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March 24, 1965
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Marc7t 24, A ved For R (" "F 21'aN RECL%~GIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 RECORD - A Pp IThJTh r good 1965 return. And why should she be forced to beg for her own f4ahfrom a nation whose fishery on our stocks began after the self-caused World War II? This Tull is no longer virgin stock. Japan in an unprecedented flaunt of conservation, took nearly 2 million immature Adak in August. We must no longer ask, we must assert. No longer debate, but demand. Your dignity as a citizen, our dignity as a nation is at SPEECH of HON. HAROLD R.- COLLIER A1383 nam, Red China, East Germany, and Hun- gary.. Another massive cache was seized last' week, In it were 80 tons of armaments from Communist countries. Included in the cap- ture were 1,000 Russian-made carbines, 900. Red Chinese rifles, several hundred Soviet submachineguns, antiaircraft guns, recoil less rifles, and grenades. Supposedly the source of manufacture of these weapons is to be obliterated. Cap- tured documents reveal instructions from Hanoi directing the infiltrators "to remove all markings".from their munitions. The infiltrators themselves start out from near Hanoi in North Vietnamese uniforms and change into South Vietnamese uniforms s. - The admission: Hanoi has officially de- clared that its "army is the instrument of the class struggle to liberate South Viet- nam." It has said that "it is the brain and the factor that decides." The thanks: The Vietcong have several times thanked Hanoi for its armed support. No deviation: The Vietcong Communists have never once deviated from the Hanoi IN THE HOUSE OF. REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, March 9, 1965 Mr. COLLIER. Mr. Speaker, the fol- lowing commentary might properly be entitled "What's Wrong Here?" I do not believe there is a better way to make a case for an existing inequity than to present a specific situation. I therefore submit excerpts from a letter received from a young man in the armed services which I trust my colleagues in the House will read and give serious ebnsideration: I have been in the. Army 19 months and was recently promoted from E-3 to E-4 and found that Icy wife's class Q allotment did not increase like that of a man who has only one dependent. The allotment for an E-3 and two dependents and less than 2 years' service is $123.10 and it remains the same for an E-4 With two dependents, The allotment for an,E-3 with one dependent and less than 2 years' service is $95.20, but it moves up to $123.10 when a man is pro- moted to an E-4. This doesn't seem at all equitable. For example, one of my buddies who has the same rating as I do and a wife and no children draws the same allotment. His wife is, of course, able to take employment, whereas we have a child, which naturally requires that my wife remain at home with the baby. President Johnson recently concluded that families with an income of less than $3,000 annually are in the poverty class and should be given economic assistance through the Federal Government. Yet, strangely, a man in the service with two dependents receives $83.10 for living quarters and $123.10 per month allotment, which, with his basic pay, gives him an annual income of approximate- ly $2,800. The serviceman with one de- pendent is naturally farther down on the This is the evidence which caused the three-nation international control commis- sion (India, Canada, with Communist Po- land dissenting) to report that "beyond any reasonable doubt North Vietnam has sent arms and men into South Vietnam with the aim of overthrowing the legal government." This is the evidence which has caused the United States to conclude that the Hanoi regime is in full strategic control of every action by the Vietcong and is providing the major share of its equipment and supplies. Greek Independence Day EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HOWARD W. ROBISON OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 11, 1965 Mr. ROBISON. Mr. Speaker, March 25, 1965, marks the 144th anniversary of Greek Independence Day. On that date in 1821 a band of Greek patriots began their struggle for freedom. This was the first echo in Europe of the American Revolution, and their efforts were in- spired by the example of the revolution only a few years before which had brought about the existence of the "land of thy f . >, m - e ree 1 of ers a ~..~, - c? s the can revolution had sown seeds that had before coming into the service, it would have border to wage war' South Vietnam, been impossible for me to provide the basic This figure comes from cross-checked reports grown deep roots, necessities along with maintaining our life, from prisoners, defectors, and secret docu- The Greeks looked upon the United insurance, automobile insurance, and other meets. There is substantial information States with hope and admiration. One miscellaneous obligations. When a man is that 15,000 additional infiltrators entered of the first acts of the first Greek Senate required to give 2 years out of his life, it South Vietnam during this period. In guer- in 1821-was an address to the American certainly doesn't seem right that he should rilla warfare 20,000 guerrillas can be equal people: be required to use funds for which he worked to a regular army of 200,000 to 300,000. and saved. during his civilian life for the right Vietcong leadership: Most officers, the ke Friends, fellow esolutio, an to nd iv or vetorrdief, for and privilege of serving his country. I pass cadres, and the technicians for hard-core fr edom,we the a redrawn toward you for these comments on to you, not alone because Vietcong units operating in South Vietnam sympathy, Y Y eust of my personal situation, but because these are from North Vietnam. since d is in your land that separated rty are mane others like me with whom I have Arms supplies: Large and increasing has fixed its abode * * *. Though ceprated talked who have so expressed themselves. titles of weapons are entering from ogtside. brings you near gusY* ocean Our Interests are I hope and trust that Congress will do One captured Vietcong said that his entire of such nature as to cement more and more something to rectify these inequities in the company was recently supplied with modern an alliance founded on freedom and virtue. near future. It probably will not affect me Chinese weapons. A Vietcong arms cache since I am nearing the end of m; term of contained recoilless rifles and ammunition, Freedom for the Greeks did not come service, but it seems to me that this should carbines, detonating fuses, 110 pounds of easily or quickly. Finally, 8 long years be corrected in the interest of the men who TNT, fuses for mortar shells, and other arms. later with the sympathy and support of serve our country in the future. Their identifiable sources were: North Viet- the American people and ultimately that It is my understanding that legislation is being offered by most of the mem- bers of the, esteemed Committee on Armed Services to increase military pay. and correct some of these Inequities which prevail. This legislation should. be a must in this session of Congress. HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,, Wednesday, March 24, 1965 Mr. MUL'f'ER. Mr, Speaker, I com- mend to the attention of our colleagues the following article by our distinguished columnist, Mr. Roscoe Drummond, which appeared in the New York Herald Trib- une on February 26, 1965. Mr. Drummond presents part of the proof of the role being played by the North Vietnamese Communist govern- ment in supplying the Vietcong with arms and leadership. The article follows: THE MASSIVE PROOF: UNITED STATES CAN Now DOCUMENT HANOI'S ROLE IN VILT WAR WASHINGTON.-The United States is ready to submit to the -U.N. Security Council or any other proper body, massive and mount- ing proof that the war in South Vietnam is armed and directed from Hanoi. The evidence is now fully prepared for use b th y e Government at the right moment. It rests on captured arms, captured docu- ments, Communist defectors, and interroga- tion of North Vietnamese prisoners of war. It proves that the aggression against south Vietnam is inspired, commanded, controlled and supplied by the Communist regime in Hanoi. This evidence shows a systematic violation of the frontiers which Hanoi agreed to re- spect in the Geneva agreements of 1954 and in the Laotian agreement of 1962. This evidence makes North Vietnam the procuring force in the attempt to overthrow the Government of South Vietnam and, in the words of Under Secretary of State George W. Ball, "the mainspring of the whole Viet- cong effort." Here is a good cross-section of the infor- mationswhich documents the role Hanoi has Hanoi's Role in the Vie nanr}, War EXTENSION OF REMARKS OP' (By Roscoe Drummond) Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 A1384 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX March 24, 1965 of the entire civilized world, they won, as we had won earlier, Mr. Speaker, Greeks are proud that Americans participated in that noble en- deavor, and we too should be proud that we contributed to their inspiration as we join them in commemorating the 144th anniversary of their independence on March 25. The Christian Science Monitor Gives an Example of the Area Redevelopment Administration's Success in Providing New Jobs EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HENRY S. REUSS OF WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPIESENTATIVES Monday, March 1, 1965 Mr. REUSS. Mr. Speaker, the Chris- tian Science Monitor recently published a story describing the excellent work of the Area Redevelopment Administration in helping to provide jobs in a depressed mining area of West Virginia. The establishment of the Ravens- Shinnston Corp. plant, as described by the Monitor, article, is a model of how the Area Redevelopment program works at its best. In this case, the people of the area, led by their elected officials, the State government, private industry, and the Area Redevelopment Administration joined together cooperatively to create new jobs in a new industry for West Virginians who would otherwise have had little hope of escaping the miseries of chronic unemployment: ANOTHER SUCCESS STORY IN' WEST VIRGINIA: ARA RETRAINING SALVAGES WORKERS (By David K. Willis) BHINNSTON, W. VA.-Pete Olivetti, cheerful in brown shirt and work trousers, pushed back his welder's mask and looked around at the men working on the factory floor. "Does a lot for the area, a plant like this," he said. "Most of these men wouldn't have jobs otherwise. See him? Just out of school. What hope would he have had? There's no jobs here anywhere. "Me, I was out of work for 8 months one time, Still got my unemployment card in my pocket. Show it to you if you like. I worked In the mines. Made more money there than here-but you'd work 1 day and never know about the next, "Been here 2 years now. Spent last Christ- mas with my wife and kids. Second time in 15 years I remember doing that. Always away working or looking before." This is a success story In the Federal Gov- ernment's Area Redevelopment Administra- tion (ARA). That is what the ARA is sup- posed to be doing: Giving men like Pete Oliveto a chance to earn a living. In many other areas ARA has failed. ARA was established in 1961 to spur job- creating businesses in depressed areas throughout the United States. Since that time it has given out $300 million in loans and grants for this purpose to communities and business firms. The agency, which has about $82 million left In Its lending account, is due to expire this June. President Johnson is asking that the program be extended. DEFENSE WORK Here, in a 400-foot-long factory 2 miles south of Shinnston on Route 19, sparks fly and hammers clang as the Ravens-Shinnston Corp. works two shifts a day. The factory makes trailer tanks for long hauls. It makes I Y2 -ton ammunition car- riers and 600-gallon storage tanks for the Army. The plant superintendent, Hobart Cutright, says 32 men are working now. There will be 70 more by the end of the year. With three shifts, the total could eventually hit 250. Standing with us, running his hand ad- miringly over a steel girder, was Shinnston's Mayor, George Rice. Mr. Rice has pushed the plant from the start, "We saw the handwriting on the wall here a couple of years ago," he said matter-of- factly. "It's all mining here, but the mines are automated, and men have nothing to do. "So we knew we had to do something. A group of us got together in town (Mr. Rice runs the local drugstore) and talked about getting some industry to come in." COOPERATION SEEN To qualify for an ARA low cost, long-term loan, the Shinnston Area Development As- sociation held a meeting in the Moose club- house. It drew up a plan. ARA sent down a team of inspectors, the State Industrial Development Authority ap- proved, local townspeople dug deep Into their pockets, and the project was launched in a blaze of energy. The Ravens Corp. has long manufactured trailer tank bodies. It provided- the techni- cal experts. A big factor in getting ARA money-$424,000 in all-was a federally as- sisted retraining school already operating in Harrison County. The 15,000 people in the greater Shinnston area put up $75,000. Ravens added $200,000. "People were impatient," Mr. Rice said. "The plant took a year to build. There's a lot of redtape to go through. But we think ARA has done a fine job. We'se very pleased. A major delay came when local interests fought with Ravens to have a bigger voice on the board of the new company. The dispute now has been settled. The plant has been helped immeasurably by two Defense Department contracts--one of $1.4 million for the ammunition carriers, the other for the 600-gallon tanks. "Being a depressed area and having an ARA (loan] must have helped us get them," said Mr. Rice. "Anyway, we have them, and we're fulfilling them." As he spoke Pentagon inspectors were mak- ing final checks on the first dark-green car- rier at one end of the building. "We estimate it costs $5,000 to train a single man-that's counting time lost on the job as he gets used to what he's doing," said Mr. Cutright. "But we're doing it, and the plant will go. No doubt about that." Supreme Court Decree SPEECH OF HON. W. J. BRYAN DORN OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, March 23, 1965 Mr. DORN. Mr. Speaker, the Su- preme Court has no legal authority to reapportion the legislatures of the States of this Union. The Supreme Court de- cision of June 15, 1964, ordering reap- portionment of State legislatures, par- ticularly the State senates, is one of the most autocratic and dangerous decrees in all the history of the civilized world. This decision is reminiscent of the de- crees handed, down by Roman Emperors. I know of no decree in modern history wrought with more danger to freedom and self-government at the local level. This order of the Supreme Court is a blow at the foundation stones of this Republic and our free enterprise system. This decision of the Supreme Court makes a mockery of the Constitution and is an insult to the Congress. If this de- cree of the Court is permitted to stand by the Congress, the Supreme Court can and will someday reapportion member- ship in the U.S. Senate. The Court can and will reapportion membership on boards of trustees, magistrates, and local officials throughout the Nation. Mr. Speaker, I am today joining my colleagues in introducing a bill which would nullify this unconstitutional and unwarranted decision of the Supreme Court. The bill I am introducing would return legislative power to the people, as intended by the Constitution. No leg- islative body in this country, whether it is the State legislature, city council, or the Congress itself, is free as long as this Damoclean sword of the Supreme Court is suspended over the legislative proc- esses. This bill would end the apportionment and reapportionment of State legisla- tures by the Supreme Court. It would keep the Supreme Court from reviewing reapportionment cases and would re- strict the district courts from having the jurisdiction to entertain cases that would reapportion State legislatures. The Supreme Court has usurped leg-? islative powers. My people are fearful that we are drifting into a dictatorship by the Supreme Court. The Congress must act now to preserve the liberties of our people. America's Vanishing Merchant Fleet EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HASTINGS KEITH OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 24, 1965 Mr. KEITH. Mr. Speaker, it was once said that illusion is the first of all pleas- ures. But when a popular belief threat- ens to strangle a vital arm of the Na- tion's defense and economic power, such self-deception can be fatal. There is a growing fear that America's once un- challenged maritime supremacy has be- come such a nationalistic mirage-a myth supported by indifference, deceptive statistics, and a naive misconception of the, future role of oceangoing commercial carriers. The United States, the largest trading Nation in the world, is today a sixth- rate maritime power-ranking behind Great Britain, Liberia, Norway, and the U.S.S.R. The fact is that Russia will soon have the world's largest merchant Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 March 24, ,moved For Re"'C%gJVA 0300160013-8 IAf 74 6111300 '0609 Douglas Dillon deserves the thanks of traditional measures of bank liquidity have as these differences are reflected in interest the American people for a job Well done. confirmed a gradual tightening in their post- rates and the intensity of demands for I wish him well on his return to pri- tion? The Federal Reserve has rather steadily credit-also lie behind the accelerating out- vate life. reduced the free res erves of the banking sys- flow of bank loans and other credits abroad. REte life.. S BY THE;. I ONORA$I~E DOVGLAB DILLON, tem. and, for the past month, the banks have This structural imbalance forced us to pro- 4~GRETApv 1 TREASURY, BEFORE THE actually operated with a small net borrowed pose the interest equalization tax during the 13CR ANNVeL 11IONETARX QONFERENCE of reserve position. While corporate cash flow summer of 1963. It effectively increased the 13T Al ERxc.9N O N TARS zREN -ASSOCIATION Al' has remained high, liquidity ratios have cost of long-term portfolio credit to foreign- THE Aig INN,, PRINCETON, N.J., FRIDAY, reached the lowest levels in a quarter of a ers In developed countries. As a result the PkiNcwrox Cx 19, 1965 century. _ outflow of long-term portfolio capital in 1964 This is the fourth year in which I have had ab eeinl the Uniteds Statesn throughout this drTp pee A aink t the 1960 . ct Is that foreign borrowers the special privilege of addressing this con- period, and our bank lending and long-term are willing and able to pay higher rates than ference of distinguished leaders in the world interest rates are still low relative to most domestic borrowers of similar credit standing of finance, These have been years of re- other countries. But it is also a palpable fact with free access to the vast resources of the markable innovation in financial practices that rising investment opportunities and American credit market, and foreign loans and policies-public and private-both credit demands at home, combined with in- are thus in many instances more profitable within the United States and abroad. In- creases in the Federal Reserve discount rate to the lending banks. The same is true for ternationally, we have fashioned a frame- and greater restraint in the provision of bank the placement of liquid funds by our cor- Work for mutual consultation and coopera- reserves, have noticeably reduced the ease of porations. But the massive outflow of these Lion that-measured against our common our market. Yet, instead of declining in re- types of credit is also related to other deep- objectives of steady growth and flourishing sponse to these developments, the capital seated structural characteristics of American world trade, coupled with substantial price outflow has accelerated. and foreign stability-has proved both, durable and This fact alone casts into doubt the thesis As you know, withnrare exceptions, foreign viable, of those who view the problem almost en- financial markets, even in countries with the But, despite much excellent progress, our tirely in terms of excessive domestic liquid- most highly developed economies, lack a international finapcial system still suffers ity, with tighter monetary policy the simple, large and fluid short-term money market. from a disturbing disequillbrium-one i effective, and unique remedy. Naturally, If Long-term bond markets are usually even have discussed with you on previous occa- one defines an excess of liquidity as synony- more constricted. As a result, in most other sions. This is the seemingly chronic tend- mous with an excessive capital outflow, I countries there is simply no effective mech- ency for capital to flow between countries suppose that position would be unassailable. anism by which private borrowers and in directions and In amounts that impede the But that kind of analysis bears no realistic lenders-and to a very considerable extent entire process of restoring balance in the relationship to the difficulty we face today. governments-can readily raise or dispose of payments of deficit and surplus countries All it does is to define away the substance of large sums in short periods of time in the alike. a very real and tough problem. open market. Instead, the available funds . The group of 10, in their recent study of In my judgment, it is much more enlight- within each country are channeled almost the international monetary system, con- ening-although still not the entire answer- entirely through a relatively few big insti- cluded unanimously that ways must be found to analyze the problem in terms of differences tutions dealing with individual customers on to improve the process of balance-of-pay- in investment profitability, rather than in a personalized basis. These institutional merits adjustment. The United States terms of liquidity. Consider, for example, the markets are fairly well Insulated from the wholeheartedly joined In that conclusion and outflow of funds for direct investment abroad, short-term money market, and frequently welcomes the systematic studies of this which has continued to rise, reaching $2.3 respond only sluggishly if at all to the actions matter now underway in working party III billion in 1964. At the present time, many of the monetary authorities. of the OECD. However, if these studies are American firms clearly believe that a por- The fluidity and size of the market avail- to have truly useful results they must face tion of their available resources can be most able to most private borrowers abroad Is up to the stubborn and extremely difficult profitably invested in subsidiaries abroad. further impaired by the fact that many problem posed by the deep structural imbal- That calculation rests on a variety of familiar foreign governments preempt a very large antes In the worlds capital markets that considerations-the more rapid growth of fraction of the savings available for Invest- have enormously complicated the smooth certain foreign markets; a desire to operate ment, or direct it into officially sanctioned functioning of the ?adjustment mechanism. Inside a wall of external tariffs; proximity to uses, frequently with a sizable subsidy for The nature of the problem is clearly illus- readily available raw materials; and lower preferred borrowers added along the way. trated by developments in our balance of production costs-to name some of the most This is partly a natural result of basic social payments last year. By 1964, the measures obvious factors. decisions to provide, through we had and posi- But perhaps most important of all is the social insurance proglamsgovernment undertaken to improve our trade programs, the protection tion and to reduce the balance-of-payments fact that U.S. industrial development so far for citizens that we in the United States impact of our aid and defense programs had exceeds that of any other country. This has furnish to a much larger extent through achieved visible and gratifying results. Yet, brought with it a degree of competition that private insurance and private industry. But, as you know, our deficit last year was once is unknown anywhere else in the world. Add It Is also a reflection, in many instances, of a again disappointingly large, primarily be- to this our enormous flow of savings, and it is conscious desire to provide special prefer- cause capital had poured out of the United not surprising to find a general acceptance ences to one major group of borrowers or States 111 unprecedented amounts--in Sig- of lower rates of return On capital in this another, and to maintain a high degree of niflcant part to the. strong surplus Countries country than prevail elsewhere-rates that government control of national economic of Western .Europe.. The recent annual re- only partially reflect differences in risks be- development. In either case, the natural re- port of the 11Ionetary Commission of the tween investments here and abroad. At the sult is to leave those businesses and other European Economic Community highlighted same time, our businessmen and investors borrowers that must look to the remainder this point, noting that an improvement of tend to place higher capital values on pros- of the market more or less perpetually about $3 billion In U.S. transactions for pective earnings than is the case elsewhere, starved for funds, and with an impelling de- goods and services.. and Government ac- and our corporations at times find it attrac- sire to seek needed capital from abroad. counts had been largely offset by a $2 billion tive to pay higher prices in the acquisition of All of these factors have contributed to a increase in private Capital outflows. going concerns abroad than would seem rea- structure of long-term interest rates in Within tshe basic limitations set by the sonable to local investors. tions, has Europe has r that, e, with only one or two postwar needs of an underemployed domestic econ- Whatever the specific reason that articu- pert levels throughout ght of past omy, the United. States throughout the last lar direct investments abroad a p sod at suatin the light opast appear toe history, sunusually high. Official die- 4 years had been &lert to the fact that execs- given company to be a more profitable use count rates, es, and the money market ket rates sively easy money at home could only aggra- for its funds, the fact is that we cannot ef- more immediately influenced by the official vate he .problem of capital outflows. By fectively influence this judgment by simply rates, often bear little relationship to the shifting much.of the burden for promoting reducing liquidity and tightening credit at load charges payable by local borrowers. domestic expansion to fiscal policy and tax home. So long as the basic difference in And, faced with constricted internal mar- reduction, we have enabled our monetary profitability remains, any gain In terms of kets, and thus denied a full range of fiscal autllprities to move gradually, but steadily, reduced foreign investment will entail a sub- and monetary tools, the authorities them- to an esseatiaily neutral monetary policy. stantially larger cost in terms of dampening selves often find it essential to pursue essen- Our short-term market in rates have domestic investment as well. There seems, tially domestic credit objectives-and in some climbed significantly since the 1960-61 re- therefore, little warrant either in theory or instances even to finance internal budgetary cession, responding largely to two half-point in practice for basing economic policy on a needs-through adjustments . In external increases in the discount rate. With the dis- presumption that corporate managers will flows of funds. Sometimes this is done by count ' rate, now at 4 percent, Treasury bill permit considerations of the rate and avail- borrowing directly from abroad and some- yields arewihl,n One-half percent or so of ability of bank credit to affect their decisions times by seeking to influence the external their postwar high-a high reached only on foreign investment, while leaving the do- borrowing or placement of funds by their briefly during the period of very tight money mestic economy untouched. 1n 1959, Lose-deposit ratios of banks have In the broadest sense, international dif- commercial banks. gradually clamed to a postwar The sheer size the funds. and the peak, and other ferences in.the rate of return on Investment- tremendous volume of funds. raised in our Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300,160013-8 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160 3-8 561a CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE arch 24, 1965 credit markets-estimated last year at over helping the adjustment process in the United tionship of international monetary reform to $70 billion-help. account for the much States, as in other countries. It has played current U.S. overriding payments need, in one European view, greater fluidity of our markets and their such a role, is playing such a role now, and ability to adjust to, and absorb, large do- will continue to do so in the future. In fact, is to develop a mechanism which would force mestic or foreign demands with relative ease. as I suggested earlier, one of our chief rea- a prompt end to our payments of deficits. But it is not a question of size alone. The sons for relying primarily upon fiscal policy We fully agree with these European friends relative freedom of the market mechanism, to stimulate the domestic economy was to the international necessity for achievi accountsng ea~dbWlace and the intensity of competitive pressures give monetary policy additional freedom in in our among institutions with a wide variety of coping with our balance=of-payments prob- tend to achieve this goal by our own actions, investment options, permit funds to flow lem. And I can assure you that monetary which now for the first time cover all aspects promptly from one sector of our economy to policy remains fully available for further of our payments problem. another in response to changing demands. use should the need arise. But I see no But, in assessing the'problems of the in- And, a long history of confidence in our realistic prospect that the full burden for ternational monetary system, our concern currency, further fortified by the stability achieving a permanent international adjust- and that of a number of other countries has of our prices in recent years, has encouraged ment in capital flows can reasonably be been to look toward the future, when there individuals and investment institutions to thrust on American monetary policy alone will no longer be an American payments commit funds freely at long term. now or in the forseeable future. , deficit pumping dollars into the reserves of As a result of the pressure of the huge Instead, as I have suggested before to this other countries. So-the thrust of our think- volume of private savings seeking investment group, the only really satisfactory longrange ing has been to find the best way of develop- in our market, our long-term interest rate solution to our present problem of excessive ing supplementary means of providing the structure has remained essentially stable. capital outflows lies in achieving a more liquidity that is likely to be needed. We feel during the past 4 years, even though money attractive environment for investment with- that this can only be done gradually and by market rates have risen by 11/2 percent or in the United States through tax reduction building on what we now have. And we more to a range of 4 to 41/2 percent. As a and sustained growth, together with the de- emphatically disagree with the thesis re- result, the differential between short- and. velopment of far larger, far more efficient cently propounded in some quarters which long term rates has almost disappeared and far more flexible capital markets abroad. would turn back the clock and embrace an Nevertheless, the bond market has continued While there has been some encouraging outmoded and highly restrictive system--a to absorb a record volume of long-term fl- progress in both of these directions, much system that would surely cripple the growth nancing at stable rate levels. more remains to be done. of international trade and commerce as our Another indication of the strength of our, These are, of course, long-run measures, deficit was ended. longer term markets is that, over the past 4 and their influence on capital flows must be Under the circumstances, with these broad years, they have not merely provided the expected to emerge only slowly. For the differences of approach, any final resolution vast amount of funds necessary to support time being, the existing disequilibrium-and, of the variety of issues that have been raised high levels of homebuilding, a remarkable ex- the urgency of reducing our deficit-has re- seems to me highly unlikely until the United pansion in business investment, and the quired that we seek the cooperation of our States has brought its international pay- rapidly growing needs of our States and local- banks and other financial institutions, as ments into balance. As that is done it will sties. They have also provided funds to the well as of our industrial firms, in voluntarily become less and less easy to ignore the po- Government, equal to the entire $28.8 billion reducing the flow of capital abroad. The tential need for supplementary sources of Federal deficit during the first 4 years of response of those asked to participate in this reserve assets and international credit facil- this administration. During that period voluntary program has been most gratify- ities. Meanwhile, difficult and time con- more than that amount was placed in savings ing. The effects are already clearly visible suming technical studies are well underway bonds and marketable debt maturing In over both in the foreign exchange markets and under the auspices of the group of 10, help- 5 years. This achievement is reflected in the in our preliminary payments statistics which ing to clarify the issues and to evaluate increase ofalmost 1 year or 20 percent in the point to a sharp and favorable change since alternative techniques. These studies will, average length., of the marketable debt to a mid-February. But two swallows don't make I believe, provide the basis for timely agree- level last seen in mid-1956. a summer. We need a considerable period ments on ways and means for improving the In this setting we could not expect mod- of balance to offset the deficits of the past. present monetary system well in advance erately tighter monetary policies to bring We know we can count on your cooperation of any urgent need. the needed reduction in the outflow of long- in achieving this vitally needed result. In looking back on the past 4 years, and term funds abroad. The disparities In the But the success of our present program on the postwar period as a whole, there can structure of the capital markets of our dif- does not, of course, meet the basic problem. be no question that the present system- mient country av simply tat t great eeto per- The nations of the free world, working to- anchored on gold and the dollar, and effec-h ward us rely heavily Much that is needed to gether, must develop better means for in- tively supplemented by the International ward adjustment. Much more other needed s- fluencing capital flows within a basic frame- Monetary Fund-has served the world well. bring interest rtes no he ugh alinement incest work of free markets and national objet- The extremes of inflation and deflation char- trialized countries into the rough alinement ttves-and without placing intolerable bur- acteristic of other postwar periods have been that is surely necessary if we are to put a dens either upon monetary policy or upon avoided. Barriers to trade have been lowered permanent end - to the destabilizing capital the resources of the international monetary or removed. And, in this environment, the flows that have characterized the past 2 system. vast productive capabilities of the free world _ . -....a +., the har,nflt ..f ns all. ly tight money wools ce aoie w uv .us w could in any way eliminate the need continued over a long enough period. Such. a system these flows. But these two policy rests on the highly doubtful assump- for ste am questions djdjustin nonetheless related, the one two tion that in spite of our huge volume of sav- q ngs it would be technically feasible-per- the basic functions of the international mon- haps by drastically reducing the money sup- etary system is to provide. sufficient means ply-to raise the general level of our bank for financing deficits and surpluses to per- and long-term interest rates by the 11/2 to 2 mit the working out of an orderly process percent that would be needed to achieve in- of adjustment. terest rate parity with Europe. This linkage between the process of adjust- But even granting that assumption, such ment and the international monetary sys- a policy would surely be self-defeating. Be- tem seems to me to be at the source of much fore ft could achieve the interest rate objet- of the confusion and difficulty evident in re- 11 cent international efforts to develop a com- t The challenge xor the zucure in w -- further on this system, recognizing its po- tential weaknesses and shortcomings, bul- preserving the elements of strength and flexibility that have contributed so much to our progress. In this area, as in the area of adjustin?: capital flows, I have no fixed blueprint to offer to those who will share the responsi. bility for developing solutions. I remain confident, however, that solutions can and will be found, provided only that the United States discharges its own immediate respon- sibility to maintain the full strength of tho woo tive, the extreme restriction of cre surely move us' toward domestic recession, mon approach toward the further evolution dollar as the world's primary reserve cur- and at a time when our economy is already of the international payments system. All rency by achieving an early balance in it> falling to use its resources to the full. A the major countries are fully agreed, I be- international accounts. And with the help recession would, in turn, delay our funds- lieve, on the need for developing an assured of you gentlemen that is exactly what w mental aim of creating a. more favorable method of generating international liquidity are going to do. amounts as but no excessive uate e i , , q n a climate for Investment in the United States. At the same time, it would rapidly create world trade and production increases over forces for easy money that would be likely the years ahead. This much clearly emerged to prove irresistible. Thus the end result from the studies of the group of 10 and the would not be an improvement but rather an international Monetary Fund last year. an aggravation of our balance-of-payments But in recent months, there has been little problem. progress toward more concrete agreement on To cite these limitations and difficulties methods and approaches. The pronounced In the use of monetary policy is not, of course, divergencies in view that have become evi- to say that monetary policy`doee not have dent can, I believe, be traced in good part to a useful and indeed essential role to play in quite different assumptions about the rela- CLEF AIM OF OUR FOREIGN POL- Y SHOULD BE TO ENCOURAGE HE EVOLUTION OF A WORLD OF INDEPENDENT, VIABLE NATIONS (Mr. EDWARDS of California (at the request of Mr. ADAMS) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 roved For I CI -~}~~p67B00446R000300160013-8 March 2 J W ~~414L RC c)RD HOUSE point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, the Pentagon should be re- minded that the chief aim of our foreign policy is to encourage the evolution of a world of independent, viable nations, all or most of whom. would look. upon our country with respect, if not friendship, and as a consequence would tend to pat- tern their cultures in the mold of the free society. It is a part of the Pentagon's job to implement this foreign policy. Wars are not wholly military. There are human and-psychological aspects, and the battle for men's minds is frequently more im- portant than the military. The use of gas in Vietnam is a step backwards of incalculable magnitude. It is not worthy of our great Nation. Its military value cannot possibly counter- balance the wave of disapproval and dis- may that has swept the world. I found this morning's comments of the New York Times and the Washing- ton Post particularly appropriate, and the texts of the editorials follow: ,GAS (NONLETHAL) IN VIETNAM The United States, in steady escalation of the Vietnamese conflict, is now revealed to have employed a nonlethal gas. It is pos- sible to argue, as American military and civilian spokesmen do, that military objec- tives can be achieved with fewer casualties by using a gas that does not kill. This argument overlooks one vital factor; and it displays, at the very least, a lack of imagination somewhere in the top echelons of the Armed Forces. People-ordinary peo- ple everywhere-have a strong psychological revulsion, if not horror, at the idea of any kind of poisonous gas, even a temporarily dis- abling type that only causes extreme discom- fort including nausea and diarrhea when used against ordinarily healthy adults. But even this kind of gas can be fatal to the very young, the very old and those ill of heart and lung ailments. In Vietnam, gas was supplied and sanc- tioned by white men against Asians. This is something that no Asian, Communist or not, will forget. No other country has employed such a weapon in recent warfare. If the United States believed that people every- where would be logical and "sensible" and would understand that nonlethal gas con- stitutes really only another form of warfare and even a relatively humane one, someone has blundered grievously. War, as Clausewitz said, "is only a part of political intercourse, therefore by no means an independent thing in itself." It is stupid to lay the United States open to a moral con- derz nation that is not confined to the Com- munist world. The United States claims to be fighting in Vietnam for freedom, right, justice, and other moral principles, as well as against commu- nism and for the, security of the United States and the free world. By using a nox- ious gas-even of a nonlethal , type-the Johnson administration is falling back to- ward the old axiom that all's fair in war. But this happens to be a war in which the moral stature of the United States is at least as vital as bullets, shells and bombs. Gas is a wretched means to, achieve even the most valid ends. [From the Washington Post] ,'.BLACKENING OUR NAME It is difficult to find out how much damage napalm and gas are doing the enemy but it is not hard to find out how muoh damage they are doing us. Our own Defense Establish- ment, every time it employs or permits the South Vietnamese to employ these weapons, is doing an injury to the good name of this country. If these weapons were being employed with decisive effect, perhaps their use might be condoned as one of the necessities of a hard and brutal war, but in this situation there is not even the satisfaction of knowing that they produced impressive results. They have been employed just enough to bring down upon this country the rebuke of the civilized world. They have been utilized just enough to hold our country up to reproach. They have been resorted to just often enough to impose upon the U.S. Information Agency an impossible propaganda disadvantage. The argument that the nontoxic gas is more merciful than antipersonnel weapons has some merit, but not much. The trouble is that although the gas may not be poison, the word is, and all the propaganda resources in the world cannot explain away its employ- ment as an act of Christian charity and hu- manitarian mercy. The use of napalm against gun emplacements is debatable, but ,its employment against villages is indefen- sible and the difficulty of confining it to com- bat installations so great as to dictate that it be not used at all. We hope that President Johnson will order the Defense Department to forgo the use of all gas and napalm in this war theater at once. The people of this country are pre- pared for and equal, to the hard measures that war dictates, when those measures are clearly inescapable and' unavoidable in the prosecution of a military purpose. They will not be reconciled to the use of such weapons where alternate means of defense .exist. If the war in South Vietnam can only be won by losing our good name, Americans who. have patiently supported the struggle will waver in their purpose. Mr. President, let us stop all use of napalm and gas in South Vietnam at once. OPPRESSION OF MINORITIES IN TRANSYJ,,VANIA (Mr. FEIGHAN (at the request of Mr. ADAMS) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FEIGHAN. Mr. Speaker, the persecution and oppression of minorities by the Communist regime in Rumania has reached serious proportions and deserves to be condemned publicly by the Congress. The minorities affected are the Hungarians and Saxons who have lived for centuries in Transylvania which is now under Rumanian jurisdiction. The subtle but nonetheless cruel and harsh plan of persecution launched against these minorities has caused grave concerns among many Americans whose relatives and friends are the victims. Bulletin No. 17 of the Interna- tional Commission of Jurists is devoted to an expose of the tactics used by the Communist regime in Rumania.. Many correspondents who- have, had an op- portunity to visit Transylvania have re- turned with an abundance of criticism of what they have seen. The theory of communism makes extravagant claims about, the ,equal treatralent of,, people and is partic- ularly critical of mistreatment of minorities. But., the practice of com- munism is a far cry from the promises of its theory. What the Rumanian Com- munist regime is doing to the minorities in Transylvania follows a well-estab- lished habit of all, Communist regimes. 5611 Oppression of human rights is a standard ,Practice for all under their control and certain elements of the population are singled out for particularly harsh treat- ment. Our sympathies go out to the Ru- manian people for the persecution they have suffered at the hands of the Com- munist regime in control of their country. We are aware that neither the Commu- nist Party nor the government installed by force in Rumania represents the freely expressed will of the people. The fault for persecution of minorities in Transyl- vania rests solely upon the Communist Party of Rumania which, as is well known, controls every facet of life in that country. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced House Resolution 290 for the purpose of providing the House of Representatives with an opportunity to condemn publicly the oppressive practices of the Com- munist regime in Rumania against the Hungarian and Saxon minorities in Transylvania. My resolution requests the President to use his good office in such manner as he deems appropriate to bring relief to these persecuted minori- ties. I hope the House will act favorably and soon on this matter. (Mrs. GREEN of Oregon asked and was given permission to extend her remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mrs. GREEN of Oregon's remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] THIRD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE INTER-AMERICAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL The SPEAKER. Under previous order of the House the gentleman from Massa- chusetts [Mr. MORSE] is recognized for 30 minutes. Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, between November 30 and December 12, of last year, the Inter-American Economic and Social Council-IA-ECOSOC-held its third annual meeting to review develop- ments under the Alliance for Progress in Lima, Peru. IA-ECOSOC is one of the three dependent organs of the Organiza- tion-of American States-OAS-and has provided since 1961 inter-American mul- tilateral direction for the Alliance for Progress. It was my good fortune to serve with my colleague, Congressman ARMISTEAD SELDON, as a member of the U.S. delega- tion to the conference last December. Congressman SELDON is Chairman of the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs. His pro- found knowledge of Latin American af- fairs was an invaluable contribution to the delegation. The conference opened with a pre- paratory 1 week meeting at the expert level preceding the meeting at the min- isterial level. The U.S. delegation at the ministerial meeting was headed by the very able Assistant Secretary of State and U.S. Coordinator of the Alliance for Progress, Thomas C. Mann, recently nominated by the President for Under Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 5612 Approved ForCONGRESSIO/NAL RECQRDP67%086 R0003001600~1~3ar8ch 249 1965 Secretary of State for Economic Affairs. to grow. There is no question in my Deputy U.S. Coordinator William D. mind that greater efforts will therefore Rogers leaded the U.S. delegation at the be necessary in this field. meeting of experts. The quality of the The Latin American delegations were work of both of these men deserved high particularly concerned with the relative- commendation. Certainly, the effective- ly slow pace of regional economic inte- ness of the U.S. delegation was due In gration through the Latin American large part to their experienced and ef- Free Trade Association, and made a call fective leadership. for early action to accelerate Integra- The climate of the conference was tion through existing institutions. BY both positive and optimistic. The meet- contrast, the Central American countries ing saw the launching of a new special were congratulated on the progress they development assistance fund, to be op- have made in the completion of the Cen- erated and supported on a multilateral tral American Common Market. basis. The statutes of the fund and its The general satisfaction expressed by first annual budget were approved. A all delegations with respect to the work number of participating nations pledged of the Inter-American Committee on the specific-contributions, while others stated Alliance for Progress--CIAP-which had their intention to pledge specific contri- been created by IA-ECOSOC the year butions in the near future. The fund, before, was a highlight of the discussion with a budget of about $9 million will at Lima. CLAP was set up as a sort of support a number of multilateral Alliance year-round multilateral executive com- activities including technical assistance mittee of the IA-ECOSOC. Among for planning, technical training pro- other things, it conducted for the first grams, public information and technical time a review of each country's perform- assistance for institutional development. ance under the Alliance for Progress. The IA-ECOSOC also considered and This country review process Is the heart approved a number of resolutions in of the economic and social development addition to the statutes and budget of the programs embodied In the Alliance. The special development assistance fund. concept is premised on the-thesis that Among these were requests for the Inter- aid is useless unless the recipient coun- American Committee on the Alliance for try has developed a comprehensive plan Progress-ClAP-to give special atten- which coordinates development prob- tion to certain problems such as external lems such as land and institutional re- trade, maritime transport charges in re- form with monetary and fiscal problems. lation to the balance of " payments, This was not done a few years ago with regional - integration and capital flight, regard to Brazil, for example. The re- and the relationship between population sult? The United States was support- growth and social and economic develop- ing the Brazilian currency during a ment. period when -the Brazilian Government One of the most hopeful reports made was taking no steps to control an ex- at the conference was the Ministers' esti- tremely high and rapidly growing rate mation that in 1964 for the first time, the of inflation. average per capita growth rate for all of I was greatly impressed. by the preoc- Latin America would equal or possibly cupation of Latin American member exceed the target rats--21/2 percent per countries with external trade conditions capita- per year-urged in the Charter of . and prospects. Of course, 1964 was a Punta del Este. They also noted the year that witnessed considerable inter- substantial increase--at least 8 per- national attention focused on the trade cent-in export earnings which will problems of the developing nations. This probably materialize in 1964, when all the attention centered around the United statistics become available: Nations Conference on Trade and Devel- In the estimation of the Latin Amer- opment-UNCTAD-held in Geneva, ican ' delegates, however, foreign trade March 23 through June 16, 1964. Prior continues to be a major problem, par- to this conference, the Latin American ticularly with respect to maintaining nations held two meetings, the first at recent price increases for basic com Brasilia and the second at Alta Gracia in modities. Argentina. At Brasilia, the government On more pessimistic note, concerning experts considered a document prepared agriculture, the review stated "that no by the secretariat of the Economic Corn- great progress has been made, except in mission for Latin America-ECLA. The isolated cases, in the technical improve- conclusions adopted at this meeting were ment of agriculture, in increasing agri- subsequently reviewed at Alta Gracia by cultural productivity, or in carrying the representatives of 19 Latin American out programs of agrarian reform." countries under the auspices of the Or- The Ministers stressed the need to pro- ganization of American States. These mote more active participation in the meetings were intended to produce a con- programs for development by all the peo sensus as to the goals of the UNCTAD. ple, including rural and urban commu- In Lima, most spokesmen were critical pities, labor union, business groups as of what they feared to be a protectionist well as government instrumentalities, tendency of the industrial countries. This is a healthy development, in my Substantial improvements by the de- opinion, and demonstrates a growing un- veloping countries, both in export earn- derstanding of the social aspects of eco- ings and in terms of trade in 1964, did not nomic development. prevent considerable concern about the In the housing field, IA-ECOSOC rec- future trade prospects of the region. ognized the important efforts which Underlying these criticisms is a con- many . countries have already made. tern which has been explicit in inter- However, the gap between requirements American relations for the last three dec- and new housing construction continues ades: The Latin American nations, their economies oriented toward primary prod- ucts, believe that the trend of the terms of trade is moving against them in favor of the Industrial nations. They believe that the basic trend of the ratio of prices of their imports as compared with the earnings of their exports is increasingly unfavorable. Furthermore, they are faced with the prospect of greater bal- ance-of-payments deficits as their im- ports increase due to development needs, imports made up for the most part of vitally needed machinery and machine products. An obvious answer to these problems is a diversified economy. Even partial industrialization, however, is a lengthy process, especially in the face of severe social and consequent political strains. The one immediate answer that the Latin Americans see to this problem is ex- panded exports at stable world markets at higher prices. Under the umbrella of favorable world markets, the develop- ing nations believe they can diversify and expand their economies. Two things are certain: Most Latin American countries do not earn the im- port credit that they feel they need to achieve a satisfactory rate of economic growth: and, second, they believe that the answer to their problems lies in some form of regulation of the world markets for primary goods which are controlled in one way or another by the industrial nations. They believe primary products are sold in a buyer's market whereas in- dustrial goods are sold in a seller's market. It is obviously very frustrating to be- lieve that the solution to one's problems is dependent on the good will of other nations. In the case of the Latin Amer- ican nations, the expression to their frus- tration was found in UNCTAD and the meetings which preceded it. These meetings are especially signifi- cant because they portend a new aline- ment in world relations. We no longer have an inter-American dialog, but a world duolog with industrial nations more or less alined on one side of the conversation and the developing nations alined on the other. The effects of this alinement were cer- tainly felt at UNCTAD where the de- veloping nations clearly dominated the proceedings. If it maintains coherence, it will certainly be heard again in in- ternational organizations in general and in inter-American relations in particular. The United States has clearly sup- ported efforts of economic organization in the hemisphere, such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and the Central American Common Market. These groups are directed toward self- help by increasing intraregional trade. However, they also represent a possible base for a future duolog between the north and the south. I believe that several important ob- servations can be made about this con- ference: First. The Latin American govern- ments remain keenly sensitive to the pos- sibility that wide price fluctuations of their principal export commodities may cause a recurrence of serious balance-of- payments deficits, thus wiping out their Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160013-8 March 24, 1965' " JV "" ' 'e 0R'U~RESSIONAI'RECQRA H QUS ' sulated this effort from the fear of Fed- eral control. Alsp, the National Science Foundation has no institutional interest in the administration of public educa- tion. This .cannot be said for the U.S. Office of Education. , By its very nature it is interested in educational policy, as dis- tinct from the advancement of knowl- edge in particular fields. The distinction is profound. Recent amendments to the National Defense Education Act extended the teacher preparation of the Office from the fields of modern languages and stu- dent counseling into the areas of English, geography, reading, and history. The research centers in title IV of this, bill, and the Federal-local supplementary centers in title III clearly project the Office into every aspect of the school curriculum, including the subjective and politically charged fields of the social sciences. In terms of our structure of educa- tional control, to say nothing of public policy, this progression of Federal in- fluen& in the sciences to Federal in- fluence in the social sciences is a quan- tum leap toward a centralized standard- ized, uniform national school system. Whether it is wise to make this "great leap forward" should be a question for intensive national debate. There can be no debate, however, about the fact that such a leap is being proposed. THE ACTUAL SCOPE OF THE BILL Aside from passing references in title I to "educationally deprived children" and the use in that title only of a dis- tribution formula based upon the num- ber of children in low-income families, this bill is not confined to the needs of the educationally deprived. The actual scope of the bill ranges over the entire spectrum of American education and probes into its most sen- sitive and vital areas., The textbooks and instructional materials in title II are not, limited to needy children or im- poverished schools, but are admittedly provided as part of a general program; the Federal-local school centers in title III are not limited to the needs of de- p4ived persons, or "problem" students, but specify "persons of varying talents and needs"; that is, everyone. The same universal scope is found in the rest of th~ bill. It is a complete misnomer, therefore, to label this bill as one for impoverished and neglected children. Whether the bill merits support or not is beside the point. The true purpose of this bill is to authorize general aid without regard to need, and the clear intent is to radi- cally change our historic structure of education by a dramatic shift of power to the Federal level. , Mr. PERKINS. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee do now rise. The mptiou was agreed to. Accordingly, the Committee rose; and the Speaker having resumed the chair, Mr. BOLLING, Chairman of the Commit- tee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, reported that that Committee, having had under consideration the bill (H.R. 2362) tQ, strengthen and improve educational. quality and educational op- portunities in the Nation's elementary and, secondary schools, had come to no resolution thereon, TRIBUTE TO VIRGIL I. GRISSOM (Mr. HAMILTON asked and was given permission to address the., House for. 1 minute and to revise. and extend, his re- marks.) Mr. HAMILTON. Mr. Speaker, a dis- tinguished son of Indiana, Virgil I. Gris- som, become the world's first space pilot and the first man to venture twice into the vastness of outer space. As captain of the Gemini spaceship, Major Grissom altered his flight path and orbit in another historymaking achievement in America's brilliant space program. In their 4-hour and 54-minute flight, Astronauts Grissom and John W. Young, wrote another chapter of excellence in our Nation's continuing effort to reach the moon and travel beyond. Back home in Mitchell, in Indiana's Ninth District, the Grissom family con- tinues to follow the quiet pattern of community life, while their most famous son makes history. The parents, Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Grissom, live at the family home in Mit- chell. Norman Grissom, "Gus' " older brother, lives in Mitchell. Another brother, Lowell, is in St. Louis; and a sis- ter, Mrs. Joe Beavers lives in Baltimore, Md. Major Grissom is married to the for- mer Betty L. Moore, of Mitchell, whose father, Claude Moore, is still a hometown resident. Back in Indiana, this great space pio- neer is known as "Gus," the railroader's son who went to Purdue University, joined the Air Force, and became a much-decorated veteran of the air war over Korea. All the world knows he is the man who rode the Mercury-Redstone flight of the Liberty Bell 7 on July 21, 1961. Launched from Cape Canaveral, the flight was suborbital, but its success com- pleted the Redstone program and laid the foundation of our continuing series of manned flights. Now, it is this same "Gus" Grissom who has had the well-earned privilege to open another vital part of our pro- gram of space exploration. In Indiana, we are especially proud of him and his many achievements. ELIMINATE STATUTE OF LIMITA- TIONS ON WAR CRIME TRIALS (Mr. SCHWEIKER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. SCHWEIKER. Mr. Speaker, I am disturbed by the upsetting possibility that_the West German Parliament may extend the statute of limitations for prosecuting Nazi war criminals for only 4 more years. I speak out against that possibility. Four years is too short a period of time. I urge the German Par- liament to consider that, for the heinous crimes of genocide, this statute of limita- tions should be extended indefinitely. 5597 There is no_ justifiable reason to do otherwise. I have been following with great inter- est the progress of the West German Government as it has moved toward ex- tending the statute of limitations. It is a subject which has evoked wide debate within .the German Government. Members of the U.S. Congress also have registered their deep interest in this debate. On January 22, 1965, I joined with a .number of. other Members of Con- gress in signing a petition to both houses of the West. German Parliament, ex- pressing our support for extending in- definitely the German statute. of limita- tions for the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. That was a good petition; it had a sig- nificant effect, For just recently the Bundestag,, the lower house of Parlia- ment, voted overwhelmingly for the prin- ciple of unlimited prosecution of war criminals. It sent to a parliamentary committee two draft bills, which would eliminate the statute of limitations. Only in this way can the Government of West Germany be sure that none of the mass murderers shall ever achieve im- munity to prosecution. I hope the lower house of Parliament in Germany will have the fortitude and perseverance to continue their argument for this change in the law. I support their efforts, their candor, and their courage. I am aware that German law-article 103 of the Bonn basic law-may require more than a simple act of Parliament to extend the statute indefinitely. By ap- plying the regular method of constitu- tional amendment approved by two- thirds of the members of both houses, the statute could legally be extended in- definitely and war criminals previously not indicted could be prosecuted as they are found. Four years is not enough. The Government of the German Federal Republic has legal power to do more; to avoid a "reprieve from infamy" it must use this power. Certainly there is ample precedent for having no statute of limitations on mur- der. None of the 50 States in our country has a statute of limitations. on murder. Nor should any State or nation impose such limitations. The limitation for the prosecution of war crimes to 20 years under the statu- tory criminal law of the Federal Republic of Germany does not have its origin in any enactment concerning war crimes. This limitation derives from the general provision of the German Criminal Code of 1871. By virtue of this code, prosecu- tion for major crimes, including murder, is barred by the lapse of 20 years, unless the running of the period of limitation is either interrupted or suspended. But the crime of genocide, in which millions were exterminated, cannot be judged under the traditional standards for homicide. Nor was genocide even contemplated when this code was first adopted. Genocide demands a different stand- ard. It is time for that standard to be established. It can be achieved by con- stitutional amendment supported by two- thirds of both houses. This is the action which seems most advisable to assure that the statute on genocide will be ex- tended indefinitely. Approved, For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B0044-6R000300160013-8 ,' 08 Approved For Release 2003/1011 :`IA-RDP67B0044 Q00300160013-8 CONGRESSW AL RECORD - USE March 4, 1965 Excellent and thorough efforts by the German Government have been made to round up war criminals who may still be at liberty. I am impressed by the work that has ben done by state prosecutors and investigations at the Ludwigsberg Center, I have read with interest the statistics on their success. But I urge that the German Parliament extend the statute of limitations indefinitely so that the embarrassment caused by one unin- dieted war criminal walking free on May 9, 1965, or even on May 9, 1969, may be avoided. This is an eternal debt, still owed-owed in perpetuity-to those who lost their lives at Auschwitz, at Dachau, at Belsen, at Buchenwald, or any other center of infamy now part of the German past. RESULTS OF 1965 OPINION POLL FOIL $2D CONGRESSIONAL DIS- TRICT OF OHIO (Mrs. BOLTON asked and was given permission to' address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend her re- marks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Speaker, during the past 3 weeks over 21,000 replies have been received from residents of the 22d Congressional District of 'Ohio' to my 1965 annual opinion poll. This response has been most gratifying, and as in previous years indicates the great in- terest and deep concern people have in the actions of their Federal Government. It was good to receive the many hun- dreds of letters and comments on the questions containedon this poll. The views expressed on-these issues together with the results obtained on this ques- tionnaire are most helpful to mein sens- ing the real feeling of my constituents on the important legislative proposals coming before the Congress. The question on establishing a na- tional policy for control of water and air pollution received the largest favor- able response-88 percent, with only 6 percent opposing, and 6 percent having no opinion on this issue. Residents of the 22d District and all Greater Cleve- landers are particularly familiar with and sensitive to the question of water and air pollution. It is their overwhelm- ing view that local and State efforts combined with those of private industry are unable to handle this troublesome problem without further Federal partic- ipation. Legislation to provide for presidential succession brought forth an 80-percent favorable response, with 11 percent op- posing and 9 percent having no opinion. The people of our Nation have been aroused by the assassination of President Kennedy to the immediate and dire necessity of the Congress taking early action to provide for the orderly transi- tion of our Government in any future emergencies. The question bringing forth the least favorable support concerned admission of Red China to the United Nations, with 28 percent favorable, 59 percent opposed and 13 percent having no opinion. The repeal of Section 14(b) of the Taf t- Hartley Act brought forth the next lowest favorable response with 33 per- cent favoring, 51 percent opposing, and 16 percent having no opinion. With all the publicity on the 'subject of health care to the elderly, and public awareness that some Federal solution must be forthcoming to assist those in need, it is interesting to note the con- cern of the residents of the 22d District as to whether the social security ap- proach is the best way to solve this prob- lem. Favoring the social security ap- proach were 49 percent of the replies, with 45 percent opposing this method,, and 6 percent having no opinion. The House of Representatives recently approved an appropriation to continue the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Residents of the 22d District supported this action by a 4-to-1 major- ity. It is also heart warming to see the 5-to-1 majority in favor of legislation I have introduced to provide an income tax deduction of the cost of college tuition. The complete results of this poll follow: Do you favor or oppose- ) 1. A hospital and nursing home program for the elderly paid through increased social s4curity payroll taxes on employers and employees?-__ jrm~igration: the skill of immigrants or their 2 Aboli joining close . shinthe present "national origin" quota system in favor of a priority system based on relatives in the United States? ------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------- ------------ Elimination of Federal excise taxes on such items as jewelry, cosmetics, toilet articles, furs, luggage, and ladies' handbags? ?Tabor relattiealions:'of con- 4. Re the Taft-Hartley Act which now permits States to enact right-to-work laws barring union membership as a con- dition sec. 14(b) of of employment?--------------------------------- ---- -------------------------------------------------------------- Area redevelopment: 5, Federal aid to areas plagued by chronic unemployment?- ---_ _______________ _____________________________________________ Education: 6. A Federal scholarship program for needy college students?_______________________________________________________________________________ -7. An income tax deduction of the cost of college tuition?----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8.. The administration's general educational proposals for Federal aid in some form to all levels of education?------------------------------- Water-air pollution: 9. Legislation to establish a national policy for control of water and air pollution?__________ ______________________________________________ Presidential succession: 10. The appointment by the President, with the consent of both Houses of the Congress, of a Vice President when a vacancy exists in the ion of resi dent? ------------------?- ------- ------ --- --- ----------------------------------------- 1. , 0C0 0 omen of Vice e8 con gressional committees: 1112. wing foreign of t e House Committee on Un-American Activities?. --------------------- or Feign ollcy: military and economic aid only to countries whose national policies are in basic agreement with the goals of the United states? -------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------ 13. Admission of Red China into the United Nations?_________________ _______-------___----.------------------------------------- 14. Liberalizing our trade relations with Communist nations? __-_-__-__ ------------------------ ______--_---------------------- 15. Continued participation in the conflict in Vietnam?------------------------------------------------ ____-_-_____-________-____-_____ AUTHORITY TO USE GAS IN VIETNAM (Mr. CLEVELAND asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, yes- terday, several Members `of the House commented 'oil the use of. nonlethal gas in Vietnam., Whatever differences of opinion there may be on this issue, I think we can all agree that the decision .to use the. gas is one that should have been blade "at the highest level," the ex- pression: used by the gentleman from New York L14r. STRATTON]. I would as- sume that means the President. Therefore, it is surprising to learn that President Johnson was not consulted about the matter, even though it in- volved "only tactical problems." One is -reminded perhaps of the rather striking debate that took place during the last campaign over the feasibility of allowing field commanders to employ tactical atomic weapons under certain conditions on their own authority. The President, as a candidate, rejected such a policy out of hand. The Repub- lican candidate was characterized as "trigger happy." Now, it is odd to find that field com- manders apparently have been allowed 33 66 68 78 88 11 17 No opinion to make a military decision with tre- mendous political implications. The news of it has certainly had international impact. Our adversaries have been given a propaganda opening. Had this development occurred under a Republican President, the other side of the aisle surely would have been a tur- moil of Members seeking recognition to criticize such a decisionmaking process. I would be the last to urge that we shape our policies in the world in accord- ance with the shifts of world opinion. I support our President's policy in Viet- nam but I emphasize it should be our President's policy. In view of the state- March 24, 1965 CO meats made in the last campaign by the President 'and members of his admin- istration and candidates of his party, it seelps only fair to ask how it was that A proved For Release 2003 1?i 00160013-8 ft -o no~ave merle o ear nee by the ulthi, to authority of the l ational Governrn4nt, at"the bite Eloise.