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December 15, 2016
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October 6, 2003
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July 14, 1965
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j9&proved For Re#r"A&*BDAA0300180010-9 holt :do ' the cost f living, fs it nol attendant on the addition of stamp plans, time we fgund out? Ai au Tioritative would it be cheaper for a consumer to study on trading stamps once remarked go out and buy one of these items In a that. o kssume that anyone, but the con- discount store, or a department store? sumer, isaid for the cost of stamps, just What is the premium market itself do- like she pays for everything else `also- ing to the neighborhood hardware store? dated with a business, was patently,ridic- Stamp companies are already the'largest ulous. Is it not? purchasers of appliances. What Is this Just how much business, are the trad- doing to small business throughout the ing stamp companies doing a year? We, Nation? Is this unfair competition? just do riot know. And by not knowing, And what about the small man? Can how can"we protect the consumer from he afford a truly competitive stamp plan? any irregularities there might be? After Is the stamp industry running the small all, one stamp-company is already issuing retailer out of business? Our whole more stamps a year than the V.S. post' system of fair trade ' laws was built up Office. Stamps are becoming legal to preserve the small business firm-are tender, thgy are already a medium of we allowing circumvention of the law and exchange. Are we not obligated to super- its intent to void past legislative deci- vise all such items and them extension? sions? In 1961 about 15 percent of total U.S. And what about the intangible effects? retail sales were made } b stores offering What about the old specials, the week- end leaders-that benefited both the trading stamps. The figures are even more impressive today. Over 43 percent consumer and the retailer? of all food sold each year goes through The greatest price rises in foods today stores that use stamps-well over a third are in perishable items-fruits, vege- of all sales of service stations and 15 per- tables, and meats. The drought and cent of all drugstore sales, tie in with shortages account for some of these stamps. price increases. It is interesting to note By "their very nature, the operations In the last Department of Agriculture of some trading stamp plans create cer- study-now 8 years old-these same items tain siiiestions. For instance, if we take were indicated as those in which there the figures given by one. source on trod- was the greatest differential between Ing stamp sales for 1964-some $650 mil stamp and noristamp stores-over 6-per- lion-over $38 billion in retail sales are cent difference in prices to the con- tied in to trading stamps. Allowing the sumer. What about the gas stations companies the 95-percent redemption that offer the consumer the choice `be- they claim for tax purposes means that tween a price discount and trading almost $1 million in unredeemed stamps stamps? Are not they admitting a price is distributed each week-$50 million in rise with stamps? sales eac week are tied to stamps never Are stamps a fie-in sale? What about to be ' redeemed. What happens to this the question ' of competitive advantage mane 7 What are the companies doing held by stores which are large enough with The pool of interest-free tax-free to own their own stamp companies? money reserved ad infinitum against Are there instances here of exclusive stamps that may never be redeemed? dealings and price discrimination? What What are the redemption rates anyway? about the practice of proximity selling Is it true that stamp companies have in the gas station field? reserved about one billion tax-free dal- T. throw out all of these questions, be lars since 1.950? Many have questioned cause I just don't know the answers. But the *95-percent figure allowable by the we should. We should as legislators, we Internal Revenue Service. Does this fig-, should as protectors of the small business ure have any basis in reality at all? man, we should as protectors of the con- Stamp companies are more, than reticent sumer. The questions must be asked and .about releasing their actual figures. answered. In its own bailiwick, the Fed- And the questions continue: Are eral Trade Commission has in the past stamps really time purchases? Are they conducted investigations and fulfilled its installment buying? It would appear statutory authority in this regard-but that trading stamp companies have a the paths along which it may tread are very low ratio of invested capital to total narrow, the trees separating it from the assets. Thus, they are in the main op- other governmental agencies are ' thick, erating with other people's money just and the undergrowth plentiful and en- like a savings or commercial bank. tangling. The Justice Department, the Should not they also be regulated in some Department of Agriculture, the Depart- way as holding a public trust? Is the ment of Commerce, the Small Business consumer getting interest for his money? administration, and other governmental What happens when a stamp company agencies and representatives have all, at goes out of business-and they have-to one time or another, entered the picture. these time payments? What right does But each was interested in only a seg- the stamp company have to change the ment of the problem, each investigation number of books necessary for an item- was rather short lived and confined in a bank cannot change the interest rate scope. in midstream while you are paying back I am asking today that each of these a loan. And are five.not already con- agencies of Government begin anew their Bern with tide, great boom in install studies, coordinating them this time per- ment buying of which this is a contribut baps under the aegis of the Special As- ing factor? , , sistant to the President for. Cc isumer 11 What about .the redemptions them- Affairs recently appointed to . represent selves? Ale the consume;'S getting items Mrs. Housewife amidst the tangle of or just value? If there are price rises Government. But because the machin- No. 127-20 16273 ery of Government is often ponderous and ungainly, in the interim I shall hold an informal factfinding study of my own. Meetings will be held in Washington and New York-companies will be invited to discuss with us their problems and their causes-individuals will be given a chance to air their gripes and present their grievances. You, as Members of Congress, are invited to participate in all phases of these meetings. They will be open and frank. Some of these questions have been asked before. ' We never received the full answers. Many of them are new-born of an age when trading stamps have fil- tered into, and supersaturated, many sectors of the economy. The American family deserves greater attention to this problem. I ask the Members of this body to find the answers and "act accordingly. Mr. RESNICIt. Madam Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. WOLFF. I yield to the gentleman from New York. Mr. RESNICK. Madam Speaker, I would like to commend the gentleman from New York for bringing this sub- ject up, and I wish to associate myself with his remarks. He did an outstand- ing job in bringing this to the attention of the Congress and the American people. Madam Speaker, I share the concern of the gentleman from New York that many of these questions be raised about trading stamps 'and, for once, be con- elusively answered. Studies we do have-and most of them belong to the decade of the -fifties-are conflicting; they are the product of either special interest or emotionalism. At this point in our economic development, when we are concerned over the extent of credit buying and rising prices,. especially in the food sector, it is important that we know to what extent stamps have contributed to~ this rise; that we know- whether stamps-are time purchases, and if so, 'what happens to the interest charged, or the interest -free capital the stamp company gets. It is important that we learn the workings of a billion- dollar industry. What are the actual re- demption 'rates? What rights does the consumer have if not one of the reputa- ble, but a fly-by-night stamp company goes out of business? Now we have had extensive experience in our daily lives with stamps-now whole areas of our Nation are blanketed with these little gummed pieces of paper. Can all the stores that carry stamps, in- crease their volume enough to pay for stamps without having to pass this cost on to the consumer? Are the stamp companies exercising enough self- restraint that we could consider. them regulating themselves? What about the complaints of dis- gruntled . merchants-both those who have and who do not have stamps? What about the neighborhood hardware stores? The neighborhood grocery store? What about the owner who is in a constant price squeeze? In short, I think the gentleman from New York has _xais.q questions which should be .answered, . We as legislators Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R00030018001.0-9 16274 Approved Fo 8 1A11 h L~e- 1,J P_6T#9eWR00030018001 141 1965 must ask questions, we must know some- Orignally, a beginning stamp program thing about as massive an industry as can be a boon to a gas station owner. one that affects $42 billion in retail sales. The station's volume increases and the Let us hope the answers will be forth- cost of the program is more than offset coming shortly; we have already waited by increased gallonage. Then, the sta too long for them. (Mr. RESNICK asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. MINISH. Mr. Speaker, I should like to commend the gentleman from New York for bringing the important question of the relationship between trading stamps and food prices before the House today. This is a problem of deep concern to me. I feel strongly that consumers should be aware of the facts surrounding these stamp plans that so sharply affect the investigations cost of ations living. have been Various studies and by Fed- eral agencies in past years, and I recently requested the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Agriculture for data on their inquiries. I have also recommended to the chair- man of the Banking and Currency Con- sumers Affairs Subcommittee, upon which it is my privilege to serve, the ad- visibility of hearings on trading stamp operations. Under our able chairman, the Honorable LEONOR K. SULLIVAN, this subcommittee has been a highly effective champion of consumer rights. It would be most worthwhile to focus full atten- tion upon this problem that so directly affects American families. The National Commission on Food Marketing held a 3-day hearing on the subject in May, and the testimony developed then should provide most valuable Information. I have further been in communication with Mrs. Esther Peterson, the Special Assistant to the President for Con- sumers'Affairs as to the need for an educational campaign in stamp plan 1ractices. The undeniable appeal of trading stamps cloaks the additional price paid for essential commodities that their usage necessarily entails--money that could well be used for other pur- poses if the customer had real freedom of choice. In essence, collecting stamps amounts to buying merchandise on a pre- payment plan. Indications are that the higher grocery prices required by the food market to cover the stamp premium exceeds the price the consumer would have to pay were he to shop for his gift with cash. American families spent 18.5 percent of their disposable income on food products in 1964. With more than 43 percent of food purchases going to stores that use stamps, it is important that we deter- mine the relationship between stamp plans and food prices. As our colleague from New York has observed, stamp ?companies today are making more money on the sale of food than the food mer- chant himself. Apart from protecting consumer rights, a major element in the problem is the burden upon small business firms that are compelled to participate for competitive reasons that in the end are damaging to all but the stamp company. Take, for example, gasoline retailers who are the second largest users of stamps ranking only behind food markets. tion across the street sees his business going to his stamp-giving competitor. Out of self defense he too initiates a stamp program. Soon a situation is very likely to arise such as we saw on our own Georgia Avenue here in Washington last November. Ten out of thirteen stations in a 26-block stretch on that street were issuing the same trading stamp. These retailers were obviously paying for something they were not receiving; that is, a competitive advantage. And the consumer-how many stamps wind up crammed into glove compartments? Who can really believe that the consumer will not pay for these stamps eventually through higher prices that could other- wise be reduced? The Greater Washington Service Sta- tion Association recently polled its mem- bership on the question of using stamps as merchandising tools. Seventy-nine percent of those who responded directed that the association not only be opposed to stamps in any and all forms but take positive, aggressive action to eliminate the existing problem. The association has undertaken a campaign to make con- sumers aware of the fact that a penny per gallon price savings is a far greater value to the customer than trading stamps. Trading stamp plans constitute a bil- lion dollar a year industry, with hundreds of companies operating programs. A premium of at least 6 percent is earned by these companies as approximately that percentage of stamps are not re- deemed. Incidentally, it should be pointed out that the expense of the stamps is borne by the customers who do not use them, as well as by the users, since the higher prices are paid by all. Those who do not save stamps are charged for merchandise they will never care to claim. It is time that we took a fresh look, in the light of current circumstances, at the operations and methods of trading stamp companies. There is no thought or de- sire on my part to inhibit legitimate busi- ness activities, but I do feel strongly that there is need for a thorough inquiry into stamp practices and their impact upon the consumer and the retailer. Mr. RYAN. Mr. Speaker, I want to commend my colleague from New York [Mr. WOLFF] for bringing this matter to the attention of the House and for rais- ing a series of important and relevant questions about trading stamps and their economic effect. Stamps have infiltrated merchandis- ing ranks; the price of food has risen. We should be vitally interested, as the gentleman from New York pointed out just a few minutes ago, in any connec- tion that may exist. This Issue must be explored in a dispassionate, comprehen- sive way. Consumers are concerned about this problem. Who is paying for trading stamps? Is it not the housewife every- time she goes shopping? Whose money is - filling up the multimillion dollar reserves of the companies against stamps that may never be redeemed? Is it ours? How can we forget studies like the one done by the Agriculture Department in 1957 which showed a 6-percent price dif- ferential between stamp and nonstamp stores in the price of fruit and vege- tables? If the price of an evening meal con- tains part of a new toaster, we should know about it. I want to know about it as a consumer. I want to know about it because the hardware store down the block where I used to buy my toaster is having a hard time. I want to know if the neighborhood grocery store is being squeezed out of the market. I have fought to protect small business. How many toasters are being bought each year along with our tomatoes and cantaloup and how many of those toast- ers are really obtained? Are our con- sumers getting what they paid for? Mr. Speaker, I urge that the appro- priate Federal agencies conduct a full investigation into the various questions which have been raised. Without proper regulation the distribution of trading stamps is subject to many possible abuses. Actin $uired before it is too AR IN VIETNAM The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mrs. GREEN Of Oregon). Under previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from California [Mr. GUSSERI is recognized for 20 minutes. Mr. GUBSER. Madam Speaker, as a member of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, it is my obligation to speak out when I believe we are making serious military mistakes. President Johnson's policy in Vietnam to the present has received my enthusi- astic support. I still support the prin- ciple that this Nation has a moral obli- gation to assist the people of South Viet- nam to resist the terroristtactics of the Communist Vietcong. Americans cannot accept the murdering of civilians includ- ing women and children, the pillaging, the torturing, and the cruelty which characterizes Vietcong tactics. In addition to its moral justification, President Johnson's strong military commitment in southeast Asia is correct on legal grounds and is in our national self-interest. The President and Secre- tary of State have clearly stated our legal right to be there. Furthermore, our homeland, our system, and our freedom are in jeopardy if we do not take a stand against communism in Asia and if we allow free government to disappear. My concern is not whether we should be committed to defeating communism in Asia, but whether we are presently go- ing about it in the right way. I believe we are now making two serious mistakes.. First, present administration policy is one of lopsided escalation which accepts the liabilities of escalation and claims few of the benefits. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 proved for R D ~B 0300180010-9 16-275 Present adminstration policy seems to tion axe assigned from Washington on Mr. Mitchell notes in his testimony on be one of escalating the ground war and a mission to mission basis. Frequently S. 1201 that the provisions of this bill onary rather curbing other -F ground sot. which com- cenlisted hanged theltype of weapons loaded on tory.dlMr.tiMitchell declares athhamanda-aboard our carriers have are por is xnthe gwe kd effort. oT ariy weeks it has been well an aircraft two or three time to comply in each of these vital sections the word known that ground-to-air missile instal- with orders from Washington. A repeat "should" gethat p if ears instead Lehas ad the same "shall." We lations.--AM sites-have been under strike against a partially damaged target as shall the statute then the letme ring construction in the vicinity of Hanoi. Is not permitted except on specific orders as sh be b the because the there would no doubt that these safeguards are bind- The press reports at least two of these from Washington. If bad weather pre- be would sites in an operational condition except vents a photo reconnaissance pilot from ing on an administrative official. Anything for the actual installation of the missiles photographing his objective on one day, less than a clear mandatory requirement will themselves. Not to have destroyed these he cannot photograph it the next day undoubtedly open the door for abuse of the must r objective, rights of those who are being displaced. 6ltes prior to their completion Is indefen- enroute to there to anoth sible and unforgivable. It cannot be Certainly be decisionmak- The provisions of S. 1201 are based on written off as a necessar9` political deci- ing and target selection from Washing- a report by the Select 1201 are ittee on sion which, follows the tired line that such ton, but it is apparently being carried on Real Property Acquisition. Its provi- installations are defensive and to destroy to a ridiculous and absurd extent. An sions for setting fair procedural stand- ck or on-the-scene commander Is in the housing and urban renewal ond e This is the them would be provocative. Tn should be assigned a mission and allowed program were part of the Republican Korea political decisions resuitiea III I1JGi+ tactics which his experience dictates ,char ieito defeat their aveenemy. without This fair are the most feasible. As an experienced chance which should e not repeated. a a military man, he should exercise on-the- anistake w geab soll would spot judgment as to whether bombs, No knowledbaabte sportts fan would rockets, napalm, or other armament tolerate a baseball team without eig boxer. an out. would be most suitable for destroying Wld or a os ould ad itaywoperation the assigned target. If a second strike -denle the d the sho use uld of a mlil every itary reasonable e strat- within an hour at the same target is re- egywhich could contribute to victory? quired, he should have the power to order Admittedly, political decisions must in- it. fluence military policy. But how the de- Thanks to Washington decisionmaking struction of missile sites built for the by remote control, we are deploying so- lusticate I Pnuipment against relatively p siruetion, bf a military barracks a few miles away completely evades logical explanation. Zt 1S II known that the docks at j s* r ty to and from those docks. any strike against this vital military tar- tions prevent us from denying the use of sonable balance between political and these docks to England, France, Russia, and other military considerations and more on the .countries which deal freely nsideration with the Ilanol Communist Govern- scene decisionmaking. To allow such targets to go unharmed on the basis of arbitrary political deci- sions and to escalate the ground war at the same time is lopsided escalation and military folly,' As the French proved conclusively at Dienbienphu, it com- ,mits tg fighting a type of war we cannot win. Since the French debacle in 1953, the skills of the Vietcong in terrorist and guerrilla warfare have been increased so markedly that we have even less of a chance of winning a ground war than the French had. t must, therefore, join with other critics of the present policy of lop- sided escalation. 'A second serious mistake of the present administration is the jealous manner in which it guards decisionmaking. From Washington it controls the selection of both large and small targets and also the method to be used in destroying them. The riio&t serious need in Vietnam today is "on deck" command of the naval forces and on the scene command of ground and air forces. From conversations with those who have actuall seen action in Vietnam, I have "lear1he that 'targets 'arid the type of armament to be used in their destruc- overfly nleaningful and strategic mili- tary targets. We have risked planes .cuing millions of dollars to destroy indi- vidual trucks and vehicles and we have sent B-52's to raid sectors of jungle. Such deployment is wasteful and about as effective as bombing an insect when a flyswatter would do. The administration has shown great courage in this difficult situation in southeast Asia. By and large our ma- teriel is excellent and our manpower is housing bill, H.R. 6501, and were in- cluded in the omnibus housing bill, H.R. 7984, paseed by the House. The Repub- licans made the change from "should" to "shall" and from discretionary to mandatory legislation, which Mr. Mitch- ell has now asked the Senate to provide in all Federal and federally assisted real property acquisition programs. Mr. Mitchell also touches on the ade- quacy of relocation procedures and states: There is a strong suspicion that a careful analysis of the housing now occupied by dis- placed persons would show that far too many have moved into areas with greater over- crowding and worse slum conditions than the places that they left. Mr. Mitchell concludes by stating that even the provisions of S. 1201 and S. 1681 being considered by the Senate Subcom- mittee on Intergovernmental Relations "will not do the whole job." I have been in full agreement with this analysis of the matter for some time, and I believe my own statement to the Senate Sub- committee on Intergovernmental Rela- tions outlines fully and completely the provisions of the just compensation pro- gram for condemnees which I am seek- ing to establish. I include as part of my remarks the excellent statement by Clarence Mitchell, as well as my own statement to the Sen- ate Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations: STATEMENT OF CLARENCE MITCHELL, DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON BUREAU, NAACP, ON FEDERAL RELOCATION ASSISTANCE, BEFORE THE SEN- ATE SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS, JULY 13, 19655 Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the sub- committee, I am Clarence Mitchell, director of the Washington bureau of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Today I am present to express sup- port for the purposes of S. 1681, introduced by Senator MusKIE, and S. 1201, introduced by Senator JOHN SPARKMAN. Approximately 63 percent of the persons displaced by urban renewal projects are nonwhite. It is almost inevitable when an old or dilapidated area of a community is marked for demolition, im- provement, or a change of use, one will find that the largest burden of displacement is borne by those least able to move to another locality without serious financial loss and in- convenience. The intent of the proposed legislation is to give uniformity and also some administra- tive flexibility in compensating persons, busi- nesses, or farms displaced by Federal and fed- erally assisted programs. The Advisory Com- THE NAACP IS RIGHTFULLY CON- CERNED WITH RELOCATION PROBLEMS OF PEOPLE DIS- PLACED BY URBAN RENEWAL The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from New Jersey [Mr. WIDNALL] is recognized for 15 minutes. Mr. WIDNALL. Madam Speaker, the NAACP is rightfully concerned with re- location problems, since approximately 63 percent of the persons displaced by urban renewal projects are nonwhite. The testimony given to the Senate Sub- committee on Intergovernmental Rela- tions on July 13 by Clarence Mitchell, director of the Washington Bureau of the NAACP, is particularly worth noting in light of the passage of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, H.R. 7984, by the House on June 30;1965. This act contains a title IV which was adapted by the House Special Housing Subcommittee from the suggestions for full compensation by condemnees of- fered by the Republican minority mem- bers in their own housing legislation, H.R. 6501 and its companion measures. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9. 16276 Approved Fo RE M,15RM& Ek7jgI R00030018001yiay 14, 1965 mission on Intergovernmental Relations in uais, and (b) that there are or are being pro- In arriving at a consensus on what form its January 1965 report makes this statement vided standard housing units at least as great the suggestions in H.R. 6501 and identical on page 114: in nnmh- nc *hn --- _d -- -? ..-- interest of (a) expeditious Nandi of relo- -~~'"""'"`?' ` anme to ~uemn, members of the House Special Subcommittee cation claims, b directive within their financial means, reasonably ac- on Housing could be included immediately ( ) provision of an cessible to their places of employment and in the Housing and Urban Development Act overall system of relocation assistance, in- in areas that are not generally less desirable of 1965, Chairman WILLIAM A. BARRETT, of the cluding advice as well as compensation, and in regard to public utilities and public and Housing Subcommittee, and I consulted with (c) the needs of those most urgently re- commercial facilities than the areas from the top officials of the Housing and Home quiring relocation help, responsibility for de- which they are displaced." Finance Agency. The result is the new title to and mgarel cation payagencies nts subject be Although it is stated by housing officials IV of the Housing and Urban Development v j t that the record of finding homes for dis- Act of 1965, H.R. 7984, which the House has maximums established by statute." placed persons and families is Improving, since adopted without controversy-on June th From a that practical standpoint, is Impera- the figures given do not seem to give the 30---as part of the total housing package. tive e that those vested with the little rto complete story. For example, the Commis- In taking this step we also had In mind act in discretion be given very a way twill put the little displaced room o pet- stoner of Urban Renewal in his 1963 report the statement, in the Senate report on the act in a wadisadvantage. that t will states that about 46 percent of relocated Housing Act of 1964, that the Senate Bank- nor examle, section 101 (a) (3) of the families whose housing conditions were ing and Currency Committee would take the .~pao example, states section toffering price known went into standard private rental matter of just compensation and property to the person bill that the h is btaken using, 21 percent into standard sales hous- acquisition up this year following the com- tolzoul ersbil on whose t less property tthe bein fair ing, 25 percent into public housing. About pletion of the Real Property Acquisition value." (not) ot)ob lethan p ge 8 percent went into housing which did not Subcommittee study. "Thection 101 ,(6) states: att: of pub- meet the requirements of the locally ap- In view of the solid progress made by tic i a construction development of that proved relocation plan. One might well ask the House, first in the study by the Select no mprovements should lawfully old dld be so real pe what is the significance of the words "whose Subcommittee on Real Property Acquisition, will erron laved ll move from a al prot a ps ty housing conditions were known?" There and second, by the House Special Subcom- to move his business or farm operation with- Is a strong suspicion that a careful analysis mittee on Housing in developing title IV of out o least b180 u days' or farm operation from the of the housing now occupied by displaced H.R. 7984, it is the hope of those of us in out written ty cfrom the persons would show that far too many have the House who worked on this problem, n thi In of bey these such vial is requi the word and worse slum conditions than the places Act of 1965, when it is signed into law by "should" appears they left. the President, will contain the just com- Fpears instead of "shall." We j suggest that if should has the same meaning To the extent that the proposed legislation N pensation by or should title IV as passed r the House. as shall in the statute then the latter word will correct some of the problems experienced Nor sld it come as any surprise to find would be better because then there would be by displaced persons under the present sys- she housing and urban renewal laws again no doubt that these safeguards are binding tem, it will be most welcome. However, it property the acquisition st far st compensation and on an administrative official. Anything less should be remembered that even these pro- andards are con- than a clear mandatory requirement will posals will not do the whole job. pcaned. t These programs Involve the dis- an any undoubtedly open the door for abuse of the of more of more displaced more sma ll all businesses, and the spl, than any rights 'of those who are being displaced. STATEMENT OF HON. WILLIAM B. WIDNALL OF other federally assisted program, Usually, at the community level the,pres- NEW JERSEY BEFORE THE SENATE SUBCOM- Title IV of HR. 7984 covers the full range sures to get the job done may outweigh the MITTEE ON INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELA- of Federal programs in the housing and human considerations. Unless he Is certain TIONS, JULY 13, 1965 urban renewal fields. It provie 'Pro- that the property owner can get redress un- i am pleased to acedural safeguards recommen der the statute, an official dealing face to face mittee on the issue your compere- the with the owner may YulI and before just oanpen- Select Subcommittee on y give liprervice only to sation. In an able speech in the CoNGRES- Acquisition and incorporated permissive regulations. While it is impor- SIGNAL RECORD of April 1, 1965, Senator ED- except that these safeguards area tart to get on with roadbuiiding, public im- MUND S. MUSKIE show dator rather th d h y e an suggest ow important a vements,"and slum clearance, it is equally matter this is, for he important to make certain that overzealous pointed out that Fed- before any funds -for acquisitit Offic;ials do not put material results ahead of oral and federally assisted programs, aortic- matted by the Federal Go In the rights of ularly housing and urban renewal programs, addition, the bill contains a requirement I people who must move from highway programs, and so on. will annually have been suggesting for some time; namely, their homes, their places of business or their displace in the next 4 to 8 years 111,000 that the property owner receive 75 percent farms. fam- ilies and individuals, 18,000 businesses, and of the Government-appraised value of his In closing I would like to call attention 4,000 farm operators, property immediately, rather than being to pages 114 and 116 of the Advisory Com- forced to wait for funds should he decide to mission on Intergoveof that Relations re- the Senator highway MUSKIandE'S bill, SFederal. 1681, would bring contest the full award in court. We expect port;. real property Sc- quisitlon programs this to cut down heavily on business failures up to the compensation because of lack of capital for relocation, or The important statements are as follows: standards prevailing in the urban renewal the heavy borrowing which homeowners "The Commission recommends that the and housing programs. Senator SPARKMAN's Congress require that State and local govern- bill, S. 1201, which is based on the work of now find necessary in order to buy a new meats administering Federal grant-in-aid the Select Subcommittee on Real Property funds home when the uward is being contested said programs assure the availability of standard Acquisition of the House Public Works Com- H.R. are held up. housing before proceeding with any property mittee, would set procedural standards for relocation 7984 paym also ents for contains allb i businesses in acquisition that displaces people. This re- all Federal and federally assisted property quirement should be at least comparable to acquisition programs, costs fo$1,500 $2,500, r the from forthe to transfer and the payment of that in existing Federal urban renewal legis- As the ranking minority member of the committee report real property. he lation, assuring that (a) there Is a feasible House Special the administrators of the report on program are 7dir the method for temporary relocation of displaced have beeconcerneedmfa some time aver the to consider insurance andgstorage fees, and families and individuals, and that (b) there inadequacy of compensation received by the cost of reinstallation of .relocated are or are, being provided standard housing thoseforced to give up their property as a fixtures as part of the definition of moving units at least as great in number as the result of an eminent domain taking. In costs. number of such displaced families and in- January of 1964 I introduced a comprehen- In light of these significant House actions, dividuals, available to them, within their ii- give housing bill containing a title devoted if the objective of the two bills before your nancial means, reasonably accessible to their solely to the problem of compensation for subcommittee, S. 1201 and S. 1681, is to places of employment, and in areas that are oondemnees, Again, on March 18 of this bring the standards of the other Federal not generally less desirable in regard to pub- year, I introduced a Comprehensive housing and federally assisted programs of property lic utilities and public and commercial fa- bill, H.R. 8501, containing a similar title acquisition up to the standards prevailing cilities than the areas from which they are which had been expanded to include a re- now in the housing and urban renewal pro- displaced. vised version of the procedural recommends- prams, the Senate bills will be incomplete `The Commission recommends that the tions made by the House Real Property Ac- without further amendment. The subcom- States enact legislation requiring State and quisition Subcommittee staff report. This mittee, in effect, will have to run in order to local agencies to assure the availability of was in line with the Real Property Acquisi- stand still. And I would go further to sug- standard housing before proceeding with any Lion Subcommittee recommendation that gest that even this new effort in the housing property acquisition that displaces people, the appropriate committee having jurisdic- and urban renewal field represents only an This requirement should assure (a) that tion over a Federal or federally assisted prop- increase in the minimum equitable treat- there is, a feasible method for temporary re- erty acquisition program should act within ment that our citizens can rightfully expect location of displaced families and individ- Its particular jurisdiction, on the problem. from their Government. For example, if Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 July 14, 1A-AProved For ReleraMqM F I:PIIl/ CP B084 88300180010-9 16277 moving expenses can be defined to include reinstallation of fixtures, there is no reason why it cannot be defined to include reinstal- lation of equipment as well. It had been my understanding that this would be included in the House committee report, but a late- hour objection by the BHFA, on totally specious grounds, prevailed. Similarly, the entire arbitrary limitation of $25,000 on busi- ness moving expenses, administratively de- termined, deserves reexamination: This ar- bitrary figure, in its lack of sufficient re- imbursement for some, and its potential for abuse through overreimbursement for others, points up the need to consider a more useful approach for arriving at just compensation awards. If this subcommittee seeks the opportunity to make a significant breakthrough in this field, rather than continue the more routine approach to the problem, I would suggest that it, examine the possibility of substi- tuting a replacement cost concept for the present actual value concept used to deter. mine compensation for property taken. It is the only way I know of to avoid the pit- falls of arbitrary awards and ad hoc solu- tions and yet still reflect in the award such items as business reopening expenses, loss of rents or profits on a temporary basis, and the increase In price for suitable replacement homes as a result of a decreased supply and an increased. demand occasioned by clear- ance and relocation. By accepting this new concept for Federal and federally assisted acquisition programs, Congress would set a persuasive example for the States to follow, which could then be applied without ques- tion to all Federal and federally assisted property acquisition programs. I would urge the caieful consideration by this subcommittee of the replacement cost concept, particularly as contained in my bill, H.R. 6501. In order to take up no further time of the subcommittee, I would simply like to request your permission to include for the record at this point a copy of title IV of HR. 7984, the Housing and urban De- velopment Act of 1965 as passed by the House; that section of the House Banking .and Currency Committee report dealing with title IV; a copy of that title of my bill, 1f.It. 6501, dealing with compensation for con- demnees; and a section-by-section analysis of my compensation suggestions. None of -these iteiis are particularly long, but I do believe that they will be useful to the sub- committee In determining what action to take in, this highly important field. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man fxopi New York [Mr. DULSKII is recognjsed for 30 minutes.. [Mr, PULSKI addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] NATIONAL TEACHERS , CORPS (Mr. PERKINS (at the request of Mr. McCAiTUY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECOAb and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. PERKINS. Madam Speaker, on Friday, July 2, in his address before the National Education Association in New York, President Johnson announced that he would propose a National Teachers Corps. Ilbis speech he said, and3 quote him: I will propose a National Teachers Corps to enlist thousands of dedicated teachers,to work aiopgside of local teachers in city slums and in areas of rural poverty, where they can serve their Nation. They will be young people, preparing for teaching careers.' They will be experienced teachers willing, to give a year to the. places in their country that need them the most. Today, I am introducing a bill which puts the President's proposals Into form and places those proposals before us here in Congress. This proposal is particu- larly appropriate at this time as the Gen- eral Subcommittee on Education is con- ducting hearings on legislation to strengthen the quality of elementary and secondary education by a program of fel- lowships for teacher graduate study. The bill I am introducing will enlist thousands of dedicated teachers to serve their country and their fellow citizens; a bill which will offer thousands of young people the opportunity to channel the boundless energies of youth into learning, teaching, and serving; a bill which will make it possible for teachers whose dedi- cation has long been acknowledged as a source of national strength to share their valuable experience and training with those who-although equally dedicated- have not had the opportunity to gain ex- perience and training. Today, I am pro- posing that we establish a National Teachers Corps which will offer to chil- dren in the Nation's schools the same opportunity which we offered to' the peo- ple around the world when we established the Peace Corps. When the Peace Corps was established, it was deluged with offers of service from thousands of people who were eager to share experience and training with others, Thousands of people willing to work-not for money-but for mankind. We tapped a reservoir of talent just waiting to be used. This reservoir is still full-full of energy, talent, and willingness to serve. The National Teachers. Corps will further tap the reservoir. It will serve as another means to channel dreams, energy, and talent into reality, work, and purpose. The dedication in the measure the President called for iseno stranger to the American charactsr_ t ,ham been in peace and war, in youthrand age, at home and abroad. It is an ele- ment essential to the success of the Na- ? tional Teachers Corps and one about which our minds may be at rest. The American. teacher., will. respond to this challenge with all the, strong sense ,of mission,_all the. good and purposeful en- ergy, that this exciting opportunity af- fords. And this, opportunity to serve will appeal most to the teachers with the greatest sense of mission-those best suited to the tasks at hand. The National Teachers Corps would be designed to bring able and spirited teachers to our most disadvantaged rural -and urban schools and to attract into the teaching profession highly qualified young Americans like those who have made the Peace Corps such a brilliant success. The Teachers Corps will recruit experi- 'eliceLl teachers who are able-through their experience and training-to work and teach effectively in areas where pov- erty has placed children at a disadvant- aged-where poverty has deprived them of the educational opprotunities which are available to other children. The Teachers Corps will also recruit talented college graduates-though they are not experienced teachers-who are qualified to serve as teacher-interns among young people-setting an example of what edu- cation can do as well as imparting knowl- edge. In the proposal I am introducing, all members of the Teachers Corps would join for up to 2 years of service. For the teacher-interns this would be 2 years of service and professional training. Train- ing would be provided by colleges and universities on a contract basis. After 3 months of, intensive training at a uni- versity, teaching teams, made up of teacher-interns and led by experienced teachers, would work in schools provid- ing the services and skills which are needed at that school. The interns would continue to receive professional training while teaching through seminars in curriculum, teach- ing methods, and other teacher training subjects. The teachers and teacher-interns would be made available to schools in areas with high concentrations of low- income families. Their salaries would be the same as the salaries of other teachers in those schools with similar ex- perience, education, and duties. The bill I am introducing has guaran- tees against Federal control of the corps- men after they are selected by the schools. Local schools will retain com- plete_ control of their curriculums and administrations. Teacher corpsmen will be subject to the same regulations which the school places on its regular staff. I am sure that I need not detail the need for a program to assist schools with high concentrations of low-income fam- ilies. Congress has now studied this problem intensely for 2 years. We have already, in this session, passed a major education bill to develop programs for the educa- tion of disadvantaged children. We passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which contains more than a billion dollars for the edu- cation of educationally deprived children. Some of the difficulties of poverty- stricken school districts will be solved as a result of grants available to them ,.w,ider, title. I. of the Eelementary and Secondary Education Act. They will be able to expand programs to take in reme- dial and special teaching. They will be able to upgrade teacher's salaries when necessary to retain and secure qualified personnel in schools serving concentra- tions of low-income students. Schools all across the country are now developing programs as a result of this legislation. Most of the programs being developed require the hiring of new per- sonnel-new teachers who are qualified to teach in the programs that are planned. With the funds these. schools are now receiving, they will be in a position to recruit experienced, talented teachers- the teachers which the new programs re- quire-but this takes time-more time than is available, Moreover, they will be recruiting in a field which is already lacking in qualified teachers. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00030018001.0-9 Approved F r & lAQ/1kE DPf7B 6R0003001800JR7~ 14 According to the National Education Association the national supply of new teachers fell more than 100,000 teachers short of the 248,000 new teachers needed. The passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act makes this shortage even more acute. The Office of Education now estimates that the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act has created a demand for almost 30,000 teachers this fall-teachers who are qualified to teach in programs designed to meet the needs of disadvantaged children. Two years from now this demand will be 65,000; 65,000 teachers which must be trained now but are not now in training. The shortage of qualified teachers is most acute in rural areas of poverty. Children in rural areas, in some ways are even more disadvantaged than those in the slums of the big cities. Rural school districts simply have not had the funds to pay their teachers adequate salaries. Rural children have not had access to the public facilities-such as libraries and museums-which are lo- cated in the cities. I am personally most familiar with the teacher shortage in our rural areas and small communities. More prosperous areas of the country have been able to attract new higly qualified teachers with the result that communities which have limited re- sources are losing young teachers and are not attracting new teachers, We have reached the point that we now have to rely on dedication to duty to hold our teachers. We know and appreciate this dedication and service-we also know that dedication is not limited to teachers in our own areas. There are dedicated teachers and young people in every community in the Nation-who want to serve for the sake of service. We, who have received and apprecia- ted the benefits of dedicated service, would like to offer dedicated individuals across the Nation the opportunity to show their dedication to us in our schools. Teacher corpsmen with ex- perience, talent, training, and duty would be welcomed in these communities VIETNAM EDITOR and others will find his speech in the gen- eral interest. Under unanimous consent, I Include this speech in the body of the RECORD. The speech follows: ADDRESS GIVEN TO THE NATIONAL EDITORIAL As- SOCIATION AND TEXAS PRESS ASSOCIATION MEETING IN DALLAS, TEx., Just 19, 1965, By BILL DYER, FORMER EDITOR Or THE SMITH- Vn,LE REVIEw, SMITHVILLE, TENN. Ladies and gentlemen, there was once a time when a reporter returning from the field of battle with bad news was beheaded. I, therefore, fear the worst from you, for I, too, returning fxom a 2-week tour of South Vietnam have news that Is anything but heartening. I ask your indulgence, however, and pray that you will forego the beheading until I have finished. At that time you may cut me down at your leisure with your questions. To be very blunt about it, and I think that is what you want, the war in southeast Asia is not going so good. Actually we hold less ground than we did at this time last year, in spite of the fact that the number of troops we have in Vietnam has spiraled up and up and up. And before this summer is gone-a summer that will be long and hot In places other than Selma, Ala., and Detroit, Mich.-yes; before the leaves fall from the trees this winter, we will have in excess of 70,000 troops in South Vietnam. However, I can express the belief of the people to whom I talked-and that runs the gamut from a two-star general of marines to a West Virginia lance corporal-these peo- ple say, "We will win this war if the people back home stick by us." I ask you. Ladies and gentlemen of the press, could they ask anything else? Although a half world removed from con- tinental United States, Vietnam has become a household word in America as world at- tention focuses on events shaping the destiny of southeast Asia. In Vietnam a massive effort is being waged to combat Communist insurgents to allow the 14 million people of this young Asian Republic to live in freedom and peace. The Republic of Vietnam is about the size of the State of Washington. It stretches in a 700-mile are. For the most part it is 50 to 150 miles wide and lies next to Laos and Cambodia, and borders on the South China Sea. The country has a spine of dense jungle-covered mountains extending from north to south, almost reaching Saigon, its capital. South of the densely populated capital city area, the flat, fertile, canal-laced ".rice bowl" or Mekong Delta extends to the Gulf of Thailand. Because of its strategic coastal location, Vietnam has for centuries been an impor- tant factor in southeastern Asian affairs. Today its richness In natural resources, par- ticularly food and rubber, makes South Viet- nam a coveted prize by food-short North Vietnam and Communist China. Rice production in the rich Mekong Delta alone has the yet untapped potential of feeding the combined populations of South and North Vietnam and still having a sur- plus for export. The Republic of Vietnam is a vivid mani- festation of a nation determined, with assist- ance from other free world nations, to check the spread of Communist oppression. In addition to United States aid, assistance is being provided by 16 countries Including the Republics of Korea and China, the Philip- pines, New Zealand, Thailand, and Australia. However, It Is South Vietnam itself that carries the brunt of the anti-Communist battle with nearly half a million men and women serving in the Armed Forces. Although the Communist movement in South Vietnam dates from the early 1930's, the present Vietcong (Vietnamese Commu- nists) structure traces from the signing of the Geneva accords in 1954 that presumably ended the Indochina War. As 80,000 Viet Mirth (Communist) troops allegedly with- drew to North Vietnam following expulsion of French Forces in Indochina, a cleverly con- cealed nucleus remained behind to prey on the New Republic of South Vietnam. From 1954, the Vietcong in South Vietnam concentrated on establishing rural political cadres and on exploitive propaganda. In 1960, Ho Chi Minh, the Communist leader in Hanoi? realized that political and propaganda actions alone could not subvert the government in Saigon which was already receiving substantial U.S. aid. Plans were made in North Vietnam to include military operations in the Communist formula by in- filtrating large numbers of reinforcements to the underground Vietcong Forces in South Vietnam during the rainy season of 1961. Thereafter Vietcong violence broke out al- most everywhere, necessitating much greater effort by South Vietnam with increased sup- port, from the United States to contain it. The current struggle in South Vietnam cannot be classified as an internal conflict between dissident guerrillas and a weak gov- ernment. The magnitude of the conflict is revealed by the fact that Vietcong main and local force units number more than 30,000 full- time soldiers. Also there are perhaps 80,000 or more irregulars who work as farmers by day and often undertake guerrilla actions by night. These forces are supplied with lead- ers, technicians, replacements, modern weap- ons and logistic support from North Viet- nam. Their obvious intent is the replace- ment of the South Vietnamese government by a pawn of the Communist regime in North Vietnam. The Vietcong, though active throughout most of the countryside, have a few regions in which they are particularly strong. These areas, known as secret bases or war zones, are located in remote difficult terrain and serve as the rear base for Communist activity In South Vietnam. Five of the strongest Vietcong bases are: the U. Minh Forest in the delta; the Plain of Reeds, an inundated area west of Saigon near Cambodia; War Zone C in Tay Ninh Province northwest of Saigon; War Zone D in Phuoc Thanh Province, north- east of Saigon; and the Do Xa area in the mountains far north of Saigon. The large Vietcong force, supported in varying degrees by perhaps one-quarter of the rural people and established in some areas for more than 20 years, represents a formidable enemy. The military aspects of battle involve separating the VC from their base of popular and logistic support and eliminating the VC themselves as organized military forces responsive to political dirpc- tion. The enemy is highly elusive since, except for his secret bases, he has no territory to defend. He operates mostly during hours of darkness; he withdraws and disperses into the countryside when opposed by superior forces; he attacks without warning when the situation is most favorable; and he stands and fights only when he chooses to do so. The Vietcong are known to plan at- tacks in meticulous detail, often training for and practicing an operation for weeks or even months using sandtable drills and, at times, fullscale mockups of the target. The battle Is further complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing friend from foe since both sides are primarily Vietnamese. I saw one engagement by troops of the 7th Division (ARVN) in which the soldiers Identified themselves by placing large red scarves around their necks. The Vietcong are able to conceal their weapons and blend easily with the popula- tion. As a result, the battlefield has neither front nor rear. This is a war with no con- ventional battlelines. (Mr. EVINS of Tennessee (at, the re- quest of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. EVINS of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, Lt. Col. William "Bill" Dyer, U.S. Army Reserve, former editor of the Smi.thville,Tenn., Review, was invited by the Department of the Army as a rural editor to visit Vietnam and give a first- hand report on the conditions as he saw them in southeast Asia. Mr. Dyer, a resourceful reporter and an experienced news analyst, recently in an address to the National Editorial Asso- ciation and Texas Press Association meeting in Dallas, Tex., gave-a firsthand report on the situation in southeast Asia. I believe that my colleagues, the press, Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 Jur2i 1 1roved For f~el~ffl_OQ300180010-9 Ethnic minorities such as the Chinese, Cambodians, mountain tribesmen and relig- ious sects play important roles in the strug- gle, thereby emphasizing the political aspects of the counterinsurgency battle. Activity waxes and wanes as the Vietcong shift areas or emphasis and tactics. Likewise, the government has the ability to concentrate its resources In various regions and on differ- ent activitles. Recognizing that it is not necessary to kill all the Communists in South Vietnam in order to establish law and order throughout the country, the Government of Vietnam devotes the bulk of its resources in an effort to pacify the rural countryside... Simply stated, pacification is the sum total of integrated military-economic-political- psychological-sociological efforts to win the support of the people by providing security and meeting their aspirations for social and economic justice. The present pacification program to restore government control is based upon the oil spot concept of extending control by gradual ex- pansion from a secure to a less secure area in the manner of an oil droplet spreading over a surface. As seen in many pictures from Vietnam, U.S. forces do such things as dis- tribute clothing to children. It is hoped that through friendly gestures the people will learn to feel secure and safe in the hands of the Government. In order to expand the size of an already secure area, or"base, the region around it is first cleared by destroying or displacing Viet- Bong military units and driving the Vietcong political structure out or underground. When the balance In the so-called contested zone llas_tipped in favor of the Government, securing operations can be started to provide protection for the population, to reinstitute and strengthen the Government structure and to develop a better social and political life in the area. Once an area is secure and becomes part of the expanded. oil spot, pacification activi- ties can reach,out to the next area and repeat the process of clearing and securing. Mean- while efforts continue inside the oil spot to develop the area economically, politically, and socially in order to demonstrate that life under Government auspices is to be preferred. The most extensive pacification operation began in, September 1964 in the area sur- rounding Saigon. Called Hop Tac, which means cooperation In Vietnamese,_the oper- ation involves the integration of military and civilian elements, both Vietnamese and United States, The project is supported and assisted by the major U.S. agencies in Vietnam with the military assistance command exercising co- Ordination responsibility. Traditionally, wars are fought because of political differences, and the Republic of Vietnam's battle against Communist-in- spired insurgency is no exception. The Communists want to rule the country. Their aggression, founded on political and social grounds, cannot be defeated by mili- tary action alone. Economic, political and social measures designed to prove that the Government's programs are superior to Com- munist promises are equally important. This is what pacification seeks to accomplish. Pitted Against the Vietcong are the sizable and capable Armed Forces of the Republic of Vietnam. Army, Navy, and Air Force units, operating under a single high commander, are daily in- volved in thousands of separate but related aeti( argijging in size from a squad ambush 'Gt) & eegimental combat team, supported by air and naval lints, in an attack against an entity reinforced battalion. The capabili- ties of the individual Vietnamese fighting man are. highly regarded by the courage and endurance he constantly displays. South Vietnam's Army (ARVN) of over 800,000 , men consists of 9 divisions and 4 corps. Flans _ are underway to increase 16279 It further. With modern equipment selected for the character of operations it undertakes, the ARVN organization is tailored to the type of terrain and enemy it faces, In addition to the regular forces, the Na- tion has paramilitary forces numbering ap- proximately 200,000 divided almost equally between regional and popular forces. The regional forces, assigned to the prov- inces, augment the regular forces and are particularly active in pacification. Their availability frees more powerfully equipped army units for operations against major Viet- cong units and base areas. Popular (or people's) forces, who are na- tives of the area, provide village level pro- tection to the rural population living In hamlets. These forces are not purely de- fensive since they must carry out, by day and by night, small unit offensive actions to search out Vietcong guerrillas who seek to interrupt pacification by harassing and ter- rorizing the people. The scope of the military effort Is indicated by the average of about 2,400 monthly inci- dents of Vietcong attacks, assassinations, terrorism, kidnappings and sabotage. More than 550 South Vietnamese soldiers are killed monthly as a result of insurgent activi- ties, while some 1,800 Communists are killed, captured or defect each month. Objectives of the U.S. assistance in Viet- nam are to assist the South Vietnamese Gov- ernment to achieve peace and stability. This requires considerable aid and advice in de- veloping a viable economy, instituting a sound system of social and economic justice, building a stable, popular government, and developing armed forces that can provide de- fense for the country. Responsibility for achieving these objec- tives is the U.S. mission to Vietnam, headed by the U.S. Ambassador. Agencies responsive to ., the . Ambassador, which assist in the various aspects of countering the insurgents and building a nation, are the U.S. Embassy, the U.S. Operations Mission (USOM), the U.S. Information Service (USIS) and the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (IVf.ACV). The Embassy deals with political and social stabilization; USOM is involved with social and economic development; USIS is concerned with information and psycho- logical operations; and MACV is charged with military security matters. The U.S. Armed. Forces through the per- sonnel and. equipment of the Military As- sistance . Command, Vietnam (MACV) are playing a significant role in helping the Re- public of Vietnam maintain a free and inde- pendent government. With the mission of advising the Republic of Vietnam armed forces, members of MACV continue to per- form their vital task with zeal and skill. By performing their jobs persuasively and skill- fully, they are progressively working them- selves out of jobs. The nature of the Assign- ment requires the presence of advisory per- sonnel only until the battle is won and a fully capable defense force is developed-no longer. Professionalism Is the cornerstone of ad- visory activities and associations in Viet- nam. A highly select body of American service personnel are accomplishing their assistance mission irk a thoroughly profes- sional manner, despite the myriad chal- lenges of service in a strange land engaged in a life and death encounter with tyranny. Since I am on the subject of advisers, there is one group of which I cannot say enough. If it is possible to fall in love with a group of, men, without being called an ugly word, I fear I am guilty. For I believe one of the finest aggregates of men I ever knew is In the 5th Special Forces Group in Vietnam. These skilled men are located throughout the republic in isolated locales training and working with the indigenous personnel to establish protective security. Organizing the populace into integrated -;Pis mettle. Ladies and gentlemen of the NEA and TPA, I will be frank to say that I went to Vietnam_ with a cynic's view. I had mixed emotions, but my concern was for the lives of men being lost in this struggle. I won- dered, and maybe some of you have, if the struggle is worth the cost: After all, Viet- nam is a small country with a small popula- tion, so why spend millions of dollars daily to help save it from communism? After being there, I feel differently. I feel rrgw that we skiQuid save this country at all costs. As one editorial writer put it, "The ques- tion of whether we should be in Vietnam at all has long since become academic. It is like the man who was in jail for something for which he could not be put in jail. He was there. And SO are we." T'he Issue as I see it now is that our mis- .sion In Vietnam la to help the Vietnamese people attain peace and stability. The issue at stake is all-and I repeal, all-of southeast Asia. And the word I got there to bring back to you is help us in the fight. Support us with everything you have. Be critical if you must, but justly criticize. America and South Vietnam can win this struggle. It will be long, and it will be hard. But it can be won. . And in the words of another editorialist, "We have finally gone to war in Vietnam. And now we must win." FEDERAL FUNDS FOR THE HUDSON RIVER EAST BANK SUPERHIGH- WAY (Mr. BINGHAM (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. BINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced a bill which would direct the Secretary of Commerce not to make Federal aid funds available for the proposed superhighway along the east bank of the Hudson River, which was authorized by the New York State Legislature in its recent session and ap- proved by Governor Rockefeller. The proposed superhighway would not only threaten the program for preserv- ing the scenic beauty and recreational potential of the Hudson River, but it would also necessarily cut across the community of Riverdale and Van Cort- landt Park in Bronx County. At the very least no such drastic de- cision affecting the future of the area should be made without extensive public hearings and consultation with the com- munities involved. I join with my col- league', the gentleman from New York [Mr. OTTINGERI, who has today intro- duced an identical bill, in expressing the hope that the Subcommittee on Roads of the House Public Works Committee will hold such hearings in the area af- fected in the near future. Under leave to revise and extend my remarks, I include herewith an editorial from the Riverdale Press of July 8, 1965, a weekly newspaper which has deserved- ly won many awards for excellence and for service to the community: [From the Riverdale (N.Y.) ' Press, July 8, 1965] WE OPPOSE THE HUDSON EXPRESSWAY More than 350 years have passed since Hendrik Hudson anchored the Half Moon Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 16280 Approved Foe8e 9 :/1 15 9P6 it3R00030018001Yu?y U, 1965 off Spuyten Duyvil. Many controversies have raged over the Hudson River since then, No year in the past, however, has matched 1965 for the amount of attention given to this majestic waterway. Riverdale is especially concerned, since the Hudson forms our west- ern boundary. A Riverdalian, George Perkins, was chiefly instrumental in preserving the Palisades along the New Jersey shore for the perma- nent enjoyment of generations to come. But the Riverdale shoreline has suffered. In one corner, below Kappock Street, apartments have been crowded together so that narrow streets are all but impassable. What should have been a beautiful resi- dential area has been permitted to become an unplanned, uncomfortable jumble of un- prepossessing buildings. Our park along the river has never been developed. Erosion has taken a heavy toll. What's left has been torn up during the con- struction of new sewers so that the river edge looks like an Appalachian strip mining operation. We doubt that it will be restored to beauty for years to come. Riverdale is far from alone in its concern over the future of the Hudson. At Corn- wall, conservationists are fighting a vigorous battle against a proposed Con Edison devel- opment. They fear its effect both on scenic beauty and the spawing of fish. The cur- rent drought has turned the attention of the city toward the possibility of using the Hudson as a source of water supply. And there is increased concern over the preserva- tion of waterfront areas from continued spoilage. Bearings to be held tomorrow and Satur- day at Hawthorne Junior High School, in Yonkers, will discuss the scenic Hudson Riverway bill, cosponsored by Congressman BINGHAM. The measure was introduced to enable the Secretary of the Interior to pre- serve- the river's scenic and recreational values. Uncertain, as yet, are the steps to be taken to extend the Secretary's authority to New York City. Meanwhile the State legislature has pasted, and Governor Rockefeller has signed into law, another bill to establish a Hudson Scenic Expressway along the river bank. This would transform Route 9 into a super- highway, extending from Beacon to New York City. Of special concern to Riverdale is a pro- posal to link this highway with the Major Deegan Expressway via an extension at some point in the Bronx. The only possible road of this type would have to cut across River- dale. State officials have said they will do every- thing possible to retain the river's scenic beauty. Information concerning plans for the highway has been limited, but a series of hearings for communities to be affected has been proposed. We hope Riverdale wai be considered among those areas entitled to be, heard. The Henry Hudson Parkway now splits Riverdale in half. Access roads to the heavily traveled Major Deegan Expressway now create bottlenecks and add to traffic hazards. We believe another superhighway cutting across Riverdale would cause irreparable damage to the community. First of all, wh,,,t's left of Riverdale's wa- terfront would be lost forever. No matter how :hard he tries, the highway commissioner cannot preserve scenic beauty by substitut- ing a ribbon of concrete for a stretch of greenery and woodlands. Secondly, what we least need is the noise, confusion, and air pollution of thousands of cars on a main artery cut through our residential sections. The new expressway will entail tremen- dous expense as well as dislocation. An easier solution to the mass transportation problem is so obvious, that we wonder why it has been bypassed. That solution lies in implementing rail commuter service. The proposed new highway parallels the tracks of the New York Central. Fast, com- fortable transportation could. be provided for thousands of riders by modernizing the rail system. Legislation enabling such a move has already been passed. Precedents have been established. Other cities have fast, modern commuter service. Why not offer this convenience to Hudson Valley com- munities? There is an obvious inconsistency between Federal efforts to preservescenic and recrea- tional values and the State's plan to build an expressway. We cannot, have both. Of the two proposals, we favor the measure introduced in Congress. We see no necessity for an expressway that will mean the per- manent destruction of a riverfront that has been despoiled already, almost beyond the hope of preservation and restoration. A WELCOME TO THE 91ST ANNUAL SHRINERS CONVENTION (Mr. BOLAND (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, I would like to take this opportunity to welcome all the many thousands of members of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine of North America who have arrived this week in our Na- tion's Capital for their 91st annual con- vention. As an organization, the Shriners are an outstanding example of a group dedi- cated to a living, vital Christianity and to the great democratic ideals which have built and strengthened America. The 838,000 members of this organization are men who believe in the, united, humani- tarian action of free men in accepting the responsibilities that come with citi- zenship in the world's greatest demo- cracy. Through their sponsorship of the amazingly successful Shriners' hospitals for crippled children, they are demon- strating the best concepts of community and national service. Founded in New York in 1872, Shrine- dom has spread across our Nation. And as the late Hubert N. Poteat, a Past Im- perial Potentate wrote: If there is one thing our harassed world needs more than another today, it is brother- ly love. As a group the Shriners are men of reverent mind, merry heart, and a dis- tinct humanitarian vein. Back in 1888, Jacksonville, Fla., was almost laid waste by a tragic epidemic of yellow fever. Five thousand were affected before cold weather could destroy the virus. To their great credit, the members of the Shrine organized themselves into a re- lief corps and through their donations of personal labor and more than $10,000 initiated the order's first major charity. In the years that followed, every im- perial potentate urged Shriners every- where to carry on the works of charity, with the results of these pleas culmi- nating in today's multimillion-dollar an- nual program for the Shriners' hospitals for crippled children. These hospitals have been the soul of the Shriners. The first cornerstone was laid in 1922 in Shreveport, La. Today this program has expanded to a total of 17. These hospitals are among the Na- tion's most modern, progressive, and well equipped, and are offering free care and love to thousands of young children who so badly need it. One of these very ex- cellent hospitals is located in my home city of Massachusetts in Springfield. It has been offering hope and health to the children of the area since 1925. An extremely significant new program has recently been added to the already heavy obligations of the Shriners. Young burn patients, long the most neglected of the pediatric wards, have gained a new friend. The Shriners have now put both feet forward in a mighty attempt to alleviate the crucial problems in this area. In November of 1963 the first Shriners' Burns Institute was opened in Galveston, Tex. Two others followed in Cincinnati and Boston. These are interim opera- tions being carried out in rented space in already existing hospitals. But in these three locations, two new and modern Shriners' Burns Institutes are now under construction and the third will be by next fall. It is a mighty undertaking in an area of serious need. The Shriners of America like parades and they like good fun, but they are also seriously in pursuit of a better life for the misfortunate young children of our Nation, children who with help and love can become productive, vital citizens of this Nation. And the next time those of us who are sports fans enjoy the excitement of the annual Shriners' East-West football game, maybe we should pause a moment and remember that it is more than a football game. It is a classic of love and sacrifice for a goal that transcends the yards gained, the passes thrown, or the runners stopped. This is a game played that Joe, with two clubfeet, may walk and even run and play 'like other children. It is played for little Mary, who lies in a plaster cast as the curve is removed from her spine. It is played for Ralph and Ruth, Nancy and Bill, Sue and Dick- white, black, yellow, Protestant, Jew, and Catholic-who._lie in the Shriners' hos- pitals, and for the others who are waiting to reach that mansion of mercy. We are proud to have the Shriners in Washington. TAX DEDUCTIONS FOR FUNERAL EXPENSES (Mr. WHITE of Texas (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. WHITE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, death to a member of an economically less fortunate family or a family of mod- erate means strikes a blow that is doubly cruel to that family. The grief from the loss of a loved one is coupled with the financial hardship incurred by the pay- ment of funeral expenses of that loved one. An equitable method exists for the Congress to minimize this terrible finan- cial hardship-an income tax deduction to the members of the decedent's family Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 July 1. , 1 15proved For ReI T(Z B-9 AICI C 60=11460300180010-9 for the, expenses surrounding the funeral of the, loved one Pre,=entlaW makes a deduction avail- ably to wealthier members oi' our society through `the computation of the Federal estate tax which may be due on the es- tate of the deceased. But this existing deduction is meaningless to people of moderate means. The conscience of the Natiorrin recent years has been directed toward the hardships ofthe less-advan- taged ,citizen and it is appropriate at this time to make'some reasonable deduction available to this group of Americans. I am today introducing legislation to make available a modest Income tax deduction to those family members who actually pay the funeral expenses of one of their. loved ones. The bill` would, in the usual case, allow the widower other family member to deduct a total of up to $500 for funeral expenses paid with re- spect to the deceased. If family members are "01ititled to receive lump-sum death payment or a funeral or burial expense allowance-generally $250-under the Social Security Act, veteran's benefit leg- islation, or other Federal law, the total deduction ` made available by the ' bill would be reduced to $250. In recognition of the fact that several family members may contribute to the payment of the total amount of funeral expenses, the bill provides that the allow- able deduction is to be allocated to each contributing individual in proportion to the amount of funeral expenses he paid, reduced by the amount of the lump-sum payment he received. To avgid misuse of this new deduction, the bill also provides that any amount allowable to a family member as an In- come tax deduction shall not also be allowable to the decedent's estate in com- puting its Federal estate tax liability, making only one deduction for the fu- neral' expense allowable. This is con- :sonant with present law. This income tax deduction while allow-. able to each American taxpayer, will be most significant to the citizen of modest means who Is stricken by the loss of a loved one. We heard this salve argument last year when the voluntary wheat certifi- cate program was before Congress. It was a false argument then, and it has proven to be false. Opponents of the program last year made dire predictions that its passage would surely result in higher bread prices to the consumer, but it didn't. Consumer prices for wheat products have remained stable. Bread prices in the the past 12 months have averaged around 21 cents a loaf or less, virtually unchanged from the period before the certificate program` went into effect. ..And yet the wheat certificate program has meant about $450 million more in farm income to the wheatgrowers than they would have received without the program. And wheat program costs to the taxpayer were $300 million lower than the year before. Publicly owned wheat stocks have been reduced by about 150 million bushels be- low the previous marketing year. .. And yet profits to wheat users thus far in 1965, according to recent Standard & Poor's surveys, are higher in nearly every case than for the same period in 1964. The bakers are a lot better off finan- cially than the farmers who grow the wheat, and they get a lot more than the farmer does for the loaf of bread they sell. The bakers, however, do not seem to want to give the farmer parity of in- come with his city brethren. And they do not seem to want to reduce the costs of Government farm programs. The immediate goals of this adminis- tration's farm program now before Con- gress are these: First. To raise farm income by $250 million a year. Second. To reduce farm program costs by $200 million a year. Third. To cut back Government-held stocks of farm commodities and reduce storage and handling costs. The extension of the voluntary wheat certificate program' in the bill before Congress is -a key feature of the legisla- tion . THE "BREAD TAX" ARGUMENT IS Yet we hear it attacked and smeared FALSE by its opponents as "bread tax" legisla- (Mr. PURC1r7L (at the request of Mr. Well, now, let us just see how much MCCARTHY) was granted permission to money the farmer gets for the wheat In extend his remarks at this point in the a loaf of, bread compared to what the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- bakers and wholesalers and the retailers ter.) get. Mr. PURCELL. Mr. Speaker, last In the years from 1947 through 1949 week I called the attention of the House when the retail price of bread averaged to published reports that the giants of 12.7 cents, the farmer's share of that the baking industry have hired a Wash- loaf of bread,was only 2.7 cents for the ington lobbyist to work for the defeat wheat in that bread. of the Johnson administration's farm By February of this year the average bill. retail price of a loaf of bread had risen I pointed out to my colleagues of the to just under 21 cents, but the-farmer was House that this insidious attack on the still getting only 2.7 'cents for the wheat farm bill is being carried out under the in that loaf of bread. smokescreen of a "bread tax" propaganda Now, the Secretary of Agriculture has smear. stated repeatedly that the bill now be- , I want to keep reminding my col- fore Congress will provide the wheat leagues of this cunning, deceitful cam- farmer an increase of seven-tenths of a by the big baking fallacy of the cent fo esti wheat used lzi a lpa;(-,, I bread I P want toaudulent argument emphasize they the companies, are putting by domestic bakers. _ _ y This would be the first time in 1;; up. years that the wheat farmer has had an. No. 127-21 Increase In his share of the returns from a loaf of bread. And yet the wheat-users are threaten- ing that If the share of the farmer Is in- creased by seven-tenths of a cent, the price of bread will be increased 2 cents a loaf. Why, Mr. Speaker, would this be so? Who would be imposing a bread tax on the consumer? It would not be the farmer. It would not be this adminis- tration. It would be the bakers and the wholesalers and the retailers. The farmer today actually receives 15 percent less for the food he produces than he did in 1947-49, while prices paid by consumers for food have risen by 31 percent. Since 1947-49 the cost of farm-grown food has risen only 14 percent, but the processing and marketing costs have risen 42 percent. Expenditures per person for food in the United States increased by $105 from 1950 to 1964. But of this $105 a year increase in the cost of food, the farmer got only $1 and the processing and mar- keting firms got $104. Mr. Speaker, let us be done with all this nonsense about the administration's wheat program constituting a "bread tax" on the consumer. We need to enact this program, Mr. Speaker, to raise farm income, to reduce Government costs to the taxpayer, and to cut back surplus grain stocks. Let us not be fooled by any fraudulent "bread tax" arguments against it. HEAD START (Mr. WAGGONER (at the. request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted. permission to extend. his, remarks at this, point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. WAGGONNER. Mr. Speaker an editorial concerning the administration of the.. "Head Start" program appeared in the July 5 issue of the Shreveport Journal which deserves the attention of every Member. It makes a single point and It is one to which I wholly subscribe: That the program has, in the headlong rush to pour out the funds appropriated, granted funds to just about everyone except those who are qualified to administer the pro- gram. There rare some exceptions, I am sure, but they are few and far between. I commend this editorial to the atten- tion of the House and congratulate the editor of the Journal for a forthright and clear insight into the mistakes that have been made in this program so far. HEAD START PROGRAM HUSHED Operation Head Start officially gets under- way this week with projects in some 2,300 communities hastily set up to prepare pre- school-age children from culturally deprived homes for entering the first grade next fall. It was conceived as a $17 million program to offer assistance to 100,000 children this summer, but the antipoverty planners be- came so enthusiastic about it that the pro- gram has reached $84 million proportions, extending help to 560,000 children. Ten Head Start projects have been ap- proved for Caddo and Bossier Parishes. klogro churches, nurseries, day-care centers, and a PTA group are sponsoring these units, Approved For Release 2'003/10/1.5: CIA-RDP67B90446R0003001,80010-9 Approved F cLr(? gfNX(j1fkt l pMIW4 6R0003001800Jn 14, 1965 Although school boards in some cities are acting as sponsors of projects, the Office of Economic Opportunity does not require units to be under the supervision of school systems. ' Since children for whom the program is planned have individual problems which handicap their learning, one would expect the projects to be staffed with teachers who are specialists in the field. But that is not the case. Teachers having had only 1 week of training in kindergarten techniques will be conducting classes. Few experts regard this training as adequate, the Wall Street Journal observes. In most projects over the country teachers will receive the same rate of pay as regular elementary public school teachers earn. The national average comes to about $3 an hour. However, in New York City, Head Start teachers will bepaid from $8 to $9.20 an hour. They refused to Work for any less, and Head Start was determined to get going regard- less of the cost. When the school nurses discovered how the teachers had succeeded they, in turn, demanded and got $6 an hour. Their regular scale was $2.85. Directors of the New York projects are to be paid $1,000 a month. During these coming 8 weeks of Head Start about 40,000 teachers will be employed. There will be some 8,000 additional paid workers. The Federal Government bears 90 percent or more of the cost of the program. By far the greater part of the funds will go for salaries. Certain experts who are In complete sym- pathy with the aim of Head Start doubt that it can accomplish its objectives if help is not continued after these children are enrolled in public school. Among them .is Dr. Martin Deutsch, of New York Medical College. He said, as quoted by the Wall Street Journal: "There is some evidence that children who do get a head Start which has no followup momentum will return to their orginial failure levels." The administration has asked Congress to appropriate $150 million to carry on Head Start after this fall. In justice to the chil- dren, their families, and the taxpayers, too, the program should be placed on a firmer educational basis before more funds are lavished on it. Good intentions and plenty of money cannot substitute for adequately trained teachers and competent direction. (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. OTTINGER'S remarks will ap- pear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. FRASER (at the request of Mr. McCARrHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RkcoRD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. FRASER'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] CARGO PREFERENCE LAW, MER- CHANT MARINE ACT (Mr. GILBERT (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GILBERT. Mr. Speaker, I wish to call to the attention of my fellow Mem- bers of the House a statement by Mr. Paul Hall, president of the Seafarers' International Union of North America, which apepared in the July 9, 1965 edi- tion of the "Seafarers' Log." The state- ment discusses the Cargo Preference Law and the proposed amendment by Con- gressman PAUL G. ROGERS of Florida. INTERNATIONAL PRESIDENT'S REPORT (By Paul Hall) A truly constructive proposal that would require a minimum of 75 percent of U.S. Gov- ernment-generated cargo be carried on Amer- ican-flag vessels has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Congressman PAUL ROGERS, Democrat, of Florida. Repre- sentative ROGERS' bill is an example of the kind of recommendations that are needed to reverse the dismal decline of the American- flag merchant fleet. Representative ROGERS' proposal is more than just another Idea of how to save the U.S. merchant marine from vanishing from the oceans of the world. Th significance of the bill lies in the fact that the Nation's present cargo preference statutes are not doing the job for which they were passed. Congressman RoGERS is obviously aware of this fact. In introducing his bill he declared, "The present requirement of 50 percent has proved insufficient, if this Nation is to main- tain a strong merchant marine." The. SIU has long maintained that the lackadaisical enforcement of the existing cargo preference statutes is a shocking exam- ple of bureaucratic negligence, to say noth- ing of governmental indifference to the plight of the V.S. Shipping Industry. Our lengthy list of grievances against the Government departments that have ignored the spirit and intent of this legislation tells the sordid story of how ineffectively the present statutes have been administered. If one were to take a cynical attitude to- ward the Nation's present cargo preference laws, an argument might be made that Rep- resentative ROGERS' bill calling for a 75 per- cent Government cargo requirement is the best way to actually get the presently re- quired 50 percent on American bottoms. However, we can rightfully expect that the statutes will be obeyed. We in the SIU do not think it is too much to ask that the departments of the Federal Government adhere to the cargo preference statutes duly enacted by the representatives of the people. If these departments continue their practice of ignoring these laws, a law calling for no less than a 100-percent cargo preference requirement would not be worth the paper it was written upon. Our objections to the present cargo pref- erence setup is twofold in nature. The first objection deals with the all-too-frequent granting of waivers to evade the requirements of the law. Our second point Is that even if there were complete compliance with the present 50-percent minimum, our country's merchant marine would still need additional assistance if it is to take its rightful place among the fleets of the world. Thus, we regard increasing the legal re- quirement that American bottoms carry 75, instead of the minimum 50 percent, of Gov- ernment-generated cargoes, as an important step in restoring the Nation's merchant fleet to a healthier state of strength. Certainly, our shipping industry will not find itself taxed beyond its resources in finding the space for the cargoes guaranteed to it by such a law. The sad truth of the matter is our Nation's merchant marine is carrying well under 10 percent of the country's foreign trade. The rapidly dwindling part played by the U.S. maritime industry in its own country's for- eign trade can only spell tragedy for the fu- ture place of the American flag on the world's oceans. The flow of Government cargoes which keeps a portion of our fleet alive today obviously cannot be depended upon to do this lifesaving job at the rate at which they are currently available. As the strength of our merchant fleet continues to ebb away, our Nation is con- fronted with repeated reports of a strong and steadily growing Russian shipping in- dustry. Representative ROGERS recognized this threat when he said, "It is clear the Communists are engaged in an all-out effort to dominate the world's sea lanes by 1970." In his speech before the House in support of his 75-percent cargo preference bill, ROGERS pointed to statistics Showing that Russia is building 15 times as many ships as this country. We think facts such as these indicate the damage of the country's national security through governmental lack of concern about our own merchant fleet. Representative ROGERS was correct when he said his proposed law would be an important first step in rebuilding the U.S.-flag fleet. The Florida Congressman also hit the nail on the head when he said passage of his bill would have a substantially beneficial effect on our Nation's dangerous balance-of- payments problem. His statement that the cost of moving foreign aid cargoes on for- eign-flag vessels worsens the outflow of U.S. dollars is unfortunately, all to true. The country is generally aware that our Government program to help the less-for- tunate nations of the world with U.S. assist- ance is one of the chief reasons why we are plagued by balance-of-payment problems. Faced with this problem, we find it hard to understand why the goods which are part of this assistance do not move in U.S.-flag vessels, thus saving a good many valuable dollars. To continue the present practice of ignoring the availability of American ship- ping to handle these cargoes, only com- pounds the International deficit in payments faced by the United States. The passage of Representative ROGERS bill, increasing the maritime industry's share of Government- generated cargoes, will be a great aid in bol- stering the U.S. merchant marine, providing that the Government agencies involved obey REALISTI THING ON VIETNAM (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, President Johnson has said repeatedly that this country would not desert South Vietnam in their fight to prevent the Communist from taking control of that country. As a result of this pledge this country should come to grips with the fact that this could be a very long and costly struggle. Jerry Greene in the New York Daily News wrote : President Johnson Is geared for a 10-year war in South Vietnam, if that's what it takes to stop the Communist drive southward from Red China. Americans should also get geared for this long struggle, and be realistic in their thoughts toward the Vietnam con- flict. We all know President Johnson has tried almost every possible way to bring Hanoi to the peace table, but they have refused, thinking that they can win a military victory. This is what we must show them they cannot do, and this is what may take so long. Mr. Greene's column of July 6, 1965 follows: Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 July 14, 1M15proved For Rel $bMA I f3@6 '0300180010-9 16283 :,.CAPITOL $TiTs' (By Jerry Greene) WASHINGTON, July 5.-President Johnson is geared for a 10-year war in South Vietnam, if that's what it takes to stop the Communist drive southward from Red China. A close associate of the President told the News that some White House advisers have become concerned that Johnson's deluge of invitations for peace negotiations may have hurtfully obscured the recognition by most top officials that extended conflict Is possible. 'Some Presidential consultants are con- vinced that Johnson has by this time made the U.S. willing, unconditional, position suffi- ciently clear before the rest of the world, and that prime attention should now be given to laying the facts before the American people. The willingness to negotiate seemingly flies in the face of official acceptance of the grim prospects. It has brought a troublesome con- fusion in the minds of the people. The American spectaculars, like the use of the B-52 bombers this weekend for the second strike against suspected Vietcong positions, and the commitment of paratroops and ma- rines-with more to come-have not been Calculated to produce immediate, decisive re suits. The war still must be fought by the Viet- namese, most military chiefs believe, with the United States providing such assistance as is required. There is little doubt that the assistance, already of major proportions, will be increased substantially as the months pass. But this assistance is not and has not been of the crash variety. Rather, it has been the development of long-term planning. The in- tent.,is to stave off the expected rainy season attacks of the Vietcong and to apply mount- ing pressure against the Reds-north and south-without going so far as to bring on wholesale war with Red China or Russia. L,B.J. HAS WARNED US '-OVER SAND OVER This` is the ticklish key issue a matter of political decisions that a ' couple of generals said today the military men are more than willing to leave to the White House. Johnson and practically all his top offi- cials have broadcast repeated warnings that the Viet war could be long, but such admo- nitions have received little attention-far less 1 iiaq, the, npisy blatherings of a. minor- ity demanding that we quit. There Was, far`exampple'the appearance of Defense Secretary Robert -MCNamara before a House Appropriations Defense Subcommit- tee, when he was asked about negotiations. "There is very little to negotiate at the present time," McNamara said. "The nego- tiations were held in 1954 and led to,.a divi- sion of the country. I do not understand What we would 'negotiate today that would be different from the* agreement of 1954." Gen. Ii. I, Johnson, the Army Chief of Staff, laid it on the line before the same Congressmen : "I believe It would take as long as 10 years. I believe that one of the'-I .would not want to term it -a mistake-but one of our errors has been looking forward to success in the course of the next year, or 2 years.. "I think that-we have to raise our sights materially, plan for the long term, and if it occurs sooner, fine. That will be just wonderful." 8IIT IS PATIENCE AN AMERICAN TRAIT? Representative GEORGE MAHON, Democrat, of Texas, the subcommittee chairman, said, We mgrs. aps are, not p,,oted,,for our pa- GTence, and said the, patience of the people "is fibre or fens, threadbare" regarding Viet- nalh. Three years ago, after spending a couple of months In South Vietnam and attempting to digest the conclusions of American ad- (By James Lynn) A special city council subcommittee rec- ommended yesterday that the councilestab- lish its own version of a civilian review board to look into complaints of police brutality. The body suggested in the subcommittee's majority report would be a permament com- mittee of the council itself, empowered to review the findings of the police depart- ment's own Civilian Complaint Review Board. As soon as the subcommittee report was out it was condemned by the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, which opposes ex- ternal review of police procedures in any form. "Today it's made up of councilmen," a PBA spokesman said, "and tomorrow who knows? It opens the door to unlimited investigation of the police department by outside people." There was an even more vivid protest out- side city hall, where more than 30 pickets paced yesterday afternoon, carrying signs that read "The Police Are Our Last Defense Against Communism" and "Policemen Pro- tect Us-Please Don't Tie Their Hands." The pickets were passing out petitions drawn up by Citizens for Law and Order, whose chairman was listed as Thaddeus S. Dabrowski. The petitions said "any attempt, in any manner, to form a civilian review board * * * will only hinder" the police. On the other hand, Councilman Theodore S. Weiss, a member of the subcommittee, dis- sented from its report because he didn't thinly it went far enough. And another sub- committee member, Councilman Richard S. Aldrich, went most of the way with the ma- jority but parted company with it on making the review body an arm of the council. The chairman of the subcommittee, Brook- lyn Democratic Councilman Dominick Corso, said he had no assurances of support for the recommendations from Mayor Wagner or Council Majority Leader David Ross, but the mayor has voiced his approval of the bill's broad outlines. Besides recommending a council commit- tee to check up on decisions of the police department's civilian complaint review board, the subcommittee report called for some changes in police handling of civilian complaints. 'Specifically, it said all complaints should be submitted in writing and acknowledged by a written receipt; attorneys should have the right to cross-examine and transcripts should be taken at preliminary hearings, and both the complaint and the police should have the right to subpena witnesses for hearings before departmental trial. The recommended permanent council committee on police affairs would be au- thorized "to review police department ad- ministrative findings in respect to allegations of brutality," with complete access to police records, and would make regular spot checks on the handling of complaints by the police. Mr. Aldrich, a Manhattan member of the council's Republican minority, agreed with the subcommittee majority that civilian re- view is desirable but argued that Deputy Mayor Edward F. Cavannagh, Jr:, is now au- thorized to provide it and should merely be given by law the power he already holds at the mayor's order. `ALL ASPECTS In fact, N&. ' Aldrich said, the deputy mayor's review power should be widened "to include all aspects of civilian-police rela- tions," not just charges of brutality. A coun- cil committee should not be given the job, he added, because most councilmen are part- time public servants. Perhaps more important Mr. Aldrich said, "Great pressures could be brought to bear Approved For Release 2003/10/15 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 visers there, we wrote that what would ' be required was "patience-plus lots of sweat, some blood, some tears and a thumping amount of hard cash." A few months later, Ho Chi Minh, the Red boss of North Vietnam, said in an interview published in an American magazine that the United States did not possess the patience to compete with the Viet Communists, that we would tire of the bloody game in a few years and quit. It's a cinch that the American public won't develop that essential patience very fast while under the impression that there could be a negotiation, an end to killings, and a peace almost at any moment. This is why some of. Johnson's friends think the time has come to lift the illusion that a fast peace is around the corner, that the President might pull some big stunt and run a dire risk of major war to get the shoot- ing stopped before the 1966 or certainly the THE TROOP ESTIMATES VARY WIDELY Certainly the military men charged with conduct of their part of the war, keeping in mind that the Viet generals must remain in the forefront as leaders in their own coun- try, are proceeding on no crash basis. How many Americans troops may even- tually be required, what kinds of supporting force are unknowns and the situation can change from day to day. Defense Secretary McNamara has announced the troop total is in the process of swelling from 53,000 to 75,- 000. You can make a couple of phone calls to high officials here and get estimates any size you want, 100,000 to 150,000 to 350,000 and more. But these changes, the switch. in tactics, come as no quickie, shoot-from-the hip deci- sion. The B-52's based at Guam and used as desired over South Vietnam were prepared a year ago. Now it 3s expected that the new 1st Cav- "alry Division (Airmobile) just formed at Fort Banning, Ga., may start moving this month toward South Vietnam-with its 15,787 men supported by 428 helicopters-to give the Communists a taste of something new in warfare. And, of course, to see how it works. NEW YORK. CITY IN CRISIS- PART CXXVIII (Mr. _M 1TJ1 I3 (at' the regalest of Mr, MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, I com- mend to the attention of our colleagues the following article. from the May 19, 1965 edition of the New York Herald Tribune. The article concerns the proposed police review board and is part of the series on "New York City in Crisis": NEW_S;ozir CITY IN c ISIS-QPPOSFD BY THE ... PBA-COUNCI,i. $AC,K` IIiG_ Fog POLICE REVIEW .BOARD "This report * * * will meet the need for a full and open review of substantive cases of police brutality while at the same time protecting the good reputation of the thou- sands, of mgn on our. police force who serve with -dedicatiqar151 honor (City council committee's majority report.) "Nothing could be more detrimental to the police department, the morale of the men or the, efficient, protection for the people of the city * * * the cops * * * . will be the target of every cop-hater in the city *_ * A cop would be looking down the throat of a review board." , (Police Benevolent Associa- tion statement,) 16284 Approved 8ftVR00030018001"y 14, 1965 on the individual councilman by his con- stitutents and pressure groups from his com- munity." The deputy mayor, he reasoned, would be above "partiality, prejudice, and professional courtesy." Mr. Weiss' minority report took Issue with practically all of the subcommittee majority's recoenmendations. lie filed a bill more than a year ago that would establish a nine-man civilian complaint review board whose mem- bers would be appointed by the mayas' from the citizenry at large. Yesterday's subcommittee report recom- mended that Mr. Weiss' bill be shunted aside. Mr. Weiss retorted that a council commit- tee "would give substance to the arguments of those who fear a politically oriented ex- tei-nal board without satisfying those who seek a truly impartial board. "To be perfectly blunt," the Manhattan reform Democrat believe that the council has not the political Independence to dis- charge this responsibility. And even If it did, no group of councilmen S * * could long escape the charge, unfounded though it might be, that they were deciding com- plaints on the basis of political considera- tions," NEW YORK CITY IN CRISIS- PART CXXIX (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr. MCCARTny) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, the sub- ject of the following article Is New York's housing crisis and Its part of the series on "New York City in Crisis." The ar- ticle appeared in the New York Herald Tribune on May 20, 1965, and follows: NE:w POLICE READ Too Busy EvEN To Asx WHAT JOB PAYS (By Maurice C. Carroll) It was a rare Tuesday for the six Broderick children: Their father came home at noon so he could watch 10-year-old Ellen be con- farmed in St. Catherine's Roman Catholic Church. Usually he didn't get home from the U.S. Attorney's office in Foley Square to the gray stone and stucco house at 215 Highbrook Avenue, Pelham, much before suppertime. But on Tuesday the children got a good chance to visit with him. It Is the kind of opportunity they won't expect much from now on because in mid- evening the telephone rang and, Vincent L. Broderick said yesterday, "it was Mike Mur- phy. He said he had submitted his resigna- tion as Police Commissioner and recom- mended me as his successor." From that moment until he sat yesterday afternoon in city hall, shoulder to shoulder with what seemed an endless series of tele- vision interviewers who repeated, one by one, the same set of questions, Mr. Broderick was so busy he never even got around to finding out how much he was going to be paid in his new job. He walked out the city hall front door at 2:15 for lunch with Mr. Murphy, former Commissioner Francis Adams and his cur- rent boss, U.S. Attorney Robert Morgenthau, and someone asked, "Will your salary be the same $35,000 that Murphy gets?" The tall, slim Mr. Broderick looked sur- prised. His right hand strayed to his out- thrust chin. "Why, I assume It is," he said slowly. "We never did discuss it." He smiled. "Maybe we should have." He and his new boss, the mayor, had a brief Oracle Mansion chat before Mr. Brod- erick headed briefly back to his office, then down to city hall to meet the press. That telephone call from Mr. Murphy stirred in him, he said, "shock and chagrin. I've known Mike 11 years and I regard him as a great police officer, a great attorney, a great man." After they talked, he called Mr. Adams, under whom he had served when he was deputy police commissioner in charge of legal matters from 1954 to 1956. They chatted briefly. At about 10 pm. he called Mr. Morgenthau. At 9:30 am. yesterday he was at Oracle Mansion for a meeting with Mr. Murphy, Mr. Wagner and Mr. Adams. He was offered the job. He took it. By mid-morning he was making ready to take over as police com- missioner. The city gains 3 inches of commissioner and loses 25 pounds in the transition from the heavy-set Mr. Murphy to the slender 6- foot-1, 175-pound, graying Mr. Broderick. It loses several decibels in vocal volume. Mr. Murphy has a big voice. Mr. Broderick's is soft, almost apologetic. But those who know him say the soft tones cloak a firm character. He is, they say, a calm and ac- complished administrator. He was born in New York 45 years ago, son of the late Joseph Broderick, a former Federal Reserve Board governor, and Mary Lyons Broderick. He had two brothers, the Reverend Joseph Broderick, a Dominican priest who teaches law at Catholic University, and Francis, director of the Peace Corps in Ghana. Educated at All Hallows, Barnard School for Boys, Phillips Andover Academy Prince- ton (class of 1941) and Harvard Law (1948), he joined the law firm of Hatch, Root and Barrett, 26 Broadway, after graduation. In college he was editor of the Daily Princetoni- an, a Quadrangle Club member, and on the rwimming, JV soccer and rugby teams. After his term as deputy police commissioner, during which he conducted departmental hearings against policemen accused of mis- conduct, he served from 1956 to 1961 as gen- eral counsel of the National Association of Investment Companies (with service in 1958 and 1959 as special hearings officer for the waterfront commission) and from 1961 until now as chief assistant U.S. attorney for the southern district. He spent 4 wartime years in the Army Corps of Engineers. He has, he said, no special hobbies. "I'm a situation golfer. If there's a course there and nobody an it, I might play." Mostly, he said, "I just like to spend time with my children and tossing a ball back and forth." Mr. Broderick's hazel eyes gaze downward when he answers questions and he folds his slim hands contemplatively. But his words proclaim self-assurance. His new job? "The second toughest job in New York. But I am honored by the confidence the mayor has expressed in me-and I have a certain degree of confidence In myself." The Broderick children heard schoolyard gossip about their father's new job but it was only as they drifted home in mid- afternoon that they learned for certain- Kathleen, 14, from Pelham High; Vincent, 12, from junionr high; Mary, 11, Ellen, 10, and Joan, 7, from Colonial Public School. Only 2-year-old Justin was home all day with his mother, the former Sally Brine. Their home is near the city line but Mr. Broderick said they would now probably move closer to the center of things. Where? When? He threw out his hands. "That's one of the things. I just don't know. It's been so sudden." Mrs. Broderick said she was "delighted" with the appointment even though she knew the job would make many demands on her husband's time. He said, "I'm blessed with a very understanding wife." Yes, he said supper was usually at 7:30, "although Mr. Morgenthau runs a pretty busy office, too. And I don't always make it now.,, When he's Commissioner? "Sally is probably still going to have dinner at 7:80-with the six children." (Mr. BINGHAM (at therequest of Mr. McCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. BINGHAM'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mrs. KELLY (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend her remarks at this point In the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mrs. KELLY'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] RABBI BLOOM (Mr. SCHEUER (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. SCHEUER. Mr. Speaker, I would, like to record here my profound shock and brief at the death of Rabbi Maurice J. Bloom, one of the outstanding moral. and spiritual leaders in my district. Rab- bi Bloom, leader of the Tremont Temple, lived a life modeled after that which he outlined for his congregation as "the. good life." He was truly a living ex- ample as well as a spiritual inspiration. to his followers. Believing in service to his country as well as to his God, he acted for a period as Jewish chaplain. at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, He also spent many hours in service to the community as part-time chaplain at Kingsbridge Veterans' Hos- pital, president of the Association of Reform Rabbis of New York City and vicinity, as a member of the executive board of the Synagogue Council of America and as a member of the board of the Central Conference of American Rabbis. What Rabbi Bloom has left behind him Is difficult to document here for in large part it is in the hearts of his congrega- tion and the people whose lives he touched in an intangible way. On behalf of my constituents in the 21st Congressional District in New York, I would like to express here publicly our grief at the passing from our midst of this outstanding human being. As a pri- vate person, I would like to extend my heartfelt condolences to the rabbi's family and to assure them that we shall, never forget this great man's teachings. What he has left behind will never fade away. THE MEXICAN IMMIGRANT (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. MCCARTHY) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GONZALEZ. Mr. Speaker, I have long believed that the great contribu- tions to the growth and development of the United States made by the Mexican immigrant ought to be formally recog- nized by the Federal Government, that such recognition should be in concrete form in the nature of a permanent mon- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180010-9 J2 j 14, 1A0?roved For Rele6l B I9 v IARWSM09 88300180010-9 umerlt, and that the ideal location would be the ;city of', San Antonio, Tex. San nip bas ben a gateway to and from Mexico' for centuries. Today it is per- haps the largest bilingual city in the Nation and a confluence of the Anglo and Latin American cultures. In 1968 San Antonio will celebrate the 250th anniversa>