entire communities, Insurers blanch at the prospect of paying for their havoc. Moreover, because insurance against them has appeal only in the localities where the peril is greatest, there's little way for an insurer to apply his golden precept of col- lecting premiums from the many to pay the claims of a few. These same Considerations, however, are serving to spur efforts within the Johnson administration and in Congress to come up with some alternate form of relief payments for the afflicted. For the greater thedestruc- 26967 tion, the greater the pressures for the Gov- ernment to step in and help out. Galvanized by this year's freakish combination of heavy winter and spring flooding in many parts of the West and Hurricane Betsy's more recent devastation of the Louisiana lowlands, con- gressional majorities are plainly prepared to start the relief funds flowing, though the form, size and exact timing of help are still in doubt. FEDERAL INDEMNITY PAYMENTS Creation of a federally subsidized disaster insurance program in which property owners would pay some premium to get protection, is one possibility getting consideration. Most of the attention, though, centers on provid- ing unadorned Government indemnity pay- ments for home and business losses in desig- nated disaster areas. "Private property owners have no effective way to protect themelves against the worst forms of natural calamity, and the Federal Government is the only entity with the re- sources to step in and fill the void," declares an official of the Federal Office of Emergency Planning. The OEP figures to spend close to $100 million this year to help clean away flood and storm debris, restore public facil- ities and services and provide emergency housing to disaster victims; but under pres- ent law it can't do anything about com- pensating private losses. As a starter in that direction, the House is due to approve today a special "Betsy" bill providing what amounts to Federal grants of up to $1,800 each to uninsured Louisiana, Florida, and Mississippi residents whose prop- erty was damaged or destroyed by the hurri- cane. The Senate Public Works Committee plans to take up the measure tomorrow and barring some end-of-session mixup it should be enacted by late this week. BROADER DISASTER BELIEF The Betsy bill does no more than set a precedent, however, and despite its $70 mil- lion price tag. it's stingy alongside the much broader disaster relief legislation that's being readied to follow. Indeed, after ratifying the Betsy bill last Wednesday, the House Public Works Committee immediately turned its attention to a Senate-passed indemnifica- tion bill that would set far higher ceilings on individual payments for all future disas- ters--$22,500 in the case of residential dam- ages and $75,000 for business property. Because nobody has a firm idea how much this scheme might ultimately cost, the House group will probably extend its deliberations on the measure into the new session of Con- gress that begins In January. Both congres- sional and administration disaster aid specialists are agreed, though, that some ver- sion of the broad relief measure should be enacted soon. "The simple fact that we have to resort to special, sectional acts of Congress to provide relief to some disaster areas is indication enough that present provisions are inade- quate," declares Democratic Senator BIRCH BAYH, of Indiana, chief sponsor of the Sen- ate-passed bill. Only by pledging prompt attention to the broad Senate measure were leaders of the House public works unit able to get an assurance from Chairman PAT MCNAMARA of the Senate Public Works Com- mittee that he'd take up special aid for Betsy victims. Actually, indemnification of private prop- erty losses Is only one feature of the multi- benefit aid plan approved by the Senate with administration backing. The legislation would also commit the Federal Government to picking up the entire tab for reconstruc- tion of storm-damaged schools, highways, sewage works, and other essential public fa- cilities. In addition, it would greatly lib- eralize eligibility standards and terms of Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/1'0/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE 26969 only 225 Government defections during Now it is a pretty good rough rule of I felt that this would be particularly the previous month of August. thumb that anything the Communists valuable, because no member of the in- The Vietcong still have a lot of fight consider good for themselves is almost ternational Control commission has, to in them. But all the indications are certainly not good for the free world. my knowledge, heretofore told the inside that the tide of battle has now turned. But unfortunately so much confusion has story. Prisoners and defectors both report been generated about the Geneva Con- I hope every Member of the Senate will that recent allied victories have caused vention that there are many people in our read the full text of Mr. Blockley's letter. the Vietcong to lose much of their cocki- own country-and they are by no means Here is a member of the Control Corn- ness and that continuing offensive ac- confined to those who oppose the Viet- mission who served in North Vietnam tion by American and Vietnamese l t oops nam war-who are convinced that there and by American and Vietnamese air- would have been no war in Vietnam if craft now make it virtually impossible we had not encouraged President Diem for them to rest in one place for any to violate the Geneva Convention, and peirod of time. They say that the Viet- who believe that the way to settle the tong are kept constantly on the move, dispute is to return to this formula on so that they do not have time to take which the interested parties had pre- care of their weapons properly; that they viously agreed. are short of sleep and short of medical It is my conviction that the Geneva supplies and short of food and of other Agreements were a fraud perpetrated on essentials. a still naive and gullible Western World The incredible youth of the recent by the Communist powers. prisoners and defectors is another clue The Communists never intended to to the desperate situation of the Viet- abide by the restrictions which the agree- cong. There was a time when the Viet- ments theoretically imposed on them; cong relied to a large degree on volun- and the record is overwhelming that the teers. But many of their newly re- Communists were in violation of the cruited contingents are made up for the agreements from the first day. most part of 14- and 15-year-old boys who have been conscripted into the Viet- the e the n other hand, Agreements they to sougve prevent use cong army against their will and against South h Vietnamese eGovernment nt fro the their parents' will. nment from de- de- Thera in every rfor believing fending itself and to compel the inte- reason months things will gration of the South with the North un- th eerthe very ming continue to get worse for the Vietcong der teems that could only have led to the and will continue to go better for our communization of the complete country. side. COMMUNIST SABOTAGE OF THE GENEVA The American buildup now stands at AGREEMENTS approximately 150,000. It will soon go The public confusion on the origins of to 200,000 men. The men already in Vietnam may have been raw at the point of arrival; but they are now shaping up into battle- hardened guerrilla veterans. The cooperation between our Army, Navy, and Air Force is constantly im- proving, and so is cooperation between ure from the sabotage by the Communist members of the three-nation Interna- tional Control Commission set up to su- pervise the carrying out of the Geneva Agreements. By 1961, reports of 1,200 offensive in- cidents by Communist agents, ranging from one-man assassinations to large- The Vietnamese Government under sented to the Commission.4 ~yyf+ Y+y General Ky is shaping up impressively. The Commission, however, took no ac- Against the background of the grow- tion because the Polish Communist ing American buildup in South Vietnam member consistently refused to investi- and the deteriorating military position gate reports of North Vietnamese inter- of the Vietcong, there is increasing evi- vention in South Vietnam. dence that the Communists now realize In this way, this entire massive body that they cannot win the war and they of evidence of Hanoi's intervention in are therefore seeking to extricate them- South Vietnam was muted and rendered selves at the conference table, as they ineffective. were able to extricate themselves from Mr. President, during the course of the the Korean war through the prolonged past summer, I had an exchange of cor- conference at Panmunjom. respondence with Mr. Theodore Beau- Needless to say, the Communists hope bien Blockley, a former member of the to achieve at the conference table the Canadian foreign service who, in the victory which has been denied them on post-Geneva period, served as senior the field of battle. political adviser to the Canadian Com- And the formula they have chosen for missioner to the International Control this is a call for the return to the Geneva Commission for Vietnam, and as legal Convention of 1954. counselor to the Canadian Commis- I have myself seen at least a dozen sioners for Laos and Cambodia as well as broadcasts from Moscow and even from Vietnam. He also served for some pe- Peiping over the past 2 months calling riod of time as the acting leader of the for a return to the Geneva Convention. Canadian delegation in Hanoi. And only this week the papers an- I was so impressed by what Mr. Block- nounced that the Soviet leaders had ley had to say about the manner in which issued a joint statement with the Danish the Geneva accords were manipulated Prime Minister, on the conclusion of his and flouted by the Communists, that I visit to Moscow, deploring the war in asked Mr. Blockley whether he could Vietnam, and calling for its termination provide me with a detailed account of his through a recommitment to the terms of experiences which I might bring to the the Geneva Agreement. attention of my colleagues in the Senate. during that period of time, and he now tells us what really went on. On September 29, Mr. Blockley wrote me a long letter from which I plan to quote extensively in my further remarks. But before I do so, I would like to try to dispel some of the confusion that unfor- tunately exists about the terms of the Geneva agreement and about the pur- ported violation of the agreement by the South Vietnamese Government and by the United States. THE TERMS OF THE GENEVA AGREEMENTS Insofar as they pertain to Vietnam, there were two items of importance in the group of documents generally re- ferred to as the Geneva Accords, or Geneva Agreements. The first was an agreement for a mili- tary truce signed by the French and the Vietminh. This truce called for the re- groupment of the opposing military forces on both sides of the 17th parallel, provided that people wishing to move from one regroupment zone to the other might do so, and established a three- nation International Control Commis- sion to supervise the truce. This military agreement also placed ceilings and restrictions on the amount and type of military forces and equip- ment which might be maintained in each zone. In addition to this truce between the French and Vietminh, there was also a curious document entitled a "Final Dec- laration" of the Geneva Conference. This document, signed by no person or no nation, called for, among other things, the holding of free elections in July 1956 to establish democratic institutions un- der which the country might be unified. It should be clear to even the most in- experienced lawyer that such unsigned declarations bind no one and that uni- lateral declarations, such as those issued by the United States and the State of Vietnam at the Geneva Conference, have just as much validity, if not more. At least they were signed by someone. At the final session of the Geneva Con- ference on Indochina on July 21, 1954, the Vietnamese delegate formally pro- tested "against the hasty conclusions of the armistice agreement by the French and Vietminh high commands only," and against various provisions of the agree- ment. He protested particularly "against the fact that the French high command was pleased to take the right, without a pre- liminary agreement of the delegation of the State of Vietnam, to set the date of further elections." He concluded by saying: The Government of the state of Vietnam wished the conference to take note of the fact that itreserves the, full freedom of action in order to safeguard the sacred right of the Vietnamese people to territorial unity, na- tional independence, and freedom. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26970 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 Free elections under such circum- stances would have been a travesty of the letter as well as the spirit of the final declaration of the Geneva Conference. I have already made the point that the appendix to the Geneva Convention calling for national elections in 1956 was not legally binding on the government of South Vietnam. But if one wishes to argue that this clause was binding on both sides, then it is clear that North Vietnam was from the very first in violation of the Geneva Accord on this point because its very first act was to destroy all those political pre- conditions which might have made free elections possible. COMMUNISM AND DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS There is another matter to which the current advocates of nationwide elec- tions in Vietnam have not, I believe, giv- en adequate consideration. Their advocacy is generally justified on the grounds that a nationwide elec- tion is the only democratic and reason- able manner of settling the Vietnam dispute. Most of them would, I believe, be pre- pared to concede that Communists, when they engage in election campaigns or when they seek to win the support of the people in a country or an area they The united states took the position in its declaration that it would support the Geneva Agreements and would view with concern any attempt to upset them with force. On the subject of reunification, we maintained we would support the prin- ciple of free elections under United Na- tions supervision. The South Vietnamese authorities also announced that they would not inter- fere with the provisions of the Franco- Vietminh truce, but they made it plain that they bitterly resented the artificial division of their country. But putting aside this question of who agreed to what at Geneva, and putting aside the fact that the final declaration is an obscurely worded document, it is plain that the documents issuing from this conference 10 years ago were quite clear on what sort of elections were to be held in Vietnam. They were to be free elections. And it has been as plain as a pike-staff for the past decade that by no stretch of the imagination could free elections ever have been held in North Vietnam. Free elections would only have been possible throughout the territory of Viet- nam if, over the 2-year period between the Geneva Convention and the pf'o- posed date of the elections, there had been complete freedom of the press, ade as non-communists. nom said that withdrawals of the regu freedom of speech, and freedom of POW- Thus the Bolsheviks promised the lar armed forces were to take place with- cal organization in the North, as well as peasants peace, bread, and land. out hindrance, destruction, or sabotage the South. The " Chinese Communists presented of any public property, and without in- :[n the South, these conditions were themselves as agrarian reformers. of jury to the civilian population in - at least met within certain limits. I-To Chi Minh presented himself as a Frank N. Trager, professor of interna- the imposition of a totalitarian Commu- tutionalist democrat in revolt against the n1st regime. The press and radio were Batista dictatorship. taken over by the state. Opposition po- But when they came to power Lenin litical organizations were illegalized. and Mao Tse-tung and Ho Chi Minh and Scores of thousands of oppositionists Fidel Castro all dropped their masks, and were murdered and hundreds of thou- set about the business of erecting totali- sands imprisoned. tarian Communist states and collectiviz- You do not, however, have to take my ing their peasants and terrorizing their word for the above statements. I want subjects. to quote from Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, the Neither the people of the Soviet Union current Defense Minister of North Viet- nor the people of China nor the people of naiv, as he spoke to the 10th Congress of Vietnam nor the people of Cuba nor the the North Vietnamese Communist Party people of any other Communist state in October of 1956: ever voted for communism as such or We made too many deviations and exe- ever gave their support to a movement cuted too many honest people. We attacked which promised them communism. They on too large a front and, seeing enemies were defrauded-but by the time they everywhere, resorted to terror, which became discovered that they had been defrauded, far too widespread. Whilst carrying out our land reform pro- it was too late to do anything about it. gram we failed to respect the principles of I believe that most of those who advo- freedom of faith and worship in many areas. cate a nationwide election as a solution When reorganizing the party, we paid too for the Vietnam impasse, would also be much importance to the notion of social prepared to concede that, once the Com- class instead of adhering firmly to political munists establish themselves in power, qualifications alone. Instead of recognizing they do not accord their subjects the op- Education to be the first essential, we resorted tion of voting them out of power if they exclusively to organizational measures such are dissatisfied with their rule. linary punishments, expulsion from disci p as the party, executions, dissolution of party What they are proposing, in effect, ernment refused to accept the statement branches and cells. Worse still, torture came therefore, is that we agree to a one-time that the South Vietnamese authorities to be regarded as a normal practice during election in Vietnam. And if the people of had been breaching the military articles party reorganization. North Vietnam who have been under of the Geneva agreement, and presented So, 3 months after the time that free elections were to be held in Vietnam, we have the spectacle of the North Vietna- mese themselves admitting they were running a police state where executions, terror, and torture were commonplace. Communist Party discipline for 12 years figures to prove that it was in fact North are pressured into voting for the Com- Vietnam which had been breaching the munist slate, and if they are joined by a military clauses of the agreement. sufficient number of people in South Let me quote from this British memo- Vietnam am who have been n led led to o believe that that they are voting for national inde- randum for the purpose of helping to Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 pendence, the result of the election must be considered binding for all time by all countries because, so the argument goes, the Vietnamese people will have opted for communism.. In my opinion, any such one-time elec- tion is a travesty on democracy and has absolutely nothing to do with the process of self-determination. For my own part, I would be prepared to agree to nationwide elections in Viet- nam if strong international machinery could be set up to assure the Vietnamese people of complete political democracy for a period of several years after the election, with the understanding that there would be a second election at the end of that time. I am convinced that in any such sec- ond election the people would turn against the Communists in as over- whelming numbers as the Hungarian people turned against their Communist regime. But I am also convinced that no Communist regime would ever or could ever agree to such democratic elec- tions because the Communists also know that such elections would mean the end of communism. Communist violations of the Geneva Convention were not confined to the es- tablishment of a totalitarian state. and one of this country's leading experts on southeast Asia, has pointed out in a recent issue of "Vietnam Perspectives": As a matter of record the withdrawal of the Vietminh forces from the zone of the south was accompanied by considerable looting and destruction of public buildings and railroads, systematic destruction or theft of the files, documents, and especially land registries in the upper provinces close to the 17th parallel, and kidnaping or murder of local officials. But, by contrast to the activity of the irregulars who were left be- hind, these were transient woes visited upon the Government and the people of South Vietnam. Professor Trager went on to point out that in 1955 the irregular cadres who have been left behind in South Vietnam were formally organized Into the so- called army of liberation and that it was at this early date that the Commu- nists embarked upon their systematic campaign of terror and kidnapping and sabotage and military action disguised as internal revolt against the Govern- ment of South Vietnam. In a memorandum to the Soviet Gov- ernment in April 1956, the British Gov- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 26971 reestablish some perspective on what nists managed to get away from North so-she added quite simply to Mr. really happened: Vietnam as the French were surrender- Blockley- The Soviet Government was no doubt ing, the agreement provided for exit per- I knew there would be thousands coming for aware that similar accusations by the Viet- mits for all others who wished to leave. them today, so I came early for mine, as have minh high command have already been in- These were denied tens of thousands of these other people. vestigated by the International Commission persons of whom the Commission had In the meantime truckloads of armed and, as explained in the Commission's fourth knowledge. "How many millions more police and soldiers had been arriving out- and fifth interim reports, shown to be with- there were of whom the Commission had side, and struggles were developing as out foundation. no knowledge we shall never know,"' Mr. they tried to seize people in the crowd. Nor can Her Majesty's government give letter. any credence to the charge of preparation of Blockley said in his did know that there Shouting that could be heard above "military cadres" for the so-called campaign The Commission the Commotion, Blockley managed to ar- to the north with the aim of starting a new was a large-scale revolt in one of the rest these activities, and then he ad- war in Indochina. In this connection Her provinces of North Vietnam, said Mr. dressed the crowd from the outside stair- Majesty's government consider that a com- Blockley, largely over the matter of the case landing. parison of military developments in North refusal of the North Vietnamese authori- and South Vietnam provide the best guide to ties to issue the exit permits which had Que vows ea fous-sous. How mad here- re the attitude and intentions of the author- you are to come here- ities in the two zones. been promised the local population, and At the time of the agreement on the ces- to which they were entitled under the He said- sation of hostilities, the force at the disposal agreement. Canadians serving on the The Canadian delegation can never, never, of the French Union high command in Viet- Commission's local team saw evidence of never help you; the International Commis- nom amounted to approximately 300,000 the suppression of the revolt with their sion can never, never, help you-it does not want to help you. Never come near this men, Since then over 100,000 French troops own eyes, he said, and received full ac- building again, nor go near the Commission have been withdrawn and there will soon be Counts, but the Commission would not, building. And tell everybody else so. Now, none left, while the Vietnamese Army has and could not, do anything about it, run, run, run, and get away as fast as you been reduced by 20,000 men. In North Viet- Early attempts by some Canadians and can. nom, however, there has been no such re- auction in military strength since the con- a very few Indians to insist that the North Vietnamese carry out the terms of As he cried out the last words, Blockley elusion of the agreement on the cessation of signaled to the Canadian soldiers who hostilities. On the contrary, the Vietminh the agreement in respect to certain indi- swung open the great gates, and the Army has been so greatly strengthened by viduals were tantamount to sentences of crowd in the courtyard erupted into the the men and reequipment of irregular forces death for them, Mr. Blockley reported. and scat- that, instead of the 7 Vietminh divisions in The Canadian delegation and even the crcroowdwd bowling outside, aovnrd all many turned police and sat- existence in July 1964 there are now no less Indian delegation destroyed thousands than 20. The striking contrast between mss- of petitions from people in North Viet- diers who, miraculously, refrained from live military expansion in the north and the nom who clearly came within the pro- opening fire. withdrawal and reduction of military forces tecting clauses of the agreement so that Mr. Blockley concluded his account of in the south speaks for itself. there would be no chance of the petitions the incident with these words: Mr. Blockley, in his letter to me, said falling into the hands of the Communist Mercifully, only two or three truckloads that the evidence of espionage, subver- authorities. of prisoners were borne off in the police vans. effarts the subsequently Sion, and sabotage by the North Viet- During Chou En-lai's state visit to All insure these e luckless ones Commission were re not pun- mese Government was so massive that Hanoi a pun 11#L , Mr. Blockley was invited, as act- ished for fo attempting to exercise their rights he was able to get the Legal Committee ing leader of the delegation at the time, under the Geneva Agreements went without of the Commission to bring in an unani- to attend the numerous receptions which success. mous report on this subject. But then, were accorded Chou. In the course of Mr. Blockley said that he frequently says Mr. Blockley: the evening, he had two long talks with The signing Polish member was recalled, Ho Chi Minh and two with Chou En-lai. returned to his office or his residence to the report repudiated by the Poles, and the Early next morning, said Mr. Blockley, be greeted by North Vietnamese who had Indian legal adviser got his knuckles severely he was roused by the delegation officer somehow managed to smuggle themselves rapped by New Delhi., of the day who informed him that a mob in and who would then plead with him Mr. Blockley went on to point out that had gathered at the delegation office arms around und his s feet. sometimes Am , he the story of what happened in North building, and had forced itself into the said, g them, Vietnam after the Geneva Convention courtyard of the building, despite the ef- officials. there were even n some government is largely unknown because the minutes fort of armed Communist guards, and officials. But since there was absolutely of the meetings of the International unarmed Canadian soldiers, to keep them nothing he could do to help them escape, Control Commission and texts of the var- out. He was driven hurriedly to the of- he had no alternative but to compel them sous majority and minority reports have flee building. The crowd, which was over munist to depart by threatening to call the Com- not been published. He said that these a thousand and growing rapidly, let the police. documents would reveal a "constant and car through when the orderly officer Commenting on this entire experience, flagrant flouting by the Communists" of called out: Mr. Blockley's of letter said: the terms of the convention and that, Cleat Monsieur l'Ambassadeur Canadien. In view ew of the Commission's sorry record despite instructions from their govern- of failure to extend any sort of protection ments to keep contention to a minimum, Entering the building courtyard, said to persons entitled to such protection under "The Canadians were compelled to regis- Mr. Blockley, he found 200 or 300 more the Geneva Agreements, anyone who sug- gests it could do any better in assuring a ter their dissent from the protection ac- North soldiers terror-free election throughout North and corded the North Vietnamese by the score or Vieso of tnamese anxious Canadian South Vietnam must be utterly disingenuous, Poles and Indians on a number of oc- keeping them from going up the stair- incredibly ignorant, or downright pro-Com- casions." cases into the offices themselves. He munist. Mr. Blockley further expressed the went up to a half-way landing on one of Mr. President, at the conclusion of opinion: these staircases, and shouted for silence. my remarks I ask unanimous consent to The agreement was never really intended Then he singled out an impressive look- insert in the RECORD to complete text to work, and the Commission was always ing Vietnamese matron to act as spokes- of my letter from Mr. Theodore Beaubien intended to be a facade behind which the man, demanding to know from her what Blockley. Communists * ' * were able to mount the the demonstration was all about. The The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- assaultwhich finally broke in full fury a few matron told him that the rumor had out objection, it is so ordered. months ago. quickly spread about Hanoi during the (See exhibit 1.) preceding evening and night that the Ca- Mr. Blockley said that the agreement radian delegation now enjoyed cordial WHAT KIND OF SETTLEMENT was hardly signed before the Com- relations with the Communist authors- Mr. DODD. Mr. President, in pre- munist North Vietnamese Government ties, and would now be able to insure the paring for the day when the Communists had breached ;it. He pointed out that issuance of exist permits to those who accept our invitation to meet us at the although almost a million non-Commu- had been denied them. conference table, the first thing we must No. 197-21 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 do, therefore, is to set the record straight in our own minds on the Geneva Con- vention, so that we will not again be entrapped by a call for a return to the Convention or by any formula similar to the Geneva Convention. And we must also set the record straight in our own minds on the sub- jeer; of coalition governments with Com- munists because I am convinced that such a coalition in Vietnam would be an invitation to total disaster. The administration has advised the rulers of Hanoi that we place no precon- ditions on the convening of the diplo- matic conference to terminate the hos- tilities in Vietnam. But this does not mean that the ad- ministration is prepared to accept any conditions posed by the Communists or that it will consent to a peace which would, within a short period of time, re- sult in turning South Vietnam over to Communist control. President Johnson made this abund- antly clear when he warned that there was no power on earth that could force us from Vietnam or that could compel us to abandon the Vietnamese people who loot; to us for protection. There are details of any agreement that cannot be foreseen. On the other hand, I cannot think of any more gen- erous proposal for the settlement of the Vietnamese conflict than the proposal outlined by the administration earlier this year. This proposal did not call for uncondi- tional surrender on the part of North Vietnam. It did not even call for compensation to South Vietnam or for territorial con- cessions on the part of the North. It asked simply that Hanoi call off its war of aggression against the Govern- ment of South Vietnam-and, in return for this, it offered North Vietnam the prospect of participating as a beneficiary in the multibillion-dollar Mekong River plan. Less than this we could not demand. More than this we cannot offer, with- out gravely compromising the freedom of South Vietnam for which so many American boys have now given "the last full measure of devotion." EXHIBIT 1 SEPTEMBER 29, 1965. Senator THOMAS J. DODD, Washington, D.C., United States of America. DEAR SENATOR DODD: Thank you for in- viting me to write and tell you of some of my experiences, and views I formed, while I was a member of the Canadian delegation to the International Control Commissions in Indo- china. A career diplomat in the Canadian Foreign Service, I was, in 1957-58, Senior Political Adviser to the Canadian Commission on the International Commission for Super- vision and Control in Vietnam (to give it its full name in English). I also served as legal adviser to all three Canadian Commissioners (for Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) and also was acting leader of the delegation to the Vietnam Commission on a number of oc- casions. In the course of this service I had several conversations with Ho Chi-minh, Pham Van Dong and General Giap; and with Premier Chou-en-lai and several of the Russian leaders. The study of the Geneva Agreements (1954) I was called on to make in connection with the performance of my duties led me to the firm conclusion that no legal or moral obligations devolved upon the Government of South Vietnam from the operation of the agreement relating to Vietnam. The parties to this agreement were France, a defeated colonial power endeavoring to extricate itself from the consequences of a military defeat at the hands of an insurgent body, the other party to the agreement, which was itself opposed by another very large segment of the population. By no norm of international law with which I am familiar could the onerous under- takings of a colonial power in favor of one segment of the population-of the national community-be regarded as devolving upon another segment of the community which was subsequently successful in wresting its own independence from the colonial power. As signatories of the agreement, both France and North Vietnam are in breach of the agreement, but it is absurd to talk of the United States or South Vietnam, who opposed the agreement, as having "broken" it. In any event the agreement was hardly signed before the Communist North Viet- namese Government had breached it. Al- though almost a million non-Communists managed to get away from North Vietnam as the French were surrendering (an extra- ordinary mass "voting with the feet" to which I have seen little reference recently), the agreement provided for exit permits for all others who wished to leave. These were denied tens of thousands of persons of whom the Commission had knowledge; how many millions more there were of whom the Com- mission had no knowledge we shall never know. The Commission does know that there was a large-scale revolt in one of the Provinces of North Vietnam, largely over this matter of the refusal of the North Viet- namese authorities to issue the exit permits which had been promised the local popula- tion, and to which they were entitled under the agreement. Canadians serving on the Commission's local team saw evidence of suppression of the revolt with their own eyes, and received full accounts, but the Commission would not, and could not, do anything about it. Early attempts by some Canadians and a very few Indians to insist that the North Vietnamese carry out the terms of the agree- ment in respect to certain individuals were tantamount to sentences of death for them. I have referred in an earlier letter to the hours spent by members of the Canadian delegation, including myself, in destroying thousands of petitions from people in North Vietnam who clearly came within the pro- tecting clauses of the agreement, so that there would be no chance of the petitions falling into the hands of the Communist authorities. To give some of the Indians their due, I was told by some of them that they had done likewise with petitions ad- dressed either to their delegation or to the Commission Secretariat. During Chou En-lai's state visit to Hanoi, I was invited, as acting leader of the dele- gation at the time, to attend the numerous receptions which were accorded him. At the first of these I was singled out by Ho Chi Minh as the only person at the recep- tion besides the guest of honor, Chou, with whom he conversed. In the course of the evening, I had two long talks with him, and two with Chou En-lai. Early next morning I was roused by the delegation officer of the day who informed me a mob had gathered at the delegation office building, part of which had forced itself into the courtyard of the building, despite the effort of armed Communist guards, and unarmed Canadian soldiers, to keep them out. I was driven hurriedly to the office building, the crowd (which I esti- mated at over a thousand and growing rapidly) letting the car through when the orderly officer called out, "C'est M. l'Am- bassadeur canadien." Going through a postern in the main gates of the carriage entrance to the build- ing courtyard, I found 200 or 300 North Viet- namese milling around in there, with a score or so of anxious Canadian soldiers keeping them from going up the staircases into the offices themselves. I went up to a half-way landing on one of these stair- cases and shouted for silence, then singled out an impressive looking Vietnamese matron to act as spokesman, demanding to know from her what the demonstration was all about. She told me the rumor had quickly spread about Hanoi during the preceding evening and night that the Canadian dele- gation now enjoyed cordial relations with the Communist authorities and would now be able to insure the issuance of exit per- mits to those who had been denied them. "So," she added quite simply, "I knew there would be thousands coming for them today, so I came early for mine, as have these other people." In the meantime truckloads of armed po- lice and soldiers had been arriving outside, and struggles were developing as they tried to seize people in the crowd. Shouting so that I could be heard above the commo- tion, I managed to arrest these activities, and then I addressed the crowd from the outside staircase landing. "Que vous etes fous- fous-fous"-"How mad you are to come here" and going on in French, "The Cana- dian delegation can never, never, never help you-it does not want to help you. Never come near this building again, nor go near the Commission building. And tell every- body else so. Now, run, run, run, and get away as fast as you can." As I cried out the last words I signalled to the Canadian soldiers who swung open the great gates, and the crowd in the court- yard erupted into the crowd outside, and all turned and scattered, bowling over many police and soldiers who, miraculously, re- frained from opening fire (although we had heard rifle fire in Hanoi previous nights). The last I saw of the marvelous old Viet- namese dame, she had kilted her ground- length skirts up to her knees, had nimbly dodged two or three soldiers and police, leaped into a pedicab which she must have arranged for beforehand, and careened off down the street, rounding a corner on two wheels while a policeman who had been pursuing her in another pedicab lay sprawled in the street, his pedicab operator, either deliberately or accidentally having upset in attempting to round the same corner. Mercifully, only two or three truckloads of prisoners were borne off in the police vans. All efforts in the Commission subse- quently to ensure these luckless ones were not punished for attempting to exercise their rights under the Geneva Agreements went without success. In view of the Commission's sorry record of failure to extend any sort of protection to persons entitled to such protection under the Geneva Agreements, anyone who sug- gests it could do any better in assuring a terror free election throughout North and South Vietnam must be utterly disingenu- ous, incredibly ignorant or downright pro- Communist! I will but briefly mention the dreadful experience of finding North Vietnamese in my office and in my residence-the Lord knows how they had managed to get in, evading both the Vietnamese and Canadian guards-who Would then plead with me to save them by smuggling them out, breaking down and throwing their arms around my feet, even threatening me, and whom I in Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 26973 turn would have to threaten with calling lac," and heard voices in the darkness say the Commission; after all, the U.S. State De- the Communist police before they would softly, "G'night Mister' Canada," "Bon soir, partment provides the Canadian Department leave. Some of these were actually gov- M'sieu." At first I would turn to return the of External Affairs with selected classified ernment officials. salutation, but would only encounter in- material which is very useful for the in- When I first arrived in Hanoi I was ten- scrutable Oriental faces, none seemingly formation of Canadian policymakers, and is dered a reception which was attended by aware of my presence. Shortly, I learned to released to Canada as an ally of the United many of the North Vietnamese leaders. reply looking straight ahead, without en- States by order of the U.S. Government. Assigned an escorting officer who spoke im- deavoring to discover who had addressed me. It is very hard for Canadians and Ameri- per-cable French, and very good English, I After I had been in Hanoi a while, I learned cans to realize that assassination is employed managed to duck out from under his guard, that it was possible to hold conversations this by the Communists as a means of political leaving him pinned down by the British way-the person talking with me remaining action, and the spoofing of the fact by novels, Consul-General and the French Delegate- some distances to the side and alternatively movies and television shows makes the idea General. I managed to slip off with three moving ahead or falling behind, usually still less credible to the average Canadian young majors of the North Vietnamese Army, screened by two or three friends-all of us and American. But I have had official deal- one of whom, I noted-to the evident pleas- falling silent as newcomers approached. ings with chairmen and secretaries of assas- ure of all three-wore the "Hero of Dien Bien After I had become friendly with a number sination committees, so designated officially Phu" medal, North Vietnam's equivalent of of persons this way, mostly university stu- . by the North Vietnamese Government. the Medal of Honor. Quickly establishing dents, 15 or 20 of them would cluster around These dealings were part of my duties as a rapport with the majors-I served for close a park bench which had, in preparation, been member of the Commission. And the activi- to 15 years in the Canadian and British inched into the darkest spot in the park, ties of the particular committees concerned Armies and Air Forces-I turned the con- between two glimmering lamp bulbs, at the extended far out of Vietnam and into Europe. veesation to poltical matters. In an effort farthest point from either. From these The Communists also employ, of course, to convince me of the nobility of the ideals young men I learned that the whole student subtler assassinations than that of the body. of communism, the "Hero of Dien Bien Phu" body of Hanoi University had been expelled Many people are deterred from coming for- referred to the recent conduct of his chief, and was being sent to work on the fields, with ward and offering their assistance in the pres- Col. Ha Van Lo, Head of the North Viet- a complete new undergraduate year being. ent struggle for these reasons. namese Liaison Mission with the Interna- brought in from the country. Hanoi youth But I should count myself a traitor to the tionai Commission. were to be left to "cool off" and no high spirit of man if I did not offer every assist- Col. Ha Van Lo, to whom I had been in- school graduates from the big city schools ance which I could give to help you in your troduced, was standing across the room re- would be taken into the university that work of trying to correct the error and garding us with a baleful stare. He looked year. The wholesale expulsion was because sophistry-making the worse appear the bet- like a character actor out of Hollywood cen- of a protest by some 20 or 30 students over ter thing-associated with public considera- tral casting. A former mandarin, he had some issue which I do not remember, if I tiolt of the situation in Vietnam, not only a long, thin, cruel, basilisk face-quite the was ever told. The protesters themselves had outside the United States, but even within most frightening I have ever seen. Col. disappeared; it was generally surmised they the United States itself. In 1936, although Ha Van Lo, said the young major, had had a had been executed. The expulsion order ap- a Canadian, I joined the British Royal Air captive turned over to him quite recently. Plied even to the graduating medical course, Force to play a small part in combating The captive was his own brother, an officer and North Vietnam was desperately short of nazism-German national socialism; were on the opposite side-in the South Viet- doctors. I 20 today I should be trying to join the U.S. namese Army. Col. Ha Van Lo had then pro- I have endeavoured in this letter to give Air Force to make my small contribution in ceeded, personally, to torture his own brother some small indication of the inadequacy of the struggle against Communist socialism, to death-not too quickly-extracting a lot the Geneva Agreement relating to Vietnam, whose fruits I have seen. Regarded as too of useful information from him during the and the inability of the International Control old today to join an Air Force, I am ready to process, said my admiring informant. Didn't Commission (as well as the lack of desire) do what I can. that prove what a magnificent thing com- to protect the people of Vietnam and to give With my highest regards, munism must be, to make a man do that them that freedom of choice which it was Yours sincerely, to his own brother? Fortunately, at this pretended was the objective, among others, THEODORE BEAUBIEN BLOCKLEY. roint my escorting officer came hurrying up of the Geneva Agreements. to reclaim his charge! In my opinion, the agreement was never EXHIBIT 2 From time to time there has been some really intended to work, and the Commission [Vietnam measure of public outcry, in the United was always intended to be a facade behind BACK TO GENEVA 195??-A APerspectivN A AC TT OF OF States, Canada, and in Europe, over the which the Communists-and I do not mean C POLITICAL LIT rough treatment sometimes accorded their merely the Polish or Vietnamese Commu- FOLLY prisoners by the South Vietnamese soldiery. nists-were able to mount the assault which (By Frank N. Trager, professor of interna- But one rarely hears of the truly ghastly finally broke in full fury a few months ago. tional affairs at the Graduate School of treatment of South Vietnamese captives by Espionage, subversion and sabotage was Public Administration, New York Univer- the North Vietnamese. Several of my own the subject of a unanimous report I finally sity) non-Communist friends have been most hor- managed to bring in in the Legal Commit- Various voices, including the distinguished rifyingly done to death by the Communists. tee of the Commission; the signing Polish U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee One, Colonel Nam, had his poor shattered member was recalled, the report repudiated Chairman, have urged that in seeking an corpse dumped in front of his house in Sai- by the Poles, and the Indian legal advisor effective and reasonable settlement of the war gon for his wife and children to find. No got his knuckles severely rapped by New in Vietnam "much (may) * * * be said for American photographer found it worth Delhi. hoto a hin a return to the Geneva Accords In P ~ P g? I have not gone into the minutiae of con- just in their `essentials' but in in all their speci- As a lesser example of this strange dual stant and flagrant flouting by the Commu- fications." (Senator J. W. FULBRIGHT, "Ad- morality-the new double standard-we nists of such restrictions as even the Agree- dress on Vietnam," the New York Times, June seem to apply as between acts of the Com- ment did place upon them; despite instruc- 16, 1965.) munist world and acts by those on our own tions to keep contention to a minimum, the Close study of these agreements leads to side-or perhaps it is only a double standard Canadians were compelled to register their an opposite conclusion neither the "essen- applied by our western press, radio, and tele- dissent from the protection accorded the tials" nor the "specifications" of Geneva 1954 vision reporters, commentators, editorialists, North Vietnamese by the Poles and Indians should be sought again. They were written all concerned with the International Com- on a number of occasions. I recommend in haste and ended in compromise with, and mission seemed to take it for granted that that you ask the Canadian Government for concessions to, the Communist powers. the Canadians in North Vietnam should be their record of the Commission's activities, They add up to political folly. These agree- restricted to a 3-block area around their liv- including majority and minority reports to ments aided Communist North Vietnam to ing quarters and office buildings, whereas the the cochairmen and the minutes of the Com- initiate further struggle against South Viet- Poles, in South Vietnam, would be permitted mission's meetings. There is no doubt what- nam and prevented any objective peacekeep- to go off to summer resorts like Cap St. ever that the Poles have made their record, ing machinery from performing its assigned Jaques, to wander about Saigon at will, and and the meetings minutes, available to the function. They also fed the Pathet Loa in to enjoy the company of local Vietnamese. North Vietnamese, the Chinese and the Rus- Laos and helped to bring the country almost In my early days in Hanoi the only diversion sians. I myself have seen North Vietnamese to ruin. (The Western solution as proposed for Canadians was to go for a postprandial officials with copies of the minutes of pre- in the Geneve 1962 Agreements for Laos: ma- walk around an artificial lake, with a beauti- vious meetings in their possession. jority voting within the Control Commission, ful little pagoda In the middle. It appeared There is, of course, the Canadian Govern- more careful definition of the controls, free- to be the only place in the city where a modi- ment's white paper on the Vietnam Commis- dom of movement for the Commission with cum of privacy was possible, at night, because sion, issued quite recently, and, in line with provisions for its movement, are better than the Vietcong's operation of Hanoi's power- this policy, there seems no reason why the those of 1954, but still not good enough. house was so inefficient, and the park lights Canadian Government should not give quali- They have been effectively negated by the merely glimmed at night. fled Americans, such as the members of your Pathet Lao military hold on the territory The first night, walking alone, I joined committee, access to selected dispatches from now legally assigned to them-territory con- the promenade round and round the "p'tit the Canadian delegates and alternates to tiguous to China and to North Vietnam Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26974 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 which they have illegally held since and be- Molotov, the Russian representative, in ful- pine-manned Operation Brotherhood, a medi- cause of ambiguities in Geneva 1954.) filling his timetable but at the expense of cal and social work nongovernmental aid The 1954 agreements contain a declaration compromises and concessions which the effort and the Cai San resettlement villages of 1.3 articles; and 3 agreements governing Western powers and the State of Vietnam had of northerners who voted with their feet the "cessation of hostilities" in Cambodia (33 not wanted to make. Since the Geneva Con- against the Communist north. In both articles), Laos (41 articles) and Vietnam (47 ference was called to end the hostilities in areas we had to have military protection he- articles). It is quite probable that those French Indo-China, and since France was to cause our jeeps and canal boats were subject who recommend these "essential" and "spe- be the cosigner of the cessation of hostili- to Vietminh fire. The country was at war cific" agreements have not fully studied ties agreements with the Communist North with an enemy led, trained, inspired, and en- then--or even, in many cases, read them. Vietnam, as well as with the Kingdoms of couraged by Communists whose loyalty was Nine states took part in the Geneva 1954 Laos and Cambodia, the Western powers re- to Hanoi, and who were attempting to over- Conference: Cambodia, the Democratic Re- luctantly and unwisely acquiesced in France's bthrow a ecome alrepuima the governmentyear which had public of Vietnam (the Communist North), position. Laos, France, the People a Republic of China, The assorted 134 articles of the Geneva The irregulars using arms and ammuni-ics: rawal of with the cach the the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom, the State cease fire;t reg treat 5 major treat rtion egular aarmedrforces, w re thedcadres of the of 'Vietnam (soon become The latter two re- ment of populations; post-cease-fire military Vietminh; i.e. the Communist north, left be- and the Un fu sign the Declaration. They issued assistance; elections; and international hind in the south to carry out guerrilla war- fused to ned States. at separate "declarations." The United King- supervisory arrangements to guarantee the fare as planned.. They operated under vari- first 4. ous names such as the Patriotic Front or morn and the U.S.S.R. became of the eoagree- 1. Cease-fire: The Western powers wanted United Front or Fatherland Front. Esti- me'n s. Though the execution of the agree- to insure agreement on cease-fire before mates vary but somewhere between 5,000 to Though the Conferral 26, It began ( reached on political questions were discussed. The Com- 10,000 irregulars were thus available in the the Korean set questions) the the Indochinese questions on April 2 on May 8, ending monists insisted on their being coupled and south to conduct warfare. And though the on July 21. won out since the military situation had been armed forces of the contracting parties were steadily going against the French, climaxed not to commit acts and operations, nothing 1he Tde V.S. declaration . ecla ration that provided would by the fall of Dienbienphu on the very day, was said in the agreements about infiltration, that the the Geneva r Dcled in the ure May 8, when the discussions on Indo-China terrorism, assassination, and covert military at the signatories refrained in the future begn. The Communist delegations (as in operations--classic aspects of Communist tram the threat re use force; lso in in 1965) made a determined bid to include tactics-which could be and were conducted voted that of "any the r * e * * newal er r the aggression g would i be e the Communist Khmer (Cambodian) and by these irregulars. lation tviewed "with h grave concern and Pathet Lao forces as regular members of the 2. Regroupment and treatment of popula- re nidg viewed "ing international and as seriously Geneva Conference on the grounds that these tion: The aim of the Communists was to in- an were "national liberation forces." Here, at sist on large regroupment and assembly areas rity"; and that it t would "not peace join and join in secu- he least the opposition of the royal Lao and which could then be controlled by their f..,...e~ n1h. W_i-nM Power:, armarently peoples of Vietnam in determining their own future. In this connection it should be emphasized that though neither the United States nor the Republic of Vietnam were signatories to the Geneva Agreements of 1954, this fact of itself did not wholly relieve the two govern- ments from observing the provisions of these Agreements provided all other parties to them abided by them. There is precedent in inter- national law for observing treaties and agree- ments which cover a zone or subject of in- terests even if a government is not signatory to the treaty. However, any breach of the articles of the agreement by any of the con- tracting parties automatically suspends or destroys the basis for compliance by other contracting or related parties. It certainly relieves nonsignatories from any actual or implied obligation to observe the provisions of the treaty or agreement. It is clear that the U.S. representatives at Geneva had little confidence in its con- clusions; that they expected trouble and therefore provided legitimate tests by which the United States could legally and honor- ably determine its course of action. Any objective examination of the post-Geneva Cambodian governments prevn.iieu vvc. u- ---- Vietminh (Communists) delegation from never agreed on what they wanted. The Hanoi. But the latter won a major conces- Cambodians won out on having no regroup- sion, as we shall see, when this type of ques- ment area in their state-only withdrawals. tion came up under regroupment. Though But the Communists, also won out elsewhere the cease-fire agreements prohibited the by demanding the north and northeastern "resumption of hostilities" (Cmd. 9239, Viet- provinces of Laos and then settling for those narn, article 10, 19 and 24) and though these provinces contiguous to Communist China articles refer to "armed forces" and "regular and North Vietnam-a position further rein- troops," nothing that the Americans and the forced by the Geneva 1962 agreements. British could do succeeded in persuading the Each party (Cmd. 9239, art. 14c) under- French negotiators to insist that "irregular" took to refrain from "reprisals or discrimi- f.e. guerrilla forces, be included in this pro- nation against persons or organizations on hibition. account of their activities during the hos- Withdrawals of the regular armed forces, tilities and to guarantee democratic liber- Including equipment and supplies (Cmd. ties." The Communists used this to attack 9239, Vietnam, article 15), were to be com- the Diem government when it sought to re- pleted within 300 days. They were to take press the (northern) army of liberation place without hindrance, destruction or which began to operate in 1955. But, it sabotage of any public property and without used terror, assassination and suppression injury to the civil population. As a matter to wipe out dissident, anti-Communist lead- of record the withdrawal of the Vietminh ership in the north. And, as we shall see, forces from the zone of the south was accom- inspections could not or were not under- panted by considerable looting and destruc- taken. tion of public buildings and railroads, sys- According to article 14d, during the 300 teinatic destruction or theft of the files, days assigned to military regroupment and documents and especially land registries in exchanges, civilians were to enjoy the op- the upper provinces close to the 17th parallel, tion of choosing to remain or to depart from and kidnapping or murder of local officials. residence. This period was extended by July 25 , a^+ t o new cut-off Gate " , ir- conduct of North Vietnam with respect to the But by contrast to the activity of the key provisions of the Agreements; military regulars" who were left behind these were 1955. By then approximately 861,000 per- matters, treatment of civilian populations in transient woes visited upon the Government sons left the North for the South, as against the zone of the south from which its cadres and people of South Vietnam. less than 5,000 choosing the North. This were to depart and in its own territory, and Immediately after the Geneva Agreements latter figure must be coupled with approxi- aiding and abetting internal subversion, were signed, the leader of North Vietnam, mately 100,000 Vietminh troops of various yields data sufficient to declare that the Ho Chi Minh, publicly vowed to bring about kinds inclusive of their dependents who Democratic Republic of Vietnam violated the the reunification of his state with that of the went north as part of the military exchange. Agreements almost as soon as" they were Republic of Vietnam. There is nothing However, the obvious disparity in numbers signed. Those who now say that the 'United led the North to impose restrictions and bru- in such a view. Many Viet- tal punishments on those who sought to States was (and is) guilty of violation when namese, like reprehensible e many Germans and Koreans are South. Summary arrests, denial of per- tests the critical years, 1954-56, it applied the pledged to the eventual reunification of their go tests written into the Agreements to deter- countries. What is at issue is the methods mits, intimidation by "show trials" of those mine the bona fides of the contracting par- employed to achieve the goal. In 1955, the who served as leaders of the exodus and ties, are either misinformed or willing dupes Vietminh "irre ular" cadres in the South or- executions, served to inhibit the exercise of of a Communist propaganda line. ganized what came to be called the "Army the option. Residual petitions affecting 95.- The various non-Communist state dele- of Liberation" and began its military, terror, 000 persons in the North were presented to gations at Geneva were in art the victims of the International Control. Commission. part kidnapping operations against the Re- Nothing ever came of these. They and an to power mid- public of Vietnam. unknown number were never allowed to leave French political who created Menders-France who came to power - In mid-1956 I toured the delta of South the Democratic Republic of Vietnam? June on a policy which promised a solution Vietnam to visit installations of the Philip- to the Geneva conference and the end of . The refugee problem was one of the most the Franco-Vietnamese war by July 21 or his resignation. Premier Mendel-France was The Geneva Agreements are to be found far-reaching issues at the time. See Richard openly in opposition to the U.S.-supported in "Documents Relating to the Discussion of W. Lindholm:, ed. "Vietnam, The First Five European Defense Community concept-as Korea and Indo-China at the Geneva Con- Years" (Michigan State University Press, was the U.S.S.R. He thereby gained (in ference; and Further Documents" (London: 1959), pp. 48--103. There is much supporting secret sessions) some cooperation ` from HMSO, 1954), (Cmd. 9186 and 9239). evidence for the approximated 861,000 fig- Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 26975 3. Military Assistance: Articles 16-19 states refused to accept 'a recommendation, "then no nation can ever again have the (Vietnam) banned "troop reinforcements," the best the ICC would do was to refer the same confidence in American promise or in "additional military personnel," new war matter to the Geneva Conference Cochair- American protection:" material, new bases and foreign controlled men, the United Kingdom and the U.S.S.R. By then, 75,000 American servicemen al- bases. These terms were either not defined (article 43). Obviously the Soviets had yet ready were present in South Vietnam or or ill-defined. Rotation, replacement of war another forum for its in-built veto. led ed to , material, etc. were permitted under inspec- The Geneva Agreements were thus Inept, 000 0 g go. The President year, the tion. But the Inspection teams were not hopelessly ensnared in a mess of irresolution, promise more by the end of this year, and the allowed to function particularly in the clas- ill-defined, with no policeman capable of The 50, were the onoutstripped scene by mid adeed. sifted military security areas of North Viet- handling any but the most unimportant tember-and er-and they just close to the Chinese border. And complaints and minor violations. To o the e total r-auat kept comimng, Today though the American military advisers re- back to their "essentials" or their "s ecifica- New ew is Year's 145,000, Day. s Day. and it will pass mmer: placed the French after 1955-56, the Viet- tions" is to go back to a political shelp- sieve 8 Target by next summer: minh argued their illegality and protested ful only in advancing the Communist cause Appropriately, the world's most mobile while its own forces were augmented by of warfare at the lower end of the spectrum: division, the 1st Cavalry (Airmobile)-or Sino-Soviet materials and advisers and while infiltration, subversion, guerrilla activity- "the First Team," as its men proudly style it was augmenting the Vietcong forces within the so-called wars of national liberation. first off South Vietnam. Nothing was said in these As another Johnson (Dr. Samuel), said, mark. lWs-ithinwas 2 weeks among after the Johnson' the s about the size of national armies, "Let there be an end on it, sir." mark. Wt of supply upps local production of arms and other aspects nouncement, the first of four sy ships crying the ,curr he ,, . y [From Time, Oct 22, 1965] came the first of the division's 16,000 men, of another, 4. Elections. Through the Western Powers SOUTH VIETNAM-A NEW KIND of WAR commanded by Maj. Gen. Harry William Os- originally suggested that these be postponed It was only 3 months ago that the lethal born Kinnard. At the same time, an advance until security was established, the Russians little men in black pajamas roamed the party of 1,000 men, 254 tons of equipment proposed elections in 1 year and because of length and breadth of South Vietnam and 9 "rhea" helicopters was quietly whisked Mendes-France secured an agreement that marauding, maiming and killing with im- to Vietnam from the division's Fort Denning election consultations be started in 1 base in a secret, 7-day airlift. year punity. No highway was safe by night, and (July 1955) and held not later than July few by day; the trains had long since stopped By late August the advance party was on 1956. The French thereby agreed to a pro- running. From their tunneled redoubts, the the job: preparing near An Khe deep in the vision which they would have no future Communist Vietcong held 65 percent of Vietcong-infested Central Highlands a giant right or power to enforce. The state of Viet- South Vietnam's land and 55 percent of its helipad for the first team's covey of cop- nam had indicated that it would accept elec- people in thrall. Saigon's armies were bone tern. The division's assistant commander, tions only if the country were not partitioned weary and bleeding from defections. As Brig. Gen. John M. Wright, took machete in and if the United Nations would supervise the momentum of their monsoon offensive hand to show his men how to do it, chopping such elections "so as to insure their freedom gathered, the Communists seemed about to away the scrub without disturbing the grass, and genuineness." Obviously such conditions cut the nation in half with a vicious chop so as to avoid dust storms as the choppers never were met. And by 1956, the Vietminh across the central highlands The enem rotated in and out. Today the first team's y . organs of repression within the Democratic was ready to move in for the kill, and South garrison at An Khe is the largest concentra- Republic of Vietnam had made it well-nigh Vietnam was near collapse. tion of fighting men and machinery in impossible to hold free elections within that Today South Vietnam throbs with a pride southeast Asia since the French left Inds- Communist country. and power, above all an esprit, scarcely cred- China in ,000 predictably its well- 6. The International Control and Super- ibis against the summer's somber vista, turfed 12,000 square feet relined is known vision Commission: Article 34 (Vietnam) Government desertion rates have plum- far and wide as "the golf course." created the ICC-as It came to be called- meted and recruitment is up, and it is now BUILDING TO STAY composed, as a compromise, of representa- the Communists who are troubled with ris- If "the golf course" is a triumph of sweat tives of three states: India, chairman, Can- Ing defections. Some roads are being re- and ingenuity, Cam Ranh Bay, a building 190 ada, and Poland.. The ICC was charged with opened for the first time in years, and the miles north of Saigon, is the manifesto of control, and supervision of all the foregoing much-vaunted Vietcong plan to move into American engineering. Fifteen miles long, operations. It was to set up fixed and mobile their mass attack third phase is now no more 5 miles wide, deep enough for any ocean inspection teams. If the inspection teams than a bedraggled dream. vessel, rimmed by smooth, sun-blanched could not settle an incident they could re- The remarkable turnabout in the war Is beaches, Cam Ranh Bay was probably the port to the Commission. The latter had the the result of one of the swiftest, biggest mili- world's most underdeveloped great natural power to decide some issues by majority vote tary buildups in the history of warfare. harbor. Until, that is, 4 months ago-when (article 41) but "questions concerning vio- Everywhere today South Vietnam bustles the 4,000 men of the 35th Engineer Group lations, or threats of violations, which might with the U.S. presence. Bulldozers by the went to work. lead to a resumption of hostilities * * * hundreds carve sandy shore into vast plateaus With bulldozers and dynamite, they have must be unanimous" (article 42). These, of for tent cities and airstrips. Howitzers and moved mountains of sand, built some 40 course, were the major issues and they re- trucks grind through the once-empty green miles of road, helped construct a 10,000-foot quired unanimity. Further, any member of highlands. Wave upon wave of combat- runway from which the first jets will blast the ICC could insist that a question at issue booted Americans-lean, laconic and looking off against the enemy next month. Ammo came under article 42, not 41. for a fight-pour ashore from armadas of depots, a 10-tank fuel dump with a capacity The effect was stultification. This was the troopships. Day and night, screaming jets of 230,000 gallons, and a T-pier are all under first application of Moscow's "troika" prin- and prowling helicopters seek out the enemy construction; next month a floating 350-foot ciple, later advanced for the United Nations from their swampy strongholds in southern- De Long pier will be towed In from Charles- itself. Poland could always veto an issue if most Camau all the way north to the moun- ton, S.C. it was not consonant with Communist po1- tain gates of China. The Vietcong's once- When finished early next year at a cost icy-and did so. India, especially before its cocky hunters have become the cowering that may run as high as $100 million, Cam ox was gored by the Chinese Communists, hunted as the cutting edge of U.S. firepower Ranh will be a port the size of Charleston, refused to, cast a majority vote even on the slashes into the thickets of Communist easing the pressure on Saigon's chockablock lesser questions because it would "increase strength. If the United States has not yet facilities. It will need all the dock space the tensions" or some such rot. As a result, the guaranteed certain victory in South Viet- engineers can clear: one measure of the ICC, unable to provide for its own mobility, nam, it has nonetheless undeniably averted U.S. commitment in Vietnam is that last frequently deprived of necessary help from certain defeat. As one top-ranking U.S. January only 65,000 tons of military equip- both Vietnam states, powerless to come to a officer put it: "We've stemmed the tide." ment were fed into the nation by sea; dur- decision on important matters, served little "WE WILL STAND" ` ing November more than 750,000 tons will if any useful purpose. Even Canada, in the arrive-a tenfold increase. Eventually, Cam first critical months of the ICC chose to in- It was late July when the President of Ranh's facilities will be able to store 45 days' terpret its role as an "impartial" one and the United States summoned his aids to sought to play out the game as if its impar- a 3-day secret session to deliberate Viet- supply for all much as forces i l ctal Viet- In Vi As much R any s oncrinsnstallation tiality would assist in an ultimate decision- nom. Just back from Saigon was Defense making potential within the ICC. Canada- Secretary Robert McNamara with the grim to Vietnam, Cam Ranh is dates is and sth- and all other interested parties learned bet- Prognosis of peril. When Johnson announced testimony that the United Mates is in sout - - -- vvvwNavaaa W1aG11 Pile - -'~"> "'c?????- v ,a VL ICC arrived at recommendations, it lacked American foreign policy since the Korean ex's AND PUP TENTS sanctions to enforce them. If one of the War: "We will stand in Vietnam" To stand Around South Vietnam's four present jet meant in fact that the United States would fields-Da Nang, Chu Lai, Bien Hoa, and Sal- go to Vietnam in overwhelming force and gon-are clustered most of the rest of the ure used.above. It, climbed in subsequent stay until the job was done. Why? "if we U.S. presence in Vietnam. On the "hot years by illegal immigration-perhaps an- are driven from the field In Vietnam," the pads" at the runway ends of each stand the other 100,000. President told the Nation and the world, silver planes, bombs aboard, on phased alert: Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26976 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 the first wave is on 5-minute call, the next bombings began last February; since then in relief, let the Americans do their fighting on i5-minute call, then a group on 30-minute United States and South Vietnamese planes for them. The UB. buildup has indeed been call, finally a wave on an hour's notice. On have flown more than 50,000 sorties against decisive in halting the Vietcong drive toward the average, within 17 minutes of a platoon the enemy. The 000 planes in use range from victory-but in large part because it has leader's radioed call for help, the jets can the old prop-driven Skyraider, whose fond given the South Vietnamese, whose 600,000- be over the target with almost any combing- jockeys insist that it can fly home with nearly man army continues to bear the brunt of tion of weapons he might need: .50-caliber as much enemy lead In it as the 4 tons of battle, the help they need to go on fighting. machinegun bullets, cannon shells, Bull bombes it can carry out, to the droop-nosed, It remains very much their war. In the Pup missiles, Zuni rockets, napalm, 260- brutal-looking ("It's so damn ugly it's beau- 4 months after U.S. combat units largely pound to 3,000-pound bombs. At the new- tiful") F-4B Navy Phantom, at 1,700 miles went into action, some 3,000 Government est of the fields, Chu"Lai, leveled and sur- per hour the fastest machine in the Viet- soldiers were killed in action compared to faced with aluminum matting by the Sea- namese skies. Then there is the Navy's In- 276 Americans. Over the same period, U.S. bees in less than 30 days last spring, the run- truder, a computer-fed, electronics-crammed troops ran 384 company-size operations re- 1 60bg; South way is still so short that the jets take off attack ship that virtually flies itself once Vsulting in ietnamese soldiers with the Vietcon the in a double-throated roar of engines and jet- aloft. assisted takeoff bottles, sometimes return- Along with the fighter-bombers goes a U.S. buildup has mounted, the monthly Gov- ing to land carrier-style with an arresting covey of other craft; jammers to knock out ernment losses have been paired: from 1,300 cable at runway's end. the enemy's radar, flying command and com- in July, to 800 in August, to 567 in Septem- The marines at Chu Lai are accustomed munications posts, planes whose radar ber. to the roar over their tents on the steaming sweeps the sky for signs of attacking Com- While Saigon's soldiers got some breath- dunes. Less easy to take has been the chok- munist aircraft. RF-101 photoreconnais- ing room, the once-cocksure Vietcong found ing dust, now damped down by the first sance planes dive into the smoke to film the themselves choking in a new kind of war. northern monsoons, and the fact that the raid's damage for analysis back home, using Their massive monsoon assaults never mate- nearest liberty is the Marine headquarters strobelike parachute flares at night. Backing rialized-because: quick-scrambling allied town of Da Nang. "That's like being allowed the raids also are the planes and helicopters planes all too often flew off through the to leave the State prison to go to the county of the Air Rescue Service, ready to pluck a rainstorms to blast a company apart before jail,' snorts one leatherneck. In Da Nang downed airman out of the enemy heartland. it could attack. Whereas in the first flush and Phu Bai, the rains have. turned the Some 400 of the daily strike planes are of their summer successes the Reds coul d Infernal red dust into infernal red mud, in based aboard the carriers of Task Force 77 count on an eye for an eye, by gu which a truck can sink to its door handles. of the U.S. Navy's 7th Fleet. The two flat- kill ratio had dropped to 1 to 3 against On the perimeters, the marines and infantry- tops on "Yankee Station" shoot their planes them-and they are likely to lose 27,000 men men live like soldiers on perimeters every- off over North Vietnam, while the "Dixie Sta- in action this year against an estimated where-primitively, with pup tents, ponchos, tion" carrier normally hits only Vietcong in 12,000 for the allies (including 1,000 Ameri- and. C-rations. The airmen at Da Nang boast the south. The 30 ships, 400 warplanes and cans). big, airy tents with screened windows and 27,000 men of "77" are not included in the Not only was the mass assault third phase solid floors, a new PX and messhall. Most 145,000-man total of forces now in Vietnam. in Mao Tse-tung's guerrilla rulebook ar- of the 173d Airborne and Big Red One troops But they are very much a part of the war, rested, but the Vietcong found themselves at :Bien Hoa now have hot meals and floors and not merely of the air war. When U.S. being rooted out of havens they had long under their tents. Marines systematically took apart a Vietcong considered invulnerable. Twice in the last FROM DEFENSE TO OFFENSE regiment on the Van Thuong Peninsula south month-first near Ben Cat in the "Iron The V.S. military has been in Vietnam in of Chu Lai last August, two destroyers and Triangle" north of Saigon, then last week in an advisory role to Government forces ever a cruiser of Task Force 77 bombarded Viet- Operation Concord in Binh Dinh Province- -a con?; bunkers, blasted to pieces a Red com- massive allied sweeps penetrated preserves limits to anyone but Communists since the French were swept out in 1954 role that grew with the swelling magnitude of Fpanv that tried act is, 7th Fleet t CommandereAdm. Paul P. for lethally 15 years. the Vietcong threat until eventually it re- Blackburn's floating artillery can make life THE SLEEPLESS ENEMY qu'.lred 24,000 men. But it was not until last miserable-and hazardous-for the Vietcong March, when the 9th Marine Expeditionary up to 15 miles from the coast, and his screen Sweep forces usually encountered few Viet- Brigade of 3,500 men swarmed ashore at of smaller craft on patrol duty in "Operation cong but often found supplies, such as Danang, that the first U.S. combat troops en- Market Time" has sharply limited Vietcong enough rice in the Triangle to feed a Viet- tered the fray. Like the 7,500 men of the 173d b boat along the shore. tong regiment for 4 months. They also un- Airborne Brigade, and the 101st Airborne's gunrunning by g covered dirt-fresh evidences of the Commu- Danang 1st Brigade that soon followed, THE GADGETRY nists' long-famed trenching arts; tunnels the marines' first assignment was defensive: Also at work for the United States in Viet- up to 40 feet deep and several hundred yards creating a protective enclosure around bus- nom is an array of ingenious gadgetry that long, with angled corridors and galleries to tling Danang airbase and harbor. The 173d smacks of baling wire-and of Buck Rogers. reduce blast effects, air vents, and emergency was thrown around Bien Hoa Airbase, to- puff the Magic Dragon is an old C-47 trans- exits. gether with the 2d Brigade of the 1st In- port rigged with three 7.62 Gatling-type Even the deepest tunnels are not safe fantry Division-the Big Red One-which ar- guns-each a fascine of six machinegun bar- from the 1,000-pound bombs of the Guam- rived in July. The Screaming Eagles of the rels. In the time it takes to say "puff," the based B-52's, falling in sticks neatly brack- 101st helped reopen Route 19 from the coast dragon can spit 300 bullets at Vietcong on eted to decapitate a small mountain. When to An Kbe, stood watch while the 1st Air the ground. "It's a solid bar of fire," explains the big bombers, converted from carrying Cavalry's advance party hacked out their a U.S. officer, "and the noise is a terrible nuclear weapons, first began making the "golf course." roar." The Lightning Bug is a UH-1B heli- 5,200-mile round trip from Guam to Viet- Standing watch was all that many critics copter fitted with seven brilliant landing nom, critics snorted that it was overkill run thought U.S. combat troops would-or lights. It goes sampan hunting along Viet- riot, using elephants to swat mosquitoes. could-do in Vietnam. Even as the number cong rivers or canals. Antipeople peepers But the point was to hit the Vietcong with- of GIs swelled, the myth remained that include Tipsy 33, a ground-surveillance radar out warning (the B-52's fly so high that they Americans were somehow not up to the wiles first used by the marines along their Danang are seldom seen or heard by their targets) of the Vietcong or the woes of the Asian perimeter. By the end of this year, a steel- in the heart of their 11 major strongholds, jungle. mesh net platform that can be laid by hell- keep them edgy and off balance. The SAC U.S. troops were soon besting the Vietcong copters across jungle treetops will be in use planes have hit such strongholds as the in fire fights from Chu Lai to An Khe. The by choppers as a do-it-yourself landing pad; Iron Triangle hard and often, and it is now 34,000 marines in Vietnam boast a 5 to 1 kill the disgorged troops shinny down through so pitted with B-52 bomb craters and caved- ratio over the enemy, have spread their origi- the branches on a metal and nylon ladder. in Vietcong tunnels that wags call it the hal beachhead until now they control 400 The- single most expensive piece of equip- "Gruyere Triangle.' Airpower may well square miles of territory. When a bad bit of ment in use in Vietnam is an Air Force C-130 prove to be the guerrillas' worst enemy. The intelligence unloaded the 101st Screaming loaded with $2,500,000 worth of communica Reds are less and less welcome in villages, Eagles from their helicopters right into a tions equipment. Known as the ABCCC since the villagers are learning that their battalion of Vietcong near An Khe, the (Airborne Battle Control and Command Cen- presence may wellbring the planes. Forced Eagles fought hand-to-mortar until the field ter), the plane is in fact a flying command to move oftener, the guerrillas are getting was theirs. Soon the increasing aggressive- post, equipped with 8 television screens for less and less sleep. Captures and desertions ness of American ground troops everywhere projecting slides and maps from its data are rising. Recently captured in the Gruyere was adding yet another dimension of fear storage drums, which contain 5,000 pieces of Triangle: a Vietcong battalion commander's and uncertainty for the Vietcong, already military intelligence-the last word for arm- order that his troops eschew, among other long harassed by U.S. air and sea power. chair-borne commanders. things, "collective singing of folk songs" STILL SAIGON'S WAR and handclapping for fear of detection. PLANES AND SHIPS It once was a rare day when more than a The United States first bombed the north When massive V.S. Intervention in Viet- left on a late the weapons was Vietcong have be a in August 1964 in tit-for-tat retaliation for nom was bruited, there were those who ar- handful ul o of but Vietcong b, of - a torpedo-boat attack on two 7th Fleet gued against it on the grounds that weary destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf. Regular South Vietnamese troops would simply quit come quite untidy: Operation Starlight Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Aqo~ roved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October .21, I9'615 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 26977 netted 614 dead Vietcong and 109 weapons. State Thieu heads it. Downtown, in his cisively smashed, unless allied troops stay, More recently, Vietnamese troops killed 34 offices on Pasteur Street, the American com- the Vietcong soon slip back. of the enemy-and captured 34 weapons-on mander in Vietnam, Gen. William C. West- a 300-percent increase in the.. number of commands" ranging from Lt. Gen, Joseph The real reason that the battle for Viet- Vietcong defecting under the "open arms" Moore's 2d Air Division to Maj. Gen. Lewis nom is only beginning is that battles them- amnesty program may be exaggerated, but Walt's 3d Marine Amphibious Force. The selves are only the beginning. When the the curve is definitely up. Army's biggest clout is contained in the re- shooting stops, some sort of Vietnamese au- Though harassed, the Vietcong are far cently created Field Force Vietnam under thority, ideally local police, must be ready from beaten. Despite their heavy losses and Maj. Gen. Stanley ("Swede") Larsen. Head- to move in at once to keep the hamlet se- their loss of tactical momentum, they still quartered in Nha Trang in the largest and cure from the Vietcong. After security, the hold vast chunks of South Vietnamese real hardest pressed of Vietnam's four corps needs multiply: reconstruction of the local estate. Thanks to an infiltration rate still areas, Force V Includes the 1st Team at economy, land reform, better food and med- running at an all-time high of 1,000 men An Khe, the 101st Airborne's 1st Brigade, and ical care, schools, the beginnings of justice. a month from the north, the Communists the arriving South Koreans, who will be un- "In order to win," in the longrun, says Ky, h t " ave ac there must be a full social revolution in ually managed to increase their der American command. The Royal Aus- strength, now have in South Vietnam an tralian Regiment and the Royal New Zealand Vietnam-our revolution, no one else can estimated 65,000 main force and regional artillery batteries are largely under their do it for us." U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot troops, 80,000 to 100,000 guerrillas, and per- own command. Working from the long- Lodge agrees, and a large part of his working haps 40,000 fellow travelers in logistical and established pattern of the advisers' program, day and that of the U.S. mission is spent political cadres. U.S. officers confer with their Vietnamese in helping the Vietnamese lay the founda- KY TO POWER counterparts virtually on a daily basis up tions for their own revolution. "These peo- and down the line. ple," says Lodge, "have always had a strong Yet the enemy now faces an irrevocable sense of peoplehood. What we are now U.S. commitment, and as a result, Saigon of THE HEROES trying to give them is a strong sense of late has had a spring In the step and a There are many Vietnamese heroes of the nationhood." sparkle in 'the eye missing for years. Its long war. One of the most bemedaled is visible embodiment is Lt. Col. Nguyen Thanh Yen, 42, of the Viet- U.S. officials estimate that if pacification jaunty, popular Pre- is really going to work, ultimatel e dis- mier Nguyen uyen Cao Ky, 35, who has moved namese marines, who has spent 15 years y ach tract (comparable to tyT with verve from scarf-clad air force com- fighting the Communists. A bitter, brown, an American county] mander to chairman of the board in the gnomish man called the "Little Tiger," Yen will need at least 200 administrators, public military collegium now ruling the nation. last week, as he always does, was walking officers, teachers, and engineers. g South Vietnam has 220 districts, so 45,000 Ky is the closest thing to a national hero every step of the way with his 1,400-man that South Vietnam has, and wherever he Vietnamese task force in Operation Concord. trained men will be needed. Nowhere near - round. William Leftwich, 34, whom one of his su- SHOWING THE WAY Ky's promises of social reform and a vig- periors has called the best American adviser It is the U.S. Marines who are providing orous attack on corruption, co pled with the in the country." They set out early in the the best pilot model for a pacification pro- orous at allied successes corruption, co the Viit the dazzling morning sun, trudging past the gram. No fewer than 10,000 marines stood have to far kept the Natiai s fractious Bud, napalmed black bodies of Vietcong killed in guard recently while the peasant near Da- d afeta and Catholics quiescent: hey simply a battle the week before. nang brought In their rice crop free of the cannot find credible grievances eyat will By midday the heat had Yen's men gasp- Vietcong-who are accustomed to seizing a bring crowds Into the streva Even ah ing. Some were vomiting. Then the Viet- large part of it for their own supplies. Navy the Ky ds Intet dent though cong sprang their ambush. Two marines doctors and corpsmen are treating more than the government has made no de n dent In ref- were killed instantly, and five were wounded. 500 civilians a day in forward military two big ring aselemasion-Sa0,000 th ef- "Get up, you batsards," snarled Yen. "It's marine areas. To the peasants lined up for ugees and situation, its ion, in old hands, is go most only a few snipers-get up and move after sick call, the marines hand out food, clothes, since 1960. hands, stable that From time e one of the 6,500 U.S. advisers who sometimes slightly used bathtub bars by the Sheraton stable, o tpre there has aely are complaints eecon h it is s too feel that they are the "forgotten men" in the and Hilton hotel chains), on occasion have running is, and that because the the military junta be new war, went too. The brittle Yen had run even fed the peasants' livestock and rebuilt i s charge. Kan Chief civilia Stns ougMht ht Gen, through five U.S. advisers until Leftwich their pens. They have built schools and in 's of , j. Nguyen Van Thieu, answers that bluntly: came along. By quiet persuasion, Leftwich paved over the long unused Saigon-Hue "I don't believe that any civilian government got Yen to add an engineering platoon, a railroad to make the only road in the Da= in L.L years dieval band. Since then, Yen Colonel - peasants are getting their produce to the Before Ky and the U.S. buildup, Vietna- men have h- killin at a 9 g 500 a month and recruiting was at an alltime v y . w . THE ELUSIVE TARGET Recently in Phu Baia navy doctor paused low. The desertion rate has now fallen to in the midst of treating a long line of vii- minimal levels, and Saigon's reserves are at The basic U.S. strategy in Vietnam today, lage children to wipe his brow and expostu- t Sw are at now that its defensive enclaves are secured, fated: "Dammit, if we could just get et these last Swelling, the targeted rate es of 10,000 new men a month. Is to go over to the offensive, hitting out people to wash their kids off with soap and from the bases in fairly large-scale thrusts water, half of the cases we're treating here woaxrNG TOGETHER at main Vietcong striking forces-to break today wouldn't be sick." A marine corporal Perhaps the best measure that the nation them up, keep them off balance, erode their nearby listened and nodded. Next day five Increasingly shares Ky's credo is the fact that influence. For the present, the United States marines, four washtubs and a bag of towels negotiation with the Vietcong is seldom even is less interested in expanding its geography pulled into Phu Bai in a jeep, and an as- discussed. "The only way we can lose this than in wearing down the enemy. The sembly line was soon set up. One by one the war now," says Thieu, "is in a political or priority targets, as the United States sees village's toddlers were dunked, scrubbed, moral way-not in a tactical way. So why them now: first, the U.S. Marines' Hue-Dan- and rinsed (twice), and finally toweled off. should any of us talk of negotiation? If we ang-Chu Lai area, then as much of Binh By the time the job was done, the villagers talk about negotiation now, we give the Dinh province as can be cleared, finally the had clearly concluded that it was the finest, enemy hope and confidence." Still no one in Hop Tac region around Saigon. funniest show ever staged in Phu Bai-and Saigon-or Washington-has any illusions The very success of U.S. firepower so far is public health had taken one more small step about the job remaining to be done. Gen. likely to make big kills harder and harder to forward in Vietnam. Harold K. Johnson, Army Chief of Staff, used come by, as Operation Concord in Binh Dinh Meanwhile the marines, day in and day to think in terms of 10 years to finish off the province last week proved. An estimated out, in methodical, grinding patrols against Vietcong, now says cautiously, "Maybe I'm 45,000 Vietcong have been in Binh Dinh, and the Vietcong, are killing an average 40 Viet- a 91/2-year man." Even the most optimistic in the largest operation of the war, 14,000 cong a week-at roughly the cost of one U.S. officials think 5 years the outside mini- alleed troops went in at 3 points to try to marine dead and five wounded a day. Typ- mum. kill a sizable batch of them. Two hundred ical was a night's work last week. After dusk With the arrival of the 5,000 marines of helicopters made 358 sorties to drop 5,500 a marine platoon surrounded a hamlet in South Korea's 15,000-man Blue Dragon bri- men into Suoi Ca Valley, where a Vietcong which Vietcong had been reported hiding out, gade at Cam Ranh Bay last week, the allies' regiment was reported. Another 2,500 of split into five squads and sat down to wait. combined strength rose to nearly 750,000. the first team were out to clear "Happy No one spoke, no cigarettes were allowed, Orders for the Vietnamese forces issue from Valley" next door to the west, while Viet- nor was mosquito repellent, despite the sting_ the quiet, air-conditioned offices of the namese marines and army battalions closed ing swarms-for a trained soldier can smell Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2 acres of yellow stucco in from the coast. But as all too often In the chemical 50 yards away. Around 3 a.m. French colonial buildings in Saigon that once the frustrating war, there was virtually no- a drenching monsoon rain roared in from the housed the French high command. Chief of body home. Even where the enemy is de- northeast, but still not a marine moved. It Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 26978 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE October 21, 1965 lasted 2 hours. Finally the wan moon reap- peared and picked out four men, its light gleaming from their weapons, heading out of the village. The marines opened fire, a grenade exploded, and the leathernecks had one more kill and three wounded Vietcong prisoners. "I hate this goddamned place like I never hated any place I've ever been before," growled a leathery marine sergeant, but I'll tell you something else: I want to win here more than I ever did in two wars be- fore." THE GAUNTLET TAKEN What happens next in the war in Vietnam depends in part on the Communists. Hav- ing been halted in midstride, the Vietcong can drop back to the small-unit actions and the sabotage of phase 2, adding perhaps mas- sive terrorism in Saigon to try to bring down the government. It is the kind of war they are best at, but "deconcentrating," as U.S. strategists call it, would be a political re- treat that might well affect the morale of their troops and their hold on the peasants. Alternatively, they could go into phase 3 anyway, perhaps even with a mass assault of divisional size on U.S. units in the hope of discrediting the U.S. presence by a major, one-shot victory. But that might well prove suicidal, for the Vietcong have discovered that these days a mass assault all too easily turns into an avalanche of airborne bullets, napalm, and bombs. Or they might simply fade away to lie low, Br'er Rabbit fashion, in the hope that sooner or later the United States would get weary of waiting and go back home. That would be the unwisest course of all. Poe in deciding to stand in South Vietnam, the United States means just that. "After all, we've kept 250,000 men in Western Eu- rope for 20 years," observes a general. We can Wait too." The United States also means much more. It means to counter' the Red revolution with a genuine revolution in health, education, welfare, and self-sufficien- cy for the Vietnamese that the Communists can hardly be expected to understand. The Communists themselves chose South Viet- nam as their test case and springboard to the conquest of all southeast Asia. There are signs that they are already beginning to regret it. The United States has picked up the gauntlet, and it is not only Vietnamese nationhood but all of free Asia that stands to be ultimately strengthened by the extraor- dinary-and still burgeoning-commitment of the lives and talent and treasure of Amer- ica in Vietnam. There being no objection, the Senate pesticide facilities are as follows: Gaines- proceeded to consider the report. ville, Fla., $1,840,000; Stoneville, Miss., Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I shall $1,564,000; and College Station, Tex., not report in detail on the conference $2,990,000. agreement. It was agreed to unani- The facility proposed at Beltsville, Md., mously and was signed by the conferees was passed over without prejudice. of both Houses. The budget also requested construc- Mr. President, perhaps I should in- tion funds for some of the cotton re- ject rather humorously that a confer- search facilities for which the planning ence report based on 3 months of con- funds were appropriated last year. All ferring ought to, be reasonably accept- six of these facilities are included in the able when it is signed by all the con- conference agreement: They are as fol- ferees, which is the case with reference lows: College Station, Tex., $644,000; to this report. Mesilla Park, N. Mex., $92,000; Tempe, The full text of the conference report Ariz., $1,150,000; Stoneville, Miss., for and the statement of the managers on two facilities, $92,000 and $506,000; and the part of the House appears in the Lubbock, Tex., $276,000. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD of October 20, In addition, funds for additional fa- 1965, beginning on page 26742. cilities were requested in the budget and At this time I wish to pay my compli- agreed to in the conference on research ments and respects to all of the members facilities at: Durant, Okla., $500,000, for of the conference committee. Present water pollution laboratory. Georgetown, in the Chamber is the ranking minority Del., $500,000, for a poultry research member of the Senate conferees, the dis- laboratory. Clay Center, Nebr., $300,000, tinguished senior Senator from North of planning funds for the research fa- Dakota [Mr. YOUNG] who with the dis- cilities for the Midwest Animal Research tinguished senior Senator from South Center. Dakota [Mr. MUNDT] represented the All of these items were budgeted. minority Members of the Senate. The Some of the foregoing facilities were distinguished senior Senator from Geor- omitted in either version of the bill or gia [Mr. RUSSELL], the distinguished reduced, but the amounts I have just senior Senator from Arizona and chair- stated are the amounts agreed to by the man of the full committee [Mr.HAtDEN], conference committee. the distinguished senior Senator from As I stated earlier, last year the com- Louisiana [Mr. ELLENDERI, and I, as mittee did not act upon requests for sev- chairman of the Agricultural Subcom- eral laboratory projects, but in the proc- inittee, represented the majority for the essing of the bill this year the Senate Senate conferees. recommended planning funds for several The conference was long, extending facilities for which feasibility reports had through various days in meetings held been previously submitted to the com- since August 10 to October 20. Dur- mittee from the Department of Agri- 'trig much of this period several members culture. The committee felt it was justi- of the conference committee were occu- fled in taking this action to consider pied by duties in connection with the these several research projects and sta- farm legislation as it passed through tions and does not consider it has set a various stages to final action in the con- precedent. Earlier, the Secretary of ference committee. Agriculture had announced the proposed The conference bill totals $6,242,929,- closure at 43 locations including lines of 500. This is $584,118,700 under the 1965 research and small stations at an annual appropriations, $471,054,300 under the savings of $5,150,000. Senate bill, $39,704,500 under the revised This committee held extensive hear- estimates, and $525,097,500 over the ings on each of these projects and made its recommendations several months ago. bill . House DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The large reduction by the confer- The other body made almost identical AND RELATED AGENCIES APPRO- ence in the total amount recommended recommendations, but did not go into PI,IATION BILL, 1966-CONFER- by the Senate is largely due to the Sen- the matter as extensively as we did in ate conferees receding on a part of the the Senate committee. In the confer- ENCE REPORT Senate amendment ' of $926.8 million to ence the agreement has been reached to Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I sub- appropriate for the full unreimbursed continue 21 of these stations and lines mit a report of the committee of confer- loss incurred by the Commodity Credit of research at an annual rate of $2,- ence on the disagreeing votes of the two Corporation during fiscal year 1964, with 389,900. Houses on the amendments of the Sen- which I shall deal later in my statement. Mr. CARLSON. Mr. President, will ate to the bill (H.R. 8370) making ap- RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS the Senator yield? propriations for the Department of Ag- Perhaps I should discuss in some de- Mr. HOLLAND. I shall be glad to riculture and related agencies for the tail the items for the planning and the yield. I have not quite come to the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and construction of agricultural research fa- point at which I will refer to what the for other purposes. I ask unanimous cilities. Senator is concerned with. However, I consent for the present consideration of The conference agreement provides shall be glad to yield to him if his exu- the report. appropriations for plans and for con- berance requires that I yield at this time. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. MoN- struction of several agricultural research Mr. CARLSON. Mr. President, I DALE in the chair). The report will be facilities. Last year items for research .Rant to express my appreciation to Sen- read for the information of the Senate. experiment stations were limited in view ator HOLLAND of Florida, Senator YOUNG The legislative clerk read the report. of the supplemental estimate of $29 mil- of North Dakota and other members of (For conference report, see House pro- lion for pesticides which went to research the Appropriation Committee for inclu- ceedings of October 20, 1965, pp. 26742- and extension activities of the Depart- sion of an item of $225,000 for the plan- 26743, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.) ment. The pending conference report ning of a National Grain Marketing Re- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there includes funds for the construction of search Laboratory to be located in Man- objection to the present consideration of all but one of facilities for pesticides hattan, Kans. The estimated cost of the the report? which were in the budget for 1966. These Laboratory is $3,385,000. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 ApproveddOoQGRE SIONALIRECORD -RDSENATE 46R000300Oc4tob r 21, 1965 Government about the great need that exists for post vocational high school technical and vocational training. You know, and I know, that the most suc- cessful way to eliminate poverty, misery, and disease has been through education. American democracy rests on the under- standing and effective participation of all the people. This is just as true today as it was in the days of our Founding Fathers. As leaders of governments go, Pueblo leaders are indeed silent people. There is little bombast in a form of government which has been amazingly sufficient and stable these past centuries. However, the soft approach should not-be mistaken for softness. Rather it should be interpreted as an enduring attitude of peace, one which might well be emulated by all of us. Perhaps it was this peaceful attitude which impressed President Abraham Lincoln and prompted him to give belated recognition to the Pueblos. President Lincoln ordered ebony silver-crowned canes, one for each Pueblo, on which were inscribed the year "1863" and his name, "A Lincoln, Pres. U.S.A." ' These canes were transmitted to the Pueblos as symbols of their sovereignty, extending continuing authority and commis- sion for their popular form of government so long satisfactory in serving their admin- istrative needs. This great man's faith in your ability to unite for the common good is vindicated to- day more than ever before. He would be pleased with the preamble to your constitu- tion : "We, the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, members of the existing all Indian Pueblo Council, by virtue of our sovereign rights as Pueblo Indians and in accordance with our ancient customs and laws, in order to pro- mote justice and encourage the common wel- fare, to foster the social and economic ad- vancement of all the Pueblo Indians, to pre- serve and protect our common interests, our inherent rights of self-government, and our rights guaranteed to us by treaties, laws, and the Federal Government of the United States of America, do ordain and adopt this constitution and bylaws for the All-Indian Pueblo Council for the common benefit of all Pueblo Indians." That is a beautiful statement of a demo- cratic people. Again, I congratulate you on this historic day, and wish you well in your daily efforts to perfect the democratic way of life. 'DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST U.S. POLICY IN. VIETNAM Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, the demonstrations across the country pro- testing our policy in Vietnam illustrate, it seems to me, the price and sometimes the tortures of freedom itself. The right of public protest, of peti- tion, of free speech, of organizing and directing marches-assuming no local or Federal laws are broken-involves also the right to be wrong, to be mistaken, and even to be misled. Freedom in our sys- tem requires that they be tolerated. Last week, over 100,000 students and protesters turned out in several cities to wave placards and shout slogans. Perhaps 100,000 "kooks" and nitwits out of nearly 200 million people in this coun- try is a tiny minority. But they can do serious harm. They harm the source of freedom by which their actions are to be tolerated. For example: They offer an opportunity for Com- munist and left wing extremists to in- filtrate such movements. There is a real danger that Hanoi and Peiping will misread these demonstra- tions; that they will hope for disunity in our Government, believe that it exists and thereby prolong the war with mount- ing casualties. And lastly, these demonstrations choke off and,silence demonstrations of many honest and conscientious citizens who have many serious questions about our Vietnam policy. These responsible peo- ple engaged in a responsible debate con- cerning the welfare of our country should not be associated with such irresponsible protests. TRIBUTE TO THE LATE CLAUDE SCHECKEL, OFFICIAL REPORTER OF DEBATES IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, Mem- bers of the Congress value and appre- ciate the very excellent permanent staff assistants who perform the very impor- tant jobs which provide the coordination and continuity for what would other- wise be the actions of separate legisla- tors. The House of Representatives and Senate were recently saddened by the death of one of these valued associates, Mr. Claude Scheckel, an official reporter of debates for 20 years. Mr. Scheckel, who was also the father of a former member of my staff, Mrs. Jeanne Butler, was born March 25, 1892, in Alton, Iowa. In Alton, he grew up with two boys who, while they sepa- rated in their early adult lives, ended together in the House of Representatives in later life. One of these boyhood friends was Representative Hoeven, who retired from the House last year. The second was the present distinguished Chaplain of the House of Representa- tives, Dr. Bernard Braskamp. The third was Mr. Scheckel, who became an official reporter of debates. Mr. Scheckel left Alton to attend the Kent College of Law in Chicago. He served overseas in World War I and re- turned to become an assistant state's attorney in Chicago. It was there also that he met and married the lady who became Mrs. Scheckel. He was ap- pointed an official reporter of debates in the House by the late and honored Speaker Sam Rayburn 20 years ago, and served there until his retirement last year. His unfortunate death occurred by drowning while he was on a fishing trip in Canada. He was buried at Ar- lington Cemetery with military honors. Ironically, considering his affection for the Speaker, his funeral took place on what would have been the 25th anniver- sary of Mr. Rayburn's service as Speak- er of the House, September 16. We regret the passing of Mr. Scheckel, and I know Members of the Congress join with me in addressing our sympathy to his family and our appreciation for his good and able service to the Congress and to the people of the United States. TRIBUTE TO JACK VALENTI Mr. DODD. Mr. President, no one in this country is giving more of his time, his energy, and his imagination to ad- vancing our national purpose, with less public recognition, than Mr. Jack Valenti, President Johnson's Special Assistant, valued adviser, and confidant. It has been my personal privilege and pleasure to know Jack Valenti and his lovely wife and family. I have known many good men during my public career, but I have admired and respected no man more than Jack Valenti. Our country is very fortunate that Jack Valenti is in the White House as President Johnson's Special Assistant.. Therefore, I was pleased to note in the Washington Post of October 17, a column by the distinguished William S. White entitled "Valenti's Service." That column gave long-overdue credit to Jack Valenti's enormous competence, energy, and devotion to public service. I ask unanimous consent to have the text of Mr. White's column inserted at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: VALENTI'S SERVICE BRUSHED OFF Too LONG (By William S. White) An accumulation of 2 years of fatigue from what is surely the most brutally de- manding job in the world is not only delay- ing-though not really threatening-the complete recovery of President Johnson from his surgical operation. It is also adding to the already heavy bur- dens borne by the President's staff people- and to none more than to that extraordi- narily able man of all work who is Jack Valenti. Some men are said to be accident prone; continuously they suffer the small, tiresome mishaps of life. Valenti might be said' to be stereotype-ridden, to be pursued by hos- tile cliches, Though nobody is closer to the President or more nearly indispensable to him, Jack Valenti seems fated to be con- stantly brushed off with the adjective that patronizes. His admiration for and devotion to the President are quite open; ergo, he must therefore be servile-a kind of valet. He is short and compact; ergo, he's de- scribed as little or swarthy, and his natural kindliness and courtesy are put down as mere efforts by one J. Valenti to ingratiate himself. He was in prior life an advertising man;, ergo, it follows that he must be an insensi- tive huckster. The fact that he is nothing of the kind but rather is a skillful and per- ceptive writer and editor of much White House prose-indeed, the ultimate editor short of the President himself-is not men- tioned. His undergraduate degree was awarded by the University of Houston, which tragically has no hallowed halls, no hanging ivy; hence it follows that he is not really and truly an honest-to-God intellectual. The fact that he made up for his disastrous failure to attend the right college by earning a master's degree at good old Harvard itself is not mentioned. Indeed the story of Jack Valenti would form an excellent case study chapter in any inquest upon one of the phenomena of cur- rent politics. This is the power of snobbery within the Democratic Party-precisely the kind of snobbery, by the way, so long di- rected from within against both Presidents Truman and Johnson. The self-consciously "in" people make a profession of screeching against the evils of discrimination, but apply the most juvenile prejudices in their estimates of other men. Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1 October 21, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECOPY ---- c} NATE 27071 Washington. Will there be another one this spring? If so, I hope to attend. Would the State Department be willing to finance my trip to this conference? Please consider my proposal and inform me of your decision. Very truly yours, LYLE E. DEHNING, CPA, Chairman of International Relations. PUEBLOS OF NEW MEXICO SIGN NEW CONSTITUTION Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, the dis- tinguished junior Senator from New Mexico [Mr. MONTOYA] was out in his home State last weekend to speak at a uniquely American ceremony. I am referring to the program at Santo Domingo Pueblo on Saturday, Oc- tober 16, 1965, near Albuquerque, in which representatives of the self-govern- ing Pueblos in New Mexico met to sign their all-Pueblo constitution. I know of no man in America who has more at heart the interests of American Indians than does the distinguished junior Senator from New Mexico. Be- cause of his great work in that field, we recently had him out to Oklahoma for the formation of Oklahoma for Indian oppor- tunity, and he made a greatspeech there. At the Santo Domingo meeting on Oc- tober 16, the Pueblos banded together in a federation which is akin to the Fed- eral system of the United States. The all-Pueblo constitution declares that each local Pueblo retains its historic rights of self-government, and at the same time all Pueblo Indians will work together on problems common to all of them. The junior Senator from New Mexico [Mr. MONTOYA] captured the spirit of this particular occasion very well in his speech. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that his remarks be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the speech of the junior Senator from New Mexico [Mr. MONTOYA] was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: REMARKS SY THE HONORABLE JOSEPH M. MON- TOYA AT THE CONSTITUTION SIGNING CERE- MONY OF THE ALL-PUEBLO COUNCIL, SANTO DOMINGO PUEBLO, N. MEX., OCTOBER 16, 1965 Chairman MONTOYA. Ladies and gentle- ment, I am honored that you have invited me to join with you for this historic occa- Bion. It is not often that one has the oppor- tunity to participate in the signing of a con- stitution for a freedom-loving people. The writing and signing of a constitution is one of the supreme acts which a democratic peo- ple can perform, and when the occasion is the signing of a constitution for the first Americans, it is a particularly noteworthy day. In one sense, however, this new statement of the democratic way of life is but an ex- tension of the long and honored history of the Pueblo peoples. On countless occasions in the past, you have banded together for the common good, and for common protec- tion against the dangers which threatened you from without. The occasion today represents still another manifestation of the united front which the Pueblo leaders will present for the common good of the Pueblo people. In this light, permit me to touch briefly on certain activ- ities involving the Pueblo Indians as these activities relate to the Indians t':esnselves and to the State of New Mexico and the Federal Government. Jurisdictional problems, especially in law enforcement, have in past years caused some feelings of irritation between the various governmental levels within the State, but I must say that vast progress in solving this problem has been made. The Pueblos have made great strides in establishing uniform codes for traffic control, as well as in civil and criminal cases. The courts and court proceciuics of the Pueblo of Lague: might well be used as models for many other jurisdictions, Pueblo and State alike. The past 20 yc,,rc have reel considerable improvement in relationships between the Pueblo and adjacent communities. This spirit of- fellowship displayed between the law enforcement agencies of the different jurisdictions is highly commendable. I think it is worthy of note that in the past few years the Federal Government has been able to increase its law enforcement assistance to you from a staff made up of one special officer, to its present strength of 10 officers. Another important sign of progress is the development of your road systems. Roads are the initial step in the develop- ment of any community. This was true when the Romans accomplished their monu- mental road building projects throughout Europe, and it is true today. The Pueblos of New Mexico have contributed to progress by giving rights-of-way to the State for the building of many of its main arteries. In doing this, the Pueblos have demonstrated a great deal of insight. What is good for the Pueblos is good for the State, and what is good for the State is, likewise, good for the Pueblos. Reports on range and agriculture land development have also been encouraging. Plans for this year include land rehabilita- tion and distribution on 335 acres at Isleta and 150 acres at Cochiti, to add to the nearly 5,000 acres which have been rehabilitated to date at the Pueblos in the middle Rio Grande Valley. Concrete ditch lining is planned, also, at San Ildefonso and Taos. It is apparent from reports reaching my office that Indian livestock men are becom- ing increasingly aware of the importance of efficient range and herd management to achieve a more profitable livestock business. A major project this year will be emphasis on proper range management in order to be able to provide much needed range water developments. Last year, a sheepshearing school for In- dian trainees was held at Fort Wingate, un- der the sponsorship of the Manpower Devel- opment Training Act. Twenty-six men par- ticipated In the training-i2 from Laguna and Acoma, 14 from the Navajo peoples. Nearly all of the Laguna-Acoma trainees are utilizing their training, and several have ob- tained Economic Opportunity Act loans to purchase shearing equipment. The trainees are shearing approximately 100 head of sheep per day at 25 cents per head, each averaging $25 per day. Recreation developments, too, promise to usher In a new economic era for the Pueblos. The State of New Mexico and many Federal agencies have long recognized the recreation resources potential of the State, and have emphasized this by giving full support to the construction of the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge. As you know, this bridge will open lines of communication to a potential recreation area that will include the Navajo Dam, the San Juan diversion, and the Cochiti Dam, as well as reservoirs and lakes of lesser size scattered throughout the general land area. The Indian Pueblos, in preparing their 10-year programs and overall economic de- velopment plans, have taken cognizance of the State's emphasis on recreation develop- ment. - They are coordinating recreation plans with those of the State. This can be specifically noted on two sizable projects. One is the Cochiti Dam, a Corps of En- gineers flood and sedimentation control project that will cost $58 million. The proj- ect by congressional authorization provides for a permanent pool of 1,200 surface acres, with most of the project lying within the boundaries of the Cochiti Indian Reserva- tion, approximately 50 miles north of Al- buquerque. The recreation and tourism area will ex- tend from the Cochiti Dam to State Highway 4, via the beautiful Valle Grande area to Los Alamos, the Santa Clara Canyon and Puye Cliff Dwelling areas on the Santa Clara Res- ervation, the Bandelier National Monument, and north to the receration areas being de- veloped by the San Juan diversion project and the Navajo Dam. In another instance, the Sandia ski area in the Sandia Mountains, approximately 15 miles northeast of Albuquerque, in 1985 con- tracted for a multimillion-dollar tramway that will traverse the west side of the Sandia Mountains upward to the mountain crest. The tramway access from State Highway 422 is by way of a cooperative Bureau of Indian Affairs and State highway road across In- dian land. The recreation development for all Pueblo reservations, including the Pueblos south and southwest of Albuquerque, varies in size from major development projects such as those mentioned to projects that can ex- pect no more than 10,000 to 15,000 visita- tions each year. Overall, the improvement in economic cohdition of most Pueblos and adjacent communities will be substantial. The Pueblos' contribution to developing the recreation potential of the State, now a sleep- ing giant, is well recognized. It is gratifying to note that the Pueblo Indians have shared in the funds made available through President Johnson's anti- poverty program. This program has con- tributed significantly to the economic ad- vancement of the Pueblo Indians. So far, five community action programs have been approved for our Indian com- munities. These five programs are offering literacy instruction, job training, and em- ployment counseling. My office has received many inquiries about community action, and I am sure that this phase of the war on poverty, as well as other related programs, has only begun to make itself felt in the pueblos. I have been informed that many Indian people from pueblos have applied to the Farmers Home Administration for loans to purchase farm equipment, home improve- ments, acquisition of livestock, and to estab- lish or supplement a small business opera- tion at the reservation community. These are only samples of the opportuni- ties which exist today for enhancing and improving your way of life, and these are only samples of the ways in which you have made use of your opportunities. I could go on and on, but we all know what I am talking about. But I do want to say a special word about education, a subject which has been close to my heart for many years. You of the pueblos also recognize the importance of education, as evidenced by the number of children you have in school. The higher education grants provided for Indian children present a unique example of acceptance by the Government of a re- sponsibility to provide the best in education that it possibly can. This is not merely a right of the individual but an obligation of the Government. I want to take special note of the fact that you as officers of your pueblos have long made representations to the Federal Approved For Release 2003/10/14: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300140003-1