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May 26, 1965
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Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE fiumber of cost studies and reports and believe, contrary to what the Defense Department contends, that the facts show such work can be done More eco- nomically in the private than in the Navy yards. Beyond the question of economy is the need from a defense standpoint to main- tain the skills and facilities in both pri- vate and public yards. The reason for the dispute, in my opinion, is the low level of new construction and modernization activity in both the naval and merchant vessel categories?a trend which results in a continuing and progressive deteri- oration of our strength on the ocean vis-a-vis our principal protagonist, Soviet Russia. Ocean tonnage is and will continue to be vital to our national defense for a long time to come. There is enough work that needs ,to be done to keep all of ous yards?naval and private?busy. If this is done an arbitrary split becomes unnecessary. I am told that the Navy's plans and projections for fiscal 1.966 are such that the dollar volume of work allocated to private yards will be approximately the same during 1966. I certainly hope so and shall watch with Interest. I hope that at least the equivalent volume can be placed on competitive private bids in 1966 and subsequent years. If not, the private shipyards in Oregon and their employees will be out of business and out of work. GENERAL LEAVE To =TEND Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that all Members have 5 legislative days to extend their remarks on this bill. The SPEA.K.ER. Without objection, it is so ordered. There was no objection. The SPEAKER, The question is on the conference report, The conference report was agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. V ENHOA INCIDENT (Mr. RIVERS of.South Carolina asked and was given permission to address the House for 5 minutes.) Mr vavgRs of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, I should like to make the fol- lowing statement in keeping with the promise of the Committee on Armed Services. Mr. Speaker, today the House Armed Services CoMmittee received a secret briefing by Lieutenant General Martin, the Inspector General of the Air Force who headed UP a team of experts to in- vestigate the incident in Vietnam which I discussed here on May 18, 1965. I wish to take this opportunity to re- port to all Members of tbis body that the committee was impressed with the thor- oughness_ of, the investigation which is being condUcted by a team of experienced ,. and highly qualified personnel. It was apparent from the briefing which we received that they were leaving no stone unturned in their efforts to de- termine the cause of this most unfor- tunate incident. However, as of this moment, final determinations have not been arrived at and the investigation is being continued. Extensive safety surveys are underway at all of the bases in Vietnam, concen- trating on the handling and loading of munitions, to insure that maximum practicable safety precautions are observed. There were 27 U.S. Air Force person- nel killed and 76 injured, 20 U.S. Army personnel injured, and 1 Vietnamese killed; 12 U.S. aircraft were destroyed and 6 damaged. Two aircraft of the Vietnamese Air Force were destroyed, 30 damaged. There was no evidence which would indicate an overt attack initiated the ac- cident sequence. There was no evidence that sabotage played a part in this incident. How- ever, it has not been completely ruled out. The security of the base was and is considered satisfactory. There was no evidence to indicate that poor maintenance was responsible for the accident. An engine starter may have caused an accident of this type and is still under suspect. The delay fuses installed in some of the bombs when the accident occurred may also have caused the accident and remains in the suspect area. A special laboratory type analysis of these fuses is currently underway. In the mean- time, the use of such fuses has been sus- pended. Under the circumstances, I wish to again reiterate that this is no time for speculation'or for any discussion of mil- itary matters which could give aid and comfort to our enemy and possibly harm to our military people who are fighting and dying for us in Vietnam. Mr. MAHON. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina. I yield to the gentleman from Texas. Mr. MAHON. Mr. Speaker, I just wanted to concur in the remarks of the gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. RivERs] in regard to this investigation. The Defense Subcommittee of the Com- mittee on Appropriations has listened to a presentation of this matter and I feel that the statement which has been made by the gentleman from South Carolina, the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services, is a very fair and im- portant statement. THE RIGHT REVEREND WILLIAM F. CREIGHTON, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF THE WASHINGTON DIOCESE (Mr. REUSS asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute.) Mr. REUSS. Mr. Speaker, as an Epis- copalian I rise to defend the Right Rev- erend William F. Creighton, Episcopal Bishop of the Washington diocese, against what was said about him and his May 17 speech last week by two of my distinguished colleagues, the gentleman from New York [Mr. GoODELL] and the gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. RIVERS], who are both also of the Epis- copal faith. 11259 In that speech, Bishop Creighton. ex- pressed his opposition to the current rule in the District of Columbia which denies children of an unemployed father the benefits of Federal aid to dependent chil- dren payments, although children simi- larly situated are eligible for such pay- ments in every one of the 50 States of the Union. In making his point, the bishop had something to say about a Member of the other body?some reference or other to bleeding hearts and little children. For this, the bishop was berated for expressing "personal venom," and for departing from the standard of "those who speak from a position in society which clothes them with a high degree of immunity." The bishop was told that "he should keep his nose out of it." At the risk of sounding like just an- other organization man, I am for the bishop. I am very proud that he does concern himself with social issues like the care of the children of the unemployed, and that he and his Suffragan Bishop, Paul Moore, Jr., have identified them- selves with the forces in this commu- nity?Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish? who are concerned with bringing about better treatment for children who are condemned to poverty through no fault of their own. Perhaps the bishop's figure of speech was not the most felicitous he could have chosen. But I would point out that when I last looked at the Constitution it was Members of Congress who are given legal immunity for what they say in debate, not bishops. As far as I am concerned, Bishop Creighton is a gentle and saintly man. We should be glad to hear from him. BETTER HOUSING FOR MIGRANT WORKERS (Mr. TODD asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute.) Mr. TODD. Mr: Speaker, one of the pressing needs of our migrant farm- workers, upon whom the farmers of many of our States depend to harvest their seasonal crops, is better housing. These workers have low incomes, move from locality to locality with the matur- ing crops, and must depend upon the local housing supplied them in the areas In which they are temporarily employed. In many States, and particularly in my own State of Michigan, the season is short?lasting at the most 6 to 10 weeks?and the independent farmers themselves are in no financial position to construct housing for labor for their own particular crop. For example, one grower may harvest strawberries, another cherries, another blueberries, another pickles, and another apples. To assist in building housing to meet the need of such an agricultural district, Government help is required. Without it, the consequence is inevitable: The farms will become corporate instead of family, and encompass enough land and enough different crops to make it eco- nomically feasible to the corporation to construct such housing. I believe better housing is urgently needed for our migrant workers. But I also believe the family farm should not Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP671300446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 11260 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE May 26, 1965 be replaced with the corporate farm in order to provide it. This is why we must have Government assistance. Enabling legislation to provide this assistance was passed last year, and the appropriation before us, I am happy to say, does include a $2 million provision to further the housing grant program which had previously been authorized. This program is to be run through State and local governments and nonprofit or- ganizations by the Farmers Home Administration. I do want to note, however, that the Department's original request was for $5 million. I had hoped that this request would have been granted in full by the committee, in view of the obvious need both to the workers and to the family farms employing them. I make these remarks today in the hope that when funds for this program are next considered the appropriation will be better balanced with the need. VICE PRESIDENT SALUfIiS CHAIRMAN PATMAN (Mr. ANNUNZIO asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to include a speech delivered by Hon. WRIGHT PATMAN.) Mr. ANNUNZIO. Mr. Speaker, it would be impossible to celebrate National Small Business Week without honoring one of our colleagues who I personally feel has done more for small business than any other man in this country. I, of course, refer to the distinguished chairman of the Banking and Currency Committee, the Honorable WRIGHT PATMAN, of Texas. Let me assure you that my view of the gentleman from Texas' (Mr. PATMAN] small business achievements is shared by the administration. I think this can be best illustrated by a greeting extended from the Vice President of the United States, the Honorable HUBERT H. HUM- PHREY, to Chairman PATMAN when the two met yesterday at the Small Business Administration's Small Business Subcon- tracting Conference here in Washington. I would like to quote the Vice President's greeting: And here's WRIGHT PATMAN, the man who has done more for small business than any other person in. America. In my short tenure as a member of the Banking and Currency Committee, I have come to wholeheartedly concur in the expression of the Vice President. Once again, Mr. Speaker, WRIGHT PATMAN is standing up for small business by speaking out against those who would exempt bank mergers from antitrust laws. Of course, we all know that anti- trust laws enable the small businessman to compete effectively against large busi- ness. Without such laws, small business could not survive. I am inserting in the RECORD a copy of Chairman PATMAN'S speech given yes- terday to the Small Business Subcon- tracting Conference in which he speaks out against exempting bank mergers from antitrust laws. I commend this address to my colleagues: STATEMENT BY CHAIRMAN Wanurr PATMAN, DEMOCRAT, or TEXAS, AT THE SBA SMALL Busiavass Snaccarraacrisra CONFERENCE, WASHTNGTON HILTON HOTEL, MAY 25, 1965 I am very glad to be here to participate in the SBA Small Business Subcontracting Conference. In my opinion, the 1961 amend- ment to the Small Business Act providing small business set asides in large Government contracts was a new lease on life to small business. I had the privilege of serving as chairman of the House Select Committee on Small Business as well as on the Banking and Currency Committee to which, of course, is referred small business legislation, so I fully realize the importance of small busi- ness subcontracts. I am hopeful that small business will enjoy an ever-growing share of Government business. At the same time, however, small business- men, as well as everyone else interested in small business problems, must be aware of all other developments that bear upon com- petition and free enterprise, not just small business alone. My own efforts involve two basic needs of free enterprise: (1) an ade- quate supply of business credit at reason- able rates of interest; (2) strong antimonop- oly laws and vigorous but fair enforcement of Such laws. While I suppose that my views on mone- tary reform are no secret, I would like to share with you my concern over current moves to weaken the antimonopoly laws. Monopolies have been like a plague upon mankind throughout our history. Un- checked, they inevitably lead to a police state as individual initiative and freedom of choice fall by the wayside. Also, com- petitive free enterprise will disappear. The only excuse for permitting a monopoly to exist 18 where competitive free enterprise would be simply unworkable; the local tele- phone company, power company, or gas corn- piny are obvious examples. Such industries are frequently exempted from the anti- monopoly laws as regulated public utili- ties. Their franchise, territory, quality, and quantity of service and even their charges and profits are subject to constant Govern- ment regulation because they are public service utilities. Since there is no element of free competition to spur on such a mo- nopoly to meet public needs. Government must see that these needs are met. Now the banking industry is definitely not a regulated industry. I am happy to report that at present there is a great spirit of competitive - free enterprise among our banks in most communities, although I am disturbed by the fact that we have today exactly one-half the number of banks we had some 30-odd years ago. Banking IS not a regulated industry; banking , is a super- vised industry. The States and the Federal Government share in the chartering of new banks, examination of their loen portfolios; establish merging and branching rules; and supervise banking matters in general, par- ticularly with respect to liquidity and sol- vency. But banks do not enjoy territorial monopolies like public utilities do, although some would like that, I am sure. They do, however, enjoy a franchise to create money on a 10-t0-1 ratio-410 in loans for every $1 in reserves?and this is certainly a tremen- dous responsibility as well as a privilege. And in this sense banks are truly public utilities. But bankers are not told how much interest they can charge on loans. And bankers are not told what is the maxi- mum wont they can earn. So, although banks enjoy a monopoly, a_ precious fran- chise to create money both for the Govern- ment as well as for the people of the United States, banking is still a free enterprise in- dustry. I would like to see it stay that way, and I am sure that most people will agree. This is why I am disturbed by the flurry of activity on the part of big eastern banking Interests and their Washington lobby to ex- empt banking from Justice Department ad- ministration of our antimonopoly laws. Banks are already exempt from regulation by the Federal Trade Commission and by the Securities and Exchange Commission. And, as I stated a moment ago, banking is a competitive industry, and not a regulated monopolistic industry. I cannot believe that those who at this very moment are lobbying frantically for this antimonopoly exemption really want banking to be regulated like a public utility. Do these people want fixed prices and fixed profits for banking? Does freedom from vigorous but fair antimonopoly enforcement mean that much to these people? I, for one, would prefer to preserve free enterprise in banking. I do not believe that the proponents of this legislation have really thought this thing through. Such a drastic exemption from the antitrust laws can only be justified for a fully regulated industry. I certainly oppose this for banking, and I am truly surprised that certain banking interests are pursuing this course. Such a move opens the door for further erosion of our free enterprise sys- tem. Now this is not to say that I would close the door to all consideration of im- provements of our antimonopoly administra- tion. We must always strive for moderniza- tion and efficiency with minimum disturb- ance to business, while always recognizing that the broad public interest must be served first. As a matter of fact, I would certainly expect the House Banking and Cur- rency Committee, of which I am chairman, to look into during the 89th Congress the gen- eral question of competition in the banking industry. Not only should we examine merger policy, but also branching, new bank charters, chain banking, interlocking di- rectorates, and possibly other questions. Our committee has a full schedule at present and these are not matters that you should rush into. Fundamental changes in public policy must be subjected to the utmost scrutiny and careful consideration. We have no emergency in the banking industry, al- though not everything is, of course, as it should be. Superconcentra,tion in banking can only hurt the small business which depends upon bank credit to survive. Recently I was in- formed of a case out west involving a long- established plumbing contractor who lost his line of credit when a holding company took over the local bank. This is not just an isolated case. I assure you. So, I think all businessmen?whether a banker or a nonbanker, big business or small business?must be informed on serious matters such as this so that through extreme haste drastic changes are not wrought in our free enterprise system for which we all may be sorry. ANTIDUMPING ACT AMENDMENT (Mr. HERLONG asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point.) Mr. HERLONG. Mr. Speaker, tomor- row marks the 44th anniversary of the enactment into law of the U.S. Anti- dumping Act of 1921. It provides a sig- nificant time for me and many of my colleagues to salute the fair and equita- ble concept of a law designed to deal with the problem of unfair competition from dumped imports without resorting to the use of tariffs or quotas. In keeping with the moderate tenor of the original act, I have the privilege today of introducing an amendment to Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?SENATE 187 years, whereas the savings to the Gov- ernment alone would amount to approxi- mately $200 million a year. Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, will the Senator yield on tat point? Mr. DOUGLAS. I am glad to yield. Mr. PROXMIRE. The figures which the distinguished Senator from ,Illinois has stated are extremely impressive. I wish to Make sure that I understand how much additional was paid in income taxes. Mr. DOUGLAS. We make an esti- mate that those who were employed and were previously unemployed received, approximately $80 a week, which is ap- proximately $26 below the average for manufacturing, or $4,000 a year, and of that amount $2,800 would be nontax- able; $1,200 would be taxable. With a payment of about 16 percent tax rate, $200 in Federal income tax would be Paid per person, not received by the Fed- eral Government previously, and that would amount $23 million a year for the 116,000 persons. Mr. PROXMIRE. So the amount paid in personal income taxes of $23 million, added to the savings in un- employment compensation of $144 mil- lion, added to the savings in relief costs Mr. DOUGLAS. Of $8 million. Mr. PROXMIRE. Of $8 million, totals close to $200 million a year. Mr. DOUGLAS. Included in that should also be the fact that corporations and employers would be doing business there, and therefore the profits which they might make would be subject to taxation. We estimate that that would. be about $30 million a year. Then there would be State and local taxes, which we have not included. Mr. PROXMIRE. I point out to the distinguished Senator from Illinois that the costs which he was talking about are very largely interest repayable loans. Mr. DOUGLAS. That is correct. Mr. PROX1VIIRE. They were not grants, but primarily loans. Mr. DOUGLAS. That is correct. Mr. PROXMIRE. These were loans repayable with interest. What is the record of ,ARA firms in paying back such loans? Mr, DOUGLA. I shall supply that for the RECORD. The losses in the first year were appreciably more than they would have been for bank loans, but the record has steadily improved. Mr. PROXMIRE. The Secretary of Commerce testified before the Commit- tee on Banking and Currency that the record of repayment on loans was most Impressive, especially considering the circumstances under which the loans were made, and that he felt, as the Sena- tor from Illinois has said, that the rec- ord is improving. Mr. DIOLAS. . That is correct. Mr. PO MI. The figures which the Senator from Illinois has placed in the RECORD are eloquent testimony to the fact that this is an excellent investment. It is an investment that is paying for Itself over a period of years, and paying for itself rapidly, first, because, as the Senator has pointed out, more taxes are paid; second, because relief and unem- ployment compensation is less; third, be- cause the loans that are made are very largely being repaid with interest, and are being repaid promptly. That is the kind of information that has not been brought out previously as to the effects of the ARA program. Mr. DOUGLAS. The Senator is cor- rect. Now I should like to supply the figures as to the delinquencies as of March 31, 1965. At that time, the loans disbursed amounted to $96,500,000. Loans foreclosed amounted to $808,000. Mr. PROXMIRE. $808,000 as com- pared with $96 million?less than 1 per- cent. Mr. DOUGLAS. Yes. Loans in fore- closure amounted to $1,550,000, or total foreclosures of $3,358,000?approximate- ly 21/2 percent. In addition, $9 million in loans were delinquent, although only a small part of this amount will result in losses. I think one can safely estimate that the vast majority of the loans, amounting to close to $100 million, will be paid back, I do not believe that the losses will be appreciable for this type of pro- gram. So on the basis of grants of $93 million and losses of not more than $10 mil- lion on loans, the total cost to the Gov- ernment would not greatly exceed $100 million, and the revenues of the Govern- ment should be improved by at least $200 million a year. Mr. PROXMIRE. So the return is 2 to 1. Mr. DOUGLAS. Not only is the return 2 to 1; the gains are annual gains. The losses are total losses for the 4-year period. Mr. PROXMIRE. So the ratio is 2 to 1 a year. Mr. DOUGLAS. That is correct. The gains are really much more than the amount of money expended. The amount of money does not take into ac- count the human part of the program, namely, the restoration of self-respect, the aid to the local communities in pre- venting them from dying, and the greater utilization of such structures as churches and schools and of telephone services, utility services, and the rest. Mr. PROXMIRE. This is the most im- pressive feature of all. The very fact that additional people will pay taxes and there will be additional economic devel- opment is most encouraging for the country as a whole. These are the areas that are dying, that are extremely sick. These are the areas where the future is almost hopeless. In addition to the statistical assistance that we can see, there is a very real, human opportunity for people to live in communities they know and love, com- munities where they are acceptable and have had their family ties; perhaps where their families have lived for gen- erations. This is the kind of human assistance that cannot be measured in statistical terms, but is, nevertheless, immensely important. When that is added to the monetary return to the Federal Government in a ratio of 2 to 1 a yea, the record the ARA has developed is remarkable. Mr. DOUGLAS. I think it justifies the existence of the program. I have be- come a little fed up with the rather captious criticisms that have been made of it. It has been a marvelous human investment and a paying economic in- vestment. Mr. PROXMIRE. On that very score, is it not true that the arguments that have been made that this is merely bor- rowing employment from some other area of the country has little validity in the economy in which we are oper- ating? Most areas of the country are close to full employment. In the Wisconsin area, the heavily populated southeastern part has virtually no real unemploy- ment. On the other hand, in the north- ern part of the State there is heavy un- employment. The fact that additional jobs can be provided without endanger- ing in a significant way other parts of the country means that this program provides an overall gain in employment. It is not a question of borrowing jobs from one area against another as a mat- ter of unfair or subsidized competition. Mr. DOUGLAS. The Senator from Wisconsin is correct. Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, be- fore the Senator from Illinois yields the floor, I should like to ask him one or two further questions, because he is the author of the bill. Is it not true that this is a conserva- tive refinement of the ARA and of the accelerated public works program in a real sense? - Mr. DOUGLAS. That is true. The standards are much stricter than they were in the original accelerated public works program. Mr. PROXMIRE. It is my under- standing that fewer counties would prob- ably be able to qualify under the rural criteria. The other criteria were more lenient. Under this stricter, more con- servative bill, which requires counties to have an income of less than 40 percent of the national average, fewer counties throughout the country?and I am posi- tive fewer counties in Wisconsin?would be able to qualify. Mr. DOUGLAS. To qualify, they would have to be areas of need. Mr. PROXMIRE. Is it not true that grants must be tied to specific develop- ments? Mr. DOUGLAS. Yes; grants would be made on much stricter terms than under the accelerated public works program. Mr. PROXMIRE. Accelerated public works were made for a much broader range of purposes. ARA also made grants up to 100 percent. This bill would make grants only up to 80 percent. The accelerated public works program provided $450 million a year for 2 years and ARA about $75 million over 4 years, or $19 million a year, for a total of about $470 million if the two were com- bined. This bill provides $400 million for public facility grants which is less. Mr. DOUGLAS. That is correct. Mr. PROXMIRE. Furthermore, ARA loans authorized by Public Law 87-27? the Area Redevelopment Act?were about $300 million. While loans under this bill would be $170 million annually, ? Approved For Release 2003111104: CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190016-2 nfis Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE May 26, 1965 they would be interest bearing and fully repayable. Also, there is a change?the interest rebate factor?which involves over- whelmingly private enterpiSe money. This provision provides for a modest $5 million a year investment by the Fed- eral Government, but it will encourage $250 million of investment funds, and they would be private enterprise funds. Mr. DOUGLAS. Yes; a 2-percent in- terest subsidy would make possible the unlocking of $250 million a year in capi- tal investment. On a 10-year basis, that would be a total investment of $2.5 billion. Mr. PROXMIRE. The Senator from Illinois has performed an outstanding service in this field for many years. He has had to fight his way up the hill many times to have this program enacted. First, what I like about the bill is that it is national in scope as compared with the Appalachia bill, which was confined to a limited area. In the second place, it stresses private enterprise and private development. It does not provide for a gigantic federally controlled and directed public works pro- gram. Mr. DOUGLAS. The Senator is cor- rect. Mr. PROXMIRE. I believe that the overwhelming involvement, the public decisions are made at the local level, the judgment and discipline of the marketplace at the local level, is at work here. Mr. DOUGLAS. The Senator is cor- rect. Mr. PROXMIRE. Basic investment decisions will be left up to the private sector of our economy. Mr. DOUGLAS. Primarily so. How- ever, of course, there are grants for in- frastructure or development facilities. Mr. PROXMIRE. But the whole pur- pose of the grants is to create a climate which would be otherwise unattractive to private enterprise, attractive to pri- vate enterprise. Mr. DOUGLAS. The purpose is to have the initiative and incentive and the planning come up from the bottom, from the local communities. Mr. PROXIVIIRE. The opposition on the part of conservative people on the ground that this would interfere with private enterprise and would be some Government activity misses the point. The new jobs would be created by indi- vidual American enterprise?much of it corporate enterprise?and would be sub- ject to all the disciplines and all the energizing and initiative factors involved in private individual enterprise. Mr. DOUGLAS. I ask the Senator from Wisconsin, who has been one of the most valuable committee members and one of those who helped the most in forming the bill, if some of our best wit- nesses were bankers. Mr. PROXMIRE. Yes. In fact, the Secretary of Commerce, who is one of the best known and one of the most highly successful businessmen in the national business community, has had a chance to study the measure carefully and has given it his unqualified support and en- dorsement. Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I want to say briefly that I am very happy that S. 1648 is nearing passage in the Senate. It is a very important bill. A great deal of credit is due to a num- ber of my colleagues, whom I highly commend. Among others there are the senior Senator from Illinois [Mr. DOUG- LAS], the senior Senator from Michigan, the chairman of the Committee on Pub- lic Works [Mr. McNAmArtAl, and very particularly, the senior Senator from West Virginia [Mr. RANDOLPH], who has never ceased to work for and urge this kind of legislation, from which useful projects will put people to work not merely at the site of the project but also In the factory, in transportation, and on the arteries in between. I am very happy to have been one of the numerous cosponsors of this project, as was my colleague, the senior Senator from Alaska [Mr. BARTLETT]. I point out that for a good many years I have urged the resumption of accelerated pub- lic works. I have previously introduced amendments and bills to bring this about. This is a bill in a somewhat modified form which would not go quite as far as I should like to have it go, in view of the fact that our experience has shown that when the accelerated public works proj- ect was before us, the funds originally appropriated and authorized for this pur- pose, some $880 million, quickly vanished for worthwhile expenditures, and at the time and subsequent to the expiration of those appropriations, some $100 million of worthwhile projects, fully matched and ready to go, had to be abandoned. Many of those projects will be resumed now. I believe that it is particularly grati- fying, however, that the bill in its original form has now been amended. The original version of the bill did have an appropiration of $250 million annually. That amount has now been increased to $400 million. I should say that I consider these sums to be not expenditures but investments in the finest sense of the word. Their use would create worthwhile needed projects, and would put people to work. Much as I applauded the President's war on poverty, I felt then and feel now that it was not sufficiently implemented to do the job of putting the people to work and putting them to work now. Much of the war on poverty has not been a long-range project, then and now, particularly in view of the fact that we are at the height of a prosperity never before equaled in the history of our Na- tion and that we have continuous un- employment. I also applaud the fact that the origi- nal version of the bill has been changed to include Alaska and Hawaii, which, in the original draft, were omitted because of the fact that they were not areas which were contiguous to the States. That has been changed by amendment. I was glad to listen to the words of the Senator from Wisconsin [Mr. PROX- MIRE], who has supported this legisla- tion very ably and effectively. I believe that this is an important step. I believe that this session of Congress will be noted for its fine and rapid achievements. We have passed hills that will be of tremendous value. There are still many more such measures ahead. I am, confident that this Congress will go down as one of the most productive Congresses ln history and that the moves that h ve been taken are largely and almlt3ioily in the public interest. L.B.J. VIETNAM POLICY UNANI- MOUSLY SUPPORTED BY ON-THE- SPOT EXPERTS Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, there are few more expert among the journalistic fraternity than Thomas B. Ross, correspondent of the Chicago Sim- Times. Mr. Ross has covered the State De- partment and been a specialist for the State Department in foreign affairs. Mr. Ross was sent recently by the Chi- cago Sun-Times to Vietnam. He has been there since May 1. On last Sun- day, May 23, he filed what to me was a very interesting report on Vietnam. I should like to quote from it briefly. Mr. Ross considers the reaction in Viet- nam to our building up of troops and forces and launching air strikes in Viet- nam, and states: Nevertheless, in the virtually unanimous view of officials and observers here, thcre was no acceptable alternative to the major U.S. buildup which began in Pelaruary along with launching of airstrikes on North Viet- nam. "The clock stood at 1 minute to midnight," a high-ranking official here observed, and the only other course of action was an abrupt and humiliating withdrawal. That, in the judgment of every experienced observer this reporter has been able to con- tact in this area, would have led eventually to complete Communist Chinese domination of southeast Asia. Mr. Ross is not a man who is in- grained with campaigning for military action. He is dispassionate, and an ob- jective, competent reporter. Allow me to repeat that last short sentence. It reads: That, in the judgment of every experienced observer this reporter has been able to con- tact in this area, would have led eventually to complete Communist Chinese domination of southeast Asia. Mr. Ross goes on to say: Critics of President Johnson's Vietnam policy may abound in Washington and else- where in the United States, but they are all but impossible to find out here. A Titolst solution may seem feasible on the American campus, but this reporter has been unable to locate a single resident Ameri- can?soldier, diplomat, journalist, or schol- ar?who thought it was a possibility in the current climate of militant expansionism in Peiping. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the article published in the Chicago Sun-Times of Sunday, May 23, 1965, entitled "United States Courts a Showdown in Vietnam," written by Thomas B. Ross, be printed at this point In the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP671390446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ---- SENATE 11389 TJNITED STATES COURTS A SHOWDOWN IN VIETNAM (By Thomas B. Ross) SAIGON, SOUTEI VIETNAM.-41-though the United States has been striving since Korea to prevent the involvement of American soldiers in a war on the Asian mainland, the U.S. establishment here is now seeking just ' that as a solution to the grim impasse in Vietnam. High civilian and military officials alike are hoping for a direct confrontation between U.S. combat troops and the Communist Viet- cong before the end of June. The design is to draw the Communists into a "reverse Dienbienphu"?a decisive defeat which will force them to sue for peace. The French, of course, had the same idea in 1954 only to be routed by the Communist-domi- nated Vietminh nationalists and compelled to abandon their colonies in Indochina. But U.S. military men insist there is scant similarity between the French position at Dienbienphu and the American position today. The French decided to make their stand in North Vietnam at a point at which the Vietminh commanded the high ground and were operating over relatively short lines pf supply. In South Vietnam today the Vietcong find themselves at the end of a long precarious line of supply which is under heavy bom- bardment by U.S. planes. And U.S. forces are deployed in the coastal flatlands in terrain favorable to their sophisticated weaponry and With a mighty armada of war and supply ships supporting their rear. POsrriox AT LOWEST EBB There are now at least 70,000 U.S. military men in the southeast Asian theater?close to 45,000 in Vietnam and the rest in the sur- rounding waters and Thailand. VVell so, the U.S. position, in a territorial sense, has never been at a lower ebb. The Vietcong control more of the countryside than ever before and the United States, like France before it, is largely tied down in static defense of key installations and urban centers. The Government commands so little open ground and covets what it has so jealously that, as one U.S. Air Force general com- plained: "This is the first war where we've had to rent battlefields." In these last-ditch circumstances, the strategy of confrontation is as much a coun- sel of despair as it is Of hope. It is in effect an admission that the plan of counterinsur- gency, promulgated with such promise by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, has failed and that the war must be won by direct force of U.S. arms. It also represents a challenge to the origi- nal admonition of Ambassador Maxwell D. Taylor that it would be foolhardy for the white man to pit himself against the yellow man on Asian soil, Nevertheless, in the virtually unanimous view of officials and observers here, there was no acceptable alternative to the major U.S. buildup which began in February along with launching of air strikes on North Vietnam. "The clock stood at 1 minute to midnight," a high-ranking official here observed, and the only other course of action was an abrupt and humiliating withdrawal. That, in the. judgment of every experienced observer this pporter has been able to con- tact in this area, would have led eventually to complete Communist Chinese domination of southeast Asia. poLTCY pigAsgs AlvlUsTOANs rist vizrzum Critics, Of ,?PreaitiVat Joh,lison's Vietnam, policy may abound in Washington and else- where in the United States, but they are all but impossible to find out here. A Titoist solution may seem feasible on the American campus, but this reporter has been Unable to locate a single resident American? soldier, diplomat, journalist or scholar?who thought it was a possibility in the current climate of militant expansionism in Peiping. And so, the growing American presence in Vietnam is viewed here with great satis- faction and with a conviction that the United States cannot now be forced out by military means. If there is to be a withdraw- al, the belief here is that it will come through the pressure of American public opinion, re- acting to frustrating stalemate and mount- ing casualties. This view is clearly shared by Peiping which has been predicting openly in party publications that the U.S. Government, prodded by popular discontent and the "bourgeois intellectuals," will abandon Viet- nam. The nagging question is how the Commu- nists will seek to accelerate this "historic Inevitability." Key U.S. military men are speculating that the Vietcong will attack U.S. forces late in June. Several battalions of regular troops have been infiltrated into the central high- lands from North Vietnam in the last few months and U.S. intelligence analysts be- lieve they must make a move sometime dur- ing the current monsoon seasons. ? U.S. bombing raids have seriously damaged Vietcong supply routes and it is felt the Communists must strike decisively with what they now have or withdraw for replenish- ment. Their capacity for sustained combat on a conventional level is not rated as very good. This has led many officials, particularly ci- vilians, to doubt that the Vietcong will risk an open showdown. For 20 years they have prosecuted a successful guerrilla war by committing their forces only when they were clearly \dominant. Their central tactic is to overwhelm iso- lated, undermanned outposts and then to dissolve into the jungle or the rice paddies when superior government strength moves into position. SELECTIVE KILLERS They operate under tight discipline and with consummate political calculation. Rape is unheard of among them and, although they resort to terror when all else fails, they are highly selective in their assassination. An ineffectual province or district chief will be spared. An efficient one will be killed. The tax collector, nemesis of the peasant Who must often pay both the government and the Vietcong, is likely to be the first to go. The Vietcong are also masters at the arts of friendly persuasion, when it serves their purpose. During one recent incursion in the central highlands, their first act wa,s to re- lieve the local women of the chore of sweep- ing the marketplace. Then, to the delight of the townspeople, who are without radio, television, movies, or any other notable di- version, they provided 2 hours of well- rehearsed entertainment. Through such a combination of ingratia- tion and terror, the Vietcong have achieved a high degree of immunity. They move freely throughout most of the country with little fear that the local populace will betray them to the government. FAILURE OF NATIVE LEADERSHIP In many areas, when wounded, they boldly resort to hospitals run by the U.S. aid mis- sion, confident that their identity will be concealed. In the last few weeks, they are known to have used Nha Trang, a govern- ment-held seashore resort 200 miles north- east of Saigon, as a rest and recreation site for whole companies of guerrillas from nearby units. The Government's great difficulty in ac- quiring intelligence on the Vietcong is matched by its inability to respond quickly to what information it does obtain. This represents a failure of leadership, a direct outgrowth of the calculated efforts of the French to prevent the formation of a native class of commissioned and noncommissioned officers. The deficiencies of leadership are also reflected in the inadequate performance of the Vietnamese army. The fighting qualities of the Vietnamese foot soldier have often been called into question. But, in fact, his American advisers are convinced he will perform competently, even bravely, when properly led and, particularly, when he is operating in or near his native locale. However, the army has yet to demon- strate that it can exercise any enduring control in the countryside beyond the pro- vincial and district capitals. This has led to a decision?at least for the immediate future?to shelve the rural pacification program. The focus of the war has thus been shifted from counterguerrilla activity to a more traditional form of combat, replete with fire bombs and supersonic aircraft, in short, the United States is seeking to substitute a type of warfare in which it excels for one in which it has proven somewhat amateurish. It is still much too soon to tell whether sophisticated weapons and conventional ground troops can succeed where counter- insurgency has failed. In fact, there is some evidence of popular resentment to the ex- panding use of napalm, a development which is not surprising if one has observed a hos- pital ward full of bleeding women and chil- dren seared from head to toe. BOMBINGS BOOST GOVERNMENT MORALE But, nevertheless, the massive bombing runs begun in February have had a decisive effect on the morale of the government and the army. Prime Minister Phan Huy Quat, a reserved intellectual normally given to cautious statement, has blossomed into a veritable warhawk. Even within the Buddhist hierarchy, which had been flirting with neutralism, the bomb- ings have produced a marked swing toward progovernment and pro-American senti- ment?a "complete turnaround" in the view of a leading political analyst. And, particularly in the Mekong River Delta, which comprises the lower third of South Vietnam, there are the first faint signs that the villagers and the peasants are be- ginning to look upon the government, rather than the Vietcong, as the likely victor. This, of course, is critically significant amongst a populace which is ideologically neutral, yet relatively well off by Asian stand- ards. , Although 40 percent of its babies die in their first year and the annual per capita in- come is just a shade over $100, South Viet- nam manages to feed its 15 million citizens better than most of its neighbors feed theirs. This is a result of the great fertility of the Mekong Delta which is producing 5 mil- lion tons of rice?and exporting 300,000 tons of it?each year despite the pronounced dis- ruptions of the war. If peace came to Viet- nam, that crop could be doubled; perhaps quadrupled within a year, in the estimation of U.S. economic advisers in the field. These men, serving with great courage in exposed rural areas, are held in high es- teem by the Vietnamese people who, on the whole, show little resentment to the grow- ing American presence in their country. THE CRITICAL TEST AHEAD The critical test of whether the new white man is to be accepted as a friend or resented as the colonial successor to the French will likely come in the areas of massive U.S. troop concentrations. The original Army advisers here were well schooled in the modern doctrines of psy- chological warfare, even though they some- times seemed to bark out their lines like a military command: "Win the hearts and Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 1E390 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE May 26, 1965 minds of the people, and that's an order, sergeant." On the other hand, the marines and para- troopers recently landed see their mission in old-fashioned terms: "Kill Vietcong." With little thought for local sensibilities, the marines guarding the Da Nang Airbase openly refer to the primitive village within their lines as "Dogpatch." When a visiting American asked a guard for the real name of the town, the marine replied with conviction: "It's Dogpatch." Other marines within earshot nodded agree- ment. It took a call to the eommand post to produce the correct name, Tong Vu Su, which, as any marine knows, means Dog- patch in Vietnamese. The adult villagers in and around the marine encampments are conventionally in- scrutable and withdrawn, though they have learned to hang out signs which read: "O.K. Laundry. Done Quickly and Carefully." The children are enthusiastic and vocal. "Hello, Hello," they shout at every pass- ing jeep. "You No. 1. Vietcong No. 10. Give me 5 P's (5 piastres, about a nickel)." The marines are responding with normal GI generosity?too much so in the view of the local bulldozer operators, who recently conducted a brief strike to protest the fact that the town peddlers were taking in 300 piastres a day, 10 times their own wages. An order by the brigade commander brought the peddlers under control, but the marines have refused to stem the flow of money to the children who have become their tacit allies in a life-and-death friendship. CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR OFTEN A TIPOFF On their regular patrols of the surround- ing Communist-controlled territory, the ma- rines are constantly subject to Vietcong am- bushes, usually in the email villages. The adult townspeople can generally be coerced by the Vietcong into silence and a convincing display of normal activity. But the children, whether unconsciously or by design, repeatedly give evidence in their 'be- havior of impending danger. So alerted, sev- eral marine patrols have withdrawn or made for cover in time. At some point in the next few weeks, In the expectation of many high-ranking mili- tary men, one of these patrols may make contact with the advance patrol of Vietcong battalion. Then, the great confrontation may be at hand. But even if this should not materialize, soma climax to the Vietnam war seems to be In the offing. Ambassador Taylor and his principal advisers are convinced that North Vietnam is hurting desperately from the re- lentless U.S. airstrikes. Should the Vietcong call off their expected monsoon offensive, it 'would Only confirm these men in their con- viction that the Communists Will be forced to the conference table before the end of the year. If they are wrong in their calculations, if the Vietcong can endure despite the pound- ing of their supply lines and their Staging areas, then the prospect is for a war that will drag on for several more years. And in that event it will not be decided in the jungles and rice paddies of this patheti- cally beautiful country. It will be decided in the United States by a rich and comfort- able people who must judge the extent of their interest in saving a poor and desperate nation. TRANSACTION OF ROUTINE BUSINESS By unanimous consent, the following routine business was transacted: EXECUTIVE CORtIMUNICATIONS, ETC. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- Pore laid before the Senate the following letters, which were referred as indicated: REPORT ON CERTAIN SHIPMENTS INSURED BY THE FOREIGN CREDIT INSURANCE ASSOCIATION AND EXPORT-IMPORT BANK A letter from the Assistant Secretary, Ex- port-Import Bank of Washington, Washing- ton, D.C., reporting, pursuant to law, on ship- ments, to Yugoslavia insured by the Foreign Credit Insurance Association and the Export- Import Bank, for the month of April 1985; to the Committee on Appropriations: AMENDMENT OF SECTION 2634 OF TITLE 10, UNITED STATES CODE, RELATING TO TRANS- PORTATION OF CERTAIN MOTOR VEHICLES A letter from the Secretary of the Army, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend section 2634 of title 10, United States Code, relating to the transportation of privately owned motor vehicles of members of the Armed Forces on a change of perma- nent station (with accompanying papers); to the Committee on Armed Services. REPORT ON RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPO- RATION LIQUIDATION FUND A letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on the Reconstruction Finance Corporation liquidation fund, for the quarterly period ended March 31, 1984 (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Banking and Currency. REPORT ON RESEARCH PROGRESS AND PLANS OF THE WEATHER BUREAU A letter from the Secretary of Commerce, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on research progress and plans of the U.S. Weather Bureau, for the fiscal year 1964 (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Commerce. REPORT ON ACTIVITIES AND TRANSACTIONS UNDER MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT OF 1946 A letter from the Secretary of Commerce, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on activities and transactions under the Mer- chant Ship Sales Act of 1946, for the quar- terly period ended March 31, 1965 (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Commerce. AMENDMENT OF TITLE XIII: WAR RISK INSUR- ANCE OF FEDERAL AVIATION ACT OF 1958 A letter from the Secretary of Commerce, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend Title XIII: WE'S Risk Insurance of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (with an accompanying paper); to the Committee on Commerce. EXTENSION OF PROVISIONS OF TITtat X111 OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ACT OF 1958, RELAT- ING TO WAR RISK INSURANCE A letter from the Secretary of Commerce, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to extend the provisions of title XIII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, relating to war risk insurance (With an accompanying paper); to the Committee on Commerce. AMENDMENT OF SECT/ON 201 OF COMMUNICATIONS ACT or 1934 A letter from the Chairman, Federal Com- munications Commission, Washington, D.C., transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend section 204 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (with accompany- ing papers); to the Committee on Commerce. AMENDMENT OF DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA PRACTICAL NURSES' LICENSING ACT A letter from the President, Board of Com- missioners, District of Columbia, transmit- ting a draft of proposed legislation to amend the District of Columbia Practical Nurses' Licensing Act, and for other purposvi. (with an accompanying paper); to the Committee on the District of Columbia. CONTRIBUTION BY THE UNITED STATES TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE Ran CROSS A letter from the Secretary of State, trans- mitting a draft of proposed legislation to authorize a contribution by the United States to the International Committee of the Red Cross (with an accompanying paper); to the Committee on Foreign Rela- tions. AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE BUILDINGS Aar, 1926, To AuTmerze ADDITIONAL AP- PROPRIATIONS A letter from the Secretary of State, trans- mitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend the Foreign Service Buildings Act, 1926, to authorize additional appropriations, and for other purposes (with accompanying papers); to the Committee on Foreign Rela- tions. PROVISION OF CERTAIN AUTHOR/TY FOR 13.5. INFORMATION AGENCY A letter from the Director, U.S. Informa- tion Agency, Washington, D.C., transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to provide cer- tain basic authority for the U.S. Information Agency (with accompanying papers); to the Committee 011 Foreign Relations. AMENDMEN% OF ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES Acr OF 1946 A letter from the Chairman, U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C., trans- mitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946, as amended, to provide for reimburse- ment of certain moving expenses of em- ployees, and to authorize payment of ex- penses for storage of household goods and personal effects of employees assigned to isolated duty station within the continental United States (with accompanying papers); to the Committee on Government Operations. REPORTS OF COMPTROLLER GENERAL A letter from the Comptroller General of the United States, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on unnecessary procurement of air passenger service on scheduled commer- cial airliners from Japan and Korea to the United States, Department of Defense, dated May 1965 (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Government Operations. A letter from the Comptroller General of the United States, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on loose management in budg- eting and financial reporting for certain edu- cational exchange activities, Department of State, dated May 1965 (with an accompany- ing report); to the Committee on Govern- ment Operations. A letter from the Comptroller General oi the United States, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on unnecessary costs resulting from the failure to furnish available part: to a contractor engaged in the production oi 3/4-ton trucks, Department of the Army. dated May 1965 (with an accompanying re- port); to the Committee on Government Operations. A letter from the Comptroller General of the United States, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on inadequate management of special purpose ammunition pallets resultecL in unnecessary procurement actions, Depart- ment of the Navy, dated May 1965 (with an accompanying report); to the Committee on Government Operations. A letter from the Comptroller General of the United States, transmitting, pursuant to law, a report on improper use of funds ap- propriated for operation and maintenance Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 11415 being the case, it is the responsibility of Congress to protect the public purse, rather than to construct private pipe- lines from the Public Treasury to private recipients I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an editorial en- titled "Hassle Over Patents," which was published on May 26 in the Washington Post. There being no objection: the editorial was ordered to be printed in the fl,ECORD, as' follows; [From the Washington (D.C.) Post, May 26, ? 19651 RASSLE OVER PATENTS The long smoldering dispute over the pat- enting of discoveries made in the course of federally financed research and development work has flared up again. Senator LEE METCALF, in a speech on the floor of the Sen- ate, accused several high administration offi- cials of "lobbying" on behalf of certain bush ness groups. These groups believe that the patent rights to ideas developed with Fed- eral funds should be awarded to the con- izacting business Arra or nonprofit institu- tion. "Lobbying" is a pejorative, often Impre- cise term, and there is little point in at- tempting to plumb the Senator's charges. But there is much that should be said and done out the failure of the Government to articulate a clear policy in this trouba- some area. Some Federal agencies, notably the 'Atomic Energy Commission, follow a clear and con- sistent rule. Except in cases where the re- search contractor already holds patents in closely related areas, all patents issuing from Federal contracts antomatioally revert to the Government. But other agencies are per- Mitted by law to waive the patent claims of the Government. The battle now being waged, both in the Congress and withIn the administration, is over ' which policy shall prevail. Senator RUSSELL B. LONG insists that the patents growing out of Federal contracts belong to the public, and he has attached amendments to several important bills which uphold that principle. The patent law bar, industry groups and many universities are ranged on the other side. They contend that the pros- pect of owning patent rights provides an important incentive to solve problems quickly. And they raise the question of whether the Government has the right to patents where the contracting researcher draws upon a previously acquired expertise. In October 196$, the late President Ken- nedy issued a patent memorandum which purported to provide guidance for -Govern- ment agencies. tut that document and the Patent Advisory Panel subsequently formed appear only to have confused matters. Patent policy issues can be complex, but not so esoteric as spokesmen for the patent bar claim when they chastise laymen for speaking out. When a private business en- terprise contracts and pays for research and development work, there is seldom if ever any question about its right to the patents that may emerge. The same principle should apply in the case of Government- sponsored research. There is no good rea- son why the taxpayers should be expected to pay $15 billion a year for research and then turn over, to the, adequately compensated COntractorR exclusive patent rights. To be sure, the rights of the owners of "background patents" should be protected When tbey engage in Government contract Work. But aside ;from that exception, all patents developed' under Federal contracts should revert to the Government, and the Ns?. 95-28 Government in turn should make the pat- ented knowledge freely available to all po- tential users. SUPPORT OF THE PRESID NrS POLICY ON VIETNAM Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, recently I received a resolution adopted by the 18th District Convention of the Ameri- can Legion, Department of Texas, in which the actions of our President in de- fense of freedom and in opposition to Communist tyranny and aggression are fully supported. I concur in the view of the Legion- naires; and, in order that other Sena- tors may share the view of these dedi- cated Texans, I ask that a copy of the resolution be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the resolu- tion was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION 4: AFFIRM SUPPORT OF PR-EMDEN- TIAL ACTION IN VIETNAM Whereas U.S. Advisory Forces are in south- east Asia, especially concentrated in South Vietnam; and Whereas they are under continual harass- ment by communistic infiltrated forces; and Whereas President Johnson, upon request by the Government of South Vietnam, has taken necessary action in bombing supply lines and troop concentrations in North Viet- nam: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the American Legion, 18th district, Department of Texas, fully en- dorses the action taken by President John- son in response to the request of the South Vietnam Government; and be it further Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be submitted to the Office of the President of the United States and with courtesy copies to each U.S. Senator of Texas; and be it further Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be submitted to the Department of Texas and the national convention. Eighteenth district resolution committee, EARL BASKETT, Chairman. Members: JAMES D. O'DANIEL. W. L. THOMAS. Date May 2, 1965, action approved. By vote of the 18th district convention. Adjutant, the American Legion, Depart- ment of Texas. RECOGNITION OF EASTERN (GREEK) ORTHODOXY Mr. JORDAN of Idaho. Mr. Presi- dent, I wish to advise the Members of Congress that the State Legislature of my State of Idaho recently unanimously adopted a resolution to recognize East- ern?Greek?Orthodoxy as a major re- ligious faith in the State. Approxi- mately 30 States have now done so. Rev. Father Constantine Palassis, of Idaho and eastern Oregon, and mem- bers of the Orthodox Church were the moving forces in bringing to the atten- tion of the members of the State legis- lature the need for such a resolution. I ask unanimous consent that a copy of the resolution be printed at this point in the RECORD. I also ask that a letter written to Members of the U.S. Congress by the Voice of Greek Orthodoxy in America, giving some pertinent infor- m and background on Eastern Greek Orthodoxy, also be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the resolu- tion and the letter were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION No. 6 BY JUDICIARY AND RULES COMMITTEE A resolution recognizing the Eastern Ortho- dox Church as a major faith in the State of Idaho Be it resolved by the Legislature of the State of Idaho: Whereas it has come to the attention of the members of the Legislature of the State of Idaho that, whenever mention is made or matter is printed concerning the major faiths, usually. only Protestants, Catholics, and Jews are referred to as constituting the major faiths of the State; and Whereas the Eastern Orthodox Church, by reason of its long and illustrious history, should be included in the meaning of any recognition of the major faiths: Now, there- fore, be it Resolved, That the Eastern Orthodox Church is hereby recognized as a major faith in the State of Idaho, and official ref- erences to the major faiths shall be deemed to and will include the Eastern Orthodox Church; be it further Resolved, That the secretary of state is hereby directed to transmit suitable copies of this resolution to the Most Reverend Archbishop Iakovos, Archbishop of the Greek Orthodox Church of North and South Amer- ica, Primate of the Greek Orthodox Arch- diocese, to the Reverend Father Constantine S. Pala,ssis, of Idaho and eastern Oregon, and to all news media of the State of Idaho. THE VOICE OF GREEK ORTHODOXY IN AMERICA, Washington, D.C. Re the four major religious faiths: Protes- tant, Catholic, Orthodox, and Jewish. To the MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR JORDAN In the considera- tion of two major issues before the U.S. Congress?civil rights and public school prayers?references at the hearings and in debates have been made to only three of the four major faiths, with Orthodoxy, known as the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox faith, be- ing the forgotten faith. To correct this misconception of only three major faiths?Protestant, Catholic, Jewish? we of the Voice of Greek Orthodoxy in Amer- ica give you this background information. 1. The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese re- veals that there are approximately 7 million Eastern Orthodox in America. Statistics show that there are approximately 7 million 40 million Roman Catholics, and 514 million Jews in America. Thus by statistics alone Orthodoxy is one of the four major faiths. 2. Twenty-seven legislatures have passed laws requiring that, in reference to major faiths, Eastern Orthodoxy should be in- cluded. Your State may be one. 3, The Armed Forces in 1955 changed their regulations to permit Eastern Orthodox identification in the servicemen's records and their identification (dog) tags. Prior to that time there were only three designa- tions?Protestant, Catholic, Jew. 4. Eastern Orthodox chaplains were per- mitted for the first time in 1951 although the Eastern Orthodox strived all through World War II for that cherished right. 5. President Eisenhower was the first Pres- ident to invite an Eastern Orthodox to give a prayer at the 1957 inaugural, thus bring- ing our four faiths together. 6. Many State and city public functions and inaugurals now have four faiths at- tending. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP671300446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 11416 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE May 26, 1965 7. Appointments to high office by Presi- dents and Governors were being considered only on the three-faiths basis bit President Eisenhower and President Kennedy began including Eastern Orthodox for Presidential appointments. More of this is needed. 8. Eastern Orthodox have been erroneous- ly designated as either Catholic or Protestant. History reveals that Eastern Qrthodoxy and Roman Catholicism separated in AD. 1054, and Protestants broke away from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. There- fore Eastern Orthodox, Protestants and Ro- man Catholics are three distinct faiths. 9. Senate and House bills were introduced to refer to Orthodoxy as a major faith. Thanking you for the privilege of send- ing you this brief background which we hope you will keep handy and make use thereof, I am, Respectfully yours, SAM REVITIIES, National Treasurer, The Voice of Greek Orthodoxy in America. OBJECTION TO PROPOSED REVI- SION OF SKIP-ROW COTTON PLANTING REGULATIONS Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, recently I received from the Tom Green County, Tex., Crops Committee a letter of pro- test about the Department of Agricul- ture proposals to revise skip-row cotton planting regulations. I share the view of the craps commit- tee that the regulation change is unwise and unwarranted; and in order that other Senators may share the commit- tee's views, I ask that a copy of the letter the committee has sent to the Depart- ment of Agriculture be printed in the RECORD. There being no abjection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SAN ANGELO, TEX., May 15,1965. DIRECTOR FARMER PROGRAMS DIVISION, ASCS-USDA Washington, D.0 . DEAR SIR: We protest the proposed change In the rules for measuring cotton when planted in a skip-row pattern. Skip-row planting originated in Tom Green County in the 1920's. Some of the land in this area has been planted in skip-rows since it was first put in cultivation. The proposed change will be a hardship on the producers in this county. It will create much confusion arid make it almost Impossible for a producer to adequately plan his planting. The present rule has not increased cotton production in this county, and production figures prove it. Skip-row planting means the difference of whether we make a crop or net. We request that the proposed change not be made and the present rule be continued In effect. It is necessary to the economy of this area. Yours truly, Tom Green County Crops Committee: W. B. Block, Sonora Route, San Angelo, "Tex.; John Schriever, Jr., Bola, Tex.; Frank Culley, Route 3, Box 131, San Angelo, Tex.; J. H. Sims, Route 2, Miles, Tex.; H. E. Hurst, Route 3, Box 387, San Angelo, Tex.; L. J. Seidel, Route 2, Miles, Tex.; Walter Fuchs, Wall, Tex. ASSISTANT SECRETARY HOLUM DEID/CATE,S JAMES RIVER DAM Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, on Sunday, May 23, 1965, the people of the Huron, S. Dak., area joined in the dedi- cation of an important new darn on the James River, near Huron. This project will provide municipal water, recreation, and wildlife benefits for the people of central South Dakota. On hand for the major dedication ad- , dress was one of South Dakota's most distinguished sons, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Kenneth Holum. I ask unanimous consent that the ex- cellent address by Assistant Secretary Holum be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the address was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ADDRESS BY KENNETH HOLUM, ASSISTANT SEC- RETARY OF THE INTERIOR, WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT, AT DEDICATION CEREMONIES OF THE JAMES DIVERSION DAM, HURON, S. DAK., MAY 23, 1965 Three years ago this coming September, I sat down with the mayor of Huron to sign the water-service contract that was necessary before we could begin construction of the James River Diversion Dani. I had no idea that day that I would have the honor of participating in its dedication. It is an honor; not because of the size of the structure?for it indeed is small com- pared to Grand Coulee, Hoover, Glen Canyon, or even Oahe Dam?but because of what it represents to people like you and me who have learned the value of water conservation through personal experience here on the drouthy plains. Most of you present today are products of the James River Valley; so am I. We have seen the "Big Jim" in all its moods, ranging from springtime floods that engulfed our farm lowlands, to the virtual dry, useless stagnation of late summer and fall?and we have despaired. President Lincoln once commented that ''the Almighty has His own program." Our program here is to put our God-given resources of earth and water to the best possi- ble use for mankind's advancement. This I believe?whether it is in South Dakota or California?is in harmony with the Al- mighty's plan. This darn was built at the request of Huron to supplement that city's water supply. And, by the way, we are exploring the possibilities of constructing another darn in the vicinity of Mitchell to meet that city's water needs. We were happy to respond to the appeal by the mayor of Mitchell and his city council, and the urgent request for swift action by Senator GEORGE MCGOVERN. Though this re- quest came to us only a couple of weeks ago, the Bureau of Reclamation already has a reconnaissance study underway, at my direction. The James River Dam and Reservoir will not only double Huron's water supply, it will provide a rgeat source of recreation for the entire area as Well as some mighty fine fish- ing. Eventually, and I hope soon, this facil- ity will become a feature of the Oahe Unit? that half-million-acre irrigation project, which will mean so much to the economy and welfare of this State. Five recreation areas will be developed under an agreement with the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Two will be here, one on each side of the dam, and the other three along the reservoir at several-mile intervals upstream. Shady pic- nic areas and boat ramps will provide facili- ties for lots of fun and relaxation. Four more areas are being set aside for wildlife habitat along the reservoir. These will be feeding and nesting areas for ducks and pheasants, and feeding areas for deer. For many people here today, I am sure this is all like a dream come true. The bene- fits of this development will accrue not only to us and our children, but our children's children as well. A community without an ample supply of Water is one that is headed for economic stagnation and an end to its growth. I am reminded of a remark made a long time ago by an engineer, advising the city of Los An- geles when it was considering going far back into the mountains for a water supply. The cost was considerable, and there was much hesitation. Finally, the engineer said: "If you don't obtain this water, you won't ever need it." Well, Los Angeles went after that water, and then more, and more, and you can see the results today. To grow and prosper, an area must develop its land and water resources. In South Da- kota we have come only part way in this job. While we are realizing the great bene- fits of power generation from Missouri River mainstem dams, in addition to recreation, we can do much more and must, if the economic potential of this area is ever to be attained. I'm talking, of course, about putting the water to work on our productive farmland. I'm talking about the proposed Oahe unit and what it can do to open the doors of economic opportunity in our State, where they have been closed to a narrow slit in the past decade or two. To get a glimpse of what the Oahe unit can do, let's look at some of the things that have happened in areas similar to this. In 1956, a study was made on the North Platte project in western Nebraska and southeast- ern Wyoming, Which is a 350,000-acre project, first irrigated in 1908. The lands extend over a distance of 110 miles, from Guernsey, Wyo., to Bridgeport, Nebra.?an area like the Oahe unit. In terms of products sold off the farm, the irrigated land on this project produces 13 times more per acre than the adjacent dry- land farms. Only 10 percent of the four- county area is irrigated. But that 10 percent is responsible for 91 percent of the total in- come payments in the area. It supports 27 times as many people, and provides 40 times the income, as adjacent prairie areas of equivalent size. Property tax revenues in Scottsbluff Coun- ty, which has irrigation, are 20 times greater than in Banner County, which adjoins it, but has little irrigation. I don't need to remind you, I am sure, what this means in terms of schools, roads, and other civic improve- ments. During the drought years of the 1930's, population of the irrigated area increased 18 percent. In the adjacent ciryland areas it decreased 12 percent. Similar contrasts can be drawn on project after project throughout the West. It is the story of reclamation. Past experience With irrigation in eastern South Dakota, and farm management studies of potential irrigation on the Oahe unit, show that the most profitable irrigated land- use pattern would consist primarily of the same crops now being raised in this area, but they would be raised in different propor- tions. Likewise, we would raise the same types of livestock we have now. But, instead of shipping them out of the State to be fat- tened, we would fatten them on our own farms here in South Dakota, end the livestock products would be processed right here in our own State. What does the Oahe unit mean to South Dakota? Let me give you a capsule idea: The gross value of crops sold after irriga- tion development would triple, from $8 mil- lion to $24 million. Estimated annual value of livestock and livestock products sold from irrigated farms would nearly quadruple from $22 million to about $82 million. Annual gross farm income would be about $108 million compared to about $32 million, without irrigation?an increase of $76 mil.. lion, or four times. Cash farm outlay would Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --SENATE without self-righteousness and with a brave freedom from old dogmas. THE VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION IN CONNECTICUT Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, 20 years ago this month the fighting in the European theater of World War II came to an end. The end of that terrible war marked the beginning of enormous new responsibilities for the Veterans Admin- istration, In the State of Connecticut, those responsibilities have been met very well. Through the Hartford office alone, More than $70 million is disbursed an- nually to administer veterans programs. The man overseeing the activities of the Veterans' Administration in Connecti- cut is Col. Edward W. O'Meara. Colonel O'Meara and his staff are charged with care of the records of more than 235,000 Connecticut veterans. The programs that Colonel O'Meara administers vitally affect the lives and well-being of ex-GI's, as well as the lives of their widows and their children. Colonel O'Meara is no stranger to such responsibilities; he was the first manager of the social security office in New Britain. Furthermore, Ed O'Meara is an old and Valued friend. When Governor of Con- necticut, it was my privilege to appoint him a member of my military staff. Everything Ed O'Meara does, he does well. I ask unanimous consent that an ar- ticle entitled "State VA Part of Largest Business Firm in United States," pub- lished in the New Britain Herald of May 18, 1965, and describing the fine work of Colonel O'Meara and the Veterans' Administralion in Connecticut, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows; STATE VA PART OF LARGEST BUSINESS FIRM In UNIT= STATES (By Arthur E. McEvoy) Twenty years after VE day and the end of World War II the Veterans' Administration, through its Hartford office, is disbursing more than $70 million annually in Connec- ticut to administer many programs for the benefit of men and women who were in the Military service in two world wars and their dependent survivors. In the New Federal Building in the capi- tal city, around which the activities of the VA in Connecticut revolve, many functions affecting the lives of ex-GI's, their widows, and children are carried out by the staff of Col. Edward W, O'Meara, regional manager. SERVICES LISTED These include compensation payments, pensions, educational allowances, grants to paraplegic veterans of $10,000 toward build- ing or buying a home and benefits to widows and minor children. The extent of the transactions may be visualized by the num- ber of checks issued in April. In that month cheeks went to 42,479 living veterans and 15,973 to widows, widows and children, or children alone. Of the latter figure, 6,582 Went to the World War I account and 6,401 to WqrldWaI benefielaries. In a display case in the main corridor of VA regional headquarters is a newspaper article saying "Today, the biggest business Organization in the United States is not Cieneral Motor? or AT. & T., but the Vet- erans' Administration. Veterans and their immediate families comprise almost half the total U.S. population and the VA has some 22 million `CuStom,,ers!,in.ita active files." - UNIQUE SYSTEM The Hartford office has records of 235,000 of the 350,000 veterans in Connecticut. In a forest of steel cabinets are their military history, data on medical examinations and treatments, as well as two-way correspond- ence. A unique filing system installed as an experiment for possible use throughout the Nation enables members of the staff to find a folder enclosing any veteran's record with a minimum of time and effort. Specialists fill many posts in the Hartford office. A tour discloses the desks of physi- cians, lawyers, construction experts, occupa- tion experts, loan administration agents, in- surance underwriters, and accountants, a cross section of the professional fields. Other employees vital to the operation are flexo-writer operators, stenographers, dicta- phone operators. In addition are many re- quiring special skills or understanding. GOOD MORTGAGE RISKS In the Loan Guarantee Division are ap- proximately 95,000 mortgage loans which the office has guaranteed amounting to about $1 billion. "Evidence of how our veterans have taken care of their mortgage obligations is indicated by the remarkably low loss ratio which is three-tenths of 1 percent," said Colonel O'Meara, adding, "This, I think any- one would say, is an extraordinary record." Versatile machines speed the work and make possible swift handling of an enormous amount of business transacted. By means of a telecommunication system about 520 mes- sages are sent out monthly and about 525 received. The office can and does "speak" with all VA installations in the country through a series of relays. SUPERVISES ESTATES The mail desk handles about 70,000 pieces of mail a month, 40,000 incoming and 30,000 outgoing. Of those received, about '7,000 are processed by a mechanical locator index that looked to this writer like a small scale ferris wheel. A push of a button brings within reach of the operator's hand the addresses of many thousands of .veterans in the State. " Many unanticipated problems are handled by the chief attorney's office which also ex- ercises supervision over estates amounting to $9 million of some 6,300 incompetent vet- erans as well as beneficiaries and minor chil- dren. During the fiscal year 1964, $72,500,000 was expended in Connecticut to carry out vari- ous functions of the regional Hartford office. This undertaking was accomplished by a staff of 118 whose working space and appurten- ances occupy 30,500 square feet, the entire first floor of the Federal Building. Colonel O'Meara, who heads this big oper- ation, is no stranger to New Britain. He was the first manager of the social security office in this city. RETENTION OF SECTION 14(b) OF THE TAFT-HARTLEY ACT Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, the Nueces Canyon Chamber of Commerce, headquartered at Camp Wood, Tex., re- cently endorsed the proposition that section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act be retained. I fully share the view of the chamber. In order that other Senators may be advised of how Texans feel on this most important matter, I ask that a letter to me from the chamber president be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: 11427 NUECES CANYON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, Camp Wood, Tex., May 20, 1965. Hon. Joxx TOWER, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. MY DEAR SENATOR TOWER: The Nueces Canyon Chamber of Commerce has endorsed the proposition that section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act should be retained to the end that the right-to-work laws of Texas can be continued. This action was taken by unanimous vote of the chamber membership at the last reg- ular meeting held May 4, 1965, and the un- dersigned was instructed to notify you of this action and to request your cooperation in this matter. Thanking you in advance for a reply at your earliest convenience, I am, Respectfully, HqEE KELLY, President. THE MESS IN NAM?XV; AN EX- U.S. OFFICIAL "TURNS STATE'S EVIDENCE" Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, books of great pertinence and value to an understanding of what is going on it Vietnam and in southeast Asia gen- erally are now coming off the presses. Considering the great lack of reliable information about why and to what ex- tent the United States is engaged and the omission of many pertinent facts from official pronouncements, these books are a distinct contribution to public information, and they deserve reading. Recently, I had printed in the RECORD reviews, from "The Nation," of David Halberstam's book entitled "The Making of a Quagmire," and of Malcolm Browne's book "The New Face of War." Mr. Halberstam was for 3 years the correspondent of the New York Times in Vietnam; and Mr. Browne was there as the correspondent of the Associated Press, and is still there. Both these books revealed tellingly the efforts to suppress the bad news from Vietnam and to give the American people the rosy picture which has, up to date, been part of the official line. Both of these newspaper men were Pultizer Prize win- ners, because of the excellence of their reporting of events in Vietnam. We now have a book written by a Government official, the Public Affairs Officer in South Vietnam?John Meek- lin, whose book, entitled "Mission in Torment," has just been issued by Doubleday. In the May 29th issue of "The New Republic," this book is ad- mirably reviewed by I. F. Stone, the knowledgeable editor of "I. F. Stone's Weekly." He entitles his review, appro- priately: "An Official Turns State's Evidence." I recommend to all Senators the reading of this review; but even more important is the reading of the book itself. I ask unanimous consent that the review be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the review was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: AN OFFICIAL TURNS STATE'S EVIDENCE (By I. F. Stone) The most important battle in South Viet- nam was the fight to let the American people know what was going on. Two reporters who shared Pulitzer prizes for their part in it, David Halherstain, of the New York Times, Approved For Release 2003/11/04.: CIA-RDP671300446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 11.428 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD' ? SENATE May 26, 1965 and Malcolm W. Browne, of the Associated Press, have recently Published their accounts of this battle between bureaucracy and press. Now in "Mission in Torment," we have the story as seen from the other side. John Mecklin, a Time staff Man, took leave of absence to serve as Public [affairs officer of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon from May 1962 to January 1964. The stoky he has to tell is not peculiar to Saigon. The seine struggle gees on in Washington. Covering the Pen- tagon, the State Department, and the White House is a continual rassle between reporters trying to get the news and press officers putting out the Government's party line. If the latter had their way we would all sound like American equivalents of Pravda and Izvestia; too many do. "In Saigon in 1963," Mecklin writee, "the newt/men were regarded as enemies not only by local an- tnorities but also by the American Mission," Ia this, Washington Often seems to differ only in degree from Saigon. Mecklin charges that the newsmen were rude, self-righteous, and humorless, but he substantially confirrans their indictment. Where Halberstam and Broeme complain of a constant effort to Mislead the press, Mech- lin pleads in extenuation that the higher-ups believed their own falsehoods. "The root of the problem," he says, "was the fact that much of what the newsmen took to be lies was exactly what the Mission genuinely be- lieved, and was reporting to Washington. Events were to prove that the Mission itself was unaware of how badly the war was go- ing, Operating in a vroeld of illusion. Our feud with the newsmen was an angry symp- tom of bureaucratic sickness," The defense is more damning than the newsmen's accusa- tions. All governments lie, but disaster lies In wait for countries whose officials smoke the game hashith they give out. Mecklin lets 'us see that even this was not the whole story. There were falsehoods the officials belieVed and falsehoods they told de- liberately. "To the best of my knowledge," Meeklin writes, "no responsible U.S. official in Saigon ever told a newsman a really big falsehood. Instead there were endless little ones." When the neWsmen fall for theta, Washington complained. "There was a patrealizing holier-than-thou tone in the ?Metal lattitucie toward the press," Mecklin relates., "We repeatedly received cables from Walabington Using expressions like 'tell the correspondents' to do so and so or 'explain how they were wrong' to write such and such. This Was like trying to tell a New York taxi driver hoer to shift gears." This also goes on in Washington where Johneon sometimes seal= -to think the Constitution made him not only commander-in-chief of the Nation's Armed Forces but editor-in-chief of its news- papers. T, one of his lest dispatches as a Time cOrespOndent in Saigon in 1955 after Diem had been in office 9 /*eoliths, Mecklin quoted an inans.illed "prominent American journal- ist" as saying 'after his first interview with Diem, "Sort of a screwball, isn't he? His eyes don't even focus." By the time Mecklin got back to Saigon 7 years later, U.S. in- formation policy was designed to make sure that nobody else's eyes focuteed properly on Vietnam either. afecklin's book reveals that the nettoriotts State 'Department Cable No. 1008, of February 21, 1962, which the Moss subcommittee of the House On Government Information Polielet later exposed, was re- garded within the bureaucracy as liberalizing ptess -relations. This basic directive was chanted jeititly by Arthur Sylvester at De- fense and Robert Manning at State; it re- flects the animosity to a free press character- istic of both departments. "It was 'liberal'," Macklin colt/Me/its' wryly, "in the sense that it rea5OgiilOad Ihe'riaelt of American new- men au ectver theatafte in Vietnam, but it was otherwise tittle more than codification of the errors the mission was already committing." Conveniently, the text was classified but the Moss subcommittee was allowed to reveal that newsmen were to be advised against "trifling criticism of the Diem government" and not to be taken along on military activi- ties likely to result in "undesirable stories." This is not ancient history. The old habits march on. Misinformation is still the hallmark of the Government's informa- tion policy. Two examples may be cited, one minor, one major. The minor one concerns the replacement of General Harkins by his deputy, General Westmoreland. Every few months, it would seem, Harkins would issue a statement saying that victory "is just months away"?this was his prediction, Mecklin recalls, the very day Diem was over- thrown. His deputy and successor seems to be the same type. But when Westmoreland stepped into his old commander's shoes, the tired Army mimeograph machines ground out the same old tripe. "Like Harkins two years earlier," Mecklin notes, "Westmore- land's press notices described him as a 'no- nonsense' officer." A major example concerns the State De- partment's recent white paper. The Meek- lin book, like Browne's, /abuts its central thesis. "Like everything else in Vietnam," Mecklin writes, "statistics on infiltrated ma- terial and personnel from the North were highly debatable. There was no question that significant Chinese and North Vietna- mese supplies had been smuggled. * * * But the vast bulk of Vietcong weapons and equipment were American." Mecklin also has "no doubt that several thousand Viet- cong officers and other trained personnel had Infiltrated from the North" but he adds that "the overwhelming majority of their forces were recruited locally." The white paper was intended to prepare public opinion for the bombing of the North. Mecklin says that by destruction of factories and training camps in the North "the Vietcong would be weakened, but probably not much more than the efficiency of, the Pentagon would be re- duced if the air conditioning were shut off." For Mecklin the talk of bombing supply routes "made even less sense" because most of the smuggled supplies were moved on foot or in sampan. In a graphic simile Mecklin writes, "As the French discovered so dis- astrously at Dienbienphu, air attacks on coolie jungle supply routes is like trying to shoot a mouse hiding in a wheatfield from an airplane with a rifle." Two hitherto undisclosed scenes stand out in the Meath/ book. One was an intervievv with Kennedy an April 29, 1963, when the President asked him, "Why are we having so much trouble with the reporters out there?" Mecklin thought there would be less trouble if officials were more candid. He wanted Kennedy to put a stop to "excessively opti- mistic public statements" in Washington and Saigon and the habit of "complaining" to editors and pubishers "about unfavorable stories" from reporters in the "field. Mecklin says he found Kennedy "skeptical but willing to try." One wonders whether Mecklin was not naive. We know from lialberstam's book that Kennedy himself tried to persuade the publisher of the New York Times to trans- fer him out of Saigon. Six months later Kennedy was to issue the biggest optimistic whopperoo of the war?the McNamara- Taylor statement at the White House, Octo- ber 2, 1963, that all was going so well in Viet- nam we could withdraw 1,000 men by the end of the year and complete "the major part of the U.S. military teak" by the end of 1965. The desire to primp up the face of truth was confined to the lower echelons. Mecklin forgets to mention that speech by Carl Rowan, now again in charge of Vietnamese "information," about the public's "right not to know" which the Moss subcornmittee pro- tested. Nor the way this echoed Kennedy's speech to the publishers after the Bay of Pigs on the need for greater "restraint" in covering undeclared wars. Another White House scene on which Mecklin lifts the curtain for the first time was a special meeting of the National Se- curity Council on September 10, 1963, when the Buddhist crisis was about to bring down Diem, The Bay of Pigs made Kennedy aware of how wrong the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the CIA could be. Had he lived longer, he might soon have come to feel the same way about their advice on Vietnam. Mechlin was Invited to be present to hear a report from a special two-man mission Kennedy had hurriedly sent out to Saigon for a fresh look at the state of the war and of popular sup- port for Diem. The mission was composed, Mecklin relates, of a Pentagon general and a senior Foreign Service officer, "bath rela- tively unknown, though experienced Viet- nam hands." Each reported separately. Their reports turned out to be so different that when they finished, President Kennedy asked, with that dry wit which made him so winning, "Were you two gentlemen in the same country?" Mecklin writes that security regulations prohibit him from reporting anything fur- ther about the meeting. He does say that while every other agency thought the time had come to reform, or get rid of, the Diem regime, "the Pentagon, unpersuaded that the war had been affected by the Buddhist up- heaval, continued to agitate for no real action at all," -while the cm "was more or less of the same opinion." This should be read with Halberstam's and Browne's ac- counts of how stubbornly deaf General Har- kins and the top CIA man in Saigon, Rich- ardson, remained until the very end when their junior officers in the field tried to tell them what was going on. The lack of con- gressional or popular control over these huge military and intelligence bureaucracies al- lows them to go on being wrong with im- punity. Each "mistake" leads on to a bigger one. Yet Mecklin would drag us further into the Asian morass. He advocates the use of combat troops to take over the war in South Vietnam, he believes the national interest requires it and he thinks the war can be won in no other way, though it may take many years and many men. At one point he talks of the need for an army of 1 million men. I wonder how he reconciles this with his observation that we have been losing be- cause we have not won the peasant over to our side. The peasant, Mecklin says, in the most perceptive passage in his book, is aware "If only intuitively" that the United States is in Vietnam for "global strategic consid- erations, not because of sympathy for th? Vietnamese people." To step up the bomb- ings north and south as we have been doing, and to follow this with combat troops as we have begun to do, means to burn up much of Vietnam for those global strategic con- siderations. This is unlikely to endear Ise to the least intuitive peasant in Vietnam or anywhere else. SOIL STEWARDSHIP WEEK Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, dur- ing the period May 23-30, churches of all denominations throughout the Unit- ed States are observing Soil Steward- ship Week. This annual observance is sponsored by the Nation's 3,000 local Soil and Water Conservation Districts. "Challenge of GrOWth" is the theme of this year's Soil Stewardship Week ob- servance. In the great society of mankind, each of us has a God-given purpose for being. In our time, each among us fulfills a mission on the long progression toward the ultimate design of our Maker. Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300190016-2 May 26, 1965 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- APPENDIX t?j the individual worker who would maintain his freedom of choice enjoys a marked advantage. ' Anchorage Reborn EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF- ON. RALPH J. RIVERS OF ALASKA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thiersclay, May 20, 1965 Mr, RIVERS of Alaska. Mr. Speaker, on the recent anniversary of the great Alaska earthquake, Alaskans looked back to survey their progress of recovery from the devastation of March 27. In looking back at that year, they were proud of what had been accomplished. In special editions of newspapers, prominent citi- zens reviewed the work of the year and praised their fellow Alaskans. Progress since the earthquake in An- Chorage, the State's largest city and one thAt'Nffpbeci vast destruction, is now the Subject of a survey by a national colum- nist. This writer, Richard Starnes, finds, as Alaska= (10, that this year has been one of great progress. His column, "Anchorage Reborn," printed in the Washington Daily News on May 24 fol- lows: ANCHORAGE REBORN (By Richard Starnes) ANcHoRAGE.?The story of Anchorage is the story of a city that refused to die. Thirteen mouths ago the worst earthquake ever recorded in North America crushed Anchorage and half a dozen surrounding communities, seismic sea waves completed the destruction. When they had subsided, 115 Alaskans were dead and property damage was counted in the hundreds of millions of dollars. A hideous, gaping wound ran through the heart of Anchorage. Much of the Fourth Avenue business district collapsed into it; elsewhere homes and apartments were lit- erally shaken to pieces as the very earth be- neath them coiled and heaved as if some subterranean monster were in its death agonies. In Turnagain Heights, Anchorage's Most fashoinable residential neighborhood, homes were sucked into the ground and crushed by the earth's convulsions. Loss of life was unbelievably low in view of the awesome destruction wrought by the tremblor, but families saw the work of a life- time wiped out in seconds?uninsUred and irreplaceable. The most remarkable thing about the giant earthquake was the fact that human beings faced what, Must have seemed to be the end of the world with superhuman courage. Tales of heroism and sacrifice are common- place, and accounts of hysteria are notably sparse. In the epochal year that has passed since the earthquake, Anchorage has performed a miracle of rebuilding a city on the very earth that betrayed it. Today one could spend clays in Anchorage and see no obvicaie scars of the cataclysm that beset the city. Anchorage looks more like a boomtown than the shattered relic of earthquake. New construction is going on as if the rich oil de- posits beneath Inlet are the only future surprises that the earth holds in stare for Anchorage. Damaged buildings have been repaired and the_ wreckage of destroyed struc- tures has been bulldozed away. The J. C. Penney building that was nearly shaken to pieces last March ,has been razed, and a new steel-reinforced concrete structure has re- placed it. The Anchorage Westward, a new 450-room skyscraper hotel that many a larger city Might envy, was damaged by the tremblor but IS now in full operation. The Captain Cook, another high-rise hotel, is nearing completion. A new hotel is also be- ing planned at international airport and Sears Roebuck has confirmed plans for a new shopping center as grandiose as any in what Alaskans call "the lower 48." School enrollment at 19,100 is higher than it was when the quake struck, and Anchorage is feverishly planning new school buildings to meet the need. The city's population has grown an estimated 13 percent in the last 3 years?and, earthquake or no, it is still growing. Support of the President's Poli f y on Vietnam ,\i'?/ EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JACOB K. JAVITS OF NEW YORK IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Wednesday, May 26, 1965 Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the Appendix of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD the text of a resolution adopted on April 26, 1965, by the Niagara Palls City Council, in support of the Presi- dent's policy on Vietnam, together with a petition, with 1,561 signatures, initiated by the members of the Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity, at Queens College of the City University of New York, also in support of our present policy on Vietnam. There being no objection, the resolu- tion and the petition were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: RESOLUTION ADOPTED AT A MEETING OF THE NIAGARA FALLS CITY COUNCIL, HELD APRIL 26, 1965 Whereas North Vietnam Communists, without provocation, have infiltrated and in- vaded South Vietnam with military force; and Whereas the United States has committed itself to defend the self-determination of South Vietnam against the North Vietnam attack; and Whereas the President of the United States has firmly held to this policy, and has taken appropriate military action to defend the right of South Vietnam to gov- ern itself according to its own national in- terests: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the city council of the city of Niagara Falls does hereby commend our President for his steadfast purpose to defend South Vietnam while maintaining a policy of unconditional discussion on peace; and this city council further resolves to urge our Congressmen and U.S. Senators to stand by the President with unwavering support until a successful conclusion of the conflict is achieved, and be it further Resolved, That the mayor of the city of Niagara Falls be directed to send this resolu- tion to the President, our Congressmen, and U.S. Senators. . E. DENT LACKEY, Mayor. Attest: HELENE M. BREED, Acting Deputy City Clerk. We, the undersigned, support our present policy in Vietnam. We feel that this policy is in line with the U.S. tradition of support- ing freedom throughout the world, A2675 Accomplishments of the Johnson Administration EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RICHARD FULTON OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 26, 1966 Mr. FULTON of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, in editorials which recently ap- peared in the Nashville Tennessean, President Johnson is commended for his actions in the Dominican Republic and record of accomplishment over the first 100 days of this administration since the inauguration January 20, 1965. Mr. Speaker, I request unanimous con- sent to place these editorials in the REC- ORD and commend them to the attention of my colleagues: (From the Nashville Tennessean, May 3, 1965] PRESIDENT'S FIRST 100 DAYS EVENT FILLED, PRODUCTIVE President Johnson has just completed 100 days in office since his January 20 inaugural oath. It has been a busy time, marked by fast-paced activity on the domestic front and days of tension on the international scene. The war in South Vietnam has occupied much of the President's time and concern. And if that were not enough, at the end of the first 100 days he was also concerned with a revolt in the Dominican Republic. Despite the clouds of omen, there were a good many bright signs for which the Presi- dent could feel pleased. The Nation's econ- omy has been booming. Some threatening strikes have been averted, or in the case of steel, at least delayed. Furthermore, the President should be highly gratified thus far with the first ses- sion of the 89th Congress. With successful passage of the sweeping education bill, the aid to Appalachia program, House passage of medical care and social security legislation, and the expected enactment of a voting rights measure, it can be said that Congress is bath busy and productive. In comparison with the first 100 days of President Roosevelt, there are fewer bills and Congress is not booming them through at the same hectic pace. But the 73d Con- gress had an altogether different economy to deal with; there was less time for debate and study in 1933. President Johnson was swept into office on a tidal wave of votes. Few, if any Chief Exec- utives have had a larger mandate in terms of ballots. But the President is too wise a poli- tical leader to attempt to move mountains suddenly. Mr. Johnson has retained a friendly and constructive relationship with Congress. Mi- nority opposition is there, but it has been generally more constructive than blindly obstructive. The President's program is moving ahead at a steady pace, and he has every right to look back on the 100 days with great satis- faction, insofar as domestic problems are concerned. The war in Vietnam has been his great- est headache, but at the same time exten- sion of that fight and the President's Balti- more speech has begun to change the world's image of him from something of an unknown quantity to one of a Chief Executive with stature, toughness and shrewdness. In short, even with those who disagree with him elsewhere in the world, President Johnson has won grMiginq respect. Approved For Release 2003/11/04 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00030019001S-2 Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2 A2676 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX May 26, 1965 No one can predict with any certainty what the next 100 days in office will bring for the President. It is safe to bet they will be filled with great activity and great events and that the world will have even a stronger picture of the President who is firmly in the saddle, and riding his men horse. [From the Nashville Tennessean, Apr. 30, 1965] PRESIDENT MOVES To BAR ANY CUBAN-LIKE TAKEOVER The dispatch of U.S. Marines into the Do- minican Republic was bound to have reper- cussions in Latin America and elsewhere, but President Johnson obviously felt that there was a, greater risk there than any critical reaction. The Marines went in to give protection to American citizens, but they were subse- quently fired on. and they fired back. Be- hind their presence may be the very strong fear that Castro Communists were interested in the Dominican uprising. President Johnson has made it plain enough that he doesn't intend to have an- other Cuba in the Caribbean, even If he must risk raising the old specter of U.S. im- perialism in Latin America. Reports from Washington indicate that the administration is concerned with ac- cumulating evidence that the Dominican re- volt has gone beyond the normal experience of such revolutions; that several cease-fires have been pledged and broken; and that peo- ple have been stood against the wall and exe- cuted to cries of "paredon," which means, "to the wall," and was a familiar noise of the Castro takeover in Cuba. The coup that was attempted nearly a week ago was net so much a matter of issues as an effort by the supporters of ex-Presi- dent Juan Bosch to restore him to power. The loyalist forces have claimed that Bosch is supported in his bid to regain power by the Communists. The pro-Bosch forces deny this. But it has become quite apparent that the Communists are looking for a chance to play a role from the sidelines. At first, the United States apparently de- cided to remain officially neutral. Its main efforts were to seek a cease-fire, and those ef- forts had appeared to be a success. But re- newed fighting broke out. At this point, President Johnson an- nounced that he would send in the Marines to protect American citizens. He said he acted after being informed by Dominican military authorities that the lives of these citizens were in danger. The presence of the Marines and U.S. war- ships off the Dominican Republic will have a large message to the hemisphere. Undoubt- edly it will disturb deeply a good many in Latin America. But it will leave no doubt that the Nation will act when the lives of American citizens are threatened. The Cost EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JIM WRIGHT Or e'Exse IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, May 26, 1965 Mr. WRIGHT. Mr. Speaker, taking note of President's Johnson's recent re- (luta far1700 million to finance Ameri- can efforts in Vietnam, the Dallas Morn- J46 Nevis pointed out that the defense of freedom is never cheap, either in lives or in dollars. In a May 6 editorial, the News goes ahead to spell out the indisputable logic behind the policies President Johnson is pursuing in that embattled southeast Asian nation. The editorial follows: THE COST President Johnson's request for $700 mil- lion to finance the free world effort in Viet- riahl was not the first bill to come due for that bloody conflict. It probably Will not be the last. Though we often seem to take it for granted, freedom does not come cheap. it must be Won, often at great sacrifice, and it must then be constantly defended against those who would destroy it. The eost, in lives and treasure, is unavoidable if we mean to be free. We learned long ago that we cannot buy our freedom in the counterfeit coin of ap- peasement. When we try to trade others' freedom to save our own, we pollute our honor along with our liberty. The loss of freedom by one people diminishes the free- dom of all people. That is why we have assumed the respon- sibility for helping those nations that are threatened by Communist enslavement. We did not ask for it. But we have it. We have it because no one else in the free world is strong enough to do the job. This does not mean that we Can defend the entire free world alone. Our power and resources are not infinite. But we can and must conceive every nation willing to defend its own independence from Communist im- perialists that we will come to its aid if it is attacked. Furthermore, we must show that we will keep the faith when the going is hard, when the war drags on or when fortune turns against us. Brave words and firm promises are not enough. They must be backed up by deeds. If we extend our support to an embattled nation, then withdraw it later because the task has become too burdensome, we will not be asked for help again. An ally that abandons its friends in the midst of a con- flict when its help is needed most, is worse than an enemy. The aim of the Communists in Vietnam encompasses much more than the conquest col the southern half of the country. Their goal is to show that the promise of the American Nation to stand firm with a free people is worthless, that communism is ir- resistible. They want to show every small or weak nation in the world that it is sui- cidal to fight in defense of its freedom and that an American commitment to that de- fense will dissolve into a betrayal when the American public tires of it. If we back out of Vietnam, the Commu- nists' point is made. Thousands of South Vietnamese soldiers and hundreds of Ameri- cans will have died for nothing. The de- struction and misery suffered by South Viet- nam will have been suffered for nothing. The Communists have told us that they intend to prove in South Vietnam that the inevitable result of a "liberation war" is a Communist triumph and that surrender is therefore the wisest course for any nation coveted by the Communists. The cost of proving them wrong is going to be heavy, but we must pay it, for it is the cost of freedom for ourselves and for our children. Two Constructive Statements EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PHILIP J. PHILBIN OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, May 25, 1965 Mr. PHILBIN. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent to revise and extend my remarks I include therein two very well written and timely editorials touch- ing upon the critical international situa- tion, one entitled, "The Other Vietnam Story" from a recent edition of the Bos- ton, Mass., Globe, and the other one en- titled, "No More Cubas" from a recent edition of the New Bedford, Mass., Standard-Times. These editorials make a real contribu- tion to the discussion of the grave Viet- nam and Santo Domingo problems?the first one calling for strength, calmness, and firmness, and the second pinpoint- ing the constructive, humane phases of current developme9,ts in Vietnam and 'the Far East. I think both of these writings are worthy of careful reading by Members of Congress and the American people. The articles follow: [From the Boston Globe, May 14, 19651 THE OTHER VIETNAM STORY An inconspicuous press dispatch from South Vietnam recently described the arrival of thousands of native men, women, and children at Saigon, and at a U.S. base area further north on that country's coast. They were terrorized fugitives from inland villages sacked by the Communist Vietcong, who had murdered their local chieftains. To this tragic human side of the current war, and to the hitherto little publicized story of the help our own nation has been giving the Vietnamese during the past decade, President Johnson addressed him- self in his speech Thursday. Seldom has a report so cogent been offered to the Ameri- can public at a more appropriate moment. Hitherto during this war the only drama- tization of our country's peaceful recon- structive efforts in South Vietnam was the President's disclosure a fortnight ago of his postwar billion-dollar assistance program. That scheme, as he noted yesterday, is al- ready moving ahead. But the main burden of President John- son's accounting Thursday was of work in progress, work begun long before present hostilities were unleashed by Hanoi, work that is continuing despite raid, battle, and terror. It is the story of the $2 billion in American aid which began in 1954 and con- tinues the modernization of Vietnamese ag- riculture, the building of schools, health centers, hospitals and industries, and the training of administrators. His report was a warm and well-deserved tribute to the courageous civilians, Americans and Viet- namese alike, who are carrying that work forward. [From the New Bedford (Mass.) Standard- Times, May 3, 19651 No MORE COMAS The President of the United States, in ordering U.S. fighting men into the frontlines of the Dominican Republic uprising "to help prevent another Communist state in the Western Hemisphere," deserves the fullest support of the American people. Mr. Johnson's evaluation of the Dominican situation is based upon constantly emerg- ing evidence that, whatever the revolution was when it began, other and sinister forces soon seized control of it. The former U.S. ambassador to Santo Domingo, John Bartlow Martin, commented that he was "convinced" the uprising had been completely taken over by Castro-dominated Communists. Mr. Martin said the insurgency had started as a "genuine revolution to restore exiled former President Juan D. Bosch to power," but added, "Bosch would be heartbroken to see the results now." It also is evident that the United States delayed its military intervention to the last possible minute when such action could have Approved For Release 2003/11/04: CIA-RDP67600446R000300190016-2