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June 7, 1965
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Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : ClA-RDP67B00446R0003001800334 1965 June 7, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.- HOUSE De th 122Q9 cen omen in decent surroundings and CEREMONIES MEMORIALIZING THE of this large and important segment of the a chance. to learn. are a part of the answer. Welfare and social LATE PRESIDENT KENNEDY national community. With a Federal Con- stitution setting forth the demand for signed to hold families together are part of (Mrs. MINK (at the request of Mr. absolute equality in the area of American the answer. KREBS) was granted permission to ex- voting rights and other major areas, there Care for the sick is part of the answer.. tend her remarks at this point in the seemed no strong executive hand at the An understancng heart by all Americans RECORD and to include extraneous mat- wheel, to enforce the Federal will, so far as is also part of the answer, ter.) these vital matters were concerned. To all these fronts-and a dozen more- I will dedicate the expanding efforts of my Mrs. MINK. Mr. Speaker, I was The appearance of John F. Kennedy administration. greatly privileged .011 -Memorial Day last changed all this, to the distinct advantage TO CALL CONFERENCE to have participated 111 ceremonies deli- of the Nation at large. During his abbre- Cat1ri viated term in office, a new era began. It But there are other answers still to be g a plaque memorializing the late can be called an era of reform, combined found. Nor do we fully understand all the President Kennedy in Paris, Mo, with a determined effort, in the field of in- problems. Therefore,, this-fall, I intend to It was truly an inspiring cememony. ternational politics, to alter our former na- call a White House conference of scholars, The distinguished citizens of this vicinity tional stance, in the interest of both peace experts, Negro leaders, and officials at every made of the moment a rite of solemn and forceful determination; to place our- level of government. rededication to those noble.ideals which selves on the line, solidly against the fur- Its theme and title: "Tq Fulfill' These the late President so personified in his ther extension of Communist slavery, yet Rights." life. also to preserve and encourage open com- Its object: To help the American Negro to munication between ourselves and the Com- fulfill the rights which-after the long The climax of the ceremonies was a munist leaders of the world, in the interest time of injustice-he is finally about to moving and brilliant address by the Hon- of universal peace. secure. orable WILLIAM L. HUNGATE, our col- President Kennedy's years in office will al- To move beyond opportunity to achieve- league from the Ninth District of Mis- ways be marked with distinction, above all, meat. souri. for his handling of the Cuban crisis of 1962. To shatter forever, not only the barriers I know that Members of this body It was then that he took the supreme risk, of law and public practice, but the walls would be greatly interested in the text of telling the American people-and, indeed, which bound the condition of man by the his address and I therefore, under unan- the people of the entire free world-what had color of his skin, to be faced, and thereupon proceeded to block To dissolve, as best we can, the antique 1Ini the consent, insert them at this point the course of the Soviet convoy carrying enmities of the heart which diminish the medium-range rockets to sites in Cuba. By holder, divide the great democracy, and do THE GENIUS of JoHrr F. KENNEDY: STATE- 50 doing he prevented a severe alteration of wrong to the children of God, MENT FOR DELIVERY AT THE DEDICATION OF the international balance of power, and at I pledge this will be a chief goal of my A KENNEDY MEMORIAL PLAQUE IN PARIS, the same moment made clear the American administration and of my program next year, Mo., MAY 30, 1965 spirit, in the eyes of the world. and in years to come, Senator V i...,di _.-__- . .. - . _ __ an ngha J of Hawaii, reverend cler ~? l the ache cen- It is to fulfill the fair expectations of man. gY, and friends, we tury and the first Roman Catholic; the first are citizens of a nation marching to great- of purely Irish descent. Yet all of this is Thus, American justice is a very special ness with the lock step of destiny. Political mere window dressing, in the historical sense, thing. For, from the first, this has been a and personal courage has been ours, in the for the main fact of the matter is that he land of towering expectations. It was to be face of fearsome obstacles, powerful ene- accomplished what few before him have been a nation where each man would be ruled by miss, and seemingly impossible odds. Politi- able to accomplish. the common consent of all-enshrined in cal and personal statesmanship also has been it often is observed that an American law, given life by institutions, guided by men ours; not always, but certainly when it was President can be effective abroad or effec- themselves subject to its rule. And all-of most needed, to see us through some terrible tive at home-but not both. The range of every lstation in would be touched domestic or international crises-crises cal- subjects with which a President must deal equally obligation and y. culated to cut us down and drive us from the renders it difficult in the extreme for him to Beyond the law lay the land. It was a rich road to glory and success. land, glowing with more abundant promise Nor can we ourselves--we, the American follow through problems simultaneously as a r .m>? cua~ air nn we have place yet known, Kennedy all were to share the harvest, achieved as a nation.For seemingly we are And yet the record of John F. re- 'And beyond this was the dignity of man. gifted with the greatest fortune in several veals his genius in this very regard. In the Each could become whatever his qualities of areas: outstanding natural resources for one, area of foreign relations he played a mighty mini and spirit would permit-to strive, to geographical advantages for another, and, hand: Driving the missiles out of Cuba, bol- seek, and, if he could, to find his happiness. most important, an almost mystical abilit stering our world position, yet working con- This is American justice. We have pur- to correctly determine, in time of crisis, the stantly for a kind of rapprochement with sued it faithfully to the edge of our imper- potential ability of our political leaders, the Soviet Union, In behalf of international fections. And we have failed to find it for and to select our best and most able citizens accord. the American Negro. to lead us from the jaws of catastrophe to At the same time, domestically, he It is the glorious opportunity of this gen- the haven of victory and accomplishment. launched a program with the object of plae- eration to end the one huge wrong of the So it was when, in November 1960,, the lag education, the ballot box, and medical American Nation-and in so doing to find American people elected to the Presidency care within reach of every American citizen, his happiness. the late John F. Kennedy, a man both wise social, racial, and economic considerations This Is American justice. We have pur- and imaginative, sensitive and strong, knowl- notwithstanding. sued it faithfully to the edge of our imper- edgeable in the area of economic needs and It is ironic that during the period that fections. And we have failed to find it for human rights, capable in both the diplo- John F. Kennedy was in office, Congress was the American Negro. matic arts of persuasion and compulsion. not receptive to his domestic program, yet It is the glorious opportunity of this gen- When John F. Kennedy first appeared upon no sooner was he gone than the mood of eration to end the one huge wrong of the the scene, as our newly elected President, Congress softened, and feature after feature American Nation--and in so doing to find there was much that needed doing In Amer- of his New Frontier design was enacted into America for ourselves, with the same im- ica and throughout the world. Domestically, law, without difficulty. mense thrill of discovery which gripped those a kind of stagnation had begun to settle in So far as domestic politics are concerned, who first began to realize that here, at last, upon us. With a population increasing in however, John F. Kennedy will be remem- was a home for freedom. size, a mile a minute, we seemed to be pro- bered as a brave and noble warrior in many All it will take is for all of us to under- duping now new jobs-or so few that the na- major battles. It was he who forced the stand what this country is and what it must tional economy was clearly in danger of question of education upon the attention of become. losing step with the demands of the mo- national legislators who wanted to pretend The Scripture promises: "B shall light a ment. With a country crying out for learn- it was some kind of local matter. It was candle of understanding in thine heart, Ing, we had no significant national program he who worked for medical care-genuine which shall not be put out." in effect looking to the improvement of our medical care-for the aged, under social se- Together, and with millions more, we can educational facilities. With an ever-increas- curity. It was he who rushed to battle-out light that candle of understanding in the lag army of senior citizens present in our in the open, without qualification, repeat- heart of America,, midst, we as a people had made no move to edly-in behalf of the spirit of civil rights, And, once lit, it will never again go, out. care for and attend to the medical needs as well as the mere letter. of the law. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 12210 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 7, 1965 As a naval officer and a native son of Massachusetts, President Kennedy well un- derstood the importance of our water re- sources. He recognized that our Nation could ill afford and need not afford dis- astrous floods which wreak havoc to our cities and lay waste to our farmlands. President Kennedy knew the power of these streams could be preserved for productive uses. He recognized the constantly increas- ing power needs of an expanding and dy- namic economy and knew that development of water resources could provide the neces- sary energy to tame the wheels of progress. President Kennedy foresaw that a Nation with constantly increasing leisure time must have additional recreational facilities, an- other byproduct of the appropriate develop- ment of our water resources. He saw the in- herent danger in pollution of the air we breathe and the water we drink, and he was the champion of causes similar to those now crying out for development of such dams in our State as the Joanna or Cannon, and such basins as the Meramec, Chariton, and Grand River. As a stanch supporter and a great ad- mirer of John F. Kennedy, during his service as President of the United States, I take the greatest pride in participating in this event- the dedication of a Kennedy - Memorial plaque, to stand forever as a symbol of re- spect to a man who lived, and worked, and died, fightirig for the democratic principles in which he so deeply believed. I thank you for your attention. (Mr. POAGE (at the request of Mr. KREBS) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. POAGE'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] fluoridated water, and within the next few months it will be made available to an additional 10.5 or 11 million persons. Both New York City with some 8 million inhabitants and Detroit with another 2.5 million will insure better dental health for their residents by following the lead of other farsighted cities in adopting community water fluoridation. The edi- torial also points out that, contrary to rumor, there have been no reports of any major disaster occurring anywhere from excess fluoridation. The U.S. Public Health Service, charged with the responsibility of safeguarding the Nation's health, has since 1952 urged people of this country to take advantage of the proven effectiveness of water fluo- ridation in reducing dental decay. Cer- tain individuals, a vociferous minority, have closed their eyes to the facts and have worked in opposition to this pro- gressive measure. However, virtually every reputable scientific organization in this and other countries has approved and endorsed fluoridation of public wa- ter supplies. I am proud to report that in the State of Rhode Isand, 88 percent of the population drinks fluoridated wa- ter. I hope that in the near future all of the citizens of our Great Society can en- joy the benefits of this public health measure. Mr. Speaker, I commend to the atten- tion of our colleagues an editorial which appeared in the Woonsocket, R.I., Call and Evening Reporter on April 28. It is a tribute to this fine newspaper's sense of public responsibility. This editorial is fair and objective and leaves little doubt in the reader's mind of the facts about fluoridation. I, therefore, include the editorial verbatim in the RECORD: ADDITIONAL LEGISLATIVE PRO- GRAM (Mr. EDMONDSON asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. EDMONDSON. Mr. Speaker, I have been informed that the Committee on Ways and Means will bring up tomor- row, under unanimous consent, three bills reported unanimously by the Com- mittee on Ways and Means. They are H.R. 4493, to continue until the close of June 30, 1966, the existing suspension of duties for metal scrap; H.R. 5768, to extend for an additional temporary pe- riod the existing suspension of duties on certain classifications of yarn of silk; and H.R. 7621, to amend title I of the Tariff Act of 1930 to limit button blanks to crude forms suitable for manufacture into buttons. WATER AND TEETH The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from Rhode Island [Mr. FOGARTY], is recognized for 10 minutes. Mr. FOGARTIY. Mr. Speaker, the Woonsocket Call recently commented ed- itorially on the problem of dental caries, a disease suffered by 95 percent of the American people, and on the use of water fluoridation to eliminate this needless dental decay. The editorial discusses the fact that 67 million Americans today are drinking WATER AND TEETH As little explosive pockets of opinion about water fluoridation get into the news on oc- casion, a trend is quietly developing, it seems, so that the latest figures from Washington show some 67 million consumers of such water, including us in Woonsocket. In other words, approximately one-third of the Nation is drinking water either ar- tificially treated with fluorides, or water that is natural in this element. Dr. Donald J. Galagan, an assistant surgeon general with the U.S. Public Health Service, and chief of its division on dental public health and re- sources, said that within a few months, "an additional 10.5 to 11 million persons will be drinking artificially fluoridated water." About 7 million citizens already drink wet stuff that is by nature fluoridated, he noted. It is something of a major decision to treat local water supplies, some medical and other authorities being opposed to it, supposedly on the ground that fluorides are poisonous in certain doses. So, too, is aspirin, it may be said. Another factor is cost. A small munic- stitute a grave threat, Mr. Sealapino ipality, for example, needs special equipment makes clear. The task of nation build- and a man to supervise its operation, so that ing in this area of the world, with its only correctly apportioned amounts enter supply lines for any given volume of water many diverse ethnic and religious groups, . Even so, we have received no reports of is certain to be long and difficult at best. any major disaster occurring anywhere But, he emphasizes, none of these groups through excessive fluoridation. Indeed, per- wants to come under Communist domi- hape water tastes bad when overdosed, thus nance, which is, of course, the objective carrying its own built-in protection. of Hanoi and Peiping. When New York and Detroit commence There is criticism of our Vietnam pol- plans for fluoridation, millions of persons iCy in Asia and in this country. With and 2.5 million of them in in the possible exception of Indonesia, how- New be York City involved, some alone, 8 Detroit. Presumably, some thought has been ever, not a single non-Communist gov- given the project by these cities planners. ernment wants the American presence Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 The trend toward water fluoridation as a means of avoiding dental decay has been steady, according to Dr. Galagan, ever since initiation of the process in 1945. Strangely enough, proposals to fluoridate more often lose than win when put to popular vote. To vote on fluoridation seems to be the democratic way, provided both sides are per- mitted to present their cases. It is worth reflecting, however, that there are 2,792 com- unities with fluoridation, and that the com- m nity increase in 1962, 1963, and last year, 124, 236, and 180, respectively. -wak THE VIETNAM ISSUE SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gen- tleman from California [Mr. COHELAN] is recognized for 5 minutes. 1 COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, it is no news and-no exaggeration to say that the most critical problem confronting this country today is the crisis in Vietnam. It is also one of the most complex issues of our time; an issue which defies the quick andeasy "answers" of withdrawal or total escalation which offer no real solution at all. One of the most thoughtful and per- suasive statements on this subject was made 2 weeks ago by the very able and distinguished professor of political science at the University of California, Dr. Robert Scalapino. Professor Scala- pino is chairman of the department of political science on the university's Berkeley campus, and is one of the most knowledgeable men in the entire coun- try on the problems of southeast Asia. His comments, therefore, deserve close attention and consideration. Professor Scalapino has made a num- ber of important points, a few of which I would like to emphasize briefly. The National Liberation Front, he has stressed, is a movement directed and controlled in all of its important aspects by Communists outside of Vietnam. Is it not revealing, he has asked, that al- most none of the top Buddhist, Can Dai, Hoa Hao, Catholic, or Dal Viet leaders have joined this supposed "patriotic front"? An impressive aspect of the Vietcong's organization, he reminds us, involves coercion. Since 1959, Dr. Scalapino points out, Vietcong terrorists, operating under orders from Hanoi, have killed between 6,000 and 10,000 village and dis- trict leaders. In the first 4 months of this year alone more than 260 were liqui- dated, some in the most horrible fash- ion. Is it any wonder that progress on the local community level has been halt- ing and slow? June 7, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 12211 Withdrawn, To,allow the, Chinese, Pro- from southern peasant lads, persuaded or tong power. Organization is probably a fessor,'. 'Iapino,has stated, to establish coerced into service, but its most dynamic more significant factor. The Vietcong, pat- their hegemony over Asia either 01rectly elements have always been external. terned after all other Communist move- or through trusted followers, would e to The Vietcong, In fact, is a carbon copy of ments, has developed great organizational desert the rust Of ollowe nationalism, the Vietminh which earlier secured the north skill, and it operates in a society where, gen- for the Communists, and which, in turn, erally speaking, the organizational units are not support It., borrowed heavily from the organizational weak and disconnected. Anyone familiar Nor will' wihdrawal under pressure tactics of the Chinese Communists. Hanoi with American big city politics knows that produce peace. To do so would merely serves as its headquarters. Differences over organization is often more important than set the stage for'further surrenders, and immediate tactics may indeed have existed issues, and not necessarily connected with Ultimate global war, between the VC and Hanoi from time to them. time. But there have never been any signifl- TERROR What then, Professor Scalapino asks, cant differences in basic policies or programs, And an impressive aspect of Vietcong or- should our policy be? In his two-point as anyone who has studied, this movement ganization involves coercion. Since Hanoi response he offers, I believe, a sound knows well. gave the orders for guerrilla warfare in 1959, our Policy. If there is any doubt on this question, Vietcong terrorists have killed between 6,000 Let us keep suggests, two month ago. The Vietnamese struggle for ing to reliable estimates. What government broad channels with respect to the en- national liberation against the United States, could easily maintain stability or engage in tire Communist world. Let one channel said Peiping, was certain to win because it reform under such conditions? In the first involve our willingness to engaged in the was under "the wise leadership of the 4 months of this year alone, more than 260 broadest cultural relations, the fullest The leaders t-Leinis Workers' P rtyVietnam." local leaders have been liquidated, some of trade and the most extensive interac- same thing repof Hanoi eatedly have for at been least 5 saying sthe them in the most horrible fashion. Terror tions. Let us state specifically that we has been used, to be sure, by both sides, but are willing to remove American military This, then, is a movement directed and the systematic terror of the Vietcong has In- forces rO from all of southeast Asia as Soon controlled in all of its important aspects volved an attempt to wipe out all political same' international ast Asiaes and not only by Communists, but by Commu- authority except their own at the all-impor- nists outside South Vietnam. The real na- tant local and district levels. Some of these international force can be established so tionalist leaders of South Vietnam know local leaders were, no doubt, bad, others in- that neutrality and independence in this these facts very well. That Is why they different, some good-but the only issue In region can be secured. Let us embark have refused to join the Vietcong, despite any case was whether they supported the directly upon the giant task of economic serious disagreements among themselves. Is government. development which President Johnson it not revealing that almost none of the top If the Vietcong were truly so popular, has sketched, and let us indicate our Buddhist, Cao Dai, Hoa Eao, Catholic, or would this massive terrorism be necessary? willingness to participate with all nations Dai Viet leaders have joined this supposed In my own field research, I became convinced who are willing and sate to with patriotic front"? Is it not significant that that only a small percentage of the South help. the Vietcong leaders are all nameless, face- Vietnamese had a firm political commitment The second channel is headed by a less men, leaders unknown to their own to the Vietcong, although the percentage warning to the Communist leaders of the people? And is this not some evidence that committed to the government was not much north that the use of force will be met we are not fighting against nationalism in higher. But the great majority of people were by force. If there is to be any chance of Vietnam, but rather attempting to support primarily concerned with the problem of sur- peace in our time, we must make clear genuine nationalists who do not wish to vival for themselves and their families. In fall under Communist rule? nut want or the people? Do they support Maiayan terrorists-a problem of being able has concluded, our policy must be one communism in spite of the opposition of to provide security so that people can live, designed to encourage moderation and their leaders? The Communists assert that work and think without fear. discourage extremism on the part of our the Vietcong control some two-thirds of the POLITICAL INSTABILITY opponents, and one that seeks now to south, and have the support of a great ma- The political instability of the National start closing the gap between the haves jority of the South Vietnamese people. Once Government in Saigon continues to consti- and the have-note of this world. again, these so-called facts are either false tute a grave threat. In part, of course, this Mr,. Speaker, I commend Professor or misleading. It is true that the Vietcong is a product of the degree of freedom which Mr, pe excel lIntand timely address es r control a large part of South Vietnam either exists in the south despite the war. The which .I include in its entirety, to our the t rritory. It11s alsortrue s th60 atthet task of nation building in this area is certain collet they have to be long and difficult especially if any de- guesfor their atteutlon: support-in various, forms-ofthe, people gree of freedom accompanies it, as a result T VR DNAii ISSUE in this territory, and from some people not of the diverse ethnic and religious groups (By Robert A. Scalapino) in Vietcong areas as well. composing the society. It would be wise to The, Vietnam crisis is one of the most tom- There are three significant points to be reemphasize that none of these groups want plea and serious crises one have confronted made, however, which are often overlooked to come under Communist dominance. The the TTand States crise;Wo, h war o II. Nnted by those who insist that the people support Vietcong can always collect 3 Catholics, 5 the which I rates here is intended to imply that the Vietcong, or that if the Vietnamese want Cao Dal, and 10 Buddhists, but It cannot In th7 easy gre are els y he a Is ithat tpl f hat communism, they should be allowed to have represent the mainstreams. Indeed, the are unambiguous.. Yet, on balance, the evi- it. First, the Vietcong at this stage is not powerful Buddhist movement continues to dente, in my opinion, supports the main posing to the peasant the Issue of commu- stand committed to a truly neutralist solu- thrust of our present policy while suggesting nism versus an open system. On the con- tion with the Vietcong going north, and the also certain improvements, Either with- trary, Vietcong propaganda carefully hides American forces going out, a solution which drawal or total escalation would represent the true nature of the leadership of this may be unrealistic but which certainly would far graver risks, movement and its long-range goals. Typi- not be against our objectives if it could be What are the most essessentintial factts? Let us cally, VC literature plays upon purely local effected. turn fiat are the most e l fac Vietnam. grievances, or "bourgeois democratic" themes NORTH VIETNAM such as religious freedom, political rights, The Communists, as you know, insist that and land reform. Considerable support in What are the most vital facts concerning the National Liberation Front must be recog- some areas has been garnered as a result the north? The evidence suggests that de- nized as the only legitimate representative of of these spite certain gains in 1962-68, economic con- the South Vietnamese people. They campaigns. However, this is not dition party . Theassert support for communism, and events in the themes elve ves asra are dmit not that goodso. some e The of the the urger that. it is An indigenous, nationalist force thems younger north have shown so tragically how this having the support of a majority of the pen- cycle can be played out. generation thinks too much about material ple. Each of these assertions is, on balance, gains, and not enough about sacrifices for either false or misleading. The northern peasants also were promised the fatherland. "Get Out of South Vietnam" or misleading. ng - xrQN Faorrx -land reform, religious freedom, and PO- buttons could not be distributed in Hanoi. T=. NATIO . ? litical rights. But after the Vietminh came More importantly, perhaps, have been the The so-Called, Igtional Wexatlon Front to full power in 1954, they got communism, radical changes which took place in the Lao of South Yigtnaw Is,-,and always has been, an and in 1966, when the northern regime lm- Dong Party of North Vietnam beginning in instrument of the North Vietnamese Commu- posed land collectivization, a full-scale revolt late 1962. At that time, the younger, mili- nist karty. It has made use of indigenous occurred in which thousands of peasants taut pro-Chinese elements captured control grievances to acquire support and in earlier were killed. of the central committee, and they have been times at least. its rank and file --- t i?l B t s- __ t ___._ __,_ - V si y u t he b Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 12212 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE ? June 7, 1965 We know some of the arguments that took not meet that challenge by reverting to acts, and apologize to the Communist world place, and we can guess others. One critical isolation. for the Soviet.policies of the past decade. It issue was, Should the war in the south be WITHDRAWAL WILL NOT PRODUCE PEACE is not surprising that the Russians have re- escalated or not? The militants argued that Nor will withdrawal produce peace. On jected these terms, and that the Indians have it should, and, following the Chinese line, the contrary, it will go a long distance to- rejected the terms of settlement proposed for deprecated the risks of heavier American in- the border crisis. I cannot understand the ward making world war III inevitable. The logic of those who feel that we would preserve ese Peiping thesis concerning the United States world peace by being the first major power volvem. paper er tigge enters. In nTh too creased Naror argued th that Vietto nam were p is well known but let me summarize it: to capitulate to Peiping, involvement In the southern war is directly American imperialism is a paper tiger. If connected with this major political change in challenged firmly, it will retreat. People are POLICY PROPOSAL the north. Since early 1S(i , the alliance between Peiping and Hanoi has been ex- ceedingly close, and both parties have pur- sued a totally militant line. POLICY ALTERNATIVES How do these facts affect the alternatives of policy confronting us? Let us look first at the arguments favoring withdrawal. Some say that if we were to allow the Communists to take all of Vietnam, Ho would become another Tito, and help in the containment of China. I regard this argument as very dubious. In the first place, Ho himself is 75 years of age, in indifferent health, and, what- ever his personal views, not likely to be ac- tive for long. As just noted, the rising Com- munist leaders of the north are the young pro-Chinese elements, and men like Truong Chinh, whose name-Long March--signifies his allegiance. It should be remembered that if Vietnam has a long history of struggle against Chinese domination, it has an equally long history of accommodation to Chinese power. More Important, Titoism was a prod- uct of a true balance of power and of certain historical circumstances. Tito quite literally exists between East and West; no such bal- ance of power will exist in southeast Asia if we withdraw. Nor are the Vietnamese inter- ests as limited as those of Tito. Hanoi claims control over the Communist movements of this entire region and if it is victorious in South Vietnam, it will certainly exercise its Claim in Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, at least. The great argument for withdrawal is that it will prevent war, and in some measure, put us into harmony with the force of 'Asian nationalism. Let me discuss the second argument first. Of course there is criticism of our Vietnam policy in Asia, as there is in America. It is simply not true,' however, to imply that the non-Communist leaders of Asia want us to withdraw from the Asian. area. With the possible exception of undo- concocted by Tito; labeled the Indian pro- ly recognized. this weakness recently when nesia, not a single non-Communist govern- posal for an Afro-Asian international force in he reportedly said that "the Americans Will ment of this region wants the American Vietnam to patrol the boundary as "ridicu- lose in Vietnam because they don't have the presence to disappear. Privately, this has lous," told U Thant not to come to Peiping, patience for this type of situation." been made clear to many of us. Why Would rejected all British, French, and Canadian Mao must be proven wrong. We must ac- they want American Influence in Asia to be private overtures; forced Sihanouk to sabo- quire the maturity that goes with global re- destroyed? They know that in Asia, if there tage completely the Cambodian Conference, sponsibility, and recognize the importance is to be a balance of power, it must involve and denounced our cessation of the bombing of graduated, flexibility responses to crises the United States at present. Did not India of North Vietnam for 5 days as "a dirty situations. Fundamentally our policy must call upon us as well as the Russians for aid trick." be one designed to encourage moderation and when attacked by China.? Have not the The burden of proof is certainly upon those discourage extremism on the partof our op- neutralists Souphannaphouma and Kong Le who seriously believe that Peiping and Hanoi ponents, and one that seeks now to start found in us their only hope against the are willing to settle the Vietnam crisis peace- closing the gap between the haves and the Communists in Laos? Are not Tungku fully except on their own terms; namely, the have nots of the world. This is the only route Abdul Rahman and Lee Kuan Yew in Ma- total withdrawal of American troops and aid to peace. laysfa dependent in the final analysis upon from the south; the recognition of the Na- us as well as the British if they are to avoid tional Liberation Front as the only legitimate being destroyed? And these men are not representative of the South Vietnamese peo- reactionaries. They are social democrats pie, and the rapid unification of the country and nationalists--all of them. under the Lao Bong Party. To allow the Chinese to establish their We cannot and should not accept those hegemony over Asia either directly or conditions, nor should we engage in any trick through their trusted followers, will be to of having the French or Russians accept them desert the forte of Asian nationalism, not to for us. The Vietcong should be allowed to It. If any proof is needed, look at munists, in any negotiations but as Com- support the ittributar status which Cambodia has onists, whether a part of, h a part from tributary Hanoi, and all other South Vietnamese had to accept, and look at the mounting groups should be given full representation. pressures upon other small states like Burma AS I have stated, Peiping is also demand- and Nepal. We face a real challenge, and 1ng unconditional surrender from the Rus- one not completely met, of working more sians. To improve Sino-Soviet relations, she closely with non-Communist Asians on recently asserted, the Soviet leaders must political and military matters, but we can- totally repudiate Khrushchev and all of his more important than weapons, and by Rather, I would propose this policy: Let launching people's wars, we can destroy the us keep open two broad channels with re- United States and its lackies. The Russians, spect to the entire Communist world. Let on the other hand, by appeasing America one of those channels lead to peaceful co- and seeking peaceful coexistence with her existence, and involve our willingness to en- are undermining the revolutionary forces of gage in the broadest cultural relations, the the world. fullest trade, and extensive interaction with If we prove this Peiping thesis correct by all in the major international organizations withdrawing from Vietnam under pressure, and discussions of our time. Let us make it we will have merely set the stage for further clear to China as well as to others that we surrenders, and ultimate global war. Only do indeed want to live and let live. And a month ago, Peiping launched the That let us state specifically that we are willing patriotic front with great fanfare. A to remove American military forces from all leading Government spokesman proclaimed of southeast Asia as soon as some interna- that the Chinese people would support the tional guarantees and international force Thai in their liberation struggle, and as- can be established so that the true neutral- serted that they looked upon such support ity and independence of this region can be as our glorious international duty. Some secured. Let us seek to support the devel- individuals will shortly tell us that this opment of Finlands, not Bulgarias in Asia. movement also is an indigenous, nationalist What could be more in accordance with movement that springs out of the yearnings true Asian nationalism than this, and more of the Thai. moral? The domino theory is not adequate to ex- Let us also embark immediately upon the plain the problem. The state after Thailand giant task of economic development which may be Venezuela not Burma. The game is President Johnson recently sketched in con- checkers, not dominos, but it is a deadly cert with other societies, and once again, let game, and old notions about geographic us indicate our willingness to participate with spheres of influence-you take Asia, we will all nations who are willing and able to help. take the Western Hemisphere-as advanced But the other channel must also be clearly by Lippmann and others have little relation marked and adequately maintained. This to the modern world. second channel is headed by the warning that COMMUNIST REJECTION OF COMPROMISE if the Communists of Hanoi or Peiping, or anyone else insist upon using force to settle What, then, should our policy be? In Asia, a disputes upon their a militant power is emerging. Note carefully met own terms, they will be mby by force. If there is to be any chance that Communist China not only rejects all of peace in our times, we must make it clear notion of compromise with us at the moment, that we are not paper tigers. she also rejects all compromise with her two Our present policy, on balance, is an alt- other enemies, the Soviet Union, and India. tempt to avoid the extremes. No one can A few months ago, it was legitimate perhaps guarantee its success. Perhaps its primary to believe that Peping and her ally might be weakness is that it runs counter to American willing to negotiate with us on terms short psychology in some degree. We are an im- of unconditional surrender. But note what patient people, who tend to want quick and has happened. Peiping described the pro- efficient answers-thus to many, it should be posals of the 17 nonalined nations as a plot "all in" or "all out." Mao Tse-tung shrewd- LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to: Mr. MINISH (at the request of Mr. ALBERT), for today, on account of offi- cial business. Mr. MATSUNAGA (at the request of Mr. ALBERT), for the remainder of the week, on account of illness. Mr. BINGHAM (at the request of Mr. RosENTHAL), for Monday, June 7, 1965, on account of official business. Mr. CALLAWAY (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), for the balance of the Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67Bp0. 300180033-4 June 7, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORT) - APPENDIX pie against the' establishment of absolute monarchy. However, the mere formation of a counterbalance to a king is enough protec tion. Therefore, the, ancient Athenians, un- der the guidance of Solon in 496 $.C, 'made a constitution, the formation'of which Is de- scribed by Aristotle. John Locke,' whose works .were an"_irispiration for the Declara- tion of Independence, wrote in 1690, "'What- ever form the comrnonw6'alth Is under, the ruling power ought to govern by' declared and receivev~l laws, and not by extemporary dictates and undetermined resolutions," so that "the rulers, too, (be) kept within their due bounds, and not to be tempted by the power they have in their hands to' employ government were expounded upon by Baron de Montesquieu in 1747 when he wrote "To forma moderate government it is necessary to combine the several powers; to regulate, temper, and set them in motion; to give, as it were a ballast to one, in order to counter- poise the other. This is the masterpiece of legislation; rarely produced by hazard, and seldom attained by prudence." He clearly recognized the merits of a re- publican form of _government."Liberty is generally said to reside in republics * * * while democratic states are not in their own nature free " He, saw the complete and eter- nal antithesis 'of republican and totalitarian governments; since "In republican govern- ments men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments in the former be- cause they have everything; in the latter because they are nothing." Finally, in 1785, only 2 years before the Constitutional Con- vention, Immanuel Kant wrote "the only rightful constitution is that of a pure re- public." bur farseeing forefathers' were very cognizant of the words of these great philos- ophers of the past. They knew as did Aris- totle that "That which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon. it" and its corollary, expressed by Locke: "The supreme power cannot take from any man, any part of his property `without his own consent. For the preservation of prdpevty being the end of government, and that for which men into society, it neces- sarily supposes and requires that the people should have,-property * * *. Desiring to protect individual freedom and liberty, they realized that "A government may be so con- stituted, as no man shall be compelled to do things which the law does not oblige him, nor forced to'abstain from things which the law permits." Therefore the United States of America was created as a constitutional republic. The creators of the Constitution produced a document uniquely adaptable to the exigencies of our complex changing na- tion. It cannot become outmoded as some charged: To suggest this would be to say that the entire #ange' of man's experience from Plato to Aristotle, to Locke and Montesquieu, and to Jefferson and Madison, is not applicable to modern times. 'It is to arrogate oneself above the wisdom of the combined philosophers of the last 25 centuries. The Constitution, through separation of powers, and a system of checks and balances, protects all citizens against 'a cumulation of power in one person or group of persons. Edward Gibbon wrote in "TheDecline and Fall .of the Roman E'm- pire," "lhe principles of a free constitution are irrevocably` lost when the legislative power is dominated by the executive." Also being aware of 1l~Iontesquieu's dictum warn- ing, "When the legislative and executive powers a re united' in the same person, there can be no liberty," the Convention estab- lished the ];'residential veto, and congres- sional overriding of this by a two-thirds majority "Provision forim eachment of the President by congress was also included. Montesquieu and Gibbon were also worried about judicial excesses. "There is no liberty if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive * * * for 'the judges would then be the legislator" Gib- bon believed, "The ' discretion ofthe judge Is the first engine of tyranny." However, "In' republics, the very nature of the constitution requires the judge to follow the'letter of the law; otherwise the law might be explained to the prejudice of'every citizen, in cases where their honor, property, or life is con- cerned." To ameliorate this, the delegates provided for the Impeachment of the Justices of the Supreme Court, and also for amend- ments nullifying Supreme Court decisions. Ranking in importance with, other areas of the Constitution Is the Bill of Rights. These first 10 amendments provide guaran- tees of freedom and liberty for all citizens in all spheres of life. They include freedom of speech, religion, and press, the right to bear arms, the right to a jury trial in civil cases. However, the 10th amendment which reserves the powers to the States not dele- gated the Federal Government, has been practically usurped by clause 18 of section 8, article 1. This, the so-called elastic clause, has been used by the Federal Government to take over many States rights and functions. Moreover, while the fifth amendment is be- ing greatly abused by Communists and fellow travelers who do not wish to answer questions of congressional investigators, or- ganizations of American citizens exercising their right to keep and bear arms are being harassed. The American people should awake to the gradual disintegration of their freedoms re- sulting from the concommitant destruction of the Constitution by unconstitutional laws and practices, as well as de facto legislation by the Supreme Court. While telling of Coriolanus, Plutarch wrote, "For it was well and truly said that the first destroyer of the liberties of the people is he who first gave them bounties and largesses." Reiterating this in 1762, Jean Jacques Rousseau prophe- sied, "Make gifts of money and you will not be long without chains." All Americans know that welfare comes from income tax, but how many know that Rousseau also wrote, "I hold enforced labor to be less op- posed to liberty than taxes"? Apparently the apathy of Americans has sunk to the depth described by Plato when he said, "The greatest ignorance is when a man hates that which he nevertheless thinks to be good and noble, and loves and em- braces that which he knows to be unright- eous and evil." America must escape the prophecy of Rousseau: "As soon as any man says of the affairs of the state: What does it matter to me? the state may be given up for lost." Shall It be written in 1984 per- haps that, "Truly there is no great wisdom in knowing, and no great difficulty in telling after the evil has happened; but to have foreseen the remedy at the time would have taken a much wiser head than ours"? How- ever, there is one clear and evident remedy, of which all informed and patriotic Ameri- cans are aware. The remedy is a return to the principles of our Republic's Constitution, the greatest safeguard ever devised against tyranny. Tabulation of Public Opinion Poll; Con- aecticut's Fourth _ Congressional Dis- trict EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD J. IRWIN OF CONNzCrICUT IN TEE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, May 27, 1965 Mr. IRWIN. Mr. Speaker, I wish to call the attention of my colleagues to the results of a survey of my district, A2915 Connecticut's Fourth Congressional Dis- trict. Nearly 9,000 people took the time and trouble to answer. And, for the most part, they agree with me: They like the programs of the Johnson adminis- tration. The administration's approach in Viet- nam was supported by 2 to 1 over the nearest alternative. The administration's proposal for gradual elimination of the national ori- gins quota on immigration also was en- dorsed by a 2 to 1 margin. And more than half of those expressing an opinion favored either the adminis- tration's original medicare bill or its substitute version, passed by the House, providing for hospital, doctor and major medical expenses. This is good showing by any standards, arid. it becomes more impressive when you consider the Republican leanings of the Fourth Congressional District, which, when it sent me back to Congress last fall, made me the only Democrat in the 20th century ever to win a second term in the district. The results are as follows: I. Vietnam: What approach do you favor for the United States in Vietnam? 1. Expand war into Communist North Vietnam and go all-out to win, 25.3 percent. 2. Military support of South Vietnam, in- cluding attacks in North Vietnam, until a satisfactory settlement can be negotiated, 50.1 percent: 3. Restrict efforts to South Vietnam and negotiate best settlement possible, 10.5 per- cent. 4. Withdraw troops and advisers immedi- ately and let Vietnamese solve their own problems, 6.9 percent. 5. None of the above, 2.4 percent. Blank, 4.3 percent. II. Immigration: The administration has proposed gradual elimination of the national origins quota system, and replacing it with a system favoring skilled workers and rela- tives of people already in the United States. 1. The administration's proposal, 57.4 per- cent. 2. No limitations on immigration, 4.7 per- cent. 3. Present system, 21.8 percent. 4. No immigration, 5.2 percent. 5. None of the above, 5.8 percent. Blank, 5.3 percent. III. Transportation: The New Haven Rail- road as it now stands cannot continue com- muter operations much longer. Do you favor: 1. Expanded bus service instead of com- muter railroad, 3.4 percent. 2. Letting private group try to provide commuter service, 17.2 percent. 3. A multistate authority with Federal and local assistance running the railroad or contracting commuter service, 62.7 percent. 4. Having the Federal Government pick up deficit and run the railroad, 9 percent. 5. None of the above, 3.5 percent. Blank, 4.2 percent. IV. Medical care for elderly: Which of the following approaches to medical care for those over 65 do you favor: 1. Administration proposal, financed by payroll taxes, providing hospital and nursing home care, home health care visits, and out- patient diagnostic services, 27.6 percent. 2. AMA proposal, financed by Federal-State funds and participant contributions to pri- vate insurance companies, providing volun- tary comprehensive health coverage, 25.5 percent. 3. House Republican leadership proposal, financed by Federal-State funds and partici- pant contributions to national insurance Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 A2916 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 7, 1965 fund, providing voluntary comprehensive health coverage, 13.3 percent. 4. Combination of administration ap- proach for basic benefits and Republican leadership plan for doctor, drug, andmajor medical expenses, 19 percent. 5. None of the above, 7.6 percent. Blank, 7 percent. V. 1 have listed below a number of issues of vital public concern. Please "X" the three items you feel deserve highest priority in Congress. ].. Aid to education, 11.9 percent. 2. Narcotics and crime, 14.2 percent. 3. Space research and exploration, 4.3 per- cent. 4. Taxes and economic growth, 9.8 percent. 5. Reexamination of foreign aid, 16.5 per- cent. 8. Needs of our senior citizens, 4.5 percent. 7. Reapportionment of State legislatures on population basis, 2.5 percent. 8. Regulation of mail-order purchase of firearms, 3 percent.- 9. Reexamination of national defense re- quirements, 5.7 percent. to. Training and employment opportuni- ties for youth, 8.8 percent. 11. Water and air pollution control, 9.2 percent. 12. Commuter railroads, 6.1 percent. Blank, 2.9 percent. VI. My age is: 1. Under 25, 5.2 percent. 2. 25 to 34, 16.8 percent. - 3. 35 to 44,.28.7 percent. - 4. 45 to 59, 31.4 percent. 5. Over 59, 16.1 percent. Blank, 2.1 percent. ViI. I live in: 1. Bridgeport, 14.8 percent. 2. Darien, 7.7 percent. 3. Fairfield, 4.9 percent. 4. Greenwich, 11.9 percent. 5. New Canaan, 4.9 percent. 6. Norwalk, 17 percent. 7. Stamford, 24.2 percent. 8. Weston, 1.6 percent. 9. Westport, 8 percent. 10. Wilton, 3.9 percent. Blank, 1.6 percent. VIII. Do you favor your Congressman ask- ing for your views? 1. Yes, 96.6 percent. 2. No, 7 percent. 3. Undecided, 7 percent. Blank, 2 percent. IX. How often do you use the New Haven? 1. Regularly, 27.7 percent. 2. Occasionally, 57.1 percent. 3. Never, 12.4 percent. Blank, 2.8 percent. The Agricultural Situation in California EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI OF rLLINOI5 IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 3, 1965 Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Speaker, the gentleman from California [Mr. TAL- coTT] is directing our attention to a sit- uation that merits the attention of all Members. The artificially created man- power shortage for which the, adminis- tration-, and in particular' Labor Secre- tary Wirtz, is responsible, has had re- percussions throughout the entire coun- try. This situation described by the gentleman f'rom' California adversely af- fects not only-producers but consumers throughout the country. The producers of vegetables in my dis- trict are indirectly feeling the adverse results of the administration's indiffer- ence to the facts of life as they pertain to farm labor. For years U.S. citizens whose normal residences are in the Southwest States move up to the Midwest during growing seasons to care and harvest the vegetable crops. A substantial number this year have gone to California where theyhave failed to meet the real manpower needs. In so doing, a manpower shortage Is be- ginning to develop in midwestern farm regions. In addition, Mr. Speaker, I anticipate numerous economic and social problems that will beset us from the redevelopment of the "wetbacks"-illegal entrants from Mexico. In past years I have struggled to aid individuals who have become vic- timized by legal complications caused by illegal entry into the country. When the bracero program was effectively func- tioning, the problem of illegal entry vanished. ited States in Vietnam To Stop Red China EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. E. Y. BERRY OF SOUTH DAKOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 7, 1 965 Mr. BERRY. Mr. Speaker, at this stage in our history a noisy, radical mi- nority of college students are calling for this Nation to abandon its defense com- mitments across the world and to pull back from the threat of communism. This vocal minority has alarmed the American people, because their irrespon- sible comments have appeared to drown out the majority of students who are standing by their Nation in its times of danger; many of this majority have al- ready given their lives for freedom in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic. Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to put in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD an editorial from a South Dakota college newspaper which expresses the opinion of the re- sponsible majority of our college stu- dents. I am proud of the South Dakota Collegian of the South Dakota State Uni- versity for expressing sentiments which recognize the magnitude of the Commu- nist threat in southeast Asia. The enclosed editorial "United States in Vietnam To Stop Red China," from the South Dakota Collegian, May 20, 1965, South Dakota State University, follows: UNITED STATES ITS VIETNAM To STOP RED CHINA Students and professors on university cam- puses across the Nation are jumping on the bandwagon in protest of our role In the war in Vietnam. They usually follow the line of thinking that "it's not our war, it's thou- sands of miles away, and therefore we should get out as soon as possible." Why is America involved in the Vietnam conflict? Our Federal Government has maintained that we are there because the South Vietnam Government invited us there to help defend its country from Communist terrorists and invaders. This is true and is, on the surface, a pretty noble reason. But almost anyone who has studied the situation must agree that the most important reason we are there is to help contain the advance of Communist China. Red China's expansionist policy has only one goal: world domination. Southeast Asia is only the first step. Control of southeast Asia will alleviate Red China's biggest prob- lem, 700 million hungry, crowded people within her borders. China's military efforts have taken away resources badly needed for economic and agricultural development. She has been forced in the past few years to buy millions of bushels of wheat from other countries to feed her people. Thus southeast Asia, a rich rice-producing area, is an important price to the Red Chinese leaders. Our Government must feel that Vietnam is the logical place to assert our policy of containment. The side effect of helping de- fend South Vietnam from Communist ag- gression Is used mainly to help qualify our presence here. Surely those who deplore our role in Viet- nam do not think the Red Chinese will go only as far as the shores of South Vietnam and Laos and simply call it quits. This is just the first step in their drive to dominate the world. From there, the Philippine Is- lands, Malaysia, Austrialia and Japan are tan- talizing targets. After that, the progression is pretty evident. We know that we will be forced to stop the Communist drive someplace, sometime, if we are to survive as a democracy. The sooner this is done, the better. Red China's new-found nuclear power adds to the ur- gency of the inevitable task. Perhaps our action in Vietnam will pre- vent an even worse future confrontation. Perhaps it will accomplish nothing. Free- dom has never come cheap and, looking at it realistically, it is better to stop freedom's greatest threat in already war-torn Vietnam than on the shores of Hawaii.-W.A. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ALTON LENNON OF NORTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 7, 1965 Mr. LENNON. Mr. Speaker, a very significant occasion took place recently when the trustees of the Cornelia Nixon Davis Nursing Home, to be constructed at Wilmington, N.C., honored Mr. Champion McDowell Davis, the principal benefactor of the home. Mr. Davis is known to many Members of Congress as a former president of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and director of the National Chamber of Commerce. I commend to our colleagues a splendid article from the Wilmington Morning Star of May 26, 1965, which reflects an outstanding citizen's generous spirit of charity and service to others. The article follows: BEQUEST PROVIDED BASE To CREATE NURSING HOME WRIGHTSVILLE BEACH.-A $50,000 bequest made to Champion McDowell Davis by a. friend 23 years ago provided the base for creation of the million-dollar=plus Cornelia Nixon Davis Nursing Home, Davis revealed at a testimonial dinner in his honor here Tues- day night. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 UN~~Rff7B%RM00180033-4 A2923 Despite Mr. Shaw's restrained praise, the facts are evident-"better than in any other ,technology.". If we are permitted this course of action, we can, I believe, put a nuclear reactor of vastly improved. design in a new hull and have that ship sailing on commercial service prior to 1970. WIth,AEC cooperation, private enterprise is adequate to the task and eager to undertake it. Moreover, such an arrangement is far more In keeping with the American tradition than to vest full, responsibility for "develop- ment. in the hands of an agency Of_ the Gov- ernment, Unless we " are ,all9Wed to proceed-unless Government and industry move forwardly, boldly together-then we must reconcile our- selves to the ;role of a spectator.' We can watch while in West dermany they install an American-designed, reactor, a Savannah improvement, into a new hull. And we can ask ourselves, "Why' are we letting them get Only One Final Decision HON. CLAIR CALLAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 7, 1965 Mr. CALL Al Mr. Speaker, as an in- dication of the, widespread, support for the President's position on certain for- eign policy issues which have been under attack lately, the Lincoln Star has no parallel. I believe that an editorial of June 2 was very indicative of the sym- pathetic`analyses which have been char- acteristic of. this Nation in the last few weeks. I therefore, include it in the RECORD at this point: ONLY ONE FINAL DECISION The unique and often lonely role 'of 'the -President of the United States, was demon- strated by President Johnson at the com- mencement of his daughter, Luci, and her classmates. Criticism of administration pol- icy is welcome, said the President, but in the end the decisions can be made by only one man. He said he makes his decisions no matter how "the transient winds of opinion blow." He was referring specifically to foreign pol- icy and the commitment of U.S. men and arms in Vietnam and the Dominican Repub- lic. There isn't any question that Johnson knows this commitment Is an unpopular one. There is not an individual in the Nation who Wants this Nation to be fighting any- where. They do not want American serv- icemen dying on foreign soil. But Johnson also knows that It is not a popularity con- test in which he is engaged. He must do what he feelsia right,"whether it is popular or not. And then be ,must,}est. his case on the basis of need, the demand, of_ the times. He hopes that the American people, too, know the difi'orence between what might be desirable, and what is essential, , In the President's deciaiou, there is no room fpr the use of chancre, either, He must proceed on the basis of what action, holds, the. greatest promise with the least risk, What might be called. Jong shots are plentiful but not, as a part 61 any final reckonin It is a,lob'tliat demands the kind of bi partisan support our foreign policy has and the unclerstanciing that is a part of such sup- port. Criticism, of course, is an her essen- tial part of`'our"national life but it should not completely dominate the scene. Congress and Vietnam the extraordinary vacillations in Dominican policy have set off the present questioning at home and abroad. The reluctance of Sec- retary of State Rusk to employ the full re- sources of his Department and give inde- pendent-advice, the meager use made by the HON. ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER President of nonofficial task forces in the or WISCONSIN foreign policy field, the overdependence on IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES military and intelligence agencies and the divorce between the administration and the Tuesday, May 25, 1965 Nation's intellectuals-all point to a need Mr. KASTENMEIER. Mr. Speaker, the lead editorial in today's New York Times speaks eloquently for many Amer- icans in calling for more vigorous con- gessional interest in the Vietnam war. Congress has a responsible role to play in the conduct of our foreign policy. By questioning, as the Times editorial does, the reluctance of Secretary Rusk to em- ploy the full resources of his department and give independent advice, the meager use of the President of nonofficial task forces in the foreign policy field, the overall dependence _ on military and in- telligence agencies, the reasons behind the, diyorce, l gtwe,cn the , allniinistration and the Nation's intellectuals, as well as the nature of the war and its conduct, Congress can perform a great service to the Republic. Debate over Vietnam policies un- doubtedly will result in publicizing some differences of opinion between Congress and the President which were. largely glossed over by recent votes On additional appropriations for Vietnam. The reso- lution of these differences, however, can only result in a more enlightened and strengthened ' foreign _ policy for the United States. p'urthelmore, although publicizing differences, may expose the day-to-day conduct of the war to some tactical disadvantage, the overall advan- tage to be gained from congressional de- bate in the conduct of our foreign policy greatly outweighs the tactical risks in- volved: Thus, while 28 Congressmen . recently requested Chairman MORGAN _ of the House Foreign Affairs Committee to hold .hearings on administration policy in Vietnam, I believe there are many others who agree such hearings would be in our I accordingly ' urge your serious .con- sideration : of the. following New York Times, editorial. and ask that it. be printed at this point in the RECORD: [From the New. York Times, June 7, 19651 CONGRESS AND VIETNAM Signs are growing of congressional interest in ending the leave-it-to-Lyndon era in American foreign policy. There is Senator FULBRIGHT's new proposal to give the OAS a major voice in channeling American military assistance to Latin America. There is the provision in the pew foreign aid bill for a thoroughgoing con- gressional investigation and for terminating the aid program in its present form in 1967. There is the trip to Europe, at their own expense, of four House Republicans to in- vestigate the crisis in NATO. And there are the recent criticisms of administration policy in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic by Senator ROBERT F. KENNEDY, plus his current charge that the United States is neither meeting its aid responsibilities to the underdeveloped' countries nor identifying itself with the world revolution underway Factors that go beyond the President's limited experience in foreign affairs and Nowhere is this more vital than on Viet- nam, where grave constitutional questions are raised by the official acknowledgement of an increasing combat role for American troops. During the 18 months of the John- son administration, the number of American troops in Vietnam has been tripled to about 46,500; a further buildup to more than 60,000 appears imminent. American planes have entered into combat both in South and North Vietnam-in the latter case openly at- tacking a foreign country with no declara- tion of war. American warships have bom- barded the North Vietnamese coast. And there are indications that American ground troops-first employed as advisers in South Vietnam, then deployed to defend American installations and now directly engaged in patrolling action-will soon take on a full combat role as a tactical reserve aiding South Vietnamese units in trouble. Yet, at no point has there been significant congressional discussion, much less direct authorization of what amounts to a decision to wage war. That is why 28 Democratic Congressmen, on the initiative of Repre- sentative ROSENTHAr, of Queens, now have wisely asked the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee to hold public hearings on the administration's Vietnam .policy. American casualties. in Vietnam, while still relatively minor, already exceed those of the Spanish-American War. The choices open to the President are exceedingly difficult ones; 'they should not be his alone, either as a matter of sound policy .or of constitu- tional obligation. If he takes it upon him- self to make an American war out of the Vietnamese tragedy-without seeking con- gressional and national consent-he may open' the country to divisions even more dangerous than those that developed . out of the Korean conflict. Project Neptune-Atlantic EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PAUL G. ROGERS OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, June 3, 1965 Mr. ROGERS of Florida. Mr: Speak- er, a new and rapidly expanding State university in my district, Florida At- lantic, has recently been selected as the participating university in Project Nep- tune-Atlantic. The Neptune project is a cooperative venture between the private- ly owned American merchant marine and the scientific community in furtherance of the national oceanographic program of the United States. Under this pro- gram a team of oceanographers will col- lect. oceanographic data while aboard a :merchant vessel without interfering with the ship's normal operations. In participating in this project, Florida Atlantic will use what has come to be known as the "van" concept of data col- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 A2924 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX June 7, 1965 lection. Their Department of Ocean Engineering will equip a portable van with scientific instruments. This van will then be transported to New York where it will be loaded upon the SS L~- port Champion and utilized during the ship's normal run to the Mediterranean. Upon return to New York the van will be unloaded and returned to the university where the data collected on the trip will be analyzed and appraised. I am extremely proud of the part Florida Atlantic will be playing in this cooperative venture. The field of ocean- ography is so vast and so full. of chal- lenges that utilization of our merchant fleet in cooperation with the scientific community will provide the opportunity to release our specialized oceanographic vessels for more sophisticated research tasks. Florida Atlantic is well on the way to becoming one of the Nation's lead- ing institutions for ocean research and ocean engineering. Tribute to a Leader EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. ROBERT L. F. SIKES OF FLORIDA IN_ THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June 1, 1965 Mr. SIKES. Mr. Speaker, my district is proud to acknowledge the presence of an outstanding American who has at- tained success, honor, and distinction, not only in one career, but in two. He was a great military leader in World War II where he achieved the rank of vice admiral. Upon retirement from the Navy, he retired to Pensacola where he was promptly placed into service as mayor. His work in that capacity has been outstanding in every respect. Now, he is insisting upon taking another well deserved retirement. He takes with him the very best wishes of every person who has been privileged to know him. I am glad to propose for reprinting in the RECORD a tribute to him from the Pensacola News-Journal. of May 30, 1965: - TRIBUTE TO A LEADER Great leadership is much in demand these 'days. And Adm. Charles P. Mason, aviation pioneer, military commander, civic worker, and spirited mayor of our growing city, has been a great inspiration for high-quality leadership in Pensacola. We need more leaders like Mayor Mason. And we pay tribute to him upon his second retirement, from the official duties as mayor .of Pensacola. To us, he will always be Mayor Mason, a lifetime honor bestowed upon him :by the Florida Legislature following his pre- vious term in city -hall. The admiral epitomizes the brightest of leadership images, fulfilling a task which will long serve as a lofty goal of those who follow him, to city hall. Mayor Mason steps out of his high office at a time when Pensacola needs men of high caliber to inspire us and lead us through a period of municipal and community growth and prosperity. it is a time of reason, of positive think- . ing, of reaching out and grasping for more progress. We welcome the new faces to the city council, men chosen by Pensacolians to carry out the policies and chart a proper course of high purpose through their talents as elected officials. The next few weeks, dur- ing a period of change at city hall, should not be a time of indifference but a time of calm, thoughtful reflection and positive direction. We hope our elected officials will keep alive. the leadership demonstrated so admirably by such men as Charles P. Mason. He has always shown the highest character and in- tegrity. And he stepped into the breach of municipal government to contribute great service after a long and honorable career as naval flier, innovator, and wartime com- mander. He has led many community endeavors, from all types of civic projects as well as service in Florida civil defense and the estab- llshment of the Pensacola Historical Museum in Old Christ Church at Seville Square. His versatility is indicative of the type of leader so vitally needed in our city. 'I live in Pensacola by choice, primarily because I like the people," Mayor Mason said in announcing his first retirement as coun- cilman-mayorin 1963. A council resolution said: "He has brought to the office of mayor his attributes of dignity, distinction, zeal, firmness, and graciousness in such measure that he has given new meaning to the office which shall forever remain as a challenge to his successors and as an example to his fellow citizens * * * (his) leadership has brought about the greatest period of growth and the most outstanding era of expansion and pros- influence" and further commended him for "devotion, loyalty, unselfishness, industry and fidelity that he has unceasingly given to each and every undertaking of both his public and private life. We sincerely hope that our newly chosen slate of municipal leaders will continue to draw inspiration from the long service of Charles P. Mason, a real leader whose retire- ment leaves big shoes to fill. The Importance of Price to the Farmer EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ANCHER NELSEN OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 7, 1965 Mr. NELSEN. Mr. Speaker, the St. Paul Grain Terminal Association's Radio Roundup for June 1, looking at the dis- mal farm price situation, indicates "We ought to take a lesson from what is hap- pening in other nations before it is too late." Certainly, this clear appraisal of our troubles with the Common Market, and the sharp contrast between Government controlled versus free world agriculture is most helpful in understanding what is perity in the history of the city." at stake. I hope my colleagues will take Mayor Mason was a 38-year naval veteran time to read it, and for that reason, I when he retired here in 1946. A native of Pennsylvania, he was graduated from the place it in the RECORD: Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1912. He first you can't kid the farmer about farm came to Pensacola in 1918, training to become prices. He knows how important they are. naval aviator No. 52 in 1917. He saw service And that's true the world around. in France during World War I and served on The economists talk about efficiency, the the Armistice Commission in Germany in scientists about production, the Government 1918. The mayor later commanded the first people talk about regulation, but the farmer seaplane squadron of the Pacific Fleet. knows that it is the price he gets that counts Mayor Mason married the former Ralphine first and most. Some governments have a Fisher in Pensacola in 1917 and returned here hard time learning this, although the farm- in 1921 as superintendent of naval aviation ers tell them in a thousand different ways. training. He later served on the first aircraft For example, you know what a hassle we're carrier, the U.S.S. Langley, making the first having with the Common Market over in night takeoff and first catapult launching. Western Europe. We've been telling those He commanded the U.S.S. Hornet when the EEC nations that our farmers can produce aircraft carrier went down during the Battle grainfor less so they should import from us of Santa Cruz during World War II in 1942. Instead of growing their own and holding In 1943, the admiral was elevated to com- their farm prices up high. We tell them mand of all air forces in the Solomon Is- that they should reduce their support prices, lands. His many decorations include the divert farm capital (and people) into in- Navy Cross, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, and dustry, and buy their farm products from us honors from Mexican, Chilean, Peruvian and because we can produce them so much Brazilian Governments. He has been presi- cheaper. However, our European customers dent of the Association of Early Aviators, or don't seem to be much impressed with that "Bald Eagles." argument. They insist upon putting first Returning to Pensacola after his retire- things first, and they say that fair prices ment, Mason was named deputy State di- to farmerscome first in the European Com- rector of Florida Civil Defense and later mon Market organization. They're mighty headed the Pensacola Historical Society dur- 'firm on that point. ing the time when the organization was de- When you put yourself in their shoes and veloping plans for its museum. examine their point of view, they have good Mason, 74, was first chosen Pensacola reason to be firm about fair farm prices. mayor in June 1947, then as now not a mem- The West Germans, whose farm prices are ber of the council. He was reappointed in tremendously high compared to ours, can 1949. In 1951, he ran for and was elected to peek over the Berlin Wall and see the de- the council and was renamed mayor, serving pressing results of enforced low farm prices. both' as councilman and mayor until June They see East Germany, Hungary, Romania, 1957. the Soviet Union, countries that were the Upon his retirement as mayor, the Florida breadbasket of Europe before World War II. Legislature designated him honorary Pen- Today they must import food. sacola mayor for life. Why? Well, for more than 20 years those The words of a Pensacola Area Chamber of Eastern European countries have been suf- Commerceresolution, paying lasting tribute fering under the yoke of enforced low farm to mayor Mason, clearly bring into focus his prices. The plan apparently was to build long dedication and excellent service to his industry and bleed agriculture to do it. The community: whole story of this sad affair is written up in Mayor Mason is "deserving of the highest an English-language publication which praise and commendation from the citizens prints the text of a report by Comrade of Pensacola, the metropolitan area and all Brezhnev, First Secretary of the Communist areas that have come within his sphere of Party of the Soviet Union. He openly ad- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 June 7 ? 196pproved For R t lIIMXt FMgBORJMNJ0300180033-4 12~ the General Services Administration which requested the proposed legislation as a part of its 1965 legislative program. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to the commit- tee alnendinent. The amendment was agreed to. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill is open to further amendment. If there be no further amendment to be proposed, the question is on the engross- ment and third reading of the bill. The, pill was, ordered to be engrossed ,for a, third reading, was read the third time, and passed., Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. MANSFIELD.' Mr. President,, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. COMMENCEMENT ADDRESS BY SENATOR MANSFIELD AT ST. MARY COLLEGE, XAVIER, KANS. Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, on Memorial Day, the distinguished major- ity leader [Mr. MANSFIELD] delivered the address. at the commencement exercises of St. Mary College, Xavier, Kans. With the exception of some paragraphs of opening and closing remarks, the text of Senator MANSrIELD's address was printed in the Washington Sunday Star of June 6, 1965. Because the speech deals with a sub- ject of consuming importance to all of us, because it is discerning, and because, in my judgment, it ought to be read by the largest possible audience, I ask unan- imous consent that it be printed at this point in the REcoRD. There being no objection, the address was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as followsc MANSFIELD SEES HOPE, FOR PEACE IN NUCLEAR STANDOFF (NoTE.-Senate Majority Leader MANSFIELD spoke at the commencement exercises of St. Mary College in Xavier, Kans., on May 30. For one of the men in positions of real power in Washington, his speeches are few. In this one he gave his own definition of the issues between the Communist world and the Western World, in simple terms, and revealed some of his own philosophy about our role in meeting the most important challenge before mankind today. This is the text, with the omission of a few paragraphs of opening and closing remarks.) It is of some of these international changes of the past 15 years which I would like to speak today. These are changes which be- gan as trickles just after your were born and and now coming into flood as you enter adulthood. An overriding change since the Korean war has been the emergence of a kind of stalemate between Russia and the United States in terms of destructive. nuclear ca- pacity. Nuclear technology in both nations has now reached a_point at which no signifi- cant military advantage is likely to be gained merely by pushing the accumulation of more destructive power. That is not to say that the Russians are not alert to possi- ble technological breakthroughs or that we have gone to sleep. The search goes on here and it also goes on there. But a deel- sive altering of the basic nuclear stalemate Is not in sight. The fact is that both, Russia and the United States are already in a position in which each can obliterate at least half the population of the other in a very short time. That is a sobering reality for all those with a share of the responsibility for the many decisions which, In the end, may in- volve an ultimate decision as to whether or not these instruments are used. MONUMENT TO J.F.K. The very magnitude of the nuclear threat which hangs over the earth has had, oddly, a kind of constructive influence on world affairs. It is one of the realities which underlay the Russian withdrawal of missiles from Cuba a couple of years ago. And it was a major factor in the achievement of the nuclear test ban treaty. That treaty, in turn, was a precipitant in bringing about an improvement In the general relations-at least until recently-between the two princi- pal nuclear powers. In that respect, the treaty was a most significant achievement in the drive for a more peaceful world. It stands as an enduring and appropriate mon- ument to John Fitzgerald Kennedy-who would have been 48 yesterday-' who refused, with great courage, to be deflected by politi- cal considerations, from his determination to achieve it. The nuclear stalemate between Russia and the United States, then, is, indeed, one of the most significant changes of the past decade and a half. It has produced an international situation with which the prin- cipal nations have managed to live in rea- sonable stability for several years. In its context, the prospect of a Soviet military invasion of Western Europe which, for exam- ple, was once regarded as acute, appears to have receded. And by the same token, the military liberation of Eastern Europe which once was loudly trumpeted is no longer pressed from any responsible source as the basis of a sound policy for the Nation. In short, the overall position of the two great nuclear powers in today's world ap- pears to have become, increasingly, one of live and let live. This trend has emerged largely because the point has sunk home that the alternative is the opposite on such a scale as to drain either the triumph of freedom or the victory of communism of rational meaning. But the picture of a gradual easement in Soviet-United States relations is not complete unless we also take into consideration the effect of recent devel- opments in Vietnam. These developments have not helped the trend which was inau- gurated under President Eisenhower, pur- sued most effectively by President Kennedy, and vastly encouraged and continued by President Johnson, ,The changed situation in Russian-United States relations in turn has been paralleled by changes throughout the Soviet bloc. It is obvious that the greater stability in Russian-United States relations has not set well with China but It has generally been welcomed by such Eastern European nations as Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Communism did not spring full-blown in those Eastern European nations at the close of World War IT. Communism was in fact. grafted by Soviet power onto several coun- tries with different traditions, even as Stalin shut down on them an iron lid of ideological uniformity. The clothes of Communist conformity, however, were uncomfortable In Eastern Europe and, beneath them, the in- dividual national traditions continued to stir. In. recent years, this force for diversity has begun to find fuller expression. The growing independence in eastern Eu- rope has been encouraged cautiously by re- cent policies of the United States. This Was a cardinal principle of the foreign pol'p. President Kennedy, who recognized its valu with respect to Poland even when he was a Senator. The conclusion of trade agree- ments and travel arrangements with eastern European countries which pose no threat to us, as, for example, with Poland and Yugo- slavia, has tended to increase their independ- ence from the Soviet Union. and provided some inducement for other satellite countries to follow in their footsteps-and that they have been, in fact, doing. EUROPEAN CHANGES In this atmosphere of reduced tension in Europe, a difficult and intricate problem re- mains as the central roadblock to further progress toward a stable peace in that region. That is the problem of a divided Germany. In East Germany,'the Soviet Union has con- tinued to maintain a harsh and rigid control over a people who dislike the Communist sys- tem intensely. For our part, policy with re- spect to Germany is, apparently, based on an official assessment of immediate Soviet inten- tions in Europe which differs considerably from that of our allies in Western Europe. It appears to me that these nations-West Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and others- see the Soviet situation in quite a different perspective-at least insofar as this per- spective is reflected in policies, The Eu- ropeans, for example, carry on a trade with the Soviet,Union which over recent years has run in the billions. What we have done in a most limited way in trade with Poland and Yugoslavia, they have done many, many times over with all of Eastern Europe and, of course, with the Soviet Union itself. Travel within Europe-East and West-is now very extensive and the lines of communication by sea, rail, road, and air between the two parts of the Continent have expanded very markedly. In short, the Europeans general- ly have been acting with respect to the Soviet bloc as though peace had arrived in Eu- rope. We have not, in policy, shared that optimism. If there were a fusion of views as to pre- cisely what the situation is, it is conceivable that, with it, there might also come a parallel rebognition that proposals aimed at ending the armed confrontation in Germany and moving toward reunification are worth pur- suing most intensely. A number of ideas have been advanced over the years which could serve as a beginning, but they have not as yet led to significant changes in policy. The shift in Europe over the past few years is not unique. It is paralleled, for example, by significant changes which in- volve the underdeveloped countries. The po- litical face of Africa has changed and over most of that continent control is now exer- cised by African leaders rather than by Euro- peans. Many new nations have been added to the ranks of the intensely independent and underdeveloped states. But from the point of view of the nuclear powers, almost all such states are, now, of less importance as strategic prizes, to be wooed for their value as bases in the event of a total war. We our- selves have recognized this change to a con- siderable degree. We have, for example, abandoned a number of advanced airbases in these areas in the light of the develop- ment of the intercontinental ballistic missile and Polaris-carrying nuclear submarines. Similarly, the control of alien territory to in- sure access to strategic military raw ma- terials which was once an absolutely vital consideration for all great powers may no longer carry quite so much weight. RESISTING AGGRESSION This change in attitudes involving the underdeveloped nations applies in southeast Asia. President Johnson has said that there Is no need for a forward base in that part of the world. Our fundamental power in the Pacific is air and sea power. This power, supreme throughout the Pacific, is sufficient Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 232 Approved Fo12Qg*A%1WEEFP6~OR000300180033Ane 7, 1965 p'otect American security from any direct military threat from that part of the world for some years to come. We also have in Vietnam, as elsewhere in southeast Asia, a shared interest with all free nations In resisting aggression. We can and will remain prepared to assist in stopping overt attempts to overrun peoples by force. But beyond this goal of preventing aggres- sion in order to promote peace and freedom under the rule of law in the world, our di- rect national interests in southeast Asia are not nearly as great, for example, as those which we have with respect to Latin Amer- ica. For these reasons, as well as a basic aver- sion to war itself, the President has made it clear that we are willing to enter into un- conditional discussions in an effort to find an honorable settlement in Vietnam and a more stable situation throughout southeast Asia. But if there is ever to be an honorable settlement, there has to be a beginning. There has to be a confrontation across the tables of peace. If such a meeting is to have any prospect of a successful outcome, there is also a parallel and simultaneous need for an interim cease-fire and standfeat-both north and south. Unless the sounds of con- flict are, first, stilled on all sides, the words of peace will not be heard on any side. COMMON EFFORT NEEDED I am at a loss to understand how those elsewhere-in Peiping, for example-expect to be taken seriously in professing to hold paramount the Interests of the people of Vietnam and a restoration of peace when, at the same time, they insist upon interpreting the President's words as meaning something other than unconditional discussion. It would be in our own best interests no less than in the best interests of the underde- veloped countries of southeast Asia were the latter able to concgntrate on their own inner national needs and growth. That was clearly the President's hope when he offered to join with the Soviet Union and other nations in a common effort for the development of south- east Asia. A common effort of this kind is clearly, too, the best way to help most of the underde- veloped nations, wherever they may be in the world, to remain free of outside domination and influence and to give indigenous institu- tions of freedom an opportunity to take-root. Indeed, in the long run, it may be just about the only way to help them. We are not likely to insure freedom within these nations by taking it upon ourselves either to overwhelm them with unilateral help or by turning our backs on their genuine needs for help. The one is the road to an Isolated internationalism for this Nation. The other is the road to a national isolation for this Nation. And neither road is likely to lead to the. safeguarding of the basic in- terests of this Nation. in short, the great need Is for a discrete and discerning coopera- tion with other nations in dealing with un- derdeveloped nations. SEARCH FOR PEACE _ This principle has relevance for the current crisis in the Dominican Republic Which, after decades of a cruel dictatorship, Is still a most underdeveloped nation. The President faced a critical situation--an emergency- there some weeks o humanitarian grounds and mIo meet . met it well And he is acting now to bring fully into play, the concept of-cooperation with others in that situation. As a member of, the Orga- nization of American States, our military and diplomatic resources in the Dominican Re- public are being' used more and more in sup- port, of the Organization. For the problem in the Island is not one of unique responsi- bility for the United States. It is one which must engage primarily the Dominican people and their leaders and, to the extent that it is necessary, the entire Western Hemisphere. With the development of an inter-Ameri- can military force, the heavy initial commit- ment of American forces on the island has already been reduced. And it is to be hoped, moreover, that this reduction will be rapidly accelerated if stability can be restored under the guidance of the OAS. I would hope, too, that the inter-American force which would remain could play two roles--that is, to sup- port the efforts of the OAS and also to help in the reconstruction of Santo Domingo which has been seriously damaged in the struggle. It would also be desirable if other American states could develop a peace corps and send contingents to join the young men and women of this Nation who are already undertaking in the Dominican Republic many works of useful and peaceful construc- tion. To Americans, even to college students like you, the affairs of nations outside our bor- ders may seem remote and unimportant at times, especially on a day like today. But I need not remind you-on Memorial Day- that events whose origins lay thousands of miles from our shores have reached into this Nation in the past and called us to sacrifice. As Americans, as inhabitants of the only world we have, I ask you to exercise the in- creasing responsibility which will be yours in the years ahead to see that no stone lies unturned, and that no outdated myth or ancient hatred lies unexamined, and that no opportunity is neglected in the slow pains- taking search for a lasting peace. And I ask you, too, to give your prayers to the President of the United States, His is the enormous burden in these matters. His is the paramount responsibility. For him, there is no rest from the incessant pressure of the problems of the Nation. For him, there is a plethora of advice and criticism which is easily a ugh extended. But upon him, In the en falls the weight of grave decision as he eeks to follow the slender path to thpt s le peace which is the world's AID 7L5 SOUTH VIETNAM BY COUN- TRIES OTHER THAN THE UNITED STATES Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President, the United States continues with the un- pleasant but necessary task of helping the people of southeast Asia to resist the aggressions of communism. You and I and the rest of the American people read each day about the maneuvers of the South Vietnamese and our own troops; the areas being defended; and the grow- ing casualty toll. I have heard public expressions of doubt, even on the floor of the Senate, about the desirability of our action, ex- pressions which imply, at least, that we are responsible for this problem. What blindness. Every action taken by this Nation has been geared to offset aggres- sion in one form or another started by the Communists in each instance. Whether we speak of Berlin, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Indonesia, South Vietnam, or the Congo, all the problems have been created by the clearly spoken and re- iterated words of the Communists that they intend to rule the world. Are wealone'in recognizing these prob- lems? Are we so different in seeing problems in South Vietnam that other countries back away from supporting our position? Exactly the opposite is true. Today, 38 nations are giving or have agreed to give aid in one form or another to the people of South Vietnam, who are resisting naked Communist aggression. To me, this is highly interesting. I have compiled a list of the countries which are proceeding to give aid to South Vietnam at present, together with a statement of what aid is being provided-. at least, those things that are being done which are not under security classifica- tion. These countries-and I shall not read everything they are doing, but I wish to name the countries-include Australia, Nationalist China, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philip- pines, Thailand, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Israel, India, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France-even France has pro- vided some aid--Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Holland, Spain, Switzer- land, the United Kingdom, Argentina Brazil, Ecuador, and Guatemala. In addition, it ought to be noted that only 10 nations were assisting us in South Vietnam prior to July 16, 1964, less than'a year ago. The other 28 nations have begun their assistance since that time. In addition to the countries I have named, several other Central American countries, including Costa Rica, Hon- duras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, have been trying to muster a medical team to send to South Vietnam for as- sistance. It seems to me that such assistance is of extreme importance, because nowhere have I seen any kind of rundown In the news media or elsewhere which would in- dicate the degree of support which is be- ing given to the free South Vietnamese people in their efforts to resist Commu- nist aggression by North Vietnam and Red China. Therefore, I am happy to present this information for the benefit of all Senators and for the country as a whole, inthe hope that more recognition may be given of the assistance which other countries have been and are giving to South Vietnam and to the United States in the interest of preserving the freedom of people, not only in southeast Asia, but in the rest of the world, as well, against Communist aggression. I ask unanimous consent that the statement I have prepared be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the state- ment was ordered to be printed In the RECORD, as follows: FOREIGN COUNTRIES HAVING PROVIDED Am To SOUTH VIETNAM OUTSIDE OF THE UNITED STATES Australia: Infantry battalion on the way; 100 combat advisers there; air force unit with planes in Vietnam; 8-man surgical party; civil engineers; training 110 Viet- namese in Australia. Goods: 1 million text- books In Vietnamese language for schools; windmills; hand tools; radio sets; building broadcasting station in Vietnam. Nationalist China: 80-man agricultural team; 16-man psychological warfare team; 8-man electrical power mission; 10-man sur- gical team; training 200 Vietnamese in Taiwan. Goods: 26 aluminum prefabricated warehouses; agricultural tools, seeds, and fertilizers; math textbooks; electrical power stations. Japan: $55 million in economic assistance, mainly through reparations; 90 Japanese personnel in Vietnam-70 of which are work- ing on the construction of a power dam (Japanese are not allowed to send military forces; these are civilians); 6-man surgical Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 proved For Re G- ~7BO R 300180033-4 1Z 196 53 ~1 AI. ~ZD ~` A 12233 i- sion lint, Korea: 130-man mobile army surgical hos- pital; 10 military instructors in Vietnam teaching karate and hand-to-hand combat; 2,200-map. taslt force-mainly ; engineering corps with security -troops. Laos: 1 million kip (Laotian currency) for refugees. Malaysia: Although they can't provide military men, the Malaysians have estab- lishedschools for training in Communist Couritcrlo surgency using the experience they have gained from their combat with Com- munist, Infiltration. Havetrained some 2,000 'Vietnamese sincer 1962, 'They have also-sent some armed vehicles to help. New Zealand: Surgical team; 25-man"corps of engineers rebuilding buildings; artillery battery, will be sent (Andac) ; have built science building at the University of Saigon estimated at $200;000. Philippines: 70 military personnel, civilian and military medical teams; President of Philippines has asked for 2,000 additional men' to go to Vietnam-this motion has passed the House and is now in the Senate. . Thailand: Military air detachment in Viet- ream. (other military information is classi- fied); cement; roofing material. Greece: Medical supplies. Turkey; Medical supplies; offers of cement.. Iran: 1,000 tons POL products. Israel:. Pharmeceutical supplies; offers for training in Israel. India: Money for flood relief; plans for other assiitance in the economic field (being part of the ICC hinders Indian help in any further manner). Austria: Medicines, supplies, blankets, tents. Belgium: Medicines. Canada: $2.b million of assistance; medi- cal professor at the. University of Saigon; training over 130 Vietnamese in Canada in long-term studies such as engineering, etc.; $500,000 worth of aluminum warehouses. Denmark: Planning to train Vietnamese nurses; have provided assistance for refugees. France:. Since 1056 have provided $100 mil- lion in assistance; 500 people working in Vietnam-medical, educational, cultural mis- sions. Germany: $20 million In assistance; can't send troops; have provided physicians for medical school, technicians, and ambulances. Ireland: Financial support In the amount of 1,000 pounds. Italy: 9-man surgical team. Luxembourg: Is planning to help but not sure how. Holland: Antibiotics; agreed to send medi- cal team. Spain: Medicines, equipment, and blan- kets. Switzerland; 10. microscopes. United Kingdom: Personnel in Vietnam advisory and professors; couple million dol- lars worth of equipment. Argentina: 2 military observers-study pos- sible assistance. Brazil: Coffee, medical supplies. Ecuador: Medicines. Guatemala: .'T, yphoid pare typhoid serum. Several other Central American countries (including Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Saivadpr,,and others) have been trying to muster a Prior to July 16, 1964, only 10 nations were assisting the war in South Vietnam includ- iing the United States. All others listed above TRAVEl? 18 NO LONGER A NANDI CAP FOR THE HANDICAPPED Mr. 8 l1 TLE'I'T, Mr. President, it is re ziarkable how, very much is being done in; recent years to assist the handicapped posit will be accepted In cash or traveler's in. leading a normal, useful life. -- checks, and will be deducted from the to- - Not so long ago travel was a difficult tal rental charges, with a cash refund or balance due payable at the rental's comple- and harassing business for a man in a tion. wheelchair. Now, however, the airlines have agreed on a standardized policy for serving the handicapped.' No longer are they refused, passage. at the airport be- cause of the him of a ticket taker. Increasingly, hotel and motel keepers are installing the facilities-level en- trances, wide doorways-required by the handicapped. Soon, perhaps, the de- pressing experience of being denied ac- commodations because of physical bar- riers will be a thing of the past. Many civic leaders have given their time and effort to improving the lot of the handicapped. The leadership to the movement and the confidence in its suc- cess, however, have come from one source: - The President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped under the chairmanship of the late Gen. Melvin Mass and Harold Russell. Once again the Committee has come up with a new imaginative and useful program. Working in conjunction with the nationwide Hertz rent-a-car system, there are now hand-controlled cars avail- able for the use of the handicapped in nine of our Nation's largest cities. The service will be a boon to all traveling handicapped and the Hertz Co. is to be congratulated on its interest and coop- eration. Mr. President,. I ask unanimous con- sent that a statement from the Presi- dent's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the state- ment was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RENTAL CARS WITH AND CONTROLS NOW AVAILABLE TO HANDICAPPED TRAyELERs Hertz Rent A Car, in cooperation with the President's Committee, now makes cars equipped with hand controls available to handicapped persons who must travel in connection with their business or for pleas- ure. This service is available at the present time in the following cities: New York, N.Y. (212) MU 8-7744; De- troit, Mich. (313) WO 2-3290; Chicago, Ill. (312) DE 7-7272; Washington, D.C.'(202) 296-6500; Los Angeles, Calif. (213) MA 6- 4841; San Francisco, Calif. (415) PR 1-2200; Miami, Fla. (305) FR 7-4601; Dallas, Tex. (214) RI 1-4611; Boston, Mass. (617) HU 2-9100. There will be no additional charge for hand control equipment. Standard rental rates will apply. The cars must be returned to one of the above cities. At least 2 days advance notice is requested so that the equipment may be installed and tested prior to the rental. A valid driver's license must be presented at the time of rental. To place a reservation, handicapped travel- ers can call collect, person to" person, to the city in which he wishes to rent a car, and ask to speak to "the man in charge of hand con- trols." To avoid a wait when picking up the car, the traveler should tell the hand control man by telephone whether he has a Hertz or other nationally recognized cred- it. card f he, 46hp he may state his place of employment, resident, address, and, a personal reference. Renters without a nationally recognized charge card will be asked to leave a cash deposit, based on the length of rental and estimate of anticipated mileage. The de- TECHNOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that there be printed in the RECORD for the convenient refer- ence of other Senators a penetrating and important article by Claude Witze, senior editor of Air Force and Space Digest. The article appeared in the May edition of this professional journal. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: OUR ANSWER TO FUTURE THREATS: ACTION OR REACTION? (By Claude Witze) There is no denying that America, and Americans, have learned a lot from the cold war. Most of the lessons were taken the hard way. We have been amazed by many things, ranging from the Communists' speedy de- vvelopment of thermonuclear weapons to Sputnik and to the swamp war being waged against freedom in South Vietnam. It seems a bit incredible, for example, that the Wright brothers came out of Dayton, Ohio, more than 60 years ago and that U.S. airpower has dominated world aviation, yet the Russians were first into space. This was because we willed it so. Sputnik could have been ours; we were warned that the Russians were moving into space, and we did less than we could have done. . This kind of technological conservatism has been with us for a long time. The Wright brothers contended with it. In the years immediately after Kitty Hawk, the boys from the bicycle shop strove to interest their own Government in the airplane. The skepticism was almost overwhelming. It was not until after the British, Germans, and the French displayed serious curiosity that the Signal Corps ordered the first military aircraft. Octave Chanute speculated that a European country would have bought the rights before we got around to it, except for the possibility that the Wrights could be kept "dangling in the expectation that some of your competi- tors will discover the secret and they can get your invention cheaper." In this case, the assessment of a techno- logical capability was more important to the United States than the capability itself. If the Wright brothers had said they knew how to build a controllable airplane but couldn't convince anyone they could, there would have been no sale. History would have been different, but the possibility of that having happened is remote because someone in Eu- rope would have believed them, even if their countrymen had refused to. The quality of judgment exercised in evalu- ating information is critical. It was sad on the eve of Pearl Harbor, terrible during the events leading to the Korean war, faulty in its estimate of the Soviet nuclear timetable. In South Vietnam, where coups take place more frequently than a CIA agent gets his hair cut, somebody is consistenty wrong. Here is the place to introduce a disturbing axiom: "The most dangerous development at the decisionmaking level of any government is overcentralization of the assessment of tech- nological, military, and political intelligence." At stake are the paths to be taken in mili- tary strategy. and the efforts made to face up to technological and other threats. These paths and efforts are always deter- mined by those who may evaluate intelli- gence against the background of,their own Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 12234 Approved For Release 2003/1Q/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE June prejudices, opinions, and ambitions. With names, but he has replied to the Wiesner- The Russett paper was part of a lard- -- a system of checks and balances, pitting one York school port. Counsel for the Arms Control and bfts- prejudice against another, there is at least "Some of the more conservative scientific armament Agency said that "no specific arms hope for objectivity in the final assessment. voices," is the way he identified them in a control or reduction proposal has resulted But with centralized control of intelligence, recent Washington speech. And he said, from suggestions contained in the study, al- the men in power may accept or reject intel- "They see little possibility in the immediate though it provided some useful information. ligence information according to whether it future for new breakthroughs of major pro- As with any study in this field, only those confirms or refutes opinions already held. poritions in weapons technology, and they ideas which are clearly in the best interests Let us examine a recent example. suggest that the scientific community needs of our national security will be selected as a Not long ago, at a public luncheon in Wash- a short breathing spell in which to search basis of formulating U.S. arms-control pol- ington, a high Defense Department official out the limits of military potential in the icy." scoffed at reports that a new source of energy discoveries they have already made." Neverthgless, the point was made in the is being explored and that It might have an Then the general spotted another and Senate debate that the ACDA had been ad- application in weaponry. The project, it was more psychological argument for a conserva- vised, in the words of Senator JOHN G. emphasized, is only conceptual. The speaker tive approach to new weaponry. This is the TowER, Republican, of Texas, "to bury our was asked what his opinion would be if we one that says, "New U.S. weapons will auto- head in the sand and ignore what our ene- were offered sound intelligence information matically trigger the U.S.S.R. to undertake mies are doing." More precisely, the Russett indicating that the Russians were making still more costly programs for countering report suggests that complete and accurate spectacular progress toward an operational our weapons, and we, in turn, would then information-intelligence is another name capability with this new energy source. His haveto try to offset these developments, and for it-about a potential enemy's capabili- answer, in substance, was that he would not so on up the never-ending spiral" ties will not prevent an arms race. It sug- believe the intelligence. Within days, the General LeMay did not throw any brick- gests, further, that too much intelligence same subject was brought up at a hearing bats, he declared that those who argue along can fertilize competition. before ' the Joint Congressional Committee this line "advocate that the United States "If the weaker side is to be satisfied with on Atomic Energy. A witness from the should try to establish a condition of mill- inferiority," the report says, "it must have Brookhaven National Laboratory testified terry stability between the two great powers, some assurancethat conflict is improbable." that his organization has started basic re- and that from this condition of balance we Later there is a discussion of how this can search looking for the key to this new source might be able to steadily and mutually lower be done. One idea of Professor Russett is of energy. If the secret can be unlocked, ourselves to more peaceful plateaus. This that "it might be desirable, for instance, the hydrogen bomb will be overshadowed. school, therefore, classifies all new weapon to reassure the Soviets that no Polaris-sub- The important point Is that one Pentagon systems as destabilizing, and it urges that marines were within firing range of the official, who doubtless approves of the Brook- we hold off investing in radical new systems." U.S.S.R.; and yet we could not afford to haven effort, apparently would not consider What the general really is warning us pinpoint the location of all of them. One the applicability of this concept to weaponry, against is the acceptance of this philosophy, proposed solution is for the Soviets to be even if he were told the potential enemy had because it entails a bigger risk than its pro- able to demand that a few submarines, of a headstart. ponents realize The basic idea that the their choosing, surface- and make their posi- it is currently fashionable to cite the steady contribution of technology to future military tions known." Presumably this would con- increase in Federal funds for research. and systems will be small is in error. During the vine the Russians we were not preparing development, and certainly we are accumu- LeMay career, as in that of captains and for an attack, and, by calming their nuclear lating scientific knowledge at a record rate. lieutenants many years his junior, other jitters, might prevent a preemptive attack But the major problem of the next decade prophets have been wrong. And the opti- by them on us. will be the application of that knowledge to mists have not been wrong as often as have More germane to this discussion of tech- translate it into working systems for military the conservatives. nological intelligence and how it is used missions. If we don't want to believe there The classic example is Dr. Vannevar Bush's is the Russett suggestion that this informa- is a threat, the working systems will never statement that the ICBM was technological- tion could go through automatic data- show up in the arsenal of the free world. ly impossible. There are others. Take the processing equipment. The input .would be Another aspect, brought to mind by debate over the H-bomb. President Harry from sensors, presumably in satellites. The Brookhaven's search for a new energy source, the is the concern over the proliferation of Truman gave project a green light, but machine would be programed so that it give thermonuclear weapons. The Chinese have the decision was a marginal one. What out only sparse information, filtering out shaken us for what is only the first time. would the situation be today if we had re- "sensitive" material that mightprovoke one Prance has a program and so does Great frained from this effort because of any single side or the other to start a war. Britain. There is talk of the possibility In argument or combination of arguments? It Other ideas proposed include the use of a long list of "nth powers," from Sweden is enough to say that progress on the ICBM observation systems with limited capability to Egypt. The full truth is that technology and on the H-bomb exceeded expectations; or automatic measures for delaying the is in a constant surge against any and all of and because it did, the peace has been pre- transmission of information. Of the latter, man's efforts to curb the spread of thereto- served. -There are many who feel that the "One example is building observation satel- nuclear weapons. If it were possible to find climate in 1966 is disturbingly like the cli- lites which record images on film that must a way for nations to stop building and stor- mate when the ICBM and H-bomb decisions be recovered and processed before the in- ing bombs and missiles of this type, the were made, reluctantly. formation becomes available. This would Brookhavens of the world still would seek There is no Intention here to imply that provide no data, for instance, on the current new sources of greater energy. It is their U.S. policy is being made by men with blind location of mobile missiles, as would a satel- scientific mission to press for technological spots about technological progress behind lite equipped with television." advances. the Iron and Bamboo Curtains. Nor are we Then there is a proposal that transmis- Edward Teller, fixing his sights on the part disarming unilaterally in the belief that this sion of information be stopped entirely dur- of the spectrum in which his expertise can- 1s the way to prevent war. It is essential to ing a crisis, and another giving the observed not be questioned, has said that nuclear ex- recognize, however, that these philosophies nation a power to veto what information is plosives "are being developed with great exist, that they are widely promulgated, and transmitted. speed and in an unpredictable manner." that they affect the decisionmaking process. While Senate critics centered their fire on And he adds, "technical surprises are an al- This was brought home to the U.S. Con- the fact that the Arms Control Agency was most-yearly occurrence in this rapidly ad- gress a couple of months ago during the de- spending public money to get this kind of vancing field." bate on authorization and funding for the advice, unaccepted even by the Agency, the The debate on the nuclear test ban treaty Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. point to be made here is that the philosophy is, over, and it will not be reargued here. There was nothing unusual about the fact behind it has some prevalence. The treaty aside, it remains that Dr. Teller that ACDA had both friends and foes on the ' This becomes vitally important if an eval- is but a voice. There are more influential floor of the House and Senate, or that both uator of intelligence should adhere to such men, some of whom believe military tech- sides, In the heat of the argument, resorted a philosophy, taking the attitude that no- nology Is on a plateau and should be kept to some alarmism. body should "bother me with facts, it's evi- there. They look for no surprises in the In the course of this discussion, which dence I'm looking for." This danger is dis- area of weaponry. It is a concept expressed went on for several days, an interesting de- cussed at length in "The Strategy of Sub- recently in print by Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner velopment was the introduction into the version," by Paul W. Blackstock (Quad- and Dr. Herbert F. York. They hold that CONGRESSIONAL RECORD (Senate proceedings, rangle Books, 1964). Professor Blackstock improved weaponry escalates international Mar. 10, 1965) of the text of a study called says that Allen Dulles, former head of the tension and makes war more likely. It would "Information and Strategic Stability," by Central Intelligence Agency, recognized that appear the only surprise they are willing to Bruce Russett, a political scientist from Yale "prejudice is the most serious occupational face is from another country-not necessar- University. Professor Russett took this as- hazard we have in intelligence work." Then ily Russia-when it succeeds in overturning signment from the Institute for Defense - he points out that CIA itself allowed such the power advantages now claimed by the Analyses, which had a contract sponsored a factor to distort its estimates before the United States. jointly by the ACDA, the Department of De- Cuban Bay of Pigs invasion in 1962. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, recently retired fense, and the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test "From the point of view of management USAF -Chief of Staff, has avoided mentioning Station. ACDA's share was $10,000. and control," the Blackstock text says, "there Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300180033-4