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January 17, 1966
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298 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE - January 17, 1966 who shun the battle make poor critics of "did all he could, he handled himself well." its loss. The Republican legislator said the strike re- sulted from "the failure of laws in State and [From the .New York Times, Jan. 17, 1966] Nation to deal with a situation of this kind." STRIKE Loss HERE PUT AT $1 BILION BY Governor Rockefeller has promised to ask BUSINESS UNIT-COMMERCE ASSOCIATION the legislature to provide $100 million in aid ASKS FOR A RAISE IN FARE TO PAY FOR TRAN- to New York City quickly to help it pay for SIT SETTLEMENT-MAYOR BACKED ON PACT- transit needs. JOIINSON'S CRITICISM TERMED UNFAIR BY However, legislation will be needed to give JAVITS-WIRTZ ASSAILED BY GILHOOLEY the city permission to transfer funds to the (By Emanuel Perlmutter) autonomous transit authority. Mr, Gil- ~ea y risa~cazu""ia that such legislation would be passed. estimated yesterday that the 12-day transit strike cost N Y k 1 billi ew or ers $ on and that WIDNALL AND CURTIS CHALLENGE ADMINISTRA- "less than 25 percent will be recovered." TION To ACT IN NEW YORK TRANSIT STRIKE: The association asked that the 15-cent settlement, which has been estimated as Two senior Republican Members of Con- costing between $62 and $70 million. gress, Representatives WILLIAM B. WIDNALL, The group also said it would ask Governor of New Jersey, and THOMAS B. CURTIS, of Mis- Rockefeller today to sponsor three tougher sours, challenged the Johnson administration measures to bar strikes by public employees. to go on record in favor of a noninflationary Ralph C. Gross, executive vice president wage settlement in the New York transit of the association, outlined the group's strike. They said the President's efforts to stand during the WCBS-TV "Newsmakers" date would be of no help to the harrassed program and in an interview afterward. millions the metropolitan area of New J//pp~r- JAVTTS DEFENIYS PACT sey, Connecticut, and New York. WroNALL, the ranking Republican on the House Bank- Meanwhile, two Republicans came to the ing and Currency Commitee and cosponsor defense of Mayor Lindsay in his controversy of the Mass Transportation Act of 1964, and with the Democratic national administra- CURTIS, the senior House' Republican on the tion over the strike settlement. Joint Economic Committee, who both repre- The agreement has been defended by Mr. sent urban areas, said that the outcome of Lindsay. But President Johnson and Labor this strike could break the Johnson adminis- Secretary W. Willard Wirtz have criticized it tration's own wage-price guidelines, and for being in excess of the 3.2 percent wage- would have repercussions in Greater St: Louis increase guideline that the Federal ad- and other metropolitan areas throughout the ministration deemed necessary to prevent country where transportation is a problem. inflation. They called for congressional observers at Senator JAcoB K. JAvITS, of New York, just the collective bargaining table to speed set- back from a 6-day day trip to South Vietnam, tlement, to check on the usefulness of the said that.the President's criticism "wasn't wage-price guidelines, and to seek possible fair." He made this comment after an ap- legislative solutions to future collective-bar- pearance on the WABC-TV "Page One" gaining problems. program. The text of their statement follows: John J. Gilhooley, the only Republican on "The announcement by President Johnson the three-man transit authority, restricted that, as a result of the New York transit his criticism to Secretary Wirtz. strike, he has urged Federal agencies to help "I must say, as far as I'm concerned, it relieve the suffering involved is nothing but was not the bravest act of Mr. Wirtz's ca- a consolation prize for the harrassed millions reer to shoot our young mayor in the back of Americans in the New York-New Jersey- after he'd made the difficult decision to Connecticut metropolitan area. In the first raise New York from it knees," Mr. Gi1- place, the programs he suggests using, the hooley said on the WNBC-TV "Searchlight" poverty program's small business loans, the program. regular small business loan and disaster loan In discussing the Commerce and Industry program, home mortgages, and depressed Association's legislative request, Mr. Gross areas legislation have the end result of only said the group would ask for three measures postponing or increasing an individual's to amend or replace the Condon-Wadlin law, debts. In the case of the small business loan which he said had proved ineffective in program, it is so short of funds, and in such barring strikes by public employees. a state of chaos itself, despite a year's effort "We will ask for laws penalizing the leaders on our part to correct this situation, that it of a public union who call a strike, penalties is doubtful if it can be of any immediate against them if they threaten one and esca- significant assistance. More importantly, lating fines against the union treasury if a however, the President's announcement com- strike takes place," Mr. Gross said. pletely ignores the basic problem which is to The Condon-Wadlin law imposes job end an illegal strike by a union which has penalities against striking employees, but been demanding an excessive wage increase none against their union or its leaders. The of 15 percent which would make a mockery leaders and union may however, be punished of the President's own 3.2-percent wage-price for violating court orders based on the law, guidelines. On the question of the strike losses, Mr. "The same Johnson administration that Gross said the major costs were in wages made front page headlines by denouncing at- paid to workers who could not come in to tempts by business to raise prices is strangely work, to employees who received no pay be- and mysteriously silent when it comes to ex- cause they did not work and to the hundreds cessive demands by labor. Apparently the of small retail establishments that lost pur- guidelines are important, depending upon chases that would not be made later. who they are supposed to guide. National He estimated that more than 185 million labor leaders, who are so fond of lecturing man-hours of employment -had been lost. Congress on excessive business profits, on Mr. Gross said after the television program mass transportation needs, on the problems that the association believed that a fare in- of the workingman and the poor have not crease was necessary to pay for the new been heard from either. Yet here is a strike transit contract. that materially hurts millions of other work- "I personally believe it should be 25 cents, ers, that breaks the wage-price guidelines, and that an increase to 20 cents would only that punishes the public, that is particularly meet the transit deficit for about 2 years," hard on the low-income citizen who more he added. than anyone else depends upon public trans- Senator'JAVITS, in defending the size of the portation, and that is illegal to boot. We strike settlement, said that Mayor Lindsay would challenge these labor leaders to use their influence to assist in obtaining a prompt, noninflationary settlement and a re- turn to a rule of law and not of men. "U.S. Labor Secretary Willard Wirtz has Indicated to the press that there are few legal tools the President can use to push a responsible settlement. We agree that Con- gress has provided little authority for the President to act to control wages and prices, but that didn't bother the administration any when it used stockpile metal to roll back aluminum prices and threatened the shifting of defense contracts to force the so-called steel price compromise. Secretary Wirtz is obviously trying to set up the public to buy the idea that President Johnson's personal action will have generated a strike settlement even though it involves a wage contract in excess of the administration's own guide- posts. Such a settlement would aversely affect millions of Americans in the New York, New Jersey, Connecticut metropolitan area who rely on adequate and inexpensive public transportation. If this can happen in New York, it can happen in greater St. Louis or any metropolitan area in the Nation. "We believe the President, Secretary Wirtz, and the Council of Economic Advisers, headed by Chairman Gardner Ackley, have a responsibility to go on record immediately In favor of holding the line on inflation in the greater New York transit dispute, acting with the same vigor previously reserved only for the Nation's business community. In addition, we suggest that bipartisan congres- sional observers from the appropriate com- mittees be invited to the negotiation sessions to see the wage-price guidelines in action and to learn what may need to be done in the way of legislation to break such impasses in the collective bargaining process. The congressional group could include, for ex- ample, members from committees involved in labor and transportation matters, as well as from the Joint Economic Committee. The mere presence of Members of Congress, should hasten a responsible settlement, which is what harassed greater New York metropolitan area residents want most of all. ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN AS- SISTANCE PROGRAM-MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES The SPEAKER laid before the House the following message from the Presi- dent of the United States which was read and, together with the accompanying pa- pers, referred to the Committee on For- eign Affairs and ordered to be printed with illustrations. To the Congress of the United States: The annual report on the foreign as- sistance program of the United States for fiscal year 1965, which I here trans- mit, shows what Americans have done during the past 12 months to help other people help themselves. The record of these months offers new testimony to our continuing conviction that our own peace and prosperity here at home depend on continued progress toward a better life for people every- where. In pursuit of that goal, we have, dur- ing this past year, placed new emphasis on the basic problem of securing more food for the world's population. We have agreed to extend technical assistance to countries asking for help on population programs. At the same time, our overseas missions have been directed to give priorities to projects for achiev- Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE was not successful then, and have little reason to believe that I will be any more :successful today, but I hope that those who share my views that we should strive for accuracy, integrity, and econ- omy, and who are opposed to fraud and deception, will understand that these 'emarks are intended to be constructive, and will lend their cooperation in re- I,uring accuracy and sanity to the VLErNAM COSTS VERSUS `PIC PROGRAMS (Mr. CEDERI3ERG asked and was ,iven permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. CEDER1BERG. Mr. Speaker, ]:'resident Johnson indicated in his state oi' the Union message that the war in Vietnam is no reason to hold the line on spending for domestic programs. He inferred that those of us who have a concern about increased spending at this time for domestic programs that can be deferred are calloused in our concern for human need:;. The Defense Department for years has indicated to Congress the continuing need for military family housing. De- fense Department testimony before our Military Construction Appropriation Subcommittee indicates we have several thousand military families living in sub- ;;Landard housing, some in deplorable condition. In spite of these facts the Defense Dc- partment deferred construction of the 2,500 military family houses approved by this Congress last year. Obviously this was done because of our increasing re- quirements for expenditures in South Vietnam. The policy appears to be guns and whipping cream for the civilian economy but only guns with a little skimmed milk for our military families. Why this obvious discrimination, Mr. 1'resident? If pressing housing needs for military families can be deferred, is it unreason- able to expect similar restraint be re- quired of the rest of our economy? NEW YORK'S TRANSI'T CRISIS: THE COSTLY POLITICS OF L.B.J. i Mr. WIDNAIL asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and revise and extend his re- :llarks. ) Mr. W[DNAI.,L. Mr. Speaker, this ralorning's papers carry an estimate by Uhe Commerce and industry Association of New York City that the recent illegal transit strike in that metropolitan area cost $1 billion, and less than 25 percent of that will never be recovered. The ma- jority of this cost fell upon those busi- nesses who had to pay for work never performed since their employees could riot get to work and those employees who lost wages during the 12-day period be- cause they could not get to work, plus i,lie hundreds of small retail establish- ments. In all cases, the greatest burden will have fallen on those least able to afford it; the low-income worker and the defiance of law and court order President small businessman. Johnson had not a word of condemnation Nor does this take into account the for the union leaders responsible for the exercise in economic blackmail of a city. future cost as a result of the strike set- Now that the siege has been lifted with a tlement, a settlement that the New York costly settlement, M:r. Johnson suddenly finds 'l'imes has correctly called "a compromise his voice, and censures New York for pay- accommodation made under duress" on ing too high a price for its freedom. the part of city officials. Someone is ??o- The President is quite right in stating ing to have to pay for the settlement, and it will either have to come out of the fare box, in which case it will be paid for by those who have suffered the most from the strike already, or through some kind of public subsidy. The latter, if it occurs, 'k,;ill probably be shared by the taxpay;sl's of the city, State, and Nation. It is an unfortunate fact that the President of the United States, after making no effort to prevent the damage, has broadened its impact by his after- the-fact lament condemning the final settlement. It will be recalled that at no time during the 12-day strike was there a word from the President, Secre- tary of Labor Willard Wirtz, or the Chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, Gardner Ackley, con- dertming the wage demands of the tran- sit union as out of line with the tration's own wage-price guidelines as has so firmly been done with price in- crease proposals on the part of busini,ss. At no time did any Johnson administ.rra- tion. figure speak out against the union defiance of the laws and the courts of the State of New York. Then, in what the New York Times has described a.s a "blatantly political" comment, the Pr+ si- dent took the city of New York to tusk without one word about the cause o it all. Ti; may be possible to access the dem- age this strike caused to the people of New York and the surrounding metro- politan area, and to estimate the future costs of the settlement. The damag:-, to the judicial and moral structure of the Nation's largest city and second lar;est State, and the injury to the image, pres- tige, and effectiveness of the Presidency as an unbiased umpire in the economic arena, however, are incalculat,le. I hesi- tate to even mention the possible impact on the national interest should the New York transit strike be used as an ex;a.m- ole and as a signal for similar crisis in other parts of the country,. I include at this point an editorial from the New York Times of January 15, 1966, an editorial from the New York Herald Tribune of January 15, 1966, and an article from the New York Time ; of January 1.7, 1966.. I would also like to call attention to the press release that follows these :newspaper articles which contains the joint statement by Con- gressman THOMAS B. CURTIS. Of Missouri, and myself, calling on the President to take a firm position on the demands and that the peace terms breach his anti-inflation guidelines. As we observed in these columns yesterday, none of the adroit arguments :.d- vanced in support of the pact by Dr. Nathan P. Feinsinger, chairman of Mayor Lindsay's special mediation board, could make it tit inside even an elastic interpretation of the guidelines. It was a compromise accommoda- tion made under duress; and only the mayor's resolve not to "capitulate before the lawless demands of a single power group" prevented outright surrender. If Mr. Johnson had seriously wanted to act against an inflationary settlement, he had ample opportunity to do so. On any one of the 12 days he could have denounced the strike as a threat to the national inter- est-which the Chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, Gardner Ack- ley, now acknowledges it was-and he could have supported Mr. Lindsay in the mayor's unheeded call for arbitration, factfinding, or a retroactive contract extension. But the President did not choose to do so. Such help from Mr. Johnson would have been doubly meaningful in the light of at- tempts by some elements in the old-time Democratic-labor cabal in this city to ex- ploit the strike as an instrument for humili- ating the new Republican-fusion mayor, thus hoping to kill his future political career. Now that Mr. Lindsay and the city have survived the strike, the President contrib- utes his meed toward discrediting the settle- ment. The blatantly political character of his comment is underscored by the con- tinued absence of any direct criticism of the Transport Workers Union for its coercion of the community. He declares himself "quite disturbed that essential services could be paralyzed for so long"; but there is not a hint of who is to blame. Not a word about flouting the law and the courts, not a syllable about the damage to the moral and judicial structure of this, the largest city in the United States. The President's remarks provide a dis- couraging setting for the recommendations he has promised to send to Congress to pro- tect the public interest against such strikes. Reports from Washington indicate that his state of the Union pledge of tighter strike curbs was toned down before delivery in re- sponse to objections voiced by George Meany. If even the promise must be diluted before it gets to Capitol Hill, what real hope is there in this administration for effective protection for the public against public- service strikes? [From the New York Herald Tribune, Jan 15, 19661 A BIT LATE, MR. PRESIDENT New York's transit strike was barely ended when President Johnson pronounced his anathema: "Candor requires me to say that I am quite disturbed that essential services could be paralyzed for so long, and I am actions of the union, which is dated equally concerned by the cost of the settle- January 9, 1966, several days before the ment (which) violates our national guide- settlement. posts for noninflationary wage increases. li th t ttl m' t that n n se e I d t b The articles and release follow: [ From the New York Times, .pan. 15, e y e eve a a o no violates the guideposts to this extent is in 9661 the national interest." POLITICS, THE L.B.S. WAY We agree. But that bit of Presidential Through all the 12 days that New York candor would have come with better grace was crippled by a transit strike called in and more effect a few days earlier. Soldiers Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 326 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE By Mr. ROBERTSON, from the Committee on Banking and Currency, without amend- ment: S. Res. 173. Resolution authorizing the Committee on Banking and Currency to make certain investigations, and to provide additional funds therefor (Rept. No. 941) ; referred to the Committee on Rules and Ad- ministration. By Mr. SPARKMAN, from the Committee on Banking and Currency, without amend- ment: S. Res. 172. Resolution to provide addi- tional funds for the Committee on Banking and Currency (Rept. No. 940); referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. REPORT OF ACTIVITIES OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON DEFENSE PRODUCTION-REPORT OF A COM- MITTEE (REPT. NO. 942) Mr. ROBERTSON. Mr. President, I submit the 15th annual report of the ac- tivities of the Joint Committee on De- fense Production, with material on mo- bilization from departments and agen- cies, and ask that it may be printed. I ask unanimous consent that a release, prepared by me, relating to the report, may be printed in the RECORD. The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The report will be received and printed; and, without objection, the release will be printed in the RECORD. The release is as follows: STATEMENT BY SENATOR A. WILLIS ROBERTSON,' DEMOCRAT, OF VIRGINIA, ON ANNUAL REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON DEFENSE PRO- DUCTION Senator A. WILLIS ROBERTSON, Democrat, of Virginia, chairman of the Joint Committee on Defense Production, in releasing the com- mittee's 15th annual report, called attention to the fact that the report discloses increas- ing use of priority assistance for critical ma- terials and military items, upward pressures on prices, and increasing demands similiar to those which led to the necessity for price con- trols, industrywide allocatio s of material and products, and other emergency measures of a wartime nature dutrng World War II and Korea. Adequate fiscal and monetary policies are necessary, Senator ROBERTSON stressed, in or- der to reduce the danger that such direct controls may have to be imposed. The Joint Committee on Defense Produc- tion has the responsibility for reviewing pro- grams under the Defense Production Act, which provides the authority currently being used to insure timely production for the Vietnam conflict. It was under the Defense Production Act that American productive capacity of critical materials and products was greatly increased during the Korean war and that the economy was regulated through price controls and allocations. in releasing the report, Chairman ROBERT- SON stated: "The report indicates that the economy is beginning to show the impact of the Vietnam buildup and that in areas of heavy defense production the already short supply of manpower may get serious. Some short- ages of capacity have developed and other industries are operating at or near capacity." The authority for priorities and alloca- tions of materials provided in the Defense Production Act has become increasingly im- portant to insuring the delivery of weapons to Vietnam. The report states: "As the Vietnam situation became in- tensified and our commitments became heavier, the use of priority ratings has be- come absolutely vital to delivery of end items." Senator ROBERTSON pointed out that recent increases in the price of materials have al- most wiped out the book loss of over $1.2 billion in Government inventories, of criti- cal materials which has been widely pub- licized in the recent past. These book losses resulted from declines in market prices of materials from the high prices paid for Such materials during the Korean war. Senator ROBERTSON stated: "The elimination of $1.2 billion in book losses during a 2-year period provides ad- ditional evidence that inflation is with us. The materials markets cannot be separated from the remainder of the economy. As the cost of inflation passes on to the pro- ducers of materials, the resulting price in- creases will be reflected in every segment of the economy. Materials are required to build and to operate the assembly lines that supply the needs of both the military and the civilian economy." With regard to the effect of these price in- creases, Senator ROBERTSON said: "While the United ct?tar January 17, 1966 By Mrs. NEUBERGER (for herself and Mr. MORSE) : 5.2773. A bill to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to construct, operate, and maintain the Olalla division of the Umpqua project, Oregon, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Br. Mr. THURMOND (for himself and Mr. RUSSELL of South Carrolina) : S. 2774. A bill to grant the consent of Con- gress for the construction of a dam across the Savannah River between,South Carolina and Georgia; to the Committee on Public Works. (See the remarks of Mr. THURMOND when he introduced the above bill, which appear under a separate heading.) By Mr. MCCARTHY: S. 2775. A bill to provide for payment of survivor annuities to the widows of certain former Members of Congress; to the Commit- tee on Post Office and Civil Service. By Mr. JAVITS (for himself, Mr. KEN- losses or make substantial profits onv its NEDY or New York, and Mr. MORSE) : p S. 2776. A bill to amend the Social Secu- inventory of materials during this inflation- rity Amendments of 1965 so as to eliminate ary period, the buying public will not have a therefrom certain provisions which deny hos- similar offset against inflation." pital insurance benefits to certain individuals Much of the national stockpile was ac- otherwise eligible therefor because of their quired through purchases of materials from membership in certain subversive organiza- expanded production authorized in the De- tions or their prior conviction of crimes in- fense Product Act. Senator ROBERTSON fur- volving subversive activities; to the Com- ther stated: mittee on Finance. "The emergency needs of the Vietnam war (See the remarks of Mr. JAVrrs when he in- again demonstrate the necessity for main- troduced the above bill, which appear under taining adequate quantities of essential ma- a separate heading.) terials to meet any emergency and the need for carrying out long range programs for the By Mr. LONG of Midsthei: S. 2777. A bill amend the Social Secu- sale of surplus materials, while giving due rity Act Act to eliminate the provisions which ich consideration to market conditions, in order deny social security and hospital insurance that the right materials will be available in benefits to uninsured individuals who are the right quantities at the right time, employees or members of certain organiza- "Unneeded materials, such as excesses pur- tions? to the Committee on Finance. chased under Public Law 206 contrary to the (See the remarks of Mr. LONG of Missouri views of this committee for non-defense pur- when he introduced the above bill, which poses, do not help us solve the copper appear under a separate heading.) shortage." Mr. MONTOYA (for himself, Mr. In further commenting on emergency MANSFIELD, Mr. McGEE, Mr. EAST- needs for materials, Senator ROBERTSON Bald: LAND, Mr. ANDERSON, Mr. BIBLE, Mr. "I favor an up-to-date review of the emer- NELSON, Mr. LONG of Missouri, Mr. gency needs for each stre,tegic and critical MMr. oss, Mr. TYRE, Mr. T, Mr. Mr. r. C LARK, LARK, R Mr, material, with due regard to our depend- SCOTT, end- SCuth, Mr. CHURCH, , Mr. R. ence on foreign Mr. Of RUSSELL gn sources, population changes, South Carolina, Mr. , MCCLELLAN, production methods, total commitments, and related factors. Such study should give con- S. and Mr. FULBRIGHT) to amend t ; sideration to expediting requirements figures financial 2778. A ill ltmend oca act uca ional from the military services and improving cs fo oassistance to local chudaeioal the methods for translating weapons re- low-income for the families in education order children of order to provide quirements into materials requirements financial assistance for the education of or- promptly and without delay." phone and th EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF A COM- MITTEE As in executive session, The following favorable reports of nominations were submitted: By Mr. ROBERTSON, from the Committee on Banking and Currency: Robert C. Weaver, of New,York, to be Sec- retary of Housing and Urban Development; and Robert C. Wood, of Massachusetts, to be Under Secretary of Housing and Urban De- velopment. BILLS INTRODUCED Bills were introduced, read the first time, and, by unanimous consent, the second time, and referred as follows: By Mr. LAUSCHE: S. 2771. A bill for the relief of Hazel Louise Schuman Strunk; and S. 2772. A bill for the relief of Bozica Puc- nik; to the Committee on the Judiciary. o er children lacking parental support; to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. (See the remarks of Mr. MONTOYA when he introduced the above bill, which appear un- der a separate heading.) By Mr. PEARSON: S. 2779. A bill for the relief of Maria Lourdes Sunga Garcia; to the Committee on the Judiciary. (See the remarks of Mr. PEARSON when he introduced the above bill. which Appear un- By Mr. LONG of Louisiana: S. 2780. A bill to amend the internal Rev- enue Code of 1954 to provide an optional simplified tax method, and for other pur- poses; to the Committee on Finance. (See the remarks of Mr. LONG of Louisiana when he introduced the above bill, which appear under a separate heading.) By Mr. MORSE (for himself and Mrs. NEUBERGER) : S. 2781. A bill to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to construct, operate, and maintain the Monmouth-Dallas division, Willamette River project, Oregon, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Inte- rior and Insular Affairs. Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE political persuasions, but said they all spoke Cambodian. They had been discharged or transferred to Phnom Penh by the time of my visit. MoNDULKIRI VISITED On the morning of December 16, aboard a vintage Cambodian Army DC-3, I new east to Senmonorum, the capital of Mondulkiri province. I was accompanied by Ches San, a former Cambodian diplomat now serving at Secretary of State for Information. Bordering the Vietnamese provinces of l?arlac and Quaaxgduc, Mondulkiri was creat- ed only 5 years ago in an effort to populate and fortify Ca:nibodia's eastern frontier re- gion in line with the historic fear of Vietna- mese intrusion. None of Cambodia's 400,- 000 Vietnamese residents is permitted to re- supposed to ply highways.. It is here that the Mekong River, the region's roads and east-west rather than north- n s waterways ru North Vietnam's elusive 325th Division al-legedly has its headquarters, and it is here south. When the Vietminh invaded Cam- that its troops are reported to retreat to rest bodice in 1954, they came down the Mekong Flying at about 100 feet, we cruised over Highway 19, barren except for a few bicycles. Along the way we observed Bo Kheo, de- scribed in some press reports as a key Com- Inunist post. It is a sprawling village whose alleged "radio antennae" are primitive bam- boo and rope contraptions used in its local z:;rcon miines. At Oyadao Highway 19 ends abruptly at it river whose bridge was destroyed i ver a decade ago in the Indochina war. Here we found some 400 Vietnamese refugee; who fled into Cambodia last August. In the opin- ion of Chea San, the Cambodian officia with aide in the area. :Die, however, these miserable peasants were it is an uninviting region of rolling, tree- potential aggressors who had no business less hills, so poor that it. must import rice. i,7 his country. Apart from primitive tribes, its population i:; composed of only 1,000 famines, half Of them dependen is of it local battalion, hall of them "pioneers." Its military governor, Maj. Khieu Boun, is it former French Army sergeant who fought against the Vietminh when it unsuccessfully attempted to invade da,mbodia in March 1954. Dec. 31, 19651 CAMBODIA SEEMS LIKELIER VII TCONG ARENA (By Stanley Karnow) FEW SIGNS ON` LIFE This area has been considered a southern- most extension of the "Ho Chi Minh trail." Ills leathery lace wrinkling into an ironic smile, Bou.: scoffed at the allegation: "If we are so poor ourselves, how could we nourish the Vietcong?" I suggested a closer look at the neighbor- hood, and we climbed into Boun's Land- rover, heading southeast over what maps generously call National Highway 14. Ac- tually it is it narrow dirt road that parallels the Vietnam border as it winds through bar- ren hills. The only sign of life we saw in 2 hours was a ti uckdriver changing a tire on his gravel truck. We passed a scarred hillside where 2 years ago, a 0.:3. transport airplane crashed, killing its eight crewmen. Though American sources believe the aircraft suffered from mechanical failure, Boun proudly explained that his men had brought down the intruder with submachinegun fire. Finally we reached Camp Le Rolland, a former french outpost sometimes cited as a Vietcong base. I had expected a romantic fort in Beau Geste style. Instead I found a bleak square o: earthworks garrisoned by a handful of sixabby Cambodian provincial guards. (' con the camp I could look into Viet- nam, observing through binoculars an Amer- ican special force outpost at Buprang 4 miles away. The bucolic scene seemed as peace- ful as a Sunday in New England. Did traffic piss into Vietnam? We pushed on along Highway 14. Within 50 yards it dwindled into a weedy path. Within a mile it stopped at a wall of jungle. It was near there that, by chance, we met a typical Cambodian frontier patrol-four barefoot tribesmen with filed teeth and dis- tended earlobes, three of them carrying an- cient French or British rifles. They could not recall seeing Vietnamese in the area. lint then, one of them volunteered, he would not recognize a Vietnamese if he saw one. Familiar as they are with the countryside, such tribesmen seem a woefully inadequate force. Moreover, Cambodia's entire military strength in its eastern border area is fewer than four battalions, most of them working HONG KONG, December 30.-Camiodia's southern border with Vietnam would seem a more propitious sector for minor V:.acong activities than its impoverished eastern, fron- tier, where my trip by helicopter and plane turned up no solid evidence that the Viet- cong have established a "hard base" there. From my 2-day tour of the southern zone I could not determine whether the Vietcong used it as extensively as they did some years ago. In September 1961, for examp'e, the Cambodian Army discovered 500 guerrillas camped in Svay Rieng Province, driving; them back into Vietnam after a 2-hour battle. I could deduce, however, that this stretch of the border is far leakier than Cam oodian officials would publicly acknowledge---al- though one official privately admitted, "What we don't see, we don't know." AS LOW AS 100 FEET Before examining the southeastern border :f completed my tour of the northeast; fron- ',ier, helicoptering over many areas ut alti- tudes as low as 100 feet. I noted that an apparently uninhabited plateau of jungle interspersed with r wimps extends far into Vietnamese territory before tt reaches the Annamite Mountains, This contradicts some press accounts that describe the Vietcong "disappearing over the moun- tains into Cambodia." At Lo:m Kern, a lonely Outpost 3 miles in- side the border, a young Cambodia: i lieu- tenant said he had never seen Viet, ong or Vietnamese Government troops cross the frontier.. "I am not saying they not here," he added carefully. "I have Jut never met them." TRIBESMEN CONCUR Tribesmen who patrol the region con- curred. As to local natives giving rice to Vietnamese, they said, "We cannot feed out- siders.. We are short of food ourselves." We then wound down the serpentine Iad- rang Valley, and saw nothing stir except a frightened deer. We touched down at Voeune Sall, another alleged Vietcong camp, and found a sleepy riverside settlement pre- occupied with its experiments to Improve rice production. That the Vietcong may slip In and out of the eastern border region, I cannot doubt. oil farms, roads and rubber plantations. But unless they have miraculous means for After spending the night at Lomphat, the getting food, I find it hard to imagine that xu.osquito-infested capital of Rattanakiri the sector could constitute what guerrillas province" we set out by helicopter to cover call a "'hard base." the more sensitive northeastern frontier ector. RIVERS DESERTED abundant in rice and other food. On the Cambodian side it is largely populated by Vietnamese who, denied Cambodian citizen- ship even by birth, are politically unreliable. It is also a region in which smuggling con- tinues, much like the free trade of French colonial days. Legal commerce between Cambodia and South Vietnam has been severely curtailed since the two countries broke diplomatic relations. Truck traffic has ceased between Phnom Penh and Saigon, and even a sec- ondary road from Phnom Den over the border the Apannong has been blocked. Cariibo- dian river barges cannot enter Vietnam, and Vietnamese barges are barred from Cam- bodia. Nevertheless, Vietnamese goods are widely available, especially in border areas. SHOPS OVERFLOWING At the village of Phnom Den, for instance, I found local shops overflowing with plastic toys, soap, shirts, and kitchen utensils, all made in Saigon. Everywhere in Cambodia I encountered Saigon beer, which Cambo- dians prefer to the heavy brews imported from Eastern Europe. Some of this merchandise enters Cambodia through frontier barter markets tolerated by both governments. But most of it ap- pears to be handled by well organized Chi- nese and Vietnamese smugglers. And it seems plausible that, for strictly commercial motives, they sell rice, chemicals and other products to the Vietcong. - After all, even Cambodia's Prime Minister, Prince Norodom Kantol, told me that he would sell rice to the Vietcong-if they paid a top price in hard currency. Though road'; and waterways are officially closed, merchandise may cross the border aboard nocturnal sampans or on coolie's backs. When Chief of State Norodom Si- hanouk gave 9:0 cases of medicine to the Vietcong last September, there was no doubt they would find their way into Vietnam. In a similar manner, Vietcong agents tra- verse the frontier. - At Bavet, a border post in Svay Rieng pro- vince, I asked the local governor where the frontier might be crossed illegally. Such crossings, he replied, were "formally prohib- ited." He declined to clarify, however. how the Australian Communist writer, Wilfred Burchett and various Vietcong representa- tives travel back and forth to Vietnam. He also refused to point out where two American prisoners, released by the Vietcong in Cam- bodia last month, were taken across the bor- der. A RING OF TRUTH With all this, there is a ring of truth to the tales of wounded Vietcong seeking ref- uge over the border, or Vietcong agents entering Cambodia to recruit skilled. Viet- namese workers. In a broader sense, however, it remains to be judged whether these details, deductions and suppositions add up to a significant in- dictment of Cambodia. Moreover, the Cam- bodians must apparently produce evidence of their innocence while their accusers have yet to offer firm evidence of Cambodian guilt. Thus the possible extension of the Viet- nam war into Cambodia, while serious, seems bewildering-and dangerous. It is here that the Vietcong is said to be That the area serves as a significant flying its flags brazenly over training camps. Communist supply route seems to me un- The following It is here that Communist supply trucks are likely. Its rivers were deserted. Except for were submitted: reports of committees Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 17, 1966 stopping in Saigon for a briefing on the sus- picious areas to note inside Cambodia. Accompanied by a Cambodian official, but free to choose my itinerary-or improvise it en route-I covered much of the Vietnam border, often landing along the way in re- mote outposts. In addition, I spent a day in Sihanoukville. Proving this negative charge of border vio- lations is difficult, particularly where un- marked frontiers stretch for miles under a canopy of vegetation. It would take thou- sands of men several years to examine every foot of the Cambodian border area adjacent to Vietnam. IMPLAUSIBLE ACCUSATIONS However, it was possible to measure cer- tain charges against firsthand observations- and in every case the accusations turned out to be implausible. The charge made by Thailand's Foreign Minister Thanat Khoman last September, that 27,000 Chinese were learning guerrilla tactics at Sihanoukville, seemed to lack any shred of credibility. Nor does Sihanouk- Ville, which abounds with Western shipping agents, appear a satisfactory landing place for Vietcong weapons when compared to the coasts of Vietnam itself. The charge that Cambodia's roads and rivers are used as Vietcong supply routes ap- pears equally unlikely. Highway 19, which once ran into Vietnam's highlands, now ends abruptly at a river whose bridge was de- stroyed a decade ago. Highway 14, in south- east Cambodia, fades into jungle 2 miles from the Vietnam border. NO RED CAMPS FOUND Another charge published is that Vietcong training camps, with Vietcong flags flying, dot the Cambodian countryside. But a cruise around the region at an altitude of 100 feet revealed no such camps. There was a charge that the hospital at Kampot, not far from Sihanoukville, is used by the Viet- cong. Within the past 2 months, about 20 Cambodian refugees from Vietnam have been brought into the hospital, suffering from gunshot wounds. Many of the border villages within Cam- bodia have markets stocked with Viet- namese merchandise, from plastic toys and soap to cigarettes and pans. This suggests a lively smuggling trade between the two countries. Some 300,000 Chinese and 400,000 Viet- namese reside in Cambodia, and some of these are known to profit handsomely from smuggling. Furthermore, it is difficult to believe the official Cambodian assertion that Vietcong operatives do not cross into Cambodia to tax local Vietnamese residents or recruit them. After all, the Vietcong official, Tran Bun Kien, turns up in Phnom Penh occasionally while the Australian Communist journalist Wilfred Burchette, who resides in Phnom Penh, frequently crosses the border to inter- view Vietcong leaders in Vietnam's Tay- ninh Province. DIFFICULT SANCTUARY Beyond these details, however, the key question is whether Cambodia is a signifi- cant sanctuary for the Vietcong. In the judgment of Western analysts here, northeast Cambodia, supposedly the strong- est base region for the Vietco)g and North Vietnamese, is deficient in rice, supporting its own scarce population with great diffi- culty. Moreover, it would seem very much against Communist guerrilla strategy to build a "hard base" in an uncontrolled foreign land governed by a chief of state whose political sentiments are variable. And finally, it is doubtful that the Cam- bodians, who passionately hate Vietnamese of any ideology, would -knowingly make their country vulnerable to American attack for the sake of sheltering a traditional enemy. [From the Washington Post, Dec. 30, 19661 PROVING NEUTRALITY Is TASK-WAR FEARS TERRIFY CAMBODIA As LEADER STRUGGLES FOR PEACE (By Stanley Karnow) HONG KONG, December 29.-The Vietnam conflict, already extended into North Viet. nam and southern Laos, now appears to be approaching the edge of further expansion- into adjacent Cambodia. The prospects terrifies Cambodians. They foresee their peaceful land transformed, like Vietnam, into a frightful battlefield. But to avoid that catastrophe, their chief of state, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, may have to per- form something like a legal miracle. Beyond press dispatches, no official evi- dence has been advanced to substantiate charges that Cambodia serves as a sanctuary for Vietnam's Communist troops. Neverthe- less, Sihanouk is under pressure to prove that his country does not willfully or even inad- vertently aid the Communists. If he fails, Cambodia could suffer the consequences. Against such odds, Sihanouk has been des- perately trying to demonstrate his innocence. INVESTIGATIONS INVITED Early this month he invited the Indian, Canadian and Polish delegates of the Inter- national Control Commission, created by the 1954 Geneva accords, to inspect Cambodia thoroughly. At the same time, Sihanouk asked the Washington Post to pursue a parallel Investi- gation. The Post said it was not equipped to investigate such a complex problem but wel- comed an opportunity for a trained reporter to see for himself. As the Post's correspond- ent for southeast Asia, I was selected for the assignment. From the start I realized that it would be a delicate and unenviable task-if only be- cause the whole issue of alleged Communist sanctuaries In Cambodia has become pollt- tically loaded. COMMENTS HEIGHTEN TENSION For one thing, Sihanouk has prejudiced himself by heightening tensions with his provocative rhetoric. He extols Red China, proclaims his sympathy for the Vietcong, likens President Johnson to Hitler, and then expects frustrated American commanders in Vietnam to believe he Is "100 percent neu- tral." The issue has been further complicated by divergent attitudes within the U.S. mission in Saigon. Many diplomats, wary of the po- litical implications of an enlarged war, are restrained in their charges against Cambodia. Thus far their views seem to have prevailed over those of their most daring military colleagues. The region's historic rivalries also con- fuse and aggravate the situation. Viet- namese and That accusations against Cam- bodia, their traditional enemy, are often as fantastic as Cambodia's countercharges. Added to these abstract complexities is the physical terrain I was invited to examine. DIFFICULT BORDER REGION The Cambodia-Vietnam border region comprises thousands of miles of highland jungle, lowland swamp, lofty mountains and rolling hills, much of it sparsely inhabited by primitive tribes that barely speak Cam- bodian. Obviously I could not poke into every thatched hut in each forest clearing. I could not be sure that frontier guards, cus- toms officers, provincial officials and others would speak the truth. I was not even cer- tain that my interpreter would translate my questions faithfully. Yet I had, from the Cambodian Govern- ment, striking evidence of cooperation-an Alouette helicopter, tireless pilot, and total freedom to travel when and where I wished. Thug I .was clearly not the victim of a gigantic conspiracy contrived to mislead me. In Saigon, where I stopped before going to Cambodia, military and civilian officials seemed far less dogmatic in their charges against Cambodia than many press reports bearing Saigon datelines. SUSPICION OF ARSENALS These officials suggested that the arsenal of 7.62 millimeter Chinese Communist weap- ons now used by the Vietcong may have been introduced from Cambodia into South Vietnam about 2 years ago and hidden in caches until recently. Indicated that stocks of Vietcong explosives, lately uncovered in South Vietnam's delta, might have been manufactured from nitrates and other chemicals transported down the Mekong River from Cambodia. Beyond these details, offered with some reservation, Saigon sources appeared unable, or perhaps unwilling, to extend firmer in- telligence on Vietcong activities in Cambodia. The morning of my arrival in Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital, Sihanouk had pub- licly invited the ICC to keep permanent in- spection teams at the port of Sihanoukville and control weapons shipments to Cambodian army barracks, headquarters and supply cen- ters. Western diplomats in Phnom Penh con- sidered Sihanouk's offer a welcome gesture of good faith, but whether the ICC was equipped for the job aroused some doubt. The Commission's dozen officials in Cam- bodia cannot conceivably keep watch on 30,- 000 Cambodian troops, much less control the country's borders. To expand the ICC effec- tively would require years of financial nego- tiations and organization. But by the time I reached Sihanoukville, 145 miles south of Phnom Penh, three ICC colonels had manfully begun to inspect cargo manifests. The Canadian delegate struck pay dirt: The movie unit that filmed "Lord Jim" in Cambodia last year had imported a case of rifles. Built by the French within recent years, Sihanoukville is a small port and relatively easy to examine. During November, two Chinese Communist ships had unloaded cargo there. Inside the port's single ware- house I examined the Chinese merchandise- herbs, paper, honey candy, and assorted pots and pans. A shipment of Chinese weapons had reached Sihanoukville last spring, Cambodian port officials told me. One of them said: "Why should we give them to the Vietcong when we need them for our own soldiers?" SMUGGLING IS COMMON Though the coast is patrolled by United States and South Vietnamese vessels based at the Vietnamese island of Phuquoc, smug- gling is common. I learned, however, that most of the contraband consists of beer, cigarettes and nylon fishing nets brought from Vietnam and Thailand and exchanged for Cambodian fish and soybeans. Authori- ties apparently tolerate this traffic. I did not observe the 27,000 Chinese Com- munist guerrillas, alleged by Thailand's For- eign Minister Thanat Khoman to be train- ing at Sihanoukville. Nor did I feel that the port, whatever its past, is currently on the Vietcong supply route. At the nearby town of Kampot, however, I encountered evidence that the Vietnam border, 30 miles away, is not hermetically sealed. Within a recent 2-month period, about 20 Cambodian refugees from Vietnam were brought into the local hospital, suffer- ing from gunshot wounds. Conjecture in Saigon had suggested that the Kampot hospital was used by the Viet- cong. The resident physician, a Paris-edu- cated Chinese, did not know his patients' Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE as a result, been occasional border incursions and bombing of Cambodian territory has caused the deepest concern to the Cambodian Government. Cambodia can be expected to make the most vigorous efforts to resist be- coming directly involved In the struggle surging through South Vietnam and to repel to the best of its capability direct and or- ganized invasions of its territory which may stem from the mounting tempo of the war. Prince Sihanouk has suggested a way to settlement of this explosive problem which should receive the most careful consideration from all concerned. He has asked for expanded observer patrols in the area under the auspices of the International Control Commission. U.S. funds would probably be necessary to carry out this suggestion. But the ultimate cost to this Nation of such a venture would be infinitesimal compared to that of expanded conflict beyond Viet- nam into northeastern Cambodia. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the editorial from the January 5 issue of the New York Times be included at this point in the CONGRESSIONAI, REC- or;D. In addition I ask that three arti- cles by Stanley Karnow which portray the current situation in Cambodia, with emphasis on the border question, also be included in the RECORD. ']'.here being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: jF"rorn the New York Times, Jan. 5, 19661 'iris CAMBODIAN BORDER The authorization to American com- manders in Vietnam to launch attacks into northeastern Cambodia in "self-defense" has now brought notice to the United Nations from Prince Sihanouk that if this happens he will seek foreign military assistance-pre- sumably from Communist China-for re- prisal raids. This warning deserves to be taken seri- ously, much as Cambodia's ruler may hesitate to endanger his country's future independ- ence by inviting in Chinese "volunteers." The lesson of the past 5 years in Vietnam Is that every measure of escalation leads to another, each matched successively by the other side, Cambodia is not likely to be an exception. The answer to the Cambodian problem can- not be found through wider war. but only through widening the present Vietnam peace oll'ensive-which should continue, despite the iifitially negative response yesterday from la; a.nol. 'i i g'ving notice to the United Nations, Prince Sihanouk renewed his proposal for expanded observer patrols by the Interna- tional Control Commission, as set up under the 1954 Geneva accords. This proposal-- far which the Prince asks American contri- hutions of fuads and equipment-involves nutnitoring arms shipments to Cambodian tortes through the southern Cambodian port of Sihanoukvil[.!. To extend this project to cover the rugged jungle terrain of northeastern Cambodia, an the United Nations Secretariat reportedly ies urging, would be a task of much greater difricult.y. Many hundreds of observers might he needed. But it would be well worth the cost to the United States if an effective system could be established to reduce inci- dents. A far larger operation than this will. be necessary to police a South Vietnamese peace settlement when one is reached. The csperience and training gained in Cambodia would be invaluable. Vietcong and North Vietnamese units re- portedly regrouped in northeastern Cambodia for renewed attack during the Iadrang Val- ley battle in November, but this evidently was an unusual event. Repeated investigations by Western newsmen as well as by the ICC have failed to turn up proof that the Com- munists make major use of Cambodia either as a sanctuary or as an infiltration route for men and supplies into South Vietnam. The route through Laos is shorter and there are plenty of isolated areas in South Vietnam it- self in which to cache supplies. The limited importance of Cambodia to either side in Vietnam should make it far easier to reach a Cambodian agreement than a Vietnam settlement. 'Yet the use of the Geneva machinery for this purpose might help both sides ease into preliminary discus- sions on ending the war in Vietnam itself. The dispute with Cambodia calls at .cntion again to the absence of direct American con- tact with Phnom Penh. When Prince Sihan- ouk broke diplomatic relations, he indicated willingness to Continue consular roliitions with the United States, but the State Depart- ment decided to withdraw completely. An offer to reestablish an American consulate in Phnom Penh would be an act of wise diplo- macy. From the Washington (D.C.) Pest, Dec. 28, 19651 TRANC,.UII, NATION FEARS WAR-TREE' FINDS CAMCODrA No VIETCONG HAVEN (The writer has just returned from a 10- day trip, covering 3,000 miles through Cam- bodia by jeep, helicopter, and on foot. Fur- ther reports will follow.) ('By Stanley Ka:rnow) HONG Ko:?rc, December 27.--Reminit.cent of a French prefecture, the Cambodian capital ui Phnom Penh is a pleasant town of hand- some villas and luxuriant gardens and people who doze through their afternoons-as if the turbulence of southeast Asia were light years away. The peace that pervades Phnom Penh and the rest of the land is the most striking achievement Of Cambodia's Chief of State, Prince Norodom Sihanouk. It is an achieve- ment he repeatedly stresses in his ceaseless stream of ore Cory. Tn. the 12 years since it won indepe- idence from France, Sihanouk asserts, Cambodia's neutrality hap saved it from the fat-- of its neighbors. Tt is not, like Laos, torn by civil strife. In contrast to Vietnam, it is not being destroyed by war. Unlike Thailand, it has not become the site of foreign bases that. invite C.,namu- pist subversion. Over the years, Sihanouhk has preserved peace in Cambodia by tactics so flexible as to have made hire appear whimsical. After a decade of dependence on Amer- ican aid. he broke diplomatic ties with the United States last May and veered sharply toward Communist China, irritating the So- viet Union in the process. At; the Same time, he has strived to strengthen his bones with France, and he is currently -trying to huprove his relations with Australia. Great T,ritain, and Japan. Shifty as they seem, however, Shihe souk's moves have been basically motivated by a clear, consistent aim. Playing for time, he l ea hoped to spare his people repetition of the ruinous history that nearly reducer' them to extinction. In'his view, eommunie:m is a less appalling prospect. But if Sihanouk's adroit vamping for time Las thus far given Cambodia its years of calm, his time may be running out, And the capital's air of tranquility often appears betrayed by the perceptible feeling that. Cam- bodia faces bitter days ahead. WAR'S SPREAD FEARED This mood of pessimism reflects the :fear that the war in Vietnam may spill over Cam- bodia's borders. Within recent days, American commanders in Vietnam have been advised that they have the "inherent right of self defense" to enter Cambodia in pursuit of their enemy. For months, American press dispatches have dramatized allegations that Cambodia is a base and sanctuary for Vietcong and North Vietnamese troops. Mindful of their history, Cambodians see this growing dlanger as a signal that the hated Vietnamese, who invaded their land in the past, have found a new pretext for aggression. Time and again within recent years, Siha- nouk has sought to protect himself against the threat of war. Time and again he has met with disappointments. His request 3 years ago for an inter- national conference to guarantee his neutral- ity was rebuffed by the United States, reticent to acknowledge n, formula applicable to South Vietnam. But later, when the idea seemed more plausible to Washington, it was re- jected by Peiping. BORDERS UNDEFINED His efforts to define his borders with. Viet- nam, in talks with Saigon as well as Hanoi and Vietcong representatives, have been un- successful. At the Communist-dominated "Indochi- nese Peoples Conference," in Cambodia last March, Sihanouk was not permitted to deliver a speech pleading for a negotiated peace In Vietnam. Instead, he had the speech printed and quietly distributed. But while emphasizing his neutrality, Sihanouk often acts, perhaps impulsively, to undo the effect he creates, frequently leaving his most ardent admirers bewildered. Ile has denied giving material aid to the Vietcong. Yet in a public ceremony here last September he affirmed his political support for them, matching his statement with it "humanitarian" gift of 40 cases of medicine. INVITED INSPECTION Since then he has disclosed that he is con- sidering the sale of Cambodian rice to the Vietcong. Says his Prime Minister, Prince Norodom Kantol: "We will sell rice to who- ever pays us the best price-in hard cur- rency." Though they strenuously deny that supply routes pass from Cambodia into the Viet- cong-held areas of Vietnam, Cambodian offi- cials decline to reveal how their gift of medicine;; reach the Vietcong belligerents. With all this, however, Sihanouk is almost desperately anxious to disprove charges that Cambodia is a significant source of breking for the Vietcong. And in this effort he has displayed considerable good faith. Earlier this month, for example, he invited the International Control Commission, com- posed of Indian, Canadian, and Polish dele- gates, to inspect as thoroughly as they wished the port of Sihanoukville, alleged to be the entry point for weapons destined for the Vietcong. On December 13, moreover, Sihanouk au- thorized the Control Commission to follow weapons shipments, due to arrive from Clain a, to Cambodian army barracks and arsenals, and to register their further movements. The Commission will also be allowed to re- cord activities at a Chinese-built weapons repair factory south of Phnompenh. Such freedom of movement, say Commis- sion officials, has not been accorded. elsewhere in Indochina. LETS IN CORRESPONDENTS Concurrently, Sihanouk has invited se- lected American newspaper correspondents into Cambodia to determine whether it is being used as a Vietcong sanctuary or base. Such an invitation was extended to the New York Times in September. A similar invi- tation was sent to the Washington Post 3 weeks ago. I arrived on December 13. after Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Senate The Senate met at 12 o'clock meridian, and was called to order by the Vice President. Bishop W. Earl Ledden, Wesley Theo- logical Seminary, Washington, D.C., offered the following prayer: This, too, 0 Lord, is a day which Thou hast made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. For though there is darkness at noon, and men and nations have lost their way, we know that we are not God forsaken. Thou art still the light of those who turn to Thee, and Thy way can still be known among men. Thou hast sustained and delivered our beloved country in other days of dark- ness. Now, again, we lift our prayer with confidence: God bless America. Guide us through the darkness of our day. Deliver us, we pray, from the dangers that beset us. Enable us to communicate to the wide world our sin- cere desire for a prosperity shared by all mankind. Because our hope is in Thee, Our Fathers' God, we are not despairing. We are confident that a better way than we have ever known may yet be found by Thy guidance. To this end grant to every Senator, this day, the light of Thy presence. Bless and strengthen every attitude ex- pressed in support of that righteousness which exalteth a nation, every effort put forth to extend the reach of that aggres- sive good will that may yet find the way to an honorable and lasting peace. In His name. Amen. THE JOURNAL On request of Mr. MANSFIELD, and by unanimous consent, the reading of the Journal of the proceedings of Friday, January '14, 1966, was dispensed with. MONDAY, JANUARY 17, 1966 the President of the United States, which, with the accompanying report, was referred to the Committee on For- eign Relations: To the Congress of the United States: The Annual Report on the Foreign Assistance Program of the United States for fiscal year 1965, which I here trans- mit, shows what Americans have done during the past 12 months to help other people help themselves. The record of these months offers new testimony to our continuing conviction that our own peace and prosperity here at home depends on continued progress toward a better life for people every- where. In pursuit of that goal, we have, dur- ing this past year, placed new emphasis on the basic problem of securing more food for the world's population. We have agreed to extend technical assistance to countries asking for help on population programs. At the same time, our overseas missions have been directed to give priority to projects for achieving better agriculture. Addition- al resources of our great universities have been applied to rural development efforts abroad, and we have moved to in- crease the nutritional value of food shipped overseas for children. During these past 12 months we have also: Begun to make education a more vital part of our assistance to other nations. Today, 70 American universities are en- gaged in the development of 39 Asian, African, and Latin American countries through this program. Given our full support to development of a new life for the people of southeast Asia through a regional development program-a true and hopeful alterna- tive to profitless aggression. We have made progress toward the establishment t ,,-` ? critical Mekong River Basin. of the United d States were communicated to the Senate by Mr. Jones, one of 'his The 12 months covered by this report secretaries. also reflect our progress toward making our aid programs both more realistic, EXECUTIVE MESSAGES REFERRED As in executive session, The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate messages from the President of the United States submitting sundry nominations, which were referred to the appropriate committees. (For nominations this day received, see the end of Senate proceedings.) REPORT ON FOREIGN ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate the following message from and more efficient. For example: Foreign assistance has become a smaller factor in our balance of pay- ments. In fiscal year 1965, more than 80 cents of every AID dollar was spent for the purchase of American goods and services. American products and skills went overseas as aid; most of the dollars which paid for, them stayed in this country. At the height of the Marshall plan, in comparison, foreign aid accounted for more than 11 percent of the Federal budget and nearly 2 percent of our gross national product. Perhaps the most important single change in our AID programs has been the shift from simply helping other countries stay afloat to helping them be- come self-supporting, so that our assist- ance will no longer be needed. Three-fourths of our AID program in fiscal year 1965 was devoted to develop- ment assistance: programs of technical and capital assistance in agriculture, in- dustry, health and education that strengthen the ability of other nations to use their own resources. Finally, private participation in AID programs is at an alltime high. Through contracts with American uni- versities, business firms, labor unions, cooperatives, and other private groups, AID has sharply increased the involve- ment of nongovernmental resources in international development. Two of every five AID-financed tech- nicians in the field today are not Federal employees, but experts from private American institutions. There is much in the less-developed world that causes us deep concern today: enmity between neighbor nations that threatens the hard-won gains of years of development effort; reluctance to move rapidly on needed internal re- forms; political unrest that delays con- structive programs to help the people; an uncertain race between food supplies and population. We are right to be concerned for the present. But we are also right to be hopeful for the future. In this report are recorded some of tha solid, human achievements on which our future hopes are based. Whether it provides strength for threatened peoples like those in south- east Asia, or support for the self-help of millions on the move in Latin America, in Africa, in the Near East and South Asia, our foreign assistance program re- mains an investment of critical and promising importance to our own na- tional future. LYNDON B. JOHNSON. JANUARY 17, 1966. WAIVER OF CALL OF CALENDAR UNDER RULE VIII Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the call of the calendar under rule VIII, for the con- sideration of unobjected-to measures be waived. The VICE PRESIDENT. Without ob- jection, it is so ordered. Foreign aid has become a smaller burden on our resources. The $3.5 bil- lion committed for military and eco- nomic assistance in fiscal year 1965 rep- resented 3.5 percent of the Federal budget and one-half of 1 percent of the U.S. gross national product. Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 11' ONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 17, 1966 JuIMITATION OF STATEMENTS Dl(;rR,- TNG MORNING HOUR On request of Mr. MANSFIELD, and by unanimous consent, statements during the morning hour were ordered limited to 3 minutes. MONTANA PIONEER DIES Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, dur- ing the final days of 1965, I was saddened to learn of the death of one of Montana's pioneers and finest citizens. The passing of Tom Stout brought to a close a most colorful and accomplished career. '.Tom Stout was a politician, editor, and publisher in the finest tradition. He was active in Democratic politics and served the State of Montana in the House of Representatives for two terms. Inter- estingly, he was sworn in standing be- tween Sam Rayburn and John Na:rice Garner. The vast majority of Tom Stout's life was devoted to journalism. Ile started as a reporter and then be- came editor and publisher of the Fergus County Democrat in Lewiston. In his later years. he was editorial writer for the Billings Gazette. Tom Stout has a long and full life, one to which we can all aspire. He was a good friend and one who will be missed. Mr. President, I ask that two editorials and a news story be printed at the con- clusion of my remarks in the CoNGRrs- S1.ONAL RECORD. Where being no objection, the editori- als and articles were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [ Prom the Great Falls Tribune, Dec. 29, 19(13] WE H,)Noa THOMAS H. (TOM) STOUT loo 1902, a 22-year-old ex-teacher who had. just; been admitted to practice law in Mis- souri, asked a railway agent at Hannibal, Mo., how far he could get for $25. The homesteaders' rail fare to Billings hap- pened to be $21.85 so Thomas H. (Torn) Stout arrived in Billings on Easter Sunday of 1902, Con Stout made many contributions to Montana before he died at Billings Sunday ni: ht. He served. two terms in Congress. sev- eral terms in the Montana Senate and also the House of Representatives and was a member of the Montana Railroad and Public Service Commission. He also was a distin.- guished newspaper publisher, a prominent Democrat and a Montana historian. While he was a State senator In 1913, Stout introduced a resolution which paved the way for women to get the right to vote in Mon.- tana.. Above all, Tom Stout was a charming, wi, ty, and gracious Montanan. [F_?om the Lewistown Democrat News, Dec. 28, 19651 T, ?a: STOUT, FAREWELL r1)e death of Tom Stout marks the end of a k rilliant caxrer of a man who called Lewis- sown home ior 45 years but was acclaimed all over Montana for his achievements In newspaper, political, and literary fields. (tailed as one of the founders of this news- paper, he was known and loved by the resi- dents of this area who appreciated his warm, genuine style of writing and his friendly, pen tie marl Her. Above all else, Tom Stout was acclaimed for his outstanding editorials- While he was never one to shy away from taking a stand and was noised for the many issues for which lie crusaded, still he was always fair and his editorials reflected his own qualities of kind- ness and consideration for others. Described by one of his many friends as a highly intellectual student, Tom Stout is also remembered for his three-volume "His- tory of M:ontana," standard equipment in newspaper offices for almost half a century. Not only was he acclaimed for his accom- plishments in the newspaper world, but Tom Stout was also active in politics and served in both the State legislature and the U.S. Congress, as well as on the Montana Railroad and Public: Service Commission, Words are ineffectual to describe the con- tribution made by Tom Stout ',co this news- paper, this community, and the State of Montana. Suffice it to say he will be sadly missed by all those who cherished his friend- ship and by the wider circle of those who ad- mired and enjoyed the fruits or his talents. [From the Lewistown Democra., News, D 28, 1965] TOM STOUT, EARLY-DAY PUBLISHER AND EDITOR, DIES IN BILLINGS SUNDAY two daughters, Mrs. Maxine Vincent of Boston and Mrs. Barbara Shloss of Levittown, N.Y.; two step daughters, Mrs. Edward Rech of Greybull, Wyo., and Mrs. Lawrence Knopp of Utrecht, Holland; eight grandchildren and three great-grandchildren, The Rev. Jess McGuire will officiate at the funeral service with burial following in Mountview Cemetery. Active pallbearers will be Glen Carney, J. Strand Hilleboe, Harold Seipp, Ross Bowman, Wilbur Pique, and William Buckley. Honorary pallbearers include former Sena- tor Burton K. Wheeler, Senator MIKE MANS- FIELD, W. C. Rae, J. H. Dickey, Jr., Harry E. Lay, Earl McGinnis, Dan Whetstone, J. Rusty Larcombe? A E. Wilkinson, E. K. Cheadle, Joe Montgomery, William Schmidlapp, Erwin Jucldo and A. S. d'Autremont. HE DANGEROUS SITUATION ALONG THE VIETNAMESE- CAM-BODIAN BORDER Tom Stout, 86, founder of this newspaper, Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I and one of central Montana's most promi- call the attention of the Senate to a re- fent figures for half a century, died Sunday cent editorial in the New York Times in Billings.. Funeral services hive been set which refers to the highly danerous for Wednesday at 2:30 P.M. at the Settergen- g Carey Funeral Home in Billings situation along the Vietnamese-Cam- Stout first came to Lewistown in November bodian b:Order. It discusses the threat 1902. to accept a job as a repot ter on John by Cambodian Prince Sihanouk to ask Vrooman's newspaper, the Fergus County for foreign help-presumbaly from Com- Argus. In 1904 he and Harry J. Kelly munist China-if American commanders started the Fergus County Democrat, later launch attacks into the northeastern buying the Lewistown nemnnro i ,.ro..,.. out the State te for his e xcellent a, litarials. He The answer to the Cambodian problem served as Seditor tate for and publisher e the Lewis- s. He cannot be found through wider war, but only th town Democrat News until he sold the paper ese peace widening the present Vietnam- in :1946. During the 1947-60 he wrote edi- torials se peace offensive. for the Billings Gazette. This problem is touched on in the re- Active in ]Democratic politics from the time port to the Senate by Senators A:rKEN, he came to Montana, Stout was elected State senator from Fergus County Ia 1911 and MUSKIE, I:NOUYE, BOGGS and myself which again in 1913. He resigned as Slate senator was made after our recent tour of south- in 1913 to become Representative at Large in east Asia. The report states the fol- the U.S, Congress. He was sworn in stand- lowing: ing between Sam Rayburn and John Nance Cambodia, in a different manner and to Garner, both of whom were also Starting their a much lesser extent than Lao , s is already tern In the Legislature. He was reelected to directly touched by the fighting in Vietnam. another term at the next election, but did There are repeated charges that Cambodian not seek reelection in 1916, and returned to territory is being used as a base for Viet- the newspaper in Lewistown, tong operations. That is possible in view Ili 1930 he was elected to the Mcntana Rail- of the remoteness and obscurity of the bor- road and Public Service Commission. He was der but there is no firm evidence of any such a candidate to the Democratic national con- organized usage and no evidence whatsoever vention in 1908 and to all State conventions that any alleged usage of Cambodian soil from 1904 to 1946. is with the sanction, much less the assistance, Stout was elected a Fergus County State of the Cambodian Government. Prince representative in 1942 and was relected in Sihanouk responded Immediately to a recent 1944: and 1946. allegation that the Cambodian Not only prominent for his achievements Sihanoukville is being used to transsh sop in the newspaper field and - poi;tics, Stout plies to the Vietcong by calling for an in- also gained recognition as a writer with his vestigation by the International Control three-volume "History of Montana- pub- Commission. which was set up under the lished in 1922, The history was considered Geneva Accords of 1954. standard equipment in newspaper offices all Cambodia's overwhelming concern is the over the State, preservation of its national iltegr:it Stout was one of 13 charter r:,ambers of in times past, has been repeatedly violated the Lewistown Rotary organized in 1916 and by more powerful neighbors and is still sub- served as its first president. When he left Jett to occasional forays from a minor dissi- T ewistown he continued as an honorary dent movement (the Khmer Serai) which member of the Lewistowa organization until has been allowed to base itself in the neigh- the time of his death, boring nations. Cambodia seeks reeogni Lion Tom Stout was born May 20, IS79, at New and respect of its borders by all parties to London, Mo., a son of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob E. the conflict. It asks to be left to live in Stout. He received his formal education at peace so that it may concentrate on its own Warrensburg State Normal School and the problems a:nd internal development. The University of Missouri at Columbia, He Cambodians have made great internal prog- studi.ed law and was admitted to the Missouri ress, largely through their own efforts sup- bar in 1901 and to the Montana bar in 1913, plemented by a judicious use of aid from the but never practiced. United States in the past and from other In 1904 he married 1,elah Wunderlin of nations both in the past and at the present Lewistown, who preceded him in death- time. They have a eaceful and He married. Sibyl Sherlock in Helena on nation with. an intense sense Ofrnational August 12, 1936. Besides the widow, he is sur- unity and loyalty to Prince Sihanouk, vived by a son, Coleman Stout, city editor The fact that fighting in South Vietnam of the Current-Argun at Carlsbad. N. Mex.; has raged close to the border and there have, vo.:~pm^w~e~+n~+a~msA~mmmmr x:~m ni"IIo r xr, eau ued" o pprov'"F.'1'"~"6 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 341 which is the situation today. He will have direct control over the new Assistant Secre- tary for the Federal Housing Administra- tion-a post that replaces that of FHA Com- missioner, over whom he now has little stat- utory authority-and he can do whatever he likes with the Community Facilities Admin- istration, the Urban Renewal Administration, and the Public Housing Administration. Secondly, the act creating the Department suggests, rather vaguely, that the new Secre- tary of H.U.D.-now known as "HUD" in Washington parlance-do what he can to coordinate the efforts of other agencies, in- cluding his own, to keep the cities from falling into complete chaos. Thus the post of "urban coordinator" will be important. This post was established in the act to help pull together Federal urban programs into one, smoothly orchestrated operation. So the new Secretary will have some im- portant powers, whatever Mr. Johnson does with the task force recommendations. But there is one fly in the ointment. If the Sec- retary acquires no new functions other than the housing function over which he has ruled since .1961, then his power will depend on his ability to make other Government agencies with urban programs coordinate. And this, in turn, will depend on whether or not the President supports him. This issue, too, is in doubt. Mr. Johnson kept Mr. Weaver hanging for 4 months while he searched for somebody else to head the De- partment. Mr. Weaver is a very good man, but the President's long talent hunt sug- gested that the White House felt there was somebody, somewhere, who was better. POWERS Then, too, Mr. Weaver had managed to anger many powerful special interest groups in the urban field, although it is hard to con- template a housing administrator who would not. The mayors, for example, complained that they could not get the necessary funds of their urban renewal plans got caught up in all kinds' of unnecessary redtape. The upshot of all this is that Mr. Weaver- who turned down several excellent offers while waiting for the President to make up his mind-comes to his new post under rather unfavorable auspices. With the President's support he can be an excellent administrator, an innovator, and a salesman with Congress. He can transform a housing agency into a creative and power- ful force in American life. Without the President's support, he may end up being just another housing administrator. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I believe it appropriate to point out that we have heard discussions of dis- crimination in the consideration of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Civil Rights Act of 1965. It is worth noting that the Senate discriminated in favor of Mr. Weaver. The Senate came to the unanimous conclusion that the nomination should be considered without lying over for 1 day as the rules require. A single objec- tion, of course, would have delayed the nomination. The reason that the Senate saw fit to act in this regard as to Robert C. Weaver is that he has performed well in his present position many functions he will have as a member of the President's Cabinet. He performed those functions. I have heard no charge or suggestion that, he would do anything other than his duty as the merciful God permits him to do that duty and to see the facts as they come before him. On that basis, just as the Senate gave its consent that the nomination be con- sidered, I urge that the nomination be confirmed. The PRESIDING OFFICFIR. With- out objection, the nomination is con- firmed. ROBERT C. WOOD The legislative clerk read the nomina- tion of Robert C. Wood to be Undersec- retary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection the nomination is con- firmed. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I ask unanimous consent that the President be immediately notified of the confirmation of the nominations. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, the President will be noti- fied forthwith. LEGISLATIVE SESSION On request of Mr. LONG of Louisiana, and by unanimous consent, the Senate resumed the consideration of legislative business. ORDER OF BUSINESS Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate return to morning hour business. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objections4, it is so ordered. MANSFIELD-AIKEN MISSION REPORT Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, an ex- cellent article has been written on the Mansfield-Aiken mission and on the re- port of that extremely important and carefully selected "blue ribbon" sena- torial group. It is an article by Vic Maerki in the January 10, 1966 issue of the Burlington Free Press. Mr. Maerki knows whereof he speaks because he is no' stranger to the Washington scene as he has delved deeply into the legislative operations of our Federal Government from both the aspect of a working mem- ber of the press and a hard working leg- islative staff assistant. He accords to the Mansfield-Aiken mission and its report the seriousness, dignity and recognition it so richly merits. I call the attention of the Sen- ate particularly to the last paragraph of his article in which he states: Whether the conclusions by these two dis- tinguished national leaders are valid or not, they have done the United States a service by voicing their opinions on the eve of the opening of a session of the Congress that will surely be the forum for a widening-and per- haps, climactic-national dialog on the subject. To this I would add my own personal comment that whether one agrees with the findings, conclusions and opinions expressed in the Mansfield-Aiken mission report or subscribes to their position, it must be recognized that this is the deadly serious work of respected, eminently capable and dedicated natictial leaders. I ask unanimous consent that the Maerki article be placed in the RECORD at this point and invite the attention of all Senators to it. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: ONCE OVER LIGHTLY (By Vic Maerkl) In the 74th year of a life that has spanned two world wars and a series of smaller con- flicts, U.S. Senator GEORGE D. AIKEN, Republi- can, of Vermont, is trying his hardest to help his country prevent world war III. To that end, the wise old Vermonter has joined in a grim report to President Johnson that warns the only alternative to a general war in Asia may be an unpopular and un- satisfactory negotiated settlement of the conflict in Vietnam. It has become apparent in recent days that AIKEN has become convinced that the United States will have to strike some painful bar- gain in Vietnam to reduce the danger of that war spreading into a world conflict. The grim substance of AIKEN'S feelings have already been made public by U.S. Sena- tor MIKE MANSFIELD, Democrat, of Montana, the Senate majority leader. AIKEN was one of four Senators who ac- companied MANSFIELD on a world mission whose major purpose was to compile facts on the war in Vietnam and on the world attitude toward the war. The formal report of the MANSFIELD mission was made public this week, but the Nation and the world have had little word on the private, oral report MANSFIELD gave the President on December 19, the day after the five Senators returned to this country. But AIKEN and others close to MANSFIELD have suggested the Senator majority leader's report to the President was even grimmer than the formal report, if that is possible. The evidence is that MANSFIELD told the President that there is very little hope that the United States will be able to negotiate the kind of settlement in Vietnam that all Americans are hoping for. AIKEN has already suggested that he and MANSFIELD feel the best the United States can hope for is a kind of settlement that will provide a limited type of "peace" in South Vietnam. MANSFIELD and AIKEN appear to agree that that prompt efforts by the United States might lead to a negotiated settlement of the widening conflict between the United States and regular North Vietnamese troops who take their orders from Hanoi. At the same time, the two Senate leaders are making it clear that they feel that kind of settlement would do little, if anything, to end the war of terror being waged against the South Vietnamese Government by the Vietcong guerrillas. That suggestion, of course, is not the kind of proposal that either President Johnson or his key advisers want to make to this Na- tion or to the world. It is not the kind of "peace" that Americans-including MANS- FIELD and AIKEN-want to accept. But, AIKEN and MANSFIELD have-in the strongest possible terms-warned the Pres- ident that the United States is nearing the point of no return to Vietnam, a point at which the alternative to an unsatisfactory negotiated settlement may bb a general war in Asia. AIKEN has made it clear to friends that he has given his unqualified support to all the private recommendations MANSFIELD has given to the President, and Johnson is aware of that support. There have also been growing indications that the Mansfield report to President John- son on December 19 may have contributed subtsantially to Johnson's decision to sus- Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE January 17, pend the bombing raids against North Viet.. Danl. AIKEN and MANSFIELD are old friends. AIKEN and Johnson are old friends and the President, at AIKEN'S birthday party last year, called the Vermont Senator "a great American" and a colleague whose wisdom and counsel lie valued highly. Neither MANSFIELD or AIKEN have taken an extreme position in the Vietnam dilem- ura. Unlike some of the other leaders in Washington, MANSFIELD and AIKEN have not pretended their suggestions can guarantee a solution to the struggle In southeast Asia. MANSFIELD and AIKEN have been in the center of the moderate position in the Viet- Dam, debate. and their major contribution to that debate so far has been to make it clear that there can be no simple solution to the complex problem. Neither MANSFIELD or AIKEN is willing to sacrifice the honor of the United States in. Asia, and they have made it clear despite the suggestions of some of their critics to the contrary. But, they have warned that insistence on unconditional surrender in Vietnam is not consistent with the facts they found unless the United States is prepared to risk general war in Asia. In short, AIKEN and his old friend MANS- are arguing that this Nation should lace the prospect that there can be no clean., simple solution to a dirty, complicated situa- tion. Whether the conclusions by these two distinguished national leaders are valid or not, they have done the United States a service by voicing their opinions on the eve of the opening of a session of the Con- gress that will. surely be the forum for a widening-arid perhaps, climatic-national dialog on the subject. ` O'IEACE OFFENSIVE IN VIETNAM Mr. CLARK. Mr. President, all of us must continue to hope and pray that the peace offensive for Vietnam, instituted by the President, will be successful. My concern today is over what appears to be a difference of opinion at lower levels in, the administration as to what the United. :'dates should do in the event the cur- rent effort to stop the killing and to begin. the talking around the conference table, should be unsuccessful. Il this connection, I believe an ex-? trelnely important editorial, entitled! "After the Pause," was published in the Washington Post yesterday. I ask unani- mous consent that the text of the editor- i.otic power; but it cannot abide A decade later, the Federal Trade Commis- within the power of Congress to command the pure atmosphere of political liberty and Sion sought to compel the production of a and that the records sought be relevant to personal freedom." corporation's records, contracts, niemoran_ the inquiry; (3) adequate, but not excessive, Eight years later, the Supreme Court re- specification of documents to be produced.' viewed a case in which a similar issue was m Boyd v. United States, supra note B. Mr. Justice Murphy dissented?? He was raised.'' The Interstate Commerce Commis- 7 Interstate Commerce Commission v. unable to approve the use of nonjudicial sion was granted power to compel testimony. Brimson, supra note 14 at 478. subpenas issued by administrative agents. the appearance of witnesses and the produc- "Administrative law has increased greatly 220 U.S. 107 (1911). in the past few years and seems destined to flan of books, papers, etc" The power was ,? The Court did not decide the issue of to be exercised pursuant to the Commission's whether the fifth amendment had been be augmented even further in the future. duty to regulate the common carriers under violated as that issue was not raised. The But attending the growth should be a new their jurisdiction. The Commission wished Court did explicitly hold that the fourth and broader sense of responsibility on the to question the defendant about the reason- amendment was not violated. Ibid. part of administrative agencies and officials. ableness of his rates. He refused to testify "'Baltimore & Ohio R.R. v. Interstate Excessive use or abuse of authority can not or to produce his books or other records. Commerce Commission, 221 U.S. 612 (1911); The Court (lid not reach the merits in the Cf. Wilson v. United States, 221 U.S. 361 2' Federal Trade Commission v. American. ' 116 U.S. 616 (1886). (1911). Tobacco Co., 264 U.S. 298 (1924). ?'l'he compulsory production of the in- "Interstate Commerc .Act, pt. I. ? 7-9, 63 "Federal Trade Commission Act ? 9, 38 voices in effect incriminated the defendant Stat. 486, 49 U.S.C. ? 20 (1949). Section 20 Stat. 722, 15 U.S.C. ? 49 (1914). sets out the type of reports is that may be re- 21 Federal Trade Commission v. American though civil p . the action for as in the nature of a civil foforfeiture of goods. Mr. quired by the Commission to be kept and Tobacco Co., supra note 23 at 305, 306. Justice Bradley wrote: "We are also clearly which the Commission can inspect. -'327U.S. 186 (1946). the ou -= 201 U.S. 43 (1906). Defendant Hale was r The decision was handed down 5 years for that the insttuted. r the purpose of f declaring g the forfeiture of subpenaed to appear before a grand jury to after United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 a man's property by reason of offenses com.- testify on the conduct of his company in (1941) which held that Congress can require initted by him, though they may be civil its. relation to the anti-trust laws. Hale refused records to be maintained as a means of en. for.. are is their nature criminal." Id. at to testify or to produce his books and papers. forcing an otherwise invalid law. The 633. In a seven to two decision, Mr. Justice Brown records were kept pursuant to the Fair Labor ?' Id. at 622. pronounced the personal nature of the Standards Act of 1938. " Id. at 6?0. privilege against self-incrimination. In addi- `'x 52 Stat, 1060, 29 U.S.C. ? ? 201 et seq. "' "Illegitimate and unconstitutional prac tion, a corporation as a creature of the state, (1938). Liens et their first footing * * * by silent depending on the state for its existence, must a0 Mr. Justice Rutledge, writing for the get to an inquiry when the state sought majority, did caution against excessive in- legal slight deviations from the ]egal modes of procedure. This can only to elicit whether not the corporation had quiries by administrative agencies: "Offi- be obviated by adhering to the rule that con- violated its privileged status bestowed by clans examination can be expensive, so mulch stitutional provisions for the security of per- the state. Cf. Foster v. United States, 265 so, that eats up men's substance. It can be :,on and property should be liberally con- F. 2d 183 (2d Cir. 1959), cert. denied 360 time consuming, clogging the processes of strued." Id. at 635. U.S. 912 (1959) wherein the taxpayer and business. It can become persecution when ,.. Id. at 6:31. his bank were not allowed to raise the fourth carried beyond reason." Oklahoma Press I' Interstate Commerce Commission v. amendment as protection against examina- Publishing Co. v. Walling, supra note 26 at Brimson, 154 U.S. 447 (1894). tion of the bank's records pertaining to the 213. l" Interstate Commerce Act, pt. I, ch. 109:, taxpayer; Zimmerman v. Wilson, 105 F. 2d 31 Oklahoma Press Publishing Co. v. Wall- ? 12, 24 Stat. 383 (1887). 583 (3rd Cir. 1939). ing, supra note 26 at 218. . 394 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE January 17. 1966 ul bne.enect or the acceleration of corporate tax payments enacted in 1964. At the time the bill was being considered we prepared estimates of the effect of the acceleration, assuming that corporate profits continued, at the 1963 levels. These esti- mates are as follows: Effect of acceleration of corporate tax payment Millions 1964------------------------------- +$230 1965------------------------------- +710 1966 ------------------------------- +1,260 1967------------------------------- + 1,340 1968------------------------------- -f 1,340 1969------------------------------- +890 1970------------------------------- +800 1971------------------------------- d-130 1972------------------------------- 0 The actual level of corporate profits in- creased in 1964 and again in 1965. The tax collections reported by the Internal Revenue do not separate the accelerated payments, but from the collections as reported we esti- mate that the effect of the acceleration in the fiscal year 1965 was close to $1 billion. For the current fiscal year, 1966, we now ex- pect that the speed-up will increase receipts by an amount between $11/2 and $2 billion. We use a range for this year because we do not have a firm figure for corporate profits in 1966, and we have not carried the revision through the years beyond 1966. I hope this information meets your needs. Sincerely yours, LAURENCE N. WOODWORTH, Chief of Staff. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr President, I wish to make one further comment about truth in government. That pertains to the Commodity Credit Corporation. The Commodity Credit Corporation has borrowing authority up to $14.5 billion. As of their most recent statement they owed the U.S. Govern- ment $12,129,383,000. On that same date, the investment that was in inventory and loans to Com- modity Credit Corporation was only $6,233,896,646. If the Government were able to liquidate its entire holdings of agricultural commodities and obtain in return therefor the full Investment plus all storage costs-which we do not be- lieve they can do-it would amount to $6,233 billion, or a deficit of $5,895 bil- lion. This actual loss has not been faced by the administration in its budgetary re- quests, with the result that a true Pic- ture of our deficit is reduced by that amount. A truth-in-government policy would correct this misleading Information. This neary $6 billion does not consist entirely of last year's deficit. Part of it is last year's, and part of it is from the year before. It relates to the last 2 or 3 years. However, they are deficits which have been realized but not written off. The Senator from Florida [Mr. HOL- LAND] last year tried to get Congress to recognize that method as being unrealis- tic and unfair, and tried to get Congress to appropriate money so that we could show the true cost. I supported the Senator on that pro- posal, and I complimented him on his effort. However, we were not successful because the administration did not want the American people to know that there is another $5 billion that has been spent. The administration did not want to ad- mit the true deficit. Mr. President, we need truth in gov- ernment. While the administration has this subject on its mind and is advocating the need for truth in lending and pack- aging all I ask is that it start practic- ing what it is preaching and give us some truth in Government. The admin- istration should tell the American peo- ple just exactly what these programs will cost and what will happen to the Amer- ican dollar if spendthrift policies of this administration are continued. Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. I yield. Mr. SIMPSON. I compliment the Senator from Delaware on the excellent presentation that he has made to the Senate today. It is very important that this subject be taken into consideration during our deliberations in the Senate. It is my understanding that the na- tional payroll of Federal employees will exceed more than $21/Z million this year. The administration has already con- fessed that bills passed in the last ses- sion will call for the employment of an additional 100,000 employees. Does the Senator know what that would add to the deficit? Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. I do not have the exact figures, but the amount would be substantial, i assure the Sena-. tor. There is no question that those extra people will be employed. As I said before, the Government has access to no mys- terious sources of Income. It distributes back to the taxpayers a part of what it takes from them in the first instance. As we establish these new programs we in- evitably establish a new bureaucracy. That is why I say that the taxpayers are bound to lose in connection with these Federal aid programs. About 20 percent of the amount involved will be used to pay the salaries of the bureauc- racy which will be set up here in Wash- ington to distribute the money to the taxpayers. This bureaucracy will be set up for the purpose of distributing the money back to the taxpayers and telling them how to spend it. No one gets anything for nothing out of the Federal Government. Some day we will wake, up to that truth. ETTERS TO VIETNAM SOLDIERS Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. President, some fine young students at Woodrow Wilson High School, Beckley, W. Va., recently wrote open letters to American soldiers In Vietnam, and the letters were published in the Beckley Raleigh Register. The letters bear evidence of the fine spirit which I believe is more prevalent among American youth than is the re- grettable attitude shown by a small mi- nority of sudents, which has been given wide and damaging publicity as a result of the demonstrations and protest marches against our Nation's role in southeast Asia. I commend the Junior Historian Club of Woodrow Wilson High School for its activities in this sphere, and for the breadth of vision shown by initiating this correspondence, and I particularly congratulate Nicky Joe Rahall, Cheryl Toombs, Mike Griffith, and Peggy Mc- Gowan for their forthright and articu- late patriotic expressions. It is interest- ing to note that Nicky Joe Rahall won top honor in the 1965 "Voice of Democ- racy" contest in Raleigh County and went on to compete for the district title. He is an example of the worthwhile young people coming to maturity in my State. The son of a prominent Beckley, W. Va., businessman, he is also the grandson of an immigrant from Lebanon who over 50 years ago peddled merchan- dise over the hills and among the coal- mining community in the Beckley area of West Virginia and who, in later years, made significant contributions to the community life of the region. I ask unanimous consent to have the letters, as published by the newspaper, printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the pub- lished letters were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Beckley (W. Va..) Raleigh Regis- ter, Nov.?, 1965] BECELEIY, W. VA., November 1963. DEAR SOLDIERS IN VIETNAM, The members of our club, as citizens of the great country you are fighting for, wish to thank you for all you are doing for us in Vietnam. Our country was established by people who were deeply concerned that the rights of men should not be violated. The United States has always stood for these rights. This Nation has waged great wars to protect our own people and people of other nations from despotic rulers. Is this country to change its policy now? No, now more than ever before, the United States is needed to combat communism and preserve the American tradition. Now, more than ever before, the individual soldier is important in defending this tradition which millions in years past have lived and died to defend. Mere numbers of troops cannot win this war, only the determination of every man to do his duty. We are concerned about every American soldier in Vietnam. Through newspapers and television we see the kind of life you must live. We hope that through this short message we can show just a small amount of appreciation for the work you must do. We also wish that each and every American would express to you the thankfulness we feel as you defend our homes, families, and countries on the other side of the world. Again thank you. May God grant to you a safe and speedy return to America. JUNIOR HISTORIAN CLUB, Woodrow Wilson High School. The Junior Historian Club of Woodrow Wilson High School has gone on record as supporting the U.S. role in Vietnam in con- trast with many extremist youths through- out the country who are staging organized protest. The junior historians state their policy in the above letter. A series of four articles written by junior historians on the war will appear in thk week's Register. [From the Beckley (W. Va..) Raleigh Regis- ter, Nov. 8, 1965] DEAR VIETNAM SOLDIER (EDITORS NoTE.-This 3s the first of a series of four letters supporting American's role in Vietnam. The articles are written by mem- bers of the Junior Historian Club at Woodrow Wilson High School.) To AMERICAN MEN Ile VIETNAM: Our prayers are with you and our praise Is for you. America stands tall because of your courage. Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE emary to appeal for public charity. And the spendthrift policies of the Great So- ciety are responsible for this gradual ero- sion of the value of the dollar. This Government cannot spend itself into prosperity on borrowed money any more than a man can go out on Monday morning and drink himself sober. One is as ridiculous as the other. The Great Society must accept the full responsibility of the inflation which they have deliberately planned. 1 f we study the history of inflation in any country we will find that inflation d acs not hurt the big man. Most of the investments owned by such people con- sist of fixed assets, stocks, securities, or perhaps television stations. The more wealthy own X percent of America, whether it is valued at $1 million or $2 million. It would not make any differ- ence. He would still own X percent of America, and as inflation expands, his, worth increases. However, a workingman or a man who is trying to live on a fixed salary or a tension is the one who really suffers Estimated revenue effects on President's tax proposals (assuming mar. 15, 1966 enact- ment) [Jn millions of dollars] I Receipts increase 1. Excises: Local and lone-flistarlee telephone, and teletype- writer service (il effective Apr. 1.1976)-- - Automohiles (if effective Mar. 15, 19116) -. - ---------- 2. Corporate focorno taxpayme.nt speedup (if effective Apr. 15, 196f) - 3. Graduated withholdi eg system for individual income taxes (if effective May 1, 1'966) _--__- Total (a(lrninistrotive budg- et effect)_--------------- 4. Sellouiployuieut tax, social tern payment ar 1 year 196)1 'a5 1, 155 Fiscal year 1967 . y )loc n sc (I 00 166 (i f e f fective f une 15, 1966) 1 Estimate refers to effect upon cash 1)udget receipt Source: Office of the Secretary of the'1'roasury, Oflcc of Tax Analysis, January 1966. 7.'HE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, Washington, December 17, 1965. Hon. JOHN J. WILLIAMS, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DImAR SENATOR WILLIAMS: The following information is supplied in response to your letter of December 3, which was previously acknowledged. 1. The acceleration of corporate tax pay- ments provided in the Revenue Act of 1964 produced estimated additional receipts of approximately one and a quarter billion dol- lars during fiscal years 1964 and 1965 com- bined. 2. Seigniorage profits on the new coinage will depend upon the production necessary to catch up with current demands and meet future demands for coins. Seigniorage in fiscal years 1966 and 1967 combined has been estimated at from under $1.5 to $2.5 billion. These estimates are under review in connec- under inflation, and he is the man who cannot afford it. I believe that it is high time that we have a true truth.-in-government policy and that this administration should stop trying to camouflage the costs of its program with a lot of fancy labels in an attempt to deceive the American people. The administration should tell the people exactly what these programs cost and what the deficit is. Instead they are pauperizing the aged in this country and promoting a policy by which the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. 't'he administration is pauperizing the very people for whom they are express- .ng sympathy and shedding crocodile tears. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that there be incorporated in the RECORD a statement by the Secretary of the Treasury showing how these accel- erated payments on the corporate taxes and graduated withholding will increase the tax revenues in the fiscal years 1966 and 1967. These are the figures which I have just outlined. In addition, I ask unanimous consent that there be printed at this point in the REcoRD a letter signed by the Secretary of the Treasury under i.ile date of December 17, signed by Joseph W. Barr, Acting Secretary, in which he outlines the $2.5 billion profit that can accrue as a result of the so-called sei- gniorage, or the changing of the silver content of the.coins. I also ask unani- inous consent that a statement dated January 6, 1966, by the Joint Committee howing the result of ac- ti , on s on Taxa celeration of the corporate taxes under Seigniorage from coinage has always been a continuing, although minor, receipt item. th e the 1964 law. The first chart shows results of the suggestion contained in The bulge in seigniorage receipts expected in fiscal years 1966 and 1967 represents large- flue President's message. ly a catching up on the sharp rise in demands There being no objection, the material for coins in the past several years. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, 8. Profits, t ffrom a13 sale of million during bullion as follows: tion with the 1967 budget. Beyond these years, after the backlog in demand has been met, seigniorage receipts can be expected to fall sharply,-perhaps to $200 to $300 million per year. Se:igniorage profits are covered into the general fund of the Treasury as miscella- neous budget receipts. Minor amounts are automatically appropriated for expenses of coinage distribution and wastage, and the costs of alloy metals used in subsidiary sil- gold is offset by an increase (decrease) in his ver coins, but otherwise seigniorage is not deposit balances. For this reason, these earmarked for specific purposes. Again, in sales do not affect budget expenditures nor connection with the 1967 budget, President the deficit. Sales of gold, of course, reduce Johnson has requested Secretary Fowler, the our total gold reserves. Chairman of the Council of Economic Ad- Sincerely yours. visers, and the Director of the Bureau of the JOSEPH W. BARB, Budget to study the accounting treatment Acting Secretary. accorded seigniorage and to make appro- pri.ate recommendations. CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, i t p Whether seigniorage is an artificial rece JOINT COMMITTEE ON INTERNE.. is, of course, a matter of definition. REVENUE TAXATION, Or not fiscal years 1961-65. Receipts from this source are covered into the general fund of the Treasury as miscellaneous budget receipts. 4. Proceeds from the sales or disposition from the strategic and critical materials stockpile during the fiscal years 1961--1965 amounted to $595.5 million. This was covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous budget receipts. Of the total amount, $49.9 million was set aside in a special fund to cover the major portion of the costs of ac- quisition and operations of the strategic and critical materials stockpile. The remainder, $545.6 million, was used to support general fund expenditures. The year-by-year re-? ceipts were as follows: [In millions of dollars] 1961--------------------------------- 80.1 1962--------------------------------- 53?6 1963--------------------------------- 74.0 1964--------------------------------- 129.5 1965--------------------------------- 258.5 The original purchases of materials in the national stockpile were reflected as budget expenditures at the time the purchase trans- actions took place. The proceeds from subse- quent disposal of surplus materials from the stockpile are covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. Inventories accumulated under provision of the Defense Production Act of 1950, while separate from the strategic and critical ma- terials stockpile (national stockpile) discus- sed above, are reflected in the determina- tion of total stockpile objectives and as such are included by some in their definition of national stockpile. Proceeds from the sales from the Defense Production Act inventory during fiscal years 1961-1965 amounted to $192.3 million. These proceeds are treated as income to a public enterprise revolving fund and are thus deducted from the funds ex- penses in arriving at net budget expendi- tures. The year-by-year sales the Defense Production Act inventory were as follows: [In millions of dollars] 1961 ---------------------------------- 34.0 1962----------------------------------- 37.8 1963---------------------------------- 145 1964--------- ------------------------ 31.6 1965------------------------------------ 797.4 5. The Treasury gold stock on December 31, 1964, amounted. to $15,388 million. On December 6, 1965, the total was $13,809 mil- lion. The decrease is principally the result of foreign purchases of gold although total sales included moderate domestic sales for industrial and artistic purposes. Sales (or purchases) of gold, whether do- mestic or foreign, are treated as exchanges of Washington, January 6, 1966. Hon. JOHN J. WILLIAMS, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR WILLIAMS: This is in reply to your request to Mr. Vail, chief clerk of the Senate Committee on Finance, for estimates " 3` ' ,Raga ?0 0012- 3 40001 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE As you probably know there have been demonstrations here In the United States against the American policy in Vietnam and against our very presence in Asia. Please rest assured that this is a minority move- ment, the work of what you might call "ex- tremists," who you will probably find have been against everything that is done by the United States. These groups, in my opinion, are unedu- cated as to why we are fighting in Vietnam and they do not realize that the future of the United States is indirectly Involved. They should realize that the failure or with- drawal of American troops would be disas- trous for democracy and help establish a larger Communist foothold in the world with the next step coming down on the United States directly. When my military career approaches, as it soon will, I would not hesitate to fight in Vietnam for my country. Most of the American hearts are with you in Vietnam. Men, thanks for doing your best, and I hope you can feel the support of the Ameri- can people behind you. We want to see you in the near future living here in the United States and enjoying the fruits of your labor. Upon you, our men in Viet- nam, rests the destiny of the United States of America. Sincerely, [From the Beckley (W. Va..) Raleigh Regis- ter, Nov. 9, 1965] DEAR VIETNAM SOLDIER (EDITOR'S NOTE.-This is the second in a series of letters written by members of the Junior Historians Club of Woodrow Wilson High School to servicemen in Vietnam.) To OUR BRAVE FIGHTING MEN: Your purpose in Vietnam, your being in that strange coun- try, is one of today's most honorable duties; you are protecting the freedom of the entire world, as well as that of your own country. Without you, communism would take over and then spread like a horrible plague all over the world. You are guarding our very lives as freemen, and yet some condemn you for it. I wonder if they ever really thought about what living under a tryannical government such as that of Russia would mean. Do they realize that, without our boys in Vietnam, Russia's communism would sweep over America, and future generations would be brought up knowing freedom no more-ex- cept as something that existed long ago? This letter is to let you know that I, for one, am very grateful that you are there to insure freedom, and highly commend you for your part in the preservation of democracy for mankind. Sincerely, MISS CHERYL TOOMBS. [From the Beckley (W. Va..) Raleigh Regis- ter, Nov. 10, 1965] DEAR VIETNAM SOLDIER To OUR Boys IN VIETNAM: Our efforts in Vietnam have recently been questioned by an organized protest from some of the stu- dents in the United States. These groups have been proven to be a minority group. The predominate feeling, however, is backing fullheartedly the administration's present policy in Vietnam. We realize that we have to stop Commu- nist oppression now, for the consequences for delaying our actions against these aggres- sors will be much worse than our casualties now. We owe a great deal of gratitude to you who are defending our principles in Vietnam. The United States was founded and has sur- .vived because of our determination to pre- serve democracy. Only by this same de- termination can the United States survive in the future. Your supreme effort in Viet- nam could possibly- be rewarded by the establishment of a free and peaceful world with no fear of aggression. Sincerely, [From the Beckley (W. Va..) Raleigh Regis- ter, Nov. 12, 1966] DEAR VIETNAM SOLDIER (EDITOR'S NoTE.-This is the last of four letters, written by members of the Woodrow Wilson Junior Historian Club, dedicated to fighting men in Vietnam.) DEAR SOLDIERS: Keep fighting. The heavy burden of preserving our democracy falls on your shoulders. In your hands, you hold the weapons to destroy the communism that is slowly devouring our democracy. We have spoken our policies. Now, we must fight for them. It was nearly two centuries ago when this country was established. The world has since wondered how long a democracy can exist? Is it strong enough to back its policies by force? Up to this time, America has stunned the world. She is a living example of a demo- cracy, surviving in a world of communism. Today, however, we face entirely new condi- tions. Western Europe has recovered its eco- nomic strength and military potential. Rus- sia commands a vast war machine with a full nuclear arsenal. Can our country stand up to these powers? America is not an imperialistic nation. Her aim is to defend the rights of people in Viet- nam and to stop the spread of communism. Many Americans are against our policy in Vietnam, They burn their draft cards, and many go as far as to burn themselves. What purpose does this accomplish? Meanwhile in Vietnam, soliders trudge through the hot sun for 21 cents an hour. They face such problems as hunger, leeches, disease and bullets. These men really stand for something. They make me proud to be an American. Thank you, soldiers, for your outstanding example and the great courage you have dis- played in Vietnam. May God bless you and bring you safely home to our beloved America. - A loyal West Virginian, PEGGY MCGOWAN. RETIREMENT OF DR. HUGH ELSBREE Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. President, it was with regret that I learned that Hugh L. Elsbree, Director of the Legislative Reference Service in the Library of Congress, will retire from that position in February. Dr. Elsbree has served the Federal Gov- ernment with distinction for more than 21 years-19 of them in the Library of Congress and the last 7 of them in his present position. A political scientist of wide repute and a dedicated public offi- cial, Dr. Elsbree has earned the respect and the confidence of the Congress through his skillful and competent lead- ership of the Legislative Reference Serv- ice in a period when Congress has experi- enced its greatest need for research as- sistance. L. Quincy Mumford, Librarian of Con- gress, in announcing Dr. Elsbree's forth- coming retirement, paid tribute to the standards of excellence that Dr. Els- bree has set for the analytical studies and reports produced for Congress. Dr. Elsbree came to theLibrary in 1945 as research counsel in the Legislative Reference Service. He was already splendidly equipped to take on the re sponsible task of providing consultative assistance to Members of the Congress. A graduate of Harvard University, where he received his B.A., M.A., and Ph. D. de- grees in political science, he was also a Sheldon traveling fellow in Paris and Geneva. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1928 and taught government there until 1933. In 1931 the Harvard University Press published his study, "Interstate Trans- mission of Electric Power," and in 1934 he had his first experience in public serv- ice, acting for several months as a re- search specialist for the Federal Power Commission. From 1933 until 1943 he was on the faculty of Dartmouth College, holding the position of chairman of the political science department from 1937 to 1941. He became a war service em- ployee in 1943, serving as principal busi- ness economist at the Office of Price Ad- ministration until 1945, when he joined the staff of the Bureau of the Budget as administrative analyst. In November of that year he went to the Legislative Ref- erence Service of the Library of Congress. In 1946, Dr. Elsbree was promoted to senior specialist in American govern- ment and public administration, the highest research position in that subject in the Legislative Reference Service, a position, incidentally, created by the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 to provide Congress with the highest level of staff assistance. His expert analyses, his thorough background briefings, his penetrating studies of leg- islative issues, especially in the fields of governmental reorganization and exec- utive-legislative relations, were models of professional staff competence. His work was so highly regarded that several congressional committees sought to bor- row him for extended periods. In 1951- 52 Dr. Elsbree served as Acting Assistant Director of the Service. In 1954 the newly created Commis- sion on Intergovernmental Relations- the well-known "Kestnbaum Commis- sion"-pressed the Library for his serv- ices and he was released on loan. As its deputy research director, Dr. Els- bree provided unusual skill and leader- ship for the Commission's complex task, and he was highly praised for his role in the successful conclusion of the study. When he returned to the Library in October 1955, he was appointed Deputy Director of the Legislative Reference Service. He left the Service for a brief period in 1957 to accept the chairman- ship of the political science depart- ment at Wayne State University. In 1958 he came back to the Library to be Director of the Legislative Reference Service, and that he has served in that capacity.since that time. Dr. Elsbree has shaped and reshaped the Legislative Reference Service to meet Congress always changing and, it seems, ever-enlarging needs, A recent example of this administrative sensitiv- Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 17, 1966 ity has been demonstrated when Dr.. Elsbree advocated and the Library ob- tained congressional authorization to establish a. Science Policy Research Di- vision within the Service. This is now providing assistance in the fields of science and public policy, fields of intense governmental involvement where choices involving billions of Federal, dollars are made each session. Linder Dr. Elsbree's guidance, the work: of the Service has had a profound., although usually unpublicized, effect on. the legislation enacted by the Congress. The Legislative Reference Service re- searcher povides much basic information. and many analyses which clarify the problems and the issues, pinpoint the strengths or weaknesses of proposed solu- tions, evaluate the alternatives, and assist in many other ways in facilitating the legislative process. If the work of the researcher for Congress is normally con- fidential, it is nevertheless real and sub- stantial, and the many commendations which Dr. Elsbree and his able staff have received from Members and committees of Congress attest to it. Fortunately for us in the Congress and for the Library, Lester S. Jayson, who has served as Dr. Elsbree's deputy for 4 years and who came to the Library as chief of Legislative Reference Service's American Law Division from the U.S. Department of Justice where he had served in various capacities for 10 years, has been appointed as director of the Service. 1. am confident that he will carry on the traditions of the Service. I know that my colleagues in the Con- gress wish Dr. Elsbree well as he retires and want to thank him for his selfless and dedicated service to this body. It is my information that January 27 will be his last day of active duty. MR. G ORGE J. TITLER-NEW UMbVA VICE PRESIDENT Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. President, the United Mine Workers of America has just chosen as its new vice president Mr. George J. Titler of Beck- ley, W. Va., a man who, in the truest sense of the statement, "came up through the ranks." From the days when he labored as a coal miner, follow- ing World War I, in the State of Iowa, on through the years in which he subse- quently served as head of UMWA Dis- trict 29 at Beckley, he has been a ded:i-- cated advocate of measures to protect and advance the interests of our Nation's coal miners. Tic is well known for his acts of hu.. manitarianism and generosity, such as personally- providing a year of financial assistance for various college freshmen. The Beckley, W. Va., Post Herald and Register en January 16 reported the ap-- po:.r..tmeni of Mr. Titler as UMWA vice president, and I request unanimous con- sent to have this newspaper article printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: WASHINGTON.-George J. Titler. of Beck- ley, W. Va., was chosen Saturday as the new vice president of the United Mine Workers Union. The $40,000-a-year job in the part has been a steppingstone to the presidency of the independent union, now held by W. A. (Tony) Boyle. Tiller, 70, at present is head of UMW Dis- trict 29, at Beckley. His selection as vice president was by unanimous approval of the executive board, a UMW spokesman said. The board had been considering the selec- tion of a vice president for the past week. The post became vacant with the retirement of Raymond O. Lewis, brother of former UMW President John L. Lewis. Titter, a native of Pennsylvania, served in World War I. After that he worked in the coal mines of Iowa for 15 years. In 1937 he was sent by the UMW to Harlan County, Ky., where he was head of an organizing drive which ended in 1941. He transferred that year to West Virginia where he has lived ever since. Others in the running were Joe Yablonski, president of district 5 in western Pennsyl- vania; Harrison Combs, assistant director of the union's legal department; and John M. Kmetz of Nanticoke, Pa., director of the union. 'i'itler became president of district 29 in 1942. Although considered the dark horse candi- date this year, Titler is no stranger to the political wars of the UMW. In 1947 he was mentioned as a possible successor to John O'Leary, UMW vice presi- dent., who died of a heart attack.. And in 1953 he was named by Coal Age magazine as one of the five strongest contenders to take the chair of UMW President John L. Lewis. Since his election as secretary-treasurer of district 17 of the UMW in 1942, Titler has been a controversial figure. He was noted as vehemently opposed to the Taft--Hartley bill, which, he charged, was written to destroy the union. In 1946 he lashed. out at the Fayette County political "machine," charging that it would never carry a coal miner on its ticket, except for an. occasional candidate for the house of delegates. In 1947 he spoke out against a plan to cut miners' overtime pay to 96 cents an hour. He labeled the aroposal "a screwy idea." Yet the coal official also was viewed as a man who could lend support, shown during World War II when he urged unity between miners and operators, with high wages for miners, so more defense bonds could be pur- chased to aid in the national crisis. And during late Gov. William Marland's adminis- tration Titler supported the chief executive's proposed severance tax on West Virginia coal. WEST VIRGINIA 'POSTMASTER HONORED Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, on Thursday, January 20, Post- master General Lawrence F. O'Brien will present special merit citations to 14 post- masters in the United States who have significantly improved the exterior and grounds of their post office buildings as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's natural beauty program. The award presentation will take place in the Post- master General's reception room in Washington, D.C. Among the postmasters to be so hon- ored is Mr. James Dinsmoore of St. Marys, W. Va., who has been postmaster of the second-class post office there since 1956. His work in improving the grounds surrounding the postal facility, at no cost; to the Federal Government, has bee. recognized by the Post Office Depart- ment. As Postmaster General O'Brien said in announcing the award: Post offices across the Nation are becoming leaders in President Johnson's natural beauty program. Postmasters, local postal employee groups, flower and garden clubs, and indi- vidual citizens are all cooperating in the project. The post offices have become local showplaces. I am pleased that Postmaster James Dinsmoore is to receive a merit citation for participation in this program, and I am sure that the St. Marys post office is a true source of civic pride for the citi- zens of that community and surrounding area. WILD RIVERS ACT The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (S. 1446) to reserve certain public lands for a National Wild Rivers System, to provide a procedure for add- ing additional public lands and other lands to the system, and for other pur- poses. Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, earlier this afternoon I sent to the desk an amendment contemplating the incorpo- ration into the pending bill, for study as prospective inclusion in the final draft of the bill, two rivers in Ohio. They are the Little Miami River and the Little Beaver River. Up to this time these two rivers have not been despoiled of their natural rich- ness by the invasion by human beings. They are still substantially in their pris- tine condition. The streams are clear streams. Their borders are lined with trees in great abundance. This natural beauty should be protected against fu- ture spoliation. The rivers should be protected from the contamination that results from the invasion by industry and an increasing population. One of these rivers, the Little Miami River, runs through Clark County of which Springfield is the county seat; through Greene County, of which Xenia is the county seat; through Warren County, of which Lebanon is the county seat; and through Clermont County, of which. Batavia is the county seat. I. begins in the vicinity of Clifton, Ohio, in Montgomery County. The Little Beaver River, with its north and middle forks in Columbiana County, runs from a point in the vicinity of Negly and Elkton, Ohio, downstream to a point; in the vicinity of East Liverpool, Ohio, where it runs into the Ohio River. In my judgment these rivers should be included in, the bill. The rivers are rich in gorges. Al- though from a comparative standpoint the gorges are small, as one enters the area, one feels that he is in some remote region still possessed of its pristine nat- ural beauty. I believe that these streams should be included in the bill. I therefore call up "; "ppro,vec '1-or?" 210 UMI Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Acheson on Our Vietnam Policy: An Asian Greece EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN /+ ~g /. HON. JOHN ~g YI. McCORMACK OF MASSACIIUSETtS- IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, the Honorable Dean Acheson, one of our out- standing Secretaries of State, and dur- ing a trying period in our country's and the world's history has written an inter- esting and sound article on South Viet- nam, which appeared in the Washington Star of January 16, 1966. The views of former Secretary of State Dean Acheson, which I include in my remarks, are worthy of profound consideration. ACIIESON ON OUR VIETNAM POLICY: AN ASIAN GREECE (By Dean Acheson) "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure." The country referred to was poor, its poverty aggravated by foreign occupation and years of warfare. Guerrillas were creat- ing political chaos and making economic re- covery impossible. The existence of the state itself was threatened by large forces supplied, organized, and led by neighboring Com- munist movements. Many of these forces had taken part in the struggle against for- eign occupation. The Communist leaders had previously signed an agreement for peace but had hid- den their weapons and resumed the conflict at the first signs of recovery. The national military forces were unequal to the renewed, foreign aided and directed attack. The country's government was far from any democratic ideal. Previous aid had proved inadequate. The American Govern- ment had to decide whether to go further with funds, armaments, and the necessary military advisers. The President's conclusion was summed up in the sentence quoted above. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE The year was 1947, the country, Greece; the President, Truman; and the policy enun- ciated, the Truman doctrine. It instantly received bipartisan support in Congress and for nearly 20 years, during four administra- tions, has been the policy of the United States. Under it necessary help was given in Greece, Turkey, Korea, Lebanon, and now in Vietnam to prevent Communist takeover "by armed minorities or by outside pressure," or by both. Nineteen years ago, when the policy was first adotped, the United States was in the early stages of its education in methods of Communist conquest. In the immediate postwar years it learned how, in countries occupied by Soviet armies, Communist re- gimes were set up under the protection and opposition liquidated. This happened throughout Eastern Europe. The next step was attempted in countries left in confusion by the war but not occu- pied by Soviet troops. Here internal sub- version, instigated and supplied and con- trolled by outside Communist states, made an armed bid to take over the government. This was the form used in Greece and eastern Turkey. The Truman doctrine labeled this as aggressive Communist expansion and an- nounced the necessity of stopping it. The aggression failed due to massive help given by the United States. The next stage of the Communist assault did away with pretense. South Korea was openly invaded by organized army units from the Communist base outside. American and allied Armed Forces successfully came to the aid of South Korea. WAR OF LIBERATION The current method of Communist expan- sion, employed in Vietnam, is the so-called war of national liberation. In these wars there is an attempt, as there was In Greece, to cloak as an Internal insurrection Commu- nist subversion directed and supplied from outside, and there is added a Korea-like in- vasion by regular army formations from the neighboring Communist state. Our decision to help South Vietnam resist this attempted subjugation involves prin- ciples and policies, all of which were already public and established by 1950. They in turn resulted from an appreciation of the lessons of the 1930's-Manchuria, Ethiopia, the Rhineland, Czechoslovakia-that aggres- sion must either be met early before it has gathered momentum or it will have to be checked later under more adverse conditions. SAME OLD COMPLAINTS The complaints now raised at protest meetings on Vietnam are the same which have been directed against all our efforts to aid peoples resisting Communist subjuga- tion. Our opponents arc usually praised and those we are aiding criticized. We were told that the terrorists, guerrilas, and belligerents in Greece were patriots who had fought the Nazis and whose aim was to replace a corrupt, demoralized govern- ment; that the evidence that they were serv- ing foreign Communist purposes was flimsy; and that the United States was intervening in a purely Greek civil war. On the other hand, the Greek Government was denounced as weak, unrepresentative of the people, par- ticularly of the resistance, and as the creature of the Western allies. Similar unflattering comments were made about the late Syngman Rhee, President of Korea. But the fact now seems too plain for argument that in both Greece and Korea, the intervention and help of the United States preserved the Opportunity to develop toward democratic government by consent. No such similar development can be noted in neigh- boring Balkan States or North Korea. So, today, it Is argued that government in Vietnam is not and has not been demo- cratic and, therefore, Is unworthy of Amer- ican support. But the existence of a demo- cratic system is not the criterion of worthi- ness of American support. That criterion Is determined and demonstrated effort in re- sisting attempted subjugation. Can there he more impressive evidence of such determina- tion and effort among the people of South Vietnam than they are now giving? For they are fighting on after suffering military and civilian casualties which on the basis of comparative populations are equal to near- ly 1 million American casualties. Their pure- ly military casualties on the same basis are fully 10 times greater than those we suffered in Korea. When, as in China and Cuba, a govern- ment facing Communist-led forces failed to retain the support of its people, Its numeri- cally superior forces simply melted away. But in South Vietnam the government forces continue to grow in numbers and aggressive- ness. Not a single political figure or politically significant group in South Vietnam at the time Diem was overthrown or since has shifted allegiance to the Vietcong or been unwilling to continue the struggle. MILLION REFUGEES Finally, there is the record of those who voted with their feet, the million refugees who left the north for South Vietnam after the Geneva accord of 1954 and the hundreds of thousands of refugees who in 1065 alone have left Vietcong areas for government- controlled ones. The South Vietanamese peo- ple and army are fully justifying American assistance by willingly continuing to bear the brunt of what remains their struggle for independence. Fortunately, there Is also in Saigon and in Washington not only determination to suppress the belligerency, but an understand- ing of the importance of political consent in furthering the struggle for Independence. In South Vietnam, even In the midst of devastating warfare, the maneuvering and in- stability which have characterized the gov- ernment since the fall of Diem show both a shift in power and attempts to reach the new balance by taking into account the aspira- tions of the Buddhists, the Catholics, the civilian politicians, the military establish- ment, students, the sects, and the geographic regions. The search for such a balance is not a sub- stitute for political method, but there has also been progress in that direction. Though it seems to have largely escaped public notice, elections for the municipal and provincial councils were held in South Vietnam last May. Observers agree that they were con- ducted in a fair and orderly manner and that the candidates substantially reflected local sentiments. Over half the eligible voters were registered and over 70 percent of those registered actually voted. In North Vietnam there can be found, of course, no glimmering of democratic political method. VITAL TO UNITED STATES The fate of the people of Vietnam is of the same vital concern to the United States as that of those whom in the past we have helped to resist subjugation. Indeed the situation in Asia today is reminiscent of the problems the United States confronted in Europe in 1947. The United States faces in Communist China an aggressive nation im- bued with the same primitive Communist theology which the Soviet Union had 20 years ago, and possessing (as the Soviet Union did) military resources far greater than those of her neighbors. The area to the south, af- flicted by foreign occupation and years of war, offers an invitation to aggression by means of the war of national liberation. Only the United States has the resources to make resistance possible. The Chinese Communists have made it clear that Vietnam is another test of that strategy in Asia for the aggrandisement of the Communist world. The Communist Chinese minister of defense, Marshal Lin Piao, in a speech on September 3, referring Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX J January' 17, 1966 _ Referring to a report of the Citizens Com- mittee for Higher Education, of which he's chairman, Goheen said of the group's urging of a 10-year capital construction program totaling $427 million by 1976: "This may seem way out of the ballpark. But it's just that we in New Jersey haven't known what the ballpark really is." Twentieth Anniversary of the United it we can, -and 'save it we must, and then shall we earn the eternal thanks of man- kind,,, To be able to enjoy a birthday, to be happy about someone's growing older, is a talent reserved for special kinds of people. For ez ample, they are reasonable people, who have a capacity for enjoying the process of growth. Reasonable, or better, reasoning people, are those who rejoice at the birthday of the U.N. because they are convinced that each day of its presence brings us closer to the universal . ons at coming tension among nations. southeast Asia told me the other day that Mc- tihes by fancy or myth. These e birthday there were Asia told me a doubt that that EXTENSION OF REMARKS timized are people who refuse be vfa- or celebrants refuse to knuckle under the fan- Namara was correct when he said last HENRY HELSTOSKI tasy that only war can resolve national dif- November that the United States had HON. ferences. They are people who have per- stopped losing the war in Vietnam. of NEW JERSEY ceived the glorious vision/that this globe is of course the Secretary of Defense has IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES part of a different kind of creation, a crea- done more to confuse the American peo- tion founded upon a reasoned order, whose pie as to the true situation in Vietnam Monday, January 17, 1966 laws of physical balance approve and demand than almost seems possible. en. and in his In 1962 he was quoted as saying he Mr. HELSTOSKI. Mr. Speaker, I amdealingsa similar with balance other in man . pleased to bring to the attention of my Not only reasoning men, but freemen was tremendously encouraged. In Oc- colleagues the remarks of Mr. Ralph exult at this anniversary of the U.N. The tober 1963 he gave as his judgment that Feder; chairman of the Teaneck United enslaved and those who enslave others can- the major part of the U.S. military task Nations Committee which he made at not exult. For them, every tomorrow dis- 'could be completed by the end of 1965. the annual dinner sponsored by this or- solves into yesterday's pain and emptiness. And a month later in Honolulu, he an- ganization.. This dinner was held on For them life has no importance other than nounced that American troops would October 23, 1965, at the Fairleigh Dick- to dominate or to be dominated. But free- men can exult in life, for they know its start being withdrawn before yearend. inson University in Rutherford, N.J: value. They know the exultation of the life ' On March 17, 1964, he said the situa- It is my hope that the Members of that chooses to live. Free Americans can re- tion could be significantly improved in this honorable body will take the few joice in this birthday of an organization that the coming months. A few days later he minutes time it requires to read these seeks to foster the self-determination of peo- repeated that the situation in South exceptionally well-phrased statements pie long oppressed. They see their own Vietnam had worsened. and will note that they have a very poig- struggle to be free magnificiently reflected in May, however, he reported excellent tential progress, but 1 day later told a congres- nant meaning to us at this particular in the U.N.'s work, in releasing human po- a ear a all over the world. In sonal committee that anti-Vietcong ef- time. this is extensioon on of of mankind's s dimension, they forts had deteriorated. The remarks of Mr. Feder follow: themselves grow in their own humanity. In February 1965 he summed up his Your excellency Ambassador Vinci, other "Thy youth shall see visions." Yes, the distinguished guests on the dais and friends very best birthday partyers are not only the views saying that the past. year had all of the United Nations: reasonable and the free, but, and especially, brought some encouraging developments. For the third year it is my great privilege the very young at heart. Youth is happy Last November after a sixth visit, he to welcome you to Teaneck's annual com- about birthdays, because it has a capacity to told the press, as I said at the start, memoration of the founding of the United dream and to plan and to fashion a better "We are no longer losing." Nations. Twenty years have elapsed since tomorrow. Very quickly in life, they detect Mr. Speaker, let me get back to the the hour of its birth, a blessed event, pre- injustice and inequity, and they have the statement of the Member of Congress ceded by the pangs of a suffering humanity. audacity to demand that life. be better, that whom I cited at the outset as telling me We are practical people. None of us is so there be an end to the things that dehu- he had reastt the st outset that lli have us. naive ' t Imagine that that the present conditions of like mWeanize uswho tonight rejoice at the U.N's exist- stopped losing the war. This was from a today .remote cc t duplicates the of the s the siittuaua tion in life ence, are we not as young as they? Are we Congressman fresh back from southeast 1945. are exact ago, life still filled with the vision of 20 years Asia. thne revolutionary Two q auoigno, life did not possess ago? Next week our children will collect Since I quoted this in a House speech not h then e then for UNICEF. They will do so because they recently, I.have been pressed for further original and q nations could it has today. have projected tothe the quick demise demisse o of colonial- know that other children starve in our world, that other children go naked in our details. hav ism, and the proliferation of smaller nation- world, that they are homeless and mother- I do not know the final answer, of alities in Africa and Asia, that would swell less and friendless under a gaping sky. If course, but I am told Americans and their foretold the membership to 117. Who then could we can rejoice tonight, it is because, like that United States and South Vietnam to be enco foretold tstumbling nations whose blocks yet l n- them, we, too, are young and concerned and forces hold less territory now than they encountered by nations whose national in- ashamed that other human beings are forced did a year ago. In the past it has al- terests would conflict with world interests? to lead substandard lives. We rejoice, be- ways been the practice to gage victory Within 20 years, membership in the they- cause we see the dent that the U.N. has in war, on the basis of which force won expectlear club has risen far beyond any made in the wall of man's pain and suffer- and held territory. expectations silently nursed in 1945. Nor ing. We hail its unsung heroes, who have like and the years latt us searless, devoted n the of the cured 37 million children of the yaws, and OrHowever , it l et am will ultimate not on and suddent deaths expended lives devotesons of the 11 million more of trachoma, and another isiteC Count who Bernadotte, , Dag g Haminar- million of leprosy. We rejoice for the U.N. the battlefield, but rather at a peace con- America's Adlai Stevenson. teams that have protected 162 million people ference. If this holds true, politics being skjold, service: And, nontheless, we rejoice. Despite our against tuberculosis, and lowered the inci- what it is with the President and his awareness of frustrations, we celebrate to. dence of malaria by over a hundred million party urgently needing a settlement be- nighta birthday. The very fact that, despite people a year. We rejoice for those name- fore the next election, many people fear the weaknesses that have bothered and con- less men and women of the U.N. who have defeat could come at any time because bedevil the U.N. we can still rejoice, helped to find new homes and new lives for Johnson and his advisers would sign on tells us a great deal about ourselves, about more than a million refugees. any terms. That is why I have so con- the dimensions=of our humanity, and about Faith in reason, in freedom, in youthful sistently called for all facts to be, given the UsN.: Itself. As the late President Ken- idealism. has made our Nation great, and to the American People. Otherwise, if much the to helped create the U.N. It is our faith to- the people are misinformed and. confused, wort said, s Nmueh toe lose~or so nations of oupublic op will have no bearing on gain.h gain.;. Together we shall save ave our planet, t or night.M Let, nothing, AvhnAre tdiminish our re- tcome,i which could be disastrous. the i N Have We Stopped Losing? EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. THOMAS M. PELLY OF WASHINGTON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 PETTY. Mr. Speaker, a Member Mr Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 Deliberately, then, your administration saw fit to interpret the welfare of the American people, their small businesses and their liveli- hood, In the terms laid down by a few giant oil companies. The fruits of an industry that would have meant bread and butter to American citizens in ordinary walks of life were diverted to increase the swollen profits of international profiteers. The same in- terests are profiting again by U.S. offshore production in the Gulf of Mexico that is absorbing most of the growth in demand. No credit is due to your administration for the now rising demand for domestic crude. It was built an the ruination of a substantial portion of the small business economy in. petroleum States and a subsequent collapse of production and reserves. Temporary demand will not reverse the declining trend. It but accents the prediction now being realized-- Unless the U.S. oil policy Is modified to serve the minimum requirements of domestic industry, American oil reserves will vanish. U.S. citizens will then be exploited by inter- national interests in times of peace, and they will be at the mercy of their enemies at each threat of war. This message is sponsored the Kansas independent industry. edly at the sixth annual Round Table Con- stitutions should. He indicated there's an i'erence sponsored yesterday by the Home obligation to a much larger segment of New News. Jersey's youth--who could be accommodated) So too was the urgency for stepped-up sal- if sufficient funds were forthcoming. ary scales for college faculty members to put At present, he said, Douglass College prob- New Jersey institutions of higher education ably draws its student population from the on equal footing with counterparts in other top 10 percent among high school student States in the recruiting battle for topflight bodies; Rutgers, from the top 20 percent. teachers. Gross spoke of the dual aim of a university: These needs, it was stressed, are both cur- To aid students to gain knowledge in a par- rent and continuing. titular field they have selected; and to in- From New Jersey homes there are 50,000 still an interest in culture. Anything less, students attending colleges within the State, he said, and the student winds up with "a said Dr. James Hillier, vice president of RCA truncated education." Laboratories. He said too that class size is a prime con- Hillier, who dug deep into the complexi- sideration, that ideally faculties should be -ties of the college education picture as a augmented at a ratio of 1 Instructor for member of the Governor's Committee on New every increase of 12 in the student population Jersey Higher Education, said expansion is tion. But, because of a lack of funds, it planned to accommodate 2,000 more students "doesn't work out." annually. Biggest roadblock barring better salaries "But by 1970, we'll need about 40,000 new for Rutgers instructors, Gross went on, is the spaces, and another 60,000 on top of that by current arrangement by which State board 1975. The situation is so big, so serious, and of education approval is essential for pay in- we've fallen so far behind that we're just crements. numbed by the problem, The population And, as the Governor's committee pointed boom Is here now and will be with us for out: Fixed by the State board, salary sched- years to come." ules for various academic ranks are the Same The research management expert said that at State (teachers') colleges, Rutgers and the as of today, higher education in the State is Newark College of Engineering. between $100 million and $150 million in ax- by members of oil producing Panelists Stress Need for Educational Funds EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. EDWARD J. PATTEN OF' NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 Mr. PATTEN. Mr. Speaker, with !;rowing numbers of qualified high school graduates wanting to enter college, the need for more higher educational facili- ties becomes Imperative, a.; well as the necessity of increased faculty salaries. In New Jersey alone, 4,000 applicants were turned away by colleges last fall, be- cause of a shortage of facilities. That problem is faced by virtually every State and the main obstacle is the same: in- sufficient: funds,, The Higher Education Act of 1965, which I voted for, will provide some help to New Jersey. It will receive $11,949,_ 000 in the 1966 fiscal year from this pro- >gram, including $1,319,000 in educational opportunity grants. Although this Federal aid is encour- aging and appreciated, much more assist- ance is needed if the colleges and uni- versities in our State are to provide the facilities required by high school grad- uates. To connection with this vital and urgent goal, the Daily Home News of New Brunswick, N.J., sponsored its sixth annual Round Table Conference, with three university presidents and an indus- trial executive comprising a panel which discussed, "The Future of Higher Educa- tion in New Jersey." The article, written by Frank Kelly, entitled, "Panelists Stress Need for Edu- cational Funds," follows: PANELISTS STRESS NEED FOR EDUCATIONAL lb NDS (13y frank Kelly) The ever-in.crea:;ing need for funds to .rovide for the State's burgeoning college- raudent population was underscored repeat- Pinpointing the problem as getting the Pay for a new faculty member is set at the public to recognize its responsibilities. P_iil- minimum figure stipulated for his academic her asserted: "It bothers me. We're living in rank, Thus, the school's president is under this tax-free paradise, while sponging on a severe handicap when negotiating with other States." prospective faculty members. This was in reference to his earlier state- Resultant inequities Gross cited included went that besides the 50,000 New Jerseyans this one: State colleges in New Jersey com- who are staying in the Garden State for their pare favorably sal.arywise with those in other education, some 60,000 are seeking it at out- States but Rutgers lags substantially behind of -State institutions. other States' universities. 'While he believes that New Jersey's ere- Sounding the dilemma of the private In- Inentary and secondary school programs are stitution was Bishop Dougherty. Reading solid, Hillier said industries in this State from a report in a 1962 issue of the Se:ton suffer recruiting losses. Prospective cm- Hall University alumni magazine, he said ployees, out of staters with children, go else- that from 1947 to 1962 a 104-percent increase where when. they view New Jersey's "spotty" in the student population occurred in public higher education system. (tax-supported) institutions of higher edu- UNWILLING LEGISLATURE The conference moderator, James Kerney, Jr., publisher of the Trenton Times and a former member of the State tax policy Com- mission, ascribed much of the lag in higher education aid to an unwilling legislature. He believes the public, conversely, "is more willing to be taxed in this area and oth- ers * * * where it wasn't 10 years ago." Fly and large, the panel which also in- cluded Dr. Mason W. Gross, president of Rutgers University; the Most Reverend John J. Dougherty, auxiliary Bishop of the Arch- diocese of Newark and president of Seton Hall University, and Dr. Robert F. Goheen, Princeton University president, agreed with the recommendations of the Governor's com- mittee for Stetting up a cabinet-level agency to Wrestle With New Jersey's needs in higher education. The committee, headed by Dr. Carroll V. Newsom, former president of New York Uni- versity, urged revision of the current admin- istrative structure--the State department of education and the State board of education. Quality in higher education--how to in- sure it when involved with a large student body-was discussed by Gross. He said paying attractive salaries to fac- ulty members is a necessary condition but not an absolute assurance of top-caliber in- structional quality. Gross observed that at Rutgers (where 4,000 New Jerseyans were turned away last fall because the university was filled) the present student body was assembled "from the top down," based on secondary school records. of concern expressed by leaders and by just Such a competent collection of students plain, ordinary people all over the State. It has made teaching much easier, he con- gives me some hope that things will start to tinued, but this isn't doing the job State in- move to make up for some of these lags." cation compared to only 29 percent in private (non-tax-supported) schools. "In 1950, 50.7 percent of the Nation's stu- dents attended private colleges; in 1954, 44 percent; in 1961, 39 percent. "Private institutions-the weaker ones-I conclude, will be priced right out of existence because of the competition (with public schools) based on caliber of students and caliber of faculities." Bishop Dougherty asked: "Can we (private institutions) match instructors' salaries with those paid by public institution?" He echoed a Citizens Committee for Higher Education suggestion that a stipend be given to the stu- dent who prefers to attend a private college or university in New Jersey-a stipend in proportion to his needs to finance such at- tendance. "We feel this would be a definite help in aiding the balance between public and private institutions." NEED MORE PROFESSIONALS Principal dynamos in American society since World War I ended, said Goheen, have been science and technology. He spoke, too, of the Nation's swelling populace and resul- tant changes in the economy, the need for more professionally trained men and wom- en-lawyers, doctors, welfare workers. "There's a need today for a diversified mul- tilevel system of education throughout the United States"-from the 2-year community college to postdoctorate degree programs. Higher education: in New Jersey, he de- clared, is "badly undernourished, lagging in planning and in opportunities available." However, Goheen voiced a measure of op- timism: I'm deeply impressed with the degree Fn ,: proves or ere CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX A149 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 January 17, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD APPENDIX A Congressman recently told the Wall Street Journal that the thing that scares him is the President signing his name to almost anything in order to get a settlement. My point is, no such thing will happen if the American people are told the full story because public opin- ion is a powerful influence. Meanwhile, in spite of McNamara's statement that we have stopped losing the war, here are a few facts from Sen- ator MANSFIELD'S report which could con- tradict this. The Vietcong force in South Vietnam is double that of 3 years ago. Their strength is steadily increasing. Introduction of U.S. forces- The report says- have blunted but not turned back the Viet- cong drive. The lines remain drawn in South Vietnam in substantially the same pattern as when the United States Increased its com- mitment. The Mansfield report frankly admits that the war has expanded into Laos and is beginning to lap over the Cambodian border. Worst of all, it concludes that there are no grounds for optimism that the end is likely to be reached within the confines of South Vietnam or within the very near future. Mr. Speaker, if these facts make it ap- pear as though we have stopped losing, there is something wrong with my eye- sight. Especially this opinion should be considered in the light of the fact that the Vietcong, as I have pointed out be- fore, hold more territory today than they did a year ago. The picture Is not bright and the people should know it. SPEECH OF HON. WILLIAM S. MAILLIARD OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 12, 1966 Mr. MAILLIARD. Mr. Speaker, in the passing of HERBERT BONNER the Nation has lost a wise and able statesman. But, more particularly, the American Mer- chant Marine has lost a champion and skilled architect. No man labored more or gave more unstintingly of himself on its behalf throughout almost three decades than did HERB BONNER. The fast, modern greyhounds of the seas, which today carry the American flag to the farflung corners of the globe, stand in living tribute as a monument to the endeavors of this one man. These same ships, constructed as a result of the vision and foresight of HERBERT BONNER, are today bridging the oceans to supply American troops in Vietnam. Seamen and American fighting men throughout the world owe a great debt to this man. Truly, one can say that memorials to his achievements are now in being through- out the world wherever American-flag merchant ships ply their trade. But to me the death Of HERB BONNER means much more. I have lost a warm and personal friend with whom I have labored side-by-side for more than 13 years. He was a close confidant. He was a man whose counsel I held in greatest respect. He was a man whom I grew to love more with each passing year. Perhaps the English poet laureate, Robert Southy, best expressed my feel- ings when he said, and I quote : The loss of a friend is. like that of a limb; time may heal the anguish of the wound, but the loss cannot be repaired. To his devoted and gracious widow, Eva, I can only say that her sadness is shared by HERBERT's legion of friends and admirers. Perhaps this fact will make her burden just a little easier to bear. Remarks of Congressman William M. Tuck, Democrat, of Virginia, at the An- nual Meeting of the Virginia Associ- ation of Soil and Water District Super- visors at Richmond, Va., January 11, 1966 EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WATKINS M. ABBITT OF VIRGINIA . IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 Mr. ABBITT. Mr. Speaker, on last Tuesday, January 11, the Honorable WIL- LIAM M. TUCK, of the Fifth District of Virginia, addressed the annual meeting of soil conservationists in Virginia and made a splendid address. Congressman Tucx served as Governor of Virginia from 1946 until 1950 and has an intimate knowledge of the problems of water and soil conservation not only in our State but throughout the Nation. His remarks are so timely and so inter- esting that I would like to commend them to the reading of the Members of the House. I take pleasure in inserting his address in the RECORD at this point: REMARKS OF CONGRESSMAN WILLIAM M. TUCK, DEMOCRAT OF VIRGINIA, AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE VIRGINIA ASSOCIATION OF SOIL AND WATER DISTRICT SUPERVISORS AT RICHMOND, VA., JANUARY 11, 1966 It Is a pleasure to participate in your annual meeting, and to meet with you ex- perts in the conservation and development of our land and water resources. There is noth- ing more basic to our economy and welfare than our natural resources. It is an in- escapable fact that what we do with our natural resources will not only affect our social and economic welfare of today, but also pave the way for future developments. Although I am not a conservation expert, I am well acquainted with the soil conserva- tion movement. I am aware of the need for a technically sound conservation plan on all land, whether it is farmland or not. I am proud to say that my own farm is a better one for the use of the technical know-how that has been developed in the last 30 years. I am not a stranger to the soil conserva- tion movement in Virginia. I have followed it as a member of the general assembly, as Governor, and as a Member of Congress. I have noted with great interest the concern of the people of Virginia in our great land and water resources. I have seen interest In soil conservation grow through the expanded soil conservation district programs. I be- lieve in these programs and have expressed my support of them in the Congress. A151 In Virginia, we- have already come face to face with soil and water problems that every community faces today. The rapid growth of population demands space for homes, industries, highways, schools and playgrounds, shopping centers, and recreation areas, as well as the water, sewage, and other facilities that must accompany this growth. While in Virginia the expansion is most noticeable near the large metropolitan areas like Washington, Norfolk, Richmond, Roanoke, and Petersburg, it is by no means confined to them. Practically every small city and town is experiencing this growth. The State is actively encouraging industry to move in. The highway system is being im- proved and linked into the interstate sys- tems. Tourism is big business and Is grow- ing. State and local planning groups and commissions are working on long-range land- use plans. Health and sanitary agencies, county planning and zoning boards, housing developers, and county governing bodies are becoming aware that we need careful, long- term planning if we are to make the best use of our land and water. Our internationally famed Dulles Airport in Virginia near Washington is a showcase for aviation industry. It is also a showcase for conservation and its part in developing land to protect a community during and after con- struction. It reflects credit on the work that soil conservation districts are doing, and the tremendous part they can and should plan In nonagricultural development of rural land. It is an example of teamwork between a soil conservation district and Federal agencies. The Potomac River is another of our attrac- tions. What is done on much of our northern Virginia land contributes either to the beauty and usefulness of this great river orto its pollution. I know that the soil conservation districts within the Potomac River Basin have been working in the hope of making this stream a model of scenic and recreational values. I believe the work they are doing to keep the soil on the land is one of the important phases of our, program to beautify the Potomac. Nearer Washington, urban de- velopment and other problems are going to haveto be dealt with also. I hope that you as experts in conservation and development of our land and water resources will make your- selves heard and be a part of the campaign to clean up this historic river that has the potential to provide beauty, pleasure, and relaxation to those who live nearby and to those who come from all over the world. The Potomac River and the Dulles Airport are showcases that are open to view by visitors from far and wide. However, the con- servation work that you are doing through- out Virginia is no less vital to the health of our natural resources, to the economy of the State, and to the welfare of its people. Congress, since it set up the mechanism through which the soil conservation move-. ment began over 30 years ago, has continued to add tools for use in resource conservation. It has supported sound conservation programs. In this decade, the U.S. Congress has broad- ened the soil and water conservation program by new legislation and by amendments to the old. The Watershed Protection and Flood Pre- vention Act has been amended to strengthen the assistance available from the Federal Government in order to make the program more effective. A 1962 amendment provided for Federal assistance in developing public recreation facilities and water storage for future municipal or industrial use. The amendment enables local communities to make greater use of the multiple-purpose principle. - Fortunately, one resource can often be put to many uses. And when local people and public agencies work together, the re- sults are far better than those obtained Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 Approved For Release 2006/11/06: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400010012-3 A152 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- APPENDIX January 17, 1966 when development Is piecemeal or through programs with single-purpose objectives. Our growing population and the complexity of our economy are adding new dimensions to the problem of resource management in this Nation. There are more claimants for natural resources and resource products, and the result is conflict and competition. This increases the need for multiple use so that several needs can be satisfied from a given source. It creates the need for coordination so that waste and mismanagement can be prevented. The small watershed program provides for the multiple-use concept and it adds some other highly important ingredients-local leadership, local coordination, and local par- ticipation. Undoubtedly the involvement of local people is the reason the program has been so effective. Our Mountain Run watershed project in Culpeper County has gained nationwide at- tention since it was dedicated in 1961. I am very proud of it. It is an example of the economic benefits a community can obtain through a multiple-purpose project that pro- vides a dependable water supply and over- comes the threat of flood damages. I am told that, since the national small watershed program began, reservoirs that have been built, or that have been author- ized, will provide water to more than 101) cities and towns ranging in population fro:na a few hundred to about 70,000, and totaling over 624,000. Since the 1962 amendment, in- terest in including water supply in water- shed projects has increased considerably. Development of public recreation facili- ties In watershed projects has also been stepped up considerably since the 190:2 amendment. I understand that recreation is included in 67 of the projects designed since 1962, and that they will provide over 4 million visitor-days of recreation annually when completed. I am well pleased that Virginia has taken advantage of the provisions of these amend- ments. Ten of the 25 watershed projects you are installing are multiple purpose. Nine of them include municipal water supply and one of these also includes recreation. More than 100,500 people in Culpeper, Keysville, Madison, Staunton, Luray, Drakes Branch, Chatham, Louisa, and Mineral and in Albe- marle and Augusta Counties will benefit from the water supplied from reservoirs In these projects. During the calendar year 1965, congres- sional committees approved for operations L19 projects-the largest number in any 1 year since the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act was passed in 1954. About 65 percent of these projects were designed for municipal water supply, recreation, or agricultural water management, in addition to flood prevention. For this fiscal year, the Congress has in-- creased the watershed protection appropria- tion to relieve the backlog of worthy water- shed projects that have been planned and are ready to move ahead. The drought conditions in the eastern United States during the last 3 years has made us all more conscious of the need to plan carefully for water supply. It has gen.. crated interest in local water problems. It has also brought farm and nonfarm people together t:a work out long-term plans and come up with something that is beneficial to all segments of the community. Demande, for land and water are increasing so rapidly that only by this type of team-: work can the available resources satisfy the needs. There is just so much land and water. We have to make the best use of it, This requires careful planning. You are ex- perts in the conservation field. Your experi- ence, your know-how, is sorely needed in re-, source planning. I urge that your soil con- servation district programs Include plans to make the best use possible of land and water resources to enhance the economy of the entire community. We cannot afford to waste water in our homes, in industry, or on our farms. We cannot afford to let good usable water run off to waste, eroding our farmlands, flooding our valley,, and silting up our reservoirs and waterways in the process. . In. 1965, the Congress added other tools through which the Nation's water and other resource problems can be evaluated and relieved. The Rural Water and Sanitation Facilities Act, for example, provides loans and grants to plan and construct community water sup- ply and sanitation facilities in rural com- munities not in excess of 5,500 population. The Water Quality Act provides for the es- tablishment and enforcement of water qual- ity standards for interstate streams. It in- creased Federal grants for construction of community sewage projects. The Water Resources Planning Act pro- vides for Federal and regional coordination of plans for water resources development. It authorized Federal matching grants for the States for development of water resource programs. The Federal Water Projects Recreation Act provides u?tifo:rm policies for fish and wild- life enhancement and recreation in Federal multiple-purpose water resource projects. Other legislation is aimed at creating more jobs and economic opportunities in hard- pressed areas through resource development. The Appalachian Regional Development Act and the Public Works and Economic Devel- opment Act both provide for stepped up or expanded resource development activities. The croplancL adjustment program, aimed at removing surplus production, emphasizes shifting land Into public benefit uses that also conserve soil and water to meet future needs. It also offers opportunity for land- owners to receive increased payments if they open their land to the public for recreation uses such as fishing, hunting, hiking, and trapping. Future legislation will continu^ to reflect the :needs and wants of the people. It will reflect the changes of the time- changes in resource demands and conservation and de- velopment problems, expanded population, changes in land use, leisure time, znd the af- fluerccy of the Nation. I consider resource conservation and de- velopment an important part of making rural. America a place of opportunity for all who dwell there. I consider it extremely worthy of support by the U.S. Congress, by State legislatures, by cities, and by counties, and by the people-all the people, for they are the beneficiaries. This year the Congress Increased Soil Con- servation Service funds $9.5 million over last year. The SCS contribution to soil and water conservation activities in Virginia dur- ing fiscal year 1966 will amount to an esti- mated $4.5 million. This is more than double the 1960 figure. The Virginia State Legislature appropri- ated $232,600 for soil and water conservation work in fiscal year 1966. This includes $93,075 for planning watershed projects and $14,520 for installing projects. It also in- cludes $80,000 to help speed up completion of soil surveys in counties that have urban conservation problems or Where problems are anticipated. The value of local governmental contribu- tions to help carry out the program of local soil conservation districts in Virginia for fiscal year 1966 is approximately $69,715. One of the most important ingredients to the success of the conservation program is local financial support. As the conservation job becomes more complex, the State and local funds will need to be increased--not to take the place of Federal funds, but to sup- plement them or to extend their effectiveness. Of the 25 million acres within the bound- aries of the 31 soil conservation districts in Virginia, I note that basic conservation plans have been made on only 5.5 million acres. The plans have been fully carried out on only 2.4 million acres. I realize that not as much technical help is available as needed. I know that Federal technical assistance in planning and apply- ing conservation measures Is limited. That is why government at all levels :must give financial support to the conservation pro- gram. That is why I opposed the proposal before Congress last year that required farm- ers to pay part of the cost of the technical assistance that has been free from the Fed- eral Government. I believe that it would curtail conservation work that benefits the farmers and the whole community- I be- lieve that it would have set conservation back 30 years and have laid us wide open to future conservation problems. The demands on our land and water re- sources in the next few decades will grow tremendously. To meet the requirements for food, for recreation, for industry, for places for an expanding population to live, work, and to go to school, for highways, reservoirs, forest products, will call for wise planning and efficient management of our resources. We will need to prevent erosion and flood damages to our valuable land. We will :need to improve water resources, to prevent water shortages, and to avoid water waste. I think we have an excellent team. There is no doubt that we can do it. But it will take the involvement of both land users and consumers, both rural and urban people. Only then will we be able to go full steam ahead. EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. H. R. GROSS OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, with thou- sands of young men being drafted, some destined to leave their wives and others their sweethearts for duty in distant lands, including Vietnam, the following editorial from the Washington Evening Star is well. worth reprinting.: SMILING FORTUNE The world. may be a cynical old place, but now and then our faith is restored when for- tune smiles in the right direction. On Pat- rick John Nugent, for example. Like many draft-age Americans, Pat faced a possibly long separation from his fiance-who hap- pens to be the President's daughter, Luci. Fortunately, his basic training as an acti- vated Air National Guardsman took place at a Texas Air Force base near the L.B.J. ranch. This allowed him to see Luci on weekends, and all was well. But anxiety must have stalked the young couple. What happened when basic training was completed? What about those long 4 months remaining on Pat's military commit- ment? It was a dilemma, all right, but :fate again intervened. By coincidence, Pat will spend the remainder of his active duty at Andrews Air Force Base. To be sure, An- drews is 10 long miles from the White House. A kinder fate would have assigned him to the White House heliport. But the Air Force managed to compensate for this cruelty by arranging for Pat to live off base when not on duty. Some Congressmen have grumbled about the chain of coincidences which has kept Pat and Dud. together. But this is the churl- ish viewpoint. We happen to believe It all pproveU7o-r7Releas '0t7'6~''I "0T"" 'CrA'"ROTY67'B"C