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February 10, 1966
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Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 1,1, here said, to me. "If you want to call this light something else that is your privilege. But basically you are resisting the Chinese thrust for complete dominance of Asia, and I commend you for It. You are the only r:a- Lion in the world with the guts and vigor to do it." I:oth hawks and doves agree that China is o' it, of the central issues of the war, and that lie Vietcong versus Vietnamese Governments struggle is--relatively-a side issue. The hawks are pressing for a direct confronta- Lion with China, some of them even hoping for an excluse to bomb out the Chinese :nu- clear facilities. The doves feel that no mat- ter what we do. China in the year 2000 will clearly be the dominant power in Asia. as we are in the Western Hemisphere, and it is, a waste of money and lives to fight such a use- less fight The terrible thing is that both arguments are valid, and a choice between them is not simple. A direct challenge to the Chinese would not be a simple matter of bombing a Comic facilities. One would have to send in .,t land array to fight across China, and as Mao Tse-tung has pointed out, it would be almost impossible for us to field ate army large enough for victory. We are, after all, almost completely alone in our current Asian policy. A 'he aa.sumption that China is interested only in consolidating its power in Asia as- sumes that it dedicated Communist revolu- tionary has a point at which he becomes sated. It is inconceivable that the Chinese will launch a fleet of junks across the Pacific to storm ashore at San Diego. I sut the military strategists are also aware tlu;.t in a Jew years the Chinese will have the missiles rec:uired to launch their atomic weapons, and when that clay dawns, the United States will be faced with an adversary tax more dangerous than Nikita Khrushcl.ev ever was. 'There is no indication that the younger generation of Chinese Communists, whose character was not formed in the long, bloody civil war with Chiang Kai-shek, are less hard, or less Chinese than the aging guerrillas head by Mao Tse-tung. It took the Russians 40 years to face the responsibilities of their power," one American political officer said. "The Chinese are just starting t:o flex their musclies. It's like a street fight. The most dangerous kid on the block is usually the strong young kid who Chinks he's unbeatable." No one understands the Chinese thirst for expansion better than the Vietnamese, north arid south. They fought the Chinese for almost 1,6Q0 years. In his way, Ho Chi. Minh has done in astute job of holding them back even now. "Ho has played it very cagey," one Saigon political observer said. "He took all the help lie needed from the Chinese during the fight against the French, and used China as a rsasictuare. But he never allowed North Vietnam to become the kind of outright satellite that say, Rumania, was. The Viet- cong are taking the weapons from- China, and the political support. They know that most Asians lair China, and they make that fear work for them. But they also tell you that they will not have fought the Japanese, the French wid the Americans for 30 years just to let the Chinese march in." In some ways, the Vietcong in the south do not even trust Ito Chi Minh. On at least three separate occasions the north has sold nut the southern revolution: in March 1946, when Ho made an agreement with the French that created a free state within the French Union, but left Cochin China (South Viet- nam) under absolute French rule; in Geneva, in 1954, when Ho accepted the cutoff at the 17th parallel; and again in 1956 when North Vietnam made only feeble protests about the cancellation of the elections whir h were sup- posed to reunite the country. "Everyone thinks the war can be solved if the United States just sits down with the North Vietnamese," one Saigon official said. "Suppose the Vietcong say to boi h 'get lost'? What happens then?" The truth is that it is absurd to think of negotiating a solution to the war without making the Vietcong, and their Political arm, the National Liberation Front, a party to the proceedings. They made the revolution- with the support of North Vietnam and China, to be sure--and they will have a say in how it ends. Unfortunately, the best we can expect from a negotiated settlement is a coali -ion govern- ment, and there is little doubt that such a government would become Communist in a matter of a, few years. With China breathing hard upon all of them, there is little hope for any nation in southeast Asia to be truly inde- pendent. They might be sovereign, but no more independent than stay, Guate- mala. And our own chances id, trying to transform Ito Chi Minh into a kind of south- east Asian Tito withered In the erld war, and the missionary evangelism of John Foster Dulles. The history of our involvement in Vietnam, like that of China and Cuba, is a history of lost chances ~iu the hard choices in Vietnam are staring us in the face. We can negott:ete a settle- ment, if the other side agrees finally to talk, and be prepared eventually to lose South Vietnam to a Communist government. We can save face doing this; by agreeing to phase out our troops over a 3-year period while the coalition government tries to govern the country As it nation, we can then pull back to a more sensible commitment n the world. We can concentrate on South America, on our own domestic running sores like slums and poverty. We can give up the role of playing policemen to the world. But if we do that we must rec-arnize it as a kind of victory for China. The Chinese themselves are making this war into a war of Asians against white men. We oust be very clear on that if we decide to negen.iate. China is holding up the Vietnamese exstnple to the rest of the world. One more decade of in- competent. hopeless rule, and India could go to the Communists. If Africa continues on its erratic path, the Communist.:; could take most of it. The one thing comremnism does otter. after all, is stability. It is the stability of the graveyard, but it you are rcarching for peace and quiet, Albania is the 1,i:e.ce to go. '.Chose who have studied the situation do not believe' much in the domino theory, but they do feel that the Chinese Communists see the world power struggle as an extension of guerrilla, warfare. In guerrilla warfare you isolate the enemy in the cities bt, taking over the countryside. By extension, the conti- nental United States becomes the city, the underdeveloped world the countryside. In those terns the Chinese threat, especially when it. achieves the means , f delivering atomic weapons, is a real one. So the second choice is to fight;. If we de- cide the fight is worthwhile and that we can contain Chinese expanionism by making that fight in South Vietnam, then we must imme- diately snake the terms of the fig] it clear. We must stop the pious rhetoric and the murky generalities. We must tell the people of this country that young men will die in the next 5 or 6 years as they have never died before. One military man in Saigon told me that we must be prepared to take 300,000 casualties, and possibly more. We can hope that in the interim Ho Chi Minh and Mao Tse-tung will die; the Vietcong cause will lose popularity with the death of Ho; and the Chinese might become more tractable without Mao. Every military man I spoke to is apre.ed that the war will be bloody and long. The popularity-of-the-war polls are running in favor of keeping the war going. But most experts suspect that this is only because he war and its bloody possibilities have never been fully explained. The various plans for solving he war, in- cluding the so-called Gavin plan, are all based on an American pullout. One can sit in enclaves and leave therest of South Viet- nam to the Vietcong until a peace of sorts can be negotiated. Other plans call for figcrt- ing until the rebellion is crushed, as was done in Malaya, the Philippines, and Greece. Each is based on the belief that there are simple solutions to complex problems. As a reporter, I discovered in South Viet- nam that the world is never as simple it:; it seems when sitting at a typewriter in New York. I don't like young men dy' rg. I dent like the idea that my country is fighting to keep it corrupt, selfish, feudal society in pourer in a country whose citizens demand revolu- tion. I wish for once we had joined a revolu- tion instead of fighting against it. But I would hate to have to explain to young men in 1980 that the reason we are about to engage the Chinese in ;i contest to destroy the world with nuclear arms was because we walked away from a light ire 11,66. I do wish the cant and the lying would be removed from the discussion and that, we would be told some concrete truths about the war. Perhaps if our Government would do that we could all decide clearly what we think should be done. I don't really know. I do know that as you read this young me;n are dying. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPR:ESENTATIVIP; Wednesday, February Z, 1966 Mr. TEAGUE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, before the present Congress is adjourned, we will be called upon to consider and act on a number of pieces of legislation affecting labor and industry. Under leave to extend my remarks I wish to include a copy of a letter written by a small independent businessman. Nantes and figures have been deleted, but the thoughts in the letter are worthwhile in light of the pending legislation: JANUARY 14, 1061 I have just returned from New York, where, for a period of 10 days, I was for,,ed to experience the inconvenience and disccin- fort in connection with what wus probably the costliest and most unnecessary strike in the history of the city of New Yorlc. If there had not already been a critical need for such a letter as this, going through the subway strike would certainly have provoked one. First of all, may I express my appreciation for the fact that you are our Congressman at large, and I find myself seldom if ever in disagreement with the stand you have taken on legislation. We are now in a new session of Congress, and if one would be influenced by President Johnson's message to Congress, it world seem that a considerable portion of the legis- lation under consideration will be of a char- acter, which, if enacted, would :have :a dev- astating effect on smaller towns and smaller retailers, so disastrous, in fact that there is Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 WV011itary 10AIl ed ForcR 1+ D6YB K29R ROP6-7 QO400020004-2 Women's Division, Miami Chamber of Com- merce. The club sponsored a 13-week traffic safety program on Channel 2 in 1958 and Edna Van Acker that year became Southeastern Re- gional Chairman of the Business and Pro- fessional Women's Clubs.- She previously had headed district 10 and the Florida Federation, which she also had served as scholarship chairman and member. ship chairman. In her latter role she assisted in organizing 25 clubs in Florida, with a membership of more than 1,000 women. A BIRTHDAY HONOR; THE LEADING WOMEN OF MIAMI BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUB Business and professional women's club leaders have been heralded throughout the last half century in this community ever since the Mian)i BPW Club, was organized February 2, 1916. Miami Club will honor several of theirs at its 50th birthday party Saturday at Ever- glades Hotel including their first president, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who has written many books that have brought her fame since that day when she took office. Mrs. Douglas, a former newspaperwoman, is author of "The Everglades, River of Grass," "Road to the Sun," "Freedom River" and "Hurricane" as well as many magazine stories. When the club's current leader, Florence McMahon (Mrs. Richard T.) Yoder left De- troit for Miami in 1956 she went back to college. Two years later she graduated with honors from the 1 niversity of Miami, a bachelor of business administration. Mrs. Yoder began her business career run- ning a sewer. cleaning business. Today she is external auditor for the Dade County Port Authority at Miami International Airport, employed by Morgan Altemus & Barrs, CPA firm. She is a member of Alpha Lambda Delta, Beta Sigma Phi, and Phi Kappa Phi. Upon graduation from the university she received an award from the Florida Institute of Cer- tified Public Accountants. In September 1965 "Mac" married Richard Yoder of the Finance Office, Urban Renewal Project in Dade County. One of the Miami club's past presidents, Mrs. Clara Caspar, will come all the way from Junction City, Kans., to attend the 50th birthday candlelight dinner. She served her club in 1941-42 and was the first of its World War II leaders. She saw her member- ship making quick response to wartime vol- unteer service. With other past presidents Mrs. Caspar will be introduced during Saturday's cele- bration by another past president, Lila Mae (Mrs. Samuel L.) Durgan. Lila Mae rose to be president of the Flori- da Federation of BPW Clubs in 1958. She was first State governor of Florida Opti-Mrs. Clubs; was chairman of the Poinciana Fest- ival in the city of Miami in 1961. In 1962 she served as president of the United Church Women of Greater Miami. It was during her administration of Miami BPW that she inaugurated the Club Chatter, a bulletin. Traffic safety has long been a must in the lives of the Miami BPW Club members. Among past presidents who backed it with fervor is Irene Redstone, attorney, who served as prexy in 1946-47. She inaugurated a traffic sticker program that employed the slogan "Safety Through Courtesy.", Miss Redstone is assistant staff counsel for the Florida Bar Association in charge of its grievance committee office. She specializes in child custody matters. Her membership in Miami BPW was inter- rupted during World War II by 3 years in the Navy as Yeoman 1st Class. It was after the war that she studied law at the University of Miami and earned her degree. She serves the American Bar Association's Council on the section of family law. When Miamian Valley K. Bennett's hus- band Robert, died in Tifton, Ga., in 1917, she became president of Bennett's Hardware, Inc., dealers in hardware, paints, varnishes, and farm implements. Mrs. Bennett learned "Ignorance is bliss. It stood me in good hand during many an incidental need for knowledge." She started learning the business includ- ing how to assemble plows, mowing machines, milk separators, cultivators, much to the amazement of my customers. In Tifton in 1918 she helped organize and became president of the Tifton Business and Professional Women's Club. Then came an exodus of many Georgians to Flor- ida, among them Mrs. Bennett. Through the first vice president of the First National Bank of Miami, Mildred Romfh, Mrs. Bennett became manager of the savings department of the bank. Miss Romfh was a past president of the Miami BPW Club, which Mrs. Bennett had joined. Valley herself became president in 1933. Before her retirement in 1953 Mrs. Bennett had been an accountant for a factory rep- resentative of food products and allied lines. During World War II she was chairman of the business and professional women's divi- sion of the Dade County War Finance Com- mittee for the U.S. Treasury. She also is an active member of the Miami Soroptimist Club and the Miami Bookfellows. While Judge Mattie Belle Davis was presi- dent of the Miami BPW Club (1952-54) Dade County women became incensed by the lack of enforcement of the 1961 meat inspection law in Florida. Her Miami club joined other clubs in show- ing their disapproval. The result was favor- able action by the State Livestock Board. Judge Davis is the first Floridian to serve as president of the National Association of Women Lawyers and the only woman to sit on the bench of the Dade County Metropoli- tan Court. She began her legal career as a secretary in the office of the late Troy Davis, whom she later married. With him she practiced law after passing her bar examinations in 1936. Georgia-born Judge Davis was appointed as judge of the Metropolitan Court of Dade County by the board of commissioners in 1959 and reappointed in July 1964. She was a member of the American Bar Association's associate and advisory committee to the standing committee on the traffic court pro- gram. She is active in Zonta Club of Greater Miami and is on the international safety committee of Zonta International. For 2 years she was president of the Haven School for Mentally Retarded Children; then its sec- retary. For 2 years she headed the Dade TB Association. She has served 8 years as legislation chairmen for the Dade County Federation of Women's Clubs. NBC Honors Chicago's Len O'Connor on His 25th Year of Reporting EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROMAN C. PUCINSKI OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, January 12, 1966 Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Speaker, last night the National Broadcasting Co. honored one of Chicago's most highly A701 respected journalists, Len O'Connor, who is observing his 25th year of reporting, Len O'Connor is one of Chicago's most popular television journalists and com- mentators. NBC is to be congratulated for honoring him on his 25th anniver- sary. He is frequently called the "Guardian' of Chicago's Conscience," Because of his thorough understanding of the prob- lems of a large city like Chicago; his deep insight into problems of America and his thorough knowledge of inter- national affairs,, he today has several million people in the Midwest following his daily commentary both on radio and television. Len O'Connor - is a newspaperman's journalist. He is penetrating, percep- tive, understanding and often pungent, but never unfair. He has earned the respect not only of those he reports about, but also those he reports for. Mr. Speaker it was a privilege to be invited yesterday to see the top manage- ment people from the National Broad- casting Co.'s Midwest facilities present Len O'Connor with a wrist watch in grateful recognition of his 25 years of outstanding journalism. May time be kind to him so he can observe his golden jubilee of enterprising and dedicated contributions to the high- est standards of American journalism. Hope and Promise EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROY H. McVICKER OF COLORADO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 17, 1966 Mr. McVICKER. Mr. Speaker, Amer- ica is at its greatest when it accents the positive, and this we. are able to do when we fight "wars" on poverty and disease and thus lift tip the spirits of mankind. This is the step we are taking now in Vietnam-a positive step, reflected by the fact that the President. took the Sec- retaries of Welfare and Agriculture to the Honolulu meeting. The New-York Herald-Tribune said: It is in their fields that the United States can well take the offensive, against disease and poverty, and thus strengthen the de- fense of South Vietnam at vital points. For this is the positive side of the ugly war, the hope and the promise. And it is this that gives a particular moral content to the whole united effort to bring peace to a free South Vietnam. I found the editorial to be most en- lightening, and I therefore recommend that it be printed in the RECORD, where others also may read it. COUNCIL IN THE PACIFIC It is reasonable to suppose that the pri- mary intent of President Johnson's journey to Hawaii to meet with the Americans and South Vietnamese concerned with the strug- gle in Vietnam is to discuss the prosecution of the war. Meanwhile, in the wake of the Security Council's decisiop to take up the Vietnam question, U.N. members have been stepping up activities intended to end the Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 A 702 Approved CFPJ a@T$49* ' lA?RDPA~ 00040000 @ 1q"/ 1 , war. Yet the two efforts are not contra- ,t i:- Ivory. tmerican alms fn Vietnam are essentially defensive. They are to prevent the forcible .absorption of South Vietnam by the north. Diplomatic efforts to end the war must take into account the stark fact that the goal of r,ito North Vietnam Government and the Vietcong is to swallow up the south; neither has; ever deviated in public statements from that goal.. Naturally, the Communists would prefer to accomplish this without further ite;tcti.ng; naturally, they would accept sur- raider by the south. But since this is com- plctely at odds with the American commit- ment, the diplomatic purpose must be to clrinotlstrate th:it conquest is impossible. A'i.l unless this is credible, from events in IJii field, diplom.i, a will fail-again. Whether Mr. Johnson's Pacific conference ;n r tends dramatic new developments, or on.c:cly the intenilication of present military i:o its, remains to be seen. But one fnter- +;,ng ft'ature of the conference will be the ~ _ saner mph it is i by President John- --of :he Secret; , es of Welfare and Agri- ,culture. It is in their fields that the United ;L_iLas can well lane the offensive, against disease and poverty, and thus strengthen the ilciense of South Vietnam at vital points. i-'or this is the positive side of the ugly war, he hope and the promise. And it is this 1.bat gives a particular moral content to the whole united eft:art to bring peace to a free ::onsh Vietnam. :'i,itsre lo Re:rliove Snow at District of Caokinlria Schools fT'yTENSION OF REMARKS 4' ,;SIIO lid 'L117s IIOU81. OF REPRESENTATIVES 771-ursdau, February 10, 1966 Mr's. BOLTON. Mr. Speaker, several days ago I commented on the failure of the District of Columbia to deal effcc- tively with the snow situation which paralyzed the city. Since then I have had many reports and examples of dan- :;erous situations which were permitted i.,o exist. For instance, I am told that >, week after the snow fell, along the :a.chool 'rounds at 13th Street NW., at Nfilitary Road, little tots still had to +:hoose whether to defy the dandy rut;h- ilour traffic on 13th Street or brave the chin-deep snow, still untramplcd on the :.chool walk. Tn. front of Wilson High School on rcel>raska Avenue, the snow, higher than a. tall man stands:, remained untouched 1;r days after the children returned to heal. The rcnort which came to me indicated that similar conditions were l:mind at most other District of Columbia .:schools. It seems that the only thing ii ought to bear on the snow surrounding our public schools here were the cold, d,,lnn feet of courageous children beating :a ath to classes that were declared re- 1' ned, with a dare to get there if you Unit'. tl times of such emergency, why can- t 'i we recruit from among the ranks of (;hose men who are drawing upon the various federal sustaining programs, at 1. a.st to perform the public service of c licatring a path so our school buildings- before we order the children to ret urn? Perhaps the Job Corps could help in such instances-or those who, under better weather circumstances, would be working on the beautification program. Wheelchair Folk Ignored EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. WILLIAM E. MINSHAI.,L OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPREEENTATI\ 5 Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. MINSHALL. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks, I inser?, two c:-,!lams by one of Cleveland's most tal- ented and interesting columnists, ':Vin- 60c F.ench, in the Cleveland Press. He pints out from firsthand knowled ;e a situation confronting handicapped cer- sons which certainly deserves the aL.l:en- tinn of the Congress in respect to Federal bil.ildiw,s.. W - si's.CITAIR FOLK IGNORED Eery now and again I hear from a reader w .,-,o, as I, must rely on a wheelchaii, and w_:nts to know if I can tell her how one rnan- at to get into certain buildings, if, inaleed, it, is possible at. all. The last time I heard from her, her interest was to Public Hall where she h.,.-.d hoped to see the trailer ; how. This she was unable to do, persevere though did. the auditorium, as so many o our public buildings, is the product of nept architecture. Even getting into the new muitimillion-dollar wing is an impossi ility fir the chairborne. The hall does have ramps but how tr find them is a Chinese puzzle and no one Is very cooperative. In fact, after several futile attempts and it was a snowy, blustery, hitter night, my friend was asked by a guard why she had even bothered to make the eIIbrt. In ther words, if you are handicapped and pr. sent a problem, then stay home. Anyway, that did it. The disappointed lady and her mite rightly outraged husband drove away- .71 suggested the next time she coo em- plated such an adventure that, she can Paul Hurd, wise manages the building, and :cave it up to him. He must at lent know i here the ramps are. Rut Public Hail is not the only offe ider. It would be easier to climb the pyra nids than make it into the Fede_r,ti Buildi, = on Public Square. in fact, anyone in a chair mu't are Inge Lu have the freight elevator brougha up through the sidewalk, which is pre. isely what I did when I had to get a new pas-port not too long it-o- Actually, I rather eniyed it, but it was summer and the weather was fine. The public library? I gave that up long ago. I went to the practically brand new art institute last week, however, eag r to see the faculty show. Well, it is a splendid exhibition, smal and beautifully hung but the effort spent getting inside the building was exhausting and T will think twice before attempting it again It seems simply incredible that our ,reat pu.b.ic buildings and museums sheuldi 1 at least provide the people with narrow weoden stops darikin,, the stairs. They won! i be very inexpensive to install and make Life much easier for the multitudes of the h::ndi- nipped. And even getting into the Press Building is no cinch unless you know the rapes. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM F. RYAN Or NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. RYAN. "Mr. Speaker, I have b! on bringing to the attention of my col- leagues a series of articles written from Vietnam for the New York Post by Cor- respondent Pete Hamill. I include at this point the third article in the series: VITNAM: Tim ENDLESS WAR-ARTICLE 1.11: Ouus ALLIES (By Pete Hamill) SAIGON.--The one thing everyone was agreed upon when Nguyen Cao Ky took over as Premier of South Vietnam last year was that he had color. There was no question about it: At 34, he was young, handsome :i rd dashing, with all the swaggering style of the Japanese movie star'I'oshiro Mifune. As head of the country's air force, he led his squadron into battle in a tailormade black silk flying suit and lavender scarf, "mills a chronic- plated, pearl-handled revolver slung low en his hip. To celebrate his c i c r.r"e from his wife-a Frenchwoman who bore him live children-and his remarriage to a pretty Air Vietnam stewardess, he led his squadron of 20 Skyraiders on a low sweep over Saigon to a bombing run on an empty clump of jungle not far from the capital. Ernbar- rassed Vietnamese military spokesmen later said the area was a Vietcong stronghold, and the air strike had been a success. Ky II inn- buddies toasted him that night with champagne, then moved to the backyn.'-d to empty their revolvers at tin cans. There were no casualties. Away from the hazards of war, Ky acquired a garish reputation as a Tu Do Street hipster. Ile and his flyboy buddies would spend the evenings in restaurants like Brodard's, nur- sing brandy and. coffee, listening to the melancholy songs of Edith Piaf on the juke- box, discussing endlessly the merits of their women. At parties, he would compose love poems on the spot, and recite them to the loveliest woman in the room, his voice choked, his eyes brimming with tears. When such pursuits wearied him, he turned for s:olace to his gamecocks, which he raised on the side. Today, his intimates say, Ky is it changed man. The burdens of office lie heavily upon him. The girls don't see him around Brodard's any more, his literary talent is a':- ercised on official documents and speeches, and even when he visits a battlegroun l he brings his wife along. He hasn't done a thing swa;thbuckling in months. Except, perhaps. to survive. In the can of worms which is Saigon Iol- itics, to survive as long as Ky has is a very real accomplishment. When he took the lob lest June, as the, front man for a 10-man military junta, he became the head of the ninth gov- ernment in South. Vietnam since the murder of Ngo Dinh Diem in November 1963. One of the major reasons for Ky's survival is his realistic attitude toward the job. "Thc generals have picked me more to risk my life than as an honor," he said when he took i;he post last June. "I have told my wife to buy me it coffin." One cannot blame him, Saigon today is a sinkhole of corruption, indifference, and greed. As the American millions are poured in, the number of hands reaching eagerly into the till are. proliferating. On the Saigon waterfront, it shipping owner can get his ship unloaded out of turn by paying 5500. At police checkpoints, Communist agents carry- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 a A703 cary 10,4006WVed For REIA R 7 1&UOO400020004-2 ing contraband medical equipment into the countryside get by with a small bribe. The stalls in the black market are choked with American soaps, hair sprays, cigarettes, candy, shoe polish and even C-rations, most of it booty from pilfered PX deliveries. The wives of prominent Chinese merchants smuggle diamonds out of the country every week, because gold is too bulky, and the paper currency is about as stable as the gov- ernment which prints it. In the Indian book- shops on Tu Do Street, where you can still pick up dusty copies of such classics as "Dave Dawson in Libya," the rate is now up to 170 plasters to the dollar; the official rate is 73 to the dollar. The rice merchants plead that the Vietcong have cut off their deliveries, and then, when the price has been sufficiently jacked up, they produce large quantities of it. The wife of at least one Vietnamese general, according to reliable sources, takes a monthly cut from a string of brothels. And the liveliest argu- ments among the members of the junta are not over methods of beating the Vietcong, but over who will control the customs, the port of Saigon and the communications sys- tems. When Ky first took office, he announced with loud fanfare that his major task would be the elimination of graft and black mar- keteering. (Has any military junta in history promised anything different?) He sum- moned the top 28 rice merchants in Saigon and told them that if prices were not low- ered, one of them would be selected by lot and shot. The prices went down, at least for a while. Ky also promised to reform the draft sys- tem. And it is true that in Saigon you can watch the police round up young men coming out of movie theaters every afternoon. But it is still possible to pick up a forged draft card for about $10, and for $250 a young man can obtain an exit visa and study medieval scholasticism at the Sorbonne in Paris for the duration. Meanwhile, in rural areas, the army-like the Vietcong-employs a system which differs from kidnaping only to the ex- tent that no ransom is asked. Aside from the usual tributes to freedom and a kind of glib anticommunism, no one really knows where Ky and the junta stand politically. Last month, in a Vietnamese equivalent of a state of the union message, Ky promised a new constitution for the coun- try by October, and free elections to be held next year. Most old Saigon hands doubted that he would be around to vote in them. Many officials in the American mission here-civilian and military-shudder at the prospect of Ky's having a free hand. They realize that this war is as much a political problem as a military one, and that the poli- tical solutions will take years of hard, frus- trating, grueling work. The Vietnamese have also become quite touchy about what they feel is a growing American takeover of the war. Ky has made some statements asserting his independence, viewing that the war would never be solved without the consent of the Saigon govern- ment. But the hard fact is that we have committed billions of dollars to the war, and more than 200,000 troops, and we should have a major say in the solution. "The Vietnamese want it both ways," one American political "officer in Saigon told me. "They want our money, our gun's and our men to die for them. But they don't want us to negotiate a settlement. Goddammit, the hard truth is that this has become our war and we should settle it our way without worrying about wounded feelings." The man with the responsibility of main- taining some equilibrium between the Amer- ican leaders and the Vietnamese is Ambassa- dor Henry Cabot Lodge. Somewhere there must be a man with the adrenalin, ideas and style to handle this delicate, taxing job. Many here feel that Henry Cabot Lodge is not that man. For practical political purposes Lodge could just as well be serving as the Ambassa- dor to Patagonia. He was here as Ambassa- dor once before, for seven months beginning in June of 1963, and performed creditably at that time. Arriving during the Buddhist crisis which eventually toppled the Diem re- gime, he had nowhere to move but up- everything having gone wrong under the tenure of the previous Ambassador, Frederick Nolting. Lodge worked relatively hard, and used his past experience as a professional politician to some advantage in defusing the anti-American sentiment caused by the Buddhist-Catholic argument. Since replacing the icy Maxwell Taylor, however, it has become more and more evi- dent that Lodge's prime qualification is that he is a Republican, and that he photographs well. The men who work under him say that he just does not seem interested in t4e job any more. They say he prefers swimming at the Cercle Sportif to the back-breaking homework that such a job requires. "Cabot Lodge always had a lazy mind," one member of the American civilian estab- lishment told me. "But there were times when he could rise to an occasion, as he did against the Russians in the U.N., as he did during his first tour here. But he doesn't care any more and I think I know why. He has stopped running for office." Some observers say that the main problem with Lodge is his image; in a revolutionary situation the most important American in the country should not look like a repre- sentative of the landed gentry. "Hell, we'd be better off with some tough old roll-up- the-sleeve radical like Saul Alinsky," an officer in the AID program said. "That kind of guy would go out and pull rice with the peasants, drive bulldozers in the country, look like he understood what the roots of the war are all about." Such criticism is harsh and, in some ways, unfair. Lodge gets along well with Ky, and is an improvement over Taylor in matters of tact. Many of the Vietnamese generals could not forgive Taylor for what they thought was his haughty, disdainful manner. The story is told that after one of the coups that plagued his year as Ambassador, Taylor summoned the generals to dinner at a res- taurant, asked them if they understood English, dressed them down for pulling the coup, then told them he had wasted his money even buying them dinner. Lodge would never consider doing such a thing. Meanwhile, Ky continues to walk . the tightrope. His meeting in Honolulu should shore up his prestige and perhaps he can continue as Premier for a few more years. He has already lasted longer than anyone expected. But if he survives, Ky will have to do more for his country than ask for more bombing, more American troops and more money. He has to become a leader, of his people. And he will never do that sitting in an office in Saigon. The Elkhart, Ind., Truth Endorses - 4-Year Term for Congress EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN BRADEMAS OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 2, 1966 Mr. BRADEMAS. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent I insert in the RECORD the text of an editorial published on Jan- uary 27,- 1966, by the Elkhart, Ind., Truth endorsing a constitutional amend- ment providing 4-year terms for Mem- bers of Congress and expressing support as well for staggering the terms. The.editorial follows: FOUR-YEAR TERMS, BUT WITH PROVISO While we favor extending the terms of U.S. Representatives from 2 to 4 years, as proposed by President Johnson, we don't believe they should all be elected in the presidential elec- tion years. To do that would greatly increase the power of the presidency, and thereby upset checks and balances as between the branches of the Government. This would encourage the candidacy of "coattail riders," seeking to reach legislative office through the casting of straight tickets for a personally popular President or other presidential candidate. Besides, it is important that people have recourse during an, "off-year" election to the choice of some new Representatives in case they don't like what has happened in the 2 years past. This could be taken care of easily'by "stag- gering" the terms, for example by electing half of the House of Representatives in the presidential year and half in the off-year. Yes, the 4-year term for House Members would be good. It would allow new Members more time to learn the ropes; it would re- quire current Members to spend less timeon campaigning for reelection, thus they could devote more time to the people's business. But in drawing up the proposed constitu- tional amendment to accomplish this, let's apply the modification as to method of elec- tion we have indicated. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GEORGE P. MILLER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, January 31, 1966 Mr. - MILLER. Mr. Speaker, a news- paper in my congressional district, namely, the Neighborhood Journal of Oakland, Calif., has a correspondent, Mrs. Elena Moneak Snite, who runs a continuous column entitled "Personality Profiles." Mrs. Snite is a lady of great per- spicacity who tends to focus on indi- viduals whose daily endeavors,contribute so much to our everyday life but who largely remain anonymous. On January 26 her column was de- voted to highlighting the work - of Mr. William C. Burnham, who is superin- tendent of the Dimond branch of the U.S. Post Office in Oakland, Calif. I think that Mrs. Snite's column is a fit- ting tribute to Mr. Burnham and the hundreds of other loyal post office em- ployees who do so much each day for those of us who depend on this important line of communication. I am pleased to insert Mrs. Snite's column in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. PERSONALITY PROFILES (By Elena Moneak finite) In approaching my personality profile for this week, Mr. Wm. C. Burnham, who Is the very capable and alert superintendent of the Dimond branch of our Government Post Of- fice, I immediately had the impression that here was a gentleman that demonstrated the fact that no man can prosper until he ap- plies as much dignity to any labor he may Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 ApprovedLF (31Qj0 0 Jt ffi-RDR~ MJR000409p 4 / 10, perform as he would if he were writing a poem. "Mrs. Snite, I feel blessed that I have 1nund the work that I love to do." "I was born in Connecticut and graduated :turn the high school there in the midst of the depression. My family at that time de- ricied to come to California. and after trying :,everal jobs in California I knew that I =shed to work for our Government. I then took and passed the required Civil Service examination which fortified me with the general knowledge pertaining to postal work a'nd I have been in postal service since 1941. 1 was transferred from the main post office in Oakland to tlt-e Dimond branch where I Nave been since 1954. At this branch we handle about 10,000 pieces of mail a day-we have 26 carriers-- 4 clerks--and an assistant :superintendent. "I have learned that men seldom die of ii.ard work and that activity is God's cucdicine. The greatest source of fulfillment is willingness and ability to do hard work. l iii interesting work that rids us of three ;;resat evils; irksomeness-vice-and poverty. 6 know of no secret of success but hard work." "Leach day I am grateful for my many blessings. I have a good wife which we all know is heaven's best gift to man. We are so proud of our daughter Linda and her hus- band Jim and of course little Kandy Ann who is 3 years old and Patricia Marie Just 4 months o.-d. Our son William Gary is already busy chiseling his own niche in life and is at present employed with Todd ::hip Building in Alameda." "No man properly occupied is ever miser- eble. My wife I ; kept busy taking care of four home, our beautiful garden and many tither services that demand all of her time. And I spend who; Lever extra time I have in the activities of the National Association of ['natal Supervisors and the Independent lfi.lles Club of San Francisco.- Thank you Mr. Burnham for your time and the oppotrunity for your Dimond Clients to become better acquainted with you. You have proven the axiom that they that govern most make the least noise. In rowing a barge they that do drudgery work slash, puff and sweat: but he that governs, sits quietly at the stern and scarcely is seen to sstir. O7'? CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday/. February 2, 1966 Mr. TUNNEY. Mr. Speaker, today, I would like to join the Postmaster Gen- eral, Lawrence O'Brien, in expressing my deep regret over the resignation of his Executive Assistant, Mr. Michael Mon- roney. I am sure that I speak for my col- leagues in saying that Mike Monroney's vast experience in Government affairs will be missed. He has made great con- 1xi.butions to the Post Office Department which will long be remembered by the citizens of the Nation. Mike has served his country well under President Kennedy and President John- son. Mike Monroney began his present :atssig'nment in early 1961 under former Postmaster General J. Edward Day, as- sisting him during the transition of the l'ost Office Department to the Kennedy administration. Monroney brought to his postal Sob ecnsiderable and varied experience in journalism and in local and Federal Government affairs. Moving into nearby Silver Spring, Md., following his graduation from Dart- mouth College in 1951, he covered subur- ban affairs as a staff reporter for the Washington, D.C., Post and Times-Her- ald during most of his 5 years with the newspaper. In 1957 and 1958, he served as a top aide to the county manager of Mont- gomery County, Md., adjacent to the District of Columbia. In 1956 he se"ved on the presidential campaign stall' of Gcv. Adlai E. Stevenson. The 38--year-old Monroney served, for 2 years as administrative assistant to Congressman JOHN BRADEMAS, of Ieldi- ana, during which he worked on a variety of legislative problems, including aid to di tressed areas, Federal aid to educa- tion, the Federal airport construction program and labor-management reform legislation. He left Congressman BRPtDEMAS' :staff in January of 1961 to assume his present position. As executive assistant to the Postmaster General, Monroney iv in charge of congressional liaison for the Post Office Deparment in additiol: to other assignments at the direction of the Postmaster General. Named Maryland Young Democrat of the Year in 1961, Monroney was also nominated that same year for one of the 10 outstanding young men of the year awards sponsored annually by the Na- tional Junior Chamber of Commerce. A Navy veteran, he is the son of U.S. Senator A. S. MIKE MONRONEY, of Okla- homa. I would like to wish him the best of success in. whatever field of endeavor he chooses to enter. Past experience slows that Mike is a man who has a deep un- derstanding and sympathy for his fel- lowman and is dedicated to servinpl his cOUntry. Space Experts Must Soon Decide Question: Where After the Moon? V}:'I'F::NSION OF REMARKS OF hON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OF TEXAS N THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIS?tfS Wednesday, February 9, 1966 Nllr. TEAGUE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Karl Abraham in his article in the Pt'.iladelphia Evening Bulletin of January 1.7 discusses the question of what cro- grams NASA will undertake after the lu- nar landing. In his article Mr. Abraham points out that the Saturn V launch ve- hicle will soon be available with its tre- mendous payload capability and dis- cusses manned as well as unmanned use of this large vehicle. He also clearly points out the need to reach an early decision so that our current space pro- gram will have sufficient time to allow for gradual changeover of the current work underway to the newer objectives that will follow our initial lunar land- in:". The article follows: [From the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, Jan. 17, 1966] SPACE EXPERTS MUST SOON DECIDE QUESTION: WHERE AFTER THE MOON? (By Karl Abraham) The men who run the Nation's space pro- gram, although they are not yet sure of successfully landing men on the moon, :i..:1st decide soon what to do after the first lunar landings are made. The alternatives are extensive exploratous of the moon for a decade or a shift of em- phasis toward planetary missions. Both are to be reckoned in the tens of billion;; of dollars. For President Johnson, who omitted men- tion of the space program's future from his state of the Union message last week, it is largely a financial question to be weighed against his hopes for the Great Society and conclusion of the Vietnam war. CRITICAL DECISION But the National Aeronautics arid Space Administration, its space centers, the indus- tries, universities, and the Nation's scientific and engineering communities face a related critical decision within the space program itself. The decision confronts them now---po;- sibly somewhat earlier In the drive toward the moon than many had anticipated-- largely because of a single technological de- velopment: the impending arrival, finally, of big, powerful rockets. The moon rocket, the advanced Saturn, sometimes called the Saturn 5, with its 7.5- million-pound thrust booster and two upper stages, giving it a total power of 8.7 million pounds thrust, will be a mighty workhorse. NEW POSSIBILITIES OPEN With other upper stages, such as the new hydrogen-fueled Centaur, all kinds of new possibilities open up in space exploration. The Saturn 5's primary mission is to send a 95,000-pound Apollo three-man moonship to the moon, including the lunar landing craft and enough rocket power for the trip back from the moon. But It is capable of other missions also. It can lift 250,000 pounds-125 tons--into a 500-mile-high earth orbit; carry 50 'tons away from earth; 45 tons toward Mars or Venus; 20 tons to the giant planet Jupiter; and with a Centaur upper stage, it could even carry a probe weighing 7.5 tons clear out of the solar system. WHERE NEXT Saturn 5 will make possible the assembly, in Earth orbit, or other larger rockets--sent up a stage at a time, the fuel separately. A complete Saturn 5 could be assembled in space for all kinds of missions. It is this impending prospect and the knowledge that many years of engineering and design of payloads will be needed to Lake advantage of Saturn 5 for these advanced missions that makes a decision on "where after the Moon?" such an urgent one. The decision is by no means only a scien- tific or technical one. The attitude of James E. Webb, NASA's Administrator-very much reflecting Presi- dent Johnson's also-is tied up in a ques- tion he has posed to many of his workers and consultants. DENEFITS QUESTIONED "How can the space program most sub- stantially benefit the American people? How can space exploration and what we learn from it help us on Earth," he asks river and over. One segment of the Nation's scientific community, while mindful of these consid- erations, poses the question of the future in different terms. Saturday's report by a space science board panel, which urged higher priorities for ex- ploring the planets, put it this way: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Febrir y. 4 0ApJ#6#ed For W 49M/ AA c 6MbUW i ff400020004-2 City's War on Poverty Runs Well but Has Its Troubles in Job Field EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF NON. JOHN J. GILLIGAN OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. GILLIGAN. Mr. Speaker, a re- porter, Margaret Josten, of the Cincin- nati Enquirer, has written a seven-part series on the antipoverty program in Cincinnati. Today, I include the last part of her series to illustrate the kind of reporting that helps inform the public about, the. various antipoverty programs at work in our communities under the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity. CITY'S WAR ON POVERTY RUNS WELL, BUT HAS ITS TROUBLES IN JOB FIELD (By Margaret Josten) While the antipoverty war at the Federal level is beset by a never-ending stream of financial and political troubles, Cincinnati's effort seems to be running on fairly well- oiled wheels. Theodore M. Berry, former Cincinnati vice mayor, now a top official in the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, is gratified, in fact, to see his home city doing its job with what he Calls "a minimum of the kind of tension and conflict general in other communities." He rates Cincinnati's effort as better than average, adding, "I think it ranks very well in the upper 10th of the class." Cincinnati does have some problems, how- ever. And while they may not be of im- portance In the big picture, some do get to the very key to the success of the anti- poverty war. They have to do with jobs and job training. A dispute has developed here in recent weeks between the Community Action Com- mission, local arm of the war, and the Ohio Bureau, of Unemployment Compensation, charged by law with setting up job-training programs under the Manpower Development Training Act. John E. Hansan, CAC executive director, charges that the BUC has failed to show aggressive action in getting such programs into operation. Lewis H. Evans, BUC area manager, an- swers that he cannot set up job-training classes until he determines whether jobs will be available for the graduates. "We fan do not greater injustice to an individual than to put him into training and then have no job for him," adds Mr. Evans. Mr. Hansan's argument is that MDTA re- quirements in connection with occupational demand can be adhered to "liberally or' rigidly" He thinks Mr. Evans is -being too rigid. Another argument which goes 'round and 'round in Cincinnati has to do with union membership for Negroes, who, by their very position on the economic ladder, are most involved in the war against poverty. Civil rights groups charge that the build- ing trades unions give only token member- ship to Negroes. The unions say otherwise. Efforts to straighten out the matter locally have had little effect. This argument goes on nationally, too. Top OEO. officials avoid taking one side or another. One does say, however, that a large union (presumably in the building trades) is getting ready to set up an apprenticeship program which would alleviate much of the trouble. A number of job-training programs are underway in Cincinnati. The board of edu- cation, the Citizens Committee on Youth, .and the BUC are prominent among the sponsors. Mr. Evans reports that an average of 400 persons a month have been in training under the Manpower Development Training Act during 1965. This does not include on-the- job programs in which 113 person's are train- ing in 17 categories at private local firms. Occupations for which people train under MDTA range from automobile repairing to welding, from tool and die making to cooking. A major problem in the local antipoverty effort lies in that area known as Over the Rhine, where, although help is sorely needed, there is as yet no program funded by OEO. Over the Rhine, which Mr. Hansan calls one of the most difficult neighborhoods in Cincinnati, is a heterogeneous mixture of young and old, white and Negro, old estab- lished families and migrants. The topogra- phy is so fragmented it really is not a single neighborhood. Mr. Hansan explains that the area has a proliferation of social agencies and reli- gious institutions, each with its own way of doing things, but none with the staff or budget to do the big job. In addition, he says, southern Appalach- ian migrants, of whom there are many in Over the Rhine, are neither joiners nor be- longers. This makes any kind of neighbor- hood attack on poverty difficult, he adds. But Mr. Hansan is optimistic. He hopes that "sometime before spring" enough lead- ership will have been pulled together from among the residents and the institutions to make some definite antipoverty plans. The word from Washington is such, how- ever, that the financial outlook for new programs is bad. Several national programs will need to be cut back. And the community action divi- sion of the OEO, now headed by Mr. Berry, is not going to be free with its money in the future. The war in Vietnam has top priority. Youngsters 'Favoring U.S. Vietnam Policy EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. OMAR BURLESON OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 - Mr. BURLESON. Mr. Speaker, it is with a great deal of pride I learned of the action of students of the Big Spring High School, Big Spring, Tex., who have formed the Big Spring Youth for Free- dom in Vietnam and who have obtained 533 signatures on a petition supporting U.S. policy in Vietnam. The petition reads: We, the undersigned, as patriotic students of Big Spring Senior High School, in the in- terest of promoting a better understanding of the prevailing opinion of American youth, and recognizing the right to dissent, never- theless realizing that any aggression, whether it be fascist, Nazi, or Communist, must be arrested, do hereby proclaim that we support the present U.S. policy in Vietnam. I compliment these young people on this most impressive statement, and join them in the sentiments they express. It causes a welling pride that students in my area have taken an,initiative in this matter, at a time when we hear of the protesters and draft card burners in other parts of the Nation. The following is an article from the Big Spring, Tex., Herald, which describes this effort- on the part of these students. YOUNGSTERS FAVORING U.S. VIETNAM POLICY (By Tom Barry) The effects of the -war in Vietnam can be felt thousands of miles away-by politicians, the electorate, demonstrators pro and con- arid in Big Spring, where vibrations have reached into Big Spring High School. Reaction to the war and its implications recently came from three Big Spring High /junior classmen, David Thomas, Larry Arn- hart, and Dale Pless. They were discussing, these 16-year-olds, Vietnam over the noon meal at the school cafeteria. More par- ticularly, they were discussing draft card burners, beatniks, and the image given by a loudmouthed minority to the majority of teenagers. These boys felt something should be done. PETITION PLAN Others were listening to the discussion. Ten in all decided that the thing to do was to get 500 students to sign petitions saying they, even though nonvoting teenagers, support the present policy of the U.S. in Vietnam. When signed,- the petitions will be sent to Members of Congress. Forms were printed, permission of school authorities was granted to pass them out and post them on the bulletin board, and by Friday more ' than the original goal of 500 signatures of students had been obtained. Also, the group gave itself a name-Big Spring Youth for Freedom in Vietnam. Five hundred students represent more than one-third of the entire student body of the high school, according to the youthful chair- man of the organization, David Thomas. "We expect more, and will not close our signature drive until TueCday," he said. "We have had surprisingly little opposition. to the drive," he continued. "We've had more trouble with students signing two or more petitions each than with those who refuse to sign." David said only three students have re- fused to sign the petition because they favor getting the U.S. out of ' Vietnam; and a few more refused to sign because they think the war ought to be accelerated. . Four purposes unite the 10 members of the organization to disavow the draft card burners; to show the adult world how they feel; to encourage representatives in Gov- ernment; and to support the present policy in Vietnam. Some of the members of the group, like young Thomas, are strongly con- servative in their political views; others are on the left side of the fence; and there are some who are middle-of-the-roaders. After the petitions are signed, they will be divided into three groups of about equal numbers and mailed to Senator JOHN Towns, OMAR BURLESON, representing the 17th district, and GEORGE MAHON, represent- ing the 19th district. "We hope we have a better chance of the petitions having more weight by sending them to the three individuals rather than to President Johnson," Thomas said, "after all, in a few years we'll be the ones fighting in Vietnam if the war goes on, and it is an election year, even though we can't vote yet." About 12 teachers are helping the group In one way or another, Thomas said, putting petitions up in classrooms and passing them around in government classes. Will the petitions do any good? "Well," Thomas said, "let's say our hopes are moderate." "We thought we should do something," Thomas said. "We are hardly the type to demonstrate in the streets, and we know that petitions don't normally get a lot of results, but we wanted to speak our piece." The vigor with which the 10 members of the organization are presenting their case Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Approved 6.NBSS"QO lO (DEIA4U)PS7BW4lMR00040jD1Z06a=_ y 4966 for the majority of teenagers (already several teachers have announced open support of the campaign, according to Thomas) indi- rates that something beyond ignoring the normally quiet, "average" teenager should result. HON. JOHN P. SAYLOR OF :PENNSYLVANIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. SAYLOR. Mr. Speaker, in testify- ing before the Senate Committee on In- terior and Insular Affairs, prior to his eonlirmation as Director of the Bureau of Mines last week, Dr. Walter R. Hibbard, Jr., noted that very promising progress iii being made on the Bureau's research project for the use of automobile scrap in modern steelmaking. In view of the numerous steps that are in the making to contend with the auto junkyard prob- lem, I feel that every Member of Con- i;ress should familiarize himself with all i"acets of the subject. The Highway Beautification Act of 1965 provides that the establishment and use and maintenance of junkyards in areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system should be con- trolled in order to protect the public in- vestment in such highways, to promote the safety and recreational value of pub- lic travel, and to preserve natural beauty. Among the provisions are Federal par- ticipation in junkyard removal, land- scaping and screening, as well as a re- duction in federal highway funds to r;tates which fail to provide effective con- trols. Also during the last session of Con- gzress, I proposed that 1 percent of the auto excise tax be used by the Federal Government to dispose of auto junk- yards, with as much as half of the in- c:ome to be put into research to deter- mine whether the junked cars have fur- ther economic use. Numerous recom- mendations have come from the general public as well as from interested busi- nesses in response to this suggestion, and meanwhile considerable development toward economic disposal of scrapped ears has taken place. I have received correspondence from representatives of the scrap industry who are convinced that research thus fa; clearly indicates that the time is near when through proper crushing and incineration old cars can be dismantled and the steel :salvaged profit,,:ibly. Meanwhile Secre- tary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall has invited universities, nonprofit organiza- tions, business firms, and individual citi- zens to submit constructive recommen- dations and proposals to the Bureau of Mines for expanded research on disposal of scrap autos and other solid mineral wastes. The Bureau's own scrap-auto research i; described as follows: Bureau research on the scrap-auto prob- 1cm is directed toward overcoming presently known economic and technological barriers -such as changes in steel making and auto- mobile manufacturing practices-that have caused once-sizable markets for these dis- carded cars to shrink. Out of the Bureau's research have come two promising metal- lurgical processes, both of which are sched- uled for early testing in large-scale demon- stration plants. One process involves the conversion of all the iron and steel in auto body scrap to a, high-grade iron ore for which there is a ready market. With this process the scrap can be used as a :reductant for low-grade, nonmagnetic taconite that is abundant in the United States. This is done by care- fully controlled roasting of the scrap and the taconite in a rotating kiln, which ron- verbs both the iron in the taconite and the iron and steel in the scrap to magnetic iron oxide. After roasting, any unconverted scrap is screened for recycling, and the iron oxides are concentrated by magnetic separation into a high-grade form of iron oxide. All nenferrous materials in the scrap, as well as the gangue in the taconite, are rejected in the process. By changing the roasting con- dit;.ons, the process can be made to opcrrate without taconite. In this variation iron in the scrap is obtained as an oxide, which can be separated magnetically from aaon- ferrous contaminating elements in the scrap. In the other process being developed by the Bureau, cylindrical shaped bales made from cannibalized automobiles, less engines and transmissions, will be run throu?g;h a rotary kiln at a temperature high enough to burn the combustible materials and melt the nonferrous metal parts. The kiln gases will be cleaned to prevent air pollution. Re- sulting clean scrap, upon discharge from the kiln, will be compacted to any desired density for steelmaking charges. After the technique for burning and separating non- ferrous metals from baled automobile hulls is developed in a pilot plant, a larger demon- stration plant including a modern electric steelmaking furnace with necessary acces- sories will be built for demonstrating the economic feasibility of the thermal treat- ment technique. The objective is to :,how that many types of steel can be prod aced frcm thermally treated automobile e:erap on.y, and that almost any type of steel can be economically produced from thermally treated scrap and directly reduced iron ore. Mr. Speaker, as these efforts continue, the number of junked cars to bight suburbs and countryside rises annually. More than 5 million were dumped onto the heaps last year. The president of General Motors predicted on January 17 that the average annual demand for pars and trucks in the United States could exceed 11 million by 1970, thus blazing the way for bigger and bigger junkyards. While the unsightly cars are piled higher, adjacent land tracts-whether they are business, residential, or farm areas-suffer correspondingly. Regard- less of how attractive your own plot of ground may be, its beauty is quickly marred if a neighbor is unconcerned about the trash in his yard. In our par- ticular region of Pennsylvania, the Penn- sylvania Electric Co., has long practiced beautifying to the fullest possible extent the properties on. which its facilities, are located, including the rights-of-was, for power lines. Trees are planted and care- fully nurtured, and the company takes pride in helping to keep our State teau- tiiul. Responsible mining companies needed no laws to insist upon reclamation of stripped properties. For years they have been turning earth from which coal has been extracted through surface opera- tions into attractive forest, farm, and recreational areas. These operations by the utilities and coal companies have been carried out at their own expense, without cost to Federal or State government. By the same token, it would seem reasonable for auto manufacturers and consumers to provide the means for proper disposal of cars that are no longer usable, and the use of a portion of the excise tax would appear to be the least injurious or objectionable means of absorbing the cost. The Bureau of Mines projects are com- mendable and should receive high priori- ty, but once a satisfactory method of economic disposal of auto bodies is de- veloped, the Federal Government Should retire from this activity and permit com- mercial growth of the industry. I am hopeful that such plans will be achieved prior to July 1, 1970, in order that it will not be necessary for Federal and State governments to finance removal and screening of auto junkyards, as provided in the Highway Beautification Act of 1965. Newspaper Columnist Joe Crump has observed: Making junked automobiles commercially profitable is a sure way to remove them from the scene. With a portion of the excise tax avail- able in support of the junked car dis- posal program, there is all the more rea- son to assume that research can and will make it a profitable undertaking. While some development engineers are confident that small disposal plants- even portable facilities-can dispose of junked cars economically, the concensus would appear to favor-at least in the early stages-large centers to which the steel shells would be hauled from points within a wide periphery. In the latter event, I would hope that automobile transportation firms will be ready to as- sume a role in the operation without delay. Stackback and piggyback rail- road cars as well as the two-deck auto- carrying trucks that move from assem- bly centers with new vehicles snuggled closely together should quickly be con- verted for hauling remnants from scat- tered junkyards to points where giant incinerators have been established. We are obviously making headway in our battle to eliminate the ghastly auto junkyard. Let us give it a boost by ap- criTde. Q 1 A Citizen's Views on Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. MORRIS K. UDALL OF ARIZONA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. UDALL. Mr. Speaker, I know that we all receive a great deal of mail these days on Vietnam. This, to me, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Februar10, ?` ed For ~9 9 RW~7~400020004-2 A691 indicates a great concern and uneasiness throughout the land. My own mail re- flects the obvious differences in opinion and comes from people in all walks of life. The expression and understanding of the writers varies greatly but recently I received a letter from a constituent which so cogently states some of the un- derlying questions in people's minds, that, with the permission of the House, I would insert it in the RECORD. We have all heard from many sources the arguments for and against our policy in Vietnam; and while I do not agree with all the writer's views, his letter is, I believe, an eloquent effort by a citizen to reason things out for himself. SIERRA VISTA, ARIZ., February 1, 1966. DEAR SIR: I, as an American citizen and veteran, deplore the ambiguous, indecisive, vicious policies of the administration in re- gard to Vietnam, If our objective is to merely stem Com- munist aggression, .why are we unable to en- list wider allied support? If we wish to be the power in Asia, won't it be necessary to "acquire territories and bases?" If we are striving for a military victory, why did we engage in a bombing pause or throw ourselves on the mercy of the United Nations? If we desire peace through the United Nations, why are we bombing North Viet- nam? If the problem is so complex, why do the alternatives of policy, to bomb or not to bomb, sound so simple? We stand in violation of the Geneva ac- cords and the United Nations' Charter, yet we claim to be prepared to wage a 6-year war to the tune of half a million American men. Along with an ineffective buildup of strength and a relatively ineffective bomb- ing of North Vietnam, we are to assume that Red China and the Soviet Union will stay out of the conflict in the field. To disagree with our current policy is not to endorse the righteousness of either the Vietcong or North Vietnam. It is rather to realize that the time for sending living, pro- ductive citizens to die for an ambiguous and strange point of honor has passed us by. And this conflict does hinge on a strange point of honor. Senator JOHN STENNIS has said it was a mistake to enter this conflict, but now that we are committed we cannot back down or withdraw. The commit your policy and your sons to a stubborn position such as this is strange indeed. History will label it not only strange but vicious. I suspect that since the war is a reality (undeclared and unconstitutionally execut- ed) your mail is divided 10 to 1 in favor of our policy. However, sir, if on the eve of our now vast commitment it had been put to a vote, I wonder if our President would have enjoyed such odds. Finally, I resent this administration's muz- zling of debate. Let me remind you, sir, a conference with 21 congressional leaders is not debate, any more than a public state- ment announcing the resumption of bomb- ing is debate after this bombing has already occurred. When you read the opinions of your con- stituents into the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, I would feel far less helpless if you could ex- press mine in the halls of what was once a vital forum for debating and forming pol- icy-the Congress of the United States of America. Sincerely yours, TIMOTHY W. GARGIULO. The New GI Bill of Rights SPEECH OF HON. JOHN W. WYDLER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 7, 1966 Mr.. WYDLER. Mr. Speaker, I have repeatedly urged, supported and voted for the new GI bill of rights-H.R. 12410. This bill authorizes a program of edu- cation and training for veterans of mili- tary service discharged after January 31, 1955. The serviceman has met his responsi- bilities to the Nation. It is the Nation's responsibility to prepare the serviceman returning from service to take his place in civilian life. I only regret that the .benefits of this bill do not come up to those of the Korean war bill. I supported such in- creased benefits. The administration opposed them and made clear that any attempt to raise benefits would end chances for Presidential approval of the legislation. ANALYSIS Education: Provides a permanent program of educational assistance for individuals serv- ing in the Armed Forces, discharged after January 31, 1955. College-level and below- college-level training in trade, vocational, and technical schools is provided. Part-time training is permitted. Eligibility accrues at the rate of 1 month of training for 1 month of service, not to exceed 36 months. Persons serving on active duty for training do not accrue eligibility. The education and train- ing allowances provided are as follows: Institutional: Full tinic___________ Three-quarter time_ flail time-_________ Cooperative____________ No de- pendents $100 75 50 80 1 de- pendent $125 95 05 100 2 or more depend- ents $150 115 75 120 Fees and tuition are paid for less than half- time training. Education must be com- pleted within 8 years from the date of dis- charge or 8 years from the effective date of the act, whichever is later. Training is provided for active-duty members of the Armed Forces who have served at least 2 years, a portion of which occurred after Jan- uary 31, 1955. These active-duty members may receive payments for fees and tuition. Administrative provisions of the GI bill for veterans of the Korean conflict and the war orphans' training program are applicable to this proposed program. Schools will be ap- proved by State approval agencies of the various States, and these agencies will be re- sponsible for extending supervision to ap- proved schools. Guaranteed and direct home loans: Bene- fits of both the guaranteed and the direct home loan programs are extended to vet- erans discharged after January 31, 1955. The guarantee of a loan by a private lender in the amount of $7,500 is extended to this group and, in areas established as direct loan areas where guaranteed financing has not generally been available, a maximum direct loan of $17,500 is authorized. The Admin- istrator of Veterans' Affairs is authorized to regulate interest rates, consistent with the ceiling established for Department of Hous- ing and Urban Affairs. A fund is established for the Administrator to offset losses under this program, by requiring the veteran to pay 0.05 percent of his loan at closing. Non-service-connected medical care: At the present time, veterans serving after Jan- uary 31, 1955, are eligible for medical care in Veterans' Administration facilities only for service-connected disabilities. This group is made eligible under the provisions of this bill for treatment of non-service- connected disabilities on the same basis as war veterans. Eligibility for treatment of non-service-connected disabilities is based on availability of a bed and the signing of a statement of inability to pay for treatment elsewhere, as is required of veterans of earlier conflicts. Preference in Federal employment: Pref- erence in employment in Federal service is extended to the group of veterans discharged after January 31, 1955, on the same basis as is currently applicable to war veterans. This benefit is not extended to those on active duty for training. Presumption of service connection of chronic and tropical diseases: This presump- tion of service connection of numerous chronic and tropical diseases, as listed in section 301, title 38, United States Code, now applicable to war veterans, is extended to those veterans with service after January 31, 1955. Burial flags: The bill will permit the Vet- erans' Administration to furnish a flag for draping the casket of deceased veterans of service after January 31, 1955, as is now pro- vided war veterans. Job counseling and job placement assist- ance: Places veterans discharged after Janu- ary 31, 1955, on the same basis as veterans of earlier conflicts for assistance through the Department of Labor in job placement and counseling. Soldiers' and sailors' civil relief: Amends the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act by increasing protection for individuals who are renting homes when called to service from $80 monthly rental to $150 monthly rental. Recommendations of the Governor's Con- ference on Natural Beauty and Natural Resources EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN BRADEMAS OF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 2, 1966 Mr. BRADEMAS. Mr. Speaker, under unanimous consent I insert in the RECORD the text of a letter to me dated January 31, 1966, from the Honorable Roger D. Branigin, Governor of the State of In- diana, setting forth the recommenda- tions of the recent Governor's Confer- ence on Natural Beauty and Natural Re- sources. Governor Branigin's letter follows: STATE OF INDIANA, DEPARTMENT .OF NATURAL RESOURCES, Indianapolis, January 31, 1966. Hon. JOHN BRADEMAS, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR SIR: We had a very enthusiastic re- sponse to the Governor's Conference on Nat- ural Beauty and Natural Resources, and now must see that every recommendation from Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Approve dLF(9 g(3]R0 0 tb15-RDlR "flkR00040( i# 10, 1966 he participants is carefully studied and im- i ienhented if possible. The following recommendations have been Drought to my attention by Mr. John E. Mitchell, chairman of the conference and director, department of natural resources. am, referring them to the congressional delegation for further consideration and im- pleinentation. C trust you will find these recommendations both interesting and helpful. That the Federal grant-in-aids program .,jr the construction of municipal sewage srcatment plants be expanded materially in order to insure a construction rate which will provide facilities for the adequate treat- , eiit of all the Smte's municipal sewage within 7 to 10 years. This -means at least rel,liug the currently authorized Federal programs. That the State of Indiana provide con- I;i.raction grants for municipal sewage treat- utont plants as a supplement to Federal ran ts and in an amount sufficient to raise the total grants on each project to 50 per- -ent of the total cost. That a Federal law be enacted which per- wits rapid tax writeoff by industry of the nvestment in industrial waste treatment urtlitics. That storage for low-flow augmentation ;e included in all reservoir developments in dudia.na whenever it is practicable or ero- oemically feasible. That as a similar con- iribution to strecirnflow maintenance, great- cr consideration be given by local constit- uents in small watershed programs--to the preservation and restoration of headwater ui;trshes, swamps, and other wetlands which can be useful for water retention and wild- life habit:a.t. lPederal appropriations should be increased under the Consolidated Farmers Home Ad- ministration Act of 1961, as amended, to assist rural areas in financing water and ;ewage works. (Presently there is not enough money to meet the demand.) Sincerely yours, Vocvn D, BRANIGIN, Uovrrnor, State of Indiana- HON. JAMES G. O'HARA ,) hfICFiIGAN IN 'UHE; HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday. February 7, 1966 Mr. O'HARA of Michigan. Mr. Speak- rr. I joined the distinguished gentleman I rom California I Mr. COHELANI in pro- posing the creation of a Redwood Na- ional Park in California. Without my snowing or anticipating it, the Michigan 1)crnocratic State Central Committee on January 9, 1966, had unanimously adopt- ,'d a resolution also calling for a Redwood National Park. 7ou can imagine, Mr. Speaker, my rhssure in welcoming this resolution which coincides so closely with my own views. Under unanimous consent I sub- (+iil, the resolution adopted by the Micihi- li Democratic State Central Comm ittee 'mi.lling for the creation of a Redwood ti.l.c,nal Park to be printed in the Aida ! Cildix of the RECORD, .:'a) ,; TION FOR A REDWOOD NATIONAL PARK lihcreas the California Redwood forests .., ar)nie of the Nation's most outstand- ,n:^, scenic resources, and the demand of Ii': ncopte of the entire Nation for such irreplaceable areas of spectacular na'oral beauty is ever increasing; and Whereas of the over 2 million acres of vir- girn redwood forest that once forested the northern coast of California there is only one remaining major block of land suitable for a National Park; and Whereas the area of the proposed park is being logged right, now, and the time is al- most past when it will be possible to save this area from damage by logging and free- ways, and the flood and storm damage which result when the watershed is destroyed: Therefore be it Resolved, That the Democratic State :'en- tral Committee of Michigan go on record in support of the establishment of a 90,000-acre Redwood National Park on the northern coast of California in the Prairie- Creek-Redwood-Creek groves and Gold Bluffs wild beach area, as recommended by the Nation- al Park Service; and be it further Resolved, That the Democratic State Cen- tral Committee of Michigan request Presi- dent Johnson and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall 1,o make every effort to ar- range a moratorium on logging in the Oro- posed park area until Congress has acted on the, proposal now before it; and be it fur- ther Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to Senators MCNAMARA and HART and to the Democratic Congressmen from Michigan. Appointment of Jack Hood Vaughn To Head the Peace Corps EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February.10, 1966 Mr. OTTINGP:R. Mr. Speaker, it was my privilege to visit the other body yes- teida,y and to testify before the Foreign Relations Committee on the nomination of jack flood Vaughn, to be the Direc- tCr of the Peace Corps. While my primary purpose in testify- ing; was to urge the committee to ap- prove Mr.. Vaughn's nomination, I also discussed the role of the Peace Corps in our oversea assistance efforts. Because of the great respect I have for Mr. Vaughn and the importance I at- tach to the position to which he has been nominated, I thought my testimony would be of interest to our colleagues and oiler it herewith for insertion into the RECORD. TESTIMONY OF 11ow. RICHARD L. OTTING1:1t, 01. NEW YORK, BEFORE THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, RELATIVE TO THE NOMINATION OF JACK H. VAUGHN, AS DurEc- TOR OF THE PEACE Coups, FEERIIARY 9, 1966 Mr. Chairman, I am grateful and delighted at the opportunity you have afforded rise to testify in behalf of the nomination of Sack Hood Vaughn for Director of tie Peace Itrrps. I warmly endorse his nomination. While I know it, is usual to speak pri- marily of a nominee's qualifications at t.i.ese clearings, 1. should like to concentrate first on the importance of the position, for I think it has been, underrated both. in Congress and by the public. 'rhe Peace Corps too often still tod is is viewed as a mere idealistic outlet to absorb the energies of the starry--eyed do-gor rlers of our society. While under the brlliiant leadership of Sargent Shriver it has or. 'red universal praise from the complete spectrum of our society-from its most conservative to its most liberal elements-its weight and im- portance is still not generally recognized. One has but to ponder that one of the Presi- dent's highest aids, Bill Moyers, aspired to this post as the "Everest" of his ambitions, to come to second thoughts about its sig- nificance. In may view, the Peace Corps demonstrates an approach to success in our endeavors with the developing countries, where all other ap- proaches have to a greater or lesser degree failed. I think I will meet little argument that the future of the world and of our role in the world lies ;largely with these develop- ing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin. Amer- ica. The Peace Corps has proved the validity of working from the bottom up rather than from the top down in these countries. It hags demonstrated', the success potential of community development techniques of hav- ing our people live with the people they are assisting in the slums that surround all of the major cities of these countries and in the countryside in the rural peasant villages. It has demonstrated the importance and practicality of stimulated self-help--and the economy of such programs. It has shown that work in primitive societies does not necessarily require top technical back- ground--that the average citizen of this country can play a meaningful role in the development of a country where infant mor- tality is over 50 percent and the people dr)n't know the significance of feces disposal, water impurities, or sound diet. It has proved the feasibility and efficacy of intensive language and cultural preparation of our foreign cadres, of having them live within the com- munities they serve rather than in isolated American ghettos., of having them receive compensation comparable to their host counterparts and play roles not as superior advisers but as coequals. The future expansion of our foreign assist- ance endeavors should be along lines dem- onstrated successful by the Peace Corps-. and no more appropriate person could be found than Jack Hood Vaughn to preside over this extension. Indeed, by standards of experience, knowl- edge, ability, personality, character, and temperament, no equal could be conjured. Jack Vaughn is a close personal friend and became so when he was my bass at the Peace Corps. He was RegionalDirector for Latin America and I, Director of Programs for the west coast of South America under him, virtually from the start of the Peace Corps. I, therefore, am able to speak of him from a vantage point of an associate as well .'s a friend, and as a person intimately familiar with the Peace Corps operation he is to head, for I was the second staff mctnher brought on board by Mr. Shriver to formu- late the concept of a Peace Corps early in 1961. I can also speak of him from a pa-_ sonal familiarity with his knowledg:: or Latin America and the respect Latins hold for him. What an unusual combination of ence. Jack Vaughn has served In virtu sly all of our overseas agencies--the State 1),- pa.rtmen.t as Assistant Secretary of State f r Latin America and before that as Ambae::' -'l+,r to Panama.: our foreign aid agency as mis- sion director in Senegal; he started his Cloy ernment career in the early days of Uhf A in Bolivia and Costa Rica; and, of course, he served as a. Regional Director of the Peace Corps itself. The geographic diversity of his foreign experience has been broad, bringing him in direct coat:,et with two of the three i i! t.i- cents of the world with which the I'd-lie Corps deals-Africa and Latin America--aid with incomparable breadth and depth where Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 February 10 A~gnued ForWgR(J9RM$P6714~Bqg,0400020004-2 the greatest Peace Corps concentration of ac- tivity lies, in Latin America. Jack Vaughn's rise to responsibility has been meteoric and hard won. He came up the hard way, by his bootstraps. It's a real American success story worthy of Horatio Alger-how a golden gloves fighter from Co- lumbus, Mont., going under the inauspi- cious pseudonym of "Johnny Hood" made good. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1943 and volunteered for the Marine Corps where his talents earned him promotion from private to captain In just 3 years. He got a master's degree from Michigan when he got out and taught there and at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1949 he offered his services to USIA and from there had the spectacular span of Govern- ment service and rise of personal success previously recounted. In the Peace Corps, Jack Vaughn built the Latin American program from insig- nificance to the dominant program. He was a man who was universally respected in a highly competitive organization and whose advice and counsel were sought by all. As a boss, he encouraged his associates to inno- vate and inspired from them an indescribable devotion which led to uncanny productivity. This human quality no doubt played an im- portant part in his continuing series of suc- cesses and his warm following among his associates and the foreign peoples with whom he worked. He was immensely popular and respected both as Ambassador to Panama and previously as ICA mission chief in Senegal as well as at his other posts. The universal acclaim he received from all Latin capitals during his recent trip as Assistant Secretary of State is well known and recognized as a major contribution to our Latin American relations. It gives me great pleasure to give this nomination my unqualified praise and to urge upon you and the committee the con- firmation of a most unusually well qualified man for this job of, great national and inter- national importance. vo EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. FRANK E. EVANS OF COLORADO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. EVANS of Colorado. Mr. Speaker, although Hanoi and Peiping have thus far given only negative responses to peace overtures, we are continuing the search for a door which will one day lead to. peace. We can be encouraged that efforts toward peace are being taken by the United Nations, by the Pope, by various governments, as well as by pri- vate diplomatic explorations. And we can all be encouraged by the bold and positive move which our Presi- dent took in going to Hawaii. In an editorial dealing with the mis- sion to Hawaii, the New York Journal- American commented that it will be of great advantage for President Johnson to meet personally with the two ranking South Vietnames delegates, and it adds: Indeed, the meeting will be of equal ad- vantage for the Vietnamese. Direct, blunt talks between the leaders of the two Govern- ments can only result In closer understand- ing of each other's problems and an improved cooperation in pursuing the was. The newspaper concludes that "once again President Johnson has made a. bold and positive move with regard to the ex- plosive Far East situation, and the Na- tion should solidly support him in his effort." I think many of my colleagues may want to read the editorial in its entirety, and with this in mind, I submit it for the RECORD. MISSION TO HAWAII President Johnson's sudden trip to Hawaii to confer with top American and South Viet- namese officials on the Vietnam war is further evidence of the mounting gravity of that cdnflict and of the administration's pre- occupation with ending it. Significantly, it marks L.B.J.'s first de- parture from the continental United States since becoming President. Hawaii is a logical place for so top-level a conference. As well as being the closest the President should go to Vietnam, as far as his personal safety is concerned, Hawaii is also the command center of all American military operations in and off Vietnam. Gen. William C. Westmoreland, American commander in Vietnam, reports to the Hawaii headquarters of Adm. Ulysses S. Grant Sharpe, commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific. In turn, Admiral Sharpe reports to the Pentagon, which then reports to Presi- dent Johnson. Thus the President is, in ef- fect, temporarily shortening this lengthy chain of command by his visit. It will also be of great advantage for Presi- dent Johnson to meet personally with the two ranking South Vietnamese delegates, Premier Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu. Indeed, the meeting will be of equal advan- tage for the Vietnamese. Direct, blunt talks between the leaders of the two Governments can only result in closer understanding of each other's problems and in improved co- operation in pursuing the war. Once again President Johnson has made a bold and positive move with regard to the explosive Far East situation, and the Nation should solidly support him in b.is effort. Thaddeus Kosciuszko-Hero of Two Worlds SPEECH OF HON. EDWARD P. BOLAND OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 7, 1966 Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, on Feb- ruary 12, Americans and Poles alike cele- brate the anniversary of the birth of Thaddeus Koscluszko, Polish soldier and statesman. His unswerving dedication to the great cause of national independence for both the United States and Poland earned him the title of "hero of two worlds." Thaddeus Kosciuszko was a man of ac- tion, of great courage, and of an undying belief in the right of every nation to be free. When the American Revolution erupted, he hastened to this continent to fight for American independence.. To the cause he brought -great skill as an engi- neer and great personal valor, and in 1783 a grateful United States of America ex- tended to him the privilege of American citizenship and the deepest thanks of the American Congress. A693 His task in America done, Kosciuszko returned to his beloved Poland to join in the struggle to prevent the third and final partition by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The Polish patriots, led by General Kos- ciuszko, defeated the Russians. at Ra- clawice and ably defended the beautiful city of Warsaw but were at last overcome by the superior numbers of the enemy. In the battle of Maciejowice on Octo- ber 10, 1794, the gallant Poles were de- feated and their leader was taken pris- oner by the Russians. Released 2 years later, General Kosciuszko dedicated the rest of his life to efforts to obtain Polish independence. Mr. Speaker, the torch of freedom has been passed to our generation of Ameri- cans and Poles. We gain inspiration from the great hero Thaddeus Kosci- uszko and on this day reconsecrate our lives to the great cause of freedom to which he gave his best. New England's Economic Comeback EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. SILVIO 0. CONTE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 10, 1966 Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, the eco- nomic headaches we in New England have suffered almost since the end of World War II are a familiar story to most Americans. While the country in general progressed and moved forward to new records of prosperity each year, New England for a long time lagged be- hind. We were in a virtual depression while the rest of the Nation enjoyed an unprecedented boom. We lost the bulk of our textile indus- try. Because of economic stagnation, we lost our young people who migrated to the areas of greater opportunity. We lost industry, manpower, and economic resources. But as dramatically as the nightmare began, so apparently has it ended. New England has bounced back. To- day it is an economic success story of major proportions. Those of us who are privileged to serve the six great States that comprise the New England region are justly proud of the progress, the imagination, the initia- tive, and courage that are so much a part of New England traditions and which have been demonstrated again so well in recent years. This week the pages of the U.S. News & World Report magazine contained .an 'excellent story about our economic comeback.. The article deals specifically with the causes behind both our eco- nomic decline and our unprecedented re- juvenation. Credit is given where it is due-primarily to the businessmen and industrialists, to the economists and planners who could see through the des- pair of one generation to the bright op- portunities of another; who could re- member the resourcefulness and op- timism of a bygone day when New Eng- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Approved ~AeMM?,q J J0 6 A*&_~5RDffl7APq 000400 9.9 10, 19 6 6 land, and our great city of Boston, was truly the Hub of the Universe. The adaptation of existing resources to modern problems, the initiation of im- portant new industries keyed to the unique skills and capabilities of the New liingland region lie behind our success story. f feel the aforementioned magazine article deserves to be read by all Ameri- cans and certainly by the Members of this body. In. my opinion it contains some valuable seeds of wisdom for those of us whose job it is to ponder the scope and efficacy of government with respect to regional economic problems. I there- fore have asked unanimous consent to reprint the article in full at this point in the RECORD, and respectfully commend it to the attention of my distinguished col- leagues. The article follows: NEW ENGLAND'S BIG COMEBACK: LATEST ScrccESS STORY BoszoN:-New England today is enjoying a boom unprecedented in history-and one which is steadily gaining momentum. 't'he upswing is broadly based. It extends to nearly every major industry and to almost every community of the six-State area. Employment in New England in 1965 moved past the 4 million mark-the highest on record. Gains were reported not only in the region's factories, but also In a number of service industries of growing importance to Its economy. Among these are insurance, financial, and business services, medical serv- ice, education, and recreation. Construction, which trailed the rest of the country's Industries last year, reached new levels. Spending for plant and equipment rose 18 percent in the region in 1965, and a similar increase is forecast for this year. Throughout New England, unemployment is low and labor scarce. It is not just skilled labor and technical employees that are needed. Many employers would be overjoyed to find unskilled workers who could be trained. Help-wanted advertisements in the major newspapers are at an alltirne high. Some areas are running short of housing for recently hired workers and their families. UP f'ROM ADVERSITY The current boom is something new and welcome in New England. Since the end of World War II, the region's economic growth had consistently lagged well behind that of the Nation as a whole. Regional compari- sons usually had shown New England bring- ing up the rear in nearly every measure of economic progress. Many of New England's woes were trace- able to the loss of a big segment of an im- portant industry-textiles. Scores of major firms picked up stakes and moved to the South to take advantage of lower wages, land costs, and taxes, and to be closer to raw materials and major customers. Left behind were factories of Civil War vintage, blighted cities and pockets of mas- sive unemployment. Other long-established industries-shoes, shipbuilding, fishing, and paper-either de- clined or showed slow growth. The States, particularly Maine and Ver- mont, suffered heavy losses of workers as residents moved out to find new ,jobs. Says one Vermont ollicial of that period: "Our biggest export was our young folks." New England came to be viewed by the rest of the country as worn out, ultracon- servative, lacking vitality, and removed from the mainstream of postwar prosperity. As one Connecticut official remembers it, "Peo- pie came to think of New England as hiving nothing to offer but stone fences, lobster pots, wooden bridges, and Yale University." THE SPREAD OF SUCCESS A unique feature of New England's new- found prosperity is that the northern tier of States---New Hampshire, Maine, and Ver- mont-is sharing in the uptrend. Even in good times, these States usually had lagged behind southern New England. Connecticut for many years has been better off than the rest of the region and unhappy over being tarred with the same brush. Now the fastest-growing State in New Eng- land is New Hampshire. Unemployment there is the lowest in the Nation. In 1.965, unemployment averaged 2.9 percent of the State's labor force, compared with D. national figure of 4.6 percent. Industrial construction in New Hampshire in 1965 was up 400 percent from the 1964 figure. BEHIND 'L'IIE BOOM: BRAINPOWER What has happened to change the picture in. New England so suddenly? Many of the region's top economic experts admit they are si,umped for an answer. One explains it this way: "It is all very vague, ylou cannot measure it by statistics. But, New England today h.as.a competitive advantage over other areas. This advantage boils down to this-b:rainpower." Long a leader in the field of education, New England lately has been getting a big payoff from this investment. The brain- power advantage is traceable, mainly, to the big three of its prestige universities- Har- vard, Yale and, especially, the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology. MIT is a university completely built around science and technology. Because of its pioneering work in electronics, it was selected as the site of the Government's World War II research laboratory that per- fected radar. This was a huge effort, com- parable to the Manhattan project, which de- veloped the atom bomb. Top scientific and engineering personalities were drawn to MIT from all over the United States. Another wartime laboratory at MI'1' did early work on guidance systems and fire- control techniques. Today, the university is heavily engaged 'in guidance systems for mis- siiles such as Polaris and for the Apollo moon vehicle. When Soviet Russia exploded a nuclear bomb in 1949, the Federal Government called on. MIT to develop an intercontinental de- fe:ase system. A new laboratory was built on. Route 128, a highway that encircles all of Boston but the waterfront. In the process of developing the new system, major ad- vances were made in computer technology. Among universities, MIT is the largest com- pleter research center in the world. OFFSPRING OF MIT To supply the new laboratory with needed parts and materials, a number of small firms began to spring up along Route 128. Many top scientists and engineers left the labora- tory to form their own firms, to exploit their knowledge in a new and expanding tech- nology. With MIT spawning new ideas, with top- notch scientists and engineers, and new com- panies, the Boston area became a leader in the field of electronics and research-oriented industry based on new technology. Once a country road, Route 128 today is bordered by new plants. A recent survey showed 574 firms along the highway, em- ploying nearly 5:1,000 people. Included were almost 100 manufacturing firms, 66 research companies, and 56 engaged in both research anal manufacturing. Since 1962, there has been a 45-percent increase in the number of firms along the golden semicircle, as it is now called. Graduates of MIT, who once left New Eng- land to take jobs in more prosperous areas, now seem to prefer to settle in or near Bos- ton and to work in one of the many labora- tories or electronics firms. Says an MIT official: "As top scientists moved into this area, more and more younger men wanted to Come and rub elbows with them. They were at- tracted, too, by the cultural advantage of the New England area. Culture is an 'in' thing with these highly educated people. We have more Ph. D.'s per acre around here than any other place in the country." Recently, MIT set up four new research centers-space sciences, life sciences, earth sciences and materials science and engineer- ing. Coming is one in communications- There is no evidence that the birth of new firms is slackening. It appears more likely to increase. University officials say that revolutionary changes may be ahead in the field of biology. Some new fields being studied by MIT's laboratories include ocean- ography and medical instrumentation. Other major New England universities also a.re- beginning to expand research activities. SEARCH FOR PLANT SITES The mushrooming growth of electronics and related research firms is by no means confined to Route 128 or the Greater Boston area. Successful firms seeking sites for new plants are pushing out into southern New Hampshire and, to a lesser extent, Maine and Vermont. Connecticut and Rhode Is- land, as well, are gaining new industries. The growing interest in siting plants in northern New England is due, in part, to a desire to get away from big-city congestion and problems. Vermont, for example, stresses its "moral climate" in newspaper ads. Says one: "Vermont has no really big cities with snarled transportation, strife, crime, bureaucratic waste, poor housing, air pollu- tion and all the other seemingly hopeless problems of large metropolitan areas today." INDUSTRY FIT TO AREA The growth of research-oriented industry fits in perfectly with New England's needs. The region does pose handicaps for mass- production industries. It is poorly situated with respect to the center of U.S. population. It has high transportation and electric-power costs, and is Lacking in most raw materials. Because of these deficiencies, New England is specializing more in low-bulk, high-value products. "Even in electronics," comments one observer, "when something is developed suitable for mass production, it is usually produced elsewhere. Then the research peo- ple come up with something new. We have to keep running all the time." Throughout the region, there has been a steady shift to new products and procedures based on research. A study in 1955 showed about one third of factory employment, de- pended on products not in existence a decade earlier. A similar study today, experts say, would show this figure to be about one half of total manufacturing employment. New Englanders believe that their combi- nation of brainpower and a skilled, adaptable labor force will enable the region to keep abreast of new developments. They also see the growth of research-based industry as giving New England a stability it never had before. NEW ROLE FOR OLDER INDUSTRIES Some long-established industries also have played a role in New England's upswing. One of the most important of these is transportation equipment. United Aircraft, centered in Connecticut, is the region's big- gest private employer. Its payroll is ap- proaching 70,000 and has been increasing at a rate of 1,000 a month as the firm seeks to keep up with orders for jet engines, :heli- copters and other aircraft components. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 Februarf 1?A0#,ed ForqU% ?6 6'Kt8$ k.7 PdN400020004-2 Another big employer, General Dynamics' Electric Boat division at Groton, Conn., has built much _of the U.S. nuclear-submarine fleet. It has been stepping up production, hiring more workers. A large number com- mute from Rhode Island. The machine-tool Industry, long impor- tant to the area's economy, is showing new strength. Employment in this industry tends to rise and fall in line with capital spending by firms across the country. With plant-and-equipment spending at high levels, and further gains projected, the in- dustry is expected to continue to lend its weight to the boom. TEXTILES: NO LONGER A DRAG Even the textile Industry, which for many years acted as a drag on New England's econ- omy, added slightly to its payrolls in 1965. During the-, postwar period, employment in the industry had fallen from 275,000 t9 about 100,000, but now it appears to have stabilized at that level. Most of the cotton-textile in- dustry already has been lost, and remaining firms produce mostly woolen yarns and fabrics-a more expensive product. The leather and shoe industry has been adding workers. Much of it has shifted out of older Massachusetts towns with high wage rates to newer plants in Maine and New Hampshire. The area continues to produce one third of the leather footwear made in United States. Shipbuilding, which had been in the dol- drums for years is-showing new life-partly as the, result of growing defense needs. There also has been heavy- new investment in the paper industry, important to Maine. New England's biggest growth, however, has not been in manufacturing, but in serv- ices. This includes a whole grab bag of activities. - Among the most important is medicine. The Boston area is one of the world's major medical centers. Doctors and patients come from Europe, Latin America and other parts of the world for training or treatment. Education is another big service, and New England is the leader in the field. Harvard, Yale, MIT and Brown, plus a host of smaller schools such as Darthiouth, Amherst, Wil- liams, and Middlebury, are among the Na- tion's top-rated educational institution. Many of the largest insurance firms have headquarters in New England, especially in the Boston and Hartford areas. Boston is one of the four largest financial centers in the United States. Its investment houses handle most of the major mutual funds. WINTER PLAYGROUND, TOO New England always has been a popular arear for summer vacations, and its share of the recreation industry is growing steadily. In 1965, excellent - weather brought huge gains in the tourist business. Now, the region is. experiencing a winter- vacation boom. Ski resorts are rising all over, especially in the northern tier. Building of new lodges, motels, and roads has had a major impact on the construction industry. It is also driving up land prices. In one part of Vermont where land sold 5 years ago for about $5 an acre-less than it cost in 1760- the price rose to $200 an acre or more when a new ski-center went up nearby. Vermont has the fanciest of the new ski resorts. Some offer such lures as heated out- door swimming pools, sauna baths, ice skat- ing, closed gondolas to take people up ski slopes, rather than T-bar lifts or rope tows, and cocktail lounges, night clubs, and theaters. The 1965-66 ski season got off to a roaring start. A 40-inch snowfall in Vermont in December is estimated to have been,worth $250,000 an inch to the State. Holiday ski business in some areas ran 200 percent ahead of last season. - THN.- MULTIPLIER EFFECT Skiing has what is called a "multiplier ef- fect." State officials estimate that, for $1 spent- for, skiing, an additional $4 is spent for food, lodging, liquor, entertainment, gas- oline and other needed goods and services. Northern New England is one of the few undeveloped areas left, in the Eastern United States. It is accessible to huge population centers in both the United States and Can- ada. Roads are being improved, making it easier to reach. With more people having 3 weeks or more of vacation a year, many employers are urging Workers to take part of their vacation in winter-and New Eng- land is benefiting from this trend. New England also is getting a boost from another development-the desire of many American families to own two homes. More and more high income families that live along the eastern seaboard want to get away from the congestion. With increased in- terest in skiing and other winter sports, peo- ple can use a second home in winter as well as in summer. This two-house trend is add- ing to the rise in land values, especially in southern Vermont and New Hampshire. CITIES: MIRRORS OF PROSPERITY The effects of prosperity can be seen by driving through some, of New England's cities. Greater Boston, still the "hub" of New England with 3.2 million of the region's 11.2 million people, has been changed radically In appearance by a group of new buildings. In 1965, the $160 million Prudential Cen- ter, which now dominates the Boston skyline, opened its doors. In process -of construction is a $200 million Government center in the heart of the city. The first building of the center to be completed, a $26 million State office building, was opened last year. Just finished is a new Federal office building. Still under construction: a large, crescent- shaped office building and a new city hall. Another skyscraper nearing completion is the State Street Bank building, adjacent to the financial district. It was financed by British investors. Construction Is about to start on a $60 million electronics-research center for the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion. It. will rise close to MIT, across the Charles River from downtown Boston. Boston also is having a boom in apartment construction. A large, high-rise building is going up across from the Boston Common. Others have been built overlooking the Charles River and in outlying sections of the city. Progress is being made on new highways and expressways. In 1965, the last link of the Massachusetts Turnpike was completed, bringing it into the downtown part of Boston. - Urban renewal is evident in many other cities of New, England. Hartford and New Haven in Connecticut have completed huge projects that have revitalized large areas. A further example of a city which has come back is Providence, RS. For many years, this city was listed as a "depressed area" by the Department of Labor, with '!sub- stantial and persistent unemployment." Last May, Providence and its environs were taken off the list. In October, joblessness was down to 3.9 percent-lowest figure in 15 years. Providence has been helped by a new inter- state highway which cuts through the cen- ter of the city and links It closely to Boston on the north and New York on the south. The highway has opened new industrial sites, and the city could become an impor- tant distribution center. More spectacular than the progress of some of the larger cities is the change that has taken place in scores of smaller cities which were hardest hit when their textile mills closed their doors and moved south. A695 THE NASHUA STORY Nashua, N.H., lost its major textile em- ployer in 1948. In an effort to find jobs for thousands of people thrown out of work, a tax-free, nonprofit foundation was set up to buy the mill properties and either sell or lease them to any prospective employer. Today, hardly a square foot of factory space is' available of the- 21/2 million square feet originally purchased. Instead of one firm employing 3,500 workers, the space is oc- cupied by 24 .separate firms employing more than 6,000 workers. In addition, the city has 16 new plants- five of them built by firms which outgrew their space in the old mill. Manufacturing employment, which stood at 8,400 before the textile plant left, has grown to 13,000. Nashua, in fact, now has a labor shortage. Firms in the area are estimated to have 2,000 jobs they are unable to fill. As 1965 ended, unemployment was down below 2 percent of the labor force. Much of the same story is true of Man- chester. After the loss of a huge textile mill, Manchester had staggering unemploy- ment. Like Nashua, it Is now booming, has a much more diversified industry and is look- ing for more workers. Another city which has gone from bust to boom is Burlington, largest city in Ver- mont.- It lost its major employer, a large woolen mill. Burlington took a different tack. Instead of trying to interest employ- ers in the old mill property, business lead- ers formed an industrial corporation and raised money to build a plant on specula- tion. They snagged International Business Machines. Employment at the plant has risen from 500 to 2,500 over the past 18 months. - THE AREA'S SERIOUS PROBLEMS New England is not without problems. Railroad service is poor-Maine is the first State to be inaccessible to passengers on regular schedules by rail-but expected merg- ers of New England railroads with major rail networks may help. The threat of severe drought hangs over the region unless it gets heavy winter snows and spring rains. Some of the older cities still have financial problems and urban blight. Others have ex- ceptionally high property taxes that could discourage new industry. - Another worry is that much of the boom in industries such as electronics, shipbuild- ing-and transportation equipment is due to defense orders. Any major cutback in de- fense spending could have a heavy impact. But many business leaders aware of this danger are making efforts to diversify. Right now, however, New England's great- est problem is its labor shortage. Both gov- ernment and business leaders are making concerted efforts to attract labor. Some employers are considering trying to recruit Cuban refugees, or Puerto Ricans and Negroes from crowded eastern cities. - At present, New England has few nonwhites. Vermont's population Is .002 percent Negro. Many New Englanders say they would like to keep the racial balance the way it is now. IS THE COMBACK PERMANENT? Because of New England's large urban population and heavy industrialization, few experts believe the region can match newer areas such as the Southwest or Far West in growth rates. But they see the present boom as more than a cyclical revival. "The east coast still has the Nation's big- gest market, the biggest population," says an industrial development official in Con- necticut. And, it appears, the-view that New England is decrepit, out of time with modern times, will have to be reviewed and updated as the boom continues. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400020004-2 A696 ApoedA~~~~~~i~'00040~~A~/ r9 t