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July 28, 1965
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July '28, 1W' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A4177 [From the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, July 21, , 1865 How ISLANDER SAVED 780 CHILDREN IN SIBEaL' (By Chuck Frankel) The dramatic story of 780 children trapped in Siberia after the Russian Revolution is told in a new book, "Wild Children of the Urals," by Floyd Miller. The hero of the story is Hawaii's Riley H. Allen, who took a couple of years out of his active career as editor of the Honolulu Star Bulletin to work for the American'Red Cross in Siberia in 1918, 1919, and 1920. It was his imagination, determination, and fight that enabled the children to be rescued from starvation, to be gathered together, to be placed on a Japanese freighter and carried three-fourths away around the world to be reunited with their parents. "The Wild Children oqf the Urals," pub- lished by E. P. Dutton , Co., is an exciting story of man's triumph over bureaucracy and of the heart's victory over politics. These were the years of the great Red scare in the United States, but Allen refused to capitulate to hysteria and insisted that the Red Cross fulfill its obligation to return the children to their parents. "TlLe files of the Red Cross are full of stories About human courage, sacrifice and devotion, but none of them quite compares with the amazing saga of the Petrograd children," says Gen. Alfred M. Gruenther, former president of the American Red Cross. REDUCED TO BEGGING Sent by their parents to mountain camps when war danger and privation swept Petrograd-formerly St. Petersburg and lately Leningrad-in the summer of 1918, they were trapped behind the fighting lines. In the bleak winter that followed, they were reduced to begging and were on the point of starva- tion when members of the American Red Cross Relief Commission to Siberia heard of, their plight. Siberia at, that, time was a battleground between the Red Russians and the White Russians-plus troops from the new nation of Czechoslovakia, France, Britain, Italy, Canada, Rumania, Serbia, Poland, Japan- and the United States. Miller notes: "There was interference with the political sovereignty of Russia. There was interven- tion in her internal affairs and impairment of her territorial integrity. And out of it all came a military debacle and a political blun- der of` such dimensions as to sharply influ- ence decades of future history." Most Americans, don't realize that U.S. troops once invaded Russia-but Russians are often reminded of this fact. The Red Cross attempted to give help to all in Siberia, regardless of politics and na- tionality, but it was accused of taking sides. ALIEN'S PLAN It was in this atmosphere that Allen brought uQ the suggestion that the trapped Petrograd children, be rounded up by the American Red Cross and returned, to their parents. The Red Cross workers collected the starv- ing children at Tyumen, Shadrinsk, Irbit, Petropavlovsk, Kurgan, Troitsk, Ouiskaia, and other places with strange names. One Red Cross worker told the children: "The American people are going to take care of you. You're going to have warm new clothes and all the food you can eat and plenty of firewood to keep you warm." And. most. important, the children were told, they were going to be reunited with their parents. "The Red Cross was plunged into a policy crisis," Miller notes. "There were those who Advised that the children simply be aban- doned, but this was stoutly opposed by Riley Allen. "He maintained that having saved these children from death, the Red Cross was com- mitted to keeping them alive and returning them to their parents." He proposed that the children be gathered in the comparative safety of Vladivostok un- til the Russian civil war was ended and the Trans-Siberian Railway repaired. "Allen held firm to his simple principle that whoever won the war, Red or White, the children should be reunited with their parents." - SCHOOL ORGANIZED In Vladivostok the Red Cross organized a school for the Russian children. The Children's Colony arrived in Vladivo- tok on three different trains in the first week of September in 1919. The children's week- ly consumption included 2,000 eggs, 2,000 pounds of meat, 1,600 pounds of cabbage and 1,600 pounds of onions-a formidable supply, in a wartime city. The Communists started to cite the Amer- ican control over the Russian children in their propaganda, but Allen resisted State De- partment pressure for counterpropaganda. "It had become clear by now that the Allied intervention in Siberia was a sham- bles," Miller writes. But while the European and American allies started to withdraw, the Japanese ex- panded their area of control. The American troops left Vladivostok on April 1, 1920, but the American Red Cross and its Russian children remained behind, still unable to use the Siberian railroad. "At all costs we must keep the children out of Japanese hands," Allen told a meet- ing of his Red Cross staff. "That may not be easy with American troops gone," a Red Cross worker replied, Another said, "Riley, we've done all we can for the children." DETERMINATION. GROWS Miller writes: "Allen raised his eyes to look at the speak- er. 'Have we?' he said. There was an edge to his voice, a steeliness that no one had ever before heard. "This man of gentle persuasion had altered. The pressure of events had not softened him but fused him to a new hardness. "And if all the logic of the situation was against him, he would simply stop being logical, he would substitute a fierce stub- borness. Whatever else, he would not sur- render. "The staff sat silent and slightly ill at ease. After several moments he said, quite matter-of-factly, 'Since we're out off by land, there is only one thing for us to do. We'll put to sea.'" Allen tried to get a ship from the United States, but the Army, Navy and private lines refused to send him one or let him charter a ship to Petrograd. "We are exceedingly sorry that our War Department could not be induced to furnish us a boat to take the children home," Allen wrote bitterly to the American Red Cross in June 1920. "Aside from the Red Cross, I think it would have been good advertising for both the War Department and the State Department." So Allen chartered a Japanese freighter, the Yomei Maru, despite the fierce Japanese- Russian hostility of the day. It was a costly venture for the Red Cross. Estimates, which proved to be low, were $4,- 500 a day to charter the ship; alterations to the ship to accommodate its strange cargo, $100,000: food, $75,000, and salaries and equipment of Red Cross personnel, and their fares. home, $75,000. Boarding the ship were 428 boys, 352 girls; 17 American men and women; 85 Russian adults, and 78 former prisoners of war. The average age of the boys and girls were between 12 and 13; the oldest was 20 and the youngest 3.. Nationalities other than Rus- sians were 15 Poles, 8 Letts, 5 Estonians, 2 French, and a Lithuanian, Finn, Persian, Swiss, and English. The children were members of various segments of society, and were not aristocrats, as they were sometimes pictured in the anti- Bolshevik press of the time. LEAVE VLADIVOSTOK The ship left Vladivostok on July 12, 1920. It was no pleasure cruise. Captain Kayahara and Allen clashed fre- quently; one of the crewmen attacked one of the girls, and there were ugly incidents between other crewmen and the Russian youth. But there was also songs and laughter. Miller writes: "The songs were darkly textured, rich with human longing and need. And coming now from the voices of these children adrift on a great ocean, the innocent victims of war and revolution, they were deeply moving." The ship, after stopping at Muroan, Japan, arrived in San Francisco on August 1, where the local chapters of the Red Cross had pre- pared an elaborate welcome. The ship set sail for New York, via the Panama Canal, on August 4, but Allen had left the ship to do battle in Washington. Robert E. Olds, Red Cross European com- missioner, urged that the children be sent to France, instead of Russia, and in those days of rampant anti-Bolshevism, his argu- ment carried much weight. ARRIVAL IN NEW YORK The arrival of the Yome Maru in New York on August 28 caused much competi- tion among the various Russian groups, but even anti-Communist groups were aghast at the idea of sending them to France, then considered an enemy of the Russian people. The Division of Investigation of Depart- ment of Justice-the forerunner of the Fed- eral Bureau of Investigation-kept close tabs on the children during their stay in New York. Miller is particularly critical of the agents who ruled that there be no fraterniza- tion between the children and New York resi- dents during a visit to the zoo, when a "Justice Department agent dashed away to intervene between an 8-year-old girl and a bag of gumdrops." The New York police tried to get Allen to halt a Madison Square Garden rally for the children, arguing that it would be Commu- nist controlled. Allen said it wouldn't be. But Allen was wrong, as speaker after speaker denounced the Red Cross and the United States. "They are hostages in the criminal conspiracy to smash the motherland," one speaker said. The passions of the Madison Square Garden mounted, and there were fears of a clash between Reds and Whites. One of Allen's children, one of the older boys, saved the day for the Red Cross with a stirring speech in its defense. "We trust the American Red Cross because of what they have done for us," He said. "We were starving in the Ural Mountains when they found us. They fed us and clothed us and let our teachers teach us. And they always promised they would return us to our parents. "And we believe 'them. We would not be alive and here today but for the American Red Cross." The ship sailed from New York on Septem- ber 11, with the question of its final destina- tion still undetermined. The ship anchored off Brest, but Allen insisted that it proceed northward. The Yomei Maru finally docked at Hel- sinki October, 6, but Allen's days of diplo- macy were not yet over. He had to convince the Finns that they should cooperate in this mission of mercy, and he had to deliver the children to Russia. He insisted that the parents approve of the children's return- Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 A4178 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.- APPENDIX July 28, 1965 only one parent requested that a child be sent elsewhere. The first children walked across the Russian-Finnish border on No- vember 10. Miller writes: "At last Alien's responsibility was ended, but he was surprised to discover that he felt not relief but loss. For an irrational moment he almost wished they could have all stayed together * * * but he was immediately ashamed of the thought, for it was a selfish one. "No, he had done the right thing by unit- log the children with their parents, but he realized now that this did not mean he would be free of them. "For the rest of his life, he would feel con- cern for these children, he would constantly speculate on what they might be doing. "Their lives would hold pain and joy, despair and hope, for that was the destiny of all. men, but he hoped the good would overbalance the bad and he hoped they would remember the time they had together." Suggestions for Amity EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. F. BRADFORD MORSE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, July 28, 1965 Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, the New Bedford Standard-Times on July 1 of this year praised the initiative of four Republican Members of the House, Mr. FINDLEY, of Illinois, Mr. KEITH, of Mas- sachusetts, Mr. PIRNIE, of New York, and Mr. MARTIN, of Alabama, in going to Paris in an effort to contribute to greater understanding between the United States and France. The chairman of the group, Mr. FIND- LEY, of Illinois, is one of the most knowl- edgeable men in the House on the Atlan- tic Alliance problems. His leadership in undertaking this trip is to be com- mended. I am particularly pleased that my col- league from Massachusetts, Mr. KEITH, made the trip. In the words of the Standard-Times: Congressman KEITH and his colleagues have done the United States a service. I ask unanimous consent to include the full text of the editorial in the REC- ORD following my remarks. [From the New Bedford Standard-Times, July 1, 1965] SUGGESTIONS FOR AMITY A significant contribution to better under- standing between France and the United States has been made by the visit to Paris of four Republican Congressmen, Including HASTINGS KEITH, of Massachusetts' 12th Con- gressional District. United States-French relations have been at a low point for years, stemming mainly from President de Gaulle's aspirations to raise the Fifth Republic to a position of world prestige. In making this climb, De Gaulle has antagonized half a dozen nations, in- cluding the United States, because of an unreasonable attitude on the part of the French chief executive. As the GOP representatives suggest, one way to relieve the strain, and to open up new areas of cooperation and communica- tion, is for President Johnson to visit De Gaulle in Paris. Probably there are several levels of objec- tions to this proposal, including most likely one that Vice President HUMPHREY went to Prance for high-level discussions, and it is De Gaulle's turn to open the diplomatic door further by paying a return call to Washing- ton. It would be an unfortunate turn for Western solidarity if rapproachment were hung up solely on a matter of protocol. Other parts of the Congressmen's report also have validity. The formation of a Dip- lomatic Standing Group as a complement to the permanent military agency In NATO would permit an instant and constant review of United States-French problems before they grow out of proportion. Indeed, the Con- gressmen have proposed a wide range of changes in order to strengthen NATO. One recommendation is on less secure ground. This is the suggestion to coordinate fully the nuclear capabilities of France and the United States. Cooperation takes many forms, and the United States has made it repeatedly and unmistakably clear that it Is committed to the total defense of France and Western Europe-by treaty as well as by past performance. The Congressmen have presented no over- whelmning reasons for changing the Atomic Energy Act which generally forbids the United States to reveal military information to other nations. Nor have they shown how France has been adversely affected by Wash- ington's desire to retain the nuclear grip on U.S. nuclear weapons. Certainly, further exploration in the field of nuclear weapons is not foreclosed, and Congress itself might initiate hearings to determine if a revision of the Atomic Energy Act is in order. Congressman KEITH and his colleagues have done the United States a service by making this meaningful report. It is worthy [From the Des Moines Register, July 6, 1965] THE PLIGHT OF REFUGEES IN VIETNAM (By Leo Cherne, North American Newspaper Alliance) SAIGON, SOUTH VIETNAM.-Vietnam has be- come a nation of refugees. Some 380,000 peasants and villagers have crowded into the coastal towns as a result of Vietcong harass- ment. Wherever the Vietcong have struck or threaten to strike-and this covers much of the countryside right up to the edge of Saigon-the Vietnamese people are Often up- rooted, homeless, ill or wounded, hungry. They are in desperate need of the essentials of life-food, clothing, shelter, medical care. VOTING WITH THEIR FEET The refugee problem is nothing new for Vietnam. In the summer of 1954, shortly afterthe defeat of the French and the sign- ing of the Geneva agreement which parti- tioned the country along the 17th parallel, a massive flow of refugees from the Com- munist north had already begun. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) set up an emergency program to aid these people who were voting for freedom in the only way they would-with their feet. Eventually almost 900,000 Vietnamese cast their lot with freedom by making the trip from the north. The direction of the refugee flow clearly contradicts the claim that the Vietnamese do not understand the nature of the struggle against communism or are indifferent to the rule by the Communist north. Only about 10,000 Vietnamese crossed the 17th parallel heading north and many of those were Viet- cong cadre returning home for more training. THEY MUST FLEE AGAIN Many who escaped south 10 years ago, now must flee again. They are the peasants and the, villagers of Vietnam, the very people the Vietcong are supposed to have won to their side. My observations and conservations with Vietnamese and Americans here have con- vinced me that the Vietcong have so savage- ly teslrorized the peasantry that they have made them their mortal enemies. I helicoptered from Saigon to Dong Xoai shortly after the siege which resulted in 3n EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF - HON. JOHN V. LINDSAY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, July 28, 1965 Mr. LINDSAY. Mr. Speaker, the United States fortunately has always shown its concern for the misfortunes of others, especially in the wake of war. One of the many misfortunes of war is the plight of the refugee. This problem has existed for as long as there have been political and military upheavals. Today in Vietnam we once again have a- problem of refugees. The war is daily rendering hundreds of innocent civilians homeless, without food or shelter or hope of resettlement. The International Rescue Committee is helping to provide part of the solution. The following news story written by Mr. Leo Cherne, very well describes the tragic Vietnam refugee situation and how the International Rescue Committe is help- ing out: The Vietcong had burned out a large portion of the town. For a brief time, they had oc- cupied the village. They entered every household and stripped it of every scrap of food and every piastre which could be used to buy food. When the % letcong retreated, they left Dong Xoai a smoldering ruin and streets filled with broken, smashed bodies (many of them women and children) -some dead; others dying, still ot_iers condemned to live the rest of their lives horribly maimed. U.S. RESCUE MISSION The dust of battle had hardly settled when personnel from the U.S. operations mission (USOM) (our civilian aid program) and the U.S. Army civil affairs officers entered the town to take an inventory of needs. It was arranged to fly in 5,000 kilos of rice. On behalf of the IRC, I undertook to obtain 500 kilos of protein-rich fish and 50 pounds of salt, also to be flown in by U.S. Army helicopter. These supplies, together with some pow- dered milk which the Vietcong somehow missed, kept the people of Dong Xoai from starving in a country in which starvation is rare. Emergency medical treatment was begun immediately. I have read much about our military in- volvement in Vietnam. But at Dong Xoai Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 July 28, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX I could not help thinking that much of our work in Vietnam is not military in the strict sense, that much of our efforts are con- structive, even life-sustaining. The children are a very special part of the tragedy of Vietnam. I have seen more hor- ribly injured, broken, maimed children in a week in Vietnam than in my lifetime. There are perhaps 100,000 war-orphaned children in Vietnam. EMERGENCY FUND DRIVE We in the IRC have set an emergency fund goal of'$2.5 million-the highest in our 33- year history. The majority of these funds will go to aid the orphans. We also have u ,dertaken a program to provide an initial $500,000 in medicines to aid the Vietnamese. We hope to get a large measure of support from the American-people. The task of raising this kind of fund is herculean, but it is only a small part of what must be done to aid this nation of refugees. If we fail to alleviate the pain and suffering of these people, no matter what the outcome of the war in Vietnam, we will have failed in our purpose as Americans and human beings, LAWS AND, RULES FOR PUBLICATION OF THE CONGRESSIONAL RECORD CODE OF LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES TITLE 44, SECTION 181. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD; ARRANGEMENT, STYLE, CONTENTS, AND INDEXES.-The Joint Committee on Printing shall have control of the ar- rangement and style of the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD, and while providing that it shall be substantially a verbatim re- port of proceedings shall take all needed action for the reduction of unnecessary bulk, and shall provide for the publica- tion of an index of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD semimonthly during the sessions of Congress and at the close thereof. (Jan. 12, 1895, c. 23, ? 13, 28 Stat. 603.) TITLE 44, SECTION 182b. 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Arrangement of the daily Record.-The Public Printer shall arrange the contents of the daily RECORD as follows: the Senate pro- ceedings shall alternate with the House pro- ceedings In order of placement in consecu- tive issues insofar as such an arrangement is feasible, and the Appendix and Daily Digest shall follow: Provided, That the makeup of the RECORD shall proceed without regard to alternation whenever the Public Printer deems it necessary in order to meet produc- tion and delivery schedules. 2. Type and style.-The Public Printer shall print the report of the proceedings and de- bates of the Senate and House of Representa- tives, as furnished by the Official Reporters of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, irl 71/z-point type; and all matter included in the remarks or speeches of Members of Congress, other than their own words, and all reports, documents, and other Matter authorized to be inserted in the RECORD shall, be printed in 61/2-point type; and all rollcalls shall be printed in 6-point type. No italic or black type nor words In capitals or small capitals shall be used for emphasis or prominence; nor will unusual indentldns`be permitted. These re- strictiorns dg not.,.apply to the printing of or quotations from historical, official, or legal documents or papers of which a literal repro- duction is necessary. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 3. Return of manuscript. 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Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2 Wednesday, July 28, 1965 Daily Digest HIGHLIGHTS Both Houses cleared for President measure continuing appropriations. Senate cleared for President bill on social security-medicare and debated legislative reapportionment proposal. House passed right to work repeal bill. Senate Chamber Action Routine Proceedings, pages 17823-17841 Bills Introduced: Four bills and one resolution were introduced, as follows: S. 2338-2341; and S. Res. 133? Page 17832 Bills Reported: Reports were made as follows: H.J. Res. 481, expanding the types of equipment and the number of electric typewriters furnished Members of the House of Representatives (S. Rept. 516); S.J. Res. 89, extending for i year authority for the erection in the D.C. of a memorial to Mary McLeod Bethune, with amendments (S. Rept. 517); S., Res. 120, providing an additional $25,000 for ex- penses of Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure of the Judiciary Committee (S. Rept. 518); S. Res. 130, providing an, additional $15,000 for ex- penses of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare (S. Rept. 519) ; H. Con. Res. 364, to print as a House document re- vised edition of "The Capitol" (S. Rept. 520); S. Con. Res. i:t, authorizing printing of compilation of hearings, reports, and studies of the Subcommittee on National Security Staffing and Operations of the Committee on Government Operations for the 88th Congress, with amendments (S. Rept. 521); S. Res. 129, to print as a Senate document a study on "U.S. International Space Programs With Texts of Ex- ecutive Agreements, Memorandums of Understanding, and Other International Arrangements, 1959-65" (S. Rept. 522); H.J. Res. 324, providing for reappointment of Robert V. Fleming as Citizen Regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution (S. Rept. 523); S. 903, relating to the painting, illumination, and dis- mantlement of radio towers (S. Rept. 524); S. 1554, designating Secretary of Defense to receive official notice of filing of certain applications in the common carrier service (S. Rept. 525); H.R. 7954, making technical amendments to the Communications Act to implement the provisions of D710 the London Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (S. Rept. 526); and S. 1948, relating to commissioners, employees, and executive reservists of the FCC, with amendments (S. Rept. 527). Pages 1 782 3-1 78 2 4 Bills Referred: H.R. 3329 and H.J. Res. 397, passed by the House, were referred to Committee on the District of Columbia. Page 17803 Continuing Appropriations: Senate passed without amendment and cleared for President H.J. Res. 591, making continuing appropriations for fiscal year 1966 through August 31, 1965. Pages 1 78 04-1 7806 Social Security-Medicare: Senate cleared for Presi- dent H.R. 6675, increasing benefits under the Social Security Act, and to provide a hospital insurance plan for the aged under that act, by adopting, by 70 yeas to 24 nays (motion to reconsider tabled) conference report thereon. Pages 17803-17812, 17813-17823 Water Pollution: Senate insisted on its amendments to S. 4, Water Quality Act of 1965, asked for conference with House, and appointed as conferees Senators Muskie, Randolph, Moss, Boggs, and Pearson. Pages 17841-17843 Reapportionment: Senate continued consideration of S.J. Res. 66, designating a National American Legion Baseball Week, debating Dirksen amendment (in na- ture of a substitute) proposing a constitutional amend- ment that would allow a State, by referendum vote, to apportion one branch of its legislature on geography and political subdivisions, in addition to the factor of population. - Pages 1 78 54-1 7863, 17878-17883 Urban Mass Transit: At request of Senator Tydings it was agreed, by unanimous consent, that his bill S. 2339, relative to urban mass transit, be referred to Committee on Public Works, and that when it is reported by that committee it then be referred to Committee on Finance. Pages 17832-17839 Bankruptcy: On motion of Senator Mansfield two bills as follows were taken from calendar and referred to Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190007-2