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March 4, 1965
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Approved For Re Q -C B0044 ppp399160029-1 Austin, Tex.: Historic Past, Present Dynamic those specializing in business marketing, worked in the old General Land Office Build- EXTENSION OF. REMARKS OF HON. RALPH YARBOROUGH OF TEXAS - IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, March 4, 1965 Mr. YARBOROUGH, Mr. President, Austin, Tex., my home city, the site of the State capital of Texas, has been, and is presently enjoying a physical, eco- nomic, and intellectual growth of phe- nomenal proportions. The population of Austin, Tex., has doubled in the last 20 years; the en- rollment at the University of Texas, lo- cated there, has tripled in the last 30 years;' and the area of the city has al- Most doubled in the last 20 years. To illustrate the tone of the city in combining the nostalgic, historical past and the dynamic facelifting of_the pres- ent, I ask unanimous consent that an article from the Dallas Morning News of Saturday,' February 27, 1965, be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: , AUSTIN: HISTORIC PAST, DYNAMIC PRESENT (By Allen Duckworth) AUSTIN, TEx.-This pearl of central Texas- the. State's beautiful capital city-has a his- toric and,, dramatic past, a dynamic present, an exciting future. Most every community in the world has an outstanding feature. But Austin has nearly everything you can think of except ocean steamers, an active volcano, and a glacier. The phenomenal growth of Austin out- strips most of the state capitals of the Nation. There are many reasons. The State government has grown and will continue to grow. Recreation and tourism are already big businesses. There are seven-big, beautiful lakes on the Colorado River, created by a series of dams, and all within a few minutes or a few hours of downtown Austin. And the Austin Chamber of Commerce is coaxing tourists to "L,B.J. Land" with maps showing how to view the President's Texas White House, only 60 miles to the west. Of course, the chamber of commerce suggests spending the night at an Austin hotel or motel. In education, Austin calls itself the brain center of the State. The University of Texas enrollment has risen from 7,000 to 24,000 14 the last 30. years. There also are St. Edward's University, Concordia College, Huston-Tillotson College, and the Presby- terian Theological College. Research centers, both government and private, are tied closely to the university. The Balcones Research Center has 22 labs in operation, some of them doing top-secret work. Want to know how to pack a heavy truck for parachuting to earth from an air- plane? They can tell you. Really. This center occupies a 393-acre tract and 34 buildings, A de artmen of the university does re- searchot variqus agencies of the U.S. De- partment of Defense. And a number of private research outfits are doig contract work fpr the Qgvernment. There's another lab that builds yip evidence against law vio- lators, such as folks who poison their mates. Private research organizations include electronics, chemicals, petrochemicals, pre- ing, now a museum, patterned by a Euro- cision instruments, gravity meters, hydraul- pean architect In, exile after a Rhine River with the Government labs, this adds up to a major industry for Austin. Bergstrom Field, a short expressway drive to the southeast, is a Strategic Air Command base. World leaders have landed there to be guests of President Johnson at his ranch. The President himself often arrives there en route to his Texas White House. The capital city is wonderfully located. It is easy driving time to almost any spot in the State, with the exception of El Paso, 593 miles away. Austin is within 197 miles of Dallas, 190 of Fort Worth, 273 of Orange, 161 of Houston, 286 of Wichita Falls, 351 of Texarkana, 277 of Marshall, 139 of Corpus Christi, 76 of San Antonio, 231 of Laredo on the Mexican border, 329 of Brownsville, 361 of Odessa. Since World War IT, a new airport terminal has replaced the old wooden shack which once served the city. The thousand-acre air- port with 12,500 yards of paved concrete ramp space has 24-hour service 7 days a week. Be- sides the more than 30 flights a day, there are 45 bus arrivals and departures, 8 trucklines in and out of the_ city, 3 freight railways. Livability, says the Austin Chamber of Commerce, is a major attraction which con- tributes to the soaring population total. Many of those who come to Austin as public officials, from Governors to legislators, former military personnel, university graduates, decide to make Austin their home. Former Governors whose homes were in other cities, before election now living in Austin are Dan Moody, Allan Shivers, Price Daniel. Recreation facilities apparently are unlim- ited. The city government maintains 37 parks and playgrounds, 21 free neighborhood swimming pools, 5 municipal pools, 4 com- munity recreation centers, 8 athletic fields, 2 municipal golf courses and a tennis center. And there's the beautiful Austin Country Club. Southwest Conference football is played in the university's Memorial Stadium. The seven manmade lakes start at Austin's city limits and chain northward for 160 miles in the Colorado River's wonderland of hills and valleys. These lakes provide fishing, boating, water sports, hunting or just loafing in some of the luxury or rustic lodges. The dams also are for hydroelectric power and flood control. Climate usually is ideal. The city's unique location on the Balcones Escarpment from the Edwards Plateau distinguishes it from the climate of the surrounding area. Normal temperature averages 68.2 degrees. Heating and cooling home expenses are reasonable because the city is protected to some extent from chill winds to the north and humidity from the south. Those seeking a home or homesite have a variety of locations, ranging from grass-cov- ered plains to tree-studded hills-new addi- tions within the city, estates high in the hills or on a lakefront. A cultural and entertainment atmosphere prevails. Locally, there is the Austin Sym- phony Orchestra, the civic theater, art ex- hibits, university lecture series. The cul- tural entertainment committee books operas, plays, concerts. Fine churches are available for worship by those of most any faith in the land. Austin has been a beautiful place from the beginning. There was a hamlet in the val- ley when they started building the first capitol there for the Republic of Texas in 1840. It was a two-room log building, sur- rounded by a 10-foot log stockade and a moat to discourage unfriendly Indians from dis- turbing the house and senate. The early days of statehood were filled with romance. A German prince once arrived, in shining armor, to apply for public lands upon which to establish a colony. O. Henry studio in Austin and there created a master- piece which can be seen in the State ceme- tery, resting place of hundreds of heroic Con- federate dead and some of Texas' great, near- great, and not so great--the full-size supine statue of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston on his bier. The French Legation of Republic days is still there. The French Minister, Count Al- phonse de Saligny, was quite a problem child in olden times. He complained about the pigs in his neighborhood, running at will over his garden. Austin's growth has been steady from the beginning. But the near-sensational boom began after the end of World War II in 1945- 20 years ago. Some statistics: The population of Austin in 1945 was esti- mated at 110,000. Today, the estimate of the metropolitan area is in excess of 250,000. Bank deposits at the beginning of 1945 were $46,571,522. Last January 1 they were $430,701,650, or a 20-year increase of 824.8 percent. In 1945, Austin city limits covered 36.10 square miles. Last figures (June 18, 1964) showed 59.02 square miles. What was Austin like 20 years ago? And what are some comparisons? I was assigned to help to report the goings- on of the legislature in 1945. Getting to Austin was a tedious drive from Dallas. The highway was just a plain two-way traffic deal, with slowdowns through many towns or villages. When you finally made the city limits, you had to negotiate around the north of town, past the State hospital (for mental- ly ill), down the university "drag." Today, the freeway is almost completed from Dallas to the capital. Already, you can take routes that bypass such towns as Waxahachie, Hillsboro, Waco, Temple, Belton, Round Rock. And when you get to Austin, in the event you are going on to San Antonio and do not desire to stop off, the freeway takes you-elevated part of the way-right on through the downtown and suburban area. Parking was no problem in 1945. You just left your car for the night in front of your Austin hotel. Today, at noontime, you may find it difficult to enter a downtown park- ing station in the hotel area. And look out for women-today's Austin Police Depart- ment employs uniformed girls to put those parking violation notices under your wind- shield wiper. They do it without fear or favor of those having State official license plates, such as members of the legislature. The capital had only two hotels which could be classified as of the first class, the historic Driskill and the late W. L. Moody's Stephen F. Austin. A favorite eating place was the Millett Mansion, an ancient native stone-and-timber two-story structure where you could get a good family-style lunch for 75 cents. Today, Austin has some of the Na- tion's finest accommodations for travelers. A new downtown hotel is the Commodore Perry. The Driskill and the Stephen F. Aus- tin have modernized. Before war's end, there were no motels to speak of, just some "tourist courts." Today, Austin has some of the Nation's finest, chains and privately owned. There's a downtown motor-- hotel abuilding, just a slingshot from the capitol grounds-the Downtowner. Two of Austin's motor inns are unique. The Terrace, an early postwar project, was erected on the old San Antonio highway across the Colo- rado River to the south, on a hillside, with winding roads and paths. Opened only a few years ago is the Gondolier, on the beau- tified and parklike south banks of the Colo- rado. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 A964 Approved~~ Q0A3~1 Qj (b --RDXffT Q f 000300160029-1 March 4 Austin had no luxury clubs, of the cocktail- They include-such groups as the American gourmet type, after the war. Today, the Legion, State bar, butane dealers, classroom town has a club at about every turn of the teachers, council of churches, electric coop- corner, some good and some bad. The ys o d'1nJays It Well, Says EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN BRADEMAS OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 18, 1965 Mr. BBADEMAS. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to call to the attention of my colleagues and appropriate officials of the State Department a thoughtful edi- torial concerning the State Department white paper on Vietnam. The editorial appeared in the South Bend, Ind., Trib- une on March 2. The editorial follows: WHITE PAPER SAYS IT WELL The State Department white paper on Vietnam is all the more useful because of its timing. For it comes when there is mount- ing pressure from various quarters to gen- erate negotiations for ending the conflict. And it is highly important, as the State De- partment noted, "for freemen to know what has been happening in Vietnam, and how, and why." In the circumstances, it Is incumbent upon the United States to make clear to the world the reasons for Its involvement in the struggle and to deal with the criticism of the American role. The document, it seems to us, does an admirable job on both scores. It refutes the Communist line that the conflict is a civil war and shows it for what it really is-a carefully planned and exe- cuted aggression from the north aided and abetted by Red China and others in the Communist camp. The evidence is damning. Another important reason for issuing the paper is the continuing need to keep the world informed of the reasons for the Amer- ican presence in South Vietnam. As the paper notes, we are there because our help has been requested by the duly constituted government. And it notes, the United States "will not abandon friends who want to remain free." The paper says that the United States would be ready at once to reduce its military involvement if peace could be restored, but adds significantly "the choice now between peace and continued and increasingly de- structive conflict is one for the authorities Yes, I am the United States of America and vide lump-sum payment for the unused these are the things that i am. i was con- sick leave te, the credit of an officer or ceived in' freedom and, God willing, in free- employee immediately prior to his separa- o,lom I will spend the rest of my days. tion from the service on retirement. May I always possess the integrity, moral This bill is Intended to straighten out courage and strength to keep myself un- shackled, to remain a stronghold of freedom a system that encourages unnecessary and a beacon of hope to all the oppressed absence and deprives other employees of throughout the world. the fruits af.their dedication. This is my prayer-my goal-my wish. This bill is intended to reward all em- reintroduced my bill to amend the An- nual and Sick Leave Act of 1951 to pro- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Thursday, March 4, 1965 Daily Digest HIGHLIGHTS Senate passed bills on Goddard Day and Kaniksu National Forest. Senate Chamber Action Routine Proceedings, pages 3971-4082 Bills introduced: 6o bills and 4 resolutions were intro- duced, as follows: S. 1336-1395; S.J. Res. 57-59; and S. Res. 84. Pages 3980-3982 Bills Reported: Reports were made as follows: Report of Committee on Government Operations entitled "Activities of the Senate Committee on Govern- ment Operations" (S. Rept. 69), filed March 2 under prior authorization; S. 435, extending the boundaries of Kaniksu National Forest, Idaho, with amendment (S. Rept. 70), filed March 3 under prior authorization; S. Con. Res. 2, providing for the establishment of a Joint Committee on the Organization of the Congress, with minority views (S. Rept. 70; and Report of Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of Committee on Government Operations entitled "Or- ganized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics," with additional and individual views (S. Rept. 72). Pages 3967,,3979-3980 Bills Referred: Two House-passed bills were referred to Committee on Public Works. Page 3971 President's Message--Cities: Message from President recommending legislation on the problems of cities and the establishment of a Department of Housing and Urban Development was received by Secretary of Senate while Senate was in-adjournment on March 2-referred to Committee on Banking and Currency. Pages 3967-3971 President's Communication-Data Processing: Pres- ident's communication transmitting report by Director of the Budget on management of automatic data proc- essing in the Federal Government was received, ordered to be printed as S. Doc. 15, and was referred to Com- mittee on Government Operations. Pages 3976, 4010 President's Communication-Rapid Transit: Com- munication from President transmitting draft of pro- posed legislation to authorize Secretary of Commerce to undertake research and de' elopment in high-speed ground transportation, was receh ez -referred to Com- mittee on Commerce. Page 3976 President's Communication-Oceanography: Com- munication from President transmitting his national D154 oceanographic program for fiscal year 1966 (with an accompanying document) was received-referred to Committee on Commerce. Page 3976 Appointment to Board: It was announced that Vice President has appointed Senator Williams of New Jersey to the Board of Visitors to the Merchant Marine Academy. Page 4010 Authority To Report: Committee on Foreign Rela- tions was authorized to file during adjournment until noon Monday, March 8, its report on H.R. 2998, to amend the Arms Control and Disarmament Act in order to increase the authorization for appropriations, with individual views. All other committees likewise were authorized to file reports during adjournment. Pages4009-4010 Goddard Day: Senate concurred in House amendments to S. 301, to designate March 16 of each year as a special day in honor of Dr. Robert Hutchings Goddard, the father of modern rockets, missiles, and astronautics, thus clearing the bill for President's signature. Pages 4015-4016 Kaniksu National Forest: Senate passed with com- mittee amendment S. 435, extending the boundaries of Kaniksu National Forest, Idaho. Pages 4035-4038 Lincoln Inaugural Reenactment: Senate recessed. while it attended on the east steps of the Capitol the reenactment of the Second Inaugural Address of Abra- ham Lincoln in observance of the centennial anniversary of its delivery. Page 4035 Messages From President and House: Secretary of Senate was authorized to receive messages from Presi- dent and the House during adjournment of Senate until Monday, March 8. Page 4010 Legislative Program: Majority leader announced that on Monday, March 8, Senate expects to consider con- ference report on H.R. 45, to amend the Inter-American Development Bank Act, to be followed by H.R. 2998, continuation of the Disarmament Agency, and the con- firmation of sundry nominations. Page 4095 Confirmation: The nomination of John W. Macy, Jr., of Connecticut, to be a Civil Service Commissioner, was confirmed. Page 4098 Nominations: One civilian and one Navy nomination were received, and one postmaster nomination was with- drawn. - Page 4098 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Approved For ReD t KESSfb%IRI ~ AM6713OpffgffliX 0160029-1 many areas, such as ice prediction, fisheries, engineering applications and coastal con- trol, they are doing very well. In summary, the Soviet oceanographic program is massive and slanted toward prac- tical applications.' It Is being carried out by large numbers of average people, led by top-flight scientists, under the disadvantage of commonplace equipment and poor work- ing conditions. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years and the trend will doubtless continue. Comparison of the Soviet and United States efforts is difficult, since basic differ- ences exist. The Soviets stress applications and give research a back seat; we pour the bulk of our resources into research, and all too often pay only lipservice to useful prod- nets. At the present moment, it would seem that Russia is getting as much for their money as we are, in the form of practical applications. They seem to lack a strong program of fundamental research which is clearly necessary to provide the basis for achievements a decade or generation in the future. Their shortsightedness in this re- gard will sap their strength, surely and soon. It would be, equally shortsighted of the United States to neglect those phases of its own effort which are lagging, such as educa- tion, shipbuilding, and the development of practical applications. This visit provided the opportunity to see a part of the Soviet program. Perhaps even more important than that is the opportunity to see the U.S. program in a new context, so that we can correct our weaknesses and take advantage of our strengths. The War in Vietnam, VqI-1tickshaw Ride Is No Barg OF HON. THADDEUS J. DULSKI' OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, March 4, 1965 Mr. DULSKI. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks, I include the eighth in a series of the report by Lucian C. Warren, Washington correspondent for the Courier-Express, Buffalo, N.Y., on his tour of Vietnam. Part VIII, which appeared in the Cou- rier-Express on Febraruy 28, 1965, follows: THE WAa IN VIETNAM, VIII-RICKSHAW AWE Is No BARGAIN (NOTE: Saigon, command post of a thor- oughly 20th century war, is an old city that retains many of its quaint Asian customs. One of these is the rickshaw, that ancient surrey with the fringe on top whose human "horse" have been swindling the gullible for centuries. Here Lucian C. Warren, Washing- ton correspondent for the Courier-Express, gets taken for a ride by one of these pic- turesque pirates.) SAIGON,-Coverage of the war in Vietnam is strewn With obstacles, not all of the Vietcong making. On a Fund&y afternoon in Saigon, another Department of Defense-sponsored newsman Hgrl2ert Brubaker, and I decided, that now would be a good time to get the Buddhist point of view. The Buddhists are thoroughly mixed ul~ in Vietnamese politics and have contributed more, than their sharp of insta bility to the government. NQT DISSUADED A U.S. Embassy man tried to dissuade us, saying that Sunday was just as much a day of rest for the Buddhist as it is for the Christian. But he said that with good luck we might find someone who would talk with us at the Buddhist Institute on Tran Quoc Toan Avenue. We took a chance and set off on our mission. It was a beautiful day and it seemed like a good idea at the time to hire two rick- shaws to taxi us to our destination. INSTRUCTIONS A Saigon policeman who seemed to know a little English was told where we wanted to go and instructed the rickshaw operators. Asked how much we should pay our drivers, the policeman said 10 piastres apiece. A piastre is worth about 14 cents, and the fare seemed reasonable. So we-set off on our merry way, up one street and down another, dallying not long on Dal Lo Le Lo Boulevard, or Gia Long Street, and not even getting hung up on Hong Thap Tu Road, despite fierce traffic. TROUBLES START We arrived soon at what we thought was the institute and our troubles began. The rickshaw drivers squealed their displeasure at the proffered 10 piasters, so reluctantly and foolishly we tossed them five more apiece -7 cents more to buy a little peace. It not only brought peace but the drivers amiably conducted us on a tour of the place. It was a beautiful place. All the rich trap- pings of a pagoda-Buddha with the many arms, incense, teakwood, jade, and the kneel- ing devout-were on view. Come to find out, however, it was a pagoda and not the Buddhist Institute. Laboriously we searched up and down for someone who could speak and read a little English, and after about 10 minutes found one who told our rickshaw friends that the place we wanted to go to was on Tran Quoc Toan Avenue. OFF AGAIN It's highly possible that those sly little ras- cals knew all along they had taken us to the wrong place, and it would have been well for us at this point to have hired one of the metered motorcabs. But Confucius say there's no fool like an occidental fool, or he ought to have said it. Anyway, we clambered aboard again and were oft. As near as I could later make out from a map, we got to Tran Quoc Toan Avenue via Chua Huyen Tran, Ba Huyen Thank Quang, Phan Dinh Phung, and Phan Thank Giang Streets but I'm a little uncertain that was the precise route. MORE DEMANDS It is fair to State, I guess, that we planned out all over the city, so long did it take to arrive at our destination. This time, it seems, we finally had ar- rived at the Buddhist Institute and now came a haggling by our rickshaw drivers that would have made Shylock green with envy. ...Those oriental thieves wanted 50 plasters apiece. In vain we argued and shouted. The more we argued the greater grew the crowd. It might well have turned into a street riot, hence we paid off. It took 20 minutes to find someone who spoke English at the institute. At this point we learned that the U.S. Embassy man was right, no official at the institute was present. "Come back last week," said a man in broken English, who was scornfully.corrected by another who suggested we try in 2 days. SWITCH TO CAB We were, however, not so foolish as to play the rickshaw roulette game on the way back. We hired a small, metered cab and for a grand total of only 20 plasters, including tip, we were back In our hotel in nothing flat. We had not gained the slightest knowledge of Buddhist politics and, consideren our A959 total outlay of time and money, the after- noon could only by considered its most piastrous. Tribute to Mrs. Marie C. McGuire, First Woman Chief of Public Housing EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RALPH YARBOROUGH OF TEXAS IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, March 4, 1965 Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, with the proposed creation of a new Cab- inet post in the field of housing and urban affairs, attention has been focused on the importance of having qualified, imaginative, and responsible authorities in the public housing field. I wish to commend Mrs. Marie C. Mc- Guire, our Nation's first woman chief of public housing, for her work and success in this field. Mrs. McGuire has a long history of accomplishments in public housing, which has earned her a citation from the American Institute of Arch- itects. As a tribute to this fine person, I ask unanimous consent that an article con- cerning her, from the Dallas Morning News of February 24, 1965, be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Dallas (Tex.) Morning News, Feb. 24, 19651 HOUSING CHIEF BATTLES DRAB DESIGN-HAS Goon WORD FOR DALLAS (By Mary Brinkerhoff) The Nation's first woman chief of public housing was back in Texas Tuesday, still a free-form, split-level, multi-purpose model built to stand out on Washington's official skyline. Mrs. Marie C. McGuire walked off a Braniff Airways plane into Dallas' suddenly roaring winter and talked a while on everything from local housing proposals to her war against drab design. When she was off for several speaking en- gagements in Fort Worth with Thomas H. Callaham, the Public Housing Authority's regional director there, and his assistant, E. J. Haling. She was shown a newspaper report of the recent Dallas Council of Social Agencies recommendation that at least 1,000 one- bedroom apartments for the elderly be built under Dallas Housing Authority auspices. This kind of thing is her meat. When Mrs. McGuire was executive director of the San Antonio Housing Authority, her pioneering apartment project for older people won her fame and a Federal appointment. For those who doubt the need of low income housing for the aged, she offers this thought: When such housing is built in a city of any size, applicants outnumber avail- able units many times over. Private "retirement villas" are fine, she be- lieves, but they have little bearing on the problem which concerns her. "The difficulty is that they are not speaking to the major- ity's ability to pay." Marie McGuire, famed as a redtape slasher during her nearly 4 years in Washington, never lost her concern for the individual, elderly or otherwise, who lives in public housing. She hasn't been overawed by her responsi- bility for Federal participation in a program Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446 R000300160029-1 A960 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX March 4 which operates in more than 2,100 communi- ties and represents a total investment run- ning into billions. And she retains a soft spot for her Vic- toria Plaza in San Antonio, still a showpiece. It was designed with thought for the occu- pants need for beauty, recreation, friend- ship-factors to make them feel that "life is not over; it may be just beginning." Any resident of public housing, she's con- vinced, should be able to take pride in his home. And while "I'm all for economy," drabness and poor design are false econ- omies to her. "After all, we're building environments to last for the next 50 to 100 years. A corollary is that public housing shouldn't be segregated in some grim location. "It should meld in with the community, not stand off in the backyards * * *. You have some good public housing sites in Dallas, in very pleasant parts of the city. This is not true of some cities." Mrs. McGuire strongly opposes housing plans which segregate the handicapped, those of lowest Income or any group as if they were "the dregs of society." One way around such segregation was pro- vided in the Housing Act of 1961: partner- ship between the Public Housing Authority aid private enterprise. An example is under construction in New York by the PHA and a foundation. Five hundred units will be reserved for "low- income" occupants, another 500 for those of "lower middle" income. The two kinds of tenants will be mixed throughout. When an occupant's income rises or falls, he changes status-and, in a sense, land- lords-through a mere bookkeeping switch. He doesn't have to move, and if the change is downward, he isn't stigmatized. Mrs. McGuire's office receives many in- quiries about this system, which has proved a boon to private builders as well as to tenants. Also, she observed, the plan "takes a little of the sting off" for people who just can't swallow the concept of federally financed housing. The PHA Commissioner reminds these people that her agency's participation in a housing project doesn't mean Federal super- vision. "Congress is well aware of controls at the local level." She explains the PHA's role this way: "We, in effect, are the bankers. And any prudent banker certainly watches his investment." Home rule applies in the matter of design, unless a proposal is downright extravagant. "I'm running on a platform of design free- dom. Truly, the area of housing is going to reflect what each city wants." When a community needs help or advice on design, Mrs. McGuire can call on her blue- ribbon panel of professional consultants. She has set aside the agency's old design manuals as influences toward conformity. For such measures and for her general at- titude, she was cited by the American In- stitute of Architects. When her powers of persuasion fail, local control sometimes pains her. She couldn't keep a certain city from building "one of those round, tubelike towers" with pie-slice efficiency apartments for the elderly. "I lost that battle." Lewis Descer HON. SPEECH OF IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES airfields of southeast Asia, there are strong Wednesday, Marcie. 3', 1965 views to the contrary. "We can win" is the overwhelming opinion of the Americans who Mr. KEOGH. Mr. Speaker, I 'want to,?ae fighting the war in Vietnam. This con- join with my colleagues in extending~=fidence is shared by senior commanders at warm congratulations to the Parliamen- tarian of the House, Lewis Deschler, on his birthday. Lew Deschler has been a familiar fig- ure in the Chamber of the House for al- most 40 years. He had already earned the respect and high regard of all the Members when I first came to the House. Since that time his stature has continued to grow. As Parliamentarian he has ex- ercised great objectivity and judgment in his advice to the Speaker on the numer- ous intricate problems of procedure that constantly arise in this body. During his tenure as Parliamentarian, Lew Deschler has rendered invaluable assistance to the Speaker, regardless of party affiliation, and to Members on both sides of the aisle. I wish for Lew Deschler many happy returns of the day. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. STROM THURMOND OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, March 4, 1965 Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, the March 9, 1965, issue of National Review includes a very interesting article by a distinguished South Carolina newsman, Anthony Harrigan, of Charleston. The article, entitled "We Can Win in South- east Asia," notes that this is a report from a firsthand observer who found that Americans fighting in southeast Asia do not agree with defeatists at home who say we must get' out because we cannot win. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. President, that this article be printed in the Appendix of the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WE CAN WIN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (By Anthony Harrigan) (A firsthand observer found that Ameri- cans fighting in southeast Asia do not agree with defeatists at home who say we must get out because we can't win). As long ago as 1963, the New Republic was saying: "The war in South Vietnam cannot be won." More recently, Walter Lippmann, the oracle of retreat, solemnly declared: "No- bedy in his right mind can imagine that this kind of war can be 'won'." Prof. Bernard B. Fall, author of "Ordeal., at Dienbienphu," and "The Two Vietnams," lends his author- ity to the statement that "any lingering idea that the Vietnam war can be ended by the surrender of the Communists is totally un- realistic." The chorus of defeati*M is-loud lS the land. Bearded young beatniks march with signs asserting the hopelessness of the strug- gle against the Vietcong. Clergymen and teachers of ink ernat4losnl_r~,atji{.write let- ters to the editors of the" flew York Times, declaring how fortunate the United States will be if Ho Chi Minh agrees to negotiate a]e establishment of a Yugoslav-type Com- home and overseas. But the professional soldier no longer is free, as he was in the 1950's. to state his case to the Nation. Un- fortunately, no Senator has been as busy and articulate in explaining why the United States can win in Asia as Senator WAYNE MORSE has been in stating the case for cap- itulation and withdrawal. Nevertheless, the evidence exists to sup- port those who believe that an American victory is possible in southeast Asia. We have the ships. We have the planes. We have the weapons. All that is required for victory is firm leadership, historical under- standing, and a resolute people. The U.S. public need pay no attention to the Lippmann nonsense that Americans can't win a, war in Asia. Only 20 years ago the United States defeated a superbly organized, brilliantly led Asian adversary. There's nothing magical about the soil of Asia. If the United States has the right weapons, the proper strategy, and the will to win, it will triumph in Asia as it has elsewhere on the globe. The truth is that we have hardly begun to fight in Asia. But fight we must or, in the fullness of time, Chinese-led guerrillas will be in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula or across the Rio Grande. An American victory in southeast Asia is a meaningless concept apart from a vision of history. The Vietcong is but an advanced guard of a resurgent Chinese Empire. In centuries past, the Vietnam region was one of China's tributary states. The Middle Kingdom's power extended to Java and to Ceylon, and the great eunuch admiral, Cheng Ho, had led fleets as far as east Africa in the 15th century. China's history was arrested by the European states, and its own inner decay. But with the failure of nerve on the part of many once great Western nations, China again is reaching out-pushing south- ward into Vietnam, with Australia as the ultimate goal to the south; aiming, with its nibbling at India's frontier, to reach the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, and plan- ning to extend and deepen its influence from the Congo to Somalia and from the Yemen to Albania. Such is the vast scope of the Chinese vi- sion of conquest. If the United States is to prevent its fulfillment, the American peo- ple and Government must clearly understand the nature of the struggle in which they are involved and Its long-term perspective. The struggle in Vietnam is not an isolated conflict, which can be settled by a tidy ac- cord in which unpleasant truths can be brushed under a mass of legalistic docu- ments. Vietnam Is a key military campaign in the containment of Communist China and the reduction of its power. Our na- tional purpose can be nothing less than that of suppressing China's warmaking capac- ity and, by the force of our retaliatory assaults, convincing Peiping that a south- wardcourse of empire is too costly and dan- gerous. If Communist China's leaders are compelled to look northward, toward the empty lands of the former Chinese Empire that now are in Soviet Russia's hands, all the better. Obviously, a tit-for-tat policy of light retaliatory raids will not force Peiping to any fundamental change in its- policies. A far more comprehensive and massive assault will be needed, over a long period of time. The United States needs to recognize, to begin with, that the problems in southeast Asia are essentially military, not political. This conclusion is completely contrary to the ruling doctrine in the Department of State; but even the most deeply rooted doc- trine can be altered by the facts. What makes the Vietcong a force in the country- side is not its doctrine, but he fact that its doctrine is supported by arms in the hands of terrorists. Mao Tse-tung once said that the gun is the ultimate political weapon. Only in this sense is the southeast Asian struggle basically political. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 a .... mow bill is an example of the fact that Sena- caused believe in the philosophy of gov- s iol}n Dewey used to put it, the ultimate tors from the same State-whatever may eminent known as the Lincolnian belief functi ,lon of literature Is to.appreciate the world, sometimes indignantly, sometimes be their party affiliation, generally- or the Lincolnian theory, which should sorrowfully, but best of all to praise when it is close ranks when it comes to an antra- dominate my party. The essence of that luckily possible. My experience of the Hud- state problem, and one relating to de- philosophy is that when a State cannot son River, its grandeur and loveliness and velopment and beautification in that do for itself as well or at all what needs degradation, its vicissitudes even during my State. I believe that is an excellent to be done in the interest of the whole 50 years, has given me much to be.indignant practice. about, and grieve, and praise. But it is also I am pleased to have been able to join Nation, the Nation itself must do it. the case,, as Dewey also pointed out, that In this instance, I do not favor delay. poetic appreciation has consequences, in per- my colleague from New York [Mr. KEN- That is why I have joined, currently, in sonal behavior and social action. It awakens, NEDY] in the introduction of the pro- the bill introduced by the junior Sena- in self and others, a frame of mind in which posed legislation, I. know that it repre- tor from New York. Neither do I favor something must be done, prevented, rem- sented a considerable effort and some waiting on the State in an improper way. edied, protected, improved. My own primary little time on his part to meet some of But I am for saying to the State, "By all literary activity of appreciation has certainly my views part of the way so that we means, you are not barred merely be- had this effect on,me, and maybe I have even , could join and get the added strength cause we have introduced proposed legis- iniiuencea"otliers., which comes from bipartisan action. I lation. We would like to see your plan The scenes of grandeur and beauty that am very pleased to see it, and I express work together with you." work on a child's mind bring into being all the 'glory that our society will ever achieve. the hope that it is auspicious for similar There is no reason why there should Where else is "vision,, to come from? I efforts in, other matters. There are not be a . Federal-State Project. Other think we all know this, but we are damned many areas where such action is neces- elements of the Government may join careless about it, We are intensely worried sary for almost any activity of the Fed- together in order to achieve a great ob- about 'tlie children passing their school eral Establishment directly affects New jective, to preserve a national treasure, examinations and, getting good grades and York. being trained to get jobs with good salaries; even though it may be located within a I should like to say one added word single State. We have seen such action yet we are astoundingly unconcerned about about the measure, which was the sub- taken in the Western States with respect what music they listen to, what the streets look like &rld feel like, and whether the this- Ject of an additional statement which to our national parks. dren,jlave acess,tp the river. I issued, and which my colleague was So I welcome the move of the junior We find, on inquiry, that the average kid kind enough to issue with his own. Senator from New York, and I join in it. brought up today in a depressed neighbor- The State of New York is deeply in- I merely point out that it still is possible hood ,will ~7ave,.r lied the age of 12 and 13 terested in this matter. That does not to accommodate a concomitant State and never have been 10 blocks. from home, mean that our views and those of the initiative within the framework of the never have do you think seen anything beautiful. What State will necessarily be the same. For plan. That is the main reason why I nhpiT of he_ of THE r OUNT xs example, a difference of view has de- reserve the privilege-perhaps the Sen- The Hudson River-named A s sorer veloped on the building of a powerplant ator would even join me in it if the oc- Henr Hudson, although he called t the along the shores of the Hudson, applica- casion were right, for I do not believe we y " tion for which is now pending before as to the funental _ p _ great river of toe mountains"-rises high Federal Power Commis on. iam the on Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, absorbs as phyerto revise the bill and reshape it to a number of tributaries, chiefly the Mohawk, concerned as my colleague not only for suit, what I very much invite, the added and flows for 315 miles southward to New ourselves, but for all America about the action and added initiative on the part York Bay. Its lower half, some 150 miles fact that whatever happens, there should of the State of New York, which seems from Albany to the sea, is actually an estuary be no harm or damage of an irremedia- to be coming to fruition. For that we of the ocean where tides ebb and Sow and ble character to the beauty of this su- should, therefore, leave the door wide the water is salt or brackish. perbly scenic area. Abut 50 miles above New York, the Hud- Open, on out is a narrow ,New York, flanked by In the main, the Hudson River Valley Mr. KENNEDY of New York. I thank step mountains-Storm King, Breakneck, is within the limits of the State of New my senior colleague. I shall be glad to Mount Taurus, Bear Mountain, Dunderberg, York. Though we are somewhat dis- join him in these efforts. I appreciate Anthony's Nose, High Tor, Prickly Pear Hill, turbed and troubled by what has hap- his remarks, which have been helpful Then it opens to its broadest, Haverstraw pened in connection with the Palisades, and pertinent. Bay, some 3V2 miles across, and the Tappan which are in New Jersey, the main part Zee, almost as wide. Below this it narrows of the river which is so beautiful and its gain as it flows along the New Jersey banks occur within the State of, New EXCELLENCE OF APPOINTMENTS, Palisadgs, sheer cliffs that in places rise more than 500 feet above the water. York. Therefore, there is an opportu- HALLMARK OF L.B.J. ADMINIS- Where it washes Manhattan, the Hudson nity, and I believe a real responsibility, TRATION is often called the North River, for it is the for the State of New York to do a good Way to the north, From the earliest colonial deal about this itself. The State has Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, the tunes It has been a vital commercial water- indicated that it is getting ready to do President of the United States has the way, made yet more so when the Erie Canal this, perhaps by the designation of a biggest, toughest job in the world. He is linked it with the Great Lakes. In its fast- permanent State commission. the Nation's leader in national affairs t log upper n heaths, above ho n for pidewater, it But I have felt that we ought to get and foreign policy. He has vast and New Yor been ha atssed f Powerplant oower, stands started, and that as the Federal interest complicated administrative duties. His t is beside the middle Hudson at Indian Point, very clear, as was shown, for example, is the heaviest responsibility in our Gov- near Peekskill. Now a. hotly debated pro- by the Fire Island bill, which has since ernment for designing, proposing, and posal is to put a powerplant on Storm King, become law, and represented something fighting for a congressional program. to pump Hudson water up to a mountaintop of the same kind of effort to preserve a Contributing to the performance of all reservoir at times of low demand and let it naturally beautiful area. I believe that of his duties is the nature, the strength, flow back through turbine generators to we should launch a Federal effort, which or the weakness of his appointments to meet peak demands, The power company looks auspicious, and that we should p positions in the Federal Govern- says the plant won't harm the great river's the to scenic or recreation qualities; opponents say then say to the State-which I now do- meet. it will. "Come along and show us what you can What about the Johnson appoint- or will do, so that you may fit into the ments? How do we appraise them? Mr. KENNEDY ,of New York. I wish the pattern of the ultimate objective, Recently, Jerry Kluttz, the Washington also to tame this opportunity to thank which is the preservation of the beauty Post expert on the civil service, has writ- my colleague [Mr, JAvITs], who has been of this great area." so'helpful in the introduction of the pro- ten of the remarkable record of ents, I reserve, with the entire acquiescence dent Johnson in making appointments. pas$d lislatian., . of my junior colleague from New York He writes that the President probably Mr,6VYTS, Mr. President, will the [Mr. KENNEDY], the right to seek to has Senatgr yield? A,. given the greatest recognition of any amend the bill if the State should desire President iri history to appointing peo- -Mr. KENNEDY of New York, I yield. to participate in an effort to carry out pie who, have a strgllg,, solid, proven re c; 1965 Approved For Rela a~ l ~LCI B00~4~4 0PP300160029-1 40V1 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 X192 Approved For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP6 R000300160029-1 March 4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ord of service in the Federal Govern- ment. This is an extraordinary tribute. Mr. Kluttz has not written In the form of simple generalizations to praise the President, but on the basis of a careful analysis and evaluation of the appoint- ments that have been made. Mr.. Kluttz also writes : Despite the great pressuires on him, the President has found time to interview per- sonally most of the candidates before their appointments are announced in public. Be tries to spend at least 30 minutes with each appointee to give him an opportunity to know him and to exchange views. I ask unanimous consent that the article in full by Mr. Kluttz be printed in this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: TrrE FmZRAL DIARY: JOBNSON RATES HIS AgppngTEES ON WORN IN FEDERAL SERVICE (By Jerry Kiuttz) An amazing 61 percent of the 120 personal appointments made by President Johnson during the 15 months he has been in office have been either career civil servants or per- sons with wide backgrounds of Federal serv- ice. No other President has given such broad recognition to professional experience in the art of government. In fact, nearly all of the Johnson appointees have had some expert- euce to the Federal service. on hian, the Despite the great Pressures President has found time to interview per- sonally most of the candidates before their appointments are announced to the public. He tries to spend at least 30 minutes with each appointee to give him an opportunity to know him and to exchange views. "These people," an assistant explained. "are personal appointees of the President who is responsible for them. The President will be either credited or discredited for their acts. Be locks` to them to carry out his pro- grams and policies. He wants to be ab- solutely certain of them and where they stand before he asks the Senate to ootfrm them ?' Vice- President HUsERT H. NVABIM EY also is considered a career Government employee by the President. He has more than 20 years or city, State, and Federal service. Chairman John W. Macy of the Civil Serv- ice Commission, recently gave the Vice Pres- ident a 20-year service pin. Three years ago he gave a 30-year pin to Mr. Johnson. The President no doubt looks to the career service for a record number of key appoint- ments because they are the people he knows best. He also must think that their thorough knowledge of the Federal service will result in good administration that will reflect credit on him and the Democratic Party. STANDARDS AND QUALITIES OF BROADCASTING NEWS Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, much has been written and spoken about the standards and qualities of broadcast- ing news. In 1964 the Radio-Television News Directors Association conducted a conference, on the problem of establish- ing standards for television news film re- porting at a station level. As a conse- quence of this conference, a television newsfilm standards manual was pre- pared. This is a guidebook and work- ing manual for students and profession- als in the news film area. Because of the interest in this subject, I have pre- pared a summary of the factors leading up to the adoption of this manual: In September of 1963, the management of Time-Life Broadcast made this sug- gestion to the board of directors of the Radio-Television News Directors Asso- ciation: In the belief that a real need exists for the establishment of a set of standards for television newsfilm reporting at the station level, Time-Life Broadcast suggests to the RTNDA that a joint project, designed to satisfy that need, should be undertaken. `'Mr. Edward F. Ryan, the president of the Radio-Television News Directors Association, "Time-Life" broadcast, and all those responsible for the conference and the development of the standards COMMUNIST AGGRESSION IN VIETNAM Mr. DODD. Mr. President, having spoken at length on the subject of Viet- nam last week, I have been reluctant to take the floor again. However, a num- ber of statements have been made on the floor of the Senate and from other plat- forms in recent weeks which, in my opin- ion, call for comment. I first wish to comment on the remark:: made last week by Secretary-General U Thant, because in point of time his was the first of several statements on Viet- nam which, I feel, should be answered in order to set the record straight. In his press conference of February 24, Secretary-General U Thant was quoted as saying the following:' I am sure that the great American people, if only they know the true facts and the background to the developments in South Vietnam, will. agree with me that further bloodshed is unnecessary. The political and diplomatic method of discussions and nego- tiations alone can create conditions which will enable the United States to withdraw gracefully from that part of the world. A statement was subsequently Issued attempting to explain and soften the impact of the Secretary-General's press conference of February 24. it is my be- lief, however, that the language used by the Secretary-General on February 24 It was undertaken. In February- March of 1964, the RTNDA Newsfilm Standards Conference was held in the Time & Life Building, New York City, at- tended by 230 delegates. Represented were 94 television stations in 37 states, 7 universities, and 29 other organizations vitally Interested in newsfilmn technique- A faculty of 21 recognized experts made presentations and conducted discussions. This conference was the first attempt ever made to establish standards in this all-important field of public informa- tion and communication. Never before had so many top experts in our field come together to communicate to their peers what their actual experience has taught them. The professional ap- praisal of practical-sometimes diffi- cult-problems, the clash and exchange of ideas, the candid, constructive criti- cism of current inadequacies, all made The President has made clear that key appointments . to Defense, State, and simi- larly sensitive agencies are to 'e made on the basis of merit and ability. political con- siderations are secondary. Mr. Johnson has been heard to remark that no one checks on the politics of our troops in Vietnam and that their superiors here should be equally nonpartisan and should base their decisions on what's good for the American public. He also has told his associates to recom- mend to him only those persons for regula- tory agencies who will be fair and firm in upholding the interest of the public. He's reluctant to appoint anyone who is a repre- sentative of a group or special, iinwho t. in fact, he prefers to have appointees labeled one way or the other and who have open minds on agency problems and policies. Only a few of what are generally considered political appointments have been made by the President who, in effect, has told his top staff to do their jobs and leave partisan p tics to him. . m exc fi Secretaries Udall, of Interior, and Freeman, the results or the coluercix ca iii Nei+++q,- - of Agriculture, and Postmaster General nent form, is designed to help you see American people and his suggestion that. Gronouski-have political backgrounds. Each your chosen field in broader perspective their Government has concealed the true! was appointed originally by President Ken- and to be of workaday benefit to you facts from them would be reason for re- nedy. in your particular job. It is also de- sentment coming from any source. President Johnson is widely regarded to accommodate material on fu- But coming from the Secretary Gen- being a master politician but he frequently signed ture advancements in technique and eral of the United Nations, his remarks refers to Mine h s a ears of Federal r en- execution as they are made in laboratory showed a complete lack of the restrain; lee, which " Is He hay nearly a all of years his of adult life. sferv- and studio. and objectivity which should be the hall - i, this not JUST, anotsier aviuci ca,.c a seminal event of major importance to about the unfortunate partiality the See- all who are dedicated to television news- retary-General has displayed on this is- This book, which puts sue and other issues. ellence l it-is advice to the was of the kind that cannot be explained away. I have been a strong supporter of the United Nations since its inception. In my years in Congress-now going into the 11th year-I have voted in support of every appropriation requested for the U.N. and its various agencies. Despite my opposition to the U.N. military actions in Katanga, I voted for support of U.S. participation in the U.N. bond issue in August of 1962, because it was clear that the survival of the U.N. was at stake. Indeed, I think it not improper to point out that participation in the U.N. bond issue was approved in the Committee on Foreign Relations, on which I am privi- leged to serve, by the perilous margin of one vote. As a supporter of the U.N., I am con- cerned over its diminishing effectiveness and prestige; and I, therefore, feel im- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Yg Approved For Reea~R/~1~CIBOQ,0300160029-1 4093 marks of his position. His advice to the and expanded, I believe that this pro- colleagues has asked the question United States was all the more offensive posal is completely unrealistic in view of whether we can possibly find a. solution because the record will demonstrate that the United Nations' present situation. to the Vietnamese problem which is satis- he has failed to comment or offer advice It ignores the fact that the United factory from our standpoint if it turns of any kind in dealing with the repeated Nations is in such strained financial cir- out that the Vietnamese people them- acts of aggression by certain Afro-Asian cumstances that even its Palestine ref- selves want communism. nations. ugee operation is in jeopardy. The mere posing of this question flies For example, he had no comment on It ignores the fact that we have thus in the face of everything we know about the forcible annexation of Goa by India, far not been able to find any way of com- communism. It makes as much sense to in clear violation of the U.N. Charter. I pelling the Soviet Union, France, and suggest that perhaps the people of Viet- am not finding fault with Goa's being other countries to live up to their past nam want communism as it does to sug- incorporated into the nation of India,. financial obligations or to contribute to gest that the people of Vietnam,. for some but it was clearly a violation of the future operations of which they disap- perverse reason, are enamored of earth- United Nations Charter to accomplish prove. quakes, or of leprosy, or of famine. that by naked, aggression. Yet Mr. U It ignores the dangerous shift within The r d i l ecor s c ear that communism Thant, who now gives us advice, never the United Nations, a shift which has has never been accepted by any people said,one word about that act of naked now given the Afro-Asian nations and anywhere, no matter how primitive they aggression, the Communist bloc nations the power, if may be. He has, failed to urge Indonesia t9 they vote in concert, to prevent any Even primitive people do not like to be cease its aggression against Malaysia. action by the U.N., even when there has pushed around and terrorized, and told There has not been word from him on been an open violation of the U.N. Char- what to do and what not to do. They that subject. ter as in the case of India's invasion of loathe the compulsory indoctrination Nor has he suggested to Prime Minis- Goa. periods and the public brainwashing ter Nasser that he withdraw. the 50,000 It ignores the condition of near spectacles to which Asiatic communism Egyptian troops which are now. occupy- paralysis that now afflicts the U.N. in in particular is addicted. ing 'Yemen so that the Yemeni people consequence of the deadlock on the They do not like to see their religious may decide their own future without for- issue of continued voting rights for those beliefs ridiculed and defiled. They re- eign intervention. whose arrears exceed the limits pre- sent having the upbringing and guidance As the representative of the National scribed in article 19. of their children taken out of their hands Government of Yemen has aptly pointed And, finally, even if all these diffi- by an all-powerful Communist state. out, the Secretary General has kept culties did not exist,'the recommendation Moreover, primitive peasants are pas- silent about the situation in Yemen al- that the problem of Vietnam be turned sionately attached to the land that they though he, was responsible for a U.N. over to the United Nations becomes pre- till, mission , to Yemen set up to supervise posterous in the face of the declared at- In every land where communism has Nasser.'s,promised withdrawal from that titude of the Secretary General, U taken over, thousands of peasants have country. Thant. died in resisting the confiscation of their He has maintained his silence despite Let us have no illusions on this score: lands and the collectivization of agricul- the factthat for 14 months, Nasser no matter how desirable such a solution ture. bombed and killed Yemeni citizens be- might be in theory, there is absolutely And even after they have been col- for the eyes of U Thant's observers, and no way in which we can disembarrass lectivized, their sullen resentment of the that, instead.of withdrawing his forces, ourselves of Vietnam by turning it over regime has expressed itself in the form of Nasser has during this period almost to the United Nations now. a subtle but effective sabotage of produc- doubied their strength, so that they now We must face up to this problem our- tion which has converted even countries approximate 50,000 men. There has not selves, acting in consort with our Viet- like Yugoslavia and Hungry, which form- been a word from. Mr. U Thant on that namese allies, with the free nations in erly exported food surpluses, into food subject. the area, and with those Western na- deficit areas. I, as one American, wholeheartedly tions who are prepared to assume their The people of Vietnam have mani subscribe to the suggestion of the Yemeni share of the responsibility for the de- fested their hatred for communism in a representative that the Secretary Gen- fense of freedom. thousand different ways. eral get Nasser out of Yemen and tell the Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- Certainly the 1 million refugees who great Egyptian people "the true facts and dent, will the Senator yield? fled from North Vietnam leaving behind background of the situation in Yemen," Mr. DODD. I yield, them their homes and everything they which are now being concealed from Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Is the Sen- possessed, have given proof of their them by their own government, ator not aware that the United Nations hatred of communism. In their overwhelming majority, the is now acting pursuant to nothing more Certainly, too, the 300,000 South Viet- American people believe in the U.N. and than unanimous consent? namese who have fled from areas under in the objectives to which it is dedicated. Mr. DODD. That is correct. Communist control have given similar But they rightly expect of the U.N., and Mr. LONG of Louisiana. So that it Proof. especially of the man encharged, with the would take only an objection from any Finally, millions of South Vietnamese responsibility of Secretary General, a Communist country to paralyze it com- have given eloquent testimony to their fair and judicious attitude. pletely. hatred of communism by the courage They do not expect him to sponsor a Mr. DODD. If any effort is made to with which they have fought against it position ,which completely ignores the take any action, I am sure that is what in the ranks of the Vietnamese armed fact of Communist aggression and which will happen. So it is wholly unrealistic forces or in their own village self-defense would inevitably lead to a Communist to say, "Get out of Vietnam and let the units. takeover in Vietnam U.N. take over." The United Nations If our information services were bet- The American press has justly been is in such a state of paralysis that it can- ter organized, and if our press gave the critical of the _ position taken by the not take over anywhere. That is why same attention to our victories as they Secretary General. In the interest of I said-I believe before the distinguished give to our defeats, the American people the good name of the U.N., it is my majority whip entered the Chamber- would have heard thousands of stories of earnest hope that the Secretary General that the statement of U Thant makes it inspiring heorism on the part of the Viet- will benefit from this experience. preposterous to suggest that the prob- namese people, fighting to protect them- In the c,Qurse of-the debate on Vietnam lem be turned over to that organization. selves against the Communist terrorists. in the Senate,this week and on several The Secretary General has made clear At the conclusion of my remarks, Mr. Previous occasior , it hastbeen suggested what he would like to see done in Viet- President, I ask unanimous consent to that we try to extricate ourselves from nam, and it is certainly not in the in- insert into the RECORD a translation of Vietnam by turning the entire problem terest of a free world. an official Vietnamese telegram describ- over to the United Nations. As much as Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I agree with ing a recent battle fought by a Vietnam- I would like to see the peace-keeping the Senator. ese militia unit against a Vietcong com- "'ole of the United Nations strengthened Mr, DQDD. Mr. President, one of my pany. Approved For. Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 4094 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67g0 6R000300160029-1 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE Akx I would like to pose a few basic ques- tions to those of my colleagues who have urged that we turn the problem of Viet- nam over to the United Nations despite the manifest inability of the U.N. to deal with a situation of this magnitude, or who continue to urge negotiations now when such negotiations would obviously culminate in nothing better than a diplo- matic surrender. If we abandon South Vietnam to com- munism, where do they propose to draw a new line against the advance of com- munism in the Western Pacific? What nations do they believe should receive our assistance in defending them- selves, and what nations do they believe we should not help to defend themselves. If they propose falling back to a new defense line in southeast Asia or the Western Pacific, are they prepared to support a greater investment in aid and American manpower than we have now committed to the defense of Vietnam? What concrete measures do they pro- pose to prevent a massacre of anti-Com- munist elements in South Vietnam, on the genocidal scale that has character- ized the establishment of Communist power, especially in the countries of Asia? I believe that those who urge that we find ourselves an easy way out of our Involvement in Vietnam have an obliga- tion to weigh the consequences of with- drawal and to provide specific answers for the questions I have here posed. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent to have printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks a trans- lation of a recent telegram to Saigon dealing with a successful action against the Vietcong by local militia forces in Son My Village. I think this document is all the more significant because the unit involved on the Government side was made up for the most part of de- fectors from the Vietcong. The thous- from areas under Vietcong control-the total number of Asian refugees from communism rises to approximately 8 mil- lion, which is the figure I gave in my speech of February 23. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 3.) Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I yield the floor. EXHIBIT I [Unofficial translation] OFFICIAL TELEGRAM Originator: Administrative office, Quang Ngai. Addressee: Special commissariat for Chieu Hoi, Saigon, text No. 318-CIIIQNG. Respectfully report to your commissariat: In the event of the operation to liberate the Son My village at Son Tinh district on Febru- ary 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1965, the provincial Chieu Hoi armed propaganda platoon while on duty met with a VC company at My Khe hamlet, Son My village. The platoon has shown its drastic spirit of fighting in 3 hours and has wiped out the VC company. Spe- cially Trinh-Sang, the squad leader after carrying Le-Clhuong a wounded comrade out of the battlefield, returned to command the fight until the end. He alone with a sub- machinegun has pushed, back two assaults of the enemy, killed 15 of them and died after he had fired his last bullet. VC stabbed him all over his body with daggers. Soldier Dinh Tru (a mountaineer) a light machinegunner has protected his comrades and wiped out the enemy with 20 bodies left at the battle- field. Nurse an Thi Dao has courageously went out four times to the battlefield to take care of the wounded and died while perform- ing her duty. EXHIBIT 3 EXCERPT FROM THE INTRODUCTION TO "REF- vesme PROM COMMUNISM mQ ASIA," A STUDY OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, U.S. SENATE, COMPILED BY ITS SUBCOMMITTEE To INVESTIGATE PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH REFUGEES AND ESCAPEES The toll in refugees of Communist ag- grandizement in Asia is the subject of this report. The refugees include the following groups: i. Approximately 5 million Koreans who fled from North to South Korea following the Soviet occupation of North Korea in 1945, and, subsequently, during the Korean war; 2. One million Chinese who fled into Hong Kong and Macao before the advancing tide of Communist military and political con- quest, plus an additional 340,000 Chinese who escaped since 1950; 3. Nearly 40,000 Europeans from mainland China, 20,000 of whom, were evacuated to the Philippines during 1948-51, the remainder having found their way into Hong Kong; 4. Some 960,000 Vietnamese who fled from North to South Vietnam, and adjacent areas, in 1954, plus additional thousands displaced by the current hostilities in South Vietnam; 5. Some 60,000 Tibetans who entered In- dia and Nepal following the bloody suppres- sion of the Tibetan revolt by Chinese Com- munist forces in 1959; 6. The many victims of the India-China border war in 1982; and 7. Approximately 240,000 inhabitants of Laos who, as a result of Communist activ- ities, have been displaced from their homes in the countryside, and have fled to secure areas under the control of the Lao Govern- ment. R SULTS On the enemy's part: 35 VC bodies left behind and others being carried off. On our part: Three died: But Minh, deputy platoon leader; Trinh Song, squad leader and translator; Thi Dao, nurse. Three missing: Phan Dung, squad leader, Le Tan May, and Nguyen Nuoi (all are soldiers). At present, Son My village is completely lib- erated and construction works being imple- mented in the hamlets. Our province remunerated each of these 000 piasters and gave 10,000 pias- families 3 , ands of such actions that have been ters for funeral. We warmly complimented fought by village self-defense units and this platoon for its sublime fighting spirit by units of the Vietnamese Army con- and its righteous will of exterminating VC stitute the best answer to the suggestion to give significant example to other units. that perhaps the Vietnamese people Respectfully yours, want communism. QUANG NGAI. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- FEBRUARY 12, 1965. Out objection, it is so ordered. Forward to the province chief, deputy prov- ince chief for security. (See exhibit 1.) Maj. LU BA KHrEU. Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I ask unan- imous consent to have printed in the EXHIBIT-2 RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks U THANT, the communication of February 24 of United Nations, New York: Mr. Bushrod Howard, representative of Your intervention in American political the National Government of Yemen, to affairs on Vietnam is in dramatic contrast to your silence to the Egyptians on their Secretary General U Thant. government's war on Yemen. You were re- The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- sponsible for a 14-month mission in Yemen out objection, it is so ordered. under which Nasser promised you and the (See exhibit 2.) U.N. to withdraw from that country. For 14 Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I ask uilari- months Nasser bombed and killed Yemenis before the eyes of your observers. Time and imous consent to have printed in the again he increased his army In Yemen and RECORD at the conclusion of my remarks told the whole world that he would not a tabulation of refugees from commu- cease his murder of the Yemeni people de- nism in Asia which appeared In a study spite his pledge to you and to the U.N. You, of the Refugee Subcommittee of the Ju- secretary General of the United Nations, were diciary Committee published only several and are silent on Nasser in Yemen. We .. 1_1 ___,_.,__ suggest you get Nasser out of Yemen and tell the great Egyptian people the tru 'refugees from countries and areas under The Yemeni people still await you to speak Communist domination. If we add to in answer to the high motives you profess. this tabulation 1 additional item-the BUSHROD HOWARD, Jr., 300,000 South Vietnamese who have fled For the National Government of Yemen. WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, some time ago the Senate considered Calendar No. 65, S. 21. I did not learn about it, until a few days after the bill was passed. I wish to address myself to it. Page D123 of the CONGRESSIONAL REC- ORD of February 24, 1965, shows under "Bill reported" the following: Report was made as follows: S. 21, pro- posed Water Resources Planning Act, with amendments (S. Rept. 68), page 3392. Turning to page 3392, there is a simple announcement of the submission of the report by Mr. ANDERSON. The "Program for Thursday" as re- ported in the Daily Digest was as follows: Senate met at 11 a.m. and adjourned at 5:26 p.m. until noon Thursday, February 25, when it will continue its consideration of. H.R. 45, to amend the Inter-American De- velopment Bank Act, pages 3451, 3454. Referring to the body of the RECORD, there is no indication of anything else to be considered by the Senate on Thurs- day. On Thursday, February 25, the major- ity leader moved that the Senate proceed to the consideration of Calendar No. 65, S. 21, and that it be made the pending business. The committee amendments were then printed in the RECORD, to- gether with the bill as amended by the Senate committee. By unanimous con- sent, the committee amendments were agreed to and there was inserted in the RECORD an explanation of the bill. Then, except for a brief colloquy between Sen- ator AmcEN and Senator ANDERSON with respect to the interpretation of the phrase, "The resolution of the States' rights issue in the field of water resource Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 e facts 1965 Approved For Releafflffi9f044g~0160029-1 "that somebody cares about them, is' con- cerned about their future." The director of the program is a 47-year- old educator, Thomas Flagg, who is assisted by a deputy and seven counselors. They roam from one city agency to another, wher- ever their young people are employed, in- quiring as to their progress and with a willing ear, for any problems, personal or otherwise. "It seems to be working," the mayor said. COUNTERING RIGHTWING TACTICS Mr, ' WILLIAMS of. New ,Jersey. Mr. President, many of us in the Senate have become increasingly aware, over the past year, of the vicious nature and undemo- cratic methods of the extreme right. We have seen and heard of examples of the far right's infiltrating school boards, in attempts to distort-indeed, to de- stroy-the educational , principles that have made this country great, and to implement, instead, their own authori- tarian thoughts on education. The activities of -this lunatic fringe, however, do not stop with school boards. They have attacked our national leaders; they have viciously fought' dedicated at- Geiripts to strengthen our. efforts to deal with mental health; and they have ham- pered the attainment of civil rights for all our citizens. They have intimidated :,the volunteers of..legitimate political candidates seeking election to positions at all level of government. Worst of all, the members of these groups hate started rumors and have shouted lies, about any- thing that differs with their perverse version of w)'iat is right, good, or healthy. What truly. saddens me Is the fact that in the name of democracy, these often psychotic individuals have renounced the democratic methods. In the name of democracy, they have abandoned the principles that we live by, in favor of totalitarian terror and misrepresenta- tion,-In view of these facts, Mr. President, it is heartening to read a pamphlet, recently published by the National Con- gress of Parents and Teachers, that deals with directly meeting these threats to democracy. I think this pamphlet is worthy of the consideration of the Members of the Senate, and I, am sure that all Senators will,flnd of interest, the ideas stated in . the leaflet. , Therefore, I ask unanimous consent that this, pamphlet, entitled "Extremist Groups: A Clear and Present Danger to Freedom and Democracy," be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the pam- phlet was ordered to ,be printed in the RECORD, as follows: EXTREMIST GROUPS: A CLEAR, AND PRESENT DANGER TO FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY, Open membership: PTA memberships, now about 12 million, represent 'a fair cross sec- tion of America. Membership is open to all who want to work. for children and youth. There are no barr$,erS of color, creed, occupation, or in- comb. ,Tle PTA is nonsectarian and nonpartisan. No, one is'aslsl;d what his religious and politi- oCal ' ellefs aad affiliations are. ' The 'PTA"is an educational organization dedicated to.promoting the welfare of chil- dren through home, school, church, and community. .St welcomes all who want to learn mRre Oput c ,ii0'en and-act on their behalf. Procedures: The PTA practices democracy. It welcomes dissent as well as assent. It 'does not impose conformity to any doctrine or dogma except democracy. In the national organization, the State organization, and the local association, the rule,.is to, &l?ide by majority decisions and to respect the right of the minority to disagree and work for change. tfnity and'iversity:- What brings us to- gether in the PTA-our common concern for children-is greater than anything that can divide us. Although there are bound to be differences of opinion where children and schools are concerned, PTA members are not youngsters who pick up their marbles and go home when they cannot have their way. PTA members can tolerate diversity and act with unity and enthusiasm on majority decisions. This is the democratic way, the PTA way. WAYS TO COMBAT UNDEMOCRATIC PRESSURES 1,ON PTA's, SCHOOLS, AND LIBRARIES In the PTA: Appoint a committee to be- come informed on extremist groups, their "front organizations," and their tactics. Devote a meeting to a factual report by the committee , on. extremist groups; their efforts to infiltrate PTA's and influence them to withdraw from the State and national organizations; and their undemocratic pres- sures on schools and libraries. Establish the policy that resolutions and motions on controversial issues will not be voted on until the meeting following their introduction. This assures that the mem- bership can be alerted and all views on an issue can be fairly represented-and heard. If someone comes up with a loaded, un- answerable question, ask him to rephrase it. Usually he can't, because it's a "canned" question. Never mislay your sense of humor. A humorous remark;. has more than once pricked an inflated balloon. Set a definite, reasonable time for adjourn- ment. This assures that decisions will not be made by an extremist minority that out- stays the moderate majority. Look gift speakers in the mouth. Find out why they want to speak and whom they represent. Keep the community and the press sup- plied with facts about PTA purposes and projects. Schools: Urge school boards to do the fol- lowing: Have written statements of policy placing responsibility for curriculum decisions and selection of textbooks, films, pamphlets, and other teaching materials with teachers and educational administrative officials. Have an information program to sustain community understanding of these policies. Have clearly defined procedures for deal- ing with complaints on curriculum, books, and teachers. For example, require that charges and complaints be made in writing and signed by the complainant, referred to a special committee, and so on, Libraries: Urge library boards also to have written policies on book selection; a public education program; and definite procedures for handling complaints. Prepare in advance Invite representatives from schools, churches, libraries, labor, industry, press, radio, and TV to a meeting to consider sound, democratic ways of dealing with extremist :pressures. Establish a joint committee for a continu- ing exchange of information and ideas. Conduct a joint, vigorous education cam- paign to make the community aware of the importance of freedom of speech and freedom 4081 If an attack comes Bring it out in the open. Insist that charges and complaints be specific, written, documented, and signed. Ask the school board or library board to hold public hearings. Get full press, radio, and TV coverage. Seek advice and help from the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, your State congress, and from such groups as the State .education association, the National Educa- tion Association, the American Library As- sociation, the National Council for Civic Re- sponsibility, the National Council of Teach- ers of English, the National Council of Teachers of Social Studies, and local and State colleges and universities. EXTREMIST GROUPS: BOTH OF THE RIGHT AND OF THE LEFT Most of us believe in the right of others to hold and to express views, even extreme ones, that differ from our own. (Extremist groups try to stifle free expression of views opposed to their own.) Most of us believe that free access to in- formation and a diversity of opinions are essential in a democracy. (Extremist groups try to purge school and public libraries of publications that are objectionable to them.) Most of us believe the public schools should not indoctrinate students in the po- .U,tical,. economic, religious, or social views of any group. (Extremist groups put pres- sures on schools to adopt courses and text- books that reflect their views.) Most of us believe that criticism of public institutions and officials is healthy, but that criticism should be informed, constructive, and based, on facts. (Extremist groups make irresponsible, venomous, and near- libelous attacks on individuals, institutions, and organizations that disagree with them.) Most of us believe that political, social, and economic change should be brought about by legal, democratic procedures. (Ex- tremist groups use coercion, intimidation, and even violence to prevent or. force change.) Most of us believe that patience, good will, and intelligent, cooperative effort are needed to deal with complicated issues and prob- lems. (Extremist groups are likely to be- lieve there are easy, simple, fast solutions to complex problems and to advocate over- simplified, very often dangerous, measures.) Most of us believe in rule by the majority, subject to criticism by a "loyal opposition." (Extremist groups believe in rule by their own minority and label any opposition as "disloyal.") Tactics of extremist groups Front groups: Extremist groups set up front organizations with high-sounding, patriotic names to promote their views. Free speakers: They offer to provide free speakers in order to spread their propaganda. Infiltration: They infiltrate democratic organizations like the PTA and try to cap- ture key positions like the program chair- manship. They send representatives to meetings with prepared, loaded, unanswerable ques- tioins to harass speakers whose views tiliffer from theirs. They prolong meetings so they can make minority decisions after the worn-out ma- jority has gone home. "Divide and conquer": They try to discredit State and national organizations and create distrust of their leadership in order to isolate local associations and capture control of them.. They encourage irrelevant programs and debates over organizational details to dis- rupt the work of an organization and divert it from its own productive activities. Blacklisting and labeling: They probe into the personal history and political affiliations of educators, clergymen, and authors. and Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 4082 Approved For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE March 4 label as "subversive,'", "un-American," "radi- cal" those whose bpflefs and affiliations differ from theirs. Hysteria and fear: They create fear and in- security by highly emotional, inflammatory charges of subversive influences in schools, government, and community organisations. Coercion and intimidation: They threaten investigations of school administrators, teachers, librarians, and members of school and library boards who resist pressures for conformity to their views. Some groups use social ostracism, economic pressures, and even violence to silence dis- agreement and impose their views on a coin: munity. Misrepresentation: They make false charg- es and use quotations taken out of context. They distribute smear literature and poison- pen pamphlets, usually imported from out- side the community. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE ON THE CITIES Mr. HART. Mr. President, we have declared war on poverty, and we want better and more livable and attractive Communities. An important contribu- tion toward the attainment of this goal is public housing. Its extension and strengthening, called for by President Johnson, are basic to solving our prob- lem of urban poverty. In fact, people in the public housing field have been concerned with poverty for over 26 years, since practically everyone served by the public-housing programs is in the lowest income group. A statistical cross section of the ten- ant population of low-rent housing proj- ects shows that: 52 percent are non- white; 47 percent are receiving assist- ance or benefits; 24 percent are elderly; 36 percent of the families with children are one-parent families; and 82 percent of the elderly and 25 percent of the non- elderly have no gainfully employed worker in the family. - The median total annual income for elderly individuals in public housing is $1,100, for elderly families $1,900, and for nonelderly families $2,800. These are disadvantaged families sub- leet to all the stresses imposed by pov- erty, ignorance, squalor, ill health, and the lack of skill required to participate effectively in the urban labor market. Not only does public housing help solve the problem of providing adequate shelter for these people, including those displaced by renewal, but it also pro- vides social services and incentives to help them become better citizens. Poor families in public housing share with poor families everywhere the ugly byproducts of poverty, which include problems of motivation, health, educa- tion, employment, and social adjust- ment. The Public Housing Administra- tion, in close cooperation with other government and welfare agencies, and national service organizations, has been attacking these problems through dem- onstration services task forces and com- munity services programs. Wholesome environments are created and main- tained to develop facilities, programs, and services for these low-income fami- lies that will help them help themselves. In the new war on poverty, the Eco- nomic Opportunity Act provides nu- merous poverty-eliminating programs which are directly relevant to local hous- ing authority participation. Title I of the act provides three sepa- rate programs for youth--4 Job Corps, Work-training programs, and work-study programs. Who is in a better position to identify potential candidates for these programs, call the programs to the at- tention of these youngsters, and moti- vate them to participate, than the proj- ect management staff of the local hous- ing authorities? Also, title It of the economic opportu- nity legislation' is intended to stimulate and provide incentives for communities to mobilize their resources to combat poverty through community action pro- grams. Such programs would provide services and other activities to develop employment opportunities, improve hu- man performance, motivation, and pro- ductivity, and to better the conditions under which people live, learn, and work. All local housing authorities have al- ready been involved in such action pro- grams, and they will work in close co- operation with the Office of Economic Opportunity in accelerating these com- munity efforts. Public housing is a cornerstone in the national public welfare program. Its basic philosophy is that the end result must be better living for its tenants and their neighbors, better neighborhoods and community growth, better housing and bette living. It all adds up to a better ci$y. 1\` U.S. CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES IN VIETNAM Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, in a recent article, Joseph Young, of the Washington Evening Star, paid tribute to the Government's civilian employees who are on the frontlines in battle-torn Vietnam. These courageous and dedicated pub- lic servants deserve our most humble thanks. They symbolize the wilingness of our civil servants in this country and around the world to do their job, and do it well. They live and work under extremely hazardous conditions, and without mili- tary escorts. I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Young's article be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington Star, Feb. 16, 19651 U.S. CIVILIAN WORKERS PRAISED FOR THEIR COURAGE IN VIETNAM (By Joseph Young) A firsthand report on how Government civilian employees are ably and courageously performing their duties in battle torn Viet- nam has been made by the Deputy Inspector General of Foreign Assistance in the State Department. Howard E. Haugerud had high praise for employees of the Agency for International Development and those in the Foreign Serv- ice, after returning from a month's Inspec- tion trip there. Haugerud reports: "Many of these men whom I visited are living under extremely hazardous conditions and are constantly subject to injury, kidnap- ing, or death at the hands of the Vietcong infiltrators, snipers, terrorists, and regular military units. "They must work with and be respected by the district chiefs, village and hamlet lead- ers, and often remain in the hamlets over- night in the homes of these leaders who are generally 'marked Dien' by the Vietcong. In order to carry out their missions, they must work in areas infested with or threat- ened by the Vietcong. They must do so without military escort and generally un- armed because of the allegedly more severe penalties inflicted by the Vietcong in the event of capture while carrying weapons. "My purpose in writing is to call attention to these Americans, many of whom are young and junior in grade. Because their activi- ties are conducted mainly with the Vietna- mese people and because they are away from the large population centers engaging in vi- tal but nonspectacular work, I do not be- lieve they are receiving the public credit that is due them." This reporter is happy to pay credit to these courageous and dedicated public ser- vants, and by doing so stress that Govern- ment civilian employees throughout our his- tory-in war, peace, and emergency-have al- ways served their country faithfully and well. ORDER OF BUSINESS The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there further morning business? If not, morn- ing business is closed. Mr. FULBRIGHT obtained the floor. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I,? ask unanimous consent, without the Senator from Arkansas [Mr. FILBRIGHT) losing his rights to the floor, that I may suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, it is so ordered. THE FOREIGN AID PROGRAM Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I send to the desk a bill to promote the foreign policy, security, and general wel- fare of the United States by furnishing economic assistance to friendly countries and areas, and for other purposes. I ask unanimous consent that the bill be ap- propriately referred. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, the bill will be received and appropriately referred. The bill (S. 1367) to amend further the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and for other purposes, intro- duced by Mr. FULBRIGHT, was received, read twice by its title, and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, the bill which I introduce is in partial im- plementation of the President's foreign aid message of January 14, 1965, rec- ommending authorization for military and economic programs aggregating $3.38 billion of appropriation requests. This bill is concerned solely with the President's request for authorization for appropriation of $846 million for eco- nomic aid. This authorization for eco- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 1965 Approved For ReI g A Af-I4t6*tSW4#,$ Q'Q'R300160029-1 4079 RESOL ON 27-APPRECIATION: ASSISTANT Outstanding contributions tothesuccess of country. 'There ought to be a kind of medal CRETARY KENNETH HOLUM, ADMINISTRA- Mid-West both as a director and as its for unassuming-and absolutely irreplace- TOR NORMAN CLAPP president. able-service of this kind. Be it resolved, That Mid-West Electric RESGLIITION 32-CONDOLENCE Mr. President, these are words of high Consumers Association. express its sincere praise, indeed; but they have been earned appreciation for the outstanding services Whereas we have learned with sorrow of by the leadership displayed under the rendered by Kenneth Holum, Assistant Sec- the death Sara Radin, the beloved wife of circumstances dis d d Seh retary of the Interior for Water and Power, Alex Radin, who has contributed so greatly most the and Norman Clapp, Administrator of the to the success of the Mid-West Electric Con- ator DIRKSEN and Representative GERALD Rural Electrification Administration, in pro- sumers Association in his capacity as general R. FORD. I ask unanimous consent that moting the interests of the electric consum- manager. of the American Public Power As- the article, entitled "GOP Magnificent in ers of this Nation, and particularly the con- sociation: Now, therefore, be it Viet Crisis," by William S. White, be sumers of the Missouri Basin; be it further Resolved, That Mid-West Electric Consum- printed in the RECORD. Resolved, That Mid-West commend Mr, ers Association extend its sincerest sympathy There being no objection, the article Holum and Mr. Clapp for their efficient ad- to Mr. Radin and his family in their be- ministration of their respective agencies. reavement. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION 33-CONDOLENCE From the Washington Post, Feb. 22, 19651 RESOLUTION 28-COOPEEtATION WITH OTHERS Be it resolved, That Mid-West Electric Be it resolved, That the members of the LOYAL OPPOSITION: GOP MAGNIFICgNT IN Consumers Association express its apprecia- Mid-West Electric Consumers Association ex- VIET CRISIS tion for the support of the following orga- press their sorrow at the death of Henry (By William S. White) nizations: Organized labor, general farm or- Hope, and extend to his family their heart- Magnificent is the word for the Republican ganizations, American Public Power Asso- felt sympathy. Party and its congressional leaders in the Assocssocn,iation, National Electric Rural Consumers Electric Cooperative Information RESOLUTION 34-APPRECIATION crisis of national purpose and national will A and national honor that is rising in south- Committee, statewide municipal and rural Be it resolved, That the Mid-West Electric east Asia. electric organizations, Federal agencies, Mis- Consumers Association express its appreci- Rarely in history has a minority party given souri Basin systems group; be is further ation to the city and county of Denver, the such wide and generous support to an admin- Resolved, That Mid-West direct its staff Denver Convention and Visitors Bureau, and istration of the opposite party as is now to continue working with these organizations to all others who have had a part in the being granted to President Johnson in his in achieving its program of resource develop- planning preparations for this 1964 an- efforts to help halt Communist aggression in went. nual meets South Vietnam and thus to blunt the most recent grave challenge of international com- RESOLUTION 29-COMMENDATION munism to peace and world order. i IN VIET CRISIS FICEN' GO AGNI The assistance being extended by the outs Whereas Thomas G. Sonar assisted in the founding of the Mid-West Electric Consum- Mr. HRUSKA. Mr. President, as to the in President, Mr. Johnson, is if any- ers Association and has served as a member again the United States is being chal- thing, even greater than that extended to a of its board of director's since that founding; Republican President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and lenged on_ a distant battlefield by a by Mr. Johnson and his senior Democratic Whereas the vision, faith, and leadership totalitarian enemy, the Republican colleagues when the Republicans held the of Tom Sonar and the Union Rural Electric leadership of the Senate and the House White House and the Democrats held Con- Association have brought the preference cus- has asserted its support of President gress. joiners of the Platte River Basin to realize Johnson in the; critical situation in Whatever else may or may not be done in that cooperation with other preference cus- Vietnam, As it has in the past, the this Congress by Senator EVERETT MCKINLEY tomers in the Missouri River Basin is the Republican Party is today placing the DIRKSEN of Illinois, the Senate Republican only way in which the resources of the en- national interest above all other con- leader, and Representative GERALD ]FORD of tire Missouri Basin can be brought to full siderations. Michigan, the House Republican leader, it development; and will be dwarfed by the historic contribution Whereas Tom Sonar served As president of The significance of this endorsement they are making to keep this country strong ,Mid-West from 1961 through 1963: Now, was analyzed recently by the nationally and united in the face of foreign war. therefore, be it syndicated columnist, William S. White. Indeed, watching them at work one can Resolved, That the members of Mid-West Mr. White wrote: almost believe that as a nation we may Electric Consumers Association commend Magnificent is the word for the Republican have actually reached here, for a time any- Thomas, Sonar for his vision and faith in Party and its congressional leaders in the how, that heretofore impossible and un- Mid-West and the opportunities for such crisis of national purpose and national will attainable ideal-a politics, as to foreign af- an organization to lead the way in the full and national honor that is rising in south- fairs, of a maturity to match the complexity development of the Missouri Basin's natural east Asia. and gravity of these affairs in this decade. resources; be it further Rarely in history has a minority party No doubt politics-as-usual will shortly de- Resolved, That the members of Mid-West given such wide and generous support to scend over the scene; even so DIRKSEN, FORD express their appreciation to Tom Sonar for an administration of the opposite party as and Co. are entitled to the most earnest of his leadership, devotion, and hard work as a 1s now being granted to President Johnson salutes for what thus far they have done founder-director of Mid-West and for faith- in his efforts to help halt Communist ag- and tried to do, fully carrying out the duties of the office of gression in South Vietnam and thus to blunt In their actions the phrase "responsible op- ,president. the most recent grave challenge of inter- position" is taking on the dignity of fact; . national communism to peace and world it is a reality and not merely an expression RESOLUTION 30-COMMENDATION order. of what. is desirable. If the President is able Whereas Harold R. Lee served faithfully to bring this Nation through the trials of and effectively as Executive Secretary of Mid- Mr. White went on to commend the Vietnam without the stain of appeasement West Electric Consumers Association for 3 minority leaders in each body, Senator on the one hand or the horror of major war years; and DIRKSEN and Representative GERALD R. in Asia on the other these men will have Whereas Mr. Lee gave of his time, effort, FORD: played a memorably significant part. and ability in furthering the cause and ful- In their actions the phrase "responsible It is a curious thing to see how, when the filling the purposes of Mid-West: Now, there- opposition" is taking on the dignity of fact; heat is really intense and the way ahead fore, be it it is a reality, not merely an expression of is hard and hazardous, some high political Resolved, That the membership of Mid- what is desirable. If the President is able reputations begin to look just a bit dubious West Electric Consumers Association extend to bring this Nation through the trials of and some hitherto more or less routine and its sincere appreciation and wholehearted Vietnam without the strain of appeasement, pedestrian reputations begin to develop a thanks to Harold Lee for a job well done. on the one hand, or the horror of major war strength, a vitality and an intellectual can- 'in Asia, on the other, these men will have dor that had been, by most people, wholly RESOLUTION 31-CONDOLENCE played a memorably significant part. unexpected. Be it resolved, that the members of the Mr. White ended his analysis by par- So it is now. Some so-called foreign Mid-West 'Electric Consumers Association ex_ policy experts on the Democratic side in Con- presstheir sorrow at the untimely death of ticularly praising Senator DIRKSEN, stat- gress speak for a new and cleverly worded Its president, Henry T. Swenson, and extend ing: form of isolationism. Because things are io hip family their heartfelt sympathy and For the last 4 years, at minimum, no pub- admittedly sticky in Vietnam, because the gratitude for his untiring effort over the lie man alive has more faithfully, more non-Communist regime we assist is admit- "years in. behalf of Mid-West and, the con- courageously, more wryly, and more respon- tedly weak and scarcely "democratic" as we sumers of the Missouri Basin,` and for his sibly served the higher purposes of this understand the word, these people have only No. 41-15 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 4080 Approved FLbM S!SI8NAIO./RFCC)Rn P6FB00,446R000300160029-1 nay ^7 r a policy for surrender wrapped up in talk about the righteousness of "negotiation," But negotiations are not possible with marauders until first they have been forced to cease their killing and looting and until first they have given some evidence that the end of any new "negotiation" will not be the same as the end of all other "negotiations" going back to 1954-that is, uninterrupted Communist aggression. So Dirksen, Ford and Co. see the reality for what it is, describe It for what it is, and rejecting short-term partisan gain at the expense of the administration, stand with the President and the Democratic ma- jority-and, in this case, with the vital in- terests also of the United States of America, Now, FORD is a young man and no doubt has much of life and hope ahead of him. But DIRksEx is an elderly man, by definition a man nearing the end of the long trail, and a far from hale and well man, too, if it comes to that. He has taken many it lump in his time, and a goodmany of them, in my opin- ion, he had coming to him. For he was not always the DIRKsEN of today; not any part of the DrsxsEN of today. But for the last 4 years, at minimum, no public man alive has more faithfully, more courageously, more wryly and more respon- sibly served the higher purposes of this coun- try. There ought to be a kind of medal for unassuming-and absolutely irreplaceable- service of this kind. NEWARK JOB CORPS A SUCCESS Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr. President, it is indeed heartening to learn of the notable success of the job corps in Newark, N.J. As a pilot project, the Newark Job Corps has removed all doubts about the worth of the program. The young men and women in the corps have been in a training program sponsored by the city of Newark. Un- der the leadership of its very able Mayor Hugh E. Addonizio, the city has taught these young people the skills necessary for useful employment. The girls have learned to be nurses aides, librarians, and the like; the boys have been working in maintenance, communication, and so forth, with the city's various depart- ments. The success of the Corpsmen in learn- ing new skills has passed all expectations. These youngsters, all of whom are high- school dropouts, have proved themselves so -capable in their new tasks that the city is considering keeping many as full- time employees. But an even truer indication of the success of the program is the fact that nearly 50 percent of the members of the Corps have resumed their education. It is heartening to know that the Job Corps has met the challenge of persuading these youngsters of their error in letting their education drop, and has induced them to begin again, where they left off. I commend Mayor Addonizio and Mr. Thomas E. Flagg, director of the pro- gram, for their outstanding efforts to help in making this pilot project the success it is. I am pleased to bring this program to the attention of the Senate, for I think my fellow Senators will enjoy knowing that the efforts and delibera- tions of Congress are paying off in rich dividends for less fortunate members of our society. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that two articles concerning the Job Corps in Newark, from the New York Times of February 15, be printed in the RECORD, I hope all Senators will derive the same feeling of satisfaction that I felt upon reading the articles. - There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: FIRST YOUTH CORPS IN NEWARK HAILED (By Charles Mohr) WASHINGTON, February 14.-Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz reported to President Johnson today that the Nation's first Neigh- borhood Youth Corps in Newark had dispelled the idea that the Corps was a make-Work concept. In a statement of reply, Mr. Johnson said the Newark experiment "has encouraged and heartened all those associated with it" and added that Mr. Wirtz' report was "an early indication that we can suceced in this best of all efforts." The Neighborhood Youth Corps program is a major part of Mr. Johnson's antipoverty program. Full-time and summer programs are planned to give useful employment and training to school dropouts. The first Neighborhood Corps project in the Nation has been in operation in Newark since January 4. Mr. Wirtz said today in a memorandum to the President that "its success has been so heartening and meaningful that it warrants a special report to you.,, A THIRD CHANCE Mr. Wirtz said that the Youth Corps en- rollees were doing "jobs that would not ordinarily be done" and that "these are jobs that ought to be done in the public interest." But he put even higher emphasis on a statement that "the single most important result of the program thus far is in the proof it has provided that young persons disheart- ened by failure at school and discouraged by failure in the labor force do respond with hope, confidence, and effort when given that important third chance." Mr. Wirtz said that there were now 346 boys and girls at work In Youth Corps programs in Newark's schools, hospitals, library, muse- um, planning board, and other public agen- cies. The total will eventually rise to 700. The youths work 30 hours a week. All of them were dropouts from school and were unem- ployed before volunteering for the program. He said the total cost of the program was $620,000 of which the Federal Government had contributed $465,000. THE 180 RETURN TO SCHOOL Secretary Wirtz said that the brief experi- ence at Newark had led to several conclusions school because his cousin had told him it was the way to "see the world." The young man was quoted as saying, "I dropped out and I saw it-the unemploy- ment line." He was asked, "Have you taken this up with your cousin?" "Did I," said the boy. "He's got two black eyes to say that I ain't going to drop out of school no more." A girl was quoted as saying that she now wants to return to school. She said: "A high school diploma is more important now- and a college diploma is more important than a high school diploma. You can't hardly get a job without a diploma." Mr. Wirtz wrote to Mr. Johnson, "This birth of second-generation hope is a reward without price." The Wirtz report said that 112 youths were working in the Newark city hospital and at the Ivy Haven Home for the Aged. Most girls are working as nurses' aides, but eight enrollees are working in the pathology de- partment and five in the dietary depart- ment. Twenty-seven are working in the library, museum or in other offices of Mayor Hugh J. Addonizio. Some youths are working in city offices such as city planning, finance, per- sonnel, and treasury. Thirty boys work in the city motor department learning vehicle repair and 13 boys work as linesmen's help- ers for the police, and fire department com- munication lines. A SECOND CHANCE Pon 348 NEWARK DROPOUTS NEWARK, February 14.-Hundreds of young men and women, many of whom never worked a day in their lives, have recently become very useful to the city of Newark- and to themselves. Until this year, they were merely part of a grim statistic, part of a young population that had quit school and, without skills or ambition, faced the future with little hope. Since January 4, however, when the Neighborhood Youth Corps began its pilot project in Newark, hundreds of these young men and women have had a second chance. WORK AND SCHOOL They were taught how to work; they were encouraged to go back to school. Today, of the 348 16- to 21-year-olds enrolled in the program, 180 are attending evening school, if not full-time day school, and all are em- ployed. Their jobs pay $1.25 an hour for a 30-hour week. All work for the city of Newark. The work depends on their aptitudes. Some of the young men are tree trimmers with the Newark Park Department, or sign painters with the Newark Traffic Department, or mechanics' assistants in the city ara es g g . that already seemed warranted. Some have learned to use jackhammers One was that work with the Youth Corps and work on city road projects, and some of "does stimulate a desire to return to school" the girls have been trained as typists, nurses' and that already 180 of the Newark enrollees assistants, file clerks, library workers, had registered at night. During the 6 weeks, somewhat less than He said the desire to resume an abandoned 20 youths quit the project-a small percent- education was prompted by "the awareness age for a program involving dropouts. that education is all important in landing The great majority of youths are learning a job" and by the "growing feeling of con- quickly and proving to city employers the fidence, fostered by their performance at value of the program. For example, the work, that they can succeed." director of the Newark Police Department. Mr. Wirtz said it also appeared that the Dominick Spina, who has employed 25 young counselors supervising the program had been women, said: able, through personal attention and genu- recommending "Their has several been to so be good hired that I ma- ins interest, to inspire the youths. He m perma quoted one counselor as saying, of the nently by the city." A high percentage of the 348 boys and youths: girls in the program are, according to Mayor "Some of them seemingly feel that they Hugh E. Adonizzio, Negroes from homes of are not important to anybody, that nobody extreme poverty. Many quit school, he said, does care about them. Well, we care." to help earn money for their families, realiz- Mr. Wirtz' brief report relied heavily on ing too late that they were unqualified to quotations from interviews with young per- work, or had never learned how to work. sons enrolled In the program. He quoted Now, in addition to work habits, they are one young man who said he dropped out of learning something else, the mayor said: Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 1965 For Rele6CI,ff8W700R300160029-1 out that early fears the legislation would pro- duce restrictive shipping legislation in other countries had no `foundation; it countered the argument that cargo preference was un- desirable' as an indirect subsidy on the grounds that it was, quite plainly, a direct subsidy; and finally, the report speculated that the, permanence of the Public Law 664 legislation would provide an incentive for the construction of a modern and efficient dry bulk fleet. Unfortunately, our experience since that report has not borne out the predictions of its authors. Since 1956, 15 countries have adopted restrictive shipping legislation, and most of the maritime world points to T.T.S. practice as the cause. Whatever may be said regarding the futility of such laws for the countries-in question, and their impact on American. trade, it seems clear they are not in the best interests of American shipping. As a subsidy, direct or indirect, cargo prefer- ence has been, a miserable failure: Not a single new tramp ship has been built since 1956, and the cost of keeping the old ones in. existence climbs higher and higher. A converted 10,000-deadweight-ton Liberty em- ployed in the grain trade costs the taxpayers about $700,000 In freight-rate differential payments annually. By contrast, our most modern. finer ships, with 40 percent more carrying capacity and twice the speed require an average of only $500,000 per year; this means an equivalent shipping capability at 25 percent of the subsidy cost, Here, too, the American people are faced with a number of alternatives. 1.' Present programs could be continued- at least so long as there is an agricultural surplus disposal program. The result would be 4-steady rise in subsidy cost as these ves- sels become Increasingly inefficient, followed by a rapid decrease in the cost as the subsidy disappears with the ships. .1. The tramp fleet could be eliminated more quickly by simply eliminating the cargo preference program. 3, Cargo preference could be continued, but supplemented with construction sub- sidy for replacement ships. Because the pres- ent production of 100 tramp ships easily could be matched with only 22 modern dry bulkers, however, any meaningful dry cargo fleet cannot be., hitched alone to the cargo preference grain trade. The future of the dry bulk fleet, like the rest of our merchant 3uarine, necessarily depends upon the ca- pacity to compete for commercial cargoes. Moreover, adding construction subsidy on to the existing cargo preference system would provide subsidy without any provision for mandatory ship replacement, for reserve funds, for recapture, or for any of the other safeguards of the public interest built into the 1930 act. 4. Cargo preference could be eliminated gradually, no faster than some form of direct operating, subsidy is substituted for it, mak- ing it possible for these ships to compete for commercial, cargoes at world rates, Dry bulkers. are more simple ships than liners, ;and proposals have been made to construct, for example, a 30,000-ton ship for as little as $9 million, and operate it with a small crew acid .only $300,000 to $400,000 in annual .:operating subsidy. In order to give you some idea of. what these figures mean, if the pres- ent $80 milion per year spent on cargo preference freight rate differentials were all paid in operating subsidy to such new ships, we, could,.piaiptaln abort 20.0 modern dry bulk ciirriexs, with a total capacity about 8 times our. present dry bulk fleet. Even with reduced crews on, highly mechanized .ships it is obvious where the greatest long- terba job opportunity is toibe found. ?4iecesily, in making these choices the 'rit1i11ber .(4 Lgmpeting interests is too great to satisfiy everyone completely. In discussing No. 41-11 various new ideas with members of the in- dustry, I sometimes feel like the fellow whose wife bought him two ties for Christmas, one red and one green.- He expressed delight with both, and when she appeared skeptical about the genuineness of his feelings, he put on the red one to prove it. "What's the mat- ter," she said, "don't you like the green one?" This kind of a reaction is especially com- mon in discussions about our passenger ships. American operators have 13 remaining passenger ships, staffed with crews ranging from 260 to 1,000. In 1965 these ships will absorb almost one-quarter of the total money available for operating subsidy-about $46 million. And if they are expensive to run, they are even more expensive to build. The Government's share of replacing the SS 'United States today, for example could run to about $100 million. Like any other major investment the benefits derived from these ships-to the industry and to the Govern- ment-deserve the closest examination. The arithmetic is striking. In 1962 the then 15 passenger ships pro- duced a loss, before subsidy, of about $44 million. The subsidy amounted to $48.7 mil- lion, or more than 10 times the after-subsidy profits for the 15 ships. In 1963, financial results were _little better. The subsidy bill was nine times the companies' profits after subsidy. Eight of the fifteen ships lost money even after subsidy, and two others did little better than break even. By contrast, comparable figures for gen- eral cargo ships show a subsidy bill only two or three times profits after subsidy. For the companies operating both passenger and general cargo ships, the gross revenue from cargo operations was three times that for passenger operations, and profits after sub- sidy were more than seven times as high. It is not surprising that shipowners have shown little inclination to replace their pas- senger ships. Nor do the passenger ship operators have much hope for improved profits. The pro- ductivity of cargo ships has increased in re- cent years, But 73 percent of the crew on a passenger ship are stewards-cooks and waiters-and mechanization can do little to increase their productivity. Indeed, it is this personal service which tends to attract those relatively few people who travel by ship rather than air. Even if passenger ships are not a profitable business for the owners or the Government it is often argued that they are of great benefit to us as a nation. If so, they are surely worth the investment. But what are these alleged benefits? How about their balance-of-payments contribution? In 1963, the net balance-of- payments contribution of U.S.-flag passenger ships was about $47 million. Since we spent about $46.3 million in subsidy to secure that saving, you can see that it was bought rather dearly. By contrast, in 1962, the interna- tional commercial airline industry contrib- uted $128 million to our balance of payments from passenger fares alone-and without the necessity of any contribution from the tax- payers. Or compare the like figures for gen- eral cargo ships. In 1963 the net balance-of- payments impact of the 285 subsidized cargo ships was about $204 million-at a subsidy cost of approximately $135 million. Thus, even by standards of return on shipping subsidy, the balance-of-payments impact of $1 of subsidy spent on a cargo liner is almost double the impact of a dollar spent on a passenger ship. Prestige is also said to be a benefit of pas- senger ships. Of course, prestige is an elu- sive thing. Our present operating subsidy expenditures for passenger ships would sup- port close to 100 modern liner ships, which might well do more for our prestige around the world than a few passenger ships known to be highly unprofitable. Moreover, two important reasons for hav- ing a merchant ' marine-trading leverage and stability of freight rates-are virtually unaffected by passenger ships. Finally, there is national defense. His- torically, passenger ships have played a major role in our defense efforts. During World war. II, for example, most of our troops were transported in ships which once sailed as commercial vessels. By the time of the Ko- rean hostilities, however, the situation had changed and only one passenger ship was removed from commercial service for troop carrying to the war zone. Three small pas- senger ships under construction were trans- ferred to MSTS but were fitted primarily as passenger ships for military dependents. All other troops were carried by MSTS troop carriers or by air. Our defense needs today still call for a passenger ship capability. But the develop- ment of new aircraft, like the C-141 and the recently announced 600-passenger plane, is eroding the justification for heavy Govern- ment investment in constructing and main- taining commercial passenger ships. To some extent modern cargo liners could be converted to effective troopships if nec- essary. Even commercial passenger ships must be converted to troop-carrying condi- tions-increasing their troop-lift capacity sevenfold. But this takes time, and insofar as we still need conventional passenger ships it might better safeguard our national se- curity if the conversion were done in ad- vance, and the ships preserved in the reserve fleet in a high degree of readiness-at about one-tenth the present actual cost. But all of this analysis really adds little to the stark' economic reality that Ameri- can businessmen have little desire to build and operate passenger ships at a loss. Un- less some presently unforeseeable change comes about, some 5,500 jobs will disappear from these ships. over the next 10 years irre- spective of how the Government feels about the wisdom of this $50 million subsidy ac- count. The question before us is not whether the 5,500 jobs will be affected, but whether any ships and jobs will be substituted in their place. Of the 5,500 men on passenger ships about 4,000, or 73 percent, are stewards who can find ready transferability of their skills in the hotel and restaurant trades. But what .of the 1,500 deck and engine men? Their jobs are not as easily transferable. If the $42 million passenger ship subsidy were used .for cargo liners-even the most highly mech- anized now imaginable-we would need about 3,000 men to operate them. The road to true job opportunity seems clear. Finally, I want to say a few words about two aspects of our present system of paying operating subsidy. First, the trade route idea. At the present time the Maritime Adminis- tration has designated 80 trade routes and 3 services as essential to the foreign trade of the United States. A subsidized shipping company wishing to move from one trade route to another is required by law to under- go a long and arduous public hearing, effec- . tively eliminating its ability to respond rapidly to competitive pressures. In addi- tion, an operator's activities on any particu- lar trade route-the frequency of sailing and the ports at, which his ships call-are all subject to the approval of the Maritime Ad- ministration. Many questions are called to mind. Is it not strange to have this high degree of pro- tectionism for American operators against only a small part of their competition? For U.S. trade route restrictions obviously do not affect the foreign companies carrying about 70 percent of our liner cargo. What is the impact of these restrictions on the behavior of American shipping companies? What are Approved For Release .2003/10/10 :. CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Approved Cgrepggj6(1/i0~yCRD 5iM~J46R000300160029-1 March the supposed benefits of the system, and how real are they? It is usually urged that the trade routes underlie the "service" concept of the 1936 act, and that they serve to prevent cutthroat competition. Each of these assertions re- quires close examination. As for the first, to my knowledge there is not a single American operator serving a trade route because he was ordered to do so by the Maritime Administration. In each case the operator requested permission to serve that route because there was cargo to be carried. Look, for example, at the number of foreign companies, which may come and go much as they please, serving small ports on regular schedules because the existence of cargo makes it profitable for them to do so. Look at the American companies providing regular service to Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico for the same reason. There Is no reason to ex- pect that American companies in foreign trade would act very differently even if not bound by the strictures of the trade route concept. And if there is not sufficient cargo to jus- tify shipping services at all, I doubt very much whether the framers of the 1936 act intended that American companies be com- pelled to service ports at a loss to themselves as well as the taxpayers. For example, if it Is cheaper to ship cargo by barge from a smaller to a larger port and then but by ship, that is probably the way the cargo ought to move. That is the basic principle underlying the new Lykes sea barge clipper concept. I doubt, therefore, if a relaxation of the present rigorous trade route requirements would undermine adequate service for Amer- ican shippers-quite the contrary. Many shipowners have told me that the tortuous procedures necessary to gain per- mission to operate on a different trade route, even for a short time, have forced them to forgo many attractive commercial oppor- tunities-to the benefit of the merchant fleets of other nations. This reminds me of the story about the Cape Cod garbage col- lector, whose weekly charge was 25 cents. One newcomer, seeking to do a little better, asked for his monthly rate. "$1.50," was the reply. When the newcomer inquired why the monthly rate should be so much higher than four times the weekly rate, the old man replied, "The extry is for bein' tied down." I rather suspect that we may be paying "extry" for tying down our shipowners, too. We turn, then, to the question of cut- throat competition. Whenever I hear that term, I am reminded of a story an old Texan used to tell about the general store in the small town where he grew up. The store had a monopoly for many years, but as the town grew it began to attract new business, and in due course a competitor opened his doors across the street from the general store. The old proprietor began to bemoan his fate to the town at large, and one young man, recently back from a freshman economics course at the local college said, "But sir, isn't that just competition?" "Oh no," he re- plied, "it's - worse than competition." Some shipowners have expressed similar sentiments to me, explaining that they have competition now, and that relaxing trade route restric- tions would be worse. Since trade route restrictions have no im- pact on the activities of foreign shipping companies, the danger arising :from a relaxa- tion of the trade routes must be seen to come from the competition of other American shipping companies. Some shipowners feel that a new American company will come on the route and take one-half of the "Ameri- can" cargo, putting them both out of busi- ness. - But, by and large, an established steamship company will tend to stay on its old routes, since it is costly and time consuming to de- velop new trade relations. Moreover, such a company will consider carefully -whether it problems has at least one solution. Some can make a sufficient dent in the foreign require the expenditure of much larger sums market on a new trade route. With such high of money; others seem to spell the con- capital costs, few shipping companies would tinued decline of the fleet. Still others be foolhardy enough to enter a wholly new seem to promise more shipping capability competitive environment solely with the idea at a relatively lower cost-even though per- of taking away from a preexisting American haps pointing the way to larger total ex- company most of its established business. penditures. Moreover, shipping conferences will tend The American merchant marine Is at the to act as a moderating force. For example, crossroads. Basic decisions must be made. foreign-flag companies would seem to be in They must be made by you, and every Amer- much the same position vis-a-vis each other scan concerned about our trade and eco- as would American companies in the event nomic growth. We cannot hope to make of a relaxation of trade route restrictions. every decision exactly right, but when the Yet there have not been a series of protracted alternatives are clear before the people their rate wars. record is pretty good. There is, of course, a perfectly legitimate T14 problem is worthy of our effort. basis for fearing the activities of an irrespon- sible "raider," an operator with no Interest whose sole aim is to skim off the cream of the trade at the peak of the season with ex- ceptionally low rates. But this problem can be solved without abandoning the whole idea of trade route, flexibility. There would seem to be no reason why a procedure could not be designed to sift the serious competitor from the fly-by-night. The present rigid system prevents com- panics from taking advantage of fluctuations in world trade. And to the extent that it is an effective shield against competition, it tends to insulate the companies on the trade route from the salutary effects of competi- tion. Finally, the present system puts into the hands of the Government too much of the question whether a shipowner will change trade routes. Finally, I would like to say a few words about what has come to be called an incen- tive operating subsidy. I have spoken about this issue at length in the past, and there is no reason to belabor it here. But there is one common misconception which I would like to clear up. A number of people have told me of their impression that the incentive subsidy is an economy measure-that we.will somehow end up with a lower subsidy bill. Nothing could be further from the truth. An incentive subsidy may result In increased productivity, higher profits and wages, and relatively less need for subsidy. But whatever the needs for subsidy may be they must be met if the industry is to continue. No one argues with that basic truth. I think that $380 million Is a substantial sum and, as Maritime Administrator, I feel an obligation to insure that it is spent in the most productive way possible. If it is being spent under a system which could be improved, then that standard has not been met. If it isproducing one less ship than it could, and I remain silent, I am not doing m job. In the shipping business, like most others, profits may be Increased by cutting costs or increasing revenues. But operators have little incentive to reduce subsidizable costs under the present system, for the Govern- went will simply pay them less in subsidy. This puts a responsibility on the Govern- ment alone to maximize the public's return from its subsidy bill. Often Government is forced to take positions which segments of labor and management find objectionable. But tinder the present system it Is inevitable. On the other side of the profit picture, one of the chief means for most businesses to increase the utilization of their capacity is by reducing rates. The conference system, however, precludes this. It would seem obvious then that the system could be substantially improved, especially by providing some meaningful in- centive to management and labor to cut costs--removing the Government from the process. As I see it, and as I hope you do, as well, there are many alternatives open to the American merchant marine. Each of our TICLE BY DR. HARROP A. FREE- MAN, CORNELL LAW SCHOOL Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have inserted in the RECORD an article by Dr. Harrop A. Freeman, professor of law, Cornell Law School, Ithaca, N.Y., entitled, "A Specu- lation on Vietnam." I hope some of the aids at the White House will read it and at least give the President a review of the article, because it expresses the point of view that the President ought to be following, instead of the warmaking pol- icy he is following in Vietnam. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: A SPECULATION ON VIETNAM (By D:r. Harrop A. Freeman, professor of law, Cornell Law School, Ithaca, N.Y.) The current temper of most liberals and peace-minded persons in the United States seems compounded of shock and terror, as the U.N. General Assembly virtually dissolves and the United States steps up the war in Vietnam withno apparent readiness to ne- gotiate. For myself, I prefer that the core of decision as to Vietnam be based on what the Vietnamese (north and south, Govern- ment and rebels) desire, and on the Viet- namese as people. (I shall later make some suggestions as to how to bring this into the political picture). The fact still remains that Vietnam has become a political problem not left to the Vietnamese and if there is to be any solution we must so deal with the problem. Without myself championing or advocat- ing that view, it may just be that politics see and are working out a solution either by design or accident, more immediate than we generally concede. I propose to examine some of the relevant factors. It is generally agreed that the United States throughout the past century has been able to operate the Pacific Ocean as an American lake and has sought, but never really had, a foothold on mainland Asia (the Dulles family has been central to this movement). The Defense Department found the network of British-French- Dutch possessions In Asia of utmost impor- tance in World War II against Japan, and cannot tolerate the thought that they should not be available in another Asian war (e.g., against China). The entry of Hawaii Into the Union, the independence of the Philippines, and the present stance of Japan have been used as further justifica- tion for, this policy. France held the line in Indochina for 10 years till 1954. We tried to persuade them and/or England to con- tinue. After the Geneva accord moved France out and created Cambodia, Laos, North and South Vietnam we took over military aid_ in 1955 to a South Vietnamese Government we installed. By 1955 the Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 4VNC RLSS1UNAL RECORD - SENATE 4049 Inc , and South ) foJn with he f hof _, gradually pushed back by . 25,000 (5) U.N., negotiation bid a larger role for the In dia, and Canada' foun d d both North Viet- regulars 50,000 to 75,000 irregulars. (5) .N., and nd at t the he same time save face. nam. and the The Saigon government does not now control Now, it seems to me that the recess of the United %44a to be v~plating articles 16-18 more than one-fourth of the people and U.N. General Assembly over the payment of of the accord, It is not tinportant to set one-fifth of the territory. assessments issue fits into this picture as a the stage for our discussion, to trace the The fourth aspect helpful in policy assess- seventh feature. Since America is aware of denial of elections, the changes of govern- ment is the known divergence of views be- the shakey legality of its position in South ment, the degree to which we were respon- tween Johnson-McNamara on the one hand Vietnam, if it feels it has a dirty job to do sible ht erefor, or the step-ul} of American and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (joined by the before negotiations can take place, then the military participation (from a few thousand "warhawks" of Congress) on the other. The wise thing to do is to close down the world's military, advisers to the present 30,000 President's position has been in the past debating forum wherein we might be called combat troops and jet air bombers), clearly a wait and see, stay in but don't to account. The United States had the cards The first point I am making is that U.S, escalate position and such war method was to either force the payment issue or to seem policy will not surrender a land, base In McNamara's war. But, apparently in getting to be conciliatory and put the issue over. south Asia. Not having signed the 1954 the reduction in military budget he wanted It apparently elected to play them for Geneva accord the United States. could have and in the difficult local situation in South suspension of the Assembly-a decision no recognized or legal base there. More Vietnam a compromise has been made with which makes most sense to me when related recently it has been deprived of any legal the warhawks for limited or safe escalation to the Vietnam crisis. base InLaos (1962 accord) or Cambodia (I suspect in return for agreement to nego- An eighth event that surely plays Its part (neutralist position); other Western foot- tiate out the problem under appropriate cir- in a variety of ways is the Chinese A-bomb. holds In Malaysia-Indonesia and Burma are cumstances-see below). That explosion notified all south Asian coun- disappearing; even Thailand (which has A fifth current factor was Kosygin's visit tries that China intends to become the great always picked the winner) is less certain. to North Vietnam. It was known in advance, Asian power. It tended to bring to the fore This fixes American policy to show a resolve the few American olicakers to hold some foothold, even if illegal, in and was soon confirmed, that he was going p ym who would South Vietnam at all cost, and to refuse any to advocate negotiation but also furnish like an excuse to bomb the e Chinese atomic negotiation which would remove us from Ho Chi Minh with antiaircraft guns and production facilities as a means of delaying Vietnam. missiles. President Johnson, Vice President Chinese power. It seems to have persuaded The second point flows from this. In HUMPHREY, and Secretary McNamara have Russia to reenter the south Asian scene. the order to give some semblance of a right to long stated the theory of negotiation: "No and South at South Vietnam has brought out eg ntiae from to North remain Tn Vietnam the United States must negotiated settlement in Vietnam is possible South Vietnamese a desire to obtain and atbecopt to prove that the war is as long as the Communist hope to achieve tralist zone na which mese war and obtan a nee- like Korea. That is, that the South Viet- victory by force * * ?. Once war seems e can become consolidated It efoefore China's influences can predominate. hamese are directed and supplied by North hopeless, then peace may be possibl." before Vietnam, that North Vietnam Is, actually (Johnson, Apr. 21, 1964); "Our task in Viet- for some way increasingly of i de gtes the necessity ainland waging war (that this is,. not a civil war) man is clearly to make aggression seem hope- into the world bri government nginnging community. China and violating the Geneva accord, that the less. Out of that new realization can come The growing American community, United States is now there on behalf of the new grounds for a negotiated settle- may be viewed rowing as a ninth relevant feet; Vietner- U.N. and world community to prevent and ment ? * ?. Premature negotiations can do haul it t may viay n be that the President's North Vietnamese violations. We little more than ratify the present achieve- pitulation to sosoomne escalation was to strength- have 's ca- punish therefore seen all of these developments ments of the aggressors and this we will not en his s side argument, h et recently: (a) revelation of 80 tons of North do" (HUMPHREY, Aug. 17, 1964). If Amer- voices for e negotiation aion and for the s withdrawal ca ca se ation and me Vietnamese arms. shipments sunk off South ica intended to make the war seem hopeless from the President's Vietnam, and a new "white paper," February to the North Vietnamese and Vietcong (who and he had to reeto recku own liberal Democrats, 27, 1966, supposedto conclusively show North were gradually winning) it needed to make the e d , the Di9k5). to stem Vietnam arming of the Vietcong; (b) proof new powerful sortees, and if possible it t tide (Newsweek, Mar. 1, 1965). It is not of 10,000 and estimates of 15,000 infiltrations needed to picture these as defensive or re- merely lved. ded enC URCH, M who in 1964 from the north, and the assertion taliatory. Further, if these were to be sue- are involved. Added are O hers, and even that half came. in 1964; (c) opinions that all cessful and at little cost (in loss of lives and me Case SS ELL, aGoRE, nd others, and even the original South Vietnamese had already equipment) they had to be prosecuted before yiEL? Men like RIaJanors th January th Associated ed and been exhausted by 1963 and that these new modern weaponry was furnished to the Mnve: In Jan te wed Sa orng recruits were North Vietnamese volunteers; north. Therefore the retaliation strikes from survey of 80 Senators showed 3 favoring (d) the story of the Ho Chi Minh trial the Gulf of Tonkin the end of last year and getting out of Vietnam at once, 10 desiring through Laos contrary our bombing por- those after Pleiku this month One or two immediate negotiation, and 31 favoring no- tions of Laos contrary to the 1962 agreement planes were lost instead of perliaps 20 to 25 if gotiation as soon as the military situation signed; (e) provocations in the Tonkin Gulf, they had faced land-to-air missiles later. improved: only 7 advocated bombing North at Pleiku and other sneak attacks directed by Now we seem to have settled back into the Vietnam or Amerma using combat troops. the Hanoi regime; (f) to which we could "oil spot" theory or Hop Tuck plan stepped Sources near the President-Joseph Alsop and did retaliate only against troop staging up by the Americans doing the flying and and Joseph Kraft-at the end of January areas in North Vietnam; (g) the coming of bombing, to extend the Saigon control into were indicating a rejection of the domino South Korean troops to aid in South Vietnam the provinces around Saigon and thus mark a theory, a recognition of the necessity for to give some semblance of International co- turn in the loss pattern. The air strikes negotiation, a feeling that the new coups operative action. against North Vietnam have occurred; right might be setting the stage, and they also The third factor to be Considered In assess- or wrong they are a fact. If they are to be evidenced opposition to this development. big present prospects Is that we were in fact used as positiont of strength, then negotia- The debate has continued strong now for losing the South Vietnamese yar with our tionmust follow almoetimmediately, Other- nearly a month in Government, in academic own weapons, on at least five`fronts. (1) wise the war will settle down into another circles, in the press. The Blue Book of the State Department stalemate and perhaps another loss pattern, The final factor to be considered is the in- (1961) Secretary Rusk's `Economic Club from Which we cannot continue to rescue creasing evidence that North Vietnam and speech (1963), and Secretary McNamara's ourselves by cries of attack and retaliation. both native sides in South Vietnam desire to National Security Association talk 11964) In fact, the present strikes seem to make no negotiate an end to the war, and that insofar pictured South Vietnam as an, economic sense except as prelude to prompt negotia- as bases of negotiation have been stated they miracle like West Germany but the new tion. involve continuance of two Vietnams, inde- Senate Foreign Relations Committee's A sixth element entering into present eval- pendence, neutralization, nonalinement with "Background Information" volume deletes uation is the increased interest of other China, and peaceful interrelations, a position all, this--because in fact with all our aid the countries In south Asia, as Walter Lippmann which should be acceptable to the United country is an economic shambles. (2) We has pointed out. In the 1950's the French States, can't even stage successful coups in South got out of Indochina, the British refused We cannot examine all the evidence, and Vietnam or Laps-we failed in three in the Dulles' request to help take over, they were we do not have all the evidence on this im- last 3 months, and there have been 8 Po- getting out of Malaya and Burma, the Rus- portant point. We do know: (a) that U litical upheavals in 14 months. Even with smans and European states generally were Thant reports North Vietnam's present will- $1.5-2 millien,per day we can't bolster up losing interest. in Laos and the whole area. ingness and readiness to negotiate on such and keep operating a government in Saigon. America essentially decided to go it alone, basis (February 27, 1965), (b) that the South (3) With. all the talk of infiltration and for- Now Indonesia's U.N. withdrawal, Malaysian Vietnamese Buddhist have at all times sign arms, it is still oflmially documented independence, the ideological conflict of favored such negotiation, (c) that the new that over Q0 percent of the Vietcong arms are Russia and China, the Gaulist independent power structure there (Ky, Vien, Thi) may captured American weapons and no North line, the Cambodian neutralism, and many embody this position, (d) that all the French Vietnarneke ,troops are being captured- other factors have caused Britain, Russia, news reports coming out of South Vietnam Pleiku. was elle by 100 Vietcong located France, China , and the U.N, countries gin- Indicate that the National Liberation Front 1,000 garde from the American airstrip, using erally to take a new interest in south Asian favors a neutral belt including, South Viet- American mortars. (4 A ) force of 500,000 affairs. This may mean an opportunity for nam, Cambodia, and Laos, (e) that ever since government troops and 25,000 Americans the United Stater, to accept a France-Rus- 1963 European diplomatic and intelligence Approved For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300,160029-1 4050 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE sources have stated that North Vietnam would be willing to accept a united or sepa- rated Vietnam guaranteed neutral and with- out interference from Peiping, Moscow, or Washington (New York Times, Nov. 7, 1963) (f) Dr. Bernard Fall, after interviews with Ho Chi Minh and his foreign secretary, found the same attitude in h 1962 aFall, "The st red Vietnams," 199), (g) to be the North Vietnamese position by Brit- ish Member of Parliament William Wesby as late as February 1, 1965, after his talks, (h) and that Walter Lippmann has consistently throughout 1964 seen such negotiations 'as feasible and with North Vietnam occupying an essentially Titoist position (e.g., May 28, What may all this add up to? Could it be something like this: 1. There never has been a time when mili- tary victory in Vietnam was possible. Even if military victory were possible, it could not achieve the political settlements required. The military presence has only rendered more difficult the civil conflict and prevented the independence, economic development and community necessary. There is only one ultimate possible course-to take the prob- lem to the conference table. 2. But, there is no point to reconvening the Geneva Conference or trying to reinstate the 1954 Geneva accord. The proposal to 90 do automatically gets the U.S. reply that until China and North Vietnam fulfill the agreements no purpose will be served by such conference. The 1954 conference represented the then interest in southeast Asia and those interests are not now the Same;. to reinstate that arrangement would merely underline the illegality of the U.S. position in Vietnam, the ?fact that the United States did not sign and is not a supervisor of that arrangement; many of the then provisions (e.g., for 1956 elections) are now applicable; Vietnam now requires treatment as part of the new picture of the whole Indochina peninsula. from being a moment of despair, the present The principles of the Geneva accords 3 hold the key to effec- s ma f ff i n t . ju y ure o a a r c (1954, 1962), however, are still sound and tive negotiation, avoiding the long 5- to 20- 20- i to the basis independent afree That nations year stalemate In southeast is which so is: : A A c ease-flre_ indepen many observers were predictiig. Mankind transt m foreign policy ki--M' --- an actual neutralized area); with all foreign military personnel, arms, and bases barred; free trade and mutual support be- tween North and South Vietnam; with these conditions guaranteed by the family of na- tions, and particularly the most concerned nations. 4. If the United States wants a foothold in Asia, it is better that it be given a legal one as one of the guarantors of the settlement, to be . checked by the others responsible and answerable to the U.N. and world commu- nity, rather than as a unilateral supporter of, a favorite. Those in the United States who urge U.S. withdrawal from its present Vietnam action should not fall backward into the pit of isolationism. 5. The negotiations should be primarily between Saigon and the National Liberation Front, with North Vietnam, the United States, and China in the background and joined in'guaranty of the final agreement by the U.N. and/or Russia, France, Great Brit- sin, and the Major Asian countries. This would avoid a direct V.S. confrontation with ld retain the facesaving fiction it w Chi ou na; that this war was not of our making; and attack of the Vietcong on a U.S. base in WAR WE CAN'T FIGHT" killed and 108 i cans were it allows for solutions (of a type I am sure which eight Amer will be required) acceptable to the Vietna- wounded. In addition, American planes or Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask mese, but which we have said we cannot ac- helicopters were destroyed. Promptly Presi- unanimous consent that there be in- cept. It would also be a most effective push dent Johnson ordered the air strike. It was serted in the RECORD an article by C. L. toward a stable, broadly representative and followed on Monday by a strike by the Viet- Sulzberger, from the New York Times of civilian government for South Vietnam. namese Air Force with an escort of U.S. fight- March 3, 1965, entitled "Foreign Affairs: 6. If the agreement could then be made a er planes. And on Monday President John- Oise Kof WWe Can't Fight," in U.N. document and U.N. supervision be as- son warned the Communist nations not to t," in. sured, some semblance of accepting the miscalculate American strength or American which he shares of War as a result the e view what that,we has been U.S. 1955-65 activity as in place of the U.N. will. could be maintained, and U.N. interest in The response from Moscow and Peiping labeled "McNamara's War." south Asia (to which the U.N. has paid lit- was denunciatory and threatening, but tle attention) might be assured. strictly verbal. Both Red centers put them- 7. A Vietnam settlement just might be a selves on record, but neither made an overt very important step in the larger picture of move by way of re-retaliation. It is obvious world peace. Two of the hardest problems though that these border raids may be built relate to mainland China: (a) How can the up into full scale warfare. rest of the world, and particularly the United This news from Vietnam is very depress- States, deal with her, and (b), how can ing. The ostensible purpose-to defend China's and Russia's relationship to each freedom-is badly blurred by the indifference other be kept in a form least harmful or most of the South Vietnamese to self-defense and helpful to the rest of the world? There are the antagonism of some to the presence of those who would never allow China to enter Americans. We are thus caught in a two- the U.N. and fear any negotiation with her front war-with the Vietcong, aided by their as breaking this isolation. There are those Red allies, and with the hostile South Viet who welcome ideological or political conflict namese. between Moscow and Peiping as Communist As far as the raid on the American base weakness. I submit that bringing China into is concerned, the success of the Vietcong is negotiations as to Laos and Vietnam is pre- humiliating. There had been a previous cisely the method for including her in the sneak attack that proved costly. Why was world community and encouraging her to not there proper security around this camp? keep the peace, without yet facing her ad- In the former raid we blamed the Vietnamese mission to the U.N. I also submit that every- forces for failure to observe the raiders. one knows that when the chips are down the Once stung, we should have put on adequate Communist countries will stand together, patrols of our own. Clearly an inquiry and the real question is whether in an en- should be initiated, if it has not been already. tente the ideological position will be moved This U.S. Navy plane strike was not made toward that of Russia (more favorable to the against the Vietcong who had staged their United States) or toward China (less favor- own attack, but against a staging area in able), and that negotiations on Vietnam at North Vietnam. The idea was to hit back at the behest of Russia and France would cer- North Vietnam as the supply source for the tainly move toward the Russian position. Vietcong. If we pursue that line we may 8. Finally, it would seem that a negotiated need to drop bombs on supply lines from settlement now could shift the whole empha- Red China. sis to a massive economic rehabilitation pro- Leaving aside the question as to whether gram, a great TVA for the whole Mekong we should stay in Vietnam or pull out, we Delta. I need not review how far such plans may explore this question: whether these and actual operations have gone, even dur- hit-run raids will be effective. In other tag the war; With the cooperation of both words, can we interdict the contribution of sides, and of the Commission report thereon, men and supplies from North Vietnam by or the great increase in U.S. nonmilitary aid. air strikes? It is doubtful. World War II Such a program would keep the interested showed that even saturation bombing was countries committed to the area-but in a only partially successful. It will be harder to paralyze North Vietnamese pattern; it would put attention mese supply depots and routes because guerrilla warfare doesn't back on people, the local people; it might be rely a demonstration of how development for on mountains of supplies and mass emergent countries could really occur. armies. _.. It may also be doubted that the punish support for the Vietcong. It may have the opposite effect--instill the Vietnamese to more active support of the Vietcong and hos- tility to the American "imperialists." One wonders if the President's order wasn't issued in part to kill off the rumor of a "deal" for the settlement in southeast Asia. THE WAR IN VIETNAM The coincidence of the visits of McGeorge Bundy to Saigon and Premier Kosygin of Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask the Soviet Union h y to Hanoi trying started tongues s unanimous consent to have inserted in wagging of deal. The Sunday were ryi to air set up some the RECORD an editorial from the kind flattened that talk. Each Interchange of Oregon Statesman on the same problem, bombs reduces the chance for peace by nego- which also expresses the point of view tiation and increases the chance of gradu- the Senator from Oregon has expressed ation into big scale fighting. so many times-that we ought to be All the Sunday air strike does is to show proceeding with honorable negotiations that we have power in the area which we instead of making war in Vietnam. can and will use, under certain provocation. There being no objection, the editorial It adds nothing to delineation of our long- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, range policy, and leaves us apparently run- ning on a treadmill, getting nowhere, hoping as follows: that our wind and strength will hold out [From the Salem (Oreg.) Statesman, Feb. 9, long enough to bring victory over the Viet- 1965] cong. IT SEEMS TO ME This is a chapter in A erican history (By Charles A. Sprague) which evokes little pride an arouses fear of The war escalator in Vietnam is working. deeper involvement. Under the name of retaliation U.S. Navy I.L Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 X9 Approved For Rel /1?6 ~? C1A-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 leT 55IC~lYc9~L -RECORD - R1 NA'rc There being no-objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as f4llpws: _ [From the New Xork Times, Mar. 3, 1965] FOREIGN AFFAIRS: ONE KIND QF WAR WE :CAN'T FIGHT' (By C. L. Sulzberger) PARIS.-Some wars become associated with the names of individuals, and thus we have the Napoleonic Wars, the Black Hawk War and the. Vi!ar, of, Jenkins' Ear. There have been tilpse Who, have sought to label the Vietnamese campaign "McNamara's War," after, the S. Secretary of Defense and, poli- tic id s as e, this is not, Wholly unjust. MC NAMARA'S INFLVENCE r For Secretary McNamara has clearly had more influence in our evolving Vietnam pol- icy than his senior colleague, Secretary Rusk, McNamara has been a familiar Saigon visi- tor; his former military right hand, General Taylor, is now Ambassador there; and U.S. Indochina strategy is more heavily marked by the Pentagon than by the State Depart- ment. American defense plans during the past decade have carefully and expensively pre- pared to fight the only kind of war we are least likely to,face, And we have not in any major sense prepared to fight the kind of war both Russia and China surely intend to press. When post-Stalinist Moscow endorsed peaceful coexistence it always reserved one vital area. It openly promised to support, wherever possible, what it calls "wars of liberation." Khrushchev tried to play a trick on us in Cuba, but he had to back down because he was patently not engaged In a liberation war-only in directly threat- ening our vital interests. Our strategy was prepared for such. a showdown. However, when the Communists stick to their own rules they have a demonstrated advantage. The modern elaboration of guerrilla techniques called "revolutionary warfare" by the Communists does not de- pend on heavy weapons or atomic arsenals. It depends upon simultaneous organization of partisan units and civilian administrators who seek to rot a selected country from within life fungus inside an apparently healthy tree. For years we refused to face the fact that, equipped as we were for holocaust, we had neither the trained manpower nor the polit- ical apparatus to_ fight revolutionary war- fare. To some degree, under both President Kennedy and the brilliant McNamara, this was rectified-but only in part. Even today, when we have growing special service coun- ter-guerrilla units, some with kindergarten training in revolutionary warfare, we are abysmally behind., It is expensive and ineffectual to blow up jungle acreage or fill It with paratroopers in search of vanishing guerrillas. And we have nothing capable of offsetting what revolu- tionary warfare calls "parallel hierarchies" (known in Vietnam as Dich-Van)-the secret political apparatus that undermines morale and softens up the population, U.S. strategy tends to shift according to availability of weapons systems. It has moved from "massive retaliation" to "flex- ible response" and from land bases to sea- borne armadas. But. while we are -.- res de t are the as su o a frightened man, one who rec- per- ?.- rockets, we risk losing -the world rillas, to . guer- ognizes that his brinkmanship could easily take the country into a war the Vietnam is "McNafnara's War" because, in American people will not long support. fighting it, we have overstressed the military and ignored the political aspect. We have, I can understand that the President is furthermore, been preoccupied with selling anxious that his Asian adventure not be an American way of life and political phi- discussed or analyzed by any but its losophy unsuited to the people we would architects and executors. But silence, help. FACING THE THREAT The heart of the crisis Is not truly in Viet- nam. The quintessential problem is how to defeat revolutionary warfare. Elsewhere in Asia and Africa we will continue to face the threat of this technique no matter what happens to the Vietnamese. That is Ines- capable. Not merely the aggressive Chinese but the relatively less aggressive Russians are com- mitted to sponsor "wars of liberation." De- spite this glaring truth, both in weapons and in training a are basically prepared alone for the warl our adversaries don't in- CHESSBOARD Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that there be inserted in the RECORD an article entitled "Viet Chessboard," from the San Francisco Examiner of February 26, 1965. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: VIET CHESSBOARD Both the military and diplomatic aspects of the fighting In Vietnam are stepping up. For the first time, American jet bombers manned by American crews have been in op- eration against the Communist Vietcong guerrillas in South Vietnam (as distinct from strikes against North Vietnam). Diplomacy is engaged on a wide front in exploring chances for negotiating a settle- ment. The activity includes the Paris-Mos- cow dialog, the quiet soundings of Prime Minister Wilson's government, and those of U Thant, Secretary General of the United Nations. Of all this subsurface seething, Mr. Thant's efforts (what has come to the surface, that is), seemed to be based on realism. He is not advocating, he emphasizes, immediate withdrawal of American forces. He recog- nizes that "some sort of stability" must come first. That is precisely why the Johnson admin- istration has refused to commit itself to negotiations now. There can be no worth- while negotiation until there is stability. There can be no stability until the Commu- nist guerrilla aggr ssions cease. ARTICLE ENTITLED "PRESIDENT CAUTIONS CRITICS OF VIET POL- ICY NOT TO FOMENT WAR" Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have inserted in the RECORD an article- with the headline "President Cautions Critics of Viet Pol- icy Not To Foment War." Here is one voice that will not be silenced by any propaganda coming out of the White House. It is not the critics of the Presi- dent who are fomenting war; it is the policies of the President of the United States that are fomenting war in Viet- nam. The American people ought to let him know that they do not want addi- tional American soldiers to die and they want that war to stop. i n The words of the P ?, .dotal, eri~l?j1,-wjR ex 4051 standing, are not the way a free people conduct their international affairs. There being no objection, the article was fol orlodwered:to be printed in the RECORD, s [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Max. 2, 1965] PRESIDENT CAUTIONS CRITICS OF VIET POLICY NOT To FOMENT WAR-JOHNSON REPORTED IRKED BY COMMENTS WITHIN OWN PARTY (By Carroll Kilpatrick) President Johnson took note of the con- tinuing debate on Vietnam policy yesterday with a warning that misunderstandings about America's true intentions could lead to war. With congressional critics apparently in mind, the President said that some of his predecessors have experienced more trouble from domestic than from foreign critics. The President, spoke at a White House cere- mony honoring winners of the Science Talent Search as new debate on Vietnam broke out on Capitol Hill. IKE HITS "SECOND-GUESSING" In Palm Desert, Calif., former President Eisenhower indirectly endorsed the Presi- dent's position. After a meeting with new Republican Na- tional Chairman Ray C. Bliss, the former President said that "if we fail to recognize the responsibility of the President we will divide the country." General Eisenhower said that If he dif- fered materially with the President he would communicate directly with him. He said that he and Bliss were not going to try to "second-guess" the President, Mr. Johnson has been unusually annoyed, it has been said, by Democratic Senators who have assailed America's position in southeast Asia. "PEACE IS FIRST PURSUIT" The President told the high school science winners that he hoped they would never ex- perience war. He said he prayed every day that "we won't have to call" on America's young people to fight again. "But rather than yield our liberty we will," he declared. While "peace is our first pursuit," he em- phasized, "we must defend freedom not only against enemies without but against enemies within.,"Some of the great Presidents who have lived in this house have found that misunder- standing in this country and problems that arose in this country, and leadership in this country, caused them really more troubles than leadership In the world," the President said. "That was true of Woodrow Wilson, that was true of Franklin D. Roosevelt, that was true of Harry S. Truman." It was even true of. President Eisenhower, Mr. Johnson added, "although i did all I could to minimize any of the great differ- ences." Mr. Johnson was Senate Democratic leader during General Eisenhower's two terms. The President said he had "not the slight- est doubt" that some wars have been brought about because of lack of understanding "among our own people, and the fact that we conveyed the impressions to others which they accepted and acted upon which were not really 'representative of the views of our country." While Mr. Johnson was speaking, Senate Majority Leader MIKE MANSFIELD Democrat, of Montana, told the Senate that the Presi- dent was "trying to keep the lid on a danger- ous volcano in southeast Asia." MANSFIELD praised the administration's "white paper" on Vietnam and denied charges that the administration has no policy in Viet- nam. But Senator WAYNE MORSE, Democrat, of pregon a, persistent critic, of adzzi nistrat;on Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67Bpqop446R0003001600'29-1 RESSIONAL RECORD SENATE 4 052 CONG policy, said that the white paper could "best Although the President's blueprint for uni- be described as a Swiss cheese" because it is versal prosperity has not yet beebuccedd siness so full of holes. specifics and revealed to a hopeful The United States sent thousands of men community, the influx of Industry represent- into South Vietnam, MORSE said, and ,now atives into the Greater District of Columbia we get excited because North Vietnam went area climate al confidence that now in. Why shouldn't they?" Senator WILLIAM PRQXMIRE, Democrat, of prevails in current Government-business re- Wisconsin, who has often differed with Mr. latiionships-the est In eCO a Washingtonhas reated Johnson on other matters, said the Presi- greater-than-ever dent's policies offer "the best chance for us whose residents confidently anticipate that to achieve an enduring peace in this complex the city is approaching e, new height of situation." Senator HOWARD W. CANNON, Democrat, of the pace aif Washington ce for eco om ceexpansion irethe Nat Nevada, commended PROxMIRE: for his speech, tin,, aw are unveiled almost daily a. "This is no time for negotiation. Even the discussion would lead our allies to believe we are abandoning them." Senator HUGH SCOTT, Republican, of Penn- sylvania, likewise strongly backed the Pres- ident. He praised him for his "candid" brief- Ing to Senators and said that Mr. Johnson "made it perfectly clear we intend to stay in Vietnam until our responsibilities have been achieved." "To negotiate from weakness," SeoTr went on, "would be to transfer the war to Thai- land. If Thailand goes, Burma goes, and India would be under the gun. The question is where do you stop running. We would cease to be a Pacific power', forced back' on Guam and the Hawaiian Islands." Senator ERNEST GRUENING, Democrat, of Alaska, a frequent critic of U.S. policy, said that the white paper added "no new facts to the already muddy water" in Vietnam. "We have been aiding South Vietnam on a scale far surpassing the aid given by North spre a Wyoming's Republican Senator MILWARD 1j. The aim of "strength greater prosperity at all levels said the United States had the of American life naturally would be of vast and power" to conclude Vietnam benefit to American business-for business war and should do se. serves and sells to all levels of citizens. Thus Republican, in the House, of Wisconsin, i Representative thate fan, the President has done nothing to indi- R. LAIRD, h expected the foto nsin, seek some cats that he will pursue his grandiose goals sort the administration by pinging upon the domain of private tonegotiated settlement to get out t of enterprise to a-sufficient degree to arouse pro- the "I impossible situation" in Vietnam. tests "There Is, in my mind, little doubt that The existing rapprochement, and the rose- toedstant in future n will. end In of not- ate foretokens of continued cordial relations, p om ised s fturin some cannot sort a con= on the public-private front enhance the im- Fed- le d to settlement that ckeoverbu" portance of Washington, the seat of the Fed- L,ir said. eventual Communist takeover," eral Government, in the councils of business LAIRD and industrial leaders in New York, Detroit, M. New Nixon York, former Vice President Rich- Chicago, Pittsburgh, and other financial rind In repeated his proposal sident proposal for naval centers. and air strikes against military targets in Businessmen are watchfully waiting to see North Vietnam. how the administration will face up to the "'The 'White paper contains the s 'clear and cons inescapable responsibilities that accompany elusive' South Vietnam that the United States against it its elevated stature as the free world's most Nixon said. important economic power. They await agression South from North th Vietnam," itself agggress proof of a determination to achieve a sound, strong domestic economy with stable prices ARTICLE ENTITLED "HARMONY and an adequate growth rate without addi- tional crippling controls upon businesses or PREVAILS BETWEEN BUSINESS Individuals. AND GOVERNMENT" If these accomplishments are forthcoming, the White House is certain to retain prompt, Mr. MCNAMARA. Mr. President, the easy access to the inventiveness and prag- February 1958 issue of the publication, matie experience of many men whose genius Washington World, contained an arti- has taken them to the helm of giant corpo- cle entitled "Harmony Prevails Between rations. Business and Government." Nation's Business, published monthly by Because this article points up the con- the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, chose "Business and Government" for fidence that business, together with other Its January cover story. Corporate leaders segments of our meriti scene, have in spoke frankly on their interpretations of the the Johnson administraaton, I ask unani- proper roles of Government in the Nation's mous consent that its text be printed in economy. The article concluded with this the CONGRESSIONALRECORD. statement by Henry Ford II: There being no objection, the article When Government economic policies are was ordered to be Printed in the RECORD, wisely chosen and wisely and efficiently ap- 8s follows: - - plied, when they work with rather than against market forces, when they are di- ItiAXONY PREVAII S BETWEEN BUSINESS AND rected at the causes rather than the symp- GOVERNMENT toms of ec omicproblems, when they give The eyes of the Nation remain on Wash- due weight to unintended results as well as lligtoil as U.S. businessmenContinue to ex- the direct goals of any given measure, when Molt an attitude of fingers-crossed optimism they expand'rather than contract the oppor- toward the Johnson administration. tunities of free men-when such conditions March 4 are met, then we can be sure our Government is assuming Its proper economic role." The cooperation and advice that the busi- ness sector seems willing to contribute are desperately desired and activelysought by President Johnson. In turn, corporate ex- ecutives are manifesting greater confidence because they are convinced the President realizes he needs a lasting partnership of business and industry with the Federal Establishment. Because industry and Government equally appreciate the present mutually advanta- geous rapport, businessmen are expected to travel to Washington in increasing numbers during the next few years, both as individual visitors and to attend meetings and conven- tions of their trade associations and other professional groups, insuring even greater development of the city. MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Repre- sentatives, by Mr. Hackney, one of its reading clerks, announced that the House had agreed to the report of the commit- tee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 45) to amend the Inter-American Development Bank Act to authorize the United States to par- ticipate in an increase in the resources of the Fund for Special Operations of the Inter-American Development Bank. to beautify, renew, build, ana reouuu, i - tending an expanding role for the city in the Great Society of the immediate future. Besides massive public and private con- struction of office space in recent years, a sizable portion of the aggregate spending has been disbursed by people investing in the hospitality services which cater to conven- tions and casual visitors alike. Lyndon B. Johnson adopted the Great So- ciety as his slogan soon after he became President. His hopes and dreams were out- lined in generalities in last month's inau- gural speech and in his state of the Union address. The annual budget message con- tained some details on implementation of the program, and there will be other special messages to Congress which hopefully will elaborate still more. The.principal objection so far raised to the Great Society is that it tries to provide--or at least to promise-something for every- body. That objection, of course, embodies the very reason it has received such wide- DEATH OF DR. HERBERT CARLYLE LIBBY Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, in the passing of Dr. Herbert Carlyle Libby, of Waterville, Maine, and Pemaquid, Maine, the State of Maine has lost one of its most illustrious sons. He was an outstanding scholar and statesman and a leader of magnificent proportions. The world in which we live was a better place because of him. He was one of the early political lib- erals in Maine although in his later years he grew more conservative. He was the wise counselor and friend of innumerable Maine citizens and he molded many of the young students he taught into future leaders. He was one of my very best friends for without him I would not now be in the U.S. Senate. In fact, he was the manager of my very first campaign back in 1940 when I first ran for the House of Repre- sentatives. To him I owed so very much. In his passing, I extend my deepest sympathy to Mrs. Libby and the family. I ask unanimous consent that the lead editorial of the March 1, 1965, issue of the Waterville, Maine, Sentinel be placed in the RECORD at this point as it so ca- pably evaluates Dr. Libby. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Waterville (Maine) Morning Seri- tinel,-Mar. 1, 1965] HIS INFLUENCE SURVIVES HIM Colby College recently established a Her- bert Carlyle Libby Prize in Public Address. It. will go to the best speaker in the college and is a fitting memorial to the vigorous man for whom it is named. Dr. Libby, who died Saturday, had as one of his many duties while on the college staff the instruction of public speaking and throughout his life he was an active par- ticipant in public affairs. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160029-1