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Approved' For Release 2003/10/10: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 1965_ CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX dom. We must guard It well, so that future generations will enjoy true democracy. - Our country is now in the midst of a cold war. We are caught in a struggle of forces from outside as well as from Inside the United 'States . These crises are testing our ability to carry out our responsibilities as citizens who are sincerely interested in the welfare of their country. Can we pass this test? We must. For, it is our generation which must cope with these problems. If our freedom is to survive, it is up to us. In the words of Franklin Delano Roose- velt: "To some generations, much is. given. From some generations, much is expected. This generation of Americans has a rendez- The Nation's Traffic, Toll EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JOHN A. RACE OF WISCONSIN IN .THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. RACE. Mr. Speaker, the Nation's traffic toll is certainly a concern of most Americans, Television station WTMJ in Milwaukee, Wis., has some interesting comments on this, serious problem, which I would like to call to the attention of my colleagues: Many times simple devices have solved old and troublesome problems. Take the case of Oconomowoc with Its many grade cross- ings and high-speed trains running through the center of the city. Fifty-one persons died and hundreds of others were injured in train-auto crashes in Oconomowoc since 1911. Several months ago the .city installed stop .signs at all its crossings. While this apparently has solved Oconomowoc's prob- lem, the city is going even further by elimi- nating some of the crossings. Nationwide, as in Wisconsin, the traffic safety record is a, disgrace. That's why our Stations are promoting a 10-point safety code for legislation designed to cope with the problem. Take another simple device, a -Beat belt. It gives an occupant of a car a five times better chance of escaping death in an accident than one who doesn't wear it. Yet many people who have belts in their cars don't use them. ' It's a strange situation when most auto- mobile buyers seem to be more interested in horsepower and body style than they are about safety factors. As a result, the Fed- eral Government has found it necessary to act. Its General Services Administration, Which buys 50,000 automobiles a year for Federal use, has set down some rugged safety features for the 1967 models it purchases. On its own, the auto industry has brought about many safety innovations throughout the years. The Government is prodding it to do more. Only recently the industry an- nounced its 1966 models would be equipped with rear as well as front seat belts. The Government is demanding the rear belts for its cars and lap and shoulder belts for the front seats, in addition to several other safety features. Following last year's toll of 47,000 highway deaths, Congress is exhibiting even greater concern over the problem. Wisconsin's Sen- ator N`r;LSON not only has proposed that the devices, delpaAided..for Federal cars be built iui o autos,purchased, by the public, he also has urged that the Government develop a prototype safety car. One of the first, things A931 Governor Knowles did upon taking office was So appealing is this myth of the trapped to pledge his administration to a concerted and downtrodden Appalachian that just be- attack on the highway accident rate. fore Christmas, when the Columbia Broad- Despite all these efforts, there will still be casting System put out a. heart-rending a need for the drivers themselves to adopt an documentary on eastern Kentucky, 150 tons attitude which puts safety first. of goods and $57,000 in cash were rushed to America Afflicted by Poor Mouth Syndrome EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. SAMUEL L. DEVINE Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. DEVINE. Mr, Speaker, on the day the House is rushing headlong into the so-called Appalachia panacea, I think Jenkin Lloyd Jones' column "America Afflicted by Poor Mouth Syndrome" is most appropriate. The column follows: AMERICA AFFLICTED BY POOR MOUTH SYNDROME Like hogs grunting to the trough, Con- gressmen are clamoring to get their districts declared "Appalachias." The President's original Appalachia uplift plan has called for an initial expenditure of a billion dollars in 11 States along the Ap- palachian Ridge. Now Senator JOHN MCCLELLAN has come up with an amendment to the Appalachia bill to include 36 Missouri counties and 21 Arkansas counties. Senator FRED HARRIS wants to add 19. Oklahoma counties. Sena- tor EDWARD KENNEDY Says "We in New Eng- land must be ready to advise the President of our needs when this new legislation (Ap- palachia) becomes effective." Senator JOSEPH MONTOYA is insisting that the entire four corners country of New Mexico, Colo- rado, Arizona, and Utah be Ap'palachianized. Who wants to bet that the Appalachians won't soon reach clear to Alaska? In the old days it was the custom of American communities to boast of their wealth, or at least their bright prospects. The homestead dodgers glowed with promise. The railroad agents regaled immigrants with Utopian visions. The boom towns sent forth their bands and booster trains. And the chamber of commerce tradition, the think- big, can-do, talk-it-up brand of self-hypno- tism started in America when Capt. John Smith described the miasmic swamps of Jamestown Island as a "faire and prettye land." But while Charles Dickens saw only Amer- ica's mud, bad table manners, and spittoons, and while Sinclair Lewis and H. L. Mencken hooted at our Babbittisms, this American habit of putting up a bold front and flashing a toothpaste smile paid fantastic dividends. The tent towns became shack towns and the shacks gave way to paint and trim. Your community was supposed to be a proud thing. This pride made a great nation. The im- migrant may have come from a Moldavian village that had drawn water from the same well for a thousand years, but 5 years after his arrival at a signpost along the Kansas railroad he was burning his fingers on sky- rockets to celebrate the opening of the town waterworks. But now we weep for Appalachia. A legend grows. Millions of Americans are allegedly held prisoners in accursed regions. They are, to use the euphemisms of the hour, "dis- advantaged," "deprived," "underprivileged." They must be rescued by a vast and special outpouring of Federal funds. the region by distressed Americans. Now, maybe we ought to knock off some of the sentimental sobbing and political hand- wringing about America's Appalachias and ask ourselves how come. Some regions are in trouble because coal 'loaders have replaced bituminous miners. Some are in a jam because oil and gas are better and cheaper fuels than anthracite The miner who was thrown out of work after 40 needs special consideration. He must either be retrained into a marketable skill or supported in some degree for the rest of his life. But there is usually a good economic rea- son why an industry has not hurried into Appalachia. And there must be a limit to the sympathy productive Americans should lavish on the able-bodied man who sits on his cabin porch year after year waiting for someone to bring him a job. County Judge Willie Kirk, of Martin County, Ky., said last month: "You'll find about 80 percent of our people just looking for another handout." And he added that some local families have been unemployed for three generations. If the roads through Appalachia are poor they are at least passable. A young man can get out. And in three generations, someone else has built. Houston, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Anchorage, and Honolulu. Appalachia is no stranger to the Federal dollar. The entire TVA is in Appalachia. The gigantic $1.2 billion Arkansas River proj- ect will touch many of the counties which Senators MCCLELLAN and HARRIS would add to Appalachia. The Four Corners country is the home of some of our most expensive and chology. Is our famous local pride going to be replaced by poor-mouth contests? Are Americans going to put on their dirtiest shirts and raggedest fishing pants and go crying their deprivations and disadvantages to Washington? That isn't the way this country was built and it will not be the formula for its pres- ervation. Obsolete and Duplicated Agricultural Research EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS C. McGRATH OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr..McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, in the Washington Daily News edition of Mon- day, March 1, there appeared an edi- torial which presented a thoughtful case for the administration's attempt to re- duce or eliminate obsolete and duplicated agricultural research. The editorial, entitled "Bamboozled," read as follows: The administration makes a clear and sensible case in its proposal to reduce or eliminate obsolete, inefficient and duplicated agricultural research. It deserves the sup- port of Congress and encouragement to act further. Why, for example, should the taxpayers continue paying for research on bamboo, Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 A932 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX March 3 which isn't even grown commercially in this country? They shouldn't. What remains to be taught farmers about breeding of rabbits? Little, if anything. What is left, after almost 80 years, to be learned about irrigation and dryland farm- ing in certain areas? Very little. Why shouldn't private industry take over research into fabrics, kitchen design and food wholesaling? It should. As is already obvious, many Congress- men--economy- and efficiency-minded Con- gressmen, mind you-are screaming. They are alarmed at the loss of hometown, home- State boondoggling. But they are yelping up the wrong tree-bamboo or other-we think. I commend this editorial to my fellow Members and urge that they give thought to its message. Successful Flight of Ranger V1II Gives Space Program a Big Boost EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. TEAGUE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I include an article by Bill Gold which appeared in the February 20, 1965 edition of the Washington Post which to me conveys an atmosphere which I have found to exist in many people's minds, that they are now believing this country can put a man on the moon. At the very least, they believe we are now capable of doing it, which in my mind is more im- portant than actually placing a man there. DISTANT TOMoasow Is NEAR AT - HAND would be found in vast areas Into which no man had ever ventured. Yet there have also been surprises for our scientists-things they hadn't expected to encounter. And one must now wonder- what sorts of surprises the moon will hold for us, and what sorts of new vistas. it will open. People sometimes ask whether we're spending too much on our moon projects, . but I've never been concerned over the ques- tion. I have the feeling that the times force decisions of this kind on people. The cir- cumstances that prevail at historic moments produce reactions that move men inexorably in the only direction that seems natural under those circumstances. When the Russians put up their first sput- nik, our leaders spoke slightingly of the achievement. Emmet John Hughes says in "The Ordeal of Power": "Sherman Adams, in a rare display of shallow partisanship, dis- paraged all public concern with 'an outer space basketball game"' Secretary of De- fense Charles E. Wilson, who had just re- tired from office, called it "a nice technical trick." President Eisenhower assured re- porters that "the satellite itself * * * does not raise my apprehensions, not one Iota." But it seemed very plain to most people that a new door had been opened into the heavens, that others had already passed through that door for a glimpse of what lay on the other side, and that either we'd join the mass movement In that direction or we'd be left behind. So we joined the mass movement. It seemed to me that there was never any doubt about what we'd do. There are strange and wonderful mysteries out there in the uni- verse, and instinct tells us to pursue them. It's hard to believe that we're now al- most ready to take this next big step into space. The years ahead may turn out to be the most rewarding in history-especially if we don't blow ourselves up in an atomic war meantime. 1 V We Set the Example in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT H. MICHEL OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 WE SET TFIE EXAMPLE IN VIETNAM (By C. L. Dancey) As the game of musical chairs continues in South Vietnam's Government, let us face the obvious truth that we bear a heavy share of responsibility for these political events. It is all very well for Senator MANSFIELD to get up in the Senate and pronounce that we are getting tired of the jealous generals who are endangering the safety of South Vietnam by their endless coups. It is all very well for our Government to complain bitterly about the failures to estab- lish a civilian government. But we only have to go back to where this whole series of military coups and military rule began to face the fact that we set the example, we started it, and we established the precedent. - We wanted to get rid of Diem, who we felt wasn't doing as good a job as- could be done, and wasn't pushing the reforms we wanted in the civil life of the nation. All doubtless true and valid criticism. And we got rid of him-but how? We announced that we were dissatisfied with Diem. We announced that we didn't believe the military leaders supported some Diem actions-an announcement openly de- scribed at the time by all observers as a straight out invitation to the military to depose Diem. Then we spelled it out further by leaking information that we expected him to be over- thrown. Finally, we spelled it out flatly by cutting off funds to Diem's personal troops and gov- ernment and continuing funds to the army units under more or less independent com- mands. And who knows what else via our secret agents? Diem's overthrow in the first of the mili- tary coups followed, amid considerable joy and self-congratulation in Washington. D.C.-dampened only by the sobering item that he was also assassinated. We promptly endorsed the new military government. Then, we started to talk about reforms a$d a civilian government. But actions speak louder than words. Ex- ample is a more effective teacher than the finest of statements of principle. The action was before them. The example was before them. The precedent was be- fore them. The experience was before them, that the road to power is a military coup. Ranger VIII was "right on the money" at last report. If all goes well; it will have land- ed on the moon by the time this newspaper is placed at your front door. Scientists hope to get 4,000 pictures from Ranger VIII, and they say that this batch may be better than the photographs produced by Ranger VII last July. The pictures last summer stirred my imagi- nation to unaccustomed levels of activity. If today's picturesare better, I may have to withdraw into a fanciful world of my own for a few days until the effect wears off. Speculation about exploring the moon didn't excite me much at first because the idea seemed as farfetched as a science- fiction plot. This wasn't a project that I really expected to see undertaken in my time. It was a dream for some distant tomorrow-- and I'm too preoccupied with trying to sur- vive today to worry about distant tomorrows. But here we are moving in for closeups already, and even my reactionary mind is willing to accept the likelihood that the next step will follow shortly: we will land a cam- era on the moon gently enough for it to continue to send back on-the-spot pictures. Is it possible to contemplate this eventu- ality without tingling a bit at the prospect and wondering: "What will we see?" The accuracy of the world's scientific com- munity has been uncanny in recent years. Specialists in several fields have been able to foretell what would happen when we passed previously uncrossed boundaries. They've been able to predict much of what We thus established a climate in which every officer of rank could dream of being the head of the nation, and of achieving that position at a single stroke by the technique we had just taught them. The coups have followed endlessly. And now we throw up our hands in despair and contempt at those ungrateful, foolish, irresponsible. undemocratic, doublecrossing, jealous generals. This is not the way we educated them to act, we say. It's hard to teach these people how to operate. That excuse is not true. This may not be the way we educated them to act in our military classrooms for Vietnamese officers, but this is precisely the way we educated them to act in practice. We cannot duck our full share of respon- sibility for the political mess In Vietnam. We set it up. We outsmarted ourselves. We refused to recognize the practical and earthy effects of our own actions. And it is with sadness and frustration, not with pride, that we at this newspaper add that we were close enough to the grassroots and far enough from the ivory tower to be fearful of just this sort of thing, and to have expressed our fear that our policy was setting off a chain political reaction at the outset. Sad because of the consequences to Our country and the cause of freedom. Mr. MICHEL. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Dancey in his editorial of February 27, 1965, in the Peoria Journal Star points out that we must bear a heavy share of responsibility for so-called political events in Vietnam. I pointed out in my radio broadcast of February 18, 1965, that a dangerous school of thought pre- vailed within the administration at the time of the murder of Diem. When we proceeded on the assumption that politi- cal reform had to come before military victory, we were on dangerous ground. I have been told by one in good authority that to the chief of state of another country, friendly to the United States, the murder of Diem meant just three things: It is dangerous to be a friend of the United States; it pays to be a neu- tral; it sometimes helils to be an enemy. Mr. Speaker, Charles Dancey points out as I did in my broadcast that this same deadly pattern seems to be engulf- ing some of our policy decisions in Vietnam today. Under unanimous con- sent, I include the editorial at this point: Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 7;965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX Frustrated because if someone. no. closer to Groundwork is only part of Shook's mis- the scene than we_could see this seemingly Sion. As forward air controller he has flown obvious down-to-earth result; somebody in more than 500 sorties over Vietnam. the high council of this Nation ought to have SEVEN PLANES USED seen it, certainly. But we didn't see a single "liberal" voice "Hits?" he laughs. "Yes, I've had my share. raised against a military coup and a military The O-1F is not armor plated, you know. It dictatorship engineered by our liberal Gov- absorbs ground fire like a towed target on the ernment, gunnery range." It struck. us as just another example of how Shook says he used up seven airplanes in a flexible the liberal moral principles and year. Each received so much battle damage boasted high ideals are when it is a question it had to be replaced. of raw power used to further their own proj- Finally the law of averages caught up with ects. Shook. He was wounded when a .30-caliber- They only hate power when it is in some- machinegun bullet came up through the one else's hands, it seems, in far too many canopy, the windshield and the right window cases. And in such cases, the self-styled of his plane. liberal is no liberal at all. He is a fake. "The plexiglas seemed to explode," Shook It's a distinction that needs to be made said. "Although I was hit in the forehead if we are to make sense out of our own and right arm with shrapnel from the blasted politics here in the United States, as well as compass oh the instrument panel, it really in places like South Vietnam. didn't amount to much. I flew the plane l 11 b k l i San Diego Pilot Wins His 11th Air Medal EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. BOB WILSON OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, it is `fitting in view of the great many dedi- cated Americans currently serving in Vietnam that I should call my colleagues attention to the exceptional service and dedication exemplified there by a fellow San Diego citizen, Capt. Howard Shook. Just recently he was awarded his 11th Air Medal because of his relentless and honorable service in our behalf. The following article appeared on February 24 in the San Diego Union and it speaks well of our pride in counting this brave man as a fellow citizein: SAN DIEGO PILOT WINS His 11TH AIR MEDAL IN VIETNAMESE WAR TAY NINH, SOUTH VIETNAM.-Capt. Howard Shook of San Diego waited a long time to fly. 'Ne was 13 when he soloed. Now he is a much- ,decorated U.S. Air Force pilot in strife-torn Vietnam-forward air controller with the 24 Air Division. He has won 11 Air Medals for his missions over Vietnam. Shook began flying as a crop duster to pay his way through San Diego State. It paid off. He made it, with a few dollars to spare. TO VIETNAM The captain was assigned to Vietnam in February 1964. He was sent here to one of the most Vietcong-infested areas in the country. "It was an interesting welcome I received at Tay Ninh Province," he grins. "The pro- vince chief assured me that 90 percent of the land here is owned by the Vietcong." For 10 months Shook was the only U.S. Air Force officer in the Army compound at Tay Ninh. While the forward air controller normally flies the O-1F, a single-engine light plane used for marking targets for the heavier bombers the A-1E's and A-111's-Shook also has worked with the ground troops. In June, for example, Shook directed an air strike from the ground, working with Vietnamese troops. It turned out to be one of the largest air strikes of the Vietnamese conflict. Shook,recalis that there were 26 sorties of A-1E's and A-1H's in a 4-hour period. The ground count later confirmed more than 300 Vietcong were killed by fire from the air. h ac and aided w tout any troube. . Shook soon plans to return to his wife, Barbara, at 4536 37th Street, San Diego, for leave before reporting to Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. Then he'll be back in jet fighters again. Iowa Strings Near Perfection EXTENSION OF REMARKS - OF HON. JOHN R. SCHMIDHAUSEII IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. SCHMIDHAUSER. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to have this opportunity to commend the Iowa String Quartet of the University of Iowa and the players Allen Ohmes and John Ferrell, violins; William Pruecil, viola; and Joel Krosnick, cello; for an outstanding performance here in Washington, D.C. These musicians are examples of the excellence which Iowans have attained in many areas. The southeast section of the great State of Iowa, particularly Iowa City is rapidly becoming the cultural cen- ter of the Midwest. I am proud to repre- sent this district in Congress. I invite the attention of my colleagues to ? the remarks made by Donald M. Mc- Corkle, music critic, in the Washington, D.C., Evening Star of March 1, 1965. To allow my colleagues and readers of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD the opportunity of learning more of these Iowa musicians, under unanimous consent I include the Star's statements in the Appendix of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD: IOWA STRINGS NEAR PERFECTION (By Donald M. McCorkle) (Iowa String Quartet (Allen Ohmes and John Ferrell, violins; William Preucil, viola; Joel Krosnick, cello). At the Phillips Collec- tion. Program: Quartet in A, K,'464, Mozart; String Quartet, op. 3, Berg; Quartet in E Minor, Op. 44, No. 2 Mendelssohn.) The first thing one noticed at yesterday afternoon's concert at the Phillips Collection was the extraordinary fine quality of the program book, which was designed for the entire 1964-65 season of the Iowa String Quartet, both at home and on tour. The program notes by the University of Iowa's musicologist, E. Eugene Helm, are a model of 1rilliant annotation. The second thing one noticed was the extraordinarily fine atmosphere and acoustics at the Phillips Collection recital hall, a com- bination offering perfect incentive for a per- fect concert. A933 With these admirable requisites at hand, it was possibly inevitable that the perform- ance by the Iowa String Quartet woul4i be very near perfection, and it was. These four players played a brilliant performance of an extremely formidable program of Mozart, Berg, and Mendelssohn. Their playing was so secure and superb that one was able to concentrate entirely on the compositions themselves, rather than on the players' tech- niques which often obscure the music. The Mozart A Major Quartet, K. 464 strikes the hearing as being among the most ro- mantic pieces Mozart ever wrote. It com- blAes exquisite contrapuntal, interweaving lines with a thick and rich texture rarely found in Mozart. The lovely Andante is a bitter-sweet masterpiece. If the Mozart was golden, the Alban Berg was more nearly like stainless steel, with its sharp cutting edge, precision, and cold beauty. It's an early work, and so lacks the mature lyricism of the Violin Concerto. All in all, it's an almost oppressive quartet, for the two movements are long, thick, disso- nant, contrapuntal, and of utmost melodic and rhythmic complexity. In places there Is, some comic relief, as in the wonderful glissandos and sinister trem- olos in the second movement. After intermission the quartet shifted to the silver of Mendelssohn, for the exquisite E Minor Quartet. As with the rest of the program, this was magnificently performed, with each part perfectly blended and full- bodied, and the broad contours and details excellently sculpted. The Iowa String Quartet played with superb precision, warmth, and artistry, and leaves little doubt that it is among the very first rank of American University string quartets. Independence of Morocco EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ADAM C. POWELL OF.NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. POWELL. Mr. Speaker, today marks the ninth anniversary of the inde- pendence of Morocco. On this momen- tous occasion, we would like to extend warm felicitations to His Majesty King Hassan II; and to His Excellency All Bengelloun, the Moroccan Ambassador to the United States. Independence days are of great sig- nificance to new members of the world's community of nations. We should, at the same time, not forget the opportunity they afford us of recalling the past and evaluating the present. ? This is the ninth anniversary of Morocco-a re- cently independent country, yet one of the oldest independent monarchies in the world. The first recorded inhabitants of Morocco were the Berbers, whom all the civilizations of the ancient world fought in order to establish their outposts there. The Phoenicians and the Carthaginians established trading posts along both the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; fol- lowing them came the Romans, who built cities at Tangier, Volubilis, and many other places, the ruins of which are still visible today. When the Roman Empire declined, the Vandal tribes crossed the straits and invaded the northern coast. By the middle of the seventh century Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 A934 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX March 9 A.D., the only remnant of the glory of Rome was the city-state of Ceuta, gov- erned in the name of the eastern Roman Empire. In the latter half of the seventh cen- tury the Arab armies, sweeping out of the Arabian Peninsula to spread Islam to the world, entered Morocco. Nearly the entire population of the country, includ- ing the Berber tribesmen, were converted to the new faith, and the conquering armies of Islam moved in new direc- tions-this time across the Straits of Gibralter into Spain and southern France. The fierce independence of the Ber- bers, as well as the spread of heterodox ideas within the new religion, however, soon led to a rebellion in Morocco, which had as its consequence the rise of several small Muslim principalities. The first of the great Muslim dynasties to rule Morocco, the Idrisids, arose soon there- after, attempting to unify the many smaller units into one whole. They founded the city of Fez, which became a 'notable center of Muslim life and civilization. And, they can be consid- ered the founders of the first Moroccan state. indicating it might be more accu- rate for us today to be celebrating the 1,200th anniversary of that country's independence. Over the years. other dynasties rose to take the place of previous ones when their energy and ability had waned. There were the famous Al?-Moravids, who established Morocco as one of the great medieval powers. They extended their power and influence across North Africa and into Muslim Spain, thus bringing Morocco into the rich milieu of Anda- lusian civilization, which has left its in- delible print on Moroccan life and cul- ture. The Al-Moravids were replaced by the Al-Mohades, who kept Morocco as the greatest Muslim Empire of the West and led the country through one of its golden ages. They in turn were replaced by the Merinids and the Saad- fan Kings until the 17th century, when the family which guides the destiny of Morocco to the present day arose. Known usually as the Alawi House, and under their able rule, Morocco was thoroughly pacified and solidly united. We as. Americans have good reason to have friendly feelings toward this family, for Morocco under their rule was one of the first powers in the world to recog- nize our independence; the early treaties of friendship, trade, and good relations were drafted and signed by men such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and George Washington, who had reason to appreciate Morocco's recognition and assistance. Were it not for the brief period of colonial rule between 1912 and 1956, we could even be celebrating the 306th an- niversary of the accession of the present house, whose vigor and popularity is demonstrated by their leadership of Morocco in the 20th century in regain- ing independence. Under the present King, Hasan II, Morocco is making great strides in all fields of activity. Able, energetic, and democratic, he has given the country a new constitution, promoted foreign investment, and is determined to bring about the rapid economic develop- ment of his country. On this anniversary of Morocco's in- dependence, we salute that country's peo- ple, king, and the goals for which they strive together. We hope that together they will soon create in Morocco a new golden age for that historic country. Julian "Pappy" Van Winkle EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES P. FARNSLEY OF KENTUCKY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 3, 1965 Mr. FARNSLEY. Mr. Speaker, Ken- tucky lost a famous and highly regarded citizen on February 16 with the death of Julius P. Van Winkle, the dean of Ameri- can bourbonmakers. Mr. Van Winkle did much for Ken- tucky and for the industry of which his company is a respected member. I wish to include at this point an edi- torial from the Louisville Courier-Jour- nal of February 18 and several other articles that appeared in other promi- nent publications in tribute to Mr. Van Winkle. The articles follow: -[From the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal, Feb. 18,1965] HE WAS A GRAND OLD KENTUCKIAN Julian "Pappy" Van Winkle, the grand old man of the Kentucky bourbon Industry, is dead at 90, and with him died a little of the tradition, lore, and, yes, blarney, that have made Kentucky famous. Van Winkle was old-fashioned, conserva- tive, and opinionated, and he wanted every- one to know it. He was also a consummate salesman who knew that a Nation of gray- flannel conformists secretly admires the homespun virtues. Legions of magazine readers will miss the stern yet kindly face that stared them right in the eye from the masthead of his adver- tisements. Indirectly, his promotions did much to benefit Kentucky. For instance, as the oldest active distilling company execu- tive in the Nation until his retirement last October, he could make the unique claim that all 90 Kentucky Derbies were run in his lieftime. His advice, like his marvelous stories about life in Danville, was worth listening to. He invited people to enjoy his product the same way he did-in moderation. [From the New York (N.Y.) Times Feb. 18, 1965] JULIAN P. VAN WINKLE, 90, DIES-LONGTIME DISTILLER OF BOURBON LOUISVILLE, KY.-Julian P. Van Winkle the dean of American bourbon makers, died at his home here last night. He was 90 years old. Mr. Van Winkle had been ill for several months and had retired as president of Stit- zel-Weller Distillery in October. He contin- ued as honorary chairman of the board. Mr. Van Winkle was in the distilling busi- ness for 71 years, starting as a salesman with W. L. Weller & Sons, wholesale whisky firm. Mr. Van Winkle eventually became co- owner of the concern and then bought the Stizel Bros. distillery. He assumed the presidency of Stitzel-Weller in 1934 and held that post until he retired in October. For Mr. Van Winkle, the old-fashioned way of making whisky was always the best way and he at one time noted: "We have a sign on our distillery door saying 'no chemists are allowed on this place' One of his concern's most famous products was Old Fitzgerald and Mr. Van Winkle said the process he had not changed since he began making it. Mr. Van Winkle, an 1894 graduate of Cen- tre College, gained national notice with a series of advertisements in magazines that recounted homespun Kentucky anecdotes. He is survived by his widow, the former Katie Smith; a son, Julian P., Jr., and a daughter, Mrs. Charles K. McClure. From the New York Herald Tribune, Feb. 18, 19651 "PAPPY" VAN WINKLE, 90, PUBLICIZED FIRM'S WHISKY LOUISVILLE, Ky.-Julian P. "Pappy" Van Winkle, 90, who publicized his firm's bourbon whisky in chatty advertisements filled with anecdotes from his own days as a salesman, died Monday at his home here. Mr. Van Winkle, former president of the Stitzel-Weller distillery, was the oldest active distillery executive in the Nation until he retired last October. As a 19-year-old he went to work as a sales- man for the W. L. Weller & Sons wholesale whisky firm in Louisville, travelling through Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and West Virginia. Later he and another salesman bought the firm, then acquired Stitzel Bros. distillery. Mr. Van Winkle was president from 1934 until he stepped down in favor of his son, Julian, Jr., last year. His personally written advertisements were ,classics, sliding in the selling message with gentile indirectness. He began one, "A north- ern visitor once came to our Kentucky town as usual, fell In love with its equable climate, its friendly people, its unhurried way of life, 'Ah, this is God's country,' he remarked one day, his nose deep in a leafy julep. 'Course It is,' agreed his Southern host. 'You didn't think God was a Yankee, did you?' 11 And suddenly just as chattily, Mr. Van Winkle was selling bourbon. "Not least, among nature's bounties to Kentucky," the ad went on, "is the mellow bourbon which inspired our visitor's expansiveness." [From the Tap & Tavern, Feb. 22, 1965] INDUSTRY PAYS WARM TRIBUTE TO VAN WINKLE WASHINGTON, D.C.-Leaders of the dis-? tilling industry last week joined in paying tribute to Julian P. "Pappy" Van Winkle, 90, recently retired proprietor of Stitzel-Weller Distillery, who died at his home in Louisville, Ky., after an illness of a few months. Robert W. Coyne, president of the Distilled Spirits Institute, described the far-famed Kentuckian as "a very real example of Amer- icana." Walter J. Devlin, chairman of the board of D.S.I. and vice president of the Flieschman Distilling Corp., described the dean of the industry as "a full-bodied legend in his own time." Frederick J. Lind, vice- president of Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc., who recently relin- quished the D.S.I. board chairmanship to Devlin, said, "The alcoholic beverage indus- try would not have been the same without "Pappy" Van Winkle and his uncompromis- ing faith and purpose." Coyne's statement read: "A very real example of Americana has de- parted the scene with the passing of the be- loved'Pappy' Van Winkle. "This forthright Kentuckian was a cham- pion of the free enterprise system and an advocate of quality first in his product. One of the few remaining preprohibition dis- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 1965 tol, the White House, and other historic shrines, They do not expect to enjoy the tax-free advantages available to em- ployees of foreign governments, but they would seem to be justified in protesting the disdainful attitude of some DPL drivers. toward owners of cars bearing nothing more than the tags issued by one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia. Last summer a Pennsylvania visitor rode downtown one morning with three other ordinary Americans off to earn the wages that are left after deductions for foreign aid and other normal government expenses. At an intersection on Cali- fornia Street NW., the driver of a car bearing DPL 544 deliberately swerved in front: of two others in order to get 'a preferred position at a stop light. When one driver, who had barely missed crash- Ing into a parked vehicle in order to avoid 544, protested, the so-called diplomat sneered and waved his hand in derision. Then, as if to show his regard for Ameri- can law, he thrust his car forward before the light changed to green, disappearing into traffic and free to aggrevate and laugh at other law-abiding natives. Through official channels, it was learned that. DPL 544 had been issued to one Abdelhadi Al Hainandi, whose car was registered at the United Arab Re- public Embassy, 2435 California Street NW. Now, Mr. Speaker, it might be as- sumed that an embassy involved in such an incident would be eager to apologize for `the conduct of the responsible em- ployee, but a number of calls to the United.. Arab Republic office failed to bring a, satisfactory reply. An embassy spokesman denied that Abdelhadi Al Hamandi was connected with the em- bassy, then promised to investigate fur- ther. No explanation was ,ever forth- coming. The naive Pennsylvanian's first reac- tion to the driving infraction was to re- port it to the police, but, as any old timer timer, around Washington, knows, the area could have been surrounded by squad cars and still the police would have been helpless to take effective action. District of Columbia police do not have to look to New York City to find out what happens, to officers who expect for- eign diplomats to obey American laws, Their firm precedent was established on March 17, 1956, when a patrolman in Washington made the mistake of, ticket- ing a double-parked DPL car. When the driver, it second secretary on an em- bassy staff, protested, a scuffle ensued and the officer was found guilty of "wrongfully and without authority ar- resting" a member of the diplomatic corps. He was fined $75 for his con- scientious effort to enforce the law. Any further doubt of the helplessness of American officers of the law when dealing with foreign diplomats evapo- rated in a series of incidents that. began with. the arrest , of. an Ambassador's son on.May 26, 1957, after he became in- volved in a scuffle with a. policeman who remonstrated against the boy's drinking beer in public and in direct violation of District law. The offender claimed dip- lomatic immunity and was released. A year later, on April 30, the same young man drank beer as he walked along Wisconsin Avenue at 1 a,m., then threw Approved CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -,HOUSE 3935 the mug to the sidewalk and used abu- identity of a vehicle's ownership is ex- sive language when an officer appeared. Posed to citizens of this country, would He was again released because of dip- be much more explicit in their instruc- lomatic immunity, tions to employees. At least the new li- March 1, 1959: Trouble in a tavern, cense plates would give Americans an with the Ambassador's son finally swing- opportunity to find out just what coun- ing at a policeman. Again released on tries are and which are not respectful the same excuse. ' of our laws. -' October 10, 1959: When an officer re- I am today introducing a bill which sponded to trouble in a restaurant, the directs District of Columbia officials to same offender became loud and bolster- have the name of the country imprinted ous, touching off a melee that resulted in on each d plomatic license plate. cer's being kicked and knocked down by the foreigner and his gang. PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S BRAVE DE- Mr, Speaker, how many countries CISION TO BOMB NORTH VIET- would permit this sort of disregard for NAM SUPPORTED BY STATE DE- their law on the part of an American PARTMENT WHITE PAPER ON citizen regardless of his official position? COMMUNIST AGGRESSION And how far must an American police (Mr. PUCINSKI asked and was given officer tolerate and concede in the face permission to address the House for 1 of hostile challenges by immunized minute and to revise and extend his re- aliens? marks and include extraneous matter.) The final episode of this particular Mr, PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, last case took place 1 month after the weekend the State Department issued its man's last brawl with the police. He brilliantly documented "white paper" de- drove a car that struck and killed a scribing in exhaustive detail North Viet- woman who was knocked 41 feet by the nam's campaign to conquer South Viet- impact. A coroner's inquest into the riam accident was canceled on the advice of In the preamble to this historic docu- the U.S. attorney because it had no juris- ment, the following excerpt delivered by diction over the driver. At long last the President Lyndon B. Johnson on Feb- offender-now 21 years of age-was sent -ruary 17, 1965, is quoted: home to his native land by the ambassa- dor, his father. Our purpose In Vietnam is to join in the defense and protection of freedom of a brave Fortunately, incidents of such serious people who are under attack that is con- consequences are highly infrequent, trolled and that is directed from outside although there appear to be no means or their country. methods available to prevent or to deal This excerpt from President Johnson's with them. Several years ago a diplo- remarks clearly indicates America's de- mat attacked a New York subway in- termination to halt the agonizing chain spector and threatened him with a gun, of Communist aggression since World then won quick release at a police station War II. after pleading diplomatic immunity. Americans, and indeed those dedicated Whatever the answer to the perennial to the principles of human dignity problems created by diplomatic Immu- throughout the world, can all find com- nity, the first premise would seem to be fort and strength in the knowledge that the need for teaching foreigners-re- President Johnson has given American gardless of their diplomatic status-to foreign policy a new and decisive direc- respect the American police officer. Next, tion, greater effort must be directed at dis- There are those who today would criti- suading DPL drivers from flaunting cize President Johnson, but fortunately traffic regulations, they constitute only a miniscule segment A key to the difficulty may lie in the of the American population. statute which protects diplomats from It becomes crystal clear, as new de- arrest. It was enacted in 1790, a century velopments occur in Vietnam, that before the advent of the automobile, and neither the New York Times nor the may very well be in need of renovating columnists are setting foreign policy for or updating. Since it came into being, the United States. Indeed, foreign pol- a progressively greater number of diplo- icy is now being determined, as our masts and their entourages have de- Constitution provides, by the President scended upon Washington. In 1962 a of the United States, and Mr. Johnson local newspaper estimated the number of alone has shown the courage to deal with diplomats in Washington immune from the Communists from a position of arrest at more than 6,000, and there is strength, yet preserving, for the entire no reason to believe that there are fewer world to see, our genuine desire not to here today. extend hostilities in Vietnam any more Surely it is not necessary to grant dip- than is absolutely, necessary. Mr. John- lomatic immunity to so many ambassa- son has now,put the burden on the Com- dors, their staffs, employees, and ser- munists to decide_ii they want escalation vants. I would hope that the State For the first time since World War II, it Department could work out an arrange- is the Communists who are forced to ment whereby only top echelon personnel respond to our initiative; our determina- are granted the immunity privilege. tion; our policy. Meanwhile, Mr. Speaker, I propose By his bold and heroic action, Presi- that the name of the country of owner- dent Johnson has already written a new ship be printed in large letters on every and glorious page in American history. DPL license plate issued in the District I am confident that the President's,de- of Columbia. I believe that as a,conse- termination, to deal forcefully with Corn- quence all ambassadors and their prin- munist aggression in South Vietnam by cipal staff members, recognizing the good striking at the very heart of North will that can be gained or lost when the Vietnam's staging areas for their in= For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE March 3 famous subversion, will prove to be the bold decision which will avoid world war III. President Johnson has repeatedly as- sured the entire world, Including the Communists, that our Nation wants peace and the security of freedom for our allies. President Johnson has stated repeat- edly that our Nation wants to avoid es- calation in Vietnam. There are those who have asked why the raids on North Vietnam at this par- ticular time when Communist leaders are holding their summit meeting. There are others who seriously challenge Presi- dent Johnson's determination to bomb the Communist's staging ;areas and say that such attacks will solidify the Com- munist world. Yet others, Mr. Speaker, bluntly state that Mr. Johnson's timing is wrong and that American attacks on Communist staging areas in North Vietnam should have been held up, at least until after the Communists' summit meeting. Certainly, I would not be one to deny others their views, but I suggest, Mr. Speaker, that President Johnson's critics are unable to see the forest for the trees. :History will prove President Johnson an unparalleled tactician. It is my judgment that President Johnson's deci- sion to wage the attacks at this partic- ular time is most timely, and has as its principal purpose a strong desire to avoid any miscalculations by the world Com- munist - high command of our Nation's unwavering determination to support the cause of freedom in South Vietnam. It is my humble judgment that to avoid air retaliations at this time would have been an open invitation for massive Communist aggression in South Vietnam and perhaps other troubled spots throughout the world. Admittedly, President Johnson is tak- ing a bold calculation. But it is a brave calculation and the American people owe their President eternal gratitude that he has not been dissuaded by such highly influential opinion movers as the New York Times in his final judgment. Mr. Johnson has clearly told the Com- munists they must be prepared to suffer the full consequences of their continued aggression. He has spoken in a Ian- guage unmistakably clear. The next move is up to Hanoi and its Communist allies. - The weight of President Johnson's re- sponsibility is awesome, and he deserves the prayers of all Americans for con- tinued strength to chart a victorious course through these very troubled times. But above all, Mr. Speaker, it would be my hope that those who have been so quick to criticize the President would pause during this great crisis and reflect for a moment on how difficult is the task of an American President. It is easy enough for the columnists and the editorial writers to second-guess the President. If they are wrong, few people ever remember. Only the President of the United States cannot afford to be wrong, be- cause, indeed, the survival of civilization rests on his judgment. It is for this reason that all Americans can take pride in the bold decision made by President Johnson to launch the air strikes against the Communists in North Vietnam. One has a right to ask: "How many other Americans would have had the courage to make the final decisions which Mr. Johnson has had to make during the past few weeks?" I am, confident that time will prove President Johnson right. Certainly, Mr. Speaker, reading the white paper on aggression by the Communists from North Vietnam, clearly and unmistak- ably shows how justified President Johnson is in setting the bold, albeit precarious, course that he has set for our actions in Vietnam. It is for this reason, Mr. Speaker, that I should like to include with my remarks today the State Department's "white paper" in its entirety. This is one of the most significant doc- uments ever prepared by the American State Department. Secretary of State Dean Rusk and his entire staff deserve the highest commendation for putting this entire matter into its proper per- spective. Any fair-minded person, regardless of his political beliefs, cannot help but real- ize that for President Johnson to have ordered any other course in the face of the overwhelming evidence contained in this white paper, would have been to write perhaps the final chapter in free- dom's retreat to Communist infamy. It is my hope that every American will pause in his busy schedule long enough to read the State Department's white paper. I am confident, Mr. Speaker, that only then could this Nation fully under- stand the tremendous service President Johnson is rendering the American peo- ple and the cause of freedom throughout the world. Mr. Speaker, the State Department white paper follows. I only regret that under the rules of the House, I am un- able to reprint at this time the tremen- dously persuasive pictorial exhibits which were published as part of the State De- partment's indictment against the Com- munists of North Vietnam. AGGRESSION PROM THE NORTH-THE RECORD OF NORTH VIETNAM'S CAMPAIGN To CONQUER SOUTH VIETNAM "Our purpose in Vietnam is to join in the defense and protection of freedom of a brave people who are under attack that is con- trolled and that is directed from outside their country." (President Lyndon B. John- son, February 17, 1965.) INTRODUCTION South Vietnam is fighting for its life against a brutal campaign of terror and armed attack inspired, directed, supplied, and controlled by the Communist regime in Hanoi. This flagrant aggression has been going on for years, but recently the pace has quickened and the threat has now be- come acute. The war in Vietnam is a new kind of war, a fact as yet poorly understood in most parts of the world. Much of the confusion that prevails in the thinking of many peo- ple, and even many governments, stems from this basic misunderstanding. For in Viet- nam a totally new brand of aggression has been loosed against an independent people who want to make their own way in peace and freedom. Vietnam is not another Greece, where in- digenous guerrilla forces used friendly neighboring territory as a sanctuary. Vietnam is not another Malaya, where Communist guerrillas were, for the most part, physically distinguisable from the peaceful majority they sought to control. Vietnam is not another Philippines, where Communist guerrillas were physically sepa- rated from the source of their moral and physical support. Above all, the war in Vietnam is not a spontaneous and local rebellion against the established government. There are elements in the Communist program of conquest directed against South Vietnam common to each of the previous areas of aggression and subversion. But there is one fundamental difference. In Vietnam a Communist government has set out deliberately to conquer a sovereign peo- ple in a neighboring state. And to achieve its end, it has used every resource of its own government to carry out its carefully planned program of concealed aggression. North Vietnam's commitment to seize con- trol of the South is no less total than was the commitment of the regime in North Korea in 1950. But knowing the conse- quences of the latter's undisguised attack, the planners in Hanoi have tried desperately to conceal their hand. They have failed and their aggression is as real as that of an in- vading army. This report is a summary of the massive evidence of North Vietnamese aggressionob- tained by_ the Government of South Viet- nam. This evidence has been jointly ana- lyzed by South Vietnamese and American ex- perts. The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Viet- nam were trained in the north and ordered into the south by Hanoi. It shows that the key leadership of the Vietcong (VC), the officers and much of the cadre, many of the technicians, political organizers, and propa- grandists have come from the north and oper- ate under Hanoi's direction. It shows that. the training of essential military personnel and their infiltration into the south is di- rected by the military high command in Hanoi. (See sec. I.) The evidence shows that many of the weapons and much of the ammunition and other supplies used by the Vietcong have been sent into South Vietnam from Hanoi. In recent months new types of weapons have been introduced in the VC army, for which all ammunition must come from outside sources. Communist China and other Com- munist States have been the prime suppliers of these weapons and ammunition, and they have been channeled primarily through North Vietnam. (See sec. II.) The directing force behind the effort to conquer South Vietnam is the Communist Party in the north, the Lao Dong (Workers) Party. As in every Communist State, the party is an integral part of the regime itself. North Vietnamese officials have expressed their firm determination to absorb South Vietnam Into the Communist world. (See sec. III.) Through its central committee, which con- trols the government of the north, the Lao Dong Party directs the total political and military effort of the Vietcong. The military high command in the north trains the mili- tary men and sends them into South Viet- nam. The Central Research Agency, North Vietnam's central intelligence organization, directs the elaborate espionage and subver- sion effort. The extensive political-military organization in the north which directs the Vietcong war effort is described in sec- tion IV. Under Hanoi's overall direction the Com- munists have established an extensive ma- chine for carrying on the war within South Vietnam. The focal point is the Central Office for South Vietnam with its political and military subsections and other special- ized agencies. A subordinate part of this Central Office is the Liberation Front for South Vietnam. The front was formed at Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved for Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 .1965. CONGRESSIONAL ; RECORD. HQI,TS,E -,3937 Hanoi's, order in 1960. Its principal func- tration groups have entered the south for sufficiently to join another passing group tion is to influence opinion abroad and to which there is no evidence yet available. moving south. create the false impression that the aggres- To some the level of infiltration from the The map on page 4 [not shown in REcoRD] sion.in South Vienamis an Indigenous rebel- north may seem modest in comparison with shows the infiltration route from North Viet- lion. against the established government. the total size of the Armed Forces of the Re- nam to the south followed by VC Sgt. Huynh (See sec. IV.) public of Vietnam. But one-for-one calcu- Van Tay and a group of North Vietnamese For more than 10 years the. people and the lations are totally misleading In the kind of Army officers and men in September 1963. Government of South Vietnam, exercising warfare going on in Vietnam. First, a high Tay was captured during an engagement in the. inherent right of self-defense, have proportion of infiltrators from the north are Chuong Thien Province in April 1964. fought back against these efforts to extend well-trained officers, cadres, and specialists. Local guides lead the infiltration groups Communist power south across the 17th Second, it has long. been realized that in along the secret trails. Generally they di- parallel. The United States has responded guerrilla combat the burdens of defense are rect the infiltrators from halfway between to the appeals of the Government of the Re- vastly heavier than those of attack. In Ma- two stations, through their own base sta- public of Vietnam for help in this defense, of laya, the Philippines, and elsewhere a ratio tion, and on halfway to the next supply base. the freedom and independence of its land of at least 10 to 1 in favor of the forces of Thus the guides are kept in ignorance of all and its people. order was required to meet successfully the but their own way stations. Only group In 1961 the Department of State issued a threat of the guerrillas' hit-and-run tactics, leaders are permitted to talk with the guides report called "A Threat to the Peace." It In the calculus of guerrilla warfare the in order to preserve maximum security. The described north Vietnam's program to seize scale of North Vietnamese infiltration into men are discouraged from asking where they South Vietnam. The evidence in that report the south takes on a very different meaning. are or where they are going .2 .had been presented by theGovernment of For the infiltration of 5,000 guerrilla fighters The same system of trails and guides used the Republic of Vietnam to the International in a given year is the equivalent of marching along the Lao infiltration routes is used Control Commission (ICC). A special re- perhaps 60,000 regular troops across the bor- within South Vietnam Itself. Vietcong in- port by the ICC in June 1962 upheld the der, in terms of the burden placed on the filtrators may report directly to a reassign- validity of that evidence. The Commission defenders, ment center in the highlands as soon as they held thaji there was "sufficient evidence to Above all, the number of proved and prob- enter South Vietnam. But in the past year show beyond reasonable doubt" that North able infiltrators from the north should be or more some groups have moved down trails Vietnam had sent arms and men into South seen in relation to the size of the VC forces. in South Vietnam to provinces along the Vietnam to, carry out subversion with the It is now estimated that the Vietcong num- Cambodian border and near Saigon before re- alm of overthrowing the legal government ber approximately 35,000 so-called hard-core ceiving their unit assignment. Within South there. The ICC found the alzthorities in forces, and another 60,000 to 80,000 local Vietnam infiltration and supplies are han- Hanoi in .specific violation of four, provisions forces. It is thus apparent that infiltrators dled by VC units such as the Nam Son Trans- of the Geneva accords of 19541 from the north-allowing for casualties- portation Group. Since then, new and even more .impressive make up the majority of the so-called hard- At the Laos border crossing point infil- evidence of Hanoi's, aggression has accumu- core Vietcong. Personnel from the north, trators are reequipped. Their North Viet- lated. The Government of the United States in short, are now and have always been the namese Army uniforms must be turned in. .believes that evidence should be presented backbone of the entire VC operation. They must give up all personal papers, let- to its own citizens and to the world. It is It is true that many of the lower level ele- ters, notebooks, and photographs that might important for freemen to know what has ments of the VC forces are recruited within be incriminating. Document control over been happening in Vietnam, and how, and South Vietnam. However, the thousands of the infiltrators has been tightened consider- why.. That is the purpose of this report. reported cases of VC kidnapings and terror- ably over the past 2 years. A number of 1. HANOI SUPPLIES THE KEY PERSONNEL FOR THE ism make it abundantly clear that the threats Vietnamese -Infiltrators have told of being ARMED AGGRESSION AGAINST SOUTH VIETNAM and other pressures by the Vietcong play a fitted out with Lao neutralist uniforms for The hard core of the Communist forces major part in such recruitment. their passage through Laos. attacking South Vietnam are men trained In A. The infiltration process Infiltration groups are usually issued a set North Vietnam. They are ordered into the The infiltration routes supply hard-core of black civilian pajama-like clothes, two south and remain under the military dis- units with most of their officers and non- unmarked uniforms, rubber sandals, a cipline of the military high command in commissioned personnel. This source helps sweater. a hammock, mosquito netting, and Hanoi. Special training camps operated by fill the gaps left by battle casualties, illness, waterproof sheeting. They carry a 3- to 5- the North Vietnamese Army gave political and defection and insures continued control day supply of food. A packet of medicines and military training to the infiltrators. In- by Hanoi. Also, as the nature of the conflict and bandages is usually provided. ereasingly the forces sent into the south are has changed, North Vietnam has supplied The size of infiltration groups varies native North Vietnamese who have never seen the Vietcong with technical specialists via widely. Prisoners have mentioned units as South Vietnam. A special infiltration unit, the infiltration routes. These have included small as 5 men and as large as 500. Gen- the 70th Transportation Group, is responsible men trained in armor and ordnance, anti- orally the groups number 40 to 50. When for moving men from North Vietnam into the aircraft, and communications as well as med- they arrive in South Vietnam these groups south via infiltration trails through Laos. ical corpsmen and transport experts, are usually split up and assigned to various Another special unit, the maritime infiltra- There have units ne replacements, although some have remained intact. tion group, sends weapons and supplies the north to no single South in Vieatnam. Infiltration But by far Vietnam- and agents by sea into the south. B. Military personnel The infiltration rate has been increasing. the same general course. The principal The following are individual case histories From 1959 to 1960, when Hanoi was establish- training center for North Vietnamese Army of North Vietnamese soldiers sent by the tag its infiltration pipeline, at least 1,800 men assigned to join the Vietcong has been Hanoi regime into South Vietnam. They are men, and possibly 2,700 more, moved into at Xuan Mai near Hanoi. Recently captured only an illustrative group. They show that South Vietnam from the north. The flow Vietcong have. also reported an infiltration the leadership and specialized personnel for increased to a minimum of 3,700 in 1961 and training camp at Thanh Haa. After comple- the guerrilla war in South Vietnam consists at least 5,400 in 1962. There was a modest-- tion of their training course-which involves in large part of members of the North Viet- decrease in 1963 to 4,200 confirmed infiltra- political and propaganda work as well as nam armed forces, trained in the North and fors, though later evidence is likely to raise military subjects--infiltrating units are subject to the command and discipline of this agure. moved to Vinh on the east coast. Many have Hanoi. For 1964 the evidence is still incomplete. made stopovers at a staging area in Dong 1. Tran Quoc Dan However, it already shows that a minimum _Hoi where additional training is conducted. Dan was a VC major, commander of the of 4.400 infiltrators entered the soutti, an o e an a ere border. Group of the Thon-Kim Battalion). Disil- cent in, There is usually a time lag between the Then, usually after several days' rest, In- lusioned with fighting his own countrymen filtrators move southward through Laos. and with communism and the lies of the entry of infiltrating troops and the discovery of clear evidence they have entered. This Generally they move along the Laos-South Hanoi regime, he surrendered to the authori- fact, plus collateral evidence of increased use Vietnam border. Responsibility for infiltra- ties In South Vietnam on February 11, nary of the infiltration routes, suggests strongly tion from North Vietnam through Laos be- At the age of 15 he joined the revolutionary that 1964 was probably the year of greatest longs to the 70th Transportation Group of ' army (Vietminh) and fought against the the North Vietnamese Army. After a time French forces until 1954 when the Geneva Infiltration so far, the infiltration groups turn eastward, enter- accords ended the Indochina war. As a regu- Thus, since 1959, nearly 20,000 VC officers, ing South Vietnam in Quan Nam, lar In the Vietminh forces, he was moved to soldiers, and technicians are known to have g Quang North Vietnam. He became an officer in the entered South Vietnam under orders from Tri, Thua Thien, Kontum, or another of so-called people's army. Hanoi. Additional information indicates the border provinces. In March 1962 Major Dan received orders that an estimated 17,000 more infiltrators The Communists have established regular to prepare to move to South Vietnam. He were dispatched to the south by the regime lanes for infiltration with way stations es- had been exposed to massive propaganda in in Hanoi during the past 6 years. It can tablished about 1 day's march apart. The the north which told of the destitution of the reasonably be assumed that still other infil- way stations are equipped to quarter and =- feed the Vietcong passing through. Infll- 2 For additional maps of the routes taken ' For the text of pertinent sections of the trators who suffer from malaria or other ill- by VC infiltrators into South Vietnam, see ICC report, see app. A. nesses stay at the stations until they recover app. B. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3938 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Maych 3 peasants in the south and . said that the Americans had taken over the French role of colonialists. He said later that an important reason for his decision to surrender was that he discovered these propaganda themes were lies. He found the peasants more prosperous than the people in the north. And he recog- nized quickly that he was not fighting the Americans, but his own people. With the 600 men of his unit, Major Dan left Hanoi on March 23, 1962. They traveled through the Laos corridor. His group joined up with the Vietcong 1st Regiment In'cen- tral Vietnam. The 35-year-old major took part in 45 ac- tions and was wounded once in an unsuc- cessful VC attack on an outpost. As time passed he became increasingly discouraged by his experience as a VC troop commander. Most of all, he said, he was tired of killing other Vietnamese. After several months of soul-searching he decided to surrender' to the authorities of the Republic of Vietnam. He has volunteered to do "anything to serve the national cause" of South Vietnam. 2. Vo Thor Sgt. Vo Thoi (Communist Party alias Vo Bien) was an assistant squad leader in the VC Tay Son 22d Battalion. On the night of October 7, 1963, his unit attacked An Tuong village in Binh Dinh Province. After over- running the village, Vo's company was as- signed to set up an ambush against Repub- lic of Vietnam troops rushing to defend the village. In the ensuing fight Vo was seri- ously wounded. He was picked up by .local farmers and turned over to the authorities. Vo's life and- experiences were similar to those of thousands of Vietcong. Born in Quang Ngai Province in 1932, he went through 5 years of school and then worked on his parents' small farm. During the war against the French he joined the Viet Minh forces. When the fighting ended, he was transferred to North Vietnam with his unit, the 210th Regiment. He remained in the North Vietnamese Army until 1960 when he was sent to work on a state farmin Nghe An Province. Vo said 3,000 men and women worked on the farm, of whom 400 were sol- forces. He went to North Vietnam after the Geneva accords were signed in 1954. In North Vietnam he attended a technical school specializing in arms and manufacture. He received special training in foreign small arms and artillery. At the end of 1962 he was ordered to Ha Dong to attend a special course of political training in preparation for infiltrating into South Vietnam. On completion of the training course he was assigned to a group of 14 men who would move to the south to- gether. Nguyen Thao said the group was composed of four armament specialists, two chemical engineers, and eight middle-level technical cadre. They left Ha Dong in March 1963, crossed Into Laos, and reached their destination in the northern part of South Vietnam in May. Nguyen Thao went to work at a secret VC arsenal near the Quang Ngai border. Fifty men,, some local workers, manned the arsenal weapons section. The group manufactured mines and grenades for the VC units in the area and repaired weapons. Nguyen Thao said he soon realized from talking with the local workers at the arsenal that most of what he had heard in the North about conditions in South Vietnam was wrong. He said the Communists had de- ceived him. Two months after his arrival at the arsenal he decided to defect. He asked permission to rejoin his family and to work in a national defense factory and continue his studies. 4. Nguyen Viet Le This VC soldier was born in Quang Nam Province in South Vietnam. He served with the 305th Division of the Viet Minh and moved to North Vietnam in 1954. In April 1961, Nguyen Viet Le and his unit, the 50th Battalion, moved into Laos. He said the unit remained in Laos for 2 months, during which it fought in four battles alongside the Pathet Lao. During these engagements one of the battalion's four companies was badly mauled and had to be returned to North Vietnam. The other-three companies were assigned to South Vietnam. They arrived in Quang Ngai Province in the summer of 1961. For a must join the newly activated 22d Battalion. month they rested and waited for orders. All members of the battalion ,'came from They took part in a major action against an provinces in South Vietnam., from Quang Tri outpost of the Government of. South, Viet- to Phu Yen. But it was not an ordinary Barn in September. Nguyen Viet Le was battalion two-thirds of its members were captured during `a battle in Quang Ngai cadre with ranks up to senior captain. Province in April 1962. The group was put through an advanced 5. Nguyen Truc training course that lasted 6 months. The Corp. Nguyen True was born in 1933, the training program included combat tactics son of a farmer in Phu Yen Province in for units from squad to company and the South Vietnam. From 1949 to 1954 he served techniques of guerrilla and counterguerrilla as a courier and then as a guerrilla fighter fighting. ` There were heavy doses of politi- with the Viet Minh. In early 1955 he boarded cal indoctrination. a Soviet ship and moved with his unit, the On March 5, 1963, the 22d Battalion re- 40th Battalion, to North Vietnam. He re- ceived orders to move south. They were mained in the army, but in 1959, bothered transported in trucks from Nghe An Province by illness, he went to work on a state farm. to Dong Hof in Quang Binh, just north of In August 1962 Nguyen Truc was notified the 17th parallel. From there the unit was that he was back in the army and that he was moved westward to the Lao border. Then being sent to South Vietnam. He reported the more than 300 men began walking to to the Xuan Mat training center and under- the south following mountain trails in Laos went 6 months of military and political re- and the Vietnam border area. They marched education. His unit was the newly activated by day, rested at night. Every _ fifth day. 22d Battalion. The training course was com- they stopped at away station for a full day's pleted in February 1965 but departure for rest. One company dropped off at Thua South Vietnam was delayed until April. Thiein t',roviiice. Vb,'and the remainder of For infiltration purposes the battalion was the group matched on to Pleiku Province., divided into two groups. On April 27, Ngu- Two fully armed companies from. a neighbor- yen True and his group boarded trucks at ing province were assigned to the battalion. Xuan Mai. They went first to Vinh, then The assignment given to the battalion was on to Deng Hoi, and finally to the Laos- to harass strategic hamlets in the Hoai An North Vietnam border. There they doffed district of Binh Dinh, to' round up cattle their North Vietnamese army uniforms and and rice, to kill or kidnap cadre of the put on black peasants' clothing. The march Government forces, and to recruit local to the south began, sometimes in Lao terri- youth `for service with the Vietcong. tory, sometimes" in Vietnam. They passed 3. Nguyen Thao through. Thus Thien Province, then Quang Nguyen Thao was a VC weapon$ tech- Nam, Quang Tin, and Quang Ngai, and final- nician. A native of Shank Hao Province in ly to their destination, Pleiku. Each day South Vietnam, he joined the 'V'ietminh in they had a new -guide, generally one of the 1950. He worked at a secret arsenal menu- mountain people of the area. facturing weapons for use by the guerrilla Nguyen said that he and most of the troops who were sent north after the Indo- china war wanted to return to their homes and rejoin their families. In August 1963, Nguyen True was sent out on a foraging ex- pedition to find food for his unit. He took the opportunity to defect to Government forces at An Tuc in Binh Dinh Province. 6. Nguyen Cam Cam is the son of a farmer in Quang Tin Province. Born in 1929, he joined the Viet- minh youth group in his home village in 1946. In 1 year he became a guerrilla fighter In 1954, as the Indochina war was drawing to a close, he was serving with the Vietminh 20th Battalion. In May 1955 he went to North Vietnam with his unit. Ill health caused his transfer to an agri- cultural camp in 1958. By 1960 he was back in uniform, serving in the 210th Regiment. In May of that year he was assigned to a small group that was to set up a metallurgi- cal workshop. Early in 1961 he was sent to a metallurgical class in Nghe An Province. They were taught a simple form of cast iron production, simple blast furnace construe.- tion, and similar skills. Their instructor was an engineer . from the Hanoi Industrial de- partment. Their special course completed, Cam and his group of 35 men prepared to go to South Vietnam. They went by truck from their training center at Nghe An to the Lao bor- der. After 19 days marching through Laos, they arrived in the vicinity of Tehepone. There they waited for 3 days until food sup- plies could be airdropped by a North Viet- namese plane. Nineteen days of walking took them to the Laos-South Vietnam border. Delayed en route by illness, Cam finally reached his destination in November 1961. It was a secret VC iron foundry in Nontum Province. Several iron ore deposits were nearby, and the hill people had long used the iron to make knives and simple tools. Cam's job was building kilns to smelt the ore. The Vietcong hoped to use the iron for mines and grenades. On August 4, 1963, Sergeant Cam went to a nearby village to buy salt for his group. On his return he found his comrades had gone to one of their cultivated fields to gather corn, and he joined them. The group was interrupted at their work by a Viet- namese ranger company. After a brief fight Cam was, taken prisoner. 7. Nguyen Hong Thai Thai, 32 years old, was born and grew up in Quang Nkai Province in South Vietnam. After service with the Vietminh he was moved to North Vietnam in 1954. After 3 years of military service he was assigned to a miiltary farm. In December 1961 he was recalled to his former unit, the 306th Divi- sion, and went to the special training camp at Xuan Mai in preparation for fighting with the Vietcong in South Vietnam. Training began in January 1962 and lasted for 4 months. The training group, designated the 32d Battalion, was composed of 650 men who came from. various branches of the North , Vietnamese Army-engineers, artillery, airborne, transport, marines, and some factory workers and students. Three- fourths of the training was military (guer- rilla tactics, ambushes, sabotage, etc.) and one-fourth was political. In the latter, heavy emphasis was laid on the necessity for armed seizure of power in the south. Group 32 was divided into sections and began infiltrating to the south on July 14, 1962. It moved In. three groups. Thai said it took his group more than 56 days to travel from North Vietnam through Laos to Quang Ngal Province in the south. He reported that all the communications and, liaison stations on the route to South Vietnam are now op- erated by the Army of North Vietnam. Soon after his arrival in South Vietnam, That was promoted to the.rank of lieutenant. He was made a platoon leader in the 20th Vietcong Highland Battalion. In February 1963 the Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 19d5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 3939 unit moved from Quang Nam to Kontum they were formed into special groups to con- ion reported that his unit had been rein- Province., tinue their penetration into South Vietnam. forced by native North Vietnamese troops Combat conditions and the rigors of guer- Linh reported being delayed once for 8 days, earlier this year. Le Thua Phuong, an in- rilla life began to depress Thai. He said he and the second time. for 10 days. formation cadre and a native of Quang Ngai wanted only to rejoin his family and live in Finally, in the first week of November 1963, Province in the south, surrendered to Gov- peace. In September he asked and received Linh was sufficiently recovered to begin the ernment forces on April 23, 1964. He said permission to visit his family in Quang Ngat. final leg of his journey to a VC center where that the 90th Battalion had received 80 North When he got home, he surrendered to a South he was to be assigned to a combat unit. He Vietnamese replacements in February. Vietnamese Army post. and three others who had been Similarly de- A medical technician named Hoang Thung 8. Dao Kien Lap layed by attacks of malaria and other sick- was captured in Thuan Thfen Province on Lap is a civilian radio technician. He has ness made up a group. They moved through July 4, 1964. He said he had infiltrated into been a member of the Communist Party in the jungles of Quang Duc Province near the the south in late 1963 with a group of 200 North Vietnam since 1955. In February 1963 Cambodian border. On the morning of No- Vietcong, the majority of whom were ethnic he was selected for assignment to South vember 9 they crossed the Srepok River. northerners, 120 of them draftees. Vietnam where he was to work with the There they ran into a unit of the South These reports destroy one more fiction Liberation Front. He infiltrated into South Vietnamese Army. One of the infiltrators which the authorities in Hanoi have sought Vietnam with a group of about 70 civilian was killed, Linh was taken prisoner, and the so long to promote-that the fighting in the specialists. They included doctors, other two Vietcong escaped. pharma- south was matter for the South Viet- cists, union organizers, radio specialists, These are typical Vietcong. There are namese. They underline Hanoi's determina- propagandists, and youth organizers. One many other officers like Tran Quoc Dan, tech- tion to o press its s campaign of conquest nest with h of the infiltrators in Dao's group was a man nicians like Nguyen Thao, and simple sol- conquest available resource.. named Binh, publisher of the e newspaper diers like Nguyen True. They were born in Labor of the Lao Dong Party. Another was South Vietnam, fought against the French, D. Infiltration of Vietcong agents a member of the city soviet of Hanoi, and then went north and served in the army No effort to subvert another nation as The specialists in Dao's group received 3 of North Vietnam. They were ordered by the elaborate as that being - conducted by the months of basic military training at Son Communist rulers in Hanoi to reenter South Ho Chi Minh regime against South Vietnam Tay, and then departed for the south in mid- Vietnam. Violating the Geneva accords of can succeed without an intelligence-gather- June. Their orders were to report to the 1954 and 1962, they, used the territory of ing organization. Recognizing this, the au- central office of the Vietcong in South Viet- neighboring Laos to infiltrate into the South. thorities in Hanoi have developed an exten- nam where they would be assigned accord- They are the means by which Communist sive espionage effort. An essential part of lug to their individual specialties. Dao and North Vietnam is carrying out its program that effort is the regular assignment of secret Binh were to help run a radio station of the of conquest in South Vietnam., agents from the. north to South Vietnam. Liberation Front. C. Infiltration of native North Vietnamese The heart of the VC Intelligence organiza- They traveled through Laos and along the The Communist authorities in Hanoi are tion is the Central Research Agency in Hanoi. Vietnam border, They had to stop for sev- now assigning native North Vietnamese in (See sec. IV, C.) Communist agents are eral weeks in Quang Nam Province to recu- increasing numbers to join the VC forces regularly dispatched from North Vietnam, petite from their travels. On October 1 they in South Vietnam. Heretofore, those in sometimes for brief assignments but often were directed by guides to a VC station in charge of the infiltration effort has sought for long periods. Many of these agents move Ban Me Thuot. to fill their quotas with soldiers and others into South Vietnam along the infiltration Dao said he had by then decided to defect born in the south. The 90,000 troops that traits along through Laos; s and are d at pr others by to the government authorities in the south. moved from South Vietnam to the north boats along the coasts and landed at pre- e- He set off with one companion, but they were when the Geneva accords ended the Indo- tion arranged group siteshas. A been special maritime th Viet- separated as they crossed a swiftly flowing china War have provided an invaluable res- developed in North Viet- river. Dao gave himself up at a government ervoir for this purpose. Now, apparentl nam, with its operations centered in Ha post in Ban Me Thuot on October.13, 1963. that source is running dry.. The casualty of hand Quang Binh Provinces just north 9. Tran Ngoc Linh rate has been high, and obviously many of ?i the 17th parallel. Linh was a Vietcong senior sergeant, those who were in fighting trim 10 years 1. Maritime infiltration leader of a reconnaissance platoon. He is the ago are no longer up to the rigors of guer- The following case illustrates the methods son of a middle-class farm family in Tay rilla war. of maritime infiltration of secret agents 1 inh Province. He served with the Viet In any case, reports of infiltration by na- used by the Communist regime of North Minh against the French and moved to North tire North Vietnamese in significant num- Vietnam. Vietnain in 1954. He spent the next 7 years bers have been received in Saigon for several In July 1962 a North Vietnamese intelli- in the North Vietnamese Army. In Septem- months. It is estimated that as many as gence agent named Nguyen Viet Duong be- ber 1962 Linli was assigned to the Xuan Mai 75 percent of the more than 4,400 Vietcong gan training to infiltrate South Vietnam. A training center at?HaDong to prepare for who are known to have entered the south native southerner, he had fought against the duty in South Vietnam. His group was given in the first 8 months of 1964 were natives French and had gone to North Vietnam after a 4-month refresher course in infantry tac- of North Vietnam. the war ended. Selected for intelligence tics with emphasis on guerilla fighting. Then Vo Thanh Vinh was born in Nghe An Prov- work, he was assigned to the Central Re- he received 6 nlonths of special training in race in North Vietnam in 1936. He was cap- search Agency in 1959. the use of machineguns against aircraft. tured by South Vietnamese forces on May 5, After a period of intensive instruction in Antiaircraft training has become an increas- 1964. He described himself as a military radio transmission, coding and decoding, and ingly important part of the preparation of security officer. He infiltrated into South other skills of the intelligence trade, he was North Vietnamese troops assigned to the Vietnam in April 1964 with a group of 34 given false identity papers and other sup- Vietcong. police and security officers from the north, plies and was transported to the south. His Linh and about 120 others made up the Another native North Vietnamese captured principal task was to set up a cell of agents 406th Infiltration Group commander by Sen- in the south was VC Pfc. Vo Quyen. His to collect military information. He flew for Capt. Nguyen Van Do. They were divided home was in Nam Dinh Province. He was a from Hanoi to Dong Hot, and from there the into four platoons.__ During the final 2 weeks member of the 2d Battalion of the North Maritime infiltration group took him by boat of preparation each member of the group Vietnamese Army's 9th Regiment. He said to south Vietnam. That was in August 1962. the entire battali h was issd ne ue d i fi m d a , n w equip ltrate ent-black, pajama- on into In January 1963 Duong reported to Hanoi like uniforms, a khaki uniform, a hammock, South Vietnam between February and May that he had run into difficulties. His money mosquito netting, rubber sandals, and other last year. He was captured in an action in and papers had been lost, and he had been supplies, including two packets of medicine. Quang Tri Province on July 4. He told in- forced to take refuge with VC contacts in an- In the early morning hours of July 4, 1963, terrogators that the bulk of his unit was other province. Another agent was selected his group started its journey from the Xuan composed of young draftees from North to go to South Vietnam. One of his assign- Mai training center outside Hanoi. The con- Vietnam. ments was to contact Duong, find out details vey of six Molotov trucks moved south along Le Pham Hung, also a private, first class, of what happened to him, and help Duong Highway 21 to Nghe An Province and then was captured on July 7 in Thua Thfen reestablish himself as a VC agent. The man on to, Quang Binh. On July 7 they arrived Province. He is a native of Nam Dinh in Y Y selected for the task was Senor Captain at the final, processing station near the Laos- North Vietnam. Drafted for military service Tran Van Tan of the Central Research North Vietblam border. There_ they turned in May 1963, he was in the 324th Division. Agency. in their North Vietnamese Army uniforms His group, consisting solely of 90 North Viet- Tan had already been picked to go to the as well as all personal papers and anything namese draftees, infiltrated into South Viet- South to establish a clandestine VC commu- else that, might identify them as coming from nam in May 19?4. He reported that another nications center. Making contact with Du- the north. But their departure for the south company of the North Vietnamese entered ong was one of his secondary assignment. was delayed for several weeks. In August the south at the same time as his unit. After. intensive preparations Tan was ready they set off through Laos. A former member of the 90th VC Battal- to move to South Vietarn in March. He Twice along the way Linh had to stop at was transferred to an embarkation base of liaison stations because of illness. When the See app. C for additional details on. mill- the maritime infiltration group just north Infiltrators recovered from their illnesses. ta.rv infiltrators Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3940 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE March 3 UNITION He was joined by three other VC agents under an older agent to whom he had to r AND' OOI3 SUwAN MATER O S, A FORCES IN TO ITS and the captain and three crewmen of the report regularly. boat that would take them south. All were A third member of the team was a younger THE soUTH given false identity papers to conform to man who was to assist Vy. The three were When Hanoi launched the VC campaign of their false names. They also were provided to infiltrate into South Vietnam separately terror, violence, and subversion in earnest with fishermen's permits, South Vietnamese and to meet there at a rendezvous point. in 1959, the Communist forces relied mainly voting cards, and draft cards or military dis- At first Vy was to do no more than to on stocks of weapons and ammunution left charge papers. The boat captain received a observe his fellow students carefully, col- over from the war against the French. Sup- boat registration book, crew lists, and sev- lecting biographical data on them and study- plies sent in from North Vietnam came eral South Vietnamese permits to conduct ing their personalities, capabilities, and as- largely from the same source. As the mili- business. piratians. He was then to select those he tary campaign progressed, the Vietcong de- The agents and boatmen were given thought might be most influenced by Com- pended heavily on weapons captured from cover stories to tell if captured. Each man munist propaganda and try to make friends the Armed Forces in South Vietnam. This had to memorize not only the details of his with them. remains an important source of weapons and own story but the names and some details Once he had selected targets, he was to ammunitions for the Vietcong. But as the about each of the others. The agents had begin to influence them favorably toward the pace of the war has quickened, requirements to become familiar With simple boat proce- north and to Implant Communist props- for up-to-date arms and special types of dures so they could pass as legitimate fisher- Banda. He was responsible then for bringing weapons have risen to a point where the men, into his organization those he had influenced Vietcong cannot rely on captured stocks. The expedition left the embarkation port effectively. These individuals were to be Hanoi has undertaken a program to reequip on April 4. In addition to the four agents given their own propaganda assignments to its forces in the south with Communist-pro- the boat carried six carefully sealed boxes work on other students. duced weapons. containing a generator, several radios, some Students who wanted to evade military Large and increasing quantities of mili- weapons, and a large supply of South Viet- service in the Government forces Were con- tary supplies are entering South Vietnam natnese currency. They also carried some sidered prime targets. Where possible, Vy from outside utside the country. The principal chemicals and materials for making false was to help them get to North Vietnam. He supply point is North Vietnam, which pro- identification papers. Their destination was was also told to make contact with any stu- vides a convenient channel for materiel that a landing site on the coast of Phuoc Tuy dents who had been picked up by the author- originates in Communist China and other Province. ities for suspected Communist activities. Communist countries. Soon after leaving North Vietnam the VC These, too, were to be helped to escape to An increasing number of weapons from boat encountered high winds and rough seas. North Vietnam. Any useful information external Communist sources have been On April 7 the storm became violent. The concerning developments In the south or seized in the south. These include such boat tossed and threatened to capsize. military activities were to be reported weapons as 57-millimeter and 75-millimeter Strong northeasterly winds forced it ever through his superior, Nguyen Van Phong. recoilless rifles, dual-purpose machineguns, closer to shore. Finally the boat captain, In case he became suspect, he was either rocket launchers, large mortars, and anti- Nguyen Xit, ordered that the six boxes be to make his own way back to North Vietnam tank mines. thrown overboard. This was done, and the or to go into the jungle and try to contact A new group of Chinese Communist-man- boat then was beached. The eight men de- a VC unit. ufactured weapons has recently appeared in cided to split up into pairs and try to make Vy entered South Vietnam on January 2, VC hands. These include the 7.62 semiauto- contact with VC forces. They buried their 1963, by swimming across the Ben Hai River. matte carbine, 7.62 light machinegun, and false papers and set out. Six of the eight He encountered an elderly farmer who led the 7.62 assault rifle. These Weapons and were captured almost immediately by au- him to the local authorities in Hai Cu. ammunition for them, manufactured in thorities in Thua Thien Province, and the There he told his story but it was not be- Communist China in 1962, were first cap- other two were taken several days later: lieved. He then admitted his true mission. tared in December 1964 in Chuang Thien 2. Student Propaganda Agents 3. Other Agents Province. Similar weapons have since been seized in each of the four corps areas of The student population of South Vietnam The Communist authorities in North Viet- South Vietnam. Also captured have been is an Important target group for VC propa- nam send their agents into South Vietnam Chinese Communist antitank grenade gandists. These' agents seek to win adher- by a wide variety of means. A few like launchers and ammunition made in China safe for the Communist cause among young Nguyen Van Vy cross the demilitarized zone, in 1963. workers, students in high schools and uni- more infiltrate by sea, and still more along One captured Vietcong told his captors versities, and the younger officers and en- the infiltration routes through Laos. But that his entire company had been supplied listed men in the armed forces of the Repub- there are other methods for entering South recently with op Chinese eenosu The lie of Vietnam. Vietnam. VC espionage agent Tran Van recrecently t of io units with a type n The Typical of the agents sent into South But attempted one such method. one that require ammunition and parts from Vietnam for this, purpose is Nguyen Van Vy, But was a graduate of the espionage train- outste South Vietnam indicates the growing a 19-year-old VC propagandists. He is a tog school in Haiphong, North Vietnam. He outside the nom dic to the g o ing rities native of the Vinh Linh District in North completed a special 6-month course in July effectiveness of their authosupply lines into the Vietnam, just north of the demilitarized zone. 1962. The training included political in- south. He was P. member of a Commttnlst Party doctrination, but most of the time was spent ble evidence of Hanoi's elabo- recruited group in his native village. He was on such things as use or Weapons, preparing IncontrovertraIe r am to le supply its forces in the south recruited for propaganda work in the south booby traps, and methods of sabotage. He with peaorsns, ammunition. and other sup- in the fall of 1962. He was one of 40 young was also given instruction in methods for lies has weapons, the years. sup-accumulated over persons- enrolled in a special political train- enlisting help from hoodlums, draft dodgers, motto new proof was exposed just th- ing course given by the Communist Party in and VC sympathizers. Once in South Viet- report was being completed. his district. nam, he was to organize a small unit for rg conp The first phase of the training consisted of sabotage and the collection of Information. On February 16, 1965, an-American heli- political indoctrination covering such sub- On specific assignment by his superiors he copter pilot flying along the South Vietnam- jects as the advance of communism, the was to be ready to sabotage ships in Saigon ese coast sighted a suspicious vessel. It was North Vietnamese plan for winning control harbor and to blow up gasoline and oil stor- a carog ship of an estimated 100-ton capacity, of the country, the responsibility of youth age points and Vietnamese Army installa- carefully camouflaged and moored just off in furthering this plan, the war in the south, tions. He was told to be prepared to assas- shore along the coast of Phu Yen Province,. and the need for propaganda supporting the ainate Vietnamese officials and American Fighter planes that approached the vessel. Liberation Front. personnel. met machinegun fire from guns on the deck: Those who successfully completed the first In September 1962 But was given his mis- of the ship and from the shore as well. A phase were selected for the second level of slon assignment. He was to hide aboard a Vietnamese Air Force strike was launched training, the so-called technical training foreign ship. When discovered, he was to against the vessel, and Vietnamese Govern- phase. In this the trainees were given their claim to be a refugee who wanted to escape meat troops moved into the area. They mission in the south. Vy was told he should to South Vietnam. He was given an auto- seized the ship after a bitter fight with the infiltrate into South Vietnam and there sur- matte pistol With silencer, some explosive de- Vietcong. render to the authorities, describing himself vices, and a small knife that could inject The ship, which had been sunk in shallow as a defector who was "tired of the miserable poison into the body of a victim. water, had discharged a huge cargo of arms. life in` the north." He was to say he wanted But stole aboard a foreign ship In Hai- ammunition, and other supplies. Docu- to complete his schooling, which was impos- phong harbor. After 3 days at Sea-when merits found on the ship and on the bodies sible in the north. He was told to ask to he was sure the ship would not turn of several Vietcong aboard identified the ves- live with relatives in the south so he could around-16ul surrendered to the. ship's cap- sel as having come froth North Vietnam. A go to school. Once his story was accepted tain. When the ship arrived in Bangkok, newspaper in the cabin was from Haiphong and he. was enrolled in a school, he was to But was turned over to the That authorities. and was dated January 23, 1965. The sup- begin his work of propagandizing other stu-- They in turn released him to the South plies delivered by the ship-thousands of dents. He Was to watt for 3 or 4 montha, Vietnamese as he had requested. But in weapons and more than a million rounds of however, until he was no longer the subject Saigon his true mission was disclosed and he ammunition--were almost all of Communist of localsuspicion. He was assigned to work made a full confession. origin, largely from Communist China and Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67BO04-46R000300160030-9 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 3941 Ozechoslovakla, as well as North Vietnam, cache in which the 75-millimeter ammuni- In his address to the Third Lao Dong Party At least 100 tons of military supplies were tion alone weighed approximately 11/2 tons. Congress, party and government leader Ho discovered near the ship. It has been estimated that it would require Chi Minh spoke of the necessity "to step up A preliminary survey of the cache near the more than 150 porters to carry this quantity the Socialist revolution in the north and, sunken vessel from Hanoi listed the follow- of ammunition over rough terrain. How- at the same time, to step up the national ing supplies and weapons: ever, a few sampans, each manned by a few democratic people's revolution in the south." Approximately 1 million rounds of small-. men, could transport it with little difficulty. The year before, writing for Red Flag, the arms ammunition; more than 1,000 stick It is worth noting, in this connection, that Communist Party newspaper of Belgium, grenades; 500 pounds of TNT in prepared the delta where the cache of materiel was Ho had said much the same thing: "We are charges; 2,000 rounds of 82-millimeter mortar seized has 460 miles of seacoast as well as . building socialism in Vietnam, but we are ammunition; 500 antitank grenades; 500 2,500 miles of canals navigable by large water- building it in only one part of the country, rounds of 57-millimeter recoilless rifle am-, craft and another 2,200 miles of canals over while in the other part we still have to direct muntion; more than 1,000 rounds of 75- which sampans can move easily. Much of and bring to a close the middle-class demo- millimeter recoilless rifle ammunition; one the transport of large stocks of ammunition cratic and antiimperialist revolution." 57-millimeter recoilless rifle; 2 heavy ma- is undoubtedly waterborne for at least much chineguns; 2,000 7.95 Mauser rifles; more of its travel into South Vietnam.' In the Nsame in orth vein, the commander chief than 100, 7.62 carbines; 1,000 submachine- Large quantities of chemical components Nguyen theguyen No Giaprth, spoke at spoke at e the arm1960ed forc party es, con- guns; 15 light machineguns; 500 rifles; 500 for explosives have been sent into South pounds of medical supplies (with labels from Vietnam for the Vietcong. During 1963 dress of the need to "step up the south." North Vietnam, Communist China, Czecho- there were at least 15 incidents in which Eamocratic people's revolution in the south.- Slovakia, East Germany, Soviet Union, and boats, junks, or sampans were seized with nist Earlier Party the year, c Tap for the Commul other sources). a i b ed the oc Tap in Hanoi, Genera- explosives aboard. More than 20 tons of Gip described thnorth as "the revolution- The ship was fairly new and had been potassium chlorate or nitrate were captured. ary base for the whole country." made . in Communist China. Documents All these cases were in the delta-area, and aboard the ship included three North Viet- the majority were on or near the Mekong first Le of secretary member the Lao the Dona Party, Par, and namese nautical charts (one of the Hai- River. Red phosphorus made in Communist even lith the phong area and one of Hong Gay, both in China has been among the chemicals cap- evmore explicit when he talked the North Vietnam, and one of the TraVinh area tured from the Vietcong. party congress about the struggle in the of South Vietnam). The military health The Communists have shown extreme south and the party's role. After noting the records of. North .Vietnamese soldiers were sensitivity to exposure of the fact that war difficulties involved in overthrowing the found. One man, had a_ political history material is going to the Vietcong from Northtsaid: ing order i the South southern Vie eo l Le Duan sheet showing he was a member of the 338th Vietnam, Communist China, and other Com- o "Hence Hence struggle the will be longpeoples out, and of the North Vietnamese Army. munist countries. A secret document cap- de, drawn sub, but a (See app. E.) tured from a VC agent last year reflected arduous. It is not a simple process but a Also aboard the North Vietnamese ship this sensitivity. The document was sent complicated one, combining many varied were: an instruction book for a Chinese, from VC military headquarters in Bien Hoa forms of struggle-from elementary to ad- Communist navigational device; postcards Province to subordinate units. It ordered building, l bconsolidation, col andillen, and and based on the and letters to addresses in North Vietnam; them to "pay special attention to the re- development of snapshots, including one of a group of men moval of all the markings and letters on the revolutionary force of the masses. In t in North Vietnamese Army uniforms under a weapons of all types currently employed by o urbis process, solidarity we and the must constantly antensify flag of the Hanoi government. units and agencies and manufactured by o organization and edu- flag of the ICC and representatives of friendly East European democratic countries . cation of the people of the south." the free press visited the sunken North Viet- or by China." It said incriminating mark- Another high official of the Hanoi regime, namese ship and viewed its cargo. The ing should be chiseled off "so that the enemy Truong Chinh, writing in the party organ incident itself underlined in the most dra- cannot use it as a propaganda theme every Hoc Tap in April 1961, expressed confidence matic form that Hanoi is behind the con- time he captures these weapons." in the success of the struggle to remove the tinuing campaign of aggression aimed at III. NORTH VIETNAM: SO SEE H FOR CONQUEST OF legal "North o Vietnam its Sbeing Vrapidly con soli- conquering South Vietnam.- It made un-THE ' mistakably clear that what is happening in dated and strengthened, is providing good South Vietnam is not an internal affair but Hanoi The in Third September Lao Dong 1960 Party forth Congress in and is support r the South strong base fe revolution, part of a large-scale carefully directed and for its members: "to carry set fo two tasks gle serving r a strong base for the strug- supported program of armed attack on a members: ry out the socialist ge for national rsovereign state and a free people. revolution in North Vietnam" and "to lib- He outlined the steps by which the Com- There have been previous seizures of large erate South Vietnam." munists expect to achieve control over all stocks of ammunition and weapons and other The resolution of the congress described Vietnam as follows: The Liberation Front military supplies that could only have come the effort to destroy the legal Government in would destroy the present Government in the mom Cym pubes that cs could Shave come South Vietnam as follows: "The revolution south; a, coalition government would be nom, o munissources ices a Republic of Viet- In the South is a protracted, hard, and cam- established; this government would agree nam force attacked a 63 stronghold public of Dinh plex process of struggle, combining many with the North Vietnamese government in nom f Province outhwetr of Saigon. A forms of struggle of great activity and flexi- Hanoi regarding national reunification un- large cache of ce equipment of seized. In A bility, ranging from lower to higher, and der one form or another. It takes little paned in the captured stocks were the. fol- taking as its basis the building consolida- imagination to understand the form that is lowing weapons _ and ammunition, all of tion, and development of the revolutionary intended. Chinese weapons , t manufacture: of the masses." "Thus," wrote Truong Chinh, "though One 80-ommti is u2 car- At the September meeting the Communist South Vietnam will be liberated by nonpeace- 53); of 175 bines (90- illi 120 rockrouket c et aunt er; 2 car- leaders in the north called for formation of ful means, the party policy of achieving recoilless rifle ammunition; 120 detonating r a broad national , Hanoi front." Three peaceful national reunification is still cor- fuses for recoilless rifle ammunition; 14,000 months later, Hanoi announced creation of rect." rounds of 7.62 (type P) ammunition; 160,000 the "Front for Liberation of the South." This is the organization that Communist The official government radio in Hanoi is rounds of 7.62 carbine ammunition; 150 fuses propaganda now credits with g used both overtly and covertly to su for mortar, shells; 100,000 rounds_ of 7.92 forces subversion in the guiding the the Vietcong effort in South Vietnam. oa rt Mouser-type ammunition; 110 pounds (ap- tared as s an organization south; established it is and plc- tared agents have testified that the broad- pr ser-te) of TNT; two 60-millimeter mop- run tars. by the people in the south themselves. At casts are used sometimes to send instructions the 1960 Lao Dong Party Congress the tone the code to Vietcong representatives in These weapons and ammunition are the was different. Then, even before the front the south. same as those used in the North Vietnamese existed, the Communist leaders were issuing Hoc Tap stated frankly in March 1963: Army. Some of the 7.62-millimeter am- orders for the group that was being orga- "They [the authorities in South Vietnam] munition was manufactured as recently as nized behind the scenes in Hanoi. "This 1962.4 are well aware that North Vietnam is the firm front must rally"; "The aims of its struggle base for the southern revolution and the Materiel is sent into South Vietnam from are"; "The front must carry out"-this is point on which it leans, and that our party the North by a variety of methods-over- the way Hanoi and the Communist Party ad- is the steady and experienced vanguard unit land, by river and canal, and by sea. In one dressed the Liberation Front even before its of the working class and people and is the instance Vietnamese troops discovered a founding. brain and factor that decides all victories of The Liberation Front Is Hanoi's creation; the revolution." 4 On Jan. 29, 1964, the Government of the it is neither independent nor southern, and In April 1964 the Central Committee of the Republic of Vietnam supplied the Inter- what it seeks is not liberation but subjuga- Lao Dong Party issued a directive to all Control Vietnam with the a list of tion of the south. party echelons. It stated: "When the forces weapons, ammunition, and other equipment co rthe id enenemy and the plots that the enemy are of Communist origin captured in South Viet- Photographs of additional Vietcong wee party members, is realized the cadres, p- m mrs, and inpeople In crease their North Viet- nam since June 1962. The list is summer- ens and ammunition of Communist origin nom must * * * increase sense of f re- ized in app. D. are contained in,app. E. sponsibility in regard to the South Vietnam Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3942 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 - CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE March 3 revolution by giving positive and practical rather than an externally directed Coinmu- support to South Vietnam in every field" slat plan. Ort primarily from Nguyen Chi Thanh, writing in a Hanoi he front has won supp newspaper in May 1963, underlined the-im- the Communist world. Its radio faithfully portance of the role of the North Vietnamese repeats the propaganda themes of Hanoi and Army in Hanoi's plans to unify Vietnam un- Peiping. When its representatives travel der Communist rule: "Our party set forth two abroad, they do so with North Vietnamese and sponsorship! The front's pro- time: tasks to be carried out at the same Passports copies that of the Lao Dong Party in time: to transform and build socialism In the North Vietnam. north and to struggle to unify the country. In late 1961, in still another effort to con- Our army is an instrument of the class strug- gle in carrying out these two strategic tasks." teal the extent of Communist domination of the front, the Communists announced IV. ORGANIZATION, DIRECTION', ON SOi7TEC,COMMAND, AND VIETNAM formation of tL new Marxist political unit, CONTROL HANOI I tiie People's Revolutionary Party (PAP). ARE CENTER RED IN H This mechanism provided a way to explain The VC military and political apparatus the Communist presence in the front while in South Vietnam is an -extension of an at the same time making it appear that the elaborate military and political structure in Communist voice was only one of several North Vietnam which directs and supplies affiliated organizations in the front. The it with the tools for conquest. The Ho Chi PRP itself claimed direct descent from the Minh regime has shown that it is ready to original Indochinese Communist Party and allocate every resource that can be spared- from the North Vietnamese Communist whether it be personnel, funds, or equip- Party in Hanoi.' o f bringing all Vietnam under i Cammunit of nging rule. A. Political organt?ation Political direction and control of the Viet- cong is supplied by the Lao Dong Party, I.e., the Communist Party, led by Ho Chi Minh. Party agents are responsible for indoctrina- tion, recruitment, political training, propa- ganda, anti-Government demonstrations, and other activities of a political nature. The cbnaiderable intelligence-gathering facilities of the party are also at the disposal of the Vietcong. Overall direction of the VC movement is the responsibility of the Central Committee of the Lao Dong Party. Within the central committee a special reunification depart- ment has been established. This has replaced the committee for supervision of the south mentioned in intelligence reports 2 years ago. It lays down broad strategy for the movement to conquer South Vietnam. Until March 1982 there were two principal administrative divisions in the VC structure in the south. One was the interzone of South-Central Vietnam (sometimes called interzone 5); the other was the Nambo re- gion. In a 1962 reorganization these were merged into one, called the central office for South Vietnam. The central committee, through its reunification department, Issues maintains direct contact with its principal directives to the central office, which trans- military units in the south. lates them into specific orders for the appro- In addition to its supervision of the gen- priate subordinate command. eral military effort of the VC, the military Under the central office are six regional section of the central office is believed to units (V through IX) plus the special zone have direct command of two regimental of Saigon sponsin/Gia Dinh. A regional com- headquarters and a number of security com- mittee responsible to the central office di- ponies. rects VC activities in each region. Each The hard core of the VC military organiza- regional committee has specialized units re- Lion is the full-time regular unit usually perso sponsible for liaison, propaganda, training based on the province or region. These are nnel, military itary bases, , and rnd the subversive like. . activities, espionage , well-trained and highly disciplined guerrilla fighters. They follow a rigid training sched- Below each regional committee are simi?? ule that is roughly two-thirds military and larly structured units at the province and one-third political in content. This com- cells pares with the 50-50 proportion for district district levels. At the base of the Commu- nist pyralrrid are the individual party cells, units and the 70 percent political and 30 which may be organized on a geographic percent military content of the village guer- base or within social or occupational groups. rilla's training. The elaborateness of the party unit and the The size of the Vietcong regular forces has extent to which it operates openly or under- grown steadily in recent years. For exam- ground os doleover th mrea, c by the extent ple, the Vietcong have five regimental head- Of VC control over the area concerned. quarters compared with two in 1961. And 1. The Liberation Front: The National the main VC force is composed of 50 battal- Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam ions, 50 percent more than before. There is the screen behind which the Communists are an estimated 139 VC companies. Hard- carry out their program of conquest. It is the creature of the Communist Government in Hanoi. As noted above the Communist Party in the North demanded establishment of such a front 3 months before its forma- tion was actually announced in December 1960, It was designed to create the illusion that the Vietcong campaign of subversion was truly indigenous to South Vietnam Military affairs of the Vietcong are the responsibility of high command of the Peo- pie's Army of North Vietnam and the Min- istry of Defense, under close supervision from the Lao Dong Party. These responsibilities include operational plans, assignments of individuals and regular units, training pro- grams, infiltration of military personnel and supplies, military communications, tactical intelligence, supplies, and the like. The six military regions are the same as those of the VC political organization. The military structure of the Vietcong Is an integral part of the political machinery that controls every facet of VC activity in South Vietnam under Hanoi's overall direc- tion. Each political headquarters from the central office down to the village has a mili- tary component which controls day-to-day care VC strength now is estimated at about 35,000, whereas it was less than 20,000 in 1961. The main force battalions are well armed with a variety of effective weapons includ- ing 75-millimeter recoilless rifles and 81-82- millimeter mortars. The companies and smaller units are equally well equipped and have 57-millimeter recoilless rifles and 60- millimeter mortars in their inventory. It is estimated that the Vietcong have at least 130 81-millimeter mortars and 300 60-milli- meter mortars. There is no precise estimate for the number of recoilless rifles in their hands, but it is believed that most main force units are equipped with them. In at least one recent action the Vietcong em- ployed a 75-millimeter pack howitzer. This mobile weapon, which has a range of 8,500 yards, will increase the Vietcong capabilities to launch long-range attacks against many stationary targets in the country. Supporting the main force units of the Vietcong are an estimated 60,000-80,000 part- time guerrillas. They are generally orga- nized at the district level where there are likely to be several companies of 50 or more men each. These troops receive only half pay, which means they must work at least part of the-time to eke out a living. Below the irregular guerrilla forces of the district are the part-time, village-based guer- rillas. They are available for assignment by higher headquarters and are used for harassment and sabotage. They are expected to warn nearby VC units of the approach of any force of the legal government. They provide a pool for recruitment into the VC district forces. The record shows that many of the village guerrillas are dragooned into service with the Vietcong. Some are kidnapped; others are threatened; still others join to prevent their families from being harmed. Once in the Vietcong net, many are reluctant to leave for fear of punishment by the authorities or reprisal by the Communists. Lam Van Chuoi is a typical example. He was a member of the village civil defense force in his home village in Kien Giang Province. In March 1960, he was kidnapped by the Vietcong and kept a prisoner in the highlands for 1 month. There he was sub- jected to intense propaganda and indoctri- nation. He was returned to his village but kept under close observation and steady pressure. Finally, he was convinced he must join the VC. Later, he was transferred to a Communist- military unit in another prov- ince. After learning of the Government's open arms program, he decided to defect from the VC. In May 1964, he walked into a Government outpost and asked for protec- tion. Money to pay the regular VC units comes from a variety of sources. Funds are sent from Hanoi. "Taxes" are extorted from the local population. Landowners and planta- tion operators often must pay a tribute to the VC as the price for not having their lands devastated. Similarly, transportation com- panies have been forced to pay the VC or face the threat of having their buses or boats sabotaged. Officials and wealthy people have been kidnaped for ransom. The VC have often stopped buses and taken the money and valuables of all on board. For the most part, the VC have concen- trated their attention on individuals, iso- lated or poorly defended outposts, and small centers of population. They have mercilessly killed or kidnaped thousand of village chiefs military operations. Similarly, each mili- tary headquarters has a political element, an individual or a small staff. This meshing of political and military activity is designed to insure the closest cooperation in support of the total Communist mission. It also gives assurance of political control over the military. Associated with the central office, believed to be located in Tay Ninh Province, is a mili- tary headquarters. Through this headquar= ? Pictures, of North Vietnamese passports operations. Their ability to operate on a and travel documents used by front officials battalion level or larger has substantially are in app. F. [Not printed in RECORD.] increased. a For evidence that the People's Revolu- C. Intelligence organization tionary Party in the south and the Com- inunist Lao Dong Party in the north are one A key element in the Vietcong effort is an party, see app. G. elaborate organization in Hanoi called the Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/,10'-: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 .196`5 ..-,CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Central Research Agency (CRA) (Cue Nghi- en-Cuu Trung-Uong). Though it handles Hanoi's intellience effort on a worldwide scale, the main focus of its operation is on South Vietnam,.. This agency is able to draw on the Intelligence capabilities of both the Lao Dong Party and the North Vietnamese armed forces for information, personnel, and facilities. . The CRA reportedly operates under the close personal scrutiny of Ho Chi Minh him- self. Some of the top officials in the Hanoi government reportedly sit on its directing committee, including Premier Pham Van Dong, Deputy Premier Truong Chinh, and Defense Minster Vo Nguyen Giap. Considerable information on the organiza- tion of the CRA has become available from captured Vietcong agents and from the work of intelligence agents of the Republic of Vietnam. Much of this information cannot be made public for security reasons, but it is posible to describe the CRA organization and its operations in broad outline. The headquarters of the CRA in Hanoi is divided into six main sections, not including a special code unit. The six sections are re- sponsible for administration, cadres, com- munications, espionage, research, and train- ing. Each Section has units to handle the specialized activities of its particular area of responsibility. The research section, for ex- ample, has subsections that handle political, economic, and. military affairs respectively. CRA headquarters directs a number of special centers for oversea operations. One such center maintains intelligence channels to oversea areas, It operates through spe- cial units at Haiphong and at Hongay. A second special center is responsible for VC intelligence operations in Cambodia and Laos. A third center handles activities along the "demarcation line," the border with South Vietnam. This unit, based in Vinh Linh in southeast North Vietnam, is respon- sible for sending agents and supplies to the south by sea. It also cooperates with the North Vietnamese army in planning and carrying out infiltration. The CRA main- tains intelligence bases in Laos and other countries. Inside South Vietnam the Vietcong have a large intelligence network. Some of its units are responsible for receiving and sending on agents arriving from the North. They feed and give instructions to groups infiltrating Into South Vietnam, They take delivery of '-equipment and supplies received from the North and relay them to Vietcong units in the south. Many Vietcong agents have been captured in Saigon., They have exposed the extensive effort by the CRA to penetrate all Republic of Vietnam Government agencies, foreign embassies, and other specialized organiza- tions. Party and military intelligence units and agents work closely with the CRA. Each of the main centers operating under CRA headquarters has its own sections and units designed to carry out its main funs- tiong. The center at Vinh Linh, responsible for the main infiltration effort of the Viet- cong, has separate sections for radio com- munications, coding, documentation and training, and liaison. It also has specialized units for infiltration through the moun- tains, infiltration by sea, and "illegal action" in the mountain area. The CRA maintains a large and expanding radio communications network. Agents also are used to carry messages, usually in secret Writing or memorized. Taken as a whole, the North Vietnamese intelligence operation in support of the Vietcong is one of the most extensive of its kind in the world,e 8 Charts of the VC organizational structure ro in app. H. V. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HANOI'S CAMPAIGN OF AGGRESSION AGAINST SOUTH VIETNAM While negotiating an end to the Indochina war at Geneva in 1954, the Communists were making plans to take over all former French territory in southeast Asia. When Vietnam was partitioned, thousands of carefully se- lected party members were ordered to remain in place in the south and keep their secret apparatus intact to help promote Hanoi's cause. Arms and ammunition were stored away for future use. Guerrilla fighters re- joined their families to await the party's call. Others withdrew to remote jungle and mountain hideouts. The majority, an esti- mated 90,000, were moved to North Vietnam. Hanoi's original calculation was that all of Vietnam would fall under its control with- out resort to force. For this purpose, Com- munist cadres were ordered to penetrate offi- cial and nonofficial agencies, to propagandize and sow confusion, and generally to use all means short of open violence to aggravate war-torn conditions and to weaken South Vietnam's government and social fabric. South Vietnam's refusal to fall in with Hanoi's scheme for peaceful takeover came as a heavy blow to the Communists. Mean- time, the Government had stepped up ef- forts to blunt Vietcong subversion and to expose Communist agents. 'Morale in the Communist organization in the south dropped sharply. Defections were numerous. Among South Vietnamese, hope rose that their nation could have a peaceful and inde- pendent future, free of Communist domina- tion. The country went to work. The years after 1955 were a period of steady progress and growing prosperity. Food production levels of the prewar years were reached and surpassed. While per cap- ita food output was dropping 10 percent in the north from 1956 to 1960, it rose 20 per- cent in the south. By 1963 it had risen 30 percent, despite the disruption in the coun- tryside caused by intensified Vietcong mili- tary attacks and terrorism. The authorities in the north admitted openly to continuing annual failures to achieve food production goals. Production of textiles increased in the south more than 20 percent in 1 year (1958). In the same year, South Vietnam's sugar crop increased more than 100 percent. Despite North Vietnam's vastly larger indus- trial complex, South Vietnam's per capita gross national product in 1960 was estimated at $110 a person while it was only $70 in the North. More than 900,000 refugees who had tied from Communist rule in the North were suc- cessfully settled in South Vietnam. An agrarian reform program was instituted. The elementary school population nearly quadrupled between 1956 and 1960. And so it went--a record of steady improvement in the lives of the people. It was intolerable for the rulers in Hanoi; under peaceful con- ditions, the south was outstripping the north. They were losing the battle of peace- ful competition and decided to use violence and terror to gain their ends. After 1966 Hanoi rebuilt, reorganized,, and expanded its covert political and military machinery in the South. Defectors were replaced by trained personnel from party ranks in the north. Military units and polit- ical cells were enlarged and were given new leaders, equipment, and intensified training. Recruitment was pushed. In short, Hanoi and its forces in the South prepared to take by force and violence what they had failed to achieve by other means. By 1958 the use of terror by the Vietcong increased appreciably. It was used both to Win prestige and to back up demands for support from the people, support that polit- ical and propaganda appeals had failed to produce, It was also designed to embarrass the Government in Saigon and raise doubts about its ability to maintain internal order and to assure the personal security of its people. From 1959 through 1961, the pace of Vietcong terrorism and armed attacks ac- celerated substantially. The situation at the end of 1961 was so grave that the Government of the Republic of Vietnam asked the United States for in- creased military assistance. That request was met. Meantime, the program of stra- tegic hamlets, designed to improve the peas- ant's livelihood and give him some protec- tion against Vietcong harassment and pres- sure, was pushed energetically. But the Vietcong did not stand still. To meet the changing situation, they tightened their organization and adopted new tactics, with increasing emphasis on terrorism, sabo- tage, and armed attacks by small groups. They also introduced from the North tech- nicians in fields such as armor and anti- aircraft. Heavier weapons were sent in to the regular guerrilla forces. The military and insurgency situation was complicated by a quite separate internal po- litical struggle in South Vietnam, which led in November 1963 to the removal of the Diem government and-.its replacement with a new one. Effective power was placed in the hands of a Military Revolutionary Coun- cil. There have been a number of changes in the leadership and composition of the Government in Saigon in the ensuing period. These internal developments and distrac- tions gave the Vietcong an invaluable op- portunity, and they took advantage of it. Vietcong agents did what they could to en- courage disaffection and to exploit demon- strations in Saigon and elsewhere. In the countryside the Communists consolidated their hold over some areas and enlarged their military and political apparatus by increased infiltration. Increasingly they struck at re- mote outposts and the most vulnerable of the new strategic hamlets and expanded their campaign of aggressive attacks, sabotage, and terror. And official, worker, or establishment that represents a service to the people by the Gov- ernment in Saigon is fair game for the Viet- cong. Schools have been among their favor- ite targets. Through harassment, the mur- der of teachers, and sabotage of buildings, the Vietcong succeeded in closing hundreds of schools and interrupting the education of tens of thousands of youngsters. Hospitals and medical clinics have often been attacked as part of the anti-Govern- ment campaign and also because such at- tacks provide the Vietcong with needed med- ical supplies. The Communists have en- couraged people in rural areas to oppose the Government's antimalaria teams, and some of the porkers have been killed. Village and town offices, police stations, and agricultural research stations are high on the list of pre- ferred targets for the Vietcong. In 1964, 436 South Vietnamese hamlet chiefs and other Government officials were killed outright by the Vietcong and 1,131 were kidnaped. More than 1,350 civilians were killed in bombings and other acts of sabotage. And at least 8,400 civilians were kidnaped by the Vietcong e Today the war in Vietnam has reached new levels of intensity. The elaborate effort by the Communist regime in North Vietnam to conquer the South has grown, not dimin- ished. Military men, technicians, political organizers, propagandists, and secret agents have been infiltrating into the Republic of Vietnam from the North in growing num- bers. The flow of Communist-supplied weapons, particularly those of large caliber, ? For additional details of VC terrorism, see app. I. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3944 has increased. Communications links with Hanoi are extensive. Despite the heavy casualties of 3 years of fighting, the hard- core VC force Is considerably larger now than it was at the end of 1961. The Government in Saigon has undertaken vigorous action to meet the new threat, The United States and other free countries have increased their assistance to the Vietnamese Government and people. Secretary of State Dean Rusk visited Vietnam in 1964, and he promised the Vietnamese: "We shall remain at your side until the aggression from the north has been defeated, until it has been completely rooted out and this land enjoys the peace which it deserves." President Johnson has repeatedly stressed that the U.S. goal is to see peace secured in southeast Asia. But he has noted that "that will come only when aggressors leave their neighbors in peace." Through It has been apparent for years that the regime in Hanoi was conducting a cam- paign of conquest against South Vietnam, the Government in Saigon and the Govern- ment of the United States both hoped that the danger could be met within South Viet- nam Itself. The hope that any widening of the conflict might be avoided was stated frequently. The leaders in Hanoi chose to respond with greater violence. They apparently inter- preted restraint as indicating lack of will. Their efforts were pressed with greater vigor and armed attacks and incidents of terror multiplied. Clearly the restraint of the past was not providing adequately for the defense of South Vietnam against Hanoi's open ag- gession. It was mutually agreed between the Governments of the Republic of Viet- nam and the United States that further means for providing for South Vietnam's defense were required. Therefore, air strikes have been made against some of the mili- tary assembly points and supply bases from which North Vietnam is conducting Its ag- gression against the south. These strikes constitute a limited response fitted to the aggression that produced them. Until the regime in Hanoi decides to halt its intervention in the south, or until effec- tive steps are taken to maintain peace and security in the area, the Governments of South Vietnam and the United States will continue necessary measures of defense against the communist armed aggression coming from North Vietnam. VI. CONCLUSION The evidence presented in this report could be multiplied many times with similar ex- amples of the drive of the Hanoi regime to extend its rule over South Vietnam. The record Is conclusive. it establishes beyond question that North Vietnam is car- rying out a carefully conceived plan of ag- gression against the South. It shows that North Vietnam has intensified its efforts in the years since it was condemned by the In- ternational Control Commission. It proves that Hanoi continues to press its systematic program of armed aggression into south Vietnam. This aggression violates the United Nations Charter. It is directly con- trary to the Geneva Accords of 1954 and of 1962 to which North Vietnam is a party, it shatters the peace of southeast Asia. It is a fundamental threat to the freedom and se- curity of South Vietnam. The People of South Vietnam have chosen to resist this threat. At their request, the United States has taken its place beside them in their defensive struggle. The United States seeks no territory, no military bases, no favored position. But we have learned the meaning of aggression else where in the postwar world, and we have met it. If peace can be restored in South Vietnam, the United States will be ready at once to reduce its military involvement. But it will not abandon friends who want to remain free. It will do what must be done to help them. The choice now between peace and continued and Increasingly kestructive con- flict is one for the authorities in Hanoi to make. APPENDIX A FINDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROL COMMISSION On June 2, 1962, the International Com- mission for Supervision and Control in Viet- nam (ICC) sent a special report to the Gov- ernments of the United Kingdom and of the Soviet Union in their role as cochairmen of the Geneva Conference on Indochina. The ICC is composed of delegates from India (chairman), Canada, and Poland. In its report the ICC noted the following finding of the Commission's Legal Commit- tee: "Having examined the complaints and the supporting material sent by the South Viet- namese mission, the committee has come to the conclusion that in specific instances there is evidence to show that armed and unarmed personnel, arms, munitions, and other supplies have been sent from the zone in the north to the zone in the south with the object of supporting, organizing, and carrying out hostile activities, including armed attacks, directed against the Armed Forces and administration of the zone In the south. These acts are in violation of articles 10, 19, 24, and 27 of the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Vietnam. "In examining the complaints and the sup- porting material In particular documentary material sent by the South Vietnamese mis- sion, the Committee has come to the further conclusion that there is evidence to show that the PAVN (people's army of Vietnam) has allowed the zone in the north to be used for inciting, encouraging and supporting the hostile activities in the zone In the south, aimed at the overthrow of the administration in the south. The use of the zone in the north for such activities is in violation of articles 19, 24, and 27 of the agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Vietnam. The ICC report then stated: "The Commission accepts the conclusions reached by the Legal Committee that there is sufficient evidence to show beyond reason- able doubt that the PAVN has violated arti- cles 10, 19, 24, and 27 in specific instances. The Polish delegation dissents from these conclusions. On the basis of the fuller re- port, that is being prepared by the Legal Committee covering all the allegations and incidents, the Commission will take action as appropriate in each individual case." The full text of the ICC reports is con- tained in a publication, "Special Reports to the Cochairmen of the Geneva Conference on Indochina" issued by the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs of the Department of State on July 2, 1962. APPENDIX B INFILTRATION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL FROM NORTH VIETNAM INTO SOUTH VIETNAM (See sec. I, B.) (Maps showing infiltration routes not printed in the RECORD.) APPENDIX C DETAIL ON MILITARY INFILTRATION WITH CASE STUDIES (See sec. I, B, and C.) The following table shows the scale of in- filtration of military personnel from North Vietnam Into the South since 1959. The confirmed list is based on information on March' 3 infiltration groups from at least two inde- pendent sources. Year I Confirmed Estimated additional 2,700 4, 500 3, 750 1,050 5,400 A62 ------ ----- 5, 400 7,000 12, 4011 19fi3-------------- 4.200 3,200 7,400 1964------ ------ 4,400 3:000 7,400 17,550 37,100 Brief case histories of typical Vietcong who were sent into South Vietnam by the author- ities In Hanoi follow: Name: Le Van Thanh. Alias: Huu Tam. Date and place of birth: July 12, 1936, Hoa Hao hamlet, Cat Tai village, Phu Cat dis- trict (Binh Dinh). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Lieutenant, formerly platoon leader of signal platoon of 3d Battalion, 90th Regiment, 324th Division. VC position in South Vietnam: Platoon leader of signal platoon of 95th Battalion, 2d Regiment, 5th Inter-Region. Date entered South Vietnam: Departed No- vember 27, 1961, arrived Do Xa station early February 1962. Date, place, and. circumstance of defection: Rallied to government at Nhon Loc post, Nghia Hanh district (Quang Ngai), May 24, 1962. Name: La Thanh. Alias: Nguyen Ba Tong-La Giau. Date and place of birth: 1928, Can Tho city (Phong Dinh). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Sen- ior sergeant, formerly squad leader in charge of construction of barracks for 338th Divi- sion. VC position in South Vietnam: Squad leader, 8th Squad, 3d Platoon, 3d Company, 218B Battalion (War Zone D). Date entered South Vietnam: Accompanied Infiltration Group 15; departed April 4, 1962, arrived War Zone D early August 1962. Date, place, and circumstance of defection: Rallied at Cau Song Be (bridge) post Sep- tember 8, 1962, with 1 MAS 36. Name: Le Van Quyen. Alias: Ho Hal., Hong Thanh. Date and place of birth: 1929, Tan Binh Than village, Cho Gao district (My Tho) . Rank and position in North Vietnam: Lieutenant, formerly assigned to 388th Bri- gade, as instructor on heavy weapons such as 57 mm. recoilless rifle and machinegun. VC position In South Vietnam: Platoon leader, 2d Platoon, 2d Company, Infiltration Group 15. Date entered South Vietnam: Accompa- nied Infiltration Group 15; departed April 3, 1962, arrived Suoi Da (War Zone D) Septem- ber 10, 1962. Date, place, and circumstance of defection: Rallied at Hieu Liem district (Phuoc Thanh) October 7, 1982. Name: Nguyen Van Do. Party name: Thanh Minh. Infiltration alias: Nguyen Thuan. Date and place of birth: 1923, Thuan Giao village, Lai Thieu district (Binh Duong). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Senior captain (battalion commander) 1st Battalion, 338th Brigade. VC position in South Vietnam: Subject was to be appointed commander of Phuoc Tuy Province Main Force Battalion. Date entered South Vietnam: Commander of Infiltration Group H. 26; departed Xuan Mai, Ha Dong (North Vietnam) July 4, 1963; arrived Ban Me Thuot October 23, 1963. Date, place, and circumstance of defec- tion: Rallied at Ban Don post, Ban Me Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446Ra00300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Thout, October 23, 1983, while guiding Group H. 26 to Hal Yen Zone. Name: Nguyen Thanh Phi. Party name: Hung Phuong. Infiltration alias: Nguyen Tu. Date and place of birth: November 16, 1926,,Thanh Van village, Thanh Chuong dis- trict (Nghe An.). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Doctor, chief of internal disease section, Tiep Viet Hospital. VC position in South Vietnam: Doctor, health team leader, 5th Region base con- struction group (Do Xa). Date entered South Vietnam: March 1962. Date, place, and circumstance of capture: Captured by South Vietnamese armed forces May 4, 1963, with one 12-millimeter Colt pistol and five rounds. Name: Le Van Net. Party name: Le Hung Tien. Infiltration alias: Le Na. Date and place of birth: 1924, Tan Hiep village, Go Cong, Dinh Tuong. Rank and position in North Vietnam: Discharged lieutenant, served in Co Dinh chroinite mine (Thank Hoa) with grade of senior sergeant. VC position in South Vietnam: Senior ser- geant, 6th Squad, 2d Platoon, Infiltration Group H.26. Date entered South Vietnam: Late June 1963 with Infiltration Group H. 26. Date, place, and circumstance of capture: Captured November 16, 1963, by inhabitants in strategic hamlet in Ban Me Thout (Dar- lac) with one Communist Chinese rifle and 70 rounds. Name: Van Cong Khanh. Party name: Pharr Tien. Date and place of birth: 1924, An Hoi vil- lage, Chau Thanh district (Kien Hoa); Rank and position in North Vietnam: Discharged and reassigned to Co Dinh chro- mite mine (Thank Hoa) as senior sergeant. VC position in South Vietnam: Aspirant, leader of 7th Squad, 3d Platoon, 608th Engi- neer Company subordinate to Headquarters Region 7. Date entered South Vietnam: Accom- panied Group 49, infiltrated into South Viet- nam, March 18, 1962. Date, place, and circumstance of capture: captured November 23, 1962, in Bung Dia hamlet. Name: Nguyen Thank Hoa, Party name: Quoc, Infiltration alias: Nguyen Quoc Tuung. Date and place of birth: 1917, Phong Coc village, Ha Nam canton (Quang Yen). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Cap- tain, discharged and reassigned to Chi No agricultural camp May 1957. VC position in South Vietnam: Com- mander, 4th Main Force Battalion. Date entered South Vietnam: Accom- panied Infiltration Group 52; departed Xuan Mal, April 13, 1961, arrived about August 1961. Date, place, and circumstance of capture: Captured by South Vietnamese Armed Forces with 1 PA 38 (pistol) in Quon Long (Dinh Tuong) August 1962. 1. Chinese Communist origin 75-millimeter recoilless rifle______________ Do----- ---------- Do_---------- Total ---------------- 67-millimeter recoilless gun______________________________________ Do_---, -------^------------------------------------- Do---------------------- Total----------------------------- Shells for 75-millimeter gun (shells bear markings in Chinese characters. On some shells markings were scratched out and replaced by "American" markings.) Do---------- ----------------------- ----^-------- -,- Total ----------------------------------------------------- Shells for 57-millimeter gun-------------------- ------ __?--_____ Do---------??--------------------------------------------- Do------------------------------ ?------ ------------------ Do__.., Do_?---------- --------------------_------------------------- Do------------ --------------------- ---?--------------------- Total-------- -------------------------------------------- 80-millimeter mortar -------- --- -__-----___-_-_____-- 60-millimeter mortar________________________________________ Do--------- -------------------------------------- ------ -- Total_ - - ----------- Shells for 60-millimeter mortar__________________________________ Do---------------------------------------------------------- Total------------------ ------,_-_,,,----^---------- 90-millimeter bazooka ----------------------------------- r---_-_ Caliber 27-millimeter rocket launcher---------------------------- T otal-------------------------------------------?--------- Caliber 7.92-millimeter model 08 Maxim machinegun______-_____ Do---------------------------------------------------------- Total----------------------------------------- li4P-82 rocket ---------------- --------------- ____________ TNT explosives (charges)-------- ______________________________ Do----------------------------------=----------------------- Do------------------------------------------------------- Do------_------ -----?------ ---------------------- Total---^------------------ ------------- --------- i3 18 165 6 142 365 43 29 144 Date of capture Sept. 10, 1963______________ Dec. 2-6, 1963_____?_-_-______ Dec. 22, 1963__ _:_-------------- -------------------------- Nov. 25,1962__________________ Dec. 5,1962 ------------------- Aug. 31,1963 ------------------ Nov. 24,1963__________________ Dec. 22, 1963__________________ -------------- ----------------- Nov. 25,1962 ------------------ Feb. 20, 1963__________________ May 24,1963 --------------Aug. 31,1963 ------------------ Oct. 8,1963__-________________ Dec, 22, 1963__________________ -------------------------------- Mar. 25, 1963_________________ Jan. 7, 1963____________________ Dec. 22,1963 ------------------ Sept. 10, 1963__________________ Dec. 22,1963 ------------------ -------------------------- Dec. 22, 1963__________________ June 10, 1962__________________ ----------------------- Sept, 10, 963__--__________-_ Dee. 21,1963__________________ June 13, 1962______________.___ Nov. 25, 1962_________________ May 7, 1963-------------------- Dec, 22,1963_ ________________ An Xuyen Province, Do. Dinh Tuong. Phuoc Chau in Quang Tin (I gun and 7 gull carriages), Phu Bon (1 gun carriage). Province of Quang Ngai. Province of An Xnyen. Phuoc Chan, Province of Quang Tin. Vietcong attack on the post of Ben Heo (Tay Ninh). On a Vietcong vessel on the Bassac River. Quang Ngai. Province of liihn Dinh. Dinh Tuong. Province of Tay Ninh. Phuoc Thanh, Dinh Tuong. Province of An Xuyen. Dinh Tuong. Do. Provinces of Quang Ngai and Quang Due Province of An Xuyen. Chuong Tiien. Quang Ngai. Quang Due. Phuoc Chao (Quang Tin). Can The. Dinh Tuong, Name: Tran van Khoa. Alias: Tran Hong Hai. Date and place of birth: 1935, Giong Gach hamlet, An Hiep village, Ba Tri district, Ben Tre Province (Kien Hoa). Rank and position in North Vietnam: Ser- geant, formerly driver of Transportation Group 3 of (Hanoi) Logistical Bureau. VC position in South Vietnam: Member of 46th Infiltration Company; cover designa- tion V. 2 (infiltrated unit). Date entered South Vietnam: Accompa- nied the 46th Infiltration Company; de- parted for South Vietnam, April 17, 1962. Date, place, and circumstance of capture: Captured by South Vietnamese Rangers in ambush (after being wounded) along with one MAS 36, July 7, 1962, in Phuoc Long Province. APPENDIX D LIST OF COMMUNIST WEAPONS CAPTURED IN SOUTH VIETNAM (See sec. II.) On January 29, 1964, the Government of Vietnam submitted to the International Control Commission a list of weapons and other military equipment which had been captured from the Vietcong. The weapons and equipment came from Communist sources outside South Vietnam and obvious- ly had been introduced clandestinely into the country in support of the Vietcong cam- paign of conquest, directed by Hanoi. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67BO'0446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3946 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -HOUSE I. Chinese Communist origin--Continued Type Quantity Date of capture Place Red phosphorous (kilograms)----------------------------------- 5 Apr. 19, 1963.... ___------- ____ Province of Kien Phong. Potassium chlorate (tons) ----------------------------------------- 17 September 1982--------------- On a Vietcong vessel at Phu Quoc. Do---------------?---___--- --_-_------------_--__---'---? 2 Apr. 19,1963------------------ Province of Bien Phong. Potassium 150 July 10-15, 1963 --------------- Phu Quoc. Total: Tons--------------------------------------------------- 19 Kilograms------------------- ----------------- ---------_ 155 ----------------------------- Cartridges for 7.92-millimeter machinegun-------------------- 100, 000 Dec. 22, IM----- ----------- Dinh Tuong. Detonating fuses for 60-millimeter mortar shell--_--------- 150 _ do ------------------------ Do. II. Soviet origin. MP-82 rifle---- ----------------------`------------------------- Launching cartridges ------ _------------------------- _____..______ Mossin Nagant carbine (with automatic bayonet)______________ Do--------------------------------------------------------- Do--------------------- -------- ----------------------------- Do-----??--------------------------------------------.-_-.- Rifles----------------------------------------------------------- D- ------------------------------------- ------------------ ------------------------ Do - - ?--- ---`---- Do---------------------------------------- ----------------- Do--------------------------------------------------------- Do--------------------------------------------------------- Do--------------------------------------------------------- Do - ------`------------------------------`-------------------- _ ---- - ---- ------------------- Do --------------_------------- Do-----??------------------------??-------------------- Do ___.?- Do---------------------------------------------------------' Do---- ---------------------------------------- -------------- Do ----------------------------------------------------------- Do--------------------------------------------?------------- Total------------------------------------??------------ Automatic pistol --------------------------------Grenades---------------------------------- ..-------------------- Rifle cartridges_______________ Submacbinegun (machine pistol)________________________________ 7.8rrmillirneter automatic pistol -_________.-___________________ X-50 submaehinegun.... ---------------------- ----------------- Do---------------------------------------- ------------------ Do-------------------- -?---------------------------.----- Do---------------------------------------------------------- Do--------------------------- --------------------- -------- Do---------- --------------- -.___--------------?----`-------- DO ---------------------------------`---- Do------------ ------------------- .._---- Do------------------------------------------------- -------- Do---------------------------------------------- -----------` Do-------------------------------------------------------- Do-------------------------------------------`---- -------- Do. ------------------------------------------------------ Db_ Do-------------------------------?-------- -- Total-----------`----------------------------------------- Rifles--------- ------------ ----------------?_.- 9 Do--------------------------------------------------------- -- 1 Do------------------------ .-------_?---`-_------'-_--------- 1 2 3 _ Do 2 ` -- -- -------- ------ -------------------- -- - 2 1 - --' .... ---------... Do- - 6 Total------- ---- Macbinegun cartridges ------------------?----:__---_----?-_--- 14,000 grenade launcher------------------------ 8.5 antitank bazooka --------- ________--_---_---__---------_?-- 160,000 May 10. 1962------------------ ----- do--------------- --------- Juno 13, 1963_____________ July 13,1963------------------- July 20,1963___________________ ------- 1983___________________ Oct. 6,1983_________________-__ Oct. 19,1983___------------ _ __ Nov. 6, 1963____- ----------- Nov. 17, 1963___?___---___-__ Nov. 25, 1983_________________ Dec. 6, 1963_________________-_ Dec. 7,1963_-_-_______________ Dec. 12,1963___._______________ Dec. 13, 1963__________________ Dec.16,1963__-__-______-_-__ ----- do------------------------- ----- do------------------------- Dec.17, 1963__________________ Dec. 20,1963-_____________-_ Dec. 21, 1963---- ----- ______?_- Dec. 22, 1963_______________ Oct. 19,1963___________________ ------------ ------- Dec. 22,1963__________________ Sept. 23,1963--______-_-_-____ Jan. 2, 1983---- _______________ Nov. 26, 1982.--_______________ Nov. 29, 2962----------------- Apr. 24, 1963__-_-____________ May9, 1963_______--__ July 11, 1963___-----_____-__-_ Aug. 31, 1963------------------ Sept. 8, 1963__--_-__--___.__ Sept. 16,1963_____________ Oct. 11 1963-___ __ _-_---_____ Nov.l ,1963------------------ do--------- ----------- Oct. 8, 1963--__---------------- - -------?----- Dec. 30, 1963__________________ Dec. 26, 1963____________ Dec. 17, 1963__________________ Sept. 10, 1983__________? Oct, 19, 1963_ _________________ Nov. 6, 1963------------------- Nov . 9 1963________ Nov. 116, -------- Nov. 127, 19(13------------- ^_.__ Nov. 28, 1963__---__-__-____ Dec. 2,1963 ........... Dec. 21, 1983__________ --------------------------- Dec. 22,1963__ ------------- July 14, 1983______________ Dec. 22, 1963_?______________ Binh Dinh. Do. Kien Phong. Long An. Dinh Tuong. Do. Long An. Dinh Tuong. Vinh Binh. Dinh Tuong. Rau Nghla. Dinh Tuong. Phon Dinh' Klan Tuong. An Xuyen. Klan Oiang. Ba Xuyen. An Xuyen. Phongg Dinh. Kien Hos. Chuong Thien. Dinh Tuong. Than Tblet. Long An. Dinh Tuong. Long Xuyen. On person of Vietcong leader arrested at Phu Yen. Quang Tin. Phuoc Long. Quang Ngai. Quang Tin. Operation Rau Chang, Quang Ngai. Dinh Tuong. Long An. Quang Nam. Phu Yen. At 11nS. Binh Dinh. Operation Phuoc Binh Thong. Keen Ron. Chuang Thien, Long Xuyen. An Xuyen. Chuong Thien, Bp Xuyen. Chuong Thien. Bien Oiang. Ba Xuyen Rau Nghia. Phong Dinh. Chuong Thien. Dinh Thong. Long An. Dinh Thong. Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE IV. (a) Weapons and ammunition modified by the Regular Army of North Vietnam 3947 Type Quantity Date of capture Place Modified MAT-k9-------------------------------- ------------- 16 Nov. 25,1962 ------------------ Quang Tin. Do---------------------------------------------------------- 2 Dec. 5,1963 ------------------- Phu Bon. Do_---------------------------------------- ------- ---------- 6 Nov. 13,1963,-. --------------- Total - ------------------------------------------------ 24 --------- - _ ------------------ 12.7-millimeter machinegun_____________________________________ 2 i a Nov. 24, 1963____--_-__________ Operation at Duo flea. IV.. (b) Material and equipment of North Vietnamese manufacture Uniform--------- -------- -------------------------- --------- ----------- Dec. 21,1962_________________ Helmets------------------------------------------------------- 16 Oct.8-10,1963_________________ Socks------------------ ---------------------------?.------ Dec. 21,1962 ------------------ Sweaters (made in Ha Dong)___________________________________ (1) -------------------------------- Belts (made in Hanoi) -__`______________________________________ (') -------------------------------- Messkits (made in Haiphong)____________________________________ -------------------------------- I No number given. the sympathy of nonalined countries PHOTOS OF CAPTURED VIETCONG WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION FROM EXTERNAL COMMUNIST SOURCES (See sec. II.) The following are photographs of some of the many weapons and the large stocks of ammunition supplied to the Vietcong in South Vietnam from external Communist sources (not printed in the RECORD). APPENDIX F NORTH VIETNAMESE PASSPORTS AND TRAVEL DOCUMENTS USED BY LIBERATION FRONT OFFICIALS (See sec. IV, A, 1.) Huynh Van Nghia and Nguyen Van Tien are officials of the "National Liberation Front. of South Vietnam." Though they pro- fess to be citizens of South Vietnam, their ties are with and their support comes from North Vietnam and the Communist regime in Hanoi. In 1963, when the two men traveled abroad on front business, they traveled as North Vietnamese with passports and other documents Issued by the Hanoi regime. Photographs of these documents follow (not printed in the RECORD). APPENDIX G THE PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (SOUTH) AND THE LAO DONG PARTY (NORTH) ARE ONE COMMUNIST PARTY (See sec. IV, A.) In May 1962 a military force of the Gov- ernment of Vietnam captured a number. of Vietcong documents in Ba Xuyen Province. One of these documents contained instruct tions from the provincial committee, of the Lao Dong Party (Communist Party) in Ba Xuyen to the party's district committees concerning formation of the new People's Revolutionary Party (PRP). Pertinent sections of the instruction, dated December 7, 1961, follow: "To D2 and K: "In regard to the foundation of the People's Revolutionary Party of South Vietnam, the creation of this party is only a matter of strategy; it needs to be explained within the party; and, to deceive the enemy,, it is neces- sary that the new party be given the outward appearance corresponding to a division of the party (Lao Dong) into two and the foun- dation of a new party, so that the enemy cannot use it in his propaganda. "Withip, the party, it is necessary to ex- plain that the founding of the People's Revo- lutioray Party has the purpose of isolating the Americans and the Ngo Dinh Diem re- gime, and to counter their accusations of an invasion of the South by the North. It is means of supporting our sabotage of the Geneva agreement, of advancing the plan of invasion of the South, and at the same time per-tnitting the Front for Liberation of the South to recruit new adherents, and to gain Phuoc Thanh. Kien Ilea. Phuoc Thanh. Do. Do. Do. in southeast Asia. "The People's Revolutionary Party has only the appearance of an independent existence; actually, our party is nothing but the Lao Dong Party of Vietnam (Vietminh Commu- nist Party), unified from North to South, under the direction of the central executive committee of the party, the chief of which is President No. "During these explanations, take care to keep this strictly secret, especially in South Vietnam, so that the enemy does not perceive our purpose. * * * "Do not put these explanations in party .bulletins." Another party circular of the same date said: "The reasons for the change in the party's name must be kept strictly secret. Accord- ing to instructions of the Central Commit- tee, one must not tell the people or party sympathizers that the People's Revolutionary Party and the Lao Dong Party of Vietnam are one. One must not say, that it is only a tactic, because it would not be good for the enemy to know." A third party circular, dated December 8, 1961, said: "Study the instructions so that you will ,be able to execute them. In passing them to ,D2V, D2, and K, be very careful that the documents do not fall into enemy hands. After D2N/C has passed to the sections, de- stroy the written documents immediately." The originals and translations of the above documents were submitted to the Interna- tional Control Commission by the Govern- ment of Vietnam on May 30, 1.962 .1 For picture of captured documents and text, see the white paper "Communist Viet- In 1964 new rules and regulations were promulgated for the People's Revolutionary Party. A copy of the new rules was captured from the Vietcong in Chuong Thien Province in November 1964. A photograph of the captured document appears on the next page. Key portions of the instructions said that new rules and regulations had been ap- proved for the PRP, "but the real nature of those rules and regulations is that they still are the rules and regulations of the Vietnam Lao Dong Party (in North Vietnam)," The instructions added: "* * * we should realize that our country is one country, that the Vietnamese People's Revolutionary Party and the. Vietnam Lao Dong Party are one party. * * * There is nothing different be- tween the two parties." APPENDIX H CHARTS OF THE VIETCONG ORGANIZATION, NORTH AND SOUTH (See sec. V.) Lines of control, political and military, from the Hanoi regime to the Vietcong in South Vietnam (charts not printed in the RECORD). APPENDIX I DETAIL ON VIETCONG TERRORISM (See section V.) The following table lists the Government officials and other civilians killed, wounded, or missing as a result of Vietcong terrorist activities during 1964. Combat casualties are not included. minh Aggressive Policy," published by the Government of the Republic of Vietnam, Saigon, July 1962. Village, district, and other Government officials Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov, Dec. Killed----------------------------- 47 34 49 30 26 31 45 36 46 48 21 24 Wounded--------------------------- 14 16 24 9 8 9 14 15 13 10 22 7 - Kidnaped__________________________ - 93 113 91 67 74 132 93 103 144 69 . 52 100 Total________________________ .154 163 164 106 107 172 152 154 203 127 95 131 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Killed_____________________________ 111 110 138 115 105 110 181 103 132 100 66 88 Wounded__________________________ 146 174 239 218 163 173 194 122 203 90 94 154 Kidnaped__________________________ 694 - 690 - 1,531 - 647 - 727 - 483 - 964 834 778 477 200 398 Total -------------------- 951 874 1,908 980 995 766 - 1,339 - 1,059 - 1,113 - 667 - 360 740 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3948 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Marsh 3 The following table shows the number of incidents of Vietcong terrorism, sabotage, forced propaganda sessions, and armed attacks during 1964: Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Attacks____________________________ 223 217 203 220 176 140 184 113 118 83 60 96 Terrorism__________________________ 1,244 1,389 1,632 1,738 1,418 1,390 2,123 1,775 1,938 1,790 1,391 1,719 Sabotage___________________________ 129 201 158 169 217 176 286 315 482 480 247 318 Propaganda________________________ 174 271 167 157 140 162 224 173 178 197 109 128 Some of the consequences of Vietcong ter- rorism are shown in the accompanying pho- tographs [not printed in the RECORD]. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. VA:rnx). Under previous order of the House, the gentleman from Montana [Mr. OLSEN] is recognized. for 30 min- utes. [Mr. OLSEN of Montana addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereaf- ter in the Appendix. ] ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTE- NANCE OF THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT AS SEPARATE AND COEQUAL INSTITUTIONS (Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama (at the request of Mr. MCCLORY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, one of the key essentials of the U.S. Constitution is the establishment and maintenance of the three branches of our Government as separate and co- equal institutions, each playing its own important function. Proper operation of the Government requires that we continually work to re- tain the integrity and efficiency of each branch. We are always concerned with improving the functions of Congress so that as representatives of the people we in the National Legislature may serve their interests. And we also now are rightly working to assure that our system of presidential disability and succession will always provide us with the best pos- sible continuity and operation of the executive branch. It is also appropriate that we concern ourselves with the judicial branch as the principal safeguard of justice for all our citizens. With that in mind I am intro- ducing today a bill designed to assure that Supreme Court Justices would have judicial experience as a qualification. Specifically, my bill would require that no person be appointed as a Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court unless, at the time of his appointment, he would have had at least 10 years prior service either as a judge of a Court of Appeals of the United States or as a judge of the highest court of any State. The bill would not, of course, apply to the present Supreme Court Justices and is not intended in any way to impugn the ability of these gentlemen. It would apply only to future appointments. The vast number of cases coming be- fore the Supreme Court today, the long delays in consideration of these cases be- cause of the great workload, and the immense complexity and serious nature of the issues involved, require that Ju- dicial experience be a substantial part of the background of individuals con fronted by these gigantic responsibilities. Surely the framers of the Constitu- tion did not foresee a situation in which, of the nine Supreme Court Justices, only three would have previous judicial ex- perience with this experience totaling only 9 years. And yet that is the situa- tion we have today. On the contrary, the Constitution was written with the intention of utilizing the best of the country's judicial wisdom and experience in helping to meet the coun- try's greatest judicial needs. Some of our most thoughtful observers have pointed out the requisites of superior Justices: a great intellectual humility, a respect for stability, for tradition, and for conventional wisdom, and a thorough understanding of how the judicial system works in our Federal courts. The Court should not be charged with the responsibility of legislative innova- tion. It should operate, rather, as the check of a farseeing and stable wisdom on actions of the other two branches of Government which may reflect short- term needs or relatively temporary con- ditions. Above all, as Hamilton wrote, it Is es- sential that the Court remain "truly dis- tinctive from both the executive and leg- islative branches." These proper functions of the U.S. Supreme Court can best be performed by Justices who carry with them the unique experience of a judicial background. For these reasons, I submit my bill and request that It be given early considera- tion. A THREAT TO SOIL CONSERVATION (Mr. FINDLEY (at the request of Mr. MOCLORY) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point In the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, the pro- posal to establish a revolving fund fi- nanced by farmers and ranchers replac- ing the traditional soil conservation serv- ices of the Department of Agriculture Is a grave threat to a program which has served our country as well as in- dividual farmers in splendid fashion for 30 years. Of all of the activities of the Department of Agriculture, this should be the last one to feel the economy axe. In all the years I have been associated with farmers, I have yet to hear one word of criticism of the dedication and effective service of the soil conserva- tionists of the Department of Agricul- ture. They provide valuable professional and technical advice to the farmers, a service that enriches the entire Nation. In this era of colossal waste, not only In commodity farm programs but in many other activities of Government, it is so ironic and tragic that this splendid Service should be singled out for attack. Here is an excellent summation of the situation I just received in the mail: ADAMS COUNTY SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT, Quincy, Ill., February 26, 1965. Hon. PAYL FINDLEY, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. HONORABLE SIR: The Adams County Soil and Water Conservation District is greatly Concerned about the proposed cutback in Federal support for conservation programs in the 1966 budget for the Department of Agriculture. We are particularly opposed to a proposal in the budget that Congress authorize a revolving fund through which soil and water conservation districts, and in- dividual farmers and ranchers, would make $20 million in payments to the Federal Gov- ernment for scientific and technical assist- ance provided by the Soil Conservation Serv- ice of the Department of Agriculture. We directors of the district believe that the conservation of soil and water is in the public interest; otherwise, we and our prede- cessors on the district board would not have been willing to give of our time unstintingly without pay, to promote conservation in our district. Why should a policy of 30 years' standing which has been proved successful be changed? Of all Government programs, the Soil Conservation Service has come in for the least amount of public criticism. The new proposed policy seems to be to protect the Federal lands but charge all private lands for assistance on conservation meas- ures. We know that 73 percent or more of the land in this country is privately owned and it is to the interest of the country that this land be protected to meet the growing demands that are and will be made of it by the population explosion. Soil erosion and sediment is the source of silt which pollutes our streams and rivers. The shortage of water in many places is an- other of our serious problems facing the future of the Nation. The urban and indus- trial shortages of water experienced in the middle and eastern part of this country and the damages sustained in the western part should alone cause our national leaders to look with alarm toward protection against a reoccurence. Such protective measures would fall on private lands. Should owners pay all the cost in order to give protection to urban and industrial areas? We believe that our district would have trouble in raising the thousands of dollars needed for our share in the revolving fund. The records show that we have been one of the high producing districts in the State of Illinois on applying conservation to land. However, our records show that we have been working mostly with those farmers in the problem land areas of the county and to ask these farmers to pay for our services would multiply the financial burden on those least able to afford it. Data taken from the 1959 U.S. Census of Agriculture for Adams County show that we have 1,911 commercial farms which are di- vided according to gross income as follows: Class I: $40,000 and over, 39 farms, 2 per- cent. Class II: $20,000 to $40,000, 165 farms, 8.6 percent. Class III: $10,000 to $20,000, 567 farms, 29.7 percent. Class IV: $5,000 to $10,000, 630 farms, 33 percent. Class V: $2,500 to $5,000, 375 farms, 19.6 percent. Mass VI: $50 to $2,500, 135 farms, 7.1 per- cent. From these figures it is not hard to see what the effect of the proposed reduction in funds would do. Those in the low income brackets could not afford to pay for our serv- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 3934' Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67BO0446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE concerned with the preservation of our true the House for 1 minute, to revise and freedom, or we shall all destroy ourselves in extend his remarks, and to include ex- a fearful jungle of our own creating. Gov- traneous matter.) ernment in gttempting to steer us truly into Mr. TEAGUE of California. Mr. conformity with the laws of nature and of our own being is working to save us from speaker, on behalf of the Republican ourselves, to preserve our freedom against delegation in the House of Represent- the most deadly of freedom's poisons. There atives from the State of California I is no danger that besets us today which is would like to extend our thanks to Gov. more grave than this: that we shall fail to Pat Brown, of California. understand the nature and demands of free- Mr. Speaker, this expression of grati- dom and, in so failing, extinguish freedom's life in our midst. tude comes a little late because the rea- The man or woman who today fails to son for it was far too long delayed. place his own interest and rights second to Mr. Speaker, our California Republican th idis enterest an rght of the most deprived membe s of our ?ociety is working for the destruction of this good society as surely as is any enemy overseas. Government cannot guarantee to preserve us from ourselves, but government can re- strain is from outright suicide. Our present coarse could become a suicide course unless we 'choose. better. Government, school, and church can help us to will to choose a better R,ESOI]UTION ADOPTED BY DEMO- CRATIC STEERING COMMITTEE PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNIST EFFORT OF AGGRESSION IN VIET- NAM (Mr. MADDEN asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include. extraneous matter.) Mr. MADDEN. Mr. Speaker, on yes- terday the House Democratic steering committee held its monthly meeting and passed the following resolution pertain- ing particularly to the Communist effort of aggression in Vietnam. Mr. Speaker, the resolution reads, as follows: "Whereas the the Congress on August 10, 1964, adopted a joint resolution to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia; "Whereas the Communist regime in North Vietnam has continued and intensified since that date its attacks against the people and the Government of Vietnam; "Whereas evidence presented in the publi- cation of the Department of State entitled `Aggression From the North' establishes be- yond question that North Vietnam is-carry- ing out a carefully conceived. plan of aggres-, sion against South Vietnam; "Whereas the United States has joined with the people and the Government of the Re- public of Vietnam in a collective defense against this aggression; "Whereas the only purpbse of the United States in southeast Asia is to enable the countries of that. area to enjoy their free- dom in peace: Now, therefore, be it "Resolved, That the Democratic steering committee stands behind the President in the measures he is taking to assist the Gov- erment and the people of the Republic of Vietnam to defend themselves against the aggression being directed against them from North Vietnam." It is, hoped that in this vital issue facing the Nation you will join the House leadership in supporting the President. Now, Mr. Speaker, I might add in addi- tion thereto thAt.. the Democratic steer- ing committee yesterday passed a reso- lution endorsing the Appalachian legisla- tion, without amendments. delegation, over a month ago, adopted a resolution by unanimous vote requesting the Governor to assist California in its, very, very difficult farm labor problem by attempting to persuade the Secretary of Labor to come to the conclusion that we do have a tragic and urgent situation in California and that we must have some temporary supplemental foreign labor if our crops are to be harvested and tens of thousands of domestic jobs in packing, transportation and related industries are March 3 Earnestly submitting that time is of the essence, We, the Republican Members of the Cali- fornia delegation of the Congress of the United States, representing the most popu- lous State of the Union and the No. 1 agricultural State, whose principal industry is supplying the rest of the States with fresh, canned, and frozen fruits, and vegetables, acting individually, and jointly, unanimously resolve, and Respectfully urge the President of the United States and the Secretary of Labor to recognize the present worsening conditions of California agriculture creating a serious emergency, to utilize Public Law 414 and to immediately certify the admission of suf- ficient temporary, supplemental farm work- ers to assure California growers that their crops can be harvested without spoilage; and We urgently implore the Secretary of Labor, to amend his regulations to equalize wage rates for agricultural workers among all of the States and to terminate the current dis- crimination against California. Executed at Washington, D.C., March 1, 1965. to be saved. At that time the Governor DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY refused to do so. However, he has now (Mr. SAYLOR asked and was given recognized the realities of the situation permission to extend his remarks at this and is cooperating to some extent at least. point in the RECORD and to include ex- We are truly grateful that he has now traneous matter.) seen the light-or at least partially so. Mr. SAYLOR. Mr. Speaker, the recent Mr.'Speaker, this same delegation has transfer of a New York policeman to an adopted a new resolution which follows undesirable beat because of a remark to hereafter. a traffic offender, blessed with diplomatic The matter referred to follows: immunity, reopens a subject on which Believing that the 88th Congress termi- Congress must assert itself unless the nated Public Law 78 in a sincere belief that State Department produces some assur- more jobs would be developed for domestic ante that it is able and willing to re- workers, but now Being convinced that tens of thousands of solve the issue. net domestic jobs will be lost unless adequate While it is obvious that a very great temporary supplemental farm labor is imme- majority of foreign diplomats headquar- diately assured; and tered in Washington scrupulously adhere Being informed that numerous tomato can- to the laws of the land and of the Dis- neries (as well as other canners and proc- trict, and make no attempt to take ad- essors) have been unable to contract for vantage of their immunity status, there fruit and vegetables because of an antici- pated labor shortage and knowing therefore that many domestic cannery workers and of this sanctity on the part of the em- those engaged in allied industries will be bassies to overlook the situation. Since unable to find work this season; and most of the disrespect of local rules and Being reliably advised that many California regulations centers on traffic violations, food processing companies have acquired there is a tendency to avoid severe seru~. plants in Mexico and intend to transfer major tiny into the matter. In consequence, too portions of their business from California to many drivers with DPL tags look with Mexico because they cannot e assured of scorn upon police officers who by experi- Having labor in the United d States; and Having ample evidence that many Cali- ence have learned-as in the case of the fornia ranchers and farmers are seriously New York policeman-that it is highly considering moving their operations to unprofitable to tangle with a diplomat, Mexico; and regardless of how belligerent he may be- Being ever mindful that when tomatoes come. are not planted, when citrus products are not In Washington, according to the State packed, and when vegetables spoil in the fields, the whole economy of California will Department, efforts at reducing parking suffer and thousands of workers dependent violations on the part of the diplomatic upon, or allied with, agriculture-packing- corps have been encouraging in recent house workers; package manufacturers, months, though the average American truckers, salesmen, bankers, as well as farm- motorist who has occasion to drive ers-will be detrimentally affected; and around this city may fail to notice the Realizing the adverse effects upon our al- improvement. It is no rarity to find that ready unfavorable balance, of international the traffic block ahead on a busy morn- payments condition that will certainly occur when large U.S. growers, processors, and ing has been caused by a double-parked shippers move their operations to Mexico and embassy car whose driver is nowhere in sell fresh and frozen food products to the sight. While it may be too much to ex- United States for U.S. dollars; and pect the visitor from Johnstown, Indiana, Recognizing the probability that the multi- or Kittanning to have the same privileges million-dollar .. export volume of California accorded embassy drivers whose coun- fruit and vegetables will no longer be pos- tries of origin have enjoyed the bene- sible; and ficence of this country's foreign aid pro- Being completely satisfied that California i gram pa d for by those hapl citi esszens growers and public officials have exhausted GOV., PAT BROWN AND THE every practicable proposal to recruit com- from back home, it is nevertheless time FOREIGN LABOR PROGRAM potent domestic' farm labor; and being as- that methods of obtaining a little more sured that all domestic efforts cannot pro- equity by explored. Soon the throngs of (Mr. TEAGUE of California asked duce an adequate supply of farm labor dur- visitors from the several States will be and was given permission to. address ing_ this season; and coming to Washington to visit the Capi- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 3933 the former residents of the North, the narcotics, to run open gambling houses, and East, and West. Out of this blending to keep slaves. What are things coming to? process has come a healthy union Of Now this isn't wholly funny. We once had each of minds, the extension of transportation better times? Would these freedoms. dms. we Were choose to those return n times to facilities, industrial development, and them? I think we would not like to return rapid transition from agrarian to urban to them, and I think there is some profit in status. asking ourselves why we choose not to return Yes, much has taken place in Florida to a wholly unregulated society. over the past 120 years, but-the way Let us begin by asking which society is things seem to be going-the progress of truly the freer society? When one man mur- the past is very likely to be dwarfed in ders another man, there are two freedoms significance by that of the future. involved, not one freedom. There is the freedom to murder at will, and there is the So, I point with pride, Mr. Speaker, to freedom not to be murdered at will. Since Florida's 120th anniversary as a State. Her fabled sun-climate is unequaled anywhere. Florida is the vacation spot which is sought out by all the Nation. Florida's people are as colorful and va- ried as her terrain. The names of Ponce de Leon, DeSoto, and, yes, even Gaspar and Lafitte lend credence to her emer- gence as a lusty and energetic entity. The name of Florida has come to be synonymous with exciting, progressive, haplay living. HOW FREE IS FREE? (Mrs. GREEN of Oregon, asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend her remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mrs. GREEN of Oregon. Mr. Speaker, .recently there has come to my attention a most challenging speech given by J. Irwin Miller, of Columbus, Ind. Mr. Miller's subject is entitled "How Free Is Free?" This speech was given at a re- cent award dinner in Indianapolis. J. Irwin Miller is a former president of the National Council of Churches, a trustee of the Committee for Economic Development, the Ford Foundation, and Yale University, chairman of the board of Cummins Engine Co., in addition to other positions_ of great responsibility in the business world. I believe that in very clear terms Mr. Miller gives mean- ing and substance to the word "freedom" which is so heavily under attack these days by political primitives. I recommend this to my colleagues: HOW FREE IS FREE? (By J. Irwin Miller) In our recut national discussions on civil rights, on the proper role of government, and on the fate of the individual, we too often make the mistake of not beginning at the beginning. We plunge directly into arguments about our present circumstances and what we do not like about them as if somehow, were everything changed to' suit us, the world would be set right. Now it is quite true that we live in an age where the forces of bigness, especially of big government, are making themselves felt upon the individual. It is further true that these forces may even, one by one, be taking the individual's liberties away from i m. h The trend started when government first conveyances of property, and even of limit- to lose freedom to own a home of one's started. With the coming of primitive gov- ing the quantity and the uses of it. chooaing is to attempt to deny that freedom ernments, our distant ancestors lost the free- "All the property that is necessary to a to another. The surest way to lose the free dom to murder their neighbors. With the man for the conservation of the individual access to learning and education is to deny establishment of our own new and revolu- and the propagation of the species is his that freedom to someone less powerful than tionary government, our young individuals natural right, which none may justly deprive oneself. The surest way to lose the freedom lost the freedom not to go to school. They him of, but all property superfluous to such to run my business is to run it on contempt were deprived of the right to choose to be purposes is the property of the public who, of the general interest. illiterate. by their laws, have created it and who may Government may fall into this error, too, My great-grandfather kept a cow in his therefore, by other laws, dispose of it when- and enact arrogant or unwise laws. But gov- front yard in downtown Columbus. That ever the welfare of the public shall demand ernment cannot, therefore, be barred from freedom is now denied me. I even have to such disposition. He that does not like so- this field any more than we should be barred chain or fence my dog. We have lost the society on these terms, let him retire and live from owning a house simply because some freedom to manufacture impure foods, to sell among savages. He can have no right to the are bad householders. Government must be Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 without denying the other freedom, you come up against a fact that seems to be all but overlooked in today's debate: Freedoms compete with each other. When you have to deal with competing freedoms, it follows that you may have to choose one freedom as being more desirable than its competing freedom, and you are therefore forced, as a society, to deny one freedom in order to grant the other. In rec- ognition of this inevitable state of affairs, our ancestors generations ago decided that the freedom not to be murdered was a more desirable freedom than the freedom to mur- der. One man's freedom to own slaves denies to another man the freedom not to be en- slaved. One man's freedom to keep-pigs in- side the city limits denies to another man the freedom to drink pure water. And so on into areas a great deal less dramatic, where the competing freedom is more easily ob- scured and the choice a great deal more dif- ficult to make. MY PROPERTY RIGHTS The house in which I live is my house. Surely I should be allowed to rent or sell to persons of my own choice. If private prop- erty does not mean that, what does it mean? I have built a business which now employs many people. I will survive competition only if I choose my employees very carefully. If I cannot choose my own workers for my own business, what does private enterprise mean? Or if I cannot choose whom I will serve or whom I will not serve in my restau- rant, my store, my lunch counter, if I am not free to do that, what is left for me of this free society we all talk so much about? The key word here, I think, is the word "me," "my," "mine." What do I mean when 1 say my house, my business, my restaurant? Does anything happen to the worth of my house if the firemen have no concern for fires in the neighborhood, or the policemen about robberies in the neighborhood, or the neighbors about trash and weeds in their front yards, or about thoughtless 111-trained children in their families? ACCORDING TO FOUNDING FATHERS Back in 1783, one of our Founding Fathers had some thoughts on the subject. In that year Benjamin Franklin wrote to another Founding Father, Robert Morris, and this is what he said: "All property, except the savages tempo- rary cabin, his bow, his matchcoat and other little acquisitions absolutely necessary for his subsistence, seems to me the creature of public convention. Hence the public has benefits of society who will not pay his club toward the support of it." What does that last word "club" mean? I had to hunt to find out, but I learned from the dictionary that in the 17th and 18th centuries one meaning was "A combination of contributions to make up a total sum." So what is Ben Franklin saying? Is it not something like this: Everything which I call mine and to which I attach most worth is a combination of continuous contributions voluntarily given by others. If they withhold their contributions, which many are free to do; my neighbors-their manners and thoughtfulness; my workers-their willing- ness to work honestly for me; my custom- ers-their willingness to buy from me; if they withhold all these contributions, then my property, my house, my business each has a very great deal less worth to me, if indeed any worth at all. Franklin is saying further: You or I have no right to this combination of voluntary contributions which I call my private prop- erty unless I too make my club-offer my voluntary contributions to the property and rights of others-in amounts and quantity sufficient to confer on their private property the worth which. I wish to attach to my property. To Ben Franklin suppliers, share- holders, workers, managers, customers, even the communities in which they are located, are all, in effect, owners of a business, which must be run and managed in the interest of each, not neglecting the others. FROM JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TEACHINGS Our Judeo-Christian tradition has even more frightening advice for us. We are told in Christian Gospel that he that would save his life (what more valuable piece of private property?) must lose it; that a man must order his life, operate and employ his prop- erty for others or their value to him will vanish. We have a long -established newspaper in my State which carries every day at the top of its front page a memorable piece of scrip- ture, scripture that is concerned with free- dom and liberty: "Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty." And what is this spirit of the Lord? The first public words uttered by Jesus spoke of it: "He opened the book and found the place where it was writ- ten 'The spirit of the Lord is upon me, be- cause He has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to pro- claim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor.'" Liberty for each of us is found not at-all, unless it be found in a dominant sacrificial concern for the liberty of the other fellow, and especially the deprived and disadvan- taged. Property has no value for any of us unless each of us has a primary care for the property rights of the other fellow, and es- pecially of the other fellow least able to look out for himself. HOW FREEDOMS ARE LOST Ben Franklin, through his hard experience in building a society in the New World, and Jesus and the prophets in their wisdom, all saw here a law as immutable, as inexorable as the law of gravity-a law which, if vio- lated, brought penalties as severe as those which attend the violation of any of the laws of the physical universe. So the surest way 1965 Approved For Releae6jWfiWMI~R&ff(P 6W044 fiRW001600309 3811 know I speak for all her colleagues in wishing that we may continue to have the benefit of her wise counsel and legis- lative skill for many, many more years to come. Mr. PIRNIE. Mr. Speaker, we note with pride and congratulations the quar- ter-century of service our distinguished colleague from Ohio, FRANCES-P. BOLTON, completes this day. Her courage, dedi- cation, and graciousness have made this service noteworthy in every way. On the Foreign Affairs Committee, where she serves as the ranking minority member, she has battled for policies and programs which would make our world leadership strong and objective. Particularly sen- sitive to the needs and aspirations of less developed nations, she had made count- less friends in these areas, projecting an appealing image of American sympathy and understanding. We salute our col- league as an able Member of our body whose devoted efforts are of great sig- nificance to this Nation and, indeed, the world. May she long continue her dis- tinguished service. Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Speaker, I am often asked whether I approve public careers for members of the fairer sex. Immediately, I always first think of the gentlelady from Ohio as a prime example of the highest in statesmanship, from whatever source. She is, indeed, an able national leader, even international, and an efficient advocate for her district and State as well. She is the friend of every Member of Congress; and I am glad that includes me particularly. I am delighted to congratulate her on her 25 years here in the House and wish for her many years of able service in the future. Mr. McCLORY. Mr. Speaker, the op- portunity to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives with FRANCES P. BOLTON, of Ohio, has been and is a rich and valued experience. In recognizing her 25 years of distin- guished service, the Members of the House are taking appropriate note of a public leader who has made her mark in the history of our Nation. Mrs. BOLTON is well known for her pub- lice service in Illinois and throughout the other 49 States. As a colleague and as Representative of Illinois' 12th District, I am proud to join in honoring and con- gratulating Representative FRANCES P. BOLTON on the 25th anniversary of her service in the Congress. Mr. HARSHA. Mr. Speaker, it gives me great pleasure to join with my col- leagues in paying tribute to a truly great woman and public servant? Mrs. FRANCES PAYNE BOLTON, from the 22d District of Ohio, as she celebrates a dedicated and distinguished 25 years of service here in the House of Representatives. The State of Ohio is indeed proud to place this wonderful lady in the annals of fame as she has so unselfishly contrib- uted much time and effort here in this body on behalf of her constituency as well As the entire Nation by her out- standing position as ranking minority member on the Foreign Affairs Com- mittee. Mrs. BOLTON is not only a lady of dig nity, but one of dedication, intellect, and talent. Her wise counsel is frequently solicited and genuinely heeded and it gives me great pleasure for this oppor- tunity to congratulate her on a magnifi- cent record of accomplishment. With warm pride and happiness, I extend my heartfelt thanks for her guidance and wisdom. I hope the Nation will have the benefit of her service for many years GENERAL LEAVE TO EXTEND Mr. McCULLOCH. Mr. Speaker, I now ask unanimous consent that all Members may extend their remarks at this point in the RECORD on this sub- j ect. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Ohio? There was no objection. [Mrs. BOLTON addressed the House. Her remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.]' JOHN F. KENNEDY-YEARS OF LIGHTNING, DAY OF DRUMS (Mr. ZABLOCKI asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. ZABLOCKI. Mr. Speaker, I asked for this time to remind our colleagues that this afternoon at 1:30 p.m., 3:50 p.m., and 5 p.m. in the caucus room there will be a showing of the USIA film "John F. Kennedy-Years of Lightning, Day of Drums." Members were notified by letter signed by 17 Members of Congress and are in- V SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT ON SOUTH VIETNAM (Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, the affirmative, positive action which we have been taking the past few weeks in South Vietnam is a clear indi- cation of the attitude of the President and meets with the approval, I am sure, of a vast majority of the American peo- ple and a vast majority of the Members of this House. For years, many members of the House Armed Services Committtee, and I among them, have stated over and over again that the Communists understand only one kind of language-the language of force and strength. We are taking the war to the Commu- nists, and they are beginning to feel the effects of our bombings. I wanted to take this opportunity to express my wholehearted approval of the actions taken by the President of the United States which I am confident will have a salutary effect, not only upon the Soviet Union and the Vietcong, but also Red China. There may come a time when negotia- tion will be in order. That time will arrive when we negotiate from a position of strength. I am sure I can speak for every member of the House Armed Serv- ices Committee when I say we will do everything within our power to give the President and the Department of De- fense, members of our armed services, and the American people, the men and the materiel necessary to place us in a position in South Vietnam where if nego- tiations are initiated, we will negotiate not as a supplicant seeking help, but as a victor dispensing justice. Mr. Speaker, I commend the President. He needs our support. He is doing the job we want him to do and we must stand behind him. HON. FRANCES P. BOLTON (Mr. BINGHAM asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. BINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, I am happy to join my colleagues in paying tribute to' the remarkable and distin- guished gentlewoman from Ohio [Mrs. BOLTON]. I am not only familiar with her unusual record of service in the House but I claim a distinction probably not shared by any other of the Members, to wit, that I am a cousin of the distin- guished gentlewoman. She is a member of what she herself describes as the Bing- ham clan. May I say that she, as one who was born a Bingham, has made her many 'cousins throughout the country d oft eir name. prou ud SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT ON SOUTH VIETNAM (Mr. WAGGONNER asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker, I want to express my appreciation to the distinguished gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. RIVERS] for having brought again to the attention of the House the position of the United States with regard to Vietnam. I want to as- sure the gentleman from South Carolina and the other Members of this House and anyone else who is interested that the words he has just spoken do speak for me as one Member of this House. I add my hope again as I have before that they speak for every Member of this House in support of the President in this matter. He deserves our support and he needs it. There is as has been said nothing to be negotiated now. I ask the question, if we don't stand here then where do we stand? I believe most Americans mean it when they say they are tired of con- tinually yielding to the Communists. I assure you I am. BIRTHDAY GREETINGS TO HON. ROBERT H. MICHEL (Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota asked and was given permission to ad- dress the House for 1 minute and to re- vise and extend his remarks.) Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota. Mr. Speaker, today is a special day for one of our colleagues. He is known as a singer of some ability, a softball player of congressional renown, an ardent bas- ketball fan of the teams from his alma mater, but, more important, known as an able legislator and a distinguished representative of the people of his dis- trict. Our colleague is a member of Cosmo- politan International, sponsors of six consecutive student science fairs in his Approved For Release 2003/10/10 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9 Approved Fe6NG%IONALO/C8RDPA746R000300160030-9 March 2 home city. He has been the recipient of a Distinguished Alumnus Award from Bradley University. And so, his fellow members of the Cos- mopolitan Club of Peoria, Ill., join with me in extending best wishes for a happy birthday to our colleague, BOB MICHEL. TELEPHONE SERVICE NO LONGER A LUXURY (Mr. HARSHA asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. HARSHA. Mr. Speaker, I want to urge President Johnson and Congress to give serious consideration to permitting the Federal excise tax on telephone serv- ice to expire on June 30, 1965. Other utilities such as electricity, gas, and water enjoy exemption from this tax; yet, excise tax on telephone service remains as a part of our revenue system, imposing an unjust burden on the tele- phone companies and their consumers. It is a discriminatory public utilities tax which was never intended to be perma- nent. No longer can telephone service 1 e considered a luxury. It is an essential household item needed by the people in the conduct of their everyday affairs. In this day and age, telephone service is a necessity. Many people rely on this service to do their shopping, to be in- formed as to their work, as a means of communication between their children and emergency agencies. For many, it is the only means of contact with law-en- forcement officials, with the fire depart- ment, doctors, and hospitals. Originally enacted by Congress as a wartime emergency measure, this tax was intended to be one of short duration. It has long outlived that period and should be allowed to expire without any further extension proposed. Many have urged that Congress elimi- nate excise taxes now, but may I remind my colleagues that we are now in the fourth quarter of fiscal 1965 and this anticipated revenue has already been committed for expenditure and in many cases already expended. To eliminate this revenue now would be to add to an already large deficit for fiscal 1965. The more responsible action would be to let the present tax expire as it will on June 30. Then the budget for fiscal 1966 can be adjusted accordingly and expendi- tures can be reduced accordingly before they are committed or even expended, and thus not add to the predicted deficit for 1966. CRIMINAL LEGISLATION (Mr. MATHIAS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. MATHIAS. Mr. Speaker, the dif- ficulty with criminal legislation is that it applies to everyone. A general law acts with impartial force upon the law- abiding as well as upon the lawless. A limitation uponthe liberties of the crim- inal must necessarily restrict the liber- ties of the innocent. A law that is intended to discourage crime and to restrain criminals may also have the effect of condemning and re- stricting the innocent and the honest. Since the great and overwhelming ma- jority of Americans- are decent, honest and lawful, such criminal legislation is totally unacceptable. In my judgment the so-called omnibus crime bill recently approved by the Whitener subcommittee falls within this category and I shall oppose it in com- mittee and in the House. I applaud the President's goal of "es- tablishment in the District of a model system which will best achieve fair and effective law enforcement." I support the President's intention to appoint a commission to concern itself specifically with crime and law enforcement in the District. But this situation does not stand still. The crime rate is increasing and the job is getting bigger. The President will have to act promptly and effectively to attain this goal he has an- nounced. If the President delays in taking the leadership in this matter he will surely witness the commission of bad crimes and the enactment of bad laws. If the President will act with energy and speed, I am confident that many Members of Congress will join with me in pledging ourselves to work with the commission, with the District authorities and the Metropolitan Police, with the bench and bar, and with the civic minded citizens of the District of Co- lumbia to give the District a model code. HOUR OF MEETING ON THURSDAY Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, in con- nection with the arrangements for the ceremonies commemorating the 100th anniversary of the 2d inaugural address of Abraham Lincoln, I ask unanimous consent that when the House adjourns tomorrow it adjourn to meet at 11:15 on Thursday morning. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Oklahoma? There was no objection. MESSAGE ON CITIES-MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (H. DOC. NO. 99) The SPEAKER laid before the House the following message from the Presi- dent of the United States; which was read and referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed: To the Congress of the United States: Throughout man's history, the city' has been at the center of civilization. It is at the center of our own society. Over 70 percent of our population-135 million Americans-live in urban areas. A half century from now 320 million of our 400 million Americans will live in such areas. And our largest cities will receive the greatest impact of growth. I In this message the word "city" is used to mean the entire urban area--the central city and its suburbs. Numbers alone do not make this an urban nation. Finance and culture, commerce, and government make their home in the city and draw their vitality from it. Within the borders of our urban centers can be found the most im- pressive achievements of man's skill and the highest expressions of man's spirit, as well as the worst examples of degrada- tion and cruelty and misery to be found in modern America. The city is not an assembly of shops and buildings. It is not a collection of goods and services. It is a community for the enrichment of the life of man. It is a place for the satisfaction of man's most urgent needs and his highest aspi- rations. It is an instrument for the advance of civilization. Our task is to put the highest concerns of our people at the center of urban growth and activity. It is to create and preserve the sense of community with others which gives us significance and security, a sense of be- longing and of sharing in the common life. Aristotle said': "Men come together in cities in order to live. They remain to- gether in order to live the good life." The modern city can be the most ruth- less enemy of the good life, or it can be its servant. The choice is up to this generation of Americans. For this is truly the time of decision for the Ameri- can city. In our time, two giant and dangerous forces are converging on our cities: the forces of growth and of decay. Between today and the year 2000, more than 80 percent of our population in- crease will occur in urban areas. During the next 15 years, 30 million people will be added to our cities-equivalent to the combined population of New York, Chi- cago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Baltimore. Each year, in the com- ing generation, we will add the equiv- alent of 15 cities of 200,000 each. Already old cities are tending to com- bine into huge clusters. The strip of land from southern New Hampshire to northern Virginia contains 21 percent of America's population in 1.8 percent of its areas. Along the west coast, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf of Mexico, other urban giants are merging and growing. Our new city dwellers will need homes and schools and public services. By 1975 we will need over 2 millionnew homes a year. We will need schools for 10 million additional children, welfare and health facilities for 5 million more people over the age of 60, transportation facilities for the daily movement of 200 million people and more than 80 million auto- mobiles. In the remainder of this century-in less than 40 years-urban population will double, city land will double, and we will have to build in our cities as much as all that we have built since the first colonist arrived on these shores. It is as if we had 40 yearsto rebuildthe entire urban United States. Yet these new overwhelming pressures are being visited upon cities already in distress. We have over 9 million homes, most of them in cities, which are run down or deteriorating; over 4 million do not haverunning water or even plumb- Approved For Release 2003/10/10 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300160030-9