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December 15, 2016
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October 27, 2003
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August 2, 1965
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August 2, 1 9Rproved I& I P~713(($ 00300190002-7 For Fib I&SOS-Y6 O .recent testimony before the House Post Office and Civil Service Committee and t le House Appropriations Committee an- nounced a -new policy of the Defense De- partment to release military personnel from billets which. can be filled by civilian employees. Mr. Paul clearly states that one of the results of this new policy can be to "increase combat strengths," a need which our president .has recently stated. As reported in the Journal of the Armed Forces on July 24, 1965, Secretary Paul stated further: Clearly, military personnel should be util- ized incombat units or in units whose mis- sion and- cpi tingency plans call for the deployment of personnel on short notice to a combat environment. Thus,'the proper use of military man- power is a subject of serious concern to men of stature and knowledge.,,. It is not an idle issue which is idly raised. The letter from Mr. Wolkomir and the news release follow; -NATIONAL . FEDERATION OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES, Washington, D.C., July 9, 1965. DEAR CoNeRESSMAy:. The use of military personnel in traditionally civilian positions in the Federal service is costly, wasteful, and unsound from every standpoint. It is a practice, however, which not only Is widespread but is accelerating at an alarming rapid rate. Because of the importance of this prob- lem nationally, I am taking the liberty of calling to your attention a statement just released to the press and other news media on behalf of the NFF'E, I would appreciate any comment you may care to make on this vital iss}Ie. Yours sincerely, N. T. WoiaroMnt, President,, President Nathan T, Wolkomir, of the Na- tional Federal of Federal Employees, today assailed the Department of Defense for . "fia- grant failure to take effective action-to curb the wide and still growing use of. military personnel in civilian positions." At the same time he said that he was, .presenting to Representative DAVID N. HEN- nExsoi', of North Carolina, chairman of the -Manpower Utilization Subcommittee of the House Post _Ofiice and Civil Service Com- mittee, "additional hard-fact case evideoceof this entire situation, which is worsening from week to week." The NFFE executive cited figures from the Secretary of Defense's own directorate of statistical services which, he asserted, "Pro- vide Irrefutable proof of the seriousness of this problem," He said, that in the period .19.60--64, there was a 110,000 increase in, uni- formed personnel In the Army with a corre- sponding decline of 20,500 civilian jobs. In the Air Force uniformed personnel jumped by 42,046 while civilian employees dropped by 18,000. In the Navy there was a 50,000 increase In uniformed people while 14,300 civilians were, dropped. "These figures prove beyond all doubt that military are replacing civilians in tradition- ally civilian jobs in all three services at an accelerated pace and all indications we have are that this trend is..continuing," President Wolkomir said. He declared that "we continue to receive from DOD pious platitudes and vague assur- ances which give little indication of a genu- ine desire to take ehgctive remedial action. Moreover, we find that regardless of DOD policy enunciated at the Pentagon, the use of military personnel in civilian positions not only persists but is mounting at many Installations and bases all across the Nation. "We find it incredible that, the Pentagon does not know that this is the case. We find It shocking that, knowing what is taking place, there is continued flagrant failure to act forthrightly to curb this wasteful, costly, inefficient practice." The NFFE executive said that while some of .the blame,-for, this practice must be laid at the door of Congress, since insuf- ficient appropriations for civilian support services account in part for it, "the Depart- ment of Defense cannot evade the major responsibility." "The fact is," he said, "that this problem has been with us for many years and has been mounting in extent and seriousness. Much, of it, experience shows conclusively, stems from the desire of some base com- manders to have uniformed personnel in -virtually all positions, even those clearly, Obviously and historically civilian in nature. At many installations, therefore, we find outright and persistent violation of DOD policies and regulations dealing with man- power utilization, Is DOD, below Chief of Staff level, not aware of the fact that military control of manpower, both military and civil- ian, places them in the position of adjudicat- ing their own violations of DOD policy? "This is a situation which has been of great and growing concern to Congress. Representative HENDERSON and his subcom- mittee have given much attention to it and are to be highly commended for that concern. "But the time has now come for action. DOD has tolerated violation of its policies far too long. DOD, for whatever reason, has failed to get the message to its base com- -manders and others charged with carrying out policy at the local level. - "The dangers in the complete militariza- tion of the Defense Establishment long have been recognized by successive Chief Execu- tives, including Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. The danger is real and it Is present, and its further, growth is a national hazard of the first magnitude. Further, its growth repre- sents a callous negation of. the military- civilian team concept in our efense posture which is so completely vital to our national security. Loss of essential civilian skills in the military establishment is proceeding at an alarming pace. DOD's complacency in the face of this loss is incomprehensible. "DOD's response to the presentation of facts on this issue is evasion and equivoca- tion. Therefore, it is essential for Congress to make known its concern more emphat- ically, more directly, and more forcefully than ever before. "It grows increasingly clear that drastic action will be required to bring a reversal in DOD action on this issue, which is so vital to every American citizen." WAR ON POVERTY (Mr. LANGEN (at the request of Mrs. REID of Illinois) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. LANGEN. Mr. Speaker, I see the Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amend- ments of 1965 as the most effective war on poverty legislation yet passed this session. When you consider that three-fourths of the people accepted under the old act were unemployed at the time, you must realize that this new expanded program will provide means to lessen the numbers of jobless even more. It is mostly a lack of income that creates poverty and with the trades taught under the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, these jobless people are given the skills necessary to become wage earners. . 18269 It is reported that there are about 31/2 million disabled Americans today who need the services of this program. There are 300,000 added to this total every year. If we are to meet the demands of training the disabled of this country, we must rehabilitate and place in employment more than the 135,000 yearly figure we reached last year. This newly passed legislation will provide for reaching the annual goal of 200,000 rehabilitated in the next 3 years or less. I also congratulate the authors of the amendments for recognizing one of the great needs of our present-day society; that of rehabilitating the mentally retarded youths and adults. In 1964, the vocational rehabilitation program reached more than 7,200 mentally re- tarded Americans and the expanded pro- gram intends to reach even more. The bill also provides for assistance in the construction of new workshops and rehabilitation facilities and in the opera- tion of new facilities. These facilities are the tools with which the trained men and women shape the lives of these un- fortunate individuals who seek their help. I know that we in Minnesota take a great pride in our efforts in behalf of the handicapped individual and welcome these new strides in the direction that we, as a State, have struggled in. BREAD PRICES ARE UP (Mr. FINDLEY (at the request of Mrs. REID of Illinois) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. FINDLEY, Mr. Speaker, on July 1, Members of this body received a letter from Agriculture Secretary Orville L. Freeman in which he declared: Consumer prices for wheat products have remained stable. Bread prices in the past 12 months have averaged around 21 cents a loaf or less, virtually unchanged from the period before the certificate program went into effect. He quoted derisively predictions made a year ago that the certificate program would lead to higher consumer prices. By using loose phrases like "averaged around" and "virtually unchanged" the Secretary protected himself while at- tempting to mislead you. The truth is bread prices are up. The Department of Agriculture Crop Reporting Board issued a report July 30 showing on page 23 that average price paid by farmers for white bread per pound-the average loaf weighs 1 pound-on June 15, 1965 was 21.2 cents compared with 20.6 cents on June 15, 1964. This increase of 0.6 cent amounted to 3 percent, an increase that is espe- cially significant when one considers that low-income families rely most heavily on bread. Let us not forget to that the farm bill (H.R. 9811) proposes to raise the value of the domestic wheat certificate by at least another 50 cents a bushel. Secre- tary Freeman admits this means 0.7 cent rise in the cost of a pound loaf of bread. Secretary Freeman issued a speech text today In_vwhch he predicted net Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 18270 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R00030019000 - ust I96 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE g farm income will be reduced by as much the ethical and moral obligations of a Our friends and enemies alike will make as 50 percent if Congress fails to act. civilized society as well as to increase the their judgment and plan their fut`ure on This horror story is pure speculative fic- degree of reliability of scientific informa- the basis of the choice we now make. tion and grossly misleading. If no farm tion obtained through their use. The present challenge is merely one in a legislation is passed this year, wheat To put this policy into effect, the bill long line of challenges, past and future. farmers will be covered by the very same provides for an independent Office of The question is not "can we afford program Secretary Freeman twisted Laboratory Animal Welfare to be estab- to stand our ground in Vietnam," but congressional arms to enact in 1962. lished in the Department of Health, Edu- rather "can we afford not to." The an- Feed grains and cotton farmers will be cation, and Welfare. It would be headed swer is clear to our President, it is clear covered by programs amended in 1958 by a coordinator appointed by the Presi- to our military leaders, it is clear to me- and 1963 which, with proper administra- dent who would be charged with the re- and I believe that it is clear to the over- tion, will cut Government costs, reduce sponsibility for the promotion of the best whelming majority of the American surpluses, strengthen income opportu- care, handling and use of laboratory people. nities for the farmer in the marketplace, animals by every practicable means. For and make him less dependent on Gov- example, he could send consultants to The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. ernment payments. any laboratory requesting such assist- ALBERT). Under previous order of the As the day for reckoning on the farm ance, furnish advice on the design, con- House, the gentleman from New York bill (H.R. 9811) approaches, we should struction and maintenance of facilities [Mr. ROSENTHAL] is recognized for 60 bear in mind that Secretary Freeman's for laboratory animals, and establish minutes. office often becomes a propaganda mill training programs aimed at improving [ ROSENTHAL - addressed the and his statements are not always reli- the skills of animal handlers in the able. laboratories. House. His remarks will appear here- A great deal of work has gone into the after in the Appendix.] HUMANE CARE OF ANIMALS USED drafting of this legislation to assure hu- IN RESEARCH mane treatment for laboratory animals The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under without impeding their legitimate use for previous order of the House, the gentle- (Mr. SPRINGER (at the request of Mrs. medical research. I am requesting the man from Michigan [Mr. DIGGS] is rec- REIn of Illinois) was granted permission chairman of our committee to schedule ognized for 60 minutes. to extend his remarks at this point in the early hearings on this bill and whole- RECORD and to include extraneous mat- heartedly urge ctm His remarks will appear hereafter in the I "I ter.) M r . SPRINGER. Mr. Speaker, I have _V - I - h __ Appendix.] IN VIETNAM today introduced a bill to provide for the THE CH humane care of animals used in scien- (Mr. PRICE asked and was given per- WATER-A NATURAL RESOURCE tific research. mission to address the House for i min- The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under Experimental use of animals in lab- ute and to revise and extend his re- oratories undoubtedly has contributed to marks.) - previous order of the House, the gentle- the achievements of medical research for Mr. PRICE. Mr. Speaker, the Presi- man from California [Mr. TUNNEY] is the benefit of all mankind. dent has recommended to the Congress recognized for 10 minutes. The Congress, as well as many of our and the people that the United States (Mr. TUNNEY asked and was given State legislatures, have pondered for greatly expand its military assistance to permission. to revise and extend his re many years the question of how best to South Vietnam. Slightly more than a marks.) relieve the suffering of laboratory ani- month ago there were 72,000 American Mr. TUNNEY. Mr. Speaker, it is time, mals and at the same time to safeguard troops in South Vietnam. Soon there I believe, to make a few overdue observa- the legitimate interest of science. may be more than 100,000 Americans in tions about water-A natural resource As ranking minority member of both that country. As a result, we face an which is necessary to all forms of lift! the Committee on interstate and For- increase in the draft; and our soldiers and upon which our national prosperity eign Commerce and its Subcommittee on face longer tours of duty in Vietnam. is dependent. Public Health and Welfare, I have long These are painful decisions, but there It is not sufficient just to talk abou; sought a solution for this problem. is-in my mind, at least-no doubt about the inadequate supply of water for our - The bill which I am cosponsoring with the answer. For the challenge in Viet- major population centers throughout the my committee colleague, the distin- nam is a challenge to the free world. We Nation. It is not enough to frighten our guished gentleman from Florida [Mr. have always maintained that the peo- citizens in the and southwest and the ROGERS] will not prevent medical re- ple of Vietnam must be free to deter- congested east with prognoses of water searchers from using animals, but it will mine their own government and their rationing. Much more is required than require laboratories to maintain high own course in world affairs. That has speeches and alarms and then more standards of care to spare these animals always been our sole demand. In mak- alarms and speeches. avoidable pain and discomfort. Labora- ing that demand, we have affirmed the What is needed is planning for future tories failing to conform to such stand- fundamental American idea that it is water needs; and after planning, the con- ards would be ineligible for Federal re- _ the people of a country, and they alone, struction of adequate facilities to guar- search funds. who have the right to decide what kind antee an available supply of water for Several years ago, our committee ob- of country they want to live in. In 1776 all agricultural, industrial, and domestic tained enactment of humane slaughter- our forebearers believed that truth to be uses. ing legislation to curb abuses and un- self-evident and we believe it now. There is no single answer to the prob- necessary cruelty in meatpacking plants. No man, and no nation, need ask to- lem of water scarcity. A solution must Surely, we can assure minimum stand- ward whom the challenge of tyranny is be found by employing numerous tech- ards of humane care for laboratory ani- really directed in Vietnam. The free- niques of engineering and a developing mals. dom of the Vietnamese people has be- science. It is not enough to build reser- I am glad to say that this bill has the come inseparable from the freedom of voirs and transport water hundreds of support of both the American Humane all people, including our own. miles from source to consumer. A broad Association and the Humane Society of We are engaged in the test of a propo- attack against the mysteries of low-cost the United States. This is the first time sition-whether this planet can be gov- salt water conversion must be sustained that the two largest humane organiza- erned in freedom and in peace, or and new methods to antisepticize pol- tions have endorsed a single legislative whether free men must inevitably sue- luted waters must be found. approach to this Problem. cumb to violence. We are no longer The dilemma of sufficient water for Section 1 of my bill declares it to be protected by geography. Our safety future America is not for the States alone the policy of the United States that now depends on the strength of our pur- to resolve. It is an issue of national sig- animals used in laboratories shall be pro- pose, and our willingness to sacrifice. nificance and must be the subject of na- cured and cared for in a humane man- Make no mistake-if we decline or tional legislation. Rivers cut across ner and the number used shall be re- evade the challenge now in Vietnam, we State lines, rain which falls in one State duced as far as possible, in order to fulfill will soon be facing it somewhere else. is collected for man's use in another, Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 2, N roved For Ree~ e 11 A l IKO 0300190002-7 grant-in-aid device in our Federal system is, the fact that organizations. of State, county, and municipal governments- the grant recipients, so to speak-- strongly support this provision for the systematic congressional review of new grant, programs. Another title authorizes Federal de- partments.and agencies to render tech nical_.assistance and training services to State and. local governments on a re- imbursable basis, where such services are not conveniently available through ordi- nary channels. This will enable State and local governments to avoid the ex- pense of unnecessary duplication of spe- cialized or technical. services, and at the same time permit more economical use of Federal facilities. Congress has al- ready authorized such arrangements in the caseof the Bureau of the Census, the Internal Eevenjle Service, and certain Other agencies. The next, title establishes a coordi- nated intergovernmental urban assist- ance policy. It also requires local gov- ernment review of certain applications for Federal programs and encourages a broader approach far review, at the met- ropolitan area level, of applications for loans as well as grant projects affecting urban development. Urban renewal and .public housing are not included among the activities subject . to review, however, since at the present stage of urban de- velopment they are usually of primary concern to only one unit of government, namely, the central city. The title basically serves to strengthen metropoli- tan planning machinery and encourages more orderly metropolitan growth. It also favors the, eligibility of units of gen- eral local government-cities, towns, and counties-in contrast to special-purpose districts and authorities. Another title amends the Federal Prop- erty and Administrative Services Act by prescribing a uniform policy and proce- dure for.urban land transactions and use undertaken by the General Services Ad- ministration. By requiring acquisition, use, and disposal of land In urban areas by this agency to be consistent, to the extent possible, with local zoning regula- tions and development objectives, this title will also help make-urban planning more effective. The final, title establishes a uniform Federal, policy of relocation payments and assistance for all persons, businesses, and farm operations displaced by direct Federal programs and by programs con- ducted through Federal grants-in-aid to State and local governments. It re- quires all such grant-in-aid programs to assure that standard housing is provided or being provided for those displaced, and provides for full Federal reimbursement of the first $25,000 of any relocation pay- ment and Federal sharing of any cost beyond that ,amount on the basis of the regular - cost-sharing formula of the grant program. As I stated at -the outset, President Johnson has. stressed the need for creat- ing a new dynamic federalism and the vital role of.State and local governments in achieving our goals. He has said: What much of the world has still to learn- and we must not forget-is that levels of government must function interdependently 18283 if they are to succeed independently. Ours I offer my full and wholehearted sup- is a system of interdependence. Authority port to the President in his efforts to seek is divided not to prevent action but to assure a lasting peace--a peace that is based action, upon the principle that the Vietnamese This bill is a major step on the road people shall, in the President's words, to improving our interdependent system. "shape their own destiny in free elections The major organizations of governmen- in the south or throughout all Vietnam tal officials in this country-the Gover- under international supervision, and they nors' conference, the National League of shall not have any government imposed Cities, the National'Association of Coun- upon them by force and terror." ties, and the U.S. conference of mayors, I offered this support for efforts to support the principles embodied in this secure a negotiated peace on May 5, when legislation. They are deeply interested I felt compelled to oppose the Presi- in action by the Congress to improve in- dent's request for $700 million in addi- tergovernmental relations. Various Fed- tional funds for Vietnam. I said then: eral agencies and departments have also Let us begin by pledging ourselves un- expressed interest and support for dif- equivocally to support the basic propositions ferent provisions of the bill. I look for- of democracy in a Vietnam at last free from ward to prompt and thorough hearings war. Let us spell it out in simple terms. on this important legislation. First. The people of South Vietnam shall control Mr. Speaker, under unanimous con- their own government. Second. I include the text of the bill in the allowed d t t Every qualified citizen shall participate freely in elections ons and d RECORD immediately following my re- in government office. marks: Third. The government shall not permit any individual or collective reprisals against persons who have collaborated in any way (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of with one of the parties during the war or Mr. PRICE) was granted permission to against members of such persons' families. extend his remarks at this point in the Fourth. A basic constitutional form of RECORD and to include extraneous government shall be adopted within a rea- matter.) sonable time, subject to approval of the people. [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear Fifth. Elections shall be held in accord- hereafter in the Appendix.] ance with the constitution at the earliest possible date. (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. PRICE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. PRICE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. OTTINGER'S remarks will ap- I asked further that we spell out our support for secure guarantees of any negotiated settlement, in the form of an international peace-keeping force, and our willingness to withdraw our troops and relinguish our bases when order and freedom have been restored. I am well aware, however, that the President must contend with forces which, in the name of "national honor," oppose a negotiated peace and call for an ever-increasing escalation of this war. These are the ones who call for "victory at any price," even though their "vic- tory" would destroy what we sought to save, weaken-the fabric of freedom and democracy we seek to strengthen and sacrifice the lives of a generation of --u..,, ,4merican youth. (Mr. BROWN of California (at the re- quest of Mr. PRICE) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BROWN of California. Mr. Speaker, last Wednesday, following the President's speech on Vietnam, I was asked by the press for my comments- as were many other Members of Con- gress, I am sure. I responded with a statement which said, in essence, the following: Despite my opposition to the escalation of the war in Vietnam, I must commend the President on his speech. He was moderate and restrained .in the actions which he pro- posed to take,-and he gave us increased hope for peace by the further definition of the goals we seek In "Vietnam, and by his in- creasingly emphatic assertion of our desire and willingness to accept the help of the United Nations, or any of its members, in bringing about negotiations for the settle- p it of?tjs 1Wnecg9s T and undeclared war. lam confident tab, at ttilii F,,, ct~,4ent W1lt do all in his power to prevent the tragedy of world war III. voices of destruction, I must point out that despite the moderation of the Pres- ident's course we have this week reached a new stage in the war we are fighting in southeast Asia-a new rung on the ladder of escalation. This is a rung which brings us measurably closer to the end of the ladder-that last rung of "spasm and insensate war," in the words of Herman Kahn. Relatively speaking, the new step is, of course, a small one. We will only add 50,000 troops to the 75,000 now in Viet- nam, and we will double monthly draft callups from 17,000 to 35,000. A few billion dollars will be added to this year's military appropriation request. The ac- tions which are being taken and proposed to be taken are a part of our policy of "carefully measured response, " whereby we escalate in a planned and deliberate way, carefully noting the results-or lack thereof-as we proceed down the road in the direction of worldwide nuclear war. The major difficulty with this policy stems from the basically unmeasurable Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 Approved Fogg ?1A,L04tMP6M6R0003001909pu?yust 2, 1965 and irrational nature of war. How can we tell whether the National Liberation Front and Ho Chi Minh will respond af- firmatively to the sweet reason of our bombs, or whether they may decide that the destruction of their meager physical resources and the sacrifice.of a few hun- dred thousand more of their long-suffer- ing people is better than surrender or settlement on U.S. terms? The answer is that we cannot know. And the further we proceed with our campaign of death and destruction, the smaller becomes the significance to our opponents of a halt in our military measures and the greater becomes the chance of war with China and Russia. History is replete with examples of peoples and armies that fought to the death for far less noble motives than the ones which inspire the Vietnamese in their resistance to U.S. military might. Despite our calculated downgrading of the enemy's purpose and aim, there can be no question but that the great major- ity of the Vietnamese we are fighting see themselves as the instrument of a transcendant purpose-the purpose of national freedom and liberation. As the U.S. military presence and role looms increasingly large, it but confirms to the peasants of Vietnam, and indeed to all of Asia, that this is a continuation of the Asiatic's war of liberation from the domi- nation of the white colonialist. Whether we like it or not, there is no other ade- quate explanation of the growing sup- port for the National Liberation Front among the peasants and the increasing difficulty of the Saigon government in maintaining the semblance of a govern- ment and a military force. So, by the very act of escalation, we are strengthening the arguments of the Front. We are strengthening their image as fighters for freedom. We are weak- ening the motivation of the people we claim to be assisting. We are increasing- ly and inevitably confirming to the world a picture of this war as a race war-a war of the strong against the weak, with- out moral or ethical justification, and where the only result will be the genocide of the Vietnamese people. This is the tragic result of a policy of continued escalation under the condi- tions which exist in Vietnam. We have armed our enemies in the Communist world with the strongest weapon in the arsenal of man-the weapon of martyr- dom in the cause of freedom. If this is so, then where does this sterile policy lead? Already we hear the cry to bomb Hanoi, to bomb the dikes which contain the Red River, and to bomb the Chinese nuclear installations. Just as we said, 6 months ago, that we had no intention of bombing North Viet- nam and that this war had to be won on the ground of South Vietnam, now we say that we have no intention of bombing Hanoi or Communist China. The very policy of escalation, however, demands that we be prepared to do this. It de- mands that there be no permanent host- ages, no privileged sanctuaries, and no credibility gap as to our intention to go all the way-including the way of nuclear destruction. This is exactly what the "war hawks" are pressuring the Presi- dent for. World war III may well be the first war in history which no country wanted but which was precipitated by the care- fully measured steps of one of the par- ticipants, drawn irresistably to a dance of destruction by the fatal and insane logic of course of unlimited escalation- as lemmings are driven to the sea. Because I feel so strongly on this mat- ter I am compelled to point out that if this country had acted vigorously 11 years ago to. guarantee the purposes of the Geneva agreement, we would not face the problem we face today. To say this does not solve today's problems, but to understand it may help to avoid the repetition of yesterday's errors. The Geneva agreement provided for free elections under international super- vision-the same election process that we now seek. Our Government gave en- couragement-by its silence if not in more direct ways--when the Govern- ment of South Vietnam, in March 1956 and on numerous other occasions, gave notice that it would not be bound by the Geneva agreement and would not per- mit elections. The leading spokesmen for our Government at that time, in addition to the President and Secretary of State Dulles, were Senate Majority Leader Knowland, Senator McCarthy, Congressman Walter Judd, Vice Presi- dent Nixon, and other exponents of "brinkmanship" and supporters of Chiang Kai-shek. Since that time, the International Control Commission established to police the agreement has been a travesty. In report after report, the Commission begs for the great powers to take action lead- ing to the political settlement of the problems in Vietnam. These pleas have gone unheeded. Let me quote from some of the Commission reports-the fifth in- terim report, dated January 8, 1956: The review of the 4 months' activities pre- sented in this report, in the view of the ma- jority of the Commission, shows a further deterioration of the situation in Vietnam, causes serious concern about the implemen- tation of the Geneva Agreement particularly in view of the continued nonacceptance of the Geneva Agreement and the final declara- tion of the Geneva Conference by the Repub- lic of Vietnam, and also confirms the fear expressed by the majority of the Commission in the fourth interim report that the Com- mission cannot work with any effectiveness unless the difficulties mentioned in these paragraphs are resolved by the Cochairmen and the Geneva powers without further de- lay (par. 53). And from the sixth interim report, dated September 9, 1965: Apart from these difficulties, developments of a serious nature have taken place in South Vietnam. The Commission had already pointed out in previous reports that the transfer of power from the French authori- ties in the south to the authorities of the Republic of Vietnam had created difficulties in the implementation of the agreement in South Vietnam, particularly in view of the fact that the Government of the Republic of Vietnam did not consider itself as bound by the Geneva Agreement, stating that it was not a signatory to that Agreement. On April 5, 1956, the commission received a let- ter from the High Commissioner for France in Saigon dated April 3, 1956, giving notice that the French high command would with- draw completely from South Vietnam on April 28, 1956 (par. 86). The Cochairmen of the Geneva Conference discussed the matter during their talks in London and on May 8, 1956, issued messages to the International commission, to the Government of the French Republic and a joint message to the Governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of Vietnam. They strongly urged both the Governments in Vietnam to make every effort to implement the Geneva Agree- ments, to prevent any future violations of the military provisions of the agreement and to insure the implementation of the political provisions and the principles of the final declaration of the Geneva Conference. They further asked the parties to give the Inter- national Commission all possible assistance and cooperation in future in the exercise of its functions. So far as the political settle- ment is concerned, the Cochairmen requested the two governments to transmit their views about the time required for the opening of consultations on the organization of elec- tions and the time required for holding of elections to unify Vietnam (pas. 88). In spite of the difficulties which it is ex- periencing, the commission will, as directed by the Cochairmen of the Geneva Confer- ence, persevere in its efforts to maintain and strengthen peace in Vietnam on the basis of the fulfillment of the Geneva Agreements on Vietnam with a view to the reunification of the country through the holding of free nationwide elections in Vietnam under the supervision of an International Commission (par. 90). And from the seventh interim report, dated July 12, 1957: A major difficulty facing the Commission arises from the failure to hold consultations between the two parties and free nationwide elections with a view to reunification of Vietnam. The cochairmen in their message of May 8, 1956, to the parties had asked them to indicate the time required for the opening of these consultations and, in their message of the same date to the Commission, had informed it that they attached great im- portance to the maintenance of the cease- fire under the continued supervision of the International Commission for Vietnam. There has been no progress in the matter of the consultations and the elections to the knowledge of the commission. The com- mission is naturally anxious about the dura- tion of its stay in Vietnam which is con- ditioned by the political settlement in this country, as envisaged in the final declaration of the Geneva Conference (par. 68). And from the eighth interim report, dated June 5, 1958: The Commission notes that there has been no consultation between the two parties with a view to holding free nationwide elections for the reunification of the country, and to resolving the political problems and thus facilitating an early termination of the ac- tivities of the Commission and the fulfill- ment of its tasks. The Commission is con- fident that this important problem is en- gaging the attention of the cochairmen and the members of the Geneva Conference (par. 43). And from the ninth interim report, dated March 10, 1959: There has been no progress in the field of political settlement as envisaged in the final declaration of the Geneva Conference. There has been no consultation between the two parties with a view to holding free na- tionwide elections for the reunification of Vietnam. This has maintained the prospect of an indefinite continuance of the Commis- sion and its activities. The Commission hopes that this important problem is engag- ing the attention of the cochairmen and the Geneva powers and that they will take ef- fective measures to resolve this problem as Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August ~, 19d5 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE envisaged in the final declaration of the Geneva Conference (par. 45). And from th,e 10th interim report, dated April 6, 1960: During the period under report, there has been no progress in regard to the political settlement envisaged in the final declaration. The parties have not held consultations with a view to holding free nationwide elections leading to the reunification of Vietnam and thereby facilitating early fulfillment of the tasks assigned to this Commission and the termination of its activities. The Commis- sion is confident that this important prob- lem is engaging the attention of the cochair- men and the Geneva powers and that they will take,whatever measures they deem nec- essary to resolve it (par. 68). And from the 11th interim. report, dated September 18, 1961: Qnce again, during the period under report there has beep . no progress in regard to the political settlement envisaged in the final declaration of the Geneva Conference (par. 88). By this time the insurgency situation in South Vietnam had become serious. One wonders if the warnings issued above, and so completely disregarded by everyone concerned, should not have signalled this eventual outcome. Because of the seriousness of the sit- uation the Commission issued a special report, dated June 2, 1962. The State Department, in one of its rare references to the reports.of the International Con- trol Commission, made the following statement; In June 1.962 a,special report on Vietnam was issued by the International Control Com- mission, a unit created by the Geneva con- ference and composed of a Canadian, an Indian, and a Pole. Though it received little publicity at the time, this report pres. ented evidence of Hanoi's subversive activi- ties in South Vietnam and specifically found Hanoi guilty of violating the Geneva accords. It should be mentioned that the.Polish delegate dissented from the views ex- pressed in the special report, because he considered them too favorable to South Vietnam, submitting a separate state- ment of his own. The following is quoted from the report as submitted by our friends, Canada and India: Since the presentation of the 11th in- terim report, the situation in Vietnam has shown signs of rapid deterioration. The Commission is obliged to make this special report to the cochairmen with regard to the serious allegations of aggression and subver- sion on the part of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam against the Republic of Vietnam and the serious charges of violations of arti- cles 16, 17, and 19 of the Geneva Agreement by the Republic of Vietnam, in receiving military, aid from the United States of America (par. 4). The International Commission wishes to draw the serious and earnest attention of the cochairmen to the gravity of the situation that _ has developed in Vietnam in the last few months. Fundamental provisions of the Geneva Agreement have been violated by bothparties, resulting in ever-increasing tension and threat of resumption of open hostilities. In this situation, the role of the Com- mission for maintenance of peace in Viet- nam is being greatly hampered because of denial of cooperation by both the par- . Mr. Speaker, I cannot fully accept the statement that it was the Communists who cruelly shattered the 1954 agree- ments. This great country, whose lead- ersdid not want the Geneva Agreements, whose Secretary of State refused to sign them, and whose President and Congress gave active encouragement to South Vietnam to unilaterally renounce them, must take a full measure of responsibility for this cruel shattering. Today we know that we were wrong- that, as the President says of the agree- ment, "its purposes are still our own." Today we can look back and recognize that "the machinery of those agreements was tragically weak." But it was the machinery of law, and it held the promise of illustrating the principle that the will of a people expressed in elections supervised by an international body, can substitute for the rule of force and the destruction of war. We could have strengthened that machinery. We could have nourished that principle. In addi- tion, whether we liked the precise re- sults or not, we could have moved the whole world a long step down the road to the rule of law in world affairs instead of another rung up the ladder of escala- tion toward nuclear war. As I pointed out on May 5, the policy of the United States, as expressed by the President in 1954, was: In the case of nations now divided against their will, we shall continue to seek to achieve unity through free elections super- vised by the United Nations to insure that they are conducted fairly. How much, stronger would the United States be in the eyes of the world if we had stood by and supported this policy instead of undermining it? How much greater would be our credibility in in- sisting on elections to reunify East and West Germany or North and South Korea? How many festering sores of conflict all over the globe could be re- solved peaceably by free election under U.N. supervision if we had acted to strengthen this principle instead of to sabotage it? And how much stronger would the United Nations and its peace- keeping functions be, if we had chosen a different course 11 years ago? No human being can answer these questions today, for history gives us only one chance at decisions. However, if we truly support the principle of self-deter- mination for all people-if we truly sup- port the principle of resolving disputes by law rather than by force, and adhere to the goal of a world free from war- then we must look honestly and criti- cally at,our own errors of the past and seek to avoid them in the future. It is fruitless to seek to assess blame for the decisions we made half a genera- tion ago, but we can and should recog- nize- some of the main factors in those decisions: The American people had just given a "mandate for change" to a new administration. A strong, new Sec- retary of State interpreted that man- date, with the approval of the President, to call not for coexistence with or con- tainment of the Communist govern- ments, but for a "rollback" of commu- nism around the world. This "rollback" 18285 was more important than the Geneva accords and justified our ignoring their provisions for a political settlement- if it appeared that the settlement might result in a government sympathetic to communism. Leading voices in the Con- gress supported and encouraged policies built on illusions-illusions such as the possibility that communism in China would disappear if we closed our eyes to its existence. Within the CIA and the military were vo s w o a vise that we had found a leader, in the person of Ngo Dinh Diem, who would cooperate with the United States in maintaining a strong, anti-Communist government in South Vietnam, regardless of the cost. And the military, of course, advised the adminis- tration that South Vietnam could be held if we wished to disregard the re- unification election provisions of the Geneva agreement. Not only could it be held, but it could be held by the Viet- 0 namese alone, provided we paid for and trained a large enough native army. Other voices provided other justifica- tion-the sudden, vital importance of South Vietnam to the defense of the free world; the rich resources that would fall to communism if we neglected our clear duty to be "the guardians at the gate"; the eminent peril to the freedom- loving Cambodians, Indonesians, Lao- tians, Thais, Burmese, and others if South Vietnam "fell to communism" Today, of course, the major justification for continuing is merely that we cannot stop what we have been doing-other- wise it would appear that perhaps we should not have been doing it to begin with. A tragic corollary to our denial of the elections called for in the Geneva Ac- cords is that we justified it on the grounds that elections would result in a Communist government-a govern- ment that would eventually suppress in- dividual freedom and liberty by force and terror. To prevent this, we mpln- tained a family dictatorship which de- prived large segments of the population of freedom and liberty by force and ter- ror. We not only footed the bills for this dictatorship, paid 90 percent of the cost of a half-million-man army to prop it up, and paid for most of the foreign imports necessary for its survival, but we did so in such a way as to allow the wealthy merchants of Saigon to get wealthier at the expense of the U.S. tax- payer; the bureaucrats to line their pock- ets with graft; and the generals to divert payroll funds meant for their armies- provided by our military assistance pro- gram-into their own pockets. If there were any important errors of judgment or practice that could have been made by the United States in con- nection with South Vietnam which were not made, I have yet to find them. Today the government that we deal with in Saigon that is pictured as rep- resenting the people of South Vietnam is that collection of hand-picked gen- erais, wealthy businessmen and landown- ers,, and grafting bureaucrats who have managed to siphon enough out of the multibillion-dollar stream of American All'.) money to .become independent for Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 18286 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE August 2, 1965 life. They, naturally, want to continue this fortunate-for them-state of af- fairs. The President, has said that "nor would surrender in Vietnam bring peace." I say that there is no possibility of vic- tory in the situation we have created there. We can only hope that a benev- olent diety will forgive us our mistakes and allow us another chance to do bet- ter. If we do not acknowledge our mis- takes, even that is impossible. I say further that "victory in Vietnam," whatever that term may mean, -will not bring peace to the world. The American people delude themselves if they believe that the defeat of an enemy by virtue of superior military force anywhere in the world today will prevent the further out- break of wars and revolutions all over the world. The conditions that bring forth wars and revolutions-the insatia- ble demands by the world's underpriv- ileged,for freedom, for Justice, and for economic progress-will continue to break forth in violence as long as the demands are unmet and the causes unsolved. I desire that my country be the voice for freedom, justice, and economic prog- ress in the world. I believe that our suc- cess in that role will do immeasurably more to roll back communism than will our support of petty dictators around he world, our devotion to a crumbling atus quo that claims to be anti-Com- unist, and our willingness to allow our oreign policy to be controlled by the achinations of the CIA. I desfIT a my coon ry-'lead the way ward a new world, a world based on law and respect for individual human be- ings. This is the road to victory to- day-not not just victory for the United States, but victory for mankind. The other road, which is the road followed by all the great empires of the past-the road of power exercised for the sake of power and national honor-leads but to oblivion. REACTIVATING SHIPS FOR WAR DUTY (Mr. GARMATZ (at the request of Mr. PRICE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GARMATZ. Mr. Speaker, I have long called attention to the fact that the policy of the Department of Defense in distributing naval shipwork between Government and private shipyards was undermining the private yard capability on which we. must depend in times of emergency. It will be remembered that for many years the naval shipyards have been re- ceiving Jhe lion's share of this type of work, and that for the last 3 years the Congress directed that at least 35 percent should be awarded to the private yards. This minimal amount of Navy work has not stopped the closing of commercial yards nor has it prevented the escape of skilled workers to other more steady em- ployment. As a consequence, at this very moment. when ships for our Vietnam Commit- ments must be put into service quickly, many of our private shipyards are having great difficulty in finding trained workers In sufficient numbers. This acute situa- tion is detailed in an August 1, 1965, article by Walter Hamshar, marine editor, the New York Herald Tribune. Mr. Speaker, as evidence of a badly premised policy which inhibits the ability of our shipyards to respond in times of emergency, I include Mr. Hamshar's timely article in the body of the RECORD at this point: REACTIVATING SHIPS FOR WAR DUTY (By Walter Hamshar) The reactivation of merchant ships from the Nation's reserve fleets for the military buildup in South Vietnam has created the problem the ship repair industry has been warning the Navy about for years. And the solution of that problem will cost the Government-and the taxpayers-mil- lions of dollars that would not have to be spent had the Navy provided more repair work to private shipyards, especially in the New York area, instead of allowing such yards to close while it funneled its work to Navy shipyards. To meet the needs of the stepped-up war against the Vietcong, the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service must double, at least, .the flow of military supplies to the Far East. The MSTS, which has the responsibility of delivering all military supplies by ocean, has been seeking the extra merchant ship ton- nage for the additional cargoes. REACTIVATION Almost 2 weeks before President Johnson's announcement Wednesday of the military huJdup, the MSTS was frantically seeking to charter every suitableAmerican merchant ship that was available. Unable to fulfill all its needs, the Navy service was forced to re- quest the reactivation of ships from the M?rchant Marine Reserve fleets. As a starter, 14 World War II Victory ships have been withdrawn-4 from the Hudson River fleet-are being readied in various ship- yards for service. For future ship breakouts, the Navy has asked the Maritime Administration to conduct a survey of the ship repair industry to determine how many ships can be readied per month. To the layman, the breakout of ships from reserve fleets may Seem a simple, routine process of scraping off a few barnacles, oiling up the engines, and slapping a coat of paint over rust spots. Nothing could be further from what actually is necessary. COMPLEX The reactivation of a ship which has been idle for years involves 110 standard items and a thousand and one detailed Items. All take time and money and skilled workers. The Navy has ordered a crash program to get the ships in service early this month. A deadline of August 7 has been set for some of the vessels to be on berth so that they can load supplies for the increased forces in Vietnam. A survey indicated that the deadline will not be met for most of the reactivated ships. The sky is the limit on overtime and men are working around the clock 7 days a week. But the trouble is a shortage of Skilled workers. Since the Navy began starving the private shipyards several years ago, the skilled men who were laid off have drifted to other in- dustries. Expert machinists and mechanics of the type needed for reactivating merchant ships have no trouble getting shore jobs. And they are not eager to leave their present jobs for a temporary upsurge in shipyard work. Even welders are hard to get. CAPACITY "The skilled workers we have been able to keep are working as fast as they can, but there is a limit to what one man can do," one yard official. said. The Maritime Administration is hoping to get the Victory ships reactivated at a cost of about $250,000 a ship. A yard official laughed at the figure. He estimated it will be closer to $405,000. "When ships were reactivated for the Suez crisis the average was $325,000 per ship," he said. "Now the ships are that much older." STORED Although the Maritime Administration has followed a preservation program, the sun, wind, rain, and salt air takes a heavy toll on idle ships. When ships are in regular service the crews look to the maintenance of cargo gear, engines, decks, and other equipment. When a merchant ship is laid up in the reserve fleet, virtually everything movable that is exposed to the elements is stored in the vessel's holds. This includes booms, cable, navigating instruments, lifeboats, davits and a long list of equipment. The decks inside and the machinery are sprayed with oil. Bedding, table linen, crockery, crew furnishings are stored ashore. Com- passes, chronometers, radio equipment is taken ashore to prevent it from being stolen. Even lighting fixtures must be replaced because they have mysteriously disappeared during layup. Brass fittings for various equipment are almost invariably gone when the ship repairmen start looking for them. Replacing and restoring, cleaning and painting all take time. Rusted-out plates must be torn out and new ones installed. Every welded seam must be checked inch by inch for.corroslon during the long years of layup. FLEET OF 1,600 SHIPS Should the Vietnamese situation develop into a full-fledged world war the United States has a fleet of 1,600 ships laid up in various anchorages throughout the country. This would mean that theoretically a total of 1,600 ships would ultimately be available for war duties. But only 960 of those ships have been given any form of preservation. The other 700 are mostly Liberty ships and were in the process of being sold for scrap at the rate of 100 a year for the last 10 years. To make the 960 priority ships serviceable on a crash basis as has been required for the 14 ships already withdrawn, would cost an average of $400,000 to $500,000 per ship. This would be about one-twentieth the cost of building new ships as was done for World War IL To restore the neglected ships will cost con- siderably more. The Maritime Administration's preserva- tion program had to be content to limp along at an annual budget of $5.5 million. This reduced to about $3,000 for each prior- ity ship. The average age of the ships in the reserve fleet is 21 years. The average time each has been laid up is 15 years. (Mr. GARMATZ (at the request of Mr. PRICE) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. GARMATZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to: Mr. NELSEN (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), for today, and the bal- ance of this week, for personal reasons. Mr. BINGHAM (at the request of Mr. SCHEMER), for today and tomorrow, on account of illness. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 Approved*For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August 2, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE When his vagrant melancholy lifted, as It always did at the touch of wit or the chal- lenge of a fresh idea, lie could be a compan- ion so beguiling that time folded its wings and crept away into a corner, until-the cas- cade of talk at last came to an end, , He honored us all by refusing to stoop in order to conquer. Now we are left with a huddle of grief-stricken memories When only yesterday we had a valiant friend` and a radiant champion. Tread lightly, for here is a name certain to blossom in the dust. [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, July 18, ? ..1965] HE NEVER LEARNED To HIDE His SOUL "We shall not come again We never shall come back again But over us all, over us all, Over us all is-something." =Thomas Wolfe. (By Richard N. Goodwin) Twice lie had come as close as a man could come to leadership of the American Nation. Yet no one not'ced as, for a moment, Adlat Stevenson looked toward the taped statue of Franklin Roosevelt, walked a few hundred yards, grasped the thin steel columns of a sidewalk railing, and died. Questions of man's survival, of war, and of human progress had very nearly rested on the qualities of his personal mind and will. The destiny of every man and woman '.Us passed that afternoon was almost placed in his 1and. Yet no one cheered or waved ,or even turned to Stare. For he had escaped power. And for a politician, power is the tool which etches out one man's figure, from among his com- panions. IMPRESSIVE QUALITIES Would he have been a good leader of his country, or a great one? We will never know. Many deny it. And they give reasons which start to persuade, until we remember that they-or their counterparts in other years-has said the same of past leaders such as Jol}n. Kennedy and Franklin Hossevelt and, violently, of Abraham Lincoln. The fact is no man who has not been President can survive analysis of his capacity for the task. Nor can we predict his quali- ties until they pass through the purification of power and responsibility. We do know he had more promise than most. We do know the impressive qualities of mind and spirit his career permitted him to reveal. We also know he was ambitious. For you do not run for President unless your ambi- tions are greater than those of other men. Was that ambition tinged with self-doubt? It is for every man except the very danger- ous. Did he have the courage of decision? His own words, public and in private con- versation, cloud judgment. But perhaps they only mask the fact that never in his public life did he fail to decide when'it was time to decide; except in 1960 when the shameful prospect of leading his party to a third defeat postponed judgment beyond the reach of action, Where public issues were concerned he spoke-on the platform and in the meeting room-with a clarity of conviction few had courage to match. 'And on this question the judgment of those who knew him is disflg- ured by the tortured musings of a man who had nelr,r,quite learned the trick of hiding his soul;, whose confidence had been twisted and battered by defeat and by the indiffer- ence and contempt of lesser men, which finally killed him. He was not, 'as some have said, marked by fate for failure. He was the victim of less mystical forces: bad luck, poor timing, unfortunate issues, a party too long in office, and an opponent who could not be defeated. Had 6 percent of American voters switched to him in 1952 then all the hesitation and humility would today be regarded as the skillful genius of a master politician. So we do not know, and will never know, if Adlai Stevenson would have been a good President of the United States. But we must be reluctant to believe that'the judg- ment of so many who had desired his victory so furiously could have been so wrong. ., Great men of affairs are either kings or prophets. Very few are both. And honor comes more reluctantly to prophets because they touch us more deeply. Adlai Stevenson never became it king, but he was a prophet. Death is already beginning to dissolve the masks of public failure and private person- ality which hide that recognition. It will become clearer as the self-justifying com- mentaries of those who scorned him in life begin to fade. SEED ON UNPLOWED GROUND I knew Adlai Stevenson as a colleague in my work for President Kennedy and, more recently for President Johnson. Both valued him most highly. Both had worked for his election to the office which they, not he, were to hold. Both knew, as others did not, what it took to bare yourself-ambitions and hopes-to the faithful, the indifferent and the hostile alike. Many others in Washington, in these years, looked at him with a certain condescension. At times, thankfully only a few times, my own instinct was submerged in the need to be fashionable. But Adlai Stevenson will be mourned more deeply and remembered longer than any of these. It is not that millions loved him and millions more ad- mired him because they did not know him. It is that closeness and ambition, envy and rivalry obscure the heart's truth. Yet that is the truth that finally matters; which se- lects the man from among the shadows, sadly past the hour when recognition might bring personal joy. But though I knew him and admired him, opposed him in 1960 and occasionally worked with him thereafter, many can speak far more intimately than I. I remembered best the Adlai Stevenson I never knew, when the world was young and the ringing phrases tumbled like the sowers seed on the unplowed ground. In the fall of 1952 I was a senior in college -in Massachusetts. John Kennedy was a young Congressman I had never met now running for the Senate. And Lyndon John- son was the uncertainly familiar name of a Senator from Texas. But Adlai Stevenson was my hero and my leader and my candidate for President of the United States. I never met him or even saw him nor had I read the carefully crafted texts of his speeches. But something was in the air. My tiny world suddenly seemed to widen. Events and the course of history were drifting back within the reach of a mans skill and brains. The pursuit of power, and its use, were not solely the object of greed and vaulting ambition but infused with service and nobility and the love of It wasn't that he talked sense or spoke the truth harshly. It was the more profound act of telling us-my generation-what we knew but didn't realize. He revealed a world we already sensed was there, bared challenges we were aching to undertake. The words were the words of sacrifice but the music sang "of' 'meaning "and urpae to a' joung man, As much as any, he was the end of postwar America and the beginning of a time still nameless. We knew and still repeated the old political phrases and the outworn battle cries. But we did not understand them be- cause the lines had been drawn in a different war, ' and it was not our war. Now finally, there was a language we could understand and make our own. 18299 THE ELEVATED INTELLIGENCE Bight dreary, near-tragic, years were to pass before that prophesy was to be fulfilled by different men. It is hard to overstate the extent to which he_ helped shape the dialog, and hence_.the"purposes, of the New Frontier and then the Great -Society. He dissolved the old, unserviceable simplicities and taught us to apply to the world the complex wisdom we have used so triumphantly in the affairs of our Nation; We could seek peace while resisting danger. Everyone who was not a friend was not an.. enemy. Agreement and accommodation could come from. self.-con- fidence as well as fear. By helping others we could strengthen ourselves. Particular prob- lems could be resolved, but we must learn to live for generations with a troubled world. The contest was not simply between our sys- tem and communism, but between those who found security in dominion and those who found it in a world of strong and diverse lands. And all these principles, and many more, he suffused with another welcome and shin- ing truth: the pursuit of national self-inter- est was not inconsistent with the desire for justice and dignity and well-being for all the people of the world-that there was no basic unresolvable contradiction between realistic policies and high ideals. To our domestic problems he brought the same elevated and critical intelligence. He told us our sights were too low, the course we had charted too narrow. In every area of our national life we not only could do more than we were doing but more than we thought. And he taught that wealth was not excellence, power was not greatness, the pur- suit of abundance was not the pursuit of happiness. After he spoke, no leader of his party nor the dialog of democracy itself, would ever sound the same again. He was eloquent and acclaimed for eloquence, but finally it was not how he spoke, but what he said that mat- tered. Others would bring new accents and perhaps even greater powers to leadership. But it had all begun in Springfield, Ill., in that hopeful dawn year of 1952. CITIZEN-POLITICIAN CREATED The most farsighted policies molder and dissolve, lose content and direction, in the hands of the mediocre and. the indifferent. The Nation rests on the quality of its public men, and they in turn are shaped by the quality of American politics. Adlai Steven- son brought many individuals into Govern- ment who have enriched the administrations of President Kennedy and President Johnson. But this is the least of it. More than any man, he created the citizen-politician. He told an entire generation there was room for intelligence and idealism in public life, that politics was not just a way to live but a way to live greatly, that each of us might share in the passions of the age. My first experience in national politics was in an overflowing, chaotic room of the volunteers for Stevenson. Many thousands had the same initiation. Today, the citizens groups, the volunteers, the clubs to discuss issues and the clubs to reform politics, are a force which every politician must confront, and which the best will welcome. Thus, he changed the face of American politics; en- riching the democracy, providing a base on which talent could aspire to power, opening a gateway to public life through which many who never heard his voice will someday enter. All these-ideas and men-are contribu- tions to be remembered. But there was some- thing more to Adlai Stevenson, a quality that resists thought and language alike. For none of this explains the fierce desire millions brought to his cause, the disappointed tears of many who never knew him, the deep im- pulse which could make even experienced Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CTA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 Approved For Release 2003/1-1/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 2, 1965 politicians forget commitment and interest alike to be at his side. It Was, not the first time we have seen this quality, nor the last. But how rare it Is In 'those who find their way to power. Part of it was in his lesson. It was not a new lesson, It runs like a vein of light through the dark history of the race. It suf- fuses the religion and beliefs of every people. It says that man is more than the sum of his needs and desires and fears. It ennobles those who look beyond their own interest to great principle. It acclaims, not wealth and power, but the charity of the spirit and the reach of the heart. LOVE FELT BY MILLIONS This is what he wanted for the American people. And although we may never be equal to it, many loved him for thinking we could. The rest was the man himself. You didn't need to know him to feel it, although know- ing brought confirmation. There was a gentleness, a spaciousness of sensibility, a :love which in unseen ways was felt by mll- lions. He could laugh and be cynical. If he read these words he would joke about them, and he would deride this writing with soft self-deprecation. But all the wonderful hu- mor, the urbanity, the captiousness was, In large part, a mask to protect himself from a world which so easily confused humility with weakness, sentiment with unreality, ampli- tude of understanding with failure of will. Many who met him were fooled. Millions who never met him knew the truth. This is the secret of today's mourning and to his place In the play of passion clothed in fact which is history. People `return what they receive. They believe in the man who believed in them and thus made them believe in themselves. They love the man who loved them and thus let them love themselves a little more. They honor the leader who told them they were better than they were and, in so doing, made is so. He has often been compared to Hamlet. And those who make the comparison do so as a metaphor of irresolution. Hamlet is the story of a man who tries to understand and :reach for certainty before he strikes. But be does strike; and for justice loses kingship and life while the election lights on a young and valiant captain. Our judgment must echo Shakespeare's own when the new king stands beside Ham- let's body, saying: "Let four captains Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage; For he was likely, had he been put on, To have proms s ositiroyally * * *. CE ON VIETNAM Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, last Wednesday, President Johnson again defined the American purpose in Viet- nam. He avoided any trumpet call for a wider war, focusing his attention upon South Vietnam. Our commitment-from the beginning- has always been confined to South Vietnam. It is in South Viet- nam that the guerrilla war is being fought, and it is there that a solution must be found. I was also reassured by the President's emphasis on our stated goal-a peaceful settlement at the conference table. In the past, I have strongly urged negotia- tions, in which I`have believed the Unit- ed Nations should play it role. On June 24 I called for free, elections in South Vietnam, once the requisite internal or- der would permit them, and suggested that peace talks would have to include the Vietcong. I am gratified that the President indicated his willingness to move in these directions. In my judgment, the best assessment of the President's news conference was written by Walter Lippmann. and pub- lished in the July 30 issue of the Wash- ington Post, under the title "Realism and Prudence." I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Lippmann's column be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the column was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: REALISM AND PRUDENCE (By Walter Lippman) The decisions taken by the President as the result of the review of the situation in Vietnam are, it seems to me, realistic, and as a result, the American position is strength- ened and improved. The crucial issue which he had to resolve was what this country should do in view of the fact that the South Vietnamese Government has lost to the Viet- cong the control of virtually all the high- ways and most of the villages and territory of South Vietnam. Should the United States volunteer to fight the war which Saigon has so very nearly lost, substituting American troops for the Vietnamese troops, taking mil- itary command of all the fighting forces and of the government in Saigon? Or should the United States defend its presence in South Vietnam for the purpose of negotiating a po- litical settlement? The difference between these two strate- gies is all the differdence between, on the one hand, an unlimited and Illimitable war that could escalate into total war, and, on the other hand, a limited war, as the President calls it a "measured" war, which is clearly within American military power, demands no exorbitant sacrifice, and keeps the struggle within the possibility of diplomatic negotia- tions. The President on Wednesday an- nounced, If I understand him correctly, his choice between these two strategies. Al- though he repeated the grand formulas of a great war, In fact his decision as of now is to fight a limited war. The size of the callup Is in accord with this decision: the addi- tional troops are sufficient, or can be made sufficient, for a limited and defensive stra- tegy. They would be absurdly inadequate if our objectives were the reconquest of South Vietnam. Instead of 125,000 men, the troops needed would, according to the usual formu- la of 10 to 1 for guerilla war, mean more nearly a million. There is additional evidence from the offi- cial disclosures on Wednesday that the Presi- dent has decided against a serious escala- tion of the war in North Vietnam. He has been under pressure to send the, bombers Into the heart of North Vietnam, into the area of Hanoi and Haiphong, where are the industries and the population centers of the country. While it is never wise for a commander to say what he will not do, there is considerable evidence that the administra- tion has decided not to bomb the popula- tion centers, and to avoid putting Hanoi in the position where, having nothing to lose in the north, it uses its formidable army to invade South Vietnam. Moreover, high U.S. Government officials have let it be known that we do not intend to comb the countryside to eliminate the Vietcong from villages, but rather to confine ourselves to conventional military action. Along with the decision to keep the war limited, the President has launched a strong diplomatic campaign for a negotiated peace. He has in the past proposed, or hinted at, most, perhaps all, of the elements of his campaign. But the combination he de- scribed on Wednesday is new and impressive. In calling upon the United Nations and all member governments, severally or jointly, to bring the fighting to an end, he has, for the first time I think, given the mediators some- thing concrete to talk about with Hanoi. The President has agreed that the prin- ciples of the 1954 agreements, which are the declared war alms of Hanoi, are an ac- ceptable basis of negotiation, and that we are prepared in South Vietnam, or in all Vietnam, to accept elections supervised by the U.N. This is contrary to the position taken by Secretary Dulles 10 years ago, and the President's willingness to return to "the purpose of the 1954 agreements" opens the door wide In principle to a negotiated set- tlement. Probably, Hanoi will still refuse to ne- gotiate. For the Vietcong and Hanoi are within sight of a military victory, not over the United States but over the Saigon Gov- ernment, and it is by no means certain that General Westmoreland with his reinforce- ments can prevent that. But even if he cannot prevent it, the strategy adopted by the President will leave the U.S. Army in- vincible in Vietnam, with the United States exercising an influence which cannot be ig- nored in the eventual settlement. JOHNSON'S BREAKTHROUGH ON TALENT Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, after a year in Europe on a Ford Foundation grant, Max Lerner is back in his role of one of the most perceptive social and political analysts of our day. His first column after returning discusses Adlai Stevenson, Arthur Goldberg, and the re- markable ability of President Johnson to put the right man in the right position. Commenting on the appointment of Justice Goldberg as Ambassador to the United Nations, Mr. Lerner writes: It is an exciting country that can offer this example of stripping away the inessential in order to get at the quality most needed, of talent seized imaginatively, reexamined, relocated. It is also exciting to find a man willing to give up a safe place in a snug har- bad for life, and accept the risks of storm and battle anew. I believe Senators will find this column of uncommon interest. I ask unanimous consent that it be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the column was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, July 30, 1965] JOHNSON'S BREAKTHROUGH ON TALENT (By Max Lerner) Returning to the battlefront after a more serene vacation month than anyone has a right to enjoy in our troubled time, one finds a profusion of events clamoring for comment-a death that left a sear on the Nation, a dramatic appointment, disclos- ures of the inside story of past events, emerg- ing political battles, war decisions in the making. Such event clusters link past and present in an unbreakable web. One is the death of Adlai Stevenson and the appointment of Justice Arthur Gold- berg to his U.N. post. The Nation gave Stevenson, on his death, the kind of under- standing and devotion that it had never given him during his life, much as most of us do when some good kind friend dies, whom we have neglected unconscionably and treated shabbily. We suddenly redis- covered in Stevenson a number of lofty qualities we might have noted earlier, in 1952 and 1956, when we not only managed to dissemble our love but kicked him down- Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 --App'roved For Releealg11W(AM90002-7 August 2, 1965 *ftfi6iil l eiiig able to reach the gulf, Mobile wasjlo longer useful to the Confederates. There are so many histories within history, and so many famous people connected with Mobile that it would be hard to even begin saying which were the most important. There are many historical spots open to the public, including Fort Gaines, on Dauphin Island, and Fort Morgan, out on the point. But if one really wanted to see Mobile, the city, the time to get the proper atmosphere is during the annual Mardi Gras, started in 1831 (even before the'one held annually in New Orleans), Of modern" Mobile County and City, there is much to See, too. The oil fields of Citro- nelle have opened up an entire new industry to Alabama and to the South east of the Mississippi.' The State docks at Mobile ship Alabama merchandise all over the world, and included in shipments received, there are ores from South America 'for, use ixj the steel mills of Birmingham. The two ;naln river sysfema of the State are the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa, anti the Warrior-Tombigbee. These two systems flow together just 45 miles north. of the city of Mobile. A canal 125 feet wide and 12 feet .deep at Mobile is part of the Intracoastal Waterway that stretches from Brownsville, Tex., all the way around the coast of the United Stater, in the east to Maipe. All this, water and the gulf coast make recreation a delight, and` industry boom. Mobile' and Motile County can go only one way-the way of prosperity. t : The Kentucky Lineage of Adlai Stevenson or HON. THRUSTON B. MORTON OF KENTTCK IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. MORTON. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an article prepared by Mr. J. Emerson, Miller, secretary of the Dr. Thomas Walker Family Association, in which he traces the Kentucky lineage of the,late_Adlai Stevenson to Dr. Thomas Walker, the first white man to enter what. is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky back in 1756. In a note accompanying the article, Mr. Miller stated that Ambassador Ste- venson "took a deep. pride in his Ken- tucky heritage, and cherished an un- varying love and affection for this State and its people, and "liked to point out that he was 'a Kentuckian once removed." There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE KEIeTUcKY LINEAGE OF ADa AI STEVENSON (By J. Emerson Miller, secretary, Dr. Thomas : Walker. Family Association) "Kentucky lost a great and brilliant grand- son In the death of Adlai Stevenson, Gov, Edward T. Breathitt said In expressing his grief at Stevenson's sudden and unexpected, The man who was twice,Peri ocratic presi- dential nominee, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, and former Governor of Illinois, was Indeed a grandson of Kentucky. There is no family more closely identified with the early history of Kentucky or whose roots go more deeply in the soil of the Bluegrass State than that of lai !;wing son and served a term as secretary of State of Stevenson. The Stevenson family tree Illinois. , He ran for Governor of Illinois in spreads into all sections of the State and 1916, and though defeated ran 60,000 votes the late U.N. Arimbassador s background is ahead of Woodrow Wilson, the presidential such that he was about as well known in candidate. He was married in 1892 to Helen Kentucky as he was in his native State of Louise Davis, daughter of Pennsylvania-born Illinois. Quaker, William O. Davis, publisher of the The first direct Kentucky ancestor of stanchly Republican Bloomington Panta- Stevenson's was Dr. Thomas Walker, a great- graph, one of central Illinois' richest and great-great-grandfather, who In 1750 crossed most influential newspapers. the Great Warrior's Path at Cumberland Grandfather Davis married Eliza, daughter Gap with his exploring party, and became of Jesse W. Fell, who emigrated from Ches- the first white man to set foot on our soil.' ter, Pa., in 1832, traveling part of the way on He and his party camped for the night close foot, and settled down. to the practice of law. to what is now the tannery near Middles- At Vandalia, first capital of the State, he met boro. and roomed with a gangling young lawyer A paternal great-great-grandfather, Wil- by the name of Abraham Lincoln, became lie Green, born in 1752, removed to Ken- his devoted friend, and suggested the Lin- tucky from Culpeper County, Va., in 1779 by coin-Davis debates and played an important way of Cumberland Gap, represented this part in Lincoln's election. district in the general assembly, during the Although a tyro in politics, as candidate Revolutionary War served as ensign and for Governor of Illinois in 1948, Adlai Stev- lieutenant, and removed to the neighbor- enson carried the State by a record 572,000 hood of Stanford, in Lincoln County, where `votes, the greatest plurality in the State's for many years he was the county clerk. He history, topping President Truman's State was married to Sarah Reed, daughter of the margin by more than a half million votes. noted Indian fighter, Col. John Reed. In 1955, Adlai Stevenson III, the late Am- The next in line going back was Duff bassador's son, then a student at Harvard, Green, who married as his first wife a Miss met an attractive Kentucky girl, Nancy An- Barbour, while a daughter of his son Willis derson, studying at Smith College, daughter married Maj. James Barbour, who with his of Louisville advertising executive Warwick brother 'Richard Barbour owned` the land An.dersoal,, Their marriage united two fin- where Barbourville now stands and which eal descendents of Dr. Thomas Walker,. was named for them. Nancy's father being a great-great-grandson Duff Green married, secondly, Ann Willis, of the discoverer of Cumberland Gap. The a daughter of Col. Henry Willis, founder of couple have four children, Adlai Stevenson Fredericksburg, Va., who married Mildred IV, age 9; Luey, age 7; 5-year-old Kate, and Washington, only sister of Gen. George Warwick Anderson Stevenson, 2, named for Green, noted clergyman and head of Centre College, Danville, married Mary Peachy Fry, a daughter of Thomas Walker Fry and his wife, Elizabeth Speed Smith. Lewis Warner Green was named for his greater-great-grandfather,, Col. Augustine Warner, Speaker of- the "Virginia House of Burgesses and his wife Mildred Reade, who was the, 11th in ;descent from Edward III, King of Englarid:? Martha, a sister of Thomas Walker Fry, married David Bell, of Danville, Ky.,and was the mother of Josua Fry Bell, from whom Bell County was named. A great-grand- daughter, Martha Bell Jackson, of Danville, represented Centre College at the Mountain Laurel Festival in 1933, Another great-grandfather of Adlai Stev- enson was Capt. James Speed, whose family was among the earliest settlers of Jefferson County. They came to Kentucky in 1782 and took a conspicuous part in the development of the State, Capt. James Speed assisting in the drafting of the State's first constitution. His sons and grandsons attained prominence in public life, the most eminent of these be- ing James Speed, Attorney General in Lin- coln's Cabinet, and Joshua Fry Speed, Lin- coln's most Intimate friend. The Stevensons were among the first fam- ilies to settle in Rowan County, N.C., where they lived as neighbors to Adlai Os- borne, another ancester of the Illinois Gov- ernor, and whose name he bears. The family moved to Kentucky at an early date. In 1852 Adlai's paternal great-grandfather, John Turner Stevenson, removed to Bloom- ington, Ill., from the family's old home near Hopkinsville. His son, Adlal Ewing Steven- son, born in Kentucky, and educated at Centre College, was a lawyer and a Democrat yin a stanchly Republican district but he got elected to Conppress and was elected Vice President under 91eve lar=d in }&,Q2. He mar- ried the brilliant Letitia Green, four-time president-general of the National Society of the Daughters of the ' American Revolution and one of the founders of the Parent= Teachers Association. Adlai's father, Lewis Green Stevenson, acted as secretary to Vice President Steven- , "valry HON. HOWARD H. CALLAWAY OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. CALLAWAY. Mr. Speaker, on last Thursday I spoke of the pride and .confidence In which the people of my district hold the 1st Calvary Division- Airmobile-the outfit that has just been called upon to handle our efforts in Viet- nam. On that same day a fine editorial appeared in the Atlanta Constitution by its Editor Eugene Patterson, describing the capabilities of the unit and voicing the hopes of all of us in the 1st Air Cavalry. Under unanimous consent, I insert this in the RECORD and to verbally under- score Mr. Patterson's closing sentence, that "the State that cradled the sky cavalry sends it in with a salute and a prayer." GEORGIA SENDS IN THE SKY CAVALRY (By Eugene Patterson) Once more Georgia sends a division into battle. Many have gone out to fight wars from our bases. But uncoiling from Fort Benning to strike in Vietnam now is the most radically different kind of combat division since the advent of paratroops. Until !aptAnti,1-it was called the 11th Air Assault Division. It was an experimental unit. For_ 3_ years it had been developing and testing a newArmy tactic in and above the pine thickets and ' scrub fiats of southwest Georgia. The tactical dream was to create a full 15,000-man division that could deploy itself Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446RD00300190002-7 August 2, 1965 Appro k(t04lldft IA- ipptR M46R000300190002-7 A4235 terpreted the situation, is not offering either clarification or criticism. In the good old days it was not considered ethical for a White House aid to tell all In public, once the President he served was dead or retired. This was good manners, if nothing more. A President has a right to let his hair down once in a while, and should feel that what he blurts out in a moment of temper is not going to be interpreted to posterity as mean- ing that he really thinks Cabinet member X is a stupid oaf or a two-faced s.o.b. This was sound, politically and ethically. We know all that is worth knowing about F.D,R: s regime, about Mr. Truman's, General Eisenhower's, even if we lack the juicy tid- bits that their Presidential advisers could have supplied had they dared to take pen in hand. But now it appears the Nation and the world are going to be treated to every big and little, whimsical and cozy, highlight in the big-time political career of John F. Ken- nedy. In the process-as the first accounts,ap- pear from Schlesinger and Kennedy confi- dant Ted Sorenson-various living persons are getting the knocks that used to be with- held until they were dead. Aside from the assault on Rusk by Schles- inger, we can also get along without the re- hashes and elaborations on the Bay of Pigs fiasco, especially since they cast new slurs on the way Allen Dulles operated as Central Intelligence Agency chief. And we dislike the recent Schlesinger ef- fort to recite chapter and verse In an effort to show that Mr. Kennedy didn't really want Mr. Johnson as his 1960 running mate, nor did brother Bobby. If true, the Kennedys were not the smart politicians they were supposed to be, because Richard Nixon would have won in 1960 with- out Mr. Johnson on the Democratic ticket. There are some other books besides Schles- inger's and Sorenson's, coming out soon, that are supposed to give more inside lowdown ac- counts of Mr. Kennedy's days in the White House. The authors or coauthors include Pierre Salinger, Lawrence O'Brien and Kenny O'Donnell. Let's hope that they don't intentionally besmirch the living or inadvertently reflect on the dead simply for the sake of making a fast buck. [From the Philadelphia Inquirer, July 28, 1965] KISSAND TELL "Kiss and tell" is something almost uni- versally regarded with contempt. When the telling violates confidence and records off- hand comments, it is unethical and bad- mannered. When it takes advantage of a dead man who can neither confirm nor deny published statements, it becomes an extraordinarily dirty business-especially when it is done for personal profit and political revenge. We have been furnished prime examples of tattling in the excerpts, appearing in na- tional magazines, from books written by former White House aids Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and Theodore C. Sorensen. Supposed to be inside accounts of the high and low spots of the Kennedy admin- istration, these memoirs do a great disservice to the Presidency. No one can know whether what they reveal Is the truth or not. Because many of the statements are un- verifiable, they leave defenseless the persons whose reputations they tarnish. We are told, for instance, that President Kennedy intended to get rid of Secretary of State Rusk, and we are treated in the process to a venomous appraisal of the Sec- retary by Schlesinger. The damage thus done to Rusk, and to his continued effective- ness as head of the State Department, could be serious. In other portions of the memoirs, the im- pression is given that Kennedy did not really want Lyndon Johnson as his running mate in 1960, and offered him the vice-presi- dential nomination in the expectation that he would turn it down. This is contrary to other accounts of the ticket-framing epi- sode. It also downgrades the political wis- dom of John F. Kennedy, who doubtless rec- ognized the voting support that Johnson would bring to his ticket. Sorensen and Schlesinger are only the first of a stream of writers eager to tell all that they saw and heard from various vantage points in the White House during the Ken- nedy administration. If the Presidency is degraded, if someone happens to be hurt by rumor and gossip, it is just too bad. The lure of the fast buck is often irresisti- ble. It would appear, in the case of the former White House assistants, that the power and the dignity of the Presidency, and their near- ness to it, went to their heads. It Is to be hoped that future Presidents will be spared this kind of arrogant conduct, and the mad rush to "tell all," for a price. The President should not have to look be- hind curtains to make sure that some future writer of White House memoirs is not hiding there, notebook in hand. He should not have to worry about every remark he makes- and some not made at all-appearing later in a bestseller authored by one of his con- fidential aids. The eruption of "inside stories" of the Kennedy years is not history. It is indecent exposure. ERCEfpT FROM AN ARTICLE BY RUTH MONTGOMERY It is almost morbid, however, to plunge a knife into the hard-pressed Secretary of State while he is engaged in delicate maneu- vers to try to prevent Vietnam from plung- ing the world into the holocaust of war. Does it help American at this critical junc- ture to have Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., write a book in which he declares that Mr. Ken- nedy planned to replace Secretary Rusk be- cause of "one muddle after another," at the State Department and Rusk's "reluctance to decide" questions of policy? Schlesinger, a leading light in the left- wing Americans for Democratic Action, says Rusk's mind is an "irrevocably conventional" one that mistrusts "the flashy or sensa- tional." t All we can say to that is, Thank heavens. Surely America is on a hot enough seat with- out having a Secretary of State who rejoices In "the flashy or sensational" approach to diplomacy. The tattling Mr. Schlesinger writes that during the Kennedy administration Rusk lived "under the fear of inadequacy and humiliation." This would suggest that Rusk has remarkable foresight. Perhaps he had a premonition of what Schlesinger would try to do to him as soon as Mr. Kennedy's reins were removed. The Real Alabama-Part XXXVII EXTENSION, OF REMARKS OF HON. JACK EDWARDS OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. EDWARDS of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, the most populous county in the First Congressional District of Alabama is Mobile County. The history of the county provides as fascinating a study as perhaps any county in the Nation. It is rich with Indian history, French and Spanish ex- ploration and settlement, and Civil War activity. A brief summary of the county's his- tory follows here, and it is my hope that it may stimulate additional interest in Mobile County, where our citizens always extnd a cordial welcome to friends and visitors: MOBILE COUNTY, ALA. Mobile County is in the extreme south- western corner of the State and is bounded by Washington County on the north, by the Mobile River (after the joining of the Tom- bigbee and the Alabama Rivers) and Bald- win County on the east, by Mobile Bay and the Gulf of Mexico on the south, and by the Mississippi line on the west. The county was created by a proclamation of Gov. David Holmes of the Mississippi Territory on De- cember 18, 1813, soon after Gen. James Wil- kinson took possession of the town of Mobile for the United States. The county was named for the Maubila Indians, called Mo- bile by the French, who named the post established in 1702 Fort Louis de la Mobile. DeCraney's map of 1733 shows an Indian town, Nanihaha, probably built by Appala- chees just south of the junction of the Mo- bile and Tombigbee Rivers on the Mobile River. Another town, Chacteaux, in the angle of the Dog River and Mobile Bay, was probably settled by Chattos Indians who were settled there by Iberville. Several other Indian towns were shown in regions where water surrounded the town on three sides. Many mounds containing interesting arti- facts were found, also. Fort Louis de la Mobile was located at Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff on the Mobile River, and Fort Louis de la Mobile 2d, located between Church and Eslava Streets extend- ing from the riverfront to Royal Street in Mobile, was built by Bienville in 1711, after the French were driven from Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff by river floods. Fort Conde, where now the headquarters of the Colonial Dames of America stands, was built in 1717 by Crozat. To better understand how Mobile has been under five flags, a list of dates is helpful : In 1702: Village established at Twenty- Seven-Mlle 'Bluff (French). In 1711: Village of Mobile moved to mouth of Mobile River. In 1720: Capital of Louisiana- Territory moved to New Orleans. (Mobile). In 1763: By secret treaty, Mobile sur- rendered to English, October 20. In 1779: Spaniards captured Mobile. In 1813: United States takes possession of Mobile. In 1817: Alabama becomes a State of the Union. In 1864: A Confederate stronghold-the South's only major city that did not fall to the Union. In 1865: Back In the Union. The Battle of Mobile Bay during the Civil War was one of the very important happen- ings in the history of both Mobile and of the Civil War. The Federal fleet, consisting of 4 ironclads flanking 14 wooden ships of war lashed together in pairs as they sailed Into battle, with Fort Morgan on the east and Fort Gaines on the west, sailed against the Confederate fleet of 1 ironclad ram and 3 wooden ships, and won the victory. It was after one of his Ironclads had been sunk by Confederate mines that Admiral Farragut of the U.S. Navy, climbed Into the rigging of his ship to see above the dense smoke of battle and yelled the now famous words, "Damn the torpedoes-full speed ahead]" Historians wonder why Admiral Farragut did not continue on up the bay and capture Mobile, but It was probably because Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August 2,' 1,~~ roved For WWS9185I JAS 1&4B$7D68~300190002-7 A4237 Into combat entirely by air, substituting hell MR. FORTAS TO THE COURT oopters for ground transportation and enter- A President may mold the course of na- leagues. Nine of ha have Introduced ing the battlefield in sub- order-not scattered as tonal affairs for 8 eights, but the influence stantially identical bills in the House of parachute infantry sometimes is, and not exerted by this appointments to the Supreme Representatives. dependent on Air Force aviation, . Court is more likely to be felt for decades or Commal}ded by Maj. Gen. Harry W. G. even generations. There can be no assurance Public interest and awareness in the Kinnard, the experimental division was fre- . that any appointee will measure up to the matter is growing. Increased discussion quently levied upon for Army helicopter pi- intellectual demands of the future, that he the press and in Congress i having a lots to go to Vietnam. A large proportion of will exhibit the qualities of flexibility and good effect: In place of emo people those pilots who have been transporting and emp ac tions athy that are essential if the Constitu- are now talking about the facts of the Supporting the South Vietnamese troops tion Is to remain a living document. The Problem. The Nation is realizing, the years came out of Fort Benning. President is compelled to base his critical that the I be But the gaps were filled; other Army pilots decision on the candidate's past career, and lieve, population explosion is poured into Columbus to man the division's by that stndard his choice of Mr. Abe Fortas one of the ga great Pleasure thus facing read challenges us 400 aircraft, most of them helicopters. Last must be accorded a high rating, today. It is a great pleasure tto read month thj experimental days ended. The The great strength of Mr. Fortas, who has in the Washington Post a new series of division was clir tened with the honored for long been the President's intimate legal articles, entitled "Our Crowded Earth," name and, the spectacular shoulder patch- adviser, lies in the breadth of his experience by Jean M. White. I think these articles black ,horse's head .on a yellow field-of the and accomplishments. A brilliant law stu- state well the problems and the pros- 1st Cavalry Division. dent and for a time a teacher at the Yale Pects. Now this air mobile division IS ready and University Law School, he went on to a I commend them to every think- headed Tor-combat. With its owl aviation it precociously successful career In the Govern- ing American. can pick itself up by its bootstraps and move ment, first with the Securities and Exchange The initial article follows: Into battle once the Air Force and Navy land Commission and then as Harold L. Ickes' [From the Washington Post, Aug. 1, 19651 it in Vietnam. The, soldiers who will ride the Under Secretary of the Interior. THE PooR ARE ENGULFING THE EARTH: THE helicopters into battle are air-trained and After leaving the Government service, Mr. "POPULATION EXPLOSION"-ACTUALLY, A air-orientesi. - If any U.S. ground unit can Fortes entered upon the private practice of HOLIDAY FOR DEATH-IS OccURRING WHERE take effect-against the hit-run tactics of the law and soon rose to an eminent place in IT'S LEAST SUPPORTARLE Vietcong guerrillas in the Vietnamese. delta or that profession, It Is a tribute to Mr. Fortas' central highlands, this one will.. talents as a lawyer that his formidable (By Jean M. White) Not bound to mpyement by ground or road, reputation in the corporate world was ac- In just 35 years-when many of us still It will be hard to ambush. Swiftly mobile, quired in spite of his attachment to various will be around-it many very likely that there It can drop troops into swift counterstrikee unpopular causes which challenged his in- will are as many people on earth as wherever guerrillas strike. Trained as a unit, mate sense of justice. During the McCarthy there are today. It can deliver blows In massive strength, even era he was not afraid to raise a strong voice The time to do anything about that, if at night. It Is not bound to perim ter, but. can drop from foxholes oskyy into ciagainst vil libtertieswunder rethbent upon e banner of destroying problem is here and n w and grows any battlefield-and climb away from any communism, bigger gger by at least I% million people each battlefield into, the sky. Large units can More recently Mr. Fortes argued and won week. Hedgehop into an enemy's rear, operate, then two cases which have become judicial and- Population projections used to be interest- hedgehop out. It is the best, strike force marks. The Durham case, which he argued rap ere to redic exercises enabling -rmm- a gainst guerrillas that the Army can devise, before the District of Columbia Court of rappers to predict when a standing-room- These will. he the shock troops in Vietnam. Appeals, has done_..nynh to make the legal Only sign wouldbe posted on a crammed Now the brave young Americans of this concept of mental illness more compatible earth. But today we are finding that runa- newest U.S, assault force move away from With modern views of psychiatrists. In the way population is bound up with many of their Georgia homes for their combat test, Gideon case it was Mr. Fortas' powerful brief our big problems: hunger, poverty, illiteracy, The State that cradled the sky cavalry sends that led the Supreme Court to reverse its economic stagnation, political instability. it in with a salute and a prayer. previous position and rule that States must It will touch the very quality of life for provide counsel for Indigents under Grim- those being born today. Yet a recent Gallup +... .,.~.~..- 1-1 charges, poll showed that only 3 out of 10 Americans 1 8 ppo rges, the Supreme Court rarely who had heard of the population problem if over command universal approval. There were at all worried about it. Abe Fortas Named to Supreme Court are those who had hoped that the President should we suddenly get excited about or --`- distinguished wrists of the lower Federal A NEW DIMENSION courts. But since facile predictions about The human family is growing at a faster HON. FRANK ANNUNZIO the role of new justices have often proven rate than ever before in man's history. This IILIS egregiously wrong, it is hazardous to argue Is the new, alarming dimension of the popu- tbat the Court can be balanced or consciously lation problem-the rate. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES leavened with an $ppolntment from a Human multiplication is self-accelerating, Monday, August 2, 1965 campus, a court, or the political arena. like compound Interest. It spurts upward Mr: AN onday, AuMr. gust Speaker, some it Whether his judged by his Intellectual capac- in geometrical progression: 2-4-8-16-32-64- egal experience, or his deep concern 128. The annual rate at which it is growing of my colleagues in the House of Repre- over civil liberties and civil rights, Mr. Fortas has doubled In the last decade, from 1 to sentatjves iiaye expressed their criticism 1s admirably equipped to take-his place on a percent. se the appointment of Abe Fortes to the the Court, and there is every reason to believe This increase may not seem extraordinar go on r the that he will serve it with great distinction. fly high until you follow the spiral of geo- o ointm I want a to progr Lyndon B. metrical congratulating President had begun with a withsa n. single If the human time Johnson on, his choice. coupleat the time of Christ and increased at a rate of 2 percent Mr. Fortes has been In the forefront The World Population Explosion ayea ethere now would be 20 million people of liberal causes for many, many years. ry person now sear h. loo people It is common knowledge that Abe Fortes EXTENSION on Teach he current square foot has argued and won legal cases which OF REMARKS The t will take 15 yrs is m bile population have become judicial landmarks. His of lion. It will take only 15 years to complete the fourth varied legal experience, his brilliant in- HON. PAUL H. TODD, JR, low in just 10lyears The after billion will rol- tellectual background, and his accom- OF MICHIGAN THE DANGER SPOTS plishments in Government can lead one IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Most of this population only to the conclusion that Mr. Fortas is growth as is ord the eminently qualified to assume the re- Monday, August 2, 1965 underdeveloped countries, which can sfford aponsibilitiee of the high office to which Mr. TODD. Mr es least. Thecaal a po instababili l keg _ b social he has been named. . Speaker, one of the unrest and and political is uAding most heartening things about this ses- up as runaway growth smothers efforts to It Is my privilege to insert Into the sion of Congress is the sharpened interest give a little better life to millions of people CONGRESSIONAL RECORD an editorial from in, and awareness of, problems posed by who are III-fed, 111-clothed and 111-housed. the Washington Post of July 30 support- the world population explosion. Sena- Like the Red Queen, the poor countriey run trig this_,appointmer;t, have s as fast as they can just to stay tor GRUENING Is presently holding hear- In the same me place-bare subsistence for their The editorial follows: Ings in the other body on a bill intro- people. By the time the Aswan Dam is com- Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RJP67B00446R000300190002-7 A4238 Approved 1 OR,&RDR q]XeR0003001906A$'zlst 2, 1965 pleted, Egypt's population is expected to have THE REAPER REPULSED grown so much that the new irrigated lands What is the reason for the speed of growth will merely provide food enough for the ad- that lies behind these population problems? ditional people. The answer is a matter of simple arithmetic: PLENTY AND PENTRCY births minus deaths. There has been no sudden burst of fertility wof revolution Of erld's poor are ising egptr to set off the "population explosion" (demog- At a time hop s," the wd poor arfinding thheiei r raphers cringe at the use of this phrase). hopes frustrated. world is separated rapidly groups co- Birth rates haven't gone up. But death rates "haves" " v and "" have n no ets." have dropped dramatically. "had Man now is practicing effective death con- m North Ir 1963ope 17 percent Am theerica and papule- trol without balancing this with equally ef- tion and 17 perc Of the world's rl world's income, , fective birth control. it is ironic that one tiers and 64 percent of of man's great humanitarian achievements- d serv- as measured in the value of goods an ices produced. Asia had 56 percent of the world's population and 14 percent of its in- come . Today, roughly a third of the population is in the capitalist world, another third is in the Communist camp and the last third is uncommitted. In Latin America and the Far East, runaway populations are creating more poverty and misery in which commu- nism can breed. THE ROAD TO FAMINE The world's already hungry countries are growing more people than food to feed them. Some demographers and agricultural experts are warning of the threat of serious famine b loon y production is growing only about two-thirds as fast as the population. Per capita food production is actually declining in many of these countries and has slipped below levels at 25 vears ago. the control of "mass killer" diseases-has created a new critical problem of runaway population which, in turn, raises a threat to life. The dilemma is neatly summed up by the National Academy of Sciences report: "Ei- ther the birth rate of the world must come down or the death rate must go back up." The only choice-for the earth cannot contain or support population growth at the present rate. over a long time-is between humane birth control and the cruel equalizer of death. In a way, the bogey of Malthusian- ism, apparently buried a century ago, has risen again. ALL IN A DECADE The sudden, spectacular drop in death rates, particularly infant mortality, has come chiefly in the developing countries. Indeed, the lowest death rates in the world today are not in the United States and Western Europe but in such countries as Malaysia, Taiwan, and Puerto Rico, with their younger When people have to eat what they grow populations. just to survive, there is nothing left to in-Modern medicine, vaccines, and pesticides vest in better- seeds, fertilizers and pesticides have sharply cut death rates in a matter of to increase food production. What science a few years. In Ceylon, after DDT spraying might do with algae gardens and sea farms had largely eradicated malaria, the death is too far in the future to fill bellies already rate fell 57 percent in less than a decade-- . t _--..l ti increased more than h a o e ca d ita income _.. --- _ p p Y'"g 8O percent an The United States has long to feed millions of Indians with its food-for- A low 20th century death rate (about 10 The developing countries themselves are peace program. But the way the world is, per 1000) is now combined with a medieval acting. Egypt, India, Pakistan, Japan, and there can be no common trough for all men. birth rate (40 to 50 per 1000) to send popula- South Korea have made family planning a Last March, B. R. Sen, director general of tion spiraling upward. part of national policy. There are govern- the United Nations Food and Agriculture Europe went through a "demographic ment supported or sponsored projects in Organization, warned that the world must transition" (changeover from high birth and Ceylon, Taiwan, Turkey, Tunisia, Thailand, raise food productivity and curb population high death rates to low birth and low death Malaysia, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Hong in the next 35 years or face "disaster of an rate) before achieving its nearly stable pop- Kong. unprecedented magnitude." The alterna- ulation of today. But there the decline in Pope Paul VI has said that he hopes the tive, he added, is that "mankind will be the death rate came gradually over many dec- Catholic Church can soon redefine its stand overtaken again by the old Malthusiall car- ades starting with the early 19th century. on birth control. rectives; famine, pestilence and war." After about 1875 (France was earlier), For whatever term is used-family plan- A CRISIS AT HOME birth rates began to drop in Eui'opean coup- ning, fertility control, population control, illions responsible parenthood-the issue comes m For Americans, the population problem is not just that of faraway places. The United States is having its own troubles at home in its brave new urban world. Think about 350 million Americans- nearly double the number today-using some 300 million cars at the turn of the century. (It is not that far away; children born to- day will be 35 years old then.) Then think of the new classrooms, roads, jobs, houses, taxes for social services. Think of the jammed buses, lengthened commuting time, increased pollution of water and air, the search for precious open space and pri- vacy. Rapid population growth in the United States-we are growing at a rate 50 per- cent above that of Western Europe and close to the world pace-is aggravating urban ills and perpetuating poverty in the midst of abundance. Some see our high rate of growth as a real threat to the amenities and esthetics of our preferred way of life. In its study of world population growth, the National Academy of Sciences empha- sized'the population problem in these words: "Other than the search for lasting peace, no problem Is more urgent. Nearly all our economic, social, and political problems be- come more difficult to solve in the face of uncontrolled population growth" tries. Over the next 80 to 75 years, of couples. made personal decisions to limit down to the deeply emotional subject of family size against the opposition of both birth control. church and state. There had been no ad- The issue touches the very fabric of so- vances in contraceptives, so they relied on ciety, centuries of cultural traditions and such folk methods as withdrawal. Marriages deeply held beliefs. There are many bar- were delayed, particularly in Ireland. riers to its introduction: illiteracy, national- To help it through its transition, Europe istic pride, the peasant desire for sons to also had the safety valve of emigration. But work the fields and provide social security In the 34 million who emigrated from Europe to old age, the low status of women, the tracii- the United States from 1820 to 1955 represent tion of early marriage, contraceptive costs. People have always been ahead of govern A- Asssia than a single year's population growth in ments in the limitation of family size. Gov- today. - ernment can help set the climate, but in- A vicious CIRCLE dividual couples must make the final deci- Unlike Europe, the developing countries sions--as they did in Europe, today don't have have time for gradual ad- Mrs. Taeuber, the demographer, feels that justments to balance birth and death rates. the change in attitude toward birth control They are caught on a treadmill. Rapid pop- has now reached the ordinary man as well ulation growth is blocking the modernization as his governments. they need to achieve the conditions.--ides- "I have been to Indian villages," she says. trialization, mass education, urbanization, "These people are shrewd. They have sur- literacy-to bring their birth rates down. vived where we might not have. They pull "The past is not relevant for the develop- out old maps of land holdings a century ing countries today," says Irene B. Taeuber, ago and the divisions today, with more and a noted demographer. "There must be a new more children living. Population is no ab- pattern. Something has to happen that straction to them." never happened before. They must cut birth Attitude polls have shown that the Chi- rates either before or during the process of cago slum dweller, the Mexican factory economic development." worker, and the Indian villager alike want to President Eisenhower, who 10 years ago felt limit the size of their families. All want to that birth control was not a proper concern give their children a chance at a better life. of governments, has explained that he aban- doned this view after seeing the erosion of foreign-aid programs by population growth. In a recent speech on the 20th anniversary of the United Nations, President Johnson called for all nations to face "the multiplying problems of our multiplying populations" and pointed out that less than $5 invested in population control is worth $100 invested in economic growth. ECONOMIC STALEMATE If population is growing at a rate of 2.5 or 3 percent a year-as it is in many of the de- veloping nations-wit takes that same rate of economic growth to stay even. It comes down to a kind of holding operation at mis- erably low standards of living. It takes 9 percent of capital investment to generate a 3-percent increase In income. It will take heroic efforts to achieve the United Nations' goal of 5-percent annual growth in underdeveloped countries in this "decade of development." Expanding population growth also brings a heavy burden of child depend- ency. In the developing countries, more than. 40 percent of the population is under 15 years of age. It is 25 to 30 percent In the West.) That imbalance puts heavy demands on health and education services. Once, the subject of population control- which imples birth control-was politically taboo and considered too sensitive for public discussion. Now governments are speaking out on the need for action. President Johnson's historic 25 words In his state of the Union address lifted the hush-hush attitude of the U.S. Government. A Senate subcommittee under Senator ERNEST GRUENING, Democrat, of Alaska, is holding hearings on the need for birth con- trol information here and abroad. The United Nations will hold its Second World Population Conference In Yugoslavia Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 1.9B.Spproved KPPJf$[AW0300190002-7 c>3inr NEW CONTROL sftion of a processing tax. 'his would raise t Along with the change in attitudes is the the farm price of such wheat by about 50 recent progress in contraceptive technology. cents a bushel. The Intrauterine device-IUD-costs only a Some milling, baking, and cereal interests i i~as are campaigning strongly against the pro- feCtIVe Ce in pilot nproved -dramatically eft posal, claiming it would increase the cost of can control contr rol projects. `Onths and andy years. . bread by 2 cents a loaf. There seems to be fertility over mont little doubt that the measure would result C" is an important word here. in some increase in bread prices. Pro- lotion Frank ntrolk W. Co' 'oil toil a rpreivate president Of the which the which ponents of the measure claim the increase , a e ins 11 has spent $20.4 million on the world's popu- would be only a penny or less per loaf. It is lotion problems, emphasizes that the object difficult to arrive at an exact figure on this of a population policy is not to tell a couple because neither side specifies whether it is how many children they may have. Rather, talking about the 1-pound loaf of bread, it is to give them "the basic right to choose which is considered the basic unit, or larger "freely." loaves. Most population experts feel that popula- In fact, it is difficult to discuss bread tion doesn't have to be stabilized to the prices at all except in generalities because point of no growth. They see it as a choice they vary considerably from place to place between uncontrolled growth and a gradual in the United States. Bread prices are rela- increase it a rate that will allow for lm- tively reasonably in the Midsouth where com- provementof the human lot. petition between big bakers is sharp. Bread Population projections are not predictions. prices in California, though, are another If fertility is decreased, the United Nations story. It is reported that wholesale bread has projected a possible 5.3 billion figure at prices there are a good deal higher than the turn of the century rather than the 7 retail prices in this area. billion In prospect if current trends con- In considering national legislation, there- tinue. fore, about the best that can be done is to And once the break is made, the leveling accept the figures of the U.S. Department of oft effect will'be cumulative, just as the pres- Agriculture which represent a national ent rapid growth is self-accelerating. average. These figures show that the retail price of a pound loaf of bread has crept up steadily Lobby Campaign Hurts Farmers EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON, WILLIAM fit. ANDERSON ?.OP.. TENS ESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. ANDERSON of Tennessee. Mr. $peakr, I am very much disturbed about the lobby campaign being conducted by the milling, baking, and cereal interests against the wheat proposal contained in the farm bill. This amounts to still more fancy footwork designed to confuse the consumer and deprive the American farmer froze silarin5 in our general pros- perity. Secretary of Agriculture Orville Free- man deserves huge thanks for his tireless and extremely able efforts in behalf of our farmers, indeed all rural Americans, and I would like to submit for the RECORD an excellent analysis of the proposed wheat legislation as discussed in one of our great newspapers, the Memphis Commercial Appeal. It is high time to stop begrudging the 2 or 3 cents the wheat farmer gets out of a loaf of bread. The most dramatic success story of this century is not a story of military might, industrial pro- duction, or the conquest of space. It is the story of the American farmer-the only man the Russians and Chinese Reds have found it impossible to compete with. The analysis follows: '"E BREAD. SUBSIDIES Chairman HAROLD CooLEy,, Democrat, of North Carolina, of the House Agriculture Committee is worried that the opposition to the whet proposal will bring about de- feat of the new, farm legislation which is expected to come before Congress shortly. The wheat proposal would shift the cost of the subsidy on wheat that is used in the United states from the Treasury to the wheat processing industries through impo- eMai year since 1947 at least. The price in 1947 was 11.9 cents and in 1963-64 it was 20.7, according to the Department's figures. Little, if any, of this increase can be at- tributed to wheat prices received by the farmers. The farm value of the wheat in such a pound loaf of bread has hovered be- tween 2.3 cents and 2.7 cents through all those years. So, if the, new legislation causes a bread price increase due to higher wheat prices, it will be the first time In 18 years or more that the farmer will have received such an increase. The other increases have gone to pay higher wages to workers in the milling and baking industries, to pay for increases in costs of packaging and distribution and to pay higher prices for other bread ingredients. Whatever the outcome of this debate, it has served to make one point more clear. That is that the farm subsidies as they have been paid for many years have also been consumer subsidies. They have been hidden and have been relatively small on each unit of food the consumer has purchased at the retail outlets, but they have been there all the time. The Bracero Blunder EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. CHARLES M. TEAGUE OF CAL'VORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. TEAGUE of California. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my re- marks, I call the attention of my col- leagues in the Congress to an excellent editorial by Raymond Moley which ap- pared in the July 19, 1965, edition of Newsweek, entitled, "The Bracero Blun- der": THE BRACERo BLUNDER (By Raymond Moley) Los ANGELES -The scarcity of farmwork- ers is a hotte ' subject in California this summer than the weather in the Imperial Valley. This crisis in agriculture, Califor- nia's I-argest Industry, was caused by-the n termination of the bracero program on 3an- A4239 , nary f. The program was adopted in 1951 as a means of regulating the movement of Mexican farmworkers, braceros, into the United States in the summer and fall. Under the plan, administered by the U.S Depart- ment of Labor and validated by the govern- ments of the United States and. Mexico, large numbers of such workers were admitted for a period of 6 to 12 weeks, were paid wages equal to those of Americans and were re- quired to return after the harvest to their homes below the border. Most of the same workers returned year after year to the same employers. It was mutually profitable. The pressure for the termination of the bracero program came from the AFL-CIO, largely because of its desire to unionize farm- workers. Liberals in Congress supported the termination of the program because of their deluded belief that it would reduce unem- ployment in the large industrial centers. Union labor has not been able to supply Workers necessary to the harvest. And no unemployed worker now enjoying Govern- ment benefits is willing to migrate to another State for a temporary job. .HEADACHE FOR HOUSEWIVES The impact upon California agriculture has been most severe. Many millions have been lost because of unharvested, rotting produce. And the flow of money into the State from exports to the East and abroad has been drastically curtailed. As a result of this debacle, housewives else- where in the Nation have been confronted with rising prices for the many products im- ported from California and other States in the Southwest. In New York one purchaser of a head of lettuce after hearing the price asked that it be "gift wrapped." This rise in prices will continue as the various crops ripen on into September and October. And after that, the prices of canned goods will rise dur- ing the winter. As the crops ripened this spring, the De- partment of Labor attempted to supply the need for workers by recruiting high school students in the States west of the Mississippi into what are called A-teams. Indians were bestirred from their abodes to the east and north and transported to the fields. But the high school boys-athletes back home- found the work too hard and the sun too hot, and the teams melted away. College students who a few months ago were stand- ing up for their rights found stooping over in the fields to earn a few dollars quite an- other matter. Of 300 Indians recruited in the Dakotas who were flown in at a cost of $6,400 to Salinas growers, all but 20 vanished within a few days. THE HUMAN SIDE The cream of the comedy is a notice that the war on poverty program is spending $106,- 000 in Oxnard to educate and train 12 com- munity advisers and leaders to train seasonal workers. According to the person doing the organizing, there isn't any teaching material ready, but that will be developed in time. It will take more uplifters to develop tech- niques. If workers were available, growers could easily enough tell them what to do. A lasting loss to California is the trend of large growers to lease lands in Mexico and develop them along with Mexicans under more tolerable conditions in a country which has no Secretary Wirtz to "help" with their problems. California can ill afford this strain on its economy at this time because in several communities I have visited there are signs of declining business. There is a human element in the termina- tion of the bracero program. While the bleeding hearts in the Washington regime are spending billions 'to "help the poor in Egypt, India, and elsewhere abroad, and while there is much talk about the Alliance for Progress, the Federal Government has visited a cruel hardship on the people of our nearest neigh- bor to the south. The termination of the .Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RD067B00446R000300190002-7 A4240 Approved FokMaff Affi lAL0 ~1 P67 P (kP030019000August 2, 1965 bradero program has hacked away the live- and House, none has been more persistently by the Democratic President for its help in lihood of tens of thousands of Mexican spread than the claim that American alms burying the Republican Party in a very deep workers, for this visit to the north had come are somehow tricky and that the American grave. to be their way of life. Their feelings can public is somehow in the dark. If Ameri- well be imagined. can aims in fact suffer for credibility, it Is from their simplicity and-yes-their hon- esty and altruism in a world where pseudo- sophisticates are forever on the lookout for the gimmick and the clever phrase to mask candid Intentions. As to the American public, there has not been in all these long months and years of the running Vietnamese crisis the smallest objective evidence of "confusion" as to what this Nation is about in Asia. Every national poll has indicated the exact reverse. Every one has clearly shown that the people know quite well what we are about and that while of course they are not madly gay about it, they fully recognize its necessities. To this, this columnist can add a personal note. In a 2-week absence from Washing- ton "out in the country" it seemed plain that the only people really "confused" are that minority of breastbeaters in Congress who profess endless "confusion" to avoid facing up to the central truth that we are in Viet- nam simply because it Is our duty to be there as the leader and guardian of the free world. There is a time for the fullest debate, even for dog-in-the-manger debate, and for the longest and most pompous of "teach-ins." And these, Heaven knows, we have had in full measure. Then there Is a time for a halt to logic-chopping and emotionalized appeals for a "peace" that would mean surrender and a betrayal of our responsibilities on this earth. This time has now arrived. For now, undeniably and beyond further quibbling, the United States of America Is at war. TWENTY-ONE GOP VOTES The House Republicans who covered Mr. Johnson's shortage of Democratic resources in that branch were 21 in number on the final vote, 221 to 203, by which the States may no longer ban labor-management con- tracts that make union membership a condi- tion of keeping a job. If 10 of these Repub- licans had voted the other way, the tally would have been 213 to 211 In favor of pre- serving the State authority-to ban or to per- mit such contracts that is reserved to them in section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act. But, though the 21 Republicans are distrib- uted among 8 States, 12 of them repre- sent districts in New York and Pennsylvania. So that these would have been sufficient to make up the Democratic deficit on the repeal proposal, even if they had not been joined by three from Ohio, two from Massachusetts, and one from New Jersey, Wisconsin, Wash- ington, and Maine, respectively. Conse- quently, the workers in 19 right-to-work States, who now-the Senate concurring- will have to join a union to hold their jobs if their employers and their plant unions so contract, have New York and Pennsylvania Republicans in the House to thank for it. "GAG RULE" EMPLOYED All but two of the GOP firemen who saved the Democratic President's child were so dedicated to their mission that they trampled on one of their most loudly professed princi- ples on the way up the ladder. The other 19 opposed the motion of Minority Leader FORD, of Michigan, to recommit the repeal legislation because, under the "gag rule" Imposed by the majority leadership, no amendments could even be considered. This "gag rule" was President Kennedy's ground in 1961 for proposing to enlarge the Rules Committee to prevent its use by the biparti- san conservative committee majority at the time. On that ground his proposal was saved from defeat in the Democratic House by the Republican bloc that made possible the re- peal of section 14(b) this week through the employment of the identical "gag rule." This inconsistency enabled the Republican bloc, the President and the Democrats who voted for repeal to avoid taking a position on these propositions: to exempt from com- pulsory unionism the workers whose religion forbade it; to deny the benefit to unions which practice discrimination against Ne- groes, or use their funds for political pur- poses. A vote on such amendments was denied the House on the wholly specious, but authorized gag rule holding that they were "nongermane." Frustrated once again by defections from their own ranks in the effort to establish a political opposition in fact, the minority leaders of the House face the same prospect in the next attempt. This, now being gen- erated by Representative LAIRD, of Wisconsin, is to attack the President's position that the costs of the escalation of the war in Viet- nam can be financed without any restriction on business as usual, and without any se- rious reduction of the present and planned program for the welfare State he has named the Great Society. According to LAIRD'S rough estimate, the total amount of new spending, largely for this purpose, in all the admin- istration's money bills now pending in Con- gress is $8.86 billion. He wants to establish a minority party from behind proposals to reduce some of these appropriations and defer the grant of others. His concept is that this is a prudent fiscal cost for a Government which is progressively escalating its military force in what the Pres- ident conceded the other day is actual "war," and maintaining meanwhile a huge mili- tary establishment as a deterrent to Com- munist aggression in other parts of the world. United Stak%at_Wav-'Time To Beat Drums, Not Breasts EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM G. BRAY OF rNDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. BRAY. Mr. Speaker, if there is any confusion or misunderstanding in the United States over our objectives and aims in southeast Asia, it is among those clamoring so loudly for negotiations and withdrawal-the peace-at-any-price crowd. This is made quite clear in the following column by William S. White that appeared in the Monday, August 2, 1965, Washington Post: UNITED STATES AT WAR-TIME To BEAT DRUMS, NOT BREASTS (By William S. White) As the fog of war thickens over Vietnam, where by any standard a major American action at arms is now unfolding, other fogs of quite different ilk are lifting here at home. The national atmosphere, though un- doubtedly more dangerous than before, is at all events now burned free of a great deal of vaporous nonsense. No longer can it be denied by any respon- sible public official or private man that the most vital of American interests are involved In this struggle against Asian Communist aggression. If 125,000 American troops standing in Vietnam are not enough to give somber refutation to this sort of pettifog- ging, there is In addition the solemn dec- laration of the President--of the United States: "* * * this Is really war." No longer can it be suggested by any re- sponsible American, public or private, that this country is somehow unreasonably re- fusing to "negotiate" with a Communist in- vader who a score of times has'scorned any honorable discussion-and still does. No longer can it be suggested by any re- sponsible American, public or private, that the purposes and motives of the United States in Asia are somehow hidden and ar- cane and that the people of the United States are terribly, terribly "confused." The position of the Government of the United States has, in President Johnson's address to the Nation by wo.y of his press conference, again and for the umpteenth time been made plain as the noonday sun. We are determined to honor the pledges of three American Presidents to the people of South Vietnam. We seek no melodramatic total "victory." We seek only an end to ag- gression and invasion and a decent peace decently guaranteed. But these aims we not merely pursue but also demand; and these aims we shall achieve, come what might. It is not we who will determine how big the war must get. It Is the Communist ad- versary. And every American can only pro- foundly hope that our little band of fringe Democratic Senators crying "peace" where there is no peace will give that adversary no further cause to believe that this Nation really does not mean what it says when it says that aggression upon South Vietnam has got to stop. Of all the moonshine so long spread by avowedly "liberal" splinters in the Senate In the Nation: The Administration's GOP Salvage Corps EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HERMAN T. SCHNEEBELI OF PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. SCHNEEBELI. Mr. Speaker, on August 1, Arthur Krock, the famed New York Times columnist included com- ments on a very current and pertinent subject. I commend to my colleagues his able presentation of a subject that seriously concerns the national welfare: IN THE NATION: THE ADMINISTRATION'S GOP SALVAGE CORPS (By Arthur Krock) NEWPORT, R.I., July 31.-The price de- manded of President Johnson by organized labor for its Intensive support, which mate- rially contributed to his sweep of urban areas in 1964, was the repeal of section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act. But the crowning political irony is that when the President was unable to liquidate his IOU with his Democratic resources in Congress, the deficit was supplied by Republicans. This was the cream of the jest which des- ignates the Republicans as the party of the opposition, though it failed to attract much notice because it has happened so often be- fore; and because the Republicans who have salvaged key legislative proposals of the Ken- nedy and Johnson administrations from de- feat in overwhelming Democratic Congresses are usually the same individuals. But this Republican rescue act was something very special, considering the basic issues pre- sented, and the general knowledge that repeal of the State right-to-work laws was repay- ment to organize labor of a promissory note Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August' 2, Y965 roved For.j6Ve&I8/114i-11I3 67A Ln13,p's argument for his plan is that it is many of the children come from families lecesstry to awaken the American people to the, realities of U.S. commitments that lie believes the President's assurances of busi- ness as usual, and so forth, have submerged in the popular `consciousness. BUDGET REDUCTION TARGETS The rough total of $8.86 billion is not all designed for welfare programs of the Great Society but the following, some of which LAIRD hopes the congressional minority will unite with him to reduce, are, antipoverty, '`$1.9 billion; housing, $1.56 billion; educa- tion, $1.876 billion. Also projected is an appropriation of $2.7 billion for river and harbor construction and improvement that it would be in line with LAmD'S reasoning. to reduce. But the breakdown of the list of the House Republicans who, in varying but sufficient numbers, have saved key measures on which the last two Democratic administrations gained and retained the party in national power, leaves small if any prospect that they will make an exception of LAIRD'S proposal. To become a political opposition in the tradi- tional and effective sense, the Republican party must first become a cohesive and coura- geous minority. And that day is not even in sight. Bureau County War on Poverty Goes Well Beyond Poor EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT. II. MICHEL OFILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. MICHEL. Mr. Speaker, Bureau County is a rural area in my 18th Con- gressional District. It has recently begun to participate in Project Head Start. This program was intended for the poor. An article which appeared in the Peoria Journal Star, July 30, 1965, however, in- dicates that OEO has deemed otherwise. Mr. $hriver has a habit of reading the law and then doing what he pleases. The above mentioned article follows: BUREAU COUNTY WAR ON POVERTY GOES WELL BEYOND POOR-KINDERGARTEN FOR ALL (By John Bell) A front of the war on poverty has been ex- tended beyond the poor in Bureau County. The v.8. Office of Economic Opportunity is financing a head start program for kinder- garten-aged children in that county even though the children aren't poverty cases. They are simply boys and girls who live in school districts which don't operate kinder- gartens. Over 150 children are enrolled in nine classes of the six Head Start centers in Bureau County. Requirements for admis- sion provide only that participants must be ready to enter first grade this fall and live in a grade school area which has no kinder- garten. Head Start is one division in the Federal Government's war on poverty. It is intended to help preschool children pf the poor to learn skills and gain experiences that will help them when they begin school. It is hoped that the program will help reduce school dropouts. Normally the Head Start projects are in- tended for, areas where at least 85 percent of the families have an average annual in- come of less then $3,000. Joseph Newcomer, Bureau County superin- tendent of schools and sponsor of this Head Start program, said he got special permission from Washington to start it even though mission was granted, he said, because Bureau County has so few kindergartens of its own. Newcomer reasoned with the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity that without the kinder- garten training these children will receive in Head Start classes they would have been "culturally deprived." He also cited a clause in the application that denies anyone administering the pro- gram the power to discriminate on the basis of race, color, or creed and argued that nei- ther should administrators be permitted to discriminate on the basis of a family's in- come. Princeton, the county seat, has three pub- lic kindergartens and therefore has none of the Child Development Centers, as they are called by Head Start people. Single classes are held in the cities of Bureau, Arlington and Wyanet, with two classes each in Spring Valley, Manlius, and Ohio. Director of the program is William Elmen- dorf, a Bradley graduate who teaches speech at Hall Township High School in Spring Val- ley during the regular school year. Elmendorf said the program is intended to help the child go as far as he can with the skills he learns in the kindergarten- type classes. The popular conception of kindergarten as strictly a place to play is incorrect, he said, and that many children of the county's head start classes have ac- quired reading readiness skills, table man- ners, other abilities on the early first-grade level. Each child development center has a teacher, an assistant teacher who is usually a college student majoring in primary edu- cation, and, in most cases, a parental vol- unteer. Director Elmendorf pointed out that all but one, of the instructors are certificated teachers who work in county schools during the rest of the year. School systems don't usually sponsor a head start program, said Newcomer (Peoria's is sponsored by the com- munity council) but by doing. so in Bureau County he felt he could secure the best pos- sible instructors. Elmendorf said the Bureau County pro- gram has a teacher-student ratio of about 6 to 1, enabling the instructors to spend more time for individual attention. The program's staff also includes a school psychologist, speech therapist, nurse, and music consultant. The children have been given sight and hearing tests and medical examinations. Lunches as required by the State and bus transportation are provided. The program is costing the Federal Govern- ment $21,230 and the county $2,425. Princeton, Depne, Ladd, Spring Valley, Sheffield, and Buda are the only county grade schools of the 23 which have kindergartens, but Elmendorf predicts that other county grade schools will soon have kindergarten classes of their own. "This program has stimulated a lot of other schools into seeking the possibilities of getting their own kindergartens, and I think I can safely say that there'll be more public kindergartens in this county soon," he said. International Youth Leadership Training Course EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS C. McGRATH Or NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker,. there is presently in progress at Camp Thun- A4241 derbird, N. Mex., one of the most unique and important "people to people" pro- grams in which Americans have ever been engaged. It is the international youth leadership training course, in which 40 young leaders from 15 nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America are being taught the essentials of directing national youth-work programs. The international youth leadership course has been established unler the auspices of Sports International and Youth for Development, a private, non- profit organization dedicated to foster- ing youth development on an interna- tional level through youth leadership and sports training programs. I am proud to note that the founder and director of Sports International and Youth for Development is a constituent of mine in New Jersey's Second District, Dr. David Dichter, of Atlantic City, a former athlete and former U.S. Informa- tion Agency officer. Since its incorpora- tion in Febuary 1963, Sports Interna- tional and Youth for Development has been about the important work of ex- changing athletic and youth leadership know-how quietly and without fanfare. Sports International and Youth for Development has sponsored annual pro- grams for foreign track and field ath- letes who visited the United States to "learn by doing" at American colleges, universities, and high schools. These programs, cosponsored by the host in- stitutions and the U.S. Department of Sta'',e, have proven of great benefit to the foreign trainees and have resulted in tangible improvements of the U.S. image in participating countries, Dr. Dichter reports. In helping emerging nations achieve the pride of nationalism with- out hostility, the programs help make clear that there is no inbred Western superiority in athletics-that excellence ie achieved through hard work. Avariety of programs has been launched by Sports International and Youth for Development in its relatively short existence and still other, even more far reaching, are contemplated. But the international youth leadership train- ing course underway in New Mex- ico is truly worthy of attention, I feel. While the United States has long rec- ognized the importance of individual ini- tiative and dynamic leadership in na- tional life, the international youth leadership training course is the first program of its kind to develop self-reli- ance, initiative, and confidence in for- eign youth leaders. Since World War II ended, there has been a growing interest among newly independent and developing nations in utilizing their young people for national development work. Youth of these na- tions now play important roles in many nation-building tasks. Sports Interna- tional and Youth for Development feels it is essential that their youth leaders be able to cope with critical economic problems they face, such as rural back- wardness, rapid urban growth, and seri- ous underemployment. The IYLTC was devised to provide exactly such prepara- tion. "Learn by doing" is the program's underlying philosophy. Its threefold program includes classroom instruction Approved For Release 2003/11/04 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 A4242 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD--- APPENDIX August 2, 1965 on the role and mission of a youth lead- The editorial, which comments on Red er; technical instruction on such actual China's relationship to the Vietnam situ work projects as building roads, laying ation, points out that hunger, as well as telephone lines, rearing fish in ponds as political ideology, can often be a cause a food source, building small dams and of war. schools, and so forth; and instruction There are some in the United States, on how to utilize the physical challenge as the editorial notes,: who argue that of outdoor living in developing conflfree world nations should not be supply- dence. lug food to Red China. However, as the After completing a 3-month course editorial also points out, southeast Asia in New Mexico, the foreign leaders should can be a source of food for hungry Chi- skills, be competent physical fitness in- structors, and possess necessary self- confidence to effectively administer na- tional youth service corps programs. Not only will they be competent orga- nizers, skilled in imparting discipline and espirit de corps, but by their example they will also foster better citizenship in their own young people. The program's instructors are among the world's most experienced and re- spected in the youth leadership training field. They include the former director of a Pease Corps training camp in Puerto Rico, a national official of England's Outdoor Activities Council, the Peace Corps director in Guatemala, and a for- mer director of the Agency for Interna- tional Development's youth conservation program in Turkey. They are joined by experts from the U.S. Forestry Service, the Soil Conservation Service, the Bu- reau of Fisheries and Wildlife, CARE, "Food for Peace," and the Population Council- Because of its immediate practical na- ture, this Sports International and Youth for Development program will doubtless enjoy widespread applicability in the nations of the participants. As the 40 youth leaders who are spending the summer in New Mexico put into prac- tice the experience they are acquiring, the International Youth Leadership Training Course will amply demonstrate its effectiveness as a vehicle for harness- ing the energy and enthusiasm of youth in Asia, Africa and Latin America for productive, nation-building tasks. At the same time, Mr. Speaker, I feel this program is a tribute to the willing- ness and ability of American citizens to dig in and do something to improve con- ditions in other parts of the world on a private basis and at a people-to-people level. Dr. Dichter and his colleagues de- serve the admiration of _411-Americans. can editorial comments: In trying to balance a variety of contro- versial opinions, the United States must plan on stopping Chinese military aggressions into southeast Asia. But at the same time the United States must help the Chinese people to get food. The editorial discusses matters that merit close study and, under leave to extend my remarks, I hereby include it in the RECORD: CIr[NA'S MOST POWExrUL WEAPON IS PROPAGANDA As the Vietnam war grows more serious, it is necessary that the American people and their leaders give more consideration to Red China. Many Americans assume that, in fighting the Red guerrillas in South Vietnam, we are actually at war with Red China. It is definite that China support North Viet- nam in the present war. Ambassador Lodge, recently returned' to second hitch in South Vietnam, said in a recent interview that China is supplying the weapons and ammunition to' the Red guer- rillas in South Vietnam and that China originally got these weapons from Russia. This would mean outdated weapons in a sense but-the guerrillas use them effectively. Lodge also says that up to now, since the United States has actually been losing in the war, China sees no reason to enter the war actively and is perfectly willing to furnish the weapons while the guerrillas pay a heavy price in the brutal fighting. This is the, best answer available on what China is doing in the Vietnam war and it may be considered official. Actually, the American people know very little about Red China and what it is doing In the war. China has had a long and unfortunate history of droughts and famines. while its population continues to grow by leaps and bounds. This is probably the chief reason why it is a Communist nation today. Re- liable reports show that in about seven of the Chinese Provinces a severe drought pre- vailed from November to April and so the wheat crop in all this area is very short. Even in Manchuria, the only section of China that produces surplus food, drought prevailed until May. Iowa farmers will be interested in the fact that China's soybean crop this got off to C"' '` year due to widespread drought , , Marshalitowff -Tits-Republican Com- a poor start, meats on Red China and the Vietnam Free nations ship big quantities of wheat e ax such shipments p and this d Chia t R Situation EXTENSION OF REMARKS ~F. BERT BANDSTRA OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES y o e n amomit to about 6,200,000 tons. Canada, Australia and Argentina are the chief sup- pliers of wheat to China and in 4 years China got wheat amounting to half of the annual crop in the United States. The Sioux City Journal commented recently that free nations seem to be feeding the enemy while we fight them. Some sin- cere Americans say we ought to sell them wheat as much American wheat does reach Monday, August 2, 1965 China through Canada. Mr. BANDSTRA. Mr. Speaker, I If Americans try to figure out why Red would like to call the attention of my China is backing a war in South Vietnam, fellow Members to a perceptive editorial there are fertile lands in South Vietnam, in B from the July 27, 1965, issue of the Mar- urma and most of people Asia and need China's hordes s of hungry y peoplle need that shailtown Times-Republican of Mar- food. China takes communism along with shalltown, Iowa. it, but in trying to block the spread of com- niunism in southeast Asia, the United State. Is also blocking the hungry Chinese from a natural outlet to get more food. It is a tough decision for Americans to make. It is such dilemmas as the millions of starving Chinese which lead some very sin.- cere leaders to urge some friendly approach to Red China. The noted historian, Arnold J. Toynbee, voices such a plea in the current Saturday Evening Post, bearing the title, "We Must Woo Red China." In trying to balance a variety of contro?- versial opinions, the United States must plan on stopping Chinese military aggressions into southeast Asia. But at the same time the United States must help the Chinese people to get food. Until China starts sending armies into southeast Asia, or using nuclear weapons in that area, the United States should not try to stop our allies from shipping wheat and other food to China. Shipments of U.S. wheat to China through Canadian traders should not be stopped. One of the Nation's best historians, teaching in Iowa, has a book which purports to show that hunger is the thing that will drive Red nations to start a world war--will surely drive them to do it. Experts say China can hardly send a big army into southeast Asia but its leaders may try in time. Various reports express a fear of China when it has a supply of nuclear weapons. A recent report shows that China is building submarines that can fire missiles to the U.S. mainland. China is big, tough, and enigmatic and its propaganda against the white race is its most dangerous weapon at the present time. EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. ADAM C. POWELL Or NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. POWELL. Mr. Speaker, today August 2, Jamaica celebrates the third anniversary of her independence. On this occasion, therefore, I wish to extend warm felicitations to His Excellency Alexander Bustamente, the Prime Min- ister of Jamaica; and to His Excellency Sir Neville Noel Ashenheim, the Jamai- can Ambassador to the United States. Jamaica's emergence from British colonial status into independence made her the first new state in the Western Hemisphere since the beginning of this century and the 14th member of the Commonwealth. Jamaica is a stable multiracial society with a history of democratic institutions. The Jamaican Government's efforts to industrialize were called laudatory in an article which appeared in the New York Times in January of this year. To overcome the most pressing prob- lems-a lack of investment capital and technical know-how-the Government offers incentives to new enterprises. The incentive law permits duty-free im- ports of machinery for manufacturing plants and of raw materials for products earmarked for export. One hundred and fifty of the 1,000 plants operating on the- island came into being with the help of the incentive laws. The incen- tive program was aided by Jamaica's stable currency. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 ,flu ics1, 2_ 1 -~~roved For ~;~ ~~1vlq1~1: t ~L7BAONJ r3R300190002-7 the programs for the principal grain crops- modity programs, which in recent years have wheat, rice, and feed grains. The administra- averaged close to $4 billion (#1,428 million) tion sponsored temporary legislation for the a year. 1964 and 3965 wheat crops, which requires The feed grain program, like the wheat marketing certificates for wheat, For the tax originally a temporary measure, is up 1965 p, in. and other processors must for a 4-year renewal; its basic aim has been buy ertlficates valued at 15 cents (5 shit- to divert acreage out of key feed grains and lings 4 J4 pence) it bushel for wheat con- though feed grain stocks, have been reduced sumed domestically. Domestic annual con- by some 30 million tons n the last 4 years, sumption of wheat is estimated at about 500 it has proved to be very expensive. The million bushels, thus yielding an estimated total expenditure amounts to nearly -$3.7 amount of $375 million (f184 million), billion (#1,321 million), equivalent to about which in turn is paid to wheatgrowers com- $3.65 (26 shillings) for each bushel reduced. plying with the program. The75-cent domes- The success of+ the scheme has further been tic certificate payment (only-25 cents for ex- reduced as prices have continued to be sup- port certificates) on top of the $1.25 price ported at levels attractive enough to spur support loan provides producers with a 'total farmers on to increase yields on the remain- support of $2 (14 shillings 31/4 pence) per Ing acreage. Consequently, there seems an bushel on wheat consullned, domestically, obvious need for a change in farm programs; For the 1966 crop, the administration pro- the proposed cropland adjustment program prises to raise the cost of domestic wheat to can play a vital role In retiring whole farms $2.50 a bushel by increasing the price of out of surplus production, provided that the domestic certificates to $1.25 but to discon- land is not used for other crops; efforts tinue the export certificate, For the same toward providing better training for farm 500 million bushels of, wheat made into people to speed their successful adjustment bread, ffour, and other products, consumers in industrial or service occupations area a would be paying $$25 million (#223 million) move in the right direction and need to be in processing taxes, expanded. But any new program should Since millers and baking companies al- work toward gradually bringing about a ready operate on extremely thin margins, shift of resources and an adjustment of farm the cost must ultimately be passed on to production to permit , the Government to consumers in higher prices. This is why reduce sharply its costly intervention hi the aomgsjic mar'aPtirlg certificates as a bread tax. to an excise tax. Certain excise taxes, in- No Reasonable cluding those on furs and jewelry,, repealed $618 million (#220 million) in fiscal 1966, that is roughly equal to the projected ' 1966 yield of the wheat tax of $625 million. Moreover, while these taxes were typically assessed at rates of 10 to 20 percent, the in- creased wheat tax `would amount to roughly 100 percent of the basic farm price, thus almost dou_blk, the price to the miller. The Agricultural secretary, Orville Freeman, es= timated that the new programs for wheat and rice would raise the cost of .,food 3,6 cents (3%4 pence) a week or $1.87 (13 shil- lings, 434 pence) a year per capita, but he stressed that this aluuld not cause any hardship as over the past 4 years the take- home pay of the average family has sharply increased. However, this hardly justifies prise increases in the necessities of life. A wheat tax undoubtedly strikes hardest at the poor;; the lower the family's income the higher is the consumption of wheat products. This was confirmed by the Agri- cultural Department's survey of household food consumption conducted in 1955, and a similar survey 1s underway this year. The incongruity of imposing such a regressive tax at .a time when the administration is stressing an antipoverty war needs no em- phasis. It also contrasts with the President's promise of additional income tax cuts for "those taxpa'That. rs who now live in the shadow of poverty." the aim in increasing the wheat-processing ax is to provide a better g g income, for, firmers.has .been revealed to be, the national debate on Vietnam pol-article by to the in a Budget t Director, Saturday KerReviewmit t Gordon, , ley, and for his wise support of firmness the former, who stated that 80 percent of U.S. assistance against Communist aggression in south- goes to the 1 million farmers whose average east Asia. income exceeds $9,500, while the other. 20 Because of my belief that this article percent of assistance is spread thinly among will be of interest to my colleagues, I in- the remaining 21/a million, The farms that elude it at this point as it appeared in produce most of the Nation's food and fiber? the Milwaukee Journal of August 1, 1965: no 10.~ er f'" into the lowest one-third oY the 1' atlon's" t1come distribution, and though No ALTERNATIVE IN VIETNAM: POTENTIAL their success is not completely independent- Carrie TELLS WHY of Government commodity programs, these (NoTE.-Last week as President Johnson programs are no longer a means of distribut- announced large new commitments of U.S. tug income to the neediest groups in the troops to the war on Vietnam, the public de- population. However, the administration in bate over the administration's foreign pol- shiftingthe wheat subsidy from the taxpayer icy continued. A teach-in at the University to the, consumer makes it possible to show a of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a public hear- reduction in Federal budget outlays for com- Ing conducted by Representative KASTEN- A4249 mmm, Democrat of Wisconsin, in Madison were among the activities. In the following article, John Fischer, editor in. chief of Harper's magazine, tells why he must differ with some of his fellow intellectuals and sup- port the administration policy. The excerpt is reprinted by special permission from the August issue of the magazine, just released.) I should be listed as a potential critic of the administration's foreign policy. I share a good deal of the uneasiness expressed re- cently by scores of other writers, artists, and professors, many of them my friends. But perhaps not for the same reasons. I am wor- ried about our Involvements in Vietnam, for example, because basic American strategic doctrine ever since Admiral Mahan has held that we should never commit a major land force to combat on the Asiatic mainland, No- body-certainly not President Johnson-has so far offered a conclusive argument that this doctrine has suddenly become obsolete. Consequently it seems quite possible that the United States map soon and itself with a large share of its ready divisions bogged down indefinitely-in a corner of Asia re- mote from the enemy's vital centers, and facing the vastly more numerous manpower of China and its, satellites. That coui4 leave us stripped of the power needed to cope with a possible 'Communist .thrust into Europe, the Middle, East, India, or Latin America. Yet I have refused jo,sign any of the mani- festos attacking the administration's policy in Vietnam and Santo Domingo. For the a--e-,` time being, at least, I remain only a poten- in Vietnam tial critic-for reasons indicated below. HON. CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI or WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. ZABLOCKI. Mr. Speaker, in the wake of the criticism which has been lev- eled at U.S. policy in Vietnam by seg- xi~ents of the Nation's intellectual com- munity, it was refreshing to read an ar- ticle by the editor of one of the Nation's most prestigious journals, Mr. John Fischer of the Atlantic Monthly. After giving the Vietnam situation a careful and reasoned assessement, Mr. Fischer has determined that the Presi- dent's policies are the only reasonable alternative. Unlike some intellectuals, he has not allowed his emotions to sway him into advocating withdrawal from Vietnam. Be rightly points out that the only hope of ultimately "taming" China lies in containing its expansionist tendencies in Asia. At Speaker, I want to commend Mr. Fischer for the insi hts he has brou ht In the case of Vietnam, I would feel freer to criticize if I could -think of a reasonable alternative. None has been suggested, so far as I can discover, by the teach-in pro- fessors or the other intellectuals and artists who have been shouting "Hands off Viet- nam." A slogan is not a policy; and they have not said what, exactly, they would do if they were sitting behind Johnson's desk. THE MORAL ISSUE After all, he didn't get us into the mess. He inherited it, from Eisenhower and Ken- nedy. If he simply pulled out all American troops, as some of his critics urge, he would not only be betraying an ally (and who would ever trust us then?), but he almost certainly would be turning over all of southeast Asia to the Chinese. They have, remember, al- ways moved south whenever China was ruled by a strong dynasty. Those who talk about "the moral issue" don't specify what is so moral about extin- guishing the nascent democracies of Malaysia and India, or abandoning Thailand and Bur- ma to foreign domination. And those who have any doubt about the intentions of the Chinese Communists toward these targets simply haven't paid attention to what Chair- man Mao has been saying these many years- or how he has behaved in conquered Tibet. The more moderate critics beg Johnson to try harder to negotiate a peaceful settle- ment-but, again, they don't say how. At this writing the North Vietnam Government and its Chinese allies have rejected every plea for negotiations-from the British, Ca- nadians, French, as well as the White House. Indeed, I can't see why they should con- sider negotiation, on any terms whatever, until September at the earliest. Undoubt- edly they think they are winning the battle on the ground. If their rainy season offen- sive does overwhelm the South Vietnamese army and drives out or demolishes the Ameri- can contingents (as the French were demol- ished at Dienbienphu) then they will have a political triumph far more resounding than anything they could possibly win by negotia- tions. So why not try for it? If the offensive fails, they can always ne- gotiate later-and against opponents wearier and probably more driven by internal disa- greements than they are now. (The peace demonstrations in this country probably en- Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R00030019'0002-7 A4250 Approved JWR?gI&W1dRDPPpppMfk00030019090I~,st 2; 1965 courage the Communists in this intransi- gence, since they inevitably interpret them as evidence of American weakness and fal- tering nerve.) REGIME MAY COLLAPSE So the best the administration can hope for, apparently, is that the Saigon troops, with our support, can hold until the rains and heavy fighting stop. It may be a near thing. Indeed, it is entirely possible that either the South Vietnam Government or a considerable part of its army or both, may collapse before these words are in print,, so at least, I am told by observers with long experience in that country. But there also is a reasonable chance this will not happen-largely because our bomb- ing of the North Vietnamese bridges, roads, and railways makes it difficult for the Com- munists to move In and to supply in pro- longed combat any considerable number of regular Red divisions. Without such additional stiffening from the north, the present Vietcong offensive is by no means certain to succeed. It will in- Met heavy losses on us and our South Viet- namese allies; but the Vietcong losses are likely to be at least as large. And when a guerrilla force-any guerrilla force-suffers heavy and continuing casualties, without a major victory in return, its morale is likely to get pretty fragile; witness what happened in Poland and Russia during the early years of World War II, and in the unsuccessful Communist guerrilla wars against the Phil- ippines and Malaya. If, then, the Communists' summer cam- paign ends in a bloody deadlock, they may at last be willing to open negotiations, secretly and through a third power. More probably, however, the fighting will simply dwindle away into an unspoken armistice. For, throughout their history, the Marxist states have always been reluctant to negotiate a formal cease fire except under two, conditions: (1) When they are con- vinced that further fighting will cost them more than they can gain and (2) when they are pretty sure that they can win more at the conference table than on the battlefield. Such is the doctrine laid down by Lenin, and followed faithfully by his disciples all the way from Trotsky's 1918 negotiations at Brest Litovsk up to Tito at Trieste, the Chinese at Panmunjom, and the Pathet Lao in Laos. Today, with the Russians and Chinese in desperate competition for leadership of the world Communist movement, it'has become harder than ever for either camp to admit publicly that it is abandoning a "war of na- tional liberation." Consequently, when the Vietcong and their big brothers to the north finally are convinced that they can't win, they probably will just stop fighting-as the Communist guerrillas did in Malaya, in Greece, in the Philippines, and in Vene- zuela-always with the thought that they may start again on a more auspicious day. MAO NEEDS ENEMY Such a lull could come this winter-or in 2 years, or 5. (In Malaya, after all, it took 10 years for the guerrillas to get discour- aged.) And any slackening of American resolution or military pressure is likely mere- ly to delay the coming of such a temporary de facto peace. For genuine peace in Asia does not seem possible so long as the Chinese revolution remains in its virulent, aggressive stage. Chairman Mao urgently needs to get control of the surplus rice production in southeast Asia. For the time being, therefore, any attempt to conciliate him is almost certainly hope- less. Even if the United States were to with- draw entirely from the Pacific arena, his need for a major adversary would still re- main. He probably would find it in Russia. India and the other border states are too impotent to look like convincing bugaboos; they are more likely to be cast in the role of quick and easy victims. Someday the Chinese revolution can be expected to cool off, as the Russian revolu- tion did; and then it may be possible for "There is not the slightest doubt," he wrote, "that if America withdraws and leaves southeast Asia to itself, Communist China will advance and seize the continent. All the people of Asia will soon be intimidated to pay homage to the Communist Parties in each of the regions of Asia. * * * There is no hope for freedom of thought in Asia if the hegemony, if not the empire, of China, is established." other countries to deal with China on some- Justice Goldberg to the United Nations thing like normal diplomatic terms. Mean- while, for perhaps a generation, the pros- pect for Asia is continual turmoil and blood- shed. Nothing America can do will prevent it. But a policy of patient, steadfast contain- ment might hasten its end, helping to bring the Chinese revolution a little earlier into its mature, less bellicose stage. In the case of Russia, such a policy has worked very well Indeed-a fact easy to forget in the midst of our current troubles. All it took was 20 years of unremitting diplomatic, economic and military effort. The lessons of history, therefore, seem to suggest that Johnson's basic course is prob- ably right. So far as I can see, it is the least dangerous and ultimately the least costly of any of the alternatives open to him. And, as always in international affairs, a choice of the lesser evil is about the best anyone can hope for. But this does not mean that the admin- istration's day-to-day tactics should be ex- empt from criticism. Surely Johnson has been less than candid in explaining what we are getting into, and why. The contradic- tory statements flowing out of Washington and Saigon inevitably have stirred up con- fusion and mistrust, at home and abroad. Domestic political considerations often seem to weigh too heavily in Johnson's de- cision-no doubt because his whole life has been drenched in domestic politics, so that he has little visceral understanding of the way foreigners think and feel. * * * Criticism on matters such as these is the plain duty of the press, the political opposi- tion, and the ordinary citizen who is inter- ested enough to keep reasonably informed. Johnson would do well to listen to them, instead of howling like a cowhand with a centipede in his boot; maybe their comments could help him avoid fumbles in the future. Another group of critics, however, need not be taken too seriously. It includes many (though not all) of the poets, pediatricians, novelists, painters, and professors who have been making so much noise during the last 4 months. Most of them are deeply humane people who loathe war and wish itwould go away. * * * They have every right, of course, to express their views on matters of universal concern. But their professional eminence- Robert Lowell's in poetry, Mark Rothko's in painting, Dr. Spock's in medicine-does not automatically endow them with wisdom about foreign policy. Here their opinions are worth just about as much as Dean Rusk's views on poetry or Robert McNamara's on raising babies-which are also matters of universal concern. Personally I am inclined to give more weight to the opinion of another rebellious intellectual who in addition to his scholarly accomplishments, has considerable experi- ence in statecraft. He is Dr. C. Rajagopala- chari, a leader in India's struggle for inde- pendence, a companion of Gandhi, a pioneer But what he needs more is a foreign enemy. in civil disobedience, and an apostle of peace. Like other leaders of revolutions in this He also served after independence as gover- stage-Napoleon, Hitler, Stalin, even comic nor genera, of India. In a letter to the New little Sukarno-he has found that nothing York Times of June 6, he spoke to "the best else will serve to keep his people-keyed up, brains of America" about their "criticism year after year, to the feverish zeal and end- and ridicule" of the President's policy in less sacrifice which his theology demands. Vietnam. EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. JAMES C. CORMAN OF CALIFORNIA THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. CORMAN. Mr. Speaker, by ap- pointing Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, President Johnson has reaffirmed our basic commitment to that world body. Justice Goldberg is one of America's most talented public servants, a negotiator of unrivaled skill, and a seasoned and able leader of men. The Los Angeles Times, on July 21, expressed its editorial support for the President's outstanding nomination and, under unanimous consent, I include that edi- torial in the RECORD: JUSTICE GOLDBERG TO THE U.N. The voice that speaks for the United States in the forum of the United Nations must be articulate, persuasive, emphatic and rea- soned. Supreme Court Justice Arthur Gold- berg, President Johnson's choice to succeed Adlai Stevenson as U.N. Ambassador, has such a voice. Mr. Johnson's selection was, of course, a surprise. Speculation on a new Ambassador had naturally centered on persons with ex- perience in foreign affairs and international diplomacy. Justice Goldberg's background, as lawyer, union counsel, Secretary of Labor, and High Court judge, touched but little in these areas. Yet his other outstanding qualifications would seem to fax outbalance whatever lack of formal expertise he may have in the arena of world politics. America's Ambassador to the United Nations, like the Ambassadors of all other countries, is not a policymaker. Policy is formed in the White House and State Depart- ment, and the task of the chief U.S. repre- sentative is to carry out these decisions, to serve as the spokesman and, if need be, the defender of official U.S. interests. Justice Goldberg should be able to fulfill this need admirably. He is, above all else, an advocate, with great talents for present- ing, arguing and upholding a case. His fine legal mind and debating skills, sharpened by years of labor negotiating, will be put to good use in the give-and-take argumenta- tion of the Security Council, where the U.S. Ambassadoris most on public display. In less open U.N. forums, in the private meetings which are essential to the conduct of affairs, Justice Goldberg can also be ex- pected to carry his own. Security Council proceedings are often adversary-type pro- cedures, where an articulate toughness is the first need. But in the quiet, informal sessions where so much - of the business of the world organization is transacted, debate must give way to a reasoned search for con- ciliation. The Ambassador-designate has qualities which suit him for both kinds of encounter. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August 2, roved For aR3pl'WA4, :1 4Mb67BA b 100190002-7 A4251 It is probably not easy for Justice Gold- berg to give up his place on the High Bench, a position that had been his lifetime am- bition, In becoming what he called our Nation's advocate of peace in the council of nations lre faces immense new challenges. He carries to these challenges not only the great prestige of his Supreme Court office, but innate talents that give every promise of serving him-and this Republic-well in the years ahead. .Project Head Start Going Wonderfully EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GEORGE P. MILLER of CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, July 26, 1965 Mr. MILLER. Mr. Speaker, President Lyndon B. Johnson openly declared war on poverty in America and recommended to Congress broad programs to cope with pockets of deprivation which exist throughout our society today. Congress acted with all due speed and detailed deliberation to authorize steps which would assist the development of economic opportunity in America. One of the programs which has been fostered by this speedy attack on poverty is Proj- ect Head Start. I am pleased to insert in -tlle CONGRESSIONAL RECORD .an article .from July 15 issue of the Times-Star of Alameda, Calif., in my congressional dis- trict, which outlines how well the head start program is going in Alameda: PROJECT HEAD START GOING WONDERFULLY Project Head Start, designed to prepare preschool-age children to meet the demands soon to be placed upon them, is going won- derfully, according to Clarence Kline, Ala- meda's project director. Head start, one of the programs sponsored nationally by the Office of Economic Oppor- tunity, is open to children who will enter kindergarten or first grade in the fall. Na- tionally, the program is aimed at primarily .the less wealthy elements of the individual communities in which it exists. Thus far, 42 youngsters have been enrolled in the program. Total capacity at the two centers, located at Mastick and John Muir Schools, is 50 children. When the program began July 5, 37 children were enrolled. Kline said that family visitations are being made now, and "we have high hopes of ful- filling the capacity by the end of the third week." Kline reported that dozens of people, in- cluding teenagers as well as older people, have offered their aid to the program. In addition, there are 4 teachers (ultimately to allow for 1 teacher for each 12 to 13 students) working with the youth. Three are at the Mastick. Center and one is at John Muir. , Daily activities include everything from playing to listening to stories, working with arts and crafts, listening to music, and tak- ing care of plants. The children from the Mastick group went to Ben Reimer's nursery yesterday and after a tour of the grounds, were each given an individual plant to care for. Noting that "we still have dates available and we will remain very flexible in our pro- gram so we may meet the needs of the chil- dren and opportunities available," Kline stressed the importance of community par- ticipation in the program. For instance, he said that police and firemen will be re- quested to come speak to the children at a future date. "Maybe the people assume the school does it all, or they must be approached first," he said, "but actually we would be very pleased to have them volunteer. Any one of a num- ber of groups has a great deal to offer these children." Doctor and dentist appointments have also been planned for the children and arrange- ments have been made for additional ap- pointments, if they prove necessary. Furthermore, nutrition programs are part of the daily schedule, allowing children to have not only milk, juice, and cookies, but other foods which many of them have never seen or tasted before as well. Expressing pleasure with the parent par- ticipation in the program, Kline commented that "90 percent of the parents are respond- ing well." Meetings with the parents are held on a regular basis, giving them an op- portunity to discuss child development, nutrition, the progress their children are making, and other pertinent topics. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON, SIDNEY R. YATES OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. YATES. Mr. Speaker, the funeral services for the late Governor Adlai E. Stevenson on July 19, 1965 which were held at the Unitarian Church of Bloom- ington, Ill., were simple, eloquent and beautiful in closing the last chapter of his book of life. I append them hereto for all members to read: MEMORIAL SERVICE FOR ADLAI E. STEVENSON, JULY 19, 1965 AT THE UNITARIAN CHURCH, BLOOMINGTON, ILL. (Conducted by Robert Reed, Minister) CALL TO WORSHIP "In the time of trouble the Lord shall hide me in His pavilion * * * He shall set me up upon a rock * * * I had fainted unless I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living. Wait on the Lord; be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart.'- (Verses from Psalm 27, Mr. Stevenson's favorite.) Prayer: God of all, transforming spirit ever rising in the midst of life and in the hearts of men, persuading us, consoling us, and binding us to one another, our days are black with sorrow. Our father, brother, friend, trusted leader, knidred spirit, Adlai E. Stevenson, is dead. His voice is silent. And more than that for those assembled here he looks at us, he touches us, he walks with us no more. his wisdom and his wit, his deep concern for everyone, great and small, his design to serve the building of a world of freedom, peace, and and justice-all of these are with us still. The well is full. He left it so. But the water is strangely altered. Halted, humbled by this loss, a diverse peo- ple, bringing many faiths that we would hold as one, we turn to thee that we may accept his dying, be freed from bondage to despair, and see again the glory which makes life sweet among the living even with their dead. Amen. SECOND READINGS Here, on the prairies of Illinois and the Middle West, we can see a long way in all directions. We look to east, to west, to north and south. Our commerce, our ideas, come and go in all directions. Here there are no barriers, no defenses, to ideas and aspira- tions. We want.none; we want no shackles on the mind or the spirit, no rigid patterns of thought, no iron conformity. We want only the faith and conviction that triumph in free and fair contests. (From welcoming address, July 21, 1952). I have Bloomington to thank for the most important lesson I have learned * * * that in quiet places, reason abounds * * * that in quiet people, there is vision and purpose * * * that many things are revealed to the humble which are hidden from the great. (From the courthouse square in Blooming- ton, Ill., on the evening of September 15, 1948.) I think that one of our most important tasks * * * is to- convince ourselves and others-that there is nothing to fear in difference; that difference, in fact, is one of the healthiest and most invigorating char- acteristics without which life would become lifeless. Here lies the power of the liberal way; not in making the whole world * * * (adopt our ways), but in helping ourselves and others to see some of the possibilities inherent in viewpoints other than one's own: in encouraging the free exchange of ideas; in welcoming fresh approaches to the prob- lems of life; in urging the fullest, most vig- orous use of critical self-examination. (From a fairly recently letter, last year or so, to Senator MAURINE NEUBERGER.) We travel together, passengers on a little spaceships, dependent upon its vulnerable reserves of air and soil; all committed for our safety to its security and peace; pre- served from annihilation only by the care, the work, and I will say the love we give our fragile craft. We cannot maintain it-half fortunate, half miserable, half confident, half despairing, half slave--to the ancient enemies of man-half free in a liberation of resources undreamed of until this day. No craft, no crew can travel safely with such vast contradictions. On their resolution de- pends the survival of us all. (From Adlai Stevenson's final speech.) PRAYER Above the broad prairies rose the fragile vessel of a human life striving to realize the fullness of itself. Day by day his greatness grew from small beginnings hardly recognized by those close by steadily to become a giant among men everywhere. He stood among us as a beacon light unwavering for kindly re- lations among men, for words that took men seriously and enabled them' to see more clearly, for gentle humor yielding a better perspective on things, for reason, conscience, and self-criticism, for personal integrity, for freedom and for justice, and for steadfast service to peace among men. Shall all of this be lost with the sudden coming of his death? Dare we not instead be- lieve that one so much involved in life as our beloved has long since won his place in the enduring heart of being. Dare we not believe indeed that his being lies within us still as a gift received by us from him, as surely as the grief we feel today because he has become so deeply a part of us. Dare we not believe that even such as we may learn more greatly to express the qualities that we have found so dear in him. Dare we not believe that the greatness of this man like the glory of the illustrious sons of man be- fore him will continue to lead us on. 0 Thou Lord of Being-Without-End made known to us supremely through one another, teach us as he has taught that human life is sweet and purposeful even though it shall be lost, show us that we, too, may be confident of the ways of goodness if only we will give our- selves to doing good, and encourage us to serve more fully in ourselves the virtues dis- closed in him. Amen. CLOSING READINGS May each of us live as a binder together of those who are divided, an encourager of Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 A4252 Approved EUr ai"gg MA/L11 C RDW 11 9 t000300190R1 -Lt 2, 1965 those who are friends, a peacemaker, a lover of peace, impassioned for peace, a speaker of words that make for peace. (From tradi- tional Buddhist writings.) The T,ord bless you and keep you. The Lord deal kindly and graciously with you. The Lord bestow his favor upon you and grant you peace. (From 19'ti2 Jewish Pub- lication Society of America translation of "The Torah,") Amen. A Taravxs To ADLAI STrvsNSON (By Dr. Dana McLean Greeley, President, Unitarian Universalist Association) The very presence of this company speaks more eloquently and more tenderly than anything that we can say or sing. But here in the community and the church of his childhood and of lifelong associations, we pay to Governor Stevenson our most inti- mate and final tribute, In a time of lasting bereavement for all mankind. Many of those who have loved him the longest and most dearly are with us, yet the larger, company at Washington's National Cathedral bowed as reverently in his honor; and statesmen and the common people alike, the world around have taken him to their hearts, and will mold his memory into their own image of the best life and prophecy of America in the 20th century. Adlat Stevenson was destined by his heritage and his own nature for public serv- ice. And although in moments he shrank from that role, he also thrived upon It. It was at once a bitter cup that he had to drink, and the elixir of life that lifted him to the fulfillment of his ovm powers. Be may not have thought that he had accomp- liabed enough, for there were disappoint- ments, public and private, and yet unmis- takably he was called to greatness; and the God that shines in the firmament of the heavens was radiant in his person and reso- nant in his voice. Neither ancient Israel nor modern New York could produce a more articulate spokesman for justice and the right. If Winston Churchill could turn a phrase as well, It was not to liquidate the empire, but to keep the past upon her throne, whereas Governor Stevenson under- took the tougher task primarily of persuad- ing. a nation to minimize its sovereignty and to merge Its hopes and fears with those of other nations. In his own words his at- tempt was "to defrost a segment of the opaque window through which we see others and others see us," and thereby to increase understanding and fraternity among men. He added very recently that change is not the greatenemy of man, but violence is that enemy. If political success is to raise the level of the national debate and of the world's dialog; to make truly qualified peo- ple feel more at home in public life, and to influence one's country and mankind for good, then he achieved success emphatically and dramatically. We shall remember his combination of greatness and goodness. We salute him for his modesty and his ambition, for his ability and his affability, for his wisdom and his wit, and for his fail- ures and his successes. His mind was extra- ordinarily free from prejudice, and subservi- ent to the truth, If at times he seemed to take longer to make decisions, it was because he sought the moral context for the work- able answer. He was a philosopher and a politician. All men counted with him, but none too much. He was an American, but he died in England. He was a Democrat, but his family newspa- per, of which he was a part owner, Is Re- publican. He was a Unitarian, but in our capitol his flag-draped casket lay fittingly before an ecumenical Episcopal altar. In the climax of his career he was an Ambassador to the United Nations, with strong convic- tions of his own, and with an unflinching fidelity to his country and his President. If there ever seemed to be contradictions in his life, Emerson's explanation is applicable, "to be great is to be misunderstood." He was not just an American or only a Dem- ocrat, or exclusively a Unitarian or solely an Ambassador. He was also always the universal citizen. His patriotism was in- tense, but it had no bounds. His politics were both purposeful and personal. And the cardinal principles of his religion were freedom and human dignity. My friend and colleague Robert Richard- son reminds me that their great-grandfather Jesse Fell, would be very proud to have us say that the Governor was truly Lincolnesque in his idealism, his integrity, his compassion, and his humor, as well as in his love of the State of Illinois. He was a devoted son, and brother, and father. He was a loyal friend. And he was a servant to all the children of men. In that distant day when nobody rattles a saber and nobody drags a chain, his name will shine with an ever-increasing luster. He understood not only democracy and communism, but likewise the moving forms and shadows of a world revolution. He was not cowed by complexity, but kept his eye on the goals that he knew to be worth every effort that could be bent in their direction. He believed in a better world that we our- selves can and must create here an now. A decade ago, with his friend Albert Schweitzer and Prime Minister Nehru, he was a prophetic advocate of a nuclear test ban treaty. How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that publisheth peace. G. X. Chesterton once said that if we only had more visionaries among our statesmen, we might get something really practical done. Adlal Stevenson was that kind of a statesman. Thought there was a poignancy in his life that matched the hungers of his heart and the sensitiveness of his being, he had a faith that was greater than any problem or perils or defeat. And he was able to say with Esdras "Great is the truth and mighty above all things." "The memorial of virtue is immortal be- cause it is known with God and with men. When It is present, men take example at it, and when it is gone, they desire it. It wear- eth a crown and triumpheth forever, having gotten the victory, striving for undefiled re- wards." EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. 3EFFERY COHELAN 08 CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, in his thoughtful column of July 30, the dis- tinguished analyst and commentator, Walter Lippmann, has evaluated the meaning and significance of President Johnson's statement to the American people of last Wednesday. Mr. Lippmann has pointed out that the President has decided, for the time being at least, to fight a limited war in Viet- nam, to reject serious escalation, and to increase our diplomatic efforts to achieve a negotiated settlement. He has gone on to suggest that these decisions are "real- istic and as a result the American posi- tion is strengthened and improved." As I have stated repeatedly, Mr. Speaker, I believe our proper policy in Vietnam is a limited war designed to deter aggression and so-called wars of national liberation directed and sup- ported externally; persistent efforts to achieve international negotiations based on the Geneva accords; and self-deter- mination for the people of South Viet- nam under United Nations' guarantees. In the difficult months which lie ahead I hope that these goals, which are con- sistent with those outlined by Mr. Lipp- mann, can be actively and aggressively pursued. I include Mr. Lippmann's analysis for our colleagues' information: [From the Washington Post, July 30, 1965] REALISM AND PRUDENCE (By Walter Lippmann) The decisions taken by the President as the result of the review of the situation in Viet- nam are, it seems to me, realistic, and as a result, the American position is strengthened and improved. The crucial issue which he had to resolve was what this country should do in view of the fact that the South Viet- namese Government has lost to the Vietcong the control of virtually all the highways and most of the villages and territory of South Vietnam. Should the United States volun- teer to fight the war which Saigon has so very nearly lost, substituting American troops for the Vietnamese troops, taking military command of all the fighting forces and of the government in Saigon? Or should the United States defend its presence in South Vietnam for the purpose of negotiating a political settlement? The difference between these two strategies is all the difference between, on the one hand. an unlimited and illimitable war that could escalate into total war, and, on the other hand, a limited war, as the President calls it a "measured" war, which is clearly within American military power, demands no ex- horbitant sacrifice, and keeps the struggle within the possibility of diplomatic negotia- tions. The President on Wednesday an- nounced, if I understand him correctly, his choice between these two strategies. Al- though he repeated the grand formulas of a great war, in fact his decision as of now Is to fight a limited war. The size of the callup Is in accord with this decision: the addi- tional troops are sufficient, or can be made sufficient, for a limited and defensive strategy. They would be absurdly inade- quateif our objectives were the reconquest of South Vietnam. Instead of 126,000 men, the troops needed would, according to the usual formula of 10 to 1 for guerrilla war, mean more nearly a million. There is additional evidence from the offi- cial disclosures on Wednesday that the Pres- ident has decided against a serious escala- tion of the war in North Vietnam. He has been under pressure to send the bombers into the heart of North Vietnam, into the area of Hanoi and Haiphong, where are the industries and the population centers of the country. While it is never wise for a com- mander to say what he will not do, there is considerable evidence that the administra- tion has decided not to bomb the population centers, and to avoid putting Hanoi in the position where, having nothing to lose in the north, it uses its formidable army to invade South Vietnam. Moreover, high U.S. Government officials have let it be known that we do not intend to comb the countryside to eliminate the Vietcong from the villages, but rather to confine ourselves to conventional military action. Along'with the decision to keep the war limited, the President has launched a strong diplomatic campaign for a negotiated peace. He has in the past proposed, or hinted at, most, perhaps all, of the elements of his campaign. But the combination he de- scribed on Wednesday is new and impressive. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August 2, 1 4 roved For B@ EHM 67 ROF D1J 300190002-7 A4253 In calling upon the United Nations and on munist leadership as bad as that of the organizations, and many others con- all member governments, severally or jointly, Nazis. cerned with safety. to bring the fighting to an end, he has, for Today the Polish people are still de- The Flight Safety Foundation, with the first time I think given the mediators something concrete to talk about with Hanoi. nied the right of self-determination. headquarters in New York City, will carry The President his agreed that the princi- ples of the 1954 agreements, which are the declared war Sims of Hanoi, are an acceptable basis of negotiation, and that we are pre- pared in South Vietnam, or-in all Vietnam, to accept elections supervised by the U.N. This is contrary to the position taken by Secretary Dulles 10 years ago, and the Presi- dent's willingness to return to "the purpose of the 1954 agreements" opens the door wide in principle to a negotiated settlement. probably, Hanoi will still refuse to nego- tiate. For the, VietGcong and Hanoi are within sight of a military victory, not over the United States but over the Saigon Govern- ment, and it is by no means certain that General Westmoreland with his reinforce- ments can prevent that. But even if he cannot prevent it, the strategy adopted by the President will leave the U.S. Army in- vincible in Vietnam, with the United States exercising an influence which cannot be ig- nored in the eventual settlement. The Warsaw Uprising EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JOHN J. ROONEY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. ROONEY of New York, Mr. Speaker, I feel that the Members of this body and all Americans should be re- rYiinded that August 1, designated War- saw Uprising Day, marks the 21st anni- versary of the historic act of Polish patriots to liberate their capital, the city of Warsaw. from its cruel and inhuman Nazi occupiers. In President Lyndon B. Johnson's im- pressive proclamation of last year, desig= natig August 1 as Warsaw Uprising Day, the President acted on the premise that the American people regard the actions of the Polish patriots in the Warsaw un- Today as in_ 1944. they are subject to the out the new educational program on a whims of _ an alien waster..._ Today their national scale with the full backing of lives are still regulated and nonconform- ity assures a swift and dire punishment. So, Mr. Speaker, on this day 21 years after one of the greatest displays of a people's courage ever recorded anywhere on the pages of history, we must remind ourselves that the Polish people like all the people behind the curtains and the wall erected by Communist dictatorship are still held captive. They are held in bondage by those whose power can only be maintained as long as there are no free elections and no, toleration of the people's voice and will. On this day we pray that soon the con- ditions of the world may be such that those who love freedom may be able to assert themselves to the extent that domination of the weak by stronger, for- eign powers will end and. that all men may choose their own leaders, pursue their own choice of occupation, worship how and as they please, and be assured of living in peace and security. This goal to the pessimist is an impossibility; to the optimist a golden era; but to us as Americans it is but the practical attain- ment by the people of the world of but a fraction of what we in America have long enjoyed. May this anniversary re- mind us of our obligations as Americans and help us to rededicate ourselves to the attainment, worldwide, of liberty and justice for all. Greater Air Safety EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. W. J. BRYAN DORN OF SOUTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES rising as a great manifestation of bravery Thursday, July 29, 1965 and -devotion to home and country. He Mr. DORN. Mr. Speaker, I would like urged that this historic effort should to call to the attention of the House an serve to inspire people everywhere to re- announcement regarding a new national dedicate themselves to the cause of free- educational program to reduce general dole and justice. aviation accidents and promote greater Mr..Speaker, the words of our Presi- air safety. As many Members of Con- dent are just as meaningful a year later gress know, general _ aviation includes as they were when proclaimed. The im- private flying, business aviation of the portance of being reminded of the val- type being employed by increasing num- iant and heroic efforts of a captive nation bers of U.S. corporations, crop dusting, to overthrow, its oppressors is vital to all and as a matter of fact all other types of of us living in the free world today. flying being done ,in the Nation except Today the Nazi occupiers are but a re- that performed by the military services corded historic failure, but the memory and the airlines. It is growing by leaps of their cruelty, their arrogance and and bounds, both in hours flown and their lack of interest in humanity is as numbers of private and corporate air- vivid as it was a score of years ago. Un- craft involved. fortunately the patriots of Poland who Any sound program to promote greater survived the punishments meted out by 'safety in this segment of aviation and the Nazis to the Polish people, whether bring it up to the level of the U.S. com- actually participating in the uprising or mercial air carriers which are the safest not, were not to enjoy freedom when the in the world, deserves support and as an Nazi forces were finally subdued. ,Air Force veteran of World War II, I All too soon a new and sinister force salute all efforts such as this latest one took over the destiny of Poland and sub- to add to the fine work already being jetted its freedom-loving people to a life done by Government agencies, aircraft of privation and servitude under Com- manufacturers and pilots, groups and OF _ the Federal Aviation Agency. The Foun- dation is a nonprofit corporation, headed by a distinguished retired officer, Maj. Gen. Joseph D. Caldara, who has held the post of Director of Air Safety Research for the Air Force. I know personally one of its vice presidents, Ansel E. Talbert, who made a fine record as an editor and foreign correspondent in many parts of the world before he took up his present work; his family and ancestors have lived in my neck of the woods since be- fore the Revolutionary War; and during World War II he was promoted from pri- vate to lieutenant colonel. I believe that Members of the House of Representatives will be interested in fol- lowing developments in this national safety educational program, which will affect many of their constituents as well as corporations located in their district. FLIGHT SAFETY FOUNDATION UNDERTAKES NA- TIONAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM To REDUCE GENERAL AVIATION ACCIDENTS The Flight Safety Foundation will under- take an extensive new national educational program with the backing of the Federal Aviation Agency aimed specifically at re- ducing accidents in general aviation, Maj. Gen. Joseph D. Caldara, U.S. Air Force re- tired, president of the foundation, announced yesterday. General aviation is the rapidly growing segment of the aviation community com- prising all flying other than airline and mili- tary. It includes both private flying and business aviation, and such specialized fields as crop dusting. General Caldara disclosed that the prime objective of the foundation's program would be to persuade pilots and others in general aviation to upgrade their flight proficiency and knowledge as the chief means of reduc- ing the number of aircraft accidents. He noted that the immense value, safety- wise, of a professional approach had been demonstrated beyond any possible doubt by the excellent safety record attained by cor- porations employing well-trained profes- sional pilots, and stressing good maintenance at all. times. This was comparable to the operational safety level of the U.S. airlines, he said. General Caldara, who on March 1, 1964, be- came president of the Flight Safety Founda- tion, a completely independent, nonprofit, nongovernment organization-supported by more than 300 corporations located in the United States and many other nations-gave details of the new educational program to representatives of the aviation and daily press at special meetings held last week at the Wings Club (Hotel Biltmore, 43d and Madi- son in New York City) and at the National Press Club in Washington. General Caldara reported that a mail cam- paign comprising a series of letters explain- ing objectives and details of the general aviation safety program would be employed at once to reach approximately 11,500 differ- ent aviation organizations and key person- nel including State aviation departments, operators of fixed bases, and by private and business pilots, manufacturers and firms do- ing aircraft modification, flying clubs, air- port managers, flying farmers, flying physi- cians, flying lawyers, and many others. A "FSF flight safety kit," he disclosed, will be sent on a monthly basis to the same group. This will include a flight safety edu- cation cartoon, special aircraft accident sum- Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP671300446R000300190002-7 A4254 Approved 11x(L12ACMPBBIK000300190,q'st 2, 1965 wary and analysis reports, safety bulletins, and other Items having a bearing on aircraft accident prevention. The foundation, according to General C;a1- dara, plans to provide and supervise the operation of at least 100 visual programing trainers. These electronic pushbutton de- vices allow a pilot to test and update his safety knowledge on a true or false question- and-answer basis, through films which will be changed at frequent intervals. The Flight Safety Foundation, General Caldara revealed, will put out these devices on loan to facilities throughout the conti- nental United States used by general avia- tion people. The devices will be in operation at least 8 hours a day. The Flight Safety Foundation, according to General Caldara, will develop and conduct at least qne flight safety rally of 3 days duration during the next year in a conven- ient location for pilots and other general aviation people in each of the following areas: Eastern region, New York City area; Richmond, Va., area. Central region, Wich- ita. Eons., area and Omaha, Nebr., area. Nenthwest region, Dallas, Tex., area and pklaholna City, Okla., area. Western re- gion, Los Angeles and San Francisco areas and Portland, Oreg.-Seattle, Wash., area. It plans to conduct special conferences on request and take part in aviation meetings sponsored by manufacturers, aircraft modi- fication firms, State aviation officials and others. There will be periodicsafety presentations at each of the five FAA regional headquar- ters and' the special Flight Safety Founda- tion staff working full time on the general aviation educational program will attend FAA meetings on safety as required. On a more personalized basis the general aviation Safety project staff will provide a hot line advisory service for answering questions sent in by telephone, telegram, or airmail letter by participants in the program and it will conduct numerous field visits and make personal contacts with organizations and operators participating. The full-time staff will be headed by Allen C. Miner, vice president, operations of FSF and a deputy; and will include research analysts, information and education special- ists and an operation safety survey team. FAA L wcnzs SAFETY PROGRAM To REDucE GENERAL AVIATION ACCIDENTS A far-reaching safety campaign to reduce general aviation aircraft accidents was an- nounced yesterday by the Federal Avihtion Agency following the award of a $268,635 contract to the Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., to launch Project GAPE-general avia- tion pilot education. Object of the year-long project as stated by FAA will be to "develop and apply an educational program which will persuade the general aviation segment of the aviation community to upgrade its flight proficiency and knowledge in order to reduce the num- ber of aircraft accidents." The program, with the support of the gen- eral aviation industry, various general avia- tion organizations, the Civil Aeronautics Board and others, will supplement FAA's own extensive and continuing efforts in safety education. General aviation is the largest segment of the aviation community. It includes all aviation except military and airline and is comprised of more than 88,000 active aircraft, and over 300,000 pilots. Project GAPE will be directed to the solu- tion of what has been the main problem behind most general aviation accidents in recent years-lack of pilot proficiency and knowledge of safe flight procedures and prac- tices. These were the chief reasons for al- most 80 percent of the slightly more than 5,000 general aviation accidents in 1964. Scheduled to be kicked off immediately with reporting to FAA to begin October 1, the program will cover every facet of general aviation operations. Some 11,500 different organizations and aviation industry personnel will be con- tacted and their cooperation requested in supporting a nationwide program of acci- dent prevention through a vigorous publicity campaign, displays, meetings, seminars, spe- cial conferences, personal contacts, and similar educational activities. A large variety of safety educational and promotional kits will be developed and sent to program participants on a regular monthly basis. The kits will consist of pilot news bulletins, accident summaries, safety edu- cation cartoons, "cause and cure" bulletins, posters, special accident reports, mechanics bulletins, and other safety material. At least 100 film projectors will be rotated among various airports showing filmstrips on. safety. These will be in operation 8 to 12 hours a day for a period of several weeks at general avaiation activity airports. Flight safety surveys will be offered gen- eral aviation operators on their flight and maintenance operations. Three-day safety seminars will be conducted at key cities. Special conferences and meetings will be held with regional FAA officials, airplane and equipment manufacturers, State aviation offi- cials, and others. Semiannual safety rallies for the flying public will be conducted on an area basis. Flight Safety Foundation will furnish field personnel to help organize local programs and establish personal contact with program par- ticipants. FSF also will provide a hot line advisory service to answer questions from program participants in the field. Quarterly progress reports will be sub- mitted to FAA throughout the course of the program with a final summary report late in R L Miami News ndorse President's Position in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DANTE B. FASCELL Of FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 2, 1965 Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Speaker, with good cause, the people of southern Florida, just as all Americans, are ex- presng great concern about the Nation's position and efforts in Vietnam. The United States has had a deep interest in the sovereignty of South Vietnam for more than a decade. Our nonmilitary economic aid in this time amounted to some $2.8 billion, and we have at the same time been involved in a military effort to one degree or another. Only in recent months, however, has this turmoil been so grave as to capture the attention and anxiety of all Americans. With President Johnson's message last week, it has become common knowledge that the Communist aggression in South Vietnam constitutes the United States most cru- cial problem on the international scene. Editorial reaction to the President's message is contained in two of Florida's finest newspapers, the Miami Herald and the Miami News. Endorsing the Presi- dent's decision both to build up our mili- tary involvement and simultaneously to plea for peaceful settlement at the con- ference table, these two editorials repre- sent, I am confident, the consensus of the citizens of Florida's Fourth District and the United States. For their lucid articulation of the posi- tion I share with so many Americans, I would like to bring to each Member's at- tention these two articles which appeared in the July 29, 1965, editions of the Miami News and the Miami Herald: [From the Miami (Fla.) Herald, July 29, 1965] WE'RE COMMrrTTED--PERIOD Only in its moderation was President Johnson's announcement on Vietnam a sur- prise for the Nation. In the past week Mr, Johnson has con- sulted scores and even hundreds of Con- gressmen, military advisers, aids and pri- vate citizens in the startling absence of na- tional debate. The people have been prepared for prodi- gies of national effort in southeast Asia. Yet when the President spoke from this prod-, uct of decision-by-consultation he asked only for a doubling of the draft calls and the dispatch of some 50,000 more troops to Vietnam. Thus, the effort will be partial and the physical commitment piecemeal-if more pa- cific schemes fail. For once, however, the purpose is clear. The President's "carefully measured" steps were described in carefully measured words which will permit little twisting abroad. He said: "Our power is a vital shield (against Asian communism). If we are driven from the field in Vietnam, then no nation can ever again have the same confidence in our prom- Ise or protection. In each land the forces of independence would be weakened. And an Asia so threatened by Communist domi- nation would Imperil the security of the United States Itself." This is the premise of U.S. policy In south- east Asia. Thoughtful men may quarrel with it successfully, but the commitment it implies Is now irrevocable. In the name of the United States its Presi- dent has proclaimed no surrender and no retreat. The escalation is on. It can be lowered or halted only by surrender or sin- cere negotiation on the other side. To this end the President left a door open at the United Nations. If the United States has been remiss in anything, it can be faulted historically for failing to go to the forum of nations before this time. History may not show, however, that the U.N. is feeble and hamstrung by the Soviet veto. Thus in naked reality there has had to be recourse to other methods of determin- ing a political issue, We hope that Am- bassador Goldberg will move the world or- ganization. But, in short, we doubt it. There can be little doubt on the other hand of general public acceptance of Mr. Johnson's charge to the Nation. He was clear, precise, forthright, humble, and convincing. He did not bluster, nor did he plead. He laid it on the line. It was, we think, the best performance of his political lifetime. But it was also, in southeast Asia, a grim demarcation of the point of no return. [From the Miami (Fla.) News, July 29, 1965] ASKS U.N. AID: JOHNSON HOPES FOR PEACE, GIRDS FOR WAR President Johnson's determination that democracy will triumph in the steaming jungles of southeast Asia is exceeded only by his patient efforts to secure peace at the conference table. Before he announced his "agonizing and painful duty" to double the size of American military forces in Vietnam, the President Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190002-7 August 2, A proved For 0141.: 7-l30W 3 Db 00190002-7 nks'te4in somber tones that "15 efforts have been made to star discussions with the Com- Imunls'ts"=ail without response. "But we will persist," he declared, a vow that he emphasized in his initial assignment to the United Nations. Mr. Johnson sent a special message yester- day to U Thant, the U.N. Secretary General, urging that "all the resources, energy, and immense prestige of the United Nations be employed to find ways to halt aggression and bring peace in Vietnam. Mr. Johnson's statement to the Nation was not totally unexpected although some ob- servers thought he might call up the Na- " _ Cabinet and turned that down- without dU- culty. Evidently he was aiming higher. This is the first time in American history that a President appointed a personal attor- ney to the High Court. Fortas"knows many Johnson secrets, including the growth of the family TV-radio fortune, the real facts of the Bobby Baker in$uence case, _ and the inside of the unfortunate and sordid sex scandal involving the top White House aid, Walter Jenkins, on the eve of the presidential election. PROVES HE'S ADEPT NEWS MANAGER Fortas represented Baker until Mr. John- son became President. He then withdrew as counsel for Baker, making himself the decision to double the draft calls from 17,000 which has now come to he him. -In t Jen- young men to35,000 each month will have a kips case, Fortas proved himself among the great and immediate effect in homes across most adept of news managers. He per- the land. But in a time of war this is a,nec- suaded or induced two Washington news- essary evil. papers not to print a line on the scandal. The American public will applaud the He was working on the third when the story President for his firm stand in the face of -was disclosed by a news service. Communist tyranny and aggression. Cer The Fortas affinity for Communist asso- tainly we are faced with doing more and giving more than' we have ever done before Report From Washington: Speculates on Maneuvering "To Get Abe Fortas on High Court EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. EDWARD J. DERWINSKI "., lt~F".ILLINOIS IN THEIIDUSE'OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. DERWIN$KI. Mr. Speaker, there is rightful concern across the country over the obviously political and personal motivation of the President in the ap- pointment of his attorney and confidantAbe Fortas to-the Supreme Court. Mr.- Walter TrQhan, the distinguished chief of the Chicago Tribune Washington bu- reau, in his report from Washington of Saturday, July, 31, discusses, some ques- tionable aspects of the Fortas appoint- ment; REPORT FROM WASHINGTON: SPECULATES ON MANEUVERING To GET ABE FORTAS ON HIGH COURT (By Walter Trohan, chief of Chicago Tribune's Washington bureau) WASHINGTON, July 30.-A most interesting point for speculation has been raised by the appointment of Abe Fortas, Washington in- fluence lawyer; White House adviser, Great Society news manager, and personal attorney to President Johnson, to succeed Arthur Goldberg in the U.S. Supreme Court. The question is: Did Fortas from his place be- hind the throne counsel the appointment of ordert g mas Ambassador to ake room forhin se f on the o High court? Perhaps we will never know for certain, but Fortas' operations in the past would indicate that there Is a distinct. possibility he did get the President to have Goldberg move over on the bench of the hierarchy of the Great Society. There is no question but -that ortSq Was cprlsulted on. the successor to Ada._?tevg4SOn and on the successor to Goldberg. It may be, as friends of Fortas insist, that he didn't want the, appointment, but he took it. He didn't want an appointment to the ciates is well known, , He served in. the De-, partment of Agriculture in the early 1930's where his best friends were members of one or another of the Communist cells which were fermenting under the tender care of Henry Wallace, who later.ran for President on a third party ticket dominated by Com- munists. As the member of a top Wash- ington influence firm, Fortas represented a host of men accused of Communist connec- tions or associations, not without consider- able success. FORTAS SLOW TO TAKE PART IN WAR Less well known is, the Fortes- military record. At the time of Pearl Harbor, Fortas was 31 years old. Although he 'had pumped for the war, he was slow to take part in it. On October 29, 1943, he was inducted into the Navy, but he remained in service only a few hours. As soon as he reported for duty as an apprentice seaman, he popped right out again with the aid of the late Secretary of Navy Frank Knox and other New Deal admirers. They got him out of the Navy to act as civilian head of an alpha- betical government mission to study oil re- serves in Arabia. When he returned, he went back into the Navy, but he was released on December 13, 1943, after serving 1 month as an apprentice seaman, 29 days of the month in the hos- pital of Camp Sampson Naval Training Station in New York. He was then 33 years old, married, and with no children. . His wife was and is a highly competent lawyer, able to earn her own way as she now does. He was discharged because it was said he had an arrested case of ocular tuberculosis. Twenty-two years later the case is still ar- rested and hasn't interfered with a lucrative law practice or a High Court appointment. Fortas recently purchased a home in fash- ionable Georgetown at a price running into six figures. This would indicate he will be one of wealthiest men ever to serve on the High Court. His appointment is expected to breeze through a Senate dominated by his client, Lyndon Balms Johnson. The Independence Day of Dahomey EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. PAUL H. TODD, JR. OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF Ii,EPRES