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February 28, 1966
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Approved For Relpa a 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 28, 1966 The story begins 38 years ago-in 1928-when a concerned Congress took a first step to control soil erosion. In that year the first erosion control re- search station In Oklahoma was estab- lished at Guthrie. There followed the creation of the Soil Erosion Service in 1933, and the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service, in 1935. In 1937, Oklahoma was among the first States to authorize soil conservation dis- tricts, the basis for continued coopera- tion in soil and water conservation and development among farmers and ranch- ers, the Soil Conservation Service, and other Federal and State agencies and organizations. "Oklahoma's Heritage" tells a story that with some regional variations could apply to any part of the Nation where the transition in land and water conser- vation has been dramatic in its spread throughout the rural areas, and from the farm and ranch to the rapidly growing urban communities. "Oklahoma's Heritage" tells us that watershed protection and development has become a people's program, a fact attested to by $850,000 provided annually by the Oklahoma State Legislature for watershed planning and assistance to soil and water conservation districts. I believe this heartening story of one State's travels along the road of sound soil and water conservation and develop- ment is of considerable interest outside of Oklahoma. It is, really, a national story that will be told as long as the need for rich soil and an ample supply of clean water continues to exist. (Mr. ROUSH asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute and to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. ROUSH. Mr. Speaker, I will sup- port the supplemental appropriation bill for the Defense Department. In so do- ing I also wish to make clear my full commitment to the administration's pol- icy in Vietnam. I support the admin- istration's policy because I am convinced our goal is an honorable and lasting peace. I am convinced we seek no domina- tion over other lands, we do not seek to rule the fortunes or destinies of other people. I am convinced we have walked that extra mile in seeking peace and that at this time there is no other course open but to seek out and defeat the en- emy. There is at this time no other path toward peace open to us. No ac- ceptable alternatives have been offered. Even as I express this conviction I know I must examine my own responsi- bilities. Agree or disagree-like it or not-when the Nation is at war we are committed to battle with an enemy and there can be no question where every cit- izen must stand. There is no one whose heart is not burdened with sorrow for those who suffer because of this war. But I am resolute in my determination to do that which must be done. To criticize, to attack, to deny support to our policy-all at a time when we are at war can only serve to undermine the morale of our fighting men. Equally dangerous it can lead to a misinterpreta- tion by our enemies of the strength of our policy. Such a misinterpretation could result in prolonging the conflict and delaying the advent of peace. The news I want Hanoi to get is that this Nation is determined, that we are united, that we mean what we say and that what we say is backed by every cit- izen of this country. OKLAHOMA HERITAGE TELLS CON- SERVATION PROGRESS STORY Mr. STEED asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 mire- ute and to revise and extend his re?- nnarks. ) Mr. STEED. Mr. Speaker, I would like to call your attention to a booklet I re- ceived recently that describes in picture and story the dramatic problems of soil and water conservation in Oklahoma, and how the people of my State, with the help of Congress and the Federal Establishment, have acted to solve them. 'I'Yne booklet is called "Oklahoma's Heritage, Ours To Guard and Keep." It is heartening to me, as I know it is to the people of my State, to realize the prog- ress that has been made in conserving our land and water resources since the dread days of the Dust Bawl and the times of frequent and damaging floods. TRIBUTE TO THE HONORABLE ALBERT THOMAS, OF TEXAS The SPEAKER. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Texas [Mr.. PATMAN]. Mr. PATMAN. :Mr. Speaker, I rise with a heavy burden of personal grief to announce to the Members of the House the death of their colleague and my dear friend, the Honorable .ALBERT THOMAS, of Texas. I have had the great gift of his friend- ship since he was first elected to this body in. 1936. In. all the many years that we served together, I found him always a pillar of strength, the soul of integrity, and an extraordinarily able and hard- working man, ever concerned with the well-being of those he represented, of the Government which he served, and of the country which he loved. Most of us who were close to him have been aware of the seriousness of the ill- ness with which he was afflicted. We have seen him bravely endure surgery time after time. He fought the good fight all of his life; it was not in him to act any differently when life had reached its sunset. He suffered with courage, with the grace of one who did not wish that those who loved him should grieve. The fight is over, and his suffer- ing is over. Those who loved him do indeed grieve at his passing, and I here acknowledge the extent of the loss that I feel. He was born in Nacogdoches, Tex., in 1898. attended public schools there, and entered Rice Institute prior to the First World War. When the United States entered the conflict, he immediately joined the Army, and was commissioned as a very young second lieutenant. After the war, he returned to Rice where he obtained a bachelor's degree. He then was graduated from the University of Texas Law School in 1926. He cane back to Nacogdoches and was elected to the combined offices of district and county attorney. He was reelected to a second term which he was unable to complete, since his abilities had won for him the post of assistant U.S. attorney for the southern district of Texas. He served with distinction for 6 years in that office of public trust and respon- sibility, and then won election to Con- gress in 1936 to represent tl-ie Eighth Congressional District in Harris County, Houston, Tex. By the summer of 1938 he had obtained no less than 12 PWA projects and $9 million worth of Federal flood control projects for his district. Throughout his congressional career he concerned himself mightily with Hous- ton's problems of flood control, naviga- tion, and waterways. Houston's ability to cope with the present huge shipping traffic that fills its ports is due in large measure to his magnificent efforts through the long years of his service in the House of Representatives. Houston owes much else to him, such as the Veterans' Administration Hospital on Holcombe Boulevard, the city's free- ways built in large part from Federal funds, the Houston ship channel, the Manned Space Craft Center, the Texas Medical Center, and many, many more constructive, progressive, and valuable projects. He never forgot his constituents. Be tried to read all of their letters to :him, and to dictate answers on the same day their letters were received. He was proud of the extent of his information on the wishes, needs, and beliefs of those he represented in this House. He liked to tell the people in his district that he made up his mind about his vote on any bill by reading what they had written to him about it, by talking with as many of them as he could, and then deciding the correct and fair thing to do. He was one of the :most conscientious men I have ever known. On January 22, 1949, he was selected to be the chairman of the Independent Offices Subcommittee of the House Ap- propriations Committee. His chair- manship during the many years since his appointment to that highly important post has been a monument to his scru- pulous honesty, his dedication to detail, to progress, and to achievement, his knowledge of the legislative process, of the needs of the Federal Government, and of the ways and wishes of his col- leagues whose judgment he always re- spected and whose friendship he deeply treasured. I am too deeply moved by his passing to recount the details of his many achievements as a man and as a Mem- ber of the House of Representatives. Moreover, the record of accomplishment; which he established here is known to Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February App19ygd For Pe i1kft1?1PW8@4,: JjkkRI ?B( 4# 00030002-3 consideration the bill (H.R. 12752), to pro- vide for graduated withholding of income tax from wages, to require declarations of estimated tax with respect to self-employ- ment income, to accelerate current pay- ments of estimated income tax by corpora- tions, to postpone certain excise tax rates reductions, and for other purposes. Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Chairman, on Jan- uary 13 of this year, I rose to speak against the reimposition of the "luxury taxes" on automobiles and telephone service that had been suggested by the President the evening before in his state of the Union message. I maintained then, and I continue to believe today, that automobiles and telephone service are necessities to most Americans and should not be taxed as luxuries. For this reason, I will vote to recommit the bill before us, with instructions to strike the provision delaying the excise tax reductions on autos and telephone service. If the bill is not returned to commit- tee, I will be compelled to vote for final passage for a very important reason: additional revenues are required to offset the rising costs of the war in Vietnam, or serious inflation will be stimulated. Congress Backs President V EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES E. BENNETT OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 22, 1966 Mr. BENNETT. Mr. Speaker, Amer- ica is faced with critical decisions in 1966, especially in our war in Vietnam. I am proud to support our President, Lyndon B. Johnson, in his efforts to win freedom for the people of South Vietnam and preserve the peace around the world. I include in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD a timely editorial, written by Rex Ed- mondson of the Jacksonville Journal, of Jacksonville, Fla., which applauds the President's stand. In this I certainly concur. [From the Jacksonville (Fla.) Journal, Feb. 19, 19681 THE PRESIDENT'S STAND How much power should a President have in times of crisis? That question seems to be the main point of contention in Congress right now as the Senate Vietnam debates go on. Eighteen months ago, acting with the speed and unanimity of crisis, Congress voted President Johnson its endorsement of "all necessary measures" to bar aggression in South Vietnam. Now those Congressmen are seeming to re- cant on their previous stand. They are con- tending that they will go over the Presi- dent's head and to the people to gain sup- port opposing the administration's stand. Those Senators who cannot go along with the strong line against North Vietnam are listening politely to those testifying who do not agree and then apparently ignoring their advice. Retired Diplomat George F. Kennan, an expert on communism and foreign affairs, summed up the feelings of a lot of us when he. contended that although we probably should not have been caught in the Viet- nam struggle, we are in it and that it would be unthinkable to back out now. It is Kennan's idea that we should avoid getting in deeper, that our best bet Is to hold what we have and hope for some sort of outside intervention that will solve the problem. Senator ALBERT GORE of Tennessee thanked Kennan for his views, but said plainly that Members of Congress are determined to pro- ject their own views. This, as President Johnson agreed later (at least on the surface) is not only the right of Congress, but the duty as well. Much of the dissention over President Johnson's order to resume the bombings in Vietnam stems over what some Senators claim was a mistaken idea of what they were endorsing in 1964. Some, among them Senator GAYLORD NELSON, a Democrat of Wisconsin, say that they voted for the reso- lution with the understanding that the American mission would remain one of sup- porting and advising South Vietnam, not of fighting thb war. That category is one all of us would have preferred, but we have been forced into a situation where fighting now is mandatory. This fact should not be obscured, nor should the fact be underplayed that the President, under the Constitution, is still Commander in Chief and as such must make the decisions. The notion of the Communists that we are a paper tiger cannot be blamed on anything but the wide breach of opinion that exists now within our Government on what should be done in Asia. If anything is to be salvaged from the sacrifices already made and which will be made in Asia it will come only because this Nation pulled itself together In one com- mon cause. President Johnson should not be made the scapegoat for a situation which is unprece- dented in our history and one in which no- body has any ready solution. He must only do what he things is right. Congress should stand ready to support any President who moves firmly and honestly in that direction. Guidance and the Political Apostolate EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD J. IRWIN OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. IRWIN. Mr. Speaker, in the cur- rent issue of the National Catholic Guidance Conference Journal, Dr. John Norman, professor of history and gov- ernment at Fairfield University in my district, has published an article entitled "Guidance and the Political Apostolate." Dr. Norman discusses the role of the Catholic layman in politics but he also makes some extremely interesting obser- vations about the responsibility of all citizens in a democracy. In the belief that Dr. Norman's ar- ticle will be of interest to my colleagues, I offer it for insertion in the RECORD at this point. The article follows: GUIDANCE AND THE POLITICAL APOSTOLATE (By John Norman, professor of history and government, Fairfield University) Pope Plus XII once declared that "While there Is much talk about the maturity and A977 strength of the layman in the church, it is in public life that this must be practiced and proved. To act in this field is truly to act in the church." Yet insufficient attention is directed to what the layman can do to pro- mote Christian principles in public life, for he must not only particpate more actively in civic and political affairs, but he must do so under the conscious guidance of the ethical precepts of the church. If he cannot take part as a candidate, he can do so as a ra- tional, informed, and unselfish voter. It is not too much to say that in a democracy, the voting booth is the secular equivalent of the confession booth. Both provide a private test of one's conscience. In a democracy politics is almost always on the edge of ethics, and often overlaps it. Its very terminology is in large part ethical in connotation. Let us consider a few examples. "Politic" itself stems from a Greek word meaning citizen, and now signifies one who is wise or prudent. "Vote" originally meant to vow in Latin. "Suffrage" indicates a pray- er of intercession or supplication as well as the right to vote. "Franchise" once meant freedom from some restriction or servitude. "Candidate" in old Rome was one who dressed in white (purity or sincerity) when offering himself as a suitable aspirant for office. "Office" now means, among other things, duty, place of trust, or religious service. "Republic" represents the common weal (commonwealth) or state. And Aristotle once defined the "state" as "as association of similar persons for the attainment of the best life possible." THE ETHICAL IMPERATIVE Today we are laymen with reference to clergymen, but not with reference to politi- cians, since in a democracy all citizens are in a real sense politicians. Grover Clevelahd put It well when he said, "Your every voter, as surely as your chief magistrate, exercises a public trust." The ancient Greeks were keenly concerned over the ethical imperative to participate in civic affairs. Indeed, they referred to laymen not involved in public matters as "idiots," as any good dictionary will show. The classic expression of this feel- ing is found In Thucydides, who quotes Pericles thus: "We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as a harmless, but as a useless character; and if few of us are originators, we are all sound judges of a policy." But American laymen have been too fre- quently unsound judges of policy in the absence of proper guidance from their priests. For one thing, clergymen have not been in the forefront of overdue reform movements in the United States. Moreover, in view of the large number of priests who have expressed sympathy or support for such demagogs as Father Coughlin and Senator McCarthy (not to mention Musso- lini), laymen should resolve to become autonomous Catholics in politics, and not automatic ones. Where politics Is concerned, ethics is too important a matter to leave solely to the clergy. Catholics need the guidance of informed laymen, who, in the words of Jerome G. Kerwin, "hear nothing of the application of the moral to public af- fairs from their pulpits." However, in the matter of greater Cath- olic involvement in politics, matters are improving. Only a decade ago, Rev. John Tracy Ellis complained that, though Cath- olics had risen to prominence on the local level (not always to their credit), very few had attained high positions on a national level. Only a few years later, D. W. Brogan observed that the President and Attorney General were Catholic, as were the leaders of both Houses of Congress and nearly 20 Gov- ernors. This did not represent a Jesuit conspiracy, he added, but America's coming of age. It was also the coming of age of the lay- men, many of whom had apparently heeded Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040 e 0002-3 l~, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX such exhortations that an upright Catholic was bound by a serious obligation to run for office only "when his election is certain, when he is able to avert grave evils from the community, when he can accept without grave inconvenience to himself, and when no other equally competent candidate is available." This trend toward greater participation, if continued, will help expiate the wrong of days past when corrupt bosses were almost n, synonym for Catholic politicians. For there was then a kind of Gresham's law of politics, that bad politicians tended to drive out good ones. This of course does not usean that laymen will be saintly. In fact, asurveys have shown that Catholic-educated individuals behr,ve no better-and no worse--than other members of the commu- nity. But then, if men were angels, no gov- ernment would be needed, as James Madison once remarked. ((LIGATION TO VOTE MORALLY For those who do not run for office, the moral obligation to vote is obvious. But not so obvious is the obligation to vote morally. 'T'his does not imply that there should be a Catholic vote. It, means simply the applica- tion of Christian principles to politics in accordance with ogre's individual conscience. We neither have nor need a Christian Demo- cratic Party. The political lay apostolate may be effectively exercised within the American party system, which peaceably reconciles the divergent interests of a pluralistic society. In this sense, Catholicism and democracy are out mutually incompatible. Far from it. Alexis de Tocquevilie wrote that in the ignited States the Catholic religion had been mistakenly considered the natural foe of de- inocracy. "Among the various sects of Chris- tianity," he said, "Catholicism seems to me, on the contrary, to be one of the most favor- able to equality of condition among men." Since Catholics have frequently advanced claims to moral superiority over other sects, if, would be well to try to live up to these claims, even at the risk of straining human nature. Catholic laymen could set an exam- ple for others by endeavoring to vote as though the question on conflict of interest applied to a private citizen as well as to a public official. In other words, he should not vote for his own best interest if it conflicted with the general interest. This is seldom stressed in either Catholic or public schools, or in pulpits. It is scarcely understood. When it is considered at all, it is looked upon is idealistic or unrealistic, as if idealism were nut; in the long run the very essence of reoib m. Yet there is nothing new about the idea, even though it has been swept under the po- litical rug. John Stuart Mill asserted, "The viLer is under an absolute moral obligation to consider the interest of the public, not his private advantage, and give his vote, to the best of his judgment, exactly as he would be bound to do if lie were the sole voter, and the election depended upon him alone." In Al candor, how :many of us vote that way? Or how many of us have ever been taught to think that way? hill's sentiment found an echo in one of the best and least known speeches of a great C,vtholi.c, Al Smith, in his last address just before the 1928 presidential election, al- though he almost certainly never read Mill. S. Lid he: " * * * It is the duty of every Amer- ican citizen, marl or woman, to vote accord- ing to the dictates of conscience, solely upon f,',n basis of wha.'; he or she believes to be for the best interest of the country itself and not upon the basis of any passion or any prejudice. Any man or woman or any group casting it ballot for any other reason except tire welfare of the country Is doing what they possibly can to negative the whole theory of democratic government." Things like this need to be discussed and acted upon among Catholics. One reason for this is that only within recent years have Catholic colleges and universities acknowl- edged political science as a legitimate disci- pline. A noted Catholic political scientist, Jerome G. KKerwin of the University of Chi- cago, pulled no punches when he affirmed that "Even now there are Catholic schools where it is scarcely recognized, or where it forms some minor part of history, sociology, or economics. * * * If we have Catholics in the field of political science, they come large- ly from the secular schools." As part of the political apostolate, Catholic alumni could enhance the prestige of their alma maters by urging the completion of this unfinished business of modern Catholic education. They had. better realize that most of the advances in the social sciences have developed through the efforts of non-Catholics. ETERNAL DRUDGERY Apart from running or voting, political participation may entail the bother of help- ing out with speeches, releases, meetings, doorbell ringing, fund raising, telephone calls, stuffing envelopes, taking care of party headquarters and other grubby details. The price of liberty, therefore, is not so much ete:mnal vigilance as it is eternal drudgery, a thought otherwise expressed in the tribe but true maxim that either you run the govern- ment or the government will run you. And party politics does help run the government. There is always the fear that one may somehow become morally contaminated by going into politics, The risk is not much greater than in any other field. If power corrupts in politics, it also does so in busi- ness-or in the priesthood itself, for that manner. It has been said that politics is the art of the possible, so that only compromise and consensus can be expected instead of perfect solutions. In a democracy it often takes deals to approach ideals. The letter the laymen who enter politics, the better the results. Einstein once testified to the fact that more was accomplished in science than in political science because the latter was a much more difficult field to master. Thus the political apostolate is far from easy. It will involve the layman in con- troversy, misunderstanding, and sacrifice. He must be as tough of hide as he is tender of conscience. American politics is no game for those who are only Sunday Catholics. West Virginia's Statues in the U.S. Capitol EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. KEN HECHLER OF WEST VIRGINIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATI'V ES Tit arsday, February 24, 1966 Mr. HECHLER. Mr. Speaker, Harry V/. Ernst has written for, the Charleston Gazette an excellent article on the two West Virginians whose statues are in the tr.S. Capitol. Under unanimous consent, I nclude this article on the history and significance of the statues of Francis H. Pierpont and Senator John E. Kenna: WASHINGTON'S MOUNTAINEERS IN MARBLE (NOTE.--Each State allowed statutes of two sons in the U.S. Capitol. Here are the choices of West Virginians.) (By Harry W. Ernst) WASHINGTON. D.C.-One championed the trnion and helped create the State of West Virginia. A Methodist and Republican, he was too uncompromising to be a successful politician. He was descended from an early American family. The other, son of an Irish immigrant, helped carve out of the Missouri wilderness a farm when he was a boy. When he wins only 16, he was wounded fighting for the Confederacy. His congeniality made him it successful politician. A Roman Catholic and Democrat, he was the youngest Member when he served in the House (29) and U.S. Senate (35). They were Francis Harrison Pierpont. "the father of West Virginia" who was Governor of the restored (loyal to the Union) State of Virginia from 1861 through 1868, and John Edward Kenna of Charleston, who served in the House and Senate from 1877 until his death in 1893. West Virginia has honored both men by placing marble staues of them in the U.S. Capitol where each State is permitted to remember two of its prominent citizens in statuary. Selection of two men of such contrasting background and achievement perhaps re- veals a facet of West Virginia's character that isn't fully appreciated. Although it rural, somewhat provincial State, West Virginia generally practices what its State motto preaches-"Mountaineers are always free." Without self-conscious ideol- ogy, West Virginians for the most part be- lieve in equal rights and the right to dissent. They don't preach. about such fundamentals of democracy, but simply live confortably with them. None of the other 17 border and Southern States has made as much progress as West Virginia in moving to end the barbaric humil- iation of the Negro. And McCarthyism, which equates dissent with treason, never flourished in the State where a small number of right- and leftwingers have little difficulty being heard. The reason may be that West Virginians are basically uninterested in ideology-- whether it enslaves men because of their race or because of their politics. Their fellow citizens can seek truth by handling snakes or protesting against the war in Vietnam as long as they respect the rights of others to disagree or to be left alone. In his novel, "Absalom, Absalom," Wil- liam Faulkner discusses the cultural shock to a man who migrated from the West Vir- ginia mountains to Mississippi in the early 19th century. In West Virginia, "the land belonged to anybody and everybody": in Mississippi the land and the people were neatly divided and "a certain few men * * * had the power of life and death and barter and sale over others." The selection of Pierpont and Kenna to represent West Virginia in Capitol statuary indicates the State's passion for diversity and tolerance. How could a State honor both a lover of the Union and a fighter for the Confederacy during the same period? Perhaps the answer lies in the character of the two men, who their fellow citizens obviously respected although they may have hotly disagreed with them on some issues. The statue of Pierpont is really a monu- ment to the State he helped establish during the Civil War, as Senator Jonathan P. Doll- iver of Iowa, a West Virginia native, pointed out when it was unveiled at the Capitol in 1910. "It is a monument to times that we hardly yet understand," Senator Dolliver observed. "It is a sort of a memorial of our heroic age." With his reputation as the father of West Virginia, Pierpont could hardly be ignored by his fellow citizens. Shortly after his death in 1899, the State society of the Grand Army of the Republic persuaded the legislature to place his statue in Statuary Hall. Franklin Simmons, an American sculptor living in Rome, completed it in 1904. But it wasn't formally unveiled until 6 years later because of the maneuvering of several State politicians who disliked Pierpont and because of the illness of his only grandchild, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2,pMbed For MMMA:67BR00030002-3 A979 Mrs. Frances Pierpont Siviter, who unveiled it. Pierpont's life and character are well known to students of West Virginia history. Prof. Charles H. Ambler of West Virginia University wrote a biography of Pierpont that was published by the University of North Carolina Press in 1937. But few West Virginians probably know who their second marble representative in the Capitol was. Born in Valcoulon, Kanawha County, on April 10, 1848, Kenna was 8 years old when his father died and left his family practically penniless. His mother, a great-granddaughter of frontier fighter Gen. Andrew Lewis, took Kenna and his two sisters to live with her brother on a Missouri farm. After the Civil War, Kenna joined his fam- ily who had returned to Kanawha County. He studied at St. Vincent's Academy in Wheeling for two and a half years and then entered the law office of Miller & Quarrier in Charleston. Kenna had to wait 8 months before he could be admitted to the bar until the law- yers' test oath, which forbid Confederate sympathizers to practice law, was repealed. In 1872 when he was 24, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Kanawha County and became a circuit court judge 3 years later. His campaign style was strikingly similar to that of John F. Kennedy. Kenna was tall, handsome, and glamourous because of his war record. He was also a powerful speaker who shunned vituperative attacks on his opponents. Like Kennedy, he appealed to younger members of his party. And Kenna tried new ways of stirring up voters. In 1877, he cam- paigned with a circus to help persuade West Virginians that they should make Charleston the permanent location of their capital. Instead of a game of touch football, how- ever, Kenna and his youthful lieutenants celebrated his election as prosecuting attor- ney by playing marbles in the backyard of a friend's house. Kenna was defeated in his first try for the House of Representatives in 1874. But 2 years later he overcame the opposition of influential Democrats and upset the incum- bent, Representative Frank Hereford, of Union, Monroe County, who was chairman of House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee. He served three terms in the House and was chosen in 1883 to succeed Henry G. Davis, who declined to seek reelection, in the U.S. Senate. Kenna's popularity in southern West Vir- ginia partly resulted from his successful efforts in obtaining Federal aid for a slack- water system that made the Kanawha River navigable, which helped open the region's natural resources for development. A personal friend of President Grover Cleveland and one of the strongest defenders of his administration, Kenna was considered a liberal Democrat who championed Federal regulation of the railroads-the dominant economic power of his era. During Kenna's second term in the House, the West Virginia Legislature instructed the State's Congressmen to support the Texas Pacific Railroad bill. But Kenna declined, explaining: "I have not denounced subsidies to come here and support them. I have not raised my voice in opposition to class legislation against the interests and rights of the masses to come here and lend my voice to the con- summation of that very work. "I have not joined in the indignation of my people at the stupendous power and cor- ruption of the American lobby to come here and surrender myself helplessly into its hands." A fellow Congressman described Kenna's position as "a bold stand for a young man * * * to take against the unanimous action of the legislature of his own State." But Kenna was persuasive. The West Virginia Legislature reversed its action. Kenna also was ahead of his times in ad- vocating a stronger Presidency more inde- pendent of Congress. He emerged as a leader of the Democratic minority in the Senate when he argued for 3 hours and 20 minutes that President Cleveland was right in re- fusing to detail his reasons for dismissing cer- tain officials who had been appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate, whose Republican majority was attacking Cleveland for his action. At 45, Kenna died from heart disease at his home in Washington near the Capitol on January 11, 1893. A service was held in the Senate Chamber and another one at Charleston in the small Catholic church that Kenna had designed when he was 25. In a memorial address, a New York con- gressman described Kenna as believing "in the fullest possible freedom of thought and action * * * he was a bigot only in his hatred of bigotry." "Most men live too long," observed Sen- ator Blackburn of Kentucky. "This man died too soon." There was general agreement that Kenna's death cut short a promising career. Less than a month after his death, the West Virginia Legislature authorized a statue of Kenna to be placed in the U.S. Capitol- the first West Virginian to be so honored, which indicated his unusual popularity in a State known for rough treatment of its poli- ticians. Kenna's statue, which was sculptured by Alexander Doyle, now stands in the Capitol's Hall of Columns under the House Chamber. On the floor above is Pierpont's statue in Statuary Hall where the House of Repre- sentatives originally met. The 1864 act, which authorized the Capitol to also serve as a museum dedicated to the Nation's history, permitted each State to donate two statues that are Federal property and can't rbe removed from the building without the permission of Congress. . By 1932, the weight of the statues had be- come too much for the floor of the old hall. One from each State was left in the hall and the other's were dispersed throughout the Capitol, perhaps indicating that the weight of history is even too much for buildings to bear. Some of history's strains, however, were lifted last month when a ceremony in Statuary Hall offered hope that the Civil War has finally ended. The United Daughters of the Confederacy, in remembering Robert E. Lee's birthday, also laid a single red rose at the base of statues of both Confederate and Union heroes including Pierpont of West Virginia. DESCENDANTS OF JOHN E. KENNA Although all of Senator John Edward Kenna's children now are deceased, several of his grandchildren still make their homes in West Virginia. Senator Kenna's first wife died. Their only child was a daughter, who became a Catholic nun and died in a New York convent many years ago. He had four sons and a daughter by his second wife. One son, the late Jo N. Kenna, was judge of the State supreme court. Judge Kenna was the father of Lee M. Kenna, a Charleston attorney; and Nancy Kenna Ivison, who now lives in Connecticut. Another son, the late Edward B. Kenna, .who died at the age of 32, was listed as editor of the Gazette in R. L. Polk & Co.'s "Charles- ton Directory" of 1911. Edward's only child is Capt. William E. Kenna, U.S. Navy retired, who now lives in Connecticut, also. The third son, the late Arthur Kenna, was a Charleston. photographer, who had five children. They are Mrs. Gertrude Kenna Thomas of Pittsburgh; Mrs. Louis K. Hen- derson of St. Albans; Mrs. Ann Kenna Moore of Vienna, Wood County; Alexander P. Kenna of St. Albans; and John E. Kenna, III, of Charleston. The fourth son of Senator Kenna was the late John E. (Jack) Kenna, It, who was a salesman and pitched semipro baseball for the old Charleston Senators. He never mar- ried. Senator Kenna's only daughter by his sec- ond wife was the late Mary Kenna Elkins, who married Blaine, one of the sons of the late Stephen Benton Elkins. Their only child is Stephen Blaine Elkins, a Washington real estate developer. West Virginia still is honoring the name of Senator John Edward Kenna. Kenna, Jack- son County, is named after him, as is Kenna homes in South Charleston.. And, one of the new elementary schools that will be built in Kanawha County under the most recent bond issue, will be the John Edward Kenna School in North Charleston. Honolulu Declaration Rises Above Militarism d1~111i EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. MOSS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, typical of many editorials I have read is one in the Sacramento Bee which found the Hono- lulu declaration "heartening" in its avowal : The war for the hearts. of the people is more than a military tactic- The paper quotes the declaration- It is a moral principle. For this we shall strive, as we fight to bring about a true social revolution. The paper believes:. If the new domestic improvement and stability offensive of the Honolulu declara- tion is translated into reality the South Vietnamese people will obtain the greatest possible stake in resisting communism and defending freedom. The newspaper adds that- It is most welcome that President Johnson has determined to export a measure of the Great Society to this and other southeast Asian nations. This export may well equal 100,000 more American troops. Because of the significance of the Honolulu declaration, I commend this editorial to the attention of my col- leagues. The editorial follows: [From the Sacramento (Calif.) Bee, Feb. 11, 1966] HONOLULU DECLARATION RISES ABOVE MILITARISM The Honolulu Declaration issued in the form of an agreement between the United States and South Vietnam as a result of President Lyndon B. Johnson's visit to Hawaii contains one very welcome new emphasis. While L.B.J. and South Vietnamese heads of state declared their determination to per- severe in military resistance to the Vietcong, there was nothing said about expanding the war. Instead there was a pledge to expand social, economic, and political reforms. Said the declaration: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 24, 1966 "The war for the hearts of the people is snore than a military tactic. It is a moral principle. For this we shall strive as we tight to bring about a true social revolution." flow heartening it is to witness America nmem.bering its revolutionary origin and dodging to use this heritage as a weapon in he Vietnam conflict. The signatories of the Hawaiian declaration promised that both na- tions would undertake to give "full support" ;o political and social reforms and "special ,upport" in helping to stabilize the economy usd increase the food supply for the people of mouth Vietnam. Real substance has been given to these pledges by the swift dispatch of Vice Presi- clent HueERT H. HUMYHREY and Secretary of A+;riculturc Orville Freeman along with Am- bassador at Large W. Averell Harriman to South Vietnam as well as to other Asian 0a.tions. One of the most critical problems which Ii as dogged the defenders of South Vietnam- ;:;e independence has been the unrest of the mople. Millions of South Vietnamese have maintained an attitude of neutrality toward the war. This fact has made it possible for the aggressors to find refuge and sustenance among the people and often to conceal their identity. Some of this neutrality has arisen a cause the people have been caught in a ;lueeze between the warring forces. in some measure, however, the Vietnamese p?cople have remained unalined because their standard of living has been so low many of them are not certain their lot would bn any worse under the Communists. Ten .different governments in 10 years have caused political instability and confusion which aids the aggressors. If the new domestic improvement and stability offensive of the Honolulu Declara- tion is translated into reality the South Viet- oamese people will obtain the greatest pos- ,aible stake in resisting communism and de- fa~nding freedom. It is most welcome that L.B.J. has determined to export a measure of Use Great Society to this and other southeast ft fan nations. This export may well equal 11.10,000 more American troops. Estonian People Remembered EXTENSION OF REMARKS Os, HON. LESTER L. WOLFF OF NEW YORK TN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr, WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, each year raa the appropriate days, Members of this Chamber join their fellow Ameri- cans throughout the world in remember- ing that millions of persons in countries behind the Iron Curtain live their daily lives subjected to Soviet imperialism. 11; is well that we vocally remember, thereby keeping alive even a faint hope kiat someday the captive nations of Europe may join the international coin- ruunity as free and independent mem- l;ers of the family of nations. I rise today, Mr. Speaker, to pay trib- ute to the greatness of the Estonian people, and to recall that 48 years ago these proud people declared themselves independent. They then. reestablished their national independence which they ad lost in the course of imperialist Rus- sian expansion to the west. But the i'.stonian people were able to enjoy their f,.?eedom for merely two decades. The new masters of Russia-the Commu- nists-with their Red army-overran and occupied the country during World War II. That these traditionally free people are not free today is one of the great tragedies of Our times. Since World War II began, approxi- mately 55 former colonies representing about 1.5 billion people have gained their independence, these peoples constituting lit one-third of those living today, are abc free. In many more cases, western co- lonial powers helped and nurtured their colonies toward responsible independ- ence. What we in the West and most of the newly independent countries fail to realize is that during this same period of time, not a single colony of the Soviet Union has become an independent state. In fact, the Soviets have expanded their empire where they have been able, and have brutally repressed those under their yoke who have sought to attain their freedom. Yet it is the Soviets, employing the Marxist dialectic, who have branded the Western nations as the colonial powers, when in fact, Mr. Speaker, behind the Iron. Curtain lies the largest colonial empire the world has ever seen and suf- fered with. We ought to recognize the spurious Union of Soviet Socialist Re- publics for exactly what it is: a colonial empire which makes a mockery of sov- creiignty, freedom, human justice, and social conditions. We shall not let ourselves be fooled by the Russian propaganda agencies. Life in this "worker's paradise" is diffi- cult, as the Estonians watch their where- withal being shipped out of their coun- try; as they watch their women and children being forced to work hard and long hours and days for no apparent in- crease in the nation's standard of living; as they crave the amenities of life, es- haec:ially clothing, only to be told, "per- haps next year"; as the majority of Es- tonians outside the major cities live in :substandard housing, many of these units having only outside plumbing; as wages rarely rise, and almost never faster than the cost of living. It is a sorry life, but it should not surprise us to see this. 'T'hc millions of people in the captive na- tions learned a long time ago that the true nature of Russian socialism is some- what less than colonial poverty. We are not deceived. We shall not fa>r- get. The Estonian people have our faith, our trust, and the everlasting hope for a brighter tomorrow. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, JR. OF MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. MATHIAS. Mr. Speaker, while we have read a great deal recently about the contributions being made by mem- bers of our armed services, the work of the Air National Guard has not received the attention it deserves. The part- time military men who compose the Guard have been providing full-time as- sistance to the Military Airlift Command and assuming an increasing share of re- sponsibility for our total military airlift program. Last year the "weekend warriors" of the Air National Guard played an un- precedented role both in hauling tonnage to Europe and in helping to speed the movement of men and materiel to south- east Asia. In 1965 the 26 Air National Guard heavy transport squardons car- ried approximately 25 percent of the total cargo tonnage delivered to Europe by the Military Airlift Command. In recent months, Guard aircraft have pro- vided a significant additional capability to enable the Miliary Airlift Command to reduce the backlog of military cargo in stateside terminals. So that the splendid service of these civilian airmen may be more widely rec- ognized, I include in the RECORD the fol- lowing article from the January issue of the National Guardsman magazine: THE AIR GuARD's AIRLIFT-ANYWI3ERE, ANYTIME (By Maj. Corb Sarchet) (NOTE-Air Guard transports serve the Nation three ways: flying cargo hauls, troop airlift, and aeromedical evacuation flights. While in a training status, its fleet of 212 ocean-spanning aircraft has flown more than 27,500 tons of cargo overseas for the Military Aircraft Command, demonstrating its "ready now" status. Its 1,:122 experienced pilots are a significant asset for a pilot-short Air Force, its planes one-third of the MAC fleet. In nearly 5 years since its beginning, it has flown more than 34 million miles, carried 260,000 passengers, and hauled nearly 52,000 tons of cargo for the National Guard and MAC combined, and with a safety rate better than that of MAC. :Its planes could move the men of one infantry division in one "lift". The Air Guard MAC fleet is truly a "go any- where, any time" force in being that pro- vides the Air Force that added "go power" when the going gets rough.) Now 5 years old, the Air National Guard's heavy transport force plays a significant role in the Nation's airlift picture. As part of "training" activities, Air Guard transports carry thousands of tons of vital military cargo to points all over the World- tonnage which otherwise would have to be borne by the already heavily-committed craft of the Military Airlift Command (ex- Military Air Transport Service) or farmed out to commercial carriers. Air Guard transport crews also voluntarily have flown hundreds of "special" missions above their normal training requirements whenever MAC has become hard pressed, and cargo and passengers stack up at MA.C's terminals. Air Guard transports also' answer the call when special airlift projects arise for which MAC's Regulars can't be spared from their primary tasks. Such a case is the just-con- eluded "Christmas Star" in which 76 Air Guard transport crews took time oil' from their civilian jobs and families to fly 406 tons of Christmas packages, gifts, and mail from an appreciative Nation to its fighting men in Vietnam. MAC couldn't handle the cargo--it was stretched tight already, supporting the southeast Asia effort. In fact, it used the opportunity to ship 139 tons of military cargo to Vietnam aboard the Air Guard trans- ports along with the Christmas gifts. Ironically, it was at this very time of the greatest need for airlift, and amidst greatly increased use by MAC of the Air Guard capa- bility to help carry the growing cargo re- quirements, that announcement was made Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 +- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24., 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX he meets and, like his immediate predecessor, Sanford Bornstein, now serving as chairman of the board of directors of RBA, has devel- oped a vast circle of stanch friends in every walk of life. In view of RBA's present leader- ship, one would not have to go very far out on the limb to predict a year of unprece- dented success and accomplishment for the association in 1966. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES C. CORMAN OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. CORMAN. Mr. Speaker, the Los Angeles Times has accurately pointed out that "with friends like Jimmy Hoffa, the American labor movement does not need any enemies." Mr. Hoffa's proposal leading to the threat of general strikes is not in the best interests of the public or the Amer- ican workingman. The Hoffa scheme can only lead to the imposition of re- strictive laws upon organized labor and a stifling of the great contributions which the unions have made to strengthening our economy and bringing a measure of equality and Justice to the collective bar- gaining table. The Times editorial of February 8 fol- lows: HOFFA REACHES FOR STILL MORE POWER With friends like Jimmy Hofra, the Amer- ican labor movement doesn't need any enemies. The president of the Teamsters Union, who has managed thus far to stay a step ahead of Federal efforts to clap him in jail, delivered himself of some rather fan- tastic proposals over the weekend. First, Hoffa announced a campaign to en- roll professional athletes from baseball, football, and other sports in a giant union under the Teamsters' wing. Nothing could undermine public confi- dence in the cleanliness of sports faster than allowing a man with Hoffa's record of un- savory connections to gain a position of influence. Fortunately, both team owners and play- ers appear cool to the Teamster plans. One day after inviting himself into pro- fessional sports, Hoffa made an even more extraordinary proposal. In a Detroit address, he suggested that unions should join in fixing a common ex- piration date for all labor contracts in each city, and for unions in allied industries across the Nation. There is nothing unusual about union contracts within a given industry having a common expiration date. This is the pat- tern where Industrywide bargaining exists. But Hoffa's proposal goes much further, since it is aimed at giving organized la- bor the power to stage massive walkouts, cutting across union and industry lines. The Teamster boss says he wants to fol- low the example of foreign countries "where you find whole cities shut down" by gen- eral strikes. There is no reason to believe that respon- sible union leaders will rise to the Hoffa bait. In fact, they are probably considerably embarassed -by it, since it comes on the eve of a key Senate vote on labor-backed efforts to outlaw State right-to-work statutes. The outcry resulting from the transit strike which paralyzed New York is evi- dence enough that the American peo- ple would not tolerate the kind of massive union power envisioned by Hoffa. Any serious move In that direction almost certainly would result in restrictive legis- lation or application to unions of the anti- trust laws. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL .OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 16, 1966 Mr. ROSENTHAL. Mr. Speaker, under leave to extend my remarks in the RECORD, I would like to include an edi- torial which appeared in the Long Island Press of February 23, 1966, entitled "Viet- nam Clarification." I wholeheartedly agree with the point taken in the editorial, on the need for clarification, and commend the article to my colleagues. The editorial follows: VIETNAM 'CLARIFICATION There is a great hue and cry over how to achieve our aims in Vietnam. Some say we've had enough debate and let's get on with the job. But should we stop the de- bate when we still don't know what the "job" is really all about? Hardly. It is in this area that Senator ROBERT F. KENNEDY Is doing the Nation a service. His controversial statement about a coalition in Vietnam with the Vietcong is forcing some hard, cold looks at where we're going and how we will get there in Vietnam. Only debate can bring some measure of clarity into these cloudy issues. On Satur- day, for instance, Senator KENNEDY did not specify free elections as a precondition for including Communists in any postwar gov- ernment in Saigon. Yesterday, he made it clear he meant that this precondition must be met. Over the weekend Vice President HuM- PHREY, Under Secretary of State George Ball, and Presidential Assistant McGeorge Bundy blasted Senator KENNEDY. But yesterday, Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, another of the Presi- dent's top advisers, took a position close to the Senator's. If Senator KENNEDY means representation for the Communists through free elections, General Taylor said, "I'd have no trouble with it * * *. If he means negotiating them into a coalition government, I'd not be for it.,, What the Senator is now saying makes more sense than his original statement. He is now calling for clarification of this serious confusion in the administration's policy. He pointed out a glaring contradiction. On one hand, the United States claims it will talk with Vietcong and Hanoi without any preconditions whatsoever. On the other, there are indications that these are pre- conditions, including the one that none of the dissident elements "which undoubtedly will include the Communists will be repre- sented in the government." "You can't have it both ways," he said, "and in my judgment this is important for us to be clarified." Regardless of how one might feel about Senator KENNEDY's views, he has served the purpose of forcing discussion. What he is saying, in essence, is that if we are fight- ing a limited war, we must expect a limited A917 peace and must begin to think, therefore, in terms of those limitations. If not, if we are to fight a total war aiming for uncondi- tional surrender, then we must face up to all its bloody consequences. Youth Concert Thrilling Event EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WESTON E. VIVIAN OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Speaker, the per- formance of the orchestra from the Interlochen Arts Academy, Monday eve- ning in the State Department Audito- rium, here in our Nation's Capital, made me proud to be from the State of Michi- gan and to be a member of the Michigan congressional delegation which sponsored the concert. As a measure of the effect on the audi- ence, a former member of a famous string quartet with the London Symphony Or- chestra was exuberantly collecting auto- graphs. Mr. Speaker, the United States could do no better than to have this group of talented, disciplined, delightful young people tour the countries of the world with their outstanding gift of music. Dr. Joseph E. Maddy, who taught mu- sic for 20 years at the University of Mich- igan, Ann Arbor-which is in my dis- trict-and who is professor emeritus from that great institution of learning, is to be congratulated for holding onto his long-time dream of a great arts acad- emy until it became a reality. Thor Johnson, who coaxed, bewitched, or de- veloped a group of high school music students into a single instrument of sur- passing beauty, is to be applauded. My deep appreciation also goes to each mem- ber of the orchestra behind whose per- formance were many hours of concen- trated practice and single-minded devo- tion to the mastery of an art that speaks in a universal language to peoples of every land. I take special pleasure in the fact that the following members of the orchestra are from the Second Congressional Dis- trict of Michigan: Roberta VanMeter, Plymouth-violin; Norman Fischer, Plymouth-violoncello; Michael Fergus- on, Ypsilanti-bassoon and contra-bas- soon; Gary Breeding, Milan-french horn; Edward Kalousdian, Ann Arbor- tuba; Peter Bonisteel, Ann Arbor-per- cussion, In the Washington newspapers which covered the concert, the string section was referred to as a disciplined, many- splendored thing, and the programing was considered to be "comparable to that of any symphony orchestra in the world." Mr. Speaker, under unanimous con- sent I place in the RECORD the reviews of the Interlochen Orchestra's concert written by Cecilia H. Porter for the Washington Post and Wendell Margrave for the Evening Star, both published on February 22: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002;,3. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 24,. 1966 I From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, Feb. 22, 19661 YOUTH CONCERT TFiRIL.LING EVENT (By Wendell Margrave) Chose fortunate enough to attend the con- cert last night at the Department of State Auditorium of the Interlochen Arts Academy orchestra had the inspiring experience of hearing a fine orchestra concert, comparable in programing to that of any symphony or- chestra in the world, played by 102 young people of high school age. The school they represent, an outgrowth of the National Music Camp at Interlochen, is it college preparatory school for students gifted in the arts. The orchestra rehearses :'. hours a day, 6 days a week for a :32-week _;easan and is at present on a tour which takes them today to the University of Mary- land, tomorrow u) Carnegie Hall, then to three performances in Canada. The orchestra members are mostly from the Middle West, but all sections of the country are represented, and there are mem- bers from Taiwan. Finland, and Japan. 'T'hree are from the Washington area; violin- ist, Nancy Cole from Silver Spring, clarinet- st, Jonathan Lautman from Takoma-Park, ^rid Eugene Sittenfeld, percussionist, from Bethesda. it was a thrilling performance. It is a :;Ludent orchestra, to be sure, with not quite the routined confidence and mature sound of it professional group, but wonderfully nompetent, wonderfully accurate, wonder- fully unified. The Kodaly Concerto for Or- chestra and the Shostakovich First Sym- phony gave opportunity for much excellent solo work by individuals, notably Violinist Victoria Matosich, Cellist Jane Schroeder, a remarkable young bass player named David Currie, Miriam Jakes, a blonde oboist with the embouchure a bit to the right but with a sweet sound and a musician's way of phras- ing, and the spectacular and dedicated tym- panist, Tsutomu Yamashita from Kyoto. The best single section in the orchestra is the brasses, for they have the incisive at- tack and golden tone that is America's own peculiar contribution to brass playing. This rests as much on the example of the great jazz players as it does on the symphony tradi- tion; and it gives a particularly vital thrust to the sound of the orchestra. The conduct- ing was in the experiencing hands of Thor ,Johnson, who for years conducted the Cin- cinnati Orchestra. Dr. Joseph E. Maddy, launder of the music camp and of the acad- emy, who is everywhere a symbol of this kind of enterprise, conducted the "Roman Carni- val." At the close of the program, the con- cert-master led the orchestra in the excerpt from Hanson's "Romantic Symphony" that is the Interlochen theme. I From the Washington (D.C.) Post, Feb. 22, 1966) LNTERLOC IIEN STUDENTS PERFORM LIKE ADULTS (By Cecelia If, Porter) Nearly 90 red-coated teenagers massed on lie stage of the State Department's West Auditorium last night to present an adult evening of music. The players form the permanent orchestra of the Interlochen Arts Academy, a recent prep school expansion of the famed summer- time National Music Camp in northern Michigan. For this first appearance on a seven-concert tour of the east, coast and Ontario, Thor Johnson, the director of the school, con- ducted three-fourths of the program. The Founder of the slimmer camp, Joseph Maddy, took the baton for Berlioz' Roman Carnival Overture. 't'l:,e program, which also included Mozart's "Tdriz" Symphony. Kodaly's infrequently heard Concerto for Orchestra, and Shostak- uvich :s First Symphony, showed a wise se- lection calculated to challenge all the players with at least one major responsibility for the 2 hours. is practically a norm for the conservatory orchestra to fall short in one or more see- tions. With high school groups, you note the enthusiasm, then quickly assemble the "bet's" and "however's." Yet few excuses are necessary for this orchestra, in which. even the string section is a disciplined, many-splendored thing. The five continuous movements of the Kodaly concerto, composed in the midst of World War II, proved to be the apex of the concert. The solo violas and cellos, respond- ing smoothly to an equally eloquent wind assembly, transformed the largo into a sumptuous, impassioned affair intensified with unbelievable nobility in the later tutti reaffirmation in Bachian motivic work. The command shown in this movement, as in the first; with its incisive brass punctua- tions, and in the two allegros, stunningly managed even in improvisational solos, could hardly be matched by good adult performers. The certainty evident through all levels of the string section most obviously charac- terized the reading of the "Linz." The read- ing of the adagio indicated an unusual ma- turity in maintaining a slow tempo without sacrificing the metrical pulse. The muscians languished tastefully over the protracted dissonances and solo episodes. Yet they never sank into that ominous giiick- sand of increasingly sluggish paces that drags performers into the mire of a new "Farewell Symphony." There was a wonderful pliancy in ex- changes between sections and individuals In the Berlioz. Maddyy drew forth a controlled rather than a weeping sentimental cantilena. Coming from the pen of a 19-year-old. the Shostakovich symphony impressed its Rus- sian hearers immediately and impressed the audience last night. All the elemetits- skilled pizzicato, light wind tonguing, lux- uriant tutti mixtures-were there for a total suavity and grace that were outstanding. Dr. Bernard Braskamp SPEECH HON. JOHN R. HANSEN OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. HANSEN of Iowa. Mr. Speaker, I wish to join with my distinguished col- league from Iowa, and the leadership of the House of Representatives in the com- ments and remarks that have been made here on this sad occasion. All of us are deeply grieved by the loss sustained through the passing of this good servant of the Lord. In Dr.:Braskamp I found, as a native Iowan and a fellow Presbyterian, a wel- come handclasp and a friendship that was stimulating. :During the 14 months I knew him I came to look forward to his incisive choices of Scripture that prefaced the opening prayer each day. Dr. Braskamp distinguished himself as a churchman in this area long before he came to serve as Chaplain of the House of Repre- sentatives. I am certain that his 16 years of service to this body will stand a:; an eloquent monument to a gifted and dedicated spirit. More Flags for Vietnam: Nations Sup- porting the U.S. Effort in Vietnam. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, the Unit- ed States is not the only country assist- ing South Vietnam in its struggle against conquest by its northern neighbor. Al- though we.wish more substantial assist- ance were being provided by more na- tions, we should not overlook the valuable military, economic, or sometimes polit- ical and moral support which has been rendered by other nations. We should not forget which nations are willing to stand up and be counted on our side. Three nations have made the supreme commitment of sending troops, and risk- ing the lives of their sons for the cause of freedom just as the United States and the Republic of Vietnam must do. These nations are Australia, which has sent one reinforced battalion of 1,500 men; New Zealand, which has sent one artillery battery of 300 men; and the Republic of Korea, which has sent a reinforced division of 17,000 men and supporting forces totaling 3,750 men. Other mili- tary assistance has been provided by Malaysia, which has supplied training to Vietnamese for counterinsurgency opera- tions and some armored vehicles; the Philippines and Nationalist China, which have sent psychological warfare as well as medical personnel; and Thailand, which has military air detachments in Vietnam and supplies training for South Vietnamese Air Force personnel. In addition to these countries which are sending military assistance, more than 30 nations are supplying or have agreed to supply some sort of nonmilitary assistance. In most cases this support signifies an affirmation of their support for the struggle against agression. Bel- gium, Brazil, Denmark, Ecuador, Greece, Guatemala, India, Ireland, Israel, Laos, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Spain, Tur- key, and Uruguay have sent medicines and flood-relief aid. Canada has pro- vided educational assistance, medicines, flour, and aluminum warehouses. West- ern Germany has provided assistance for agricultural development, physicians, technicians, and ambulances. Iran has sent petroleum products and Ireland has provided financial support. Japan has sent economic assistance, technicians, medical supplies, radios, and ambulances, although it holds the Japanese Constitu- tion prohibits sending troops. Laos has provided refugee relief. The United Kingdom has provided financial assist- ance, and Venezuela is sending rice. Even traditionally neutral Switzerland has provided 30 microscopes. In total, 31 nations have supplied some sort of tangible assistance. Eight more have agreed to provide assistance of some kind. There is another kind of support which has been provided which I would like to mention, and that is political and moral Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 :February ? 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX support. : For many years the United Kingdom, as a cochairman of the Geneva Conference of 1954, has supported the basic policies of the United States when the other cochairman, the Soviet Union, sought to issue messages condemning United States or South Vietnamese policy. Similarly Canada, as a member of the International Control Commission, has repeatedly helped protect the free world interests against unfair charges by the Communist side. Other nations have voiced support in important resolu- tions in international or regional orga- nizations such as the United Nations or SEATO. All of these contributions have been welcome and appreciated. Nevertheless, in view of the magnitude and importance of the task in South Vietnam, we have every right to ask for more. Over 1,300 Southeastern Louisiana Col- lege Students at Hammond, La., Sup- port President Johnson's Vietnam Policy EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES H. MORRISON OF LOUISIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. MORRISON. Mr. Speaker, re- cently I received a resolution signed by over 1,300 students at Southeastern Lou- isiana College in my hometown of Ham- mond, La., supporting this country's policy in Vietnam. I have forwarded this resolution to President Lyndon B. Johnson to show the President and the entire country how these many young people are patriotically supporting the United States in its struggle in South Vietnam. The students at Southeastern strong- ly support their President's policy. In addition to this resolution they sent a similar resolution with a large number of signatures to our troops in Vietnam before Christmas. I feel that these young people represent the finest tradi- tion of our American heritage. I am sure that the sentiments expressed in the resolution represent the views of an overwhelming majority of our citizens throughout the country. The following is the resolution spon- sored by the Southeastern Louisiana Col- lege student government and signed by the hundreds of students at that institu- tion : RESOLUTION Whereas the United States of America is involved in a military conflict in Vietnam; and Whereas President Lyndon B. Johnson Is Commander in Chief of our Armed Forces; and Whereas the American foreign policy is being applied to its best effect in Vietnam: Therefore be it Resolved, That the student government of Southeastern Louisiana College, Hammond, La., representing the entire student body, go on record as being in full support of our Federal Government's policy in Vietnam; be it further Resolved, That this body honor the men in Vietnam by rising for a moment in silent prayer; be it further Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be recorded in the official minutes of the stu- dent government senate and that a copy be sent to President Lyndon B. Johnson. The following is a letter which I re- ceived from James J. Brady, president of the student government at Southeastern: DEAR CONGRESSMAN MORRISON: On behalf of the student body of Southeastern Louisi- ana College, I am forwarding to you a copy of the resolution supporting our President's and Government's position in Vietnam. As you can see this resolution is accom- panied by a list of over 1,300 names of stu- dents on our campus who support this posi- tion. These names were collected by various members of the student body at different places on the campus. This petition is not the neatest nor the most attractive that might be composed, but the sincerity of the students whose names appear on this roil reflect the true greatness of our republic. I, therefore, ask that you make known our position concerning Vietnam to the Presi- dent and to the other members of the Louisi- ana congressional delegation. Sincerely yours, JAMES J. BRADY, President, Student Government. And finally I include the letter which I sent to the President along with the resolution : DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: It is with great pride that I forward to you a petition signed by 1,300 students of Southeastern Louisiana Col- lege, located in my hometown of Hammond, La., expressing the support of these young people for our Nation's policy in Vietnam. The letter transmitting this petition, from Student Government President James J. Brady, reflects the hope of our country through the courageous attitude of this stu- dent body. I am very pleased and happy to submit this petition to you. With kindest regards, I am, Sincerely, JAMES If. MORRISON, Member of Congress. Dr. Bernard Braskamp SPEECH OF HON. LESLIE C. ARENDS OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. ARENDS. Mr. Speaker, all of us are saddened with the passing of our be- loved Chaplain. His voice is now silenced but he is still to be heard. He is saying to us now what he has many times said in his counsel to us, individually and col- lectively. Whatever the loss, whatever the problem, however dark and formid- able things may appear, whatever our grief and whatever our hardship: "Be of good cheer." In our grief of losing Dr. Braskamp we need but remind ourselves of his sustain- ing words of encouragement: "be of good cheer." "God's will be done." . A969 The words he lived by come from Joshua: Be strong and of good courage; be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed; for the Lord thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest. In his prayers, as he opened each ses- sion for 16 years, he would inspire us and encourage us in the tasks before us. In more ways than we will ever know he gave us .courage and renewed our strength. To his bereaved family I offer my sin- cerest sympathy. More Have Died on U.S. Highways Than in All the Nation's Wars EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN E. MOSS OF CALIFORNIA IN THE: HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. MOSS. Mr. Speaker, the car- nage which occurs daily on our roads and highways becomes increasingly serious with the passage of time. For- tunately, a greater degree of attention is being paid to the problem than has been paid in the past. A number of bills on the subject have been intro- duced, including my bill, H.R. 12549, to create a National Traffic Safety Agency to lead in accident loss prevention through research and application of its findings. Because of its relevance, I would like to include in the RECORD an editorial from the Sacramento Bee, Sunday, February 13, 1966, entitled "More Have Died on U.S. Highways Than in All the Nation's Wars," which I think points out the magnitude of the problem quite graphically and indicates how much more substantial the difficulty will be- come unless action is taken on a number of fronts to alleviate and solve it. The editorial follows: MORE HAVE DIED ON U.S. 15IGHWAYS THAN IN ALL THE NATION'S WARS In the Revolutionary War, 4,435 Americans died in battle. In the War of 1812, another 2,260 were killed. In the Mexican War, 1,733 lost their lives. The Civil War claimed 141,414 Union soldiers dead in battle and 74,545 Confederate dead. Another 305 were killed in the Spanish-American war. World War I claimed 53,513 Americans killed in action, World War II 292,131, and the Korean war, 33,629. As of early this month, 1,035 had died in Vietnam. This totals 605,080 in American battle dead. An appalling sacrifice, but to a cause: Freedom. Last year, 49,000 Americans lost their lives on American highways and this says nothing of the 3.5 million maimed and injured and the billions lost in property damage. Over the last quarter of a century, dating only to 1941, a total of 1.5 million have died on the highways, more than twice as many as have been killed in all of the Nation's wars dating back 190 years. Yet murder-by-motor continues. This year, traffic statisticians expect more than 50,000 will die, and again this says nothing of the injured. Despite improvement in road Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 A970 CONGRIESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 1Angineering, deaths the next 10 years will Iro up, year by year. Indeed, it may be as President Lyndon B. Johnson said in an ad- dress before the American Trial Lawyers Asso- -iation in New York City: "It is a fact that if we continue on our present suicidal rate, kwlf of all Americans will I day suffer death ,,r serious injury on our highways." The causes? They are several. The first, and perhaps the predominant i actor, is the human factor. The traveling public has become so used to death on the highways, so familiar with the casualty listing, it has come to accept the carnage as just One of those things, and therein lies the greatest danger. Slogans have failed to encourage safety. Laws spe- cifically written to inspire responsibility at the wheel have been inadequate. The haz- >:rds have been taken out of travel, insofar as possible, through straightening out =curves, easing access and egress, etc. Still the slaughter continues. :Second, more and more cars are being produced, bought and fed into already con- ;4ested arterial and freeway routings. In the early 1920's American producers were turn- ing out 1.9 million cars each year. By 1930 production had risen to 2.7 million. By 1940, i:(, 3.7 million. By 1960, to 6.6 million. Last year, production in the United States totaled more than 7.7 million and producers have predicted a 10 million production year by 1970. Third, the automobile industry has made some progress, yes, in making motoring safer; but U.S. Senator ROBERT F. KENNEDY, for one, thinks it has not done enough. He em- phasized that General Motors Corp.. the larg- est producer of cars in the world, made a prolit of $2.1 billion in 1965, yet spent only .$R million on research-a sum he termed grossly inadequate. Meantime, what will be essential to the eventual solution is much, much tighter regulation---driving is not a right but a priv- ilege---and sustained experimentation to produce both safer cars and safer roads. And if, will take public education, by the ton. All of this will be for naught, however, if the nian at the wheel cannot be reached and convinced. If he cannot, very possibly he eventually will be able to be reached-at the morgue. IXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOHN BRADEMAS IF INDIANA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 16, 1966 Mr. BRADEMAS. Mr. Speaker, we in the United States know Independence Day as a happy occasion, a holiday filled with picnics and parades. By contrast, :,here are less fortunate peoples for whom the anniversary of independence evokes )rely a poignant memory. Such a na- ,ion is Lithuania. forty-eight years ago this month, Lithuania gained independence after More than 120 years under first; Rus- s,ian then German domination. That i1-nnile state of freedom lasted but a few c3:rs. The country suffered as a bat- Itc?;round during World War II, was for :1 years under German occupation, and in 1944 was occupied by the Soviet Un- ion, which to this day exercises oppres- inve dominion over the 3 million inhabi- tants of Lithuania. The United States properly refuses to recognize the incorporation of Lithuania into the Soviet Union. And we citizens who so cherish our own freedom hope the days will be short until that same freedom can be enjoyed again on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. We join Erwin Cahman, of the Christian Science Monitor, in declaring, "The Baltic peo- ples-an ancient, culturally rich folk with proud national traditions-deserve a better fate, and one day may achieve it. Citizens Honor Hamburg Township Fire Department EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WESTON E. VIVIAN OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Speaker, I have spoken of individual initiative and its importance in our democratic system of Government on the floor of the House before. Today, ]i wish to bring to the attention of the Members the work of the Hamburg Township Fire Department in Livingston County, Mich., which I am privileged to represent in the House of Representa- tives. Mr. Speaker, in order to provide fire protection for the area, a group of civic-minded men in Hamburg Town- ship founded a volunteer fire depart- ment, and equipped it with their peI?- sonal funds and additional sums they were able to raise. I believe that the members of the Hamburg Township Fire Department deserve to be honored for contributing time and money to the safety and welfare of their community. 1: join with the citizens of Hamburg Township who paid tribute to their ex- traordinary fire department recently at a dinner in its honor. I am pleased to include an article on the department, published in the Brighton Argus, at this point in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD: HAMBURG TOWNSHIP DINES FIREMEN 13:AMBURG-Tribute to the volunteers who man the only privately owned. fire depart- ment in the Nation, will be paid by the residents of Hamburg Township, January 29, when the firemen will be guests at a din- ner at the Lakelands Golf Club. Although all the equipment is owned by all the members of the volunteer fire de- partment, the organization is a nonprofit organization-in fact it depends on finan- cial assistance from private sources and many of the firemen themselves have expended sizable sums of their own on equipment. The 6:30 o'clock dinner at the golf club to be given by the residents of Hamburg Township celebrates the 20th anniversary of the volunteer lire department's incorpor- ation. Twenty years ago Hamburg had no fire protection. It had no lifesaving equipment. Today, because of the untiring efforts of a group of civic-minded volunteers it has both. Not only do these men maintain and operate firefighting and resuscitating equip- ment, but they also finance it. This organization has grown from a group 24, 1966 of stout-hearted, green volunteers with two war-surplus, gasoline-powered pumps--one on the creek bank, the other mounted on a two-wheel trailer-to a group of stout- hearted, trained volunteers who now own three radio-equipped mobile units and a large-volume electric pump at the creek which could supply the entire village of Hamburg with water, if need be. At the present time they are awaiting de- livery of a new American-Marsh 1,000-gal- Ion tank truck with both a high and low pressure pump. Lincoln Day Oration of the Honorable F. Bradford Morse EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, JR. OF MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. MATHIAS. Mr. Speaker, on Feb- ruary 12, the gentleman from Massachu- setts [Mr. MORSE] delivered the annual Lincoln Day oration before the Middle- sex Club of Boston. In his eloquent ad- dress, Congressman MORSE invoked the principles which inspired President Lin- coln and the Republican Party to na- tional leadership a century ago, and challenged all Republicans to carry forth the battle for freedom in our own era. In calling for a "new birth of free- dom" in these tangled and troubled times, Mr. MORSE declared: We must recall that the keystone of free- dom is responsibility-and that the highest responsibility of if. free political party is to govern-for the people. Toward this goal, he called upon all Republicans to pursue Lincoln's vision of a party of the people, a great party of diverse men and women "joined together not because they share a common dogma, but because they share common goals." Mr. MORSE'S concise and compelling address merits the attention of all Amer- icans, and I would include it in the RECORD at this point: LINCOLN DAY ORATION OF CONGRESSMAN F. BRADFORD MORSE: BEFORE THE MIDDI,S EX CLUB, BOSTON, FEBRUARY 12, 1966 "Of strange, discordant, even hostile ele- ments we gathered. from the four winds and fought the battle through-under the con- stant hot fire of a disciplined, proud and pampered enemy." So said Lincoln in speaking of a Republican Party which was not then 3 years old. His words described the explosive emer- gence of a new force, made of shredded rem- nants of political failure, born to meet the troubled conscience of a troubled people, des- tined to preserve the integrity of a nation determined to destroy itself. "Did we brave all then to falter now? Now when that same enemy is wavering, dis- severed and belligerent." These words, too, are golden with age, for though they challenge us today, Lincoln used them to chide Republicans a century ago. For Lincoln knew, as we must learn, that unity begets strength, that discord breeds disaster. - Lincoln knew, as we must learn, that his party-our party--would deny its essential character and insure its own destruction were it to impose upon itself a discipline of ideological conformity. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2~;p?d For FUPR>G5~1~c~1vAL WO V00030002-3 Hurley, a veteran of World War I and a long-time resident of the immediate area. The 16-acre site was purchased by the town of Randolph from Mr. Lind for $43,600 and has been extensively landscaped with a foot- ball field, baseball diamond, tennis courts, and areas for physical education. STATISTICS Acreage: 16.87 acres. Building area, 86,910 square feet. Student capacity: 1,000 students. Parking capacity: 185 cars. Building cost per square foot: $15.60. Expenditures : General contract including site development ----------------- $1,560,400 Planning and supervision-_-- 112, 320 Clerk of the works ---------- 12,450 Furnishings and equipment-- 133,123 Miscellaneous ----------------- 14,301 Unexpended ------------------- 4,406 Total appropriation------ 1,837,000 State: 50 percent. DEDICATION AT RANDOLPH JOHN F. KENNEDY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BY HON. JAMES A. BURKE Mr. Chairman, honored guests, faculty members, and friends, I am delighted to have been invited to speak at the dedication of this beautiful junior high school, named in memory of our late and beloved President John F. Kennedy. This dedication ceremony has particular significance to me because I had the honor of serving in the U.S. Congress under his direction as President. John F. Kennedy always had an intense interest in education. As a Congressman from Massa- chusetts, in one of his early educational pro- posals, John Kennedy said: "I am aware that Massachusetts is not an island unto itself, and its progress, its peace, its prosperity, and ultimately its survival depend upon the wis- dom and enlightenment of the public school graduates in every part of the country." Let us not forget that much of the educa- tional legislation passed during the last ses- sion of Congress was originally initiated by John F. Kennedy. His youthful vigor appealed greatly to the younger generation and they immediately be- gan to identify themselves with the Presi- dent. President Kennedy encouraged their confidence by choosing the youth of America to represent our country abroad under the auspices of the Peace Corps. He realized that the future of our country was in their hands and emphasized to American youth the importance of staying in school and completing their education. We, of Massa- chusetts can be justly proud of our schools and the remembrance that one of our native sons was elected to Congress, went on to be- come a great Senator, and a dearly beloved President of the United States. These at- tainments should be emphasized to the stu- dents of John F. Kennedy Junior High School, since they too can become the future leaders of America. John F. Kennedy was so proud to be the President Of a democratic society because he believed that only in a democracy did the future leadership depend so much on educational preparation. Our Government has made education free and available to every American, beginning with the elementary school and continuing through high school, Junior high school 1's an important transition, the transition to greater maturity and learning. It is with the introduction of junior high school that the student begins to sort out his knowledge and attains a greater proficiency in subject matter. Those of you who will be studying and teaching at this beautiful John F. Kennedy Junior High School have a manifold respon- sibility, a responsibility to a past Congress- man, Senator, President, and educator. It is up to all of you not to allow specialization of subject matter to consume the student as well as the teacher. Having broad interests is most important In keeping our democratic way of life alive. Unfortunately, President Kennedy did not live to see many of his educational ideals enacted into legislation, but let all of us here cherish his name and be inspired by his educational beliefs. In a message to Con- gress, President Kennedy referred to educa- tion as a "keystone in the arch of freedom and progress." Today, let us remember the name of John F. Kennedy as a keystone in the structure of this school. I know that I share with all of you the hope that this school will endure and flourish with all of the beauty and greatness inhere name. Is Appeasement of the Aggressors Going To Be the Reward for Our Heroes? EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES D. MARTIN OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. MARTIN of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, on Monday evening, February 21, 1966, on page A-3 of the Washing- ton Evening Star, appeared two stores of American heroism in Vietnam. Nearly 200,000 brave young Americans are fight- Ing tyranny and aggression in Vietnam. They are fighting, not only to protect the right of the South Vietnamese to be free, but they are also fighting to prevent the spread of Communist aggression until it enslaves our own land. American heroes are dying in Vietnam to protect the right of those who are doing their best to cause our defeat at the hands of the leaders of the Commu- nist conspiracy. Certainly all Americans respect the right of free discussion and we will preserve the right of dissent. But where do we draw the line between legitimate debate and honest dissent and treason? Is sending blood, funds, and propa- ganda to the enemy that is killing Amer- icans, dissent or treason? Does free debate include the right to fly the flag above our own and to falsely accuse our own country of crimes against humanity? I hope many Americans, including Members of Congress, read the articles in Monday's Star. And if they did, what will they tell these brave boys on that day when we all must make a reckoning of how we lived and how we died? What are those Members of the other body who are so sure America is wrong and the enemy is right, willing to say to the loved ones of these brave heroes? Or is peace so sweet and fear so great that our coun- try has reached the point where we are ready to abandon all honor, all respect, all freedom in the hope that we may be permitted to live? Throughout the proud history of America our people have stood for free- dom. Every generation has produced those who prefer death to slavery. Have we lost the courage of those who have gone before? I do not believe the American people A963 have, but I am afraid there are those in positions of leadership who, for whatever reason, seem to be willing to abandon principle for expediency, freedom for slavery, honor for peace. Let us rededi- cate ourselves to the principles upon which this Nation was founded and for which countless thousands have bled and died and for which Americans are suffer- ing and dying today in Vietnam. It may be a small measure of tribute, but I would like to include the stores of American heroes, Stephen Laier and James McKeown, in the hope that their sacrifice will remind all Americans of national purposes which seem to be for- gotten. Stephen Laier and James McKeown will be remembered by history and their memory will be enshrined for- ever in the hearts of men who dream of freedom. Who remembers today the name of the screaming beatnik who took part in yesterday's anti-American demonstration? The news stories from the Star follow: A HERO'S 15 DAYS: COURAGE TO GATES OF DEATH (By Peter Arnett) SAIGON.-A young infantryman named Stephen Laier has shown in 16 pain-filled days that in some men the only limit to courage is death. The courage of Laier, 18 years old, 6 feet tall, and weighing 225 pounds, almost defies comprehension by men who have never been wounded in battle. From the moment he lost both his legs to a bursting Vietcong mine early in February, to the time 15 days later when life finally ebbed from his body, Laier fought for sur- vival with a tenacity that brought tears to the eyes of those who knew his wounds were mortal. The doctors did everything to save him. Big, blond Laier, from Fort Wayne, Ind., suffered his terrible wounds February 4 as an ambush patrol from his company of the 1st Battalion, 16th Regiment, 1st Division, chased a sniper and got hit by hidden mines wired to detonate simultaneously. LOSES BOTH LEGS AT ONCE Three of the men were killed instantly, the remaining 11 wounded. Laier, close by the mines when they burst, lost his legs on the spot. With wounds this terrible, most men slip into shock and die. Laier, the radioman for the patrol told doctors later he knew he was the only man alive capable of operating his radio equip- ment. He tied rough tourniquets around the stumps of his legs and groped for his radio in the undergrowth. The blast had upset the calibration of his radio. In the gathering dusk, Laier retuned the set, a difficult job for a whole man. Then he began calling to his company headquarters at nearby Lai Khe. AID TAKES 35 MINUTES Laier then attempted to call down medical helicopters, but they could not land because of the darkness. A patrol from his company arrived on foot, guided by him. By this time 35 minutes had gone by. His company commander, Capt. Edward Yaugo, from Warren, Ohio, asked Laier, "Is there anything we can do for you?" Later replied, "Yes, you can get me some morphine." Dr. Kris Keggi, from El Paso, Tex., remem- bers Later being brought into the 3d Surgical Hospital at Bien Hoa that night. "Medically, he was dead then," Keggi said. "We probed his veins. There was no blood Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 2J, 1966 ville, Tenn., "Who's going to take care of you now?" "We had been working together ever since we joined the unit," Perkins said. "He called me 'Sergeant Rock.' and I called him 'Old Dan.' He was real young, but real grownup in his attitude. Fernandez, whose father, Jose, lives at Los Lunas, already had served. one stint in Vietnam, a. 90-day volunteer tour as a door gunner on armed helicopters. He earned the Air Medal and a Purple Heart during that tour. He returned to Vietnam last month with the 1st Platoon, C Company, of the 5th Mechanized Infantry's 1st Battalion. He was still volunteering. 'He was in the same spot the night before and volunteered to go out on patrol again. even though he hadn't had any sleep for 48 hours," 2d. Lt. Joseph D'Orso of Norwalk, Conn., said. "He was always volunteering." Masingale, one of those saved by leer- naadez' lunge atop the grenade, said his friend "had a girl back home he planned to marry when he got back. He also wanted to get a new truck for his father's ranch." Dan Fernandez was hit by a rifle bullet after the grenade exploded. He lived to get back to the brigade hospital. Doctors fought for 2 hours to save him, but. the internal bleeding was heavy. The Vietcong paid a price, too. Seventeen of them were killed and five others were believed killed and carried away by comrades. in them. He was literally down to his last drop of blood." TREMENDOUS WILL TO LIVE Keggi and his aides pumped 6 pints of blood into the youth and he came around. fifteen days la t;er a total of 60 pints of blood had been given him, literally replacing leis normal blood supply six times. "I Iis will to live was tremendous," Dr. Keggi :;aid. f,a,ier developed a multiplicity of complica- tions, Ilecessitating further operations on his legs. "We fought against amputating his legs at the hips," Keggi said. "We hated to do that. This man had been a football player, and he old us that he wanted to get out, wear tin tags, and walk again." At no time did Later complain about his misfortune. SURSE I17:LPS WITH LETTERS "Maybe it was because his grandfather bad lost his legs because of diabetes. He didn't seem afraid to face life," said Capt. Marguerite Giroux, from Malone, N.Y., the operating room nurse. Nurse Giroux helped Later write letters home, to his mother and his girl friend. "lie was so brave, that he didn't even want tell his girl friend that he was so sick. Ile said she would not have to worry about him,' Nurse Giroux said. To help sustain him in his quiet desperate fight for life, Later, a Roman Catholic, asked for a priest. As many as live Catholic chap- lains at it time came to visit him. Nurse Giroux said he prayed constantly. GENERAL GIVES BRONZE STAR i,aier's commanding officer, Maj. Gen. Jona- than. Seaman, visited Laier several times, Beaman was so impressed with the young radioman that he wrote a friend, "This is one of the bravest men I have seen in 30 years as a soldier." Seaman presented Laier a Bronze Star with "V" for valor, and told him. "This is the highest award in my power to present you. f wish I could present you with a higher one." Later told his commanding general: "I want to stay in the Army when I get my new legs." Death did not come as a merciful blessing for the terribly wounded infantryman. He tried hard not to die. HE DIVED ON THE GRENADE: GI GIVES LIFE c.'oa BUDDIES (By John T. Wheeler) Cu Cur, Vietnam.--"When he spotted the grenade, lie lunged on top of it without hesitation. He hollered, 'Move out you people,' and then it went off." Spec. 4 James McKeown, of Willingbro, N.J., was telling about Spec. 4 Daniel Fer- aiarulez, 21, of Los Lunas, N. Mex., whose ulti- ina.te act of bravery saved the lives of four of his buddies. Ilut the blast of the Vietcong grenade ended his life. Ills officers are recommending him for the C.:ngressional Medal of Honor. Last Friday, Fernandez was in a reinforced squad lying in ambush outside the 25th Dl vision's 2d Brigade perimeter, 25 miles west ot: Saigon. The Americans were hit by a much larger Vietcong force using a .50- caliber machinegun, a light machinegun, a,omatic weapons, and plenty of grenades. "The grenade :hit Dan on the foot as he was crawling," McKeown said today. "When it went off, it tore into his groin, abdomen, and right leg." Pvt. David R. Masingale, of Fresno, Calif.. a medic, told Fernandez while they were waiting for a medical evacuation helicopter, "Ilang on, buddy." Fernandez replied, "I'm going to hang on." But he added: "I never believed it would hurt so much." .Just before the helicopter took off, Fer- nandez asked Sgt. Ruben Perkins, of Nash- EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT McCLORY OF ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. McCLORY. Mr. Speaker, as I scanned the editorial page of the Wauke- gan News-Sun, of Thursday, February 10, 1966, the aforementioned caption caught my eye. The Waukegan News-Sun is a daily published in the principal city of Lake County, most populous of the counties which comprise the 12th Illinois District. It wields a decided influence as an opin- ionmaker. In this editorial, "Invitation to Free- loaders," is summed up the opinions of a considerable number of my constitu- ents and., I venture to say, of my col- leagues and their constituents. I rec- ommend it to those who have not given serious thought to the reasons why H.R. 8:282 should be defeated. INVITATION TO FREELOADERS When a depression-haunted Congress en- acted legislation about 30 years ago requir- ing every State to set up basic unemployment compensation laws, the objectives were sim- pte and clearcut. To qualify, unemployed workers had to be willing and able to work. Benefits from the program, separately governed by each State, were to go to legitimate wage earners who had clearly lost jobs through no fault of their own. The program has since become an accepted part of American life-but policing has posed persistent problems. Through the years, thousands of unscrupulous claimants- loaf- era, schemers, parasites, and moonlighters- -have bilked millions of undeserved dollars from the States. And now before Congress is a bill, H.R. 8282, which threatens to open the door wider than ever before to freeloaders, while at the same time, taking away the States right to govern the program as they see fit. The bill is being pushed hard by labor, personified by George Meany and Walter Reuther. Another ardent supporter, Secre- tary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz, has given his stamp of approval. What does this bill plan to do? First, it will allow Washington to set the standards for distribution of unemployment benefits in all States-a State prerogative until now. Second, benefit:, will be doubled and tri- pled. And the terms of these benefits could run as long as 1 year. In Lake County, an unemployed, unmar- ried worker can draw a maximum $42 per week for 26 weeks under unemployment com- pensation. Once in awhile, he may receive an emergency 13-week extension, based ott an overall increase in. unemployment in. Illinois. Under H.R. 8282, by 1971, this same Lake County worker could draw $100 or more each week for a minimum of 26 weeks, not a max- imum as under the present law. Further- more, the bill would relax the number of safeguards already imposed by the States. Workers who voluntarily quit jobs for any reason, including just plain laziness, could still receive compensation. The same would be true of employees who had been dismissed for outright misconduct. The question that is always asked is: "Who pays for this tremendous increase in unem- ployment compensation?" Initially, the an- swer is the employer who would be saddled with an estimated 60-percent increase in payroll taxes. Ultimately, unless the em- ployers could somehow absorb the higher cost, the increase would be passed on to the buying public. From a narrow, individual point of view, the liberalized benefits may be tempting. But measured in terms of the broad public interest, exorbitant benefits without proper safeguards against abuse would badly distort the true spirit of unemployment compen- sation. Instead of deterring unemployment, cs in the altruistic sense, allowing wage earners a small stipend during a rough period, the bill would make a mockery of personal incentive while diminishing the rights of States and forcing employers and consumers to foot the huge bill. H.R. 8282 should be defeated. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES C. CLEVELAND OF NEW HAMPSHIRE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. CLEVELAND. Mr. Speaker, the unexpected death of our beloved Chap- lain, the Reverend Bernard Brask'xnp, was a great shock. He was a man of wis- dom, and good. counsel who daily re- minded this House that everything we do here, no matter how vital and en- during it may seem at the moment, shall all pass away but that the Kingdom of the Lord shall endure forever. For 16 years Chaplain Braskamp min- istered to this House, invoking devine blessings on our efforts. Although he was a stanch Presbyterian, he served God; and his ministry applied alike to all who serve and have served in this House. We will miss this good and wise man who so honorably served the Lord in this Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 A958 Approved For Rele 8&W55i8iV ALA 1 GUK9Q041f*xlvt R 30002 'ebrud?^y '24, 1966 Survey Shows Prosperity . EXTENSION OF REMARKS. HON. BYRON G. ROGERS OF COLORADO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. ROGERS of Colorado. Mr. Speaker, the Denver Post, an outstand- ing newspaper of the West, has con- ducted its 10th annual consumer analysis survey of the metropolitan area. I am pleased to report that the metropolitan area is really prospering. Under unani- mous consent I insert in the Appendix of the RECORD an outstanding article by Willard Haselbush, Denver Post business editor, under date of Sunday, February 20, 1966, which is as follows: The Denver metropolitan area is teeming with persons who are well-housed, well-paid, well-educated and enjoy, as a routine way of life, ownership of savings accounts, stocks, bonds, appliances, and luxury items. The "war on poverty" doesn't involve some 90 percent of the area's families because 49 percent make from $8,000 to more than $15,000 a year and only 10 percent of all fam- ilies In greater Denver report annual incomes of $3,000 or less. The 10th annual consumer analysis survey of the metropolitan area released Sunday by the Denver Post underlines continuing pros- perity in the Mile High City and its suburbs. The survey, ,conducted by experts follow- ing a proven cross-section procedure used by leading newspapers across America, involved interviews with 3,870 families-1.3 percent of the population-chosen not at random but by address, age bracket, income and other factors. It showed that Denverites are earning more, spending more and saving more than ever before. It revealed that 92 percent of all families, regardless of income, own one or more auto- mobiles and that 30 percent of the vehicles were bought in the last 12 months-both new and used. It showed that 77 percent of all metropol- The Denver Post's 1966 consumer analysis in book form now is being distributed to advertisers and advertising agencies by the newspaper's advertising department and its representatives, Moloney, Regan & Schmitt. Inc. A composite picture of continuing and ris- ing prosperity in the Denver area emerged from the person-to-person survey which be- gan last September. It showed that 75 percent of all families in the area have charge accounts, that 84 percent own insurance policies, 31 percent have stocks and/or bonds and 79 percent have savings accounts. Of these, 57 percent reported bank. savings, 39 percent have money in savings and loan institutions and 38 ercent own shares In company credit full and in a manner worthy of his call- ing. There can be no finer eulogy to him than to paraphrase a line from one of the last prayers he offered for us. Surely, for him, that prayer, uttered just a few weeks ago, was fully answered for he, indeed, had "removed from him everything that holds us back from a complete surrender to Thy ways and Thy will." Mr. Speaker, there can be no higher praise than to acknowledge that in Dr. Braskamp, we knew a man who preached to us, not Only with his words, but also with his life. V unions. The scientific projection of those polled showed that 29 percent of all Denver-area families have savings bonds and 33 percent hold mutual. fund shares. Other highlights: Twenty-nine percent of the Denver-area households-a total of 86,700--consist of two persons and 14 percent-41,900-have six or more members. Denver has more children than adults. The survey showed that 4 percent are under 2 years old, 13 percent between 2 and 6, 21 percent between 6 and 11, and 20 percent between 12 and 17. Only 11 percent of the area's husbands are over 65 and 30 percent are between 35 and 60. A total of 104,700 housewives are jobhold- ers. That's 36 percent of the total,,an In- crease of 3 percent over a year ago. By income groups, 23 percent of the fulltime, housewife jobholders reported a total family income of $16,000 or more a year. Downtown Denver remains the favorite shopping area for 27 percent of the popu- lation, the projection showed, That com- pares with 21 percent who shop regularly at Cherry Creek, 17 percent at Lakeside, 14 percent at University Hills and 12 percent at Westland. SPEECH HON. JOHN R. SCHMIDHAUSER Stan-area dwellers own their homes. That includes 51 percent of families earning less than $5,000 a year who own and do not rent their living quarters. The gain in 1965 among families making $8,000-plus a year was 4 percent, the survey showed. It also showed that 8 percent of the metro- politan area's families gross more than $16,000 a year, 22 percent are in the $10,000 to $16,000 income bracket and 19 percent make between $8,000 and $9,999 a year. That adds up to 23,900 families, in an area with a population of just more than a million persons, who are in the $16,000-plus annual income bracket. Other highlights uncovered by the annual survey showed that 19 percent of all heads of households in the area have college degrees, another 17 percent have completed up to 3 years of college and 32 percent have high school diplomas, but no college training. Only 14 percent, said the mathematical projection, dropped out of grade school and never went back to school. Forty-seven percent of the Denver area household heads are managers, officials, pro- fessional men, proprietors or craftsmen, and 12 percent are retired The retirement total of family heads in the area, the survey showed, is 35,900, far ahead of the 29,900 who have clerical, jobs Only 3 percent of the area's population falls in the laborer cate- gory. That's 9,000 against the 41,900 who didn't finish grade school and the 56,800 who have college degrees. OF IOWA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. SCHMIDHAUSER. Mr. Speaker, when I first came to Washington as a freshman Member of the House, one of the things I found most heartening was the high quality spiritual guidance given the Members of the House of Represent- atives by their Chaplain, the late Rever- end Bernard Braskamp. Perhaps I re- sponded more warmly to him because he was a fellow Iowan and because he also rose from modest beginnings and found, through education, a means to serve others. I only know that I found his daily message a source of wisdom and inspiration and one which helped me view the daily round of quorum calls, rollcalls, and speeches as part of the con- tinuing march of our national history. w for- h l o y say Mr. Speaker, I can on tunate the House of Representatives has at Honolulu and then moves on to South Vietnam to begin immediate work on these been in being served by so illustrious a programs to build free, self-governing, demo- Chaplain as Dr. Braskamp, and I join all cratic communities. Members, both old and new, in offering It is also significant that President John- my sympathy to his family and to all -'son dispatched Vice President HuMPHREY to who have lost his. valued guidance. Dr. visit South Vietnam to continue the momen- Braskamp, however, had lived life to the turn for this positive program of reconstruc- Nation's Best Minds Advise President Johnson on Southeast Asia EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOE L. EVINS OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. EVINS of Tennessee. Mr. Speak- er, President Johnson in a recent letter made this historic statement in a per- sonal message: Whatever else history may say, it must record that everything this Government is trying to do is the result of the collected wisdom and judgment of the best minds in the country. And I alone will take re- sponsibility for all final decisions. This statement first appeared publicly in my newsletter, Capitol Comments, on February 14, 1966, in which it was point- ed out that the Vietnam conflict appar- ently is entering a significant new phase of reconstruction and pacification. Under unanimous consent I insert this issue of Capitol Comments in the Ap- pendix of the RECORD, believing it to be of interest to my colleagues and to Amer- icans generally. The newsletter follows: VIETNAMESE CONFLICT ENTERS NEW STAGE (By Jos L. EVINS) This week in Washington was marked by major and significant developments in the continuing Vietnamese crisis. The conflict seemingly is moving into a new stage. This became apparent with the recent meeting of President Johnson and other high American officials with officials of the South Vietnamese Government during the week in Honolulu, Hawaii. Following this meeting a joint declaration was issued in which the goals of the two na- tions were announced. A concerted effort will be made to build a democratic nation, beginning at the grassroots level. According to the announcement, as areas are liberated from the Vietcong, American and Vietnamese teams will move in to launch basic programs, in education, in economic reform, in agriculture, and in health to create stable and self-governing communities. It is most significant that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Sec- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 11'ebruary 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --APPENDIX A957 followed a democratic pattern. More im- portant was the wide latitude which was his to c loose friends, activities, and beliefs. The increasing responsibility about making more and more of his own decisions was both gratifying and frightening to Melvin. Melvin also grew concerned about current events. Remembering his earlier lessons he thought that those rebellious ones who burned their draft cards had somehow missed the point in their interpretation of democ- racy He debated the actions of those who marched in protest of the Government's policies in domestic and foreign affairs. He wondered what he would do if he were in a position of leadership in the Nation. Aid thus it was that. Melvin, like Ulysses, became a part of all that he had met. Mel- vin's story is my story and, like Melvin, I have formed my understanding of the mean- ing of democracy, realizing that the years and experiences to come will add new di- ruension to these beliefs. I believe with Lincoln that democracy is government "of the people, by the people, uirl for the people." 1 )elieve that true democracy recognizes the worth of the individual by guaranteeing hire certain freedoms as set forth in the il.:S.:,ons titutlou. f believe that our form of democracy evolved from the thoughts, experience, and prayers of men through the centuries and will complete its evolution only through the elf ors of men today and in the future. I believe that democracy is more than a Form of national government. It pervades all o l life for those who live within its framework. I helieve that this democratic form of gov- ernment places more demands upon the in- dividual than any other form of government because in granting freedoms It exacts com- pensating responsibilities----or, as John D. ifockefeller, Jr., put it, "every right implies a responsibility; every opportunity, an obli- gation; every possession., a duty." 1. believe that I cannot separate myself from the processes of democracy and blame others for its imperfections. I believe that I must participate actively in our democratic government, and that I must prepare myself now for that participation. ibis is what democracy means to me. House Loses Rev. Bernard Braskamp HON. DOMINICK V. DANIELS OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. DANIELS. Mr. Speaker, this House has sustained a great loss this week with the passing of our beloved Chaplain, the Rev. Dr, Bernard Bras- kamp. In his quiet way, Dr. Braskamp was a constant source of spiritual comfort to all N[embers of this House, both those who shared his denominational prefer- ^nce and those who were members of other faiths. All of us. in different ways, have profited by knowing this kindly and gracious man. His passing leaves a great void in this House, but he shall never be forgotten by those of us to whom he gave so generously of :himself. 1?'or more than a half century, Dr. Braskamp did God's work and the world is a better place for his presence. To :ail Members of the House his loss comes as a personal one. Each of us has lost a good friend. Mrs. Daniels joins with me in extend- ing our condolences to his son., Bernard, Jr., and to his daughter, Mrs. Norman E. Tucker, and to the other members of his family. The Meaning of Democracy to 16-Year- Old Elizabeth G. Rasche, of Fairbanks, Alaska EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. RALPH J. RIVERS OF ALASKA IN 'LICE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 2, 1966 Mr. RIVERS of Alaska. Mr. Speaker, it is with great pride that I bring to the attention of my colleagues the heart- warming words of 16-year-old Elizabeth G. Rasche, a senior in the Lathrop High School, of Fairbanks, Alaska, describing what democracy means to her. She is Alaska's winner of the Voice of Democ- racy Contest sponsored by the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States and its ladies auxiliary, and I want to share her speech with you. It follows: DEMOCRACY: WHAT Is MEANS TO ME Democracy: a skinny 17-year-old in fa- tigues and combat boots, fighting his first war from behind his first submachinegun; a teacher explaining the War of 1812 or judicial review or an eloquent American poet, urging her students to express their own feelings without hesitance, without fear; a college girl guiding an illiterate child's groping mind through his first reading lesson and returning the wonder in his face. Democ- racy: an ideal emblazoned in the souls of a new generation, a generation dedicated to preserving it as a. living, glowing reality. I'm 16 years old, and I'm part of this gen- eration. [ live in a world of hostility, a world where men submerge their very humanity in primitive brutality, a world in which the freedom :f love seems sometimes a tenuous thing; and often, I cry out in frustration, "What can I do?" The answer is stereotyped: I can absorb the essence o:: democracy in my history, govern- ment and literature classes. I can take part in. activities which contribute to my intel- lectual, emotional, and moral development. I can keep informed of current affairs, and build myself into a wise, capable citizen. This is my duty; it constitutes my role as an American high school student. But like so many students, l: grow impatient with the taking; I long to give. I'm thankful for the small ways I have been able to give in my community. Throughout 7 years of Girl Scouting I was encouraged to "help other people at all times" in ways as diverse as making Christ- mas favors for the aged and aiding in a full- scale polio vaccination program. I've worked with young children as a library aid and Red Cross volunteer. I've come to understand other cultures better through the foreign visitors my family and I have entertained in our home. Just last summer, as a hostess for one of our local civic organizations, I welcomed people from every State and many foreign countries to my city. Greeting them at the airport, answering their questions, and making them feel at home, I felt a deeper kinship not only with my countrymen, but with all mankind. Presently school. absorbs most of my time, but school itself exemplifies democracy. I'ni proud to be a member of our vibrant student council, which is patterned after the U.S. Congress and encompasses such programs as student exchange, flood relief, and aid to UNICEF. I'm in many other activ- ities as well. In some, I'm a leader; in others I'm a follower, and this is the way it should be. I round out my week by teaching a Sunday school class of exurberant fourth graders, convinced that America is, and must remain, "one nation under God." But is all this enough? My answer is an emphasic "No." I believe in my generation and in what we're doing, but I believe there's more, much more we could be doing to sus- tain democracy. I'd like to see a teen corps of unpaid volunteers fighting poverty and sickness and illiteracy throughout the Na- tion; this might be an extension of Project Headstart. I'd like to see youth chapters of both political parties in every American town. I'd like to see some of our teen centers turned into centers for democratic action. I'd like to hear the familiar complaint "There's nothing to do" answered with worthwhile service projects: helping out at the polls, landscaping, making intelligent high school broadcasts. These are only a few of the innumerable ways we can and should be preserving the democratic ideal. The older generation, which emerged strong and resilient from war and depres- sion, has set a noble precedent for us. If we too are to be strong and resilient, if we too are to perpetuate democracy, we can't sit back and simply enjoy our education, with the idea of using it in a few months, a few years, a few decades. We can and must begin right now to put it to work. We are the new generation. Today is ours. Lithuanian Independence Day EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. LUCIEN N. NEDZI OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. NEDZI. Mr. Speaker, it has been 26 years since the illegal seizure of the Baltic nations. In an era when the United Nations is expa.ndnig its member- ship yearly, many people have never learned of Lithuania's history and its tragic fate. Indeed, a sizable percentage of member states was not even in exist- ence when Lithuania fell to Soviet perfidy. On February 16, we observed the 48th anniversary of Lithuanian Independence Day. Lithuanian Americans have led the fight to inform the world of their homeland and of their homeland's loss of freedom. Lithuania is not a make- believe nation. It has a rich and hon- orable history going back to the 13th century. The takeover of this small na- tion stands as a clear example of the expansionist tactics of the Soviet Union and of its indifference to the principles of freedom, democracy, and self- determination. The United States has refused to rec- ognize the incorporation of Lithuania into Russia. We thus reiterate our sup- port for the principle of self- determina-tion and for the moral and political im- plications of this principle. I congratulate the Lithuanian-Ameri- can organizations in the United States for their long and . tenacious fight in behalf of this cause. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2.?;ppl c"d For gtWAJ : 67BRW 00030002-3 tion and pacification gained at the session in Hawaii. The Governments of the United States and South Vietnam agreed on these main points at Honolulu: To resist aggression. To work for the social improvement of the people. To strive for self-government. To promote free, democratic elections. To attack hunger, ignorance and disease. To continue the quest for peace. President Johnson Is continuing his firm, reasoned direction of the conflict and there are strong indications that our American forces are inflicting sustained, substantial and telling losses on the Vietcong and on Invading Communists. In response to a letter which your Repre- sentative sent to President Johnson concern- ing the Vietnamese conflict, the President said in reply: "Whatever else history may say, it must record that everything this government is trying to do is the result of the collected wisdom and judgment of the best minds In the country. And I alone will take respon- sibility for all final decisions." The President has an awesome, lonely and grave responsibility in safeguarding the in- terests of freedomand halting the onrush of communism in southeast Asia, and at the same time, avoiding the missteps that would trigger a nuclear war. The President is moving In the direction of achieving an honorable peace without a general war. There could be no greater re- sponsibility placed upon the shoulders of any man-and the President needs our support in this critical time. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES L. WELTNER OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, January 25, 1966 Mr. WELTNER, Mr. Speaker, I would like to take a moment to pay tribute to a Young man in Atlanta who is in the frontlines of the war against poverty. David Dammann Is a Job Corps re- cruiter who has interviewed some 1,000 young residents of Atlanta's most de- prived neighborhoods, and has persuaded 250 of them to take advantage of the op- portunity to help themselves by joining the Job Corps. Mr. Dammann, a graduate of Duke University, is the subject of a column by Hugh Parks which appeared in the At- lanta Journal on February 1. I insert this column at this point in the RECORD: HE'LL CHANGE YOUR MIND You may have several sincere reservations about the Job Corps but at least two have rubbed. off by the time you have finished talking with Dave Dammann: 1. He is determined to see it work, al- though he is underpaid. 2. If they get enough like him it will work. Dave, based in Atlanta, is the Job Corps top recruiter in the United States. He pulls on an old sweater cr an old coat, climbs into an old Rambler, sees that the protective placard which says Job Corps lies on the seat beside him and sets out, night and day, to some of Atlanta's most dangerous neighborhoods. He wears the sagging sweater or coat be- cause he found when he wore a neat business suit he was tagged immediately as a detec- tive and kids he. wanted to talk to would scatter at sight. The placard Is to place, on his windshield to protect his. car from being stripped while he's away from it. He ignores whatever derisive calls, or worse, that are flung in his direction and heads con- fidently toward a corner gang, calling out, "Hey, fellows, don't run, I'm not the law, I want to talk to you a moment." Or, "Good doctor," to the leader, "I've got a good deal here." In Buttermilk Bottom, Cabbage Town and Blue Heaven, he has become a familiar figure, this rambling 24-year-old graduate of Duke. Does he ever have any qualms about being alone? Especially at night? "I was brought up in a Queens neighbor- hood," he replied, "which for 2 years straight had the highest juvenile delinquency rate in New York City, Including Harlem. I have been stabbed before." CAUSES CAMP DIRECTOR TO COMPLAIN When he was growing up, the neighborhood was primarily a mixture of European im- migrants: German (he is of German de- scent), Greeks and Italians. Now Puerto Ricans and Negroes are moving in. "Of the 300 kids in our block," he went on, "my 2 brothers and I are the only ones to go to college. This was because our parents and our grandfather, who is a teacher, inspired us to want s higher education. I learned that all you need is guidance-proper guid- ance. We had that." Since he joined the Job Corps here less than a year ago, Dave has signed 250 boys out of the 1,000 he interviewed. About two- thirds are Negro. He follows up their progress at the various camps which they attend from 8 months to 2 years, depending on what work they are capable of learning and are interested in. His persistent letters to directors of the 82 camps, asking about his recruits, so annoyed one that he complained to Washington. He can talk the language of the slum kid (not all are from slums) and will threaten to bap one aside the head if he doesn't go all out in his new opportunity. Some aspire to high goals, most are realistic, and two Negro boys with a fourth grade education had their ambitions centered on learning enough so they could pass the Air Force's written exami- nation. And they passed. Such a gifted athlete that he was All New York -State in soccer when he was in high school, easy-walking Dave came south to Duke to study to be a teacher but decided upon graduation-and this from a guy who is working for Washington-"that there is too much bureaucracy in the schools." He is married to the former Carrell Ann Larmore, daughter of Jesse Larmore, chief of adult probation for Fulton County. She is studying for her Ph. D. In psychology at Emory and it is good that she has been grant- ed a financial "assistantship" because Dave's salary is $6,050 a year. Pearl Harbor Shipyard Supervisors Conduct Vietnam Poll EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. SPARK M. MATSUNAGA OF HAWAII IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. Speaker, I count myself among the more fortunate Congressmen in that I represent an edu- cated and well-informed electorate. Many of our citizens have demonstrated A959 a keen awareness of the issues with which this Nation is beset. One such citizen is Mr. Jerome A. Cook, of Aiea, Hawaii, who is - a vice president of the National Association of Supervisors, De- partment of Defense. Mr. Cook, in making plans to come to Washington in March for a meeting of the national association, conducted an opinion poll of the Pearl Harbor ship- yard supervisors so that he would have their views on some of the critical issues that confront our government. On the issue of the war in Vietnam, Mr. Cook's poll showed strong support for the ad- ministration's policy among the mem- bers of the association in Hawaii. The results of Mr. Cook's poll, in which 165 supervisors participated, are as follows: 1. The United States should use all its military might to end the war in Vietnam at the risk of war with Rod China__ 2. Are you willing to pay more taxes to support the war? _ _ _ 3. We should at least bomb all of North Vietnam, including Hanoi and seaports _________ 4. The United States should rec- ognize the Vietcong at the negotiating table as le mate parties to peace talks__ B. The United States should withdraw comppletely from Vietnam as it is too unim- portant to risk a world war__ No opinion Room 307, Gilman Hall-Some Reminiscences EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GEORGE P. MILLER OF CALIFORNIA IN THE- HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 17, 1966 Mr. MILLER. Mr: Speaker, in Cali- fornia, on February 21 a group of dis- tinguished Americans participated in the dedication of room 307, Gilman Hall, at the University of California at Berkeley as a national historic landmark. History was made in this room in the thirties through the research work con- ducted by renowned nuclear scientist Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, and his associates. From the efforts of these esteemed scien- tists came plutonium with all its awesome implications for both peace and war. I am pleased to insert In the CONGRES- SIONAI. RECORD the remarks of my fellow Californian, the Honorable - Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, who participated in the dedication of this historic room 307: Room 307, GILMAN HALL-SOME REMINISCENCES I am happy to participate with Art Wahl and Ed McMillan in this 25th anniversary of the discovery of plutonium and I especially appreciate the fact that Stew Udall is offici- ating in this dedication of room 307, Gilman Hall as a national historic landmark. I imagine it is typical of our time-because of the speed of change, the sheer number of significant events which pile up in the quickly passing years-that each of us today lives through a little more history in our lifetime. ? - Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 A960 Approve%oi MM' fgg ki/0l/M6 1-RD l*R00040 9g?Qt24, 1966 At least this seems to be the case. It is the subject. I was puzzled by the silua- When I learned that Ed McMillan had gone, :(li exciting time to be alive, to be working, tion, both intrigued by the concept of the I wrote to him asking whether it might not to be trying to make some contribution to transuranium interpretation of the ex- be a good idea if we carried on the work he the scheme of things-and occasionally to perimental results and disturbed by the ap- had started, especially the deuteron bom- have some small success in the effort. parent inconsistencies in this interpretation. bardment of uranium. He readily assented, it is also a time when time itself is some- I can remember discussing the problem with writing that it was a good idea that this thing of luxury--particularly time to remi- Joe Kennedy by the hour-often in the work be continued. nisce. But since today is a special occasion, postmidnight, small hours of the morning Our first deuteron bombardment of ura- I hope you'll afford me a little of that luxury. at the old Varsity Coffee Shop on the corner nium was conducted on December 14, 1940. Having a room in which you and your col- of Telegraph and Bancroft Avenues where What we bombarded was a form of uranium leagues worked rather routinely, and cer- we would often go for a cup of coffee and oxide, U.,O?, which was literally plastered onto t,duly unceremoniously, designated as a na- a bite to eat after an evening spent in the a copper backing plate. From this bombard- tonal historic landmark is an unusual ex- laboratory. ed material Art Wahl isolated a chemical perience, to say the least. 'T'hose o of you who ho I first st learned of the correct i nterpreta:tfon fraction of element 93. The radioactivity of remember room 807 Gilman Hall as it was in of these experiments, that neutrons slit this fraction was measured and studied. We those early days (and remained for many uranium into two large pieces in the fission observed that it had different characteristics years) will agree that a less significant or reaction, at the weekly Monday night semi- than the radiation from a sample of pure Historical-looking room hardly existed on the' nar in nuclear physics conducted by Prof. 93-239. The beta particles which in this case campus of the University of California. E. O. Lawrence in Le Conte Hall. On this were due to a mixture of 93-239 and the new @'ortunately the room is still here. It has exciting night in January 1939, we heard isotope of element 93 with mass number 238 heeu enlarged somewhat and it contains more the news from Germany of Hahn and Strass- (93-238) had a somewhat higher energy than complicated equipment. The simple small maarn's beautiful chemical experiments. I those from pure 93-239 and there was more, down which some of our precious plu- recall that the fission interpretation was gamma. radiation. But the composite half- tonium was inevitably lost in the course of greeted at first with some skepticism by a life was about the same, namely, 2 days. our experiments 25 years ago, has been re- number of those present in that room, but However, the sample also differed in an- placed by another sink. The little cubbyhole as a chemist, with a particular appreciation other very important way from a sample of with its low slanting ceiling directly under for Hahn and Strassmann's experiments, I pure 93--239. Into this sample there grew Oilman Ball's roof, where we kept our elec- felt that this interpretation just had to be an alpha particle emitting radioactivity. A troscope and various samples, is still an ap- accepted. I can remember walking the proportional counter was used to count the pendage to the room. And it still opens streets of Berkeley for hours after this semi- alpha particles to the exclusion of the beta through glass doors to the little outdoor nar in a combined state of exhilaration, in particles. This work led us to the conclu- patio where, because of the shortage of labor- appreciation of the beauty of the work, and sion that we had a daughter of the new iso- atory space and fume hoods, we were forced disgust at my inability to arrive at this inter- tope 93-238-a daughter with a half-life abo the I,o carry on some of our experiments which pretation despite my years of contemplation her bout 50 yeasrs and with shorter Hato thane the go-ive off noxious fumes. or. the subject. I recall that our counting equipment was Now, with those radioactivities identified now known half-life of 94-239, which is two doors down the hall, in room 303. The as fission products, there were no longer any 24,000 years. The shorter half-life means it trst plutonium had its alpha radiation mews- transuranium elements left. However, in higher intensity of alpha particle emission ured in that room and therefore room 303 later investigations by Ed McMillan at Berke- which explains why it was so much easier to hares it place in history with room 307. Joe by and others elsewhere, one of the radio- identify what proved to be the isotope of ele- Kennedy and I had our desks in room 303, activities behaved differently from the ment 94 with the mass number 238 (94--238). and later in the year 1941 one whole wall was others. It didn't undergo recoil. It didn't (Later it was proved that the true half-life Laken up with a chart of isotopes to which separate from thin layers of uranium when of what we had, i.e., 94-238, is about 90 additions and changes were frequently made. uranium was bombarded with slow neutrons. years.) clad Art Wahl, Joe Kennedy, Ed McMillan, This was the beta radioactivity with it half- On January 28, 1941, we sent a short note or I bad the slightest idea that today's event bite of about 2.3 days. Along toward the to Washington describing our initial studies would transpire, we might have looked for spring of 1940, Ed began to come to the con- on element 94, which also served for later other more auspicious quarters. I don't elusion that the 2.3-day activity might actu- publication in the Physical Review under think we would. have gotten them. Space ally be due to the daughter of the 23-minute the names of McMillan, Wahl, Kennedy, arid was at a premium and we were lucky to have uranium 239 and thus might indeed be an Seaborg. We didn't consider, however, that oven these rooms to work in. Fortunately, isotope of element 93 with the mass number we had sufficient proof at that time to say we were more interested in getting results 239 (93-239). Phil Abelson joined him in we had discovered a new element and felt in our work than in our surroundings or any this work in the spring of 1940 and together that we had to have chemical proof in order significance they might have in the future. they were able to chemically separate and to be positive. So, during the rest of .fanu- BuL in recalling the story of plutonium identify and thus discover element 9a. ary and into February, we attempted to iden- f should go back further-perhaps to 1936 Immediately thereafter, during the sum- tify this alpha activity chemically. when, as -a graduate student, I spoke in the teed and fall of 1940, Ed McMillan started Our attempts proved unsuccesful for some college of chemistry weekly seminar as looking for the daughter product of the 2.3- time. We did not find it possible to oxidize was required of each of us once a year. day activity which obviously would be the the isotope that was responsible for this Since the fall of 1934, when I began my isotope of element 94 with mass number 239 alpha radioactivity. Then I recall that we graduate work at Berkeley, I had been read- (94-239). Not finding anything he could asked Prof. Wendell Latimer, whose office Brit the exciting papers by Fermi, Segre, positively identify as such, he began to was on the first floor of Gilman Hall, to sug- and coworkers from Rome and then the bombard uranium with deuterons in the 60- gest the strongest oxidizing agent that he equally fascinating papers by Hahn, Meitner, inch cyclotron in the hope that he might find knew for use in aqueous solution. At his and Strassmann from Berlin. 't'hey were a shorter lived isotope-one of a higher in- suggestion we used peroxydisulfate with studying the interesting radioactivities tensity of radioactivity that would be easier argentic ion as catalyst. which were produced when uranium was to identify as an isotope of element 94. Be- On the stormy night of February 23, 1941, bombarded with neutrons and which they fore he could finish this project, lie was in an experiment that ran well into the next attributed to isotopes of transuranium ele- called away to work on radar at MIT. morning, Art Wahl performed the oxidation ncnr . During this time my interest in the trans- which gave its proof that what we had made li remember how I devoured those early uranium elements continued. Since Ed Mc- was chemically different than all other papers and how I considered myself some- Milian and I lived only a. few rooms apart in known elements. That experiment, and thing of it minor expert on those "trans- the Faculty Club, we saw each other quite hence the first chemical identification of uranium element:;." In fact, they were the often and, as I recall, much of our con versa- element 94, took place in room 307 of Gilman subject of my talk at that seminar in 1936? tion, whether in the laboratory, at meals, in Hall, the room that is being dedicated as a :.n hour-long talk in which I described those the hallway, or even going in and out of national historilc landmark today, 25 yearn. "new" elements and their chemical prop- the shower, had something to do with ele- later. erties in great detail. I need not remind meet 93 and the search for element. 94. I The communication to Washington de- you, I am sure, that in January of 1939 word must say, therefore, that his sudden depar- scribing this oxidation experiment, which reached us that Hahn and Strassmann in Lure for MIT came as something of a sir- was critical to the discovery of element 94, (iirmany had identified those "trans- prise to me--especially since I didn't even was sent on March 7, 1941, and this served uranium" isotopes as barium and lanthani- know when he had left. for later publication in the Physical Review inn, and other fission products of uranium, In the meantime I had asked Arthur Wahl, under the authorship of Kennedy. Wahl, and and thus established that they were not new one of my two graduate students, to begin Seaborg. ,lements at all studying the tracer chemical properties of Almost concurrent with this work was the curing the 2 years following my seminar element 93 with the idea that this might be search for, and the demonstration of the talk in 1936 and before the discovery of its- a good subject for his thesis. My other co- fission of, the isotope of major importance - rtion, niy interest in the neutron-induced worker was Joe Kennedy, who was a fel- that is, 94-239, the radioactive decay ra.dioactivities in uranium continued un- low instructor at the University and, as I daughter of 93-239. Emilio Segre played a abated and, in fact, increased. I read and have indicated, was also very interested in major role in this work together with Ken- reread every article that was published on the general transuranium problem. nedy, Wahl, and me. The importance of ele- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 iiiNNl@. NI31~YNAMM~M~IMiKw ~!NYiIUIgYq~Ii WN/IX*iRWPWMNI~LLl41?9tlIM NN NiFtlgM in?g1A~~~Oik~P ~I MMNIF MitlAtli~Ilr i,Siri lRlAI,fltSMINw,- M11MOMId9 eXiRMnni nnw/M^, ii ~wNii~w~pww~pmm~mmvM Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX being channeled into campaigns to make the poverty warriors look better, if not good. It is quite true that an important feature of a campaign like the one launched against poverty is bringing the program itself to the attention of its beneficiaries. But we have already recited in this space the lengths to which the Enquirer has gone, in that direction. We have dispatched a special reporter to the Office of Economic Opportunity in Wash- ington to learn firsthand what the war on poverty is all about, We have charted the multitude of antipoverty programs in oper- ation in Cincinnati. We have devoted a major part of a recent issue of the Pictorial Enquirer to the antipoverty program. And we have carried day-to-day reports of the activities within the program's scope. The other communications media in the Queen City have done nearly as well. These efforts have been undertaken not to enhance anyone's image; they have been un- dertaken to inform the public. There is a world of difference between "news" and "publicity." "News" is what happens. "Publicity" is manufactured news, frequently the illusion of news; it is what someone would like to be news. Those who cannot make news must seek instead to make publicity, This, we fear, is the situation in which too many of America's poverty warriors find themselves. They are so destitute of achieve- ment that they must buy public attention. [From the Cincinnati Post and Times=Star, Feb. 10, 19661 CAC AND PRESS AGENTS The Community Action Commission, which supervises the war on poverty here, is taking another look at the proposed spending of $36,000 a year for press agents. Although the CAC board Monday night did not formally rescind the action approv- ing the budget (passed 11 to 7 at a previous meeting), it did authorize the creation of a committee to study it. It is interesting to note that the 15-page argument for spending the $36,000 had been given directors,a week before a decision was taken at the January meeting and did not receive the benefit of an appraisal by the executive committee or any other committee of the CAC. Whatever the outcome of this reappraisal, we think the CAC staff and board will dis- cover as other Government agencies have discovered, that nothing beats good, effec- tive work to win good, effective publicity. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. WILLIAM R. ANDERSON OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. ANDERSON of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, as the number of casualties of the Vietnam conflict continues to grow, there is a tendency to think in terms of just that-cold, impersonal numbers. One such "number" was Capt. Carl S. Miller, of Robertson County, Tenn., who was killed in action in the beginning of this month as a helicopter pilot in Viet- nam. Captain Miller believed in what he was doing in that Asian land, and he believed in what the United States is doing. The following editorial from the Robertson County Times is a fitting tribute to a courageous and gallant soldier, not a number, to a man who made the ultimate sacrifice to insure the safety and secu- rity of his country. The editorial follows: [From the Robertson County (Tenn.) Times, Feb. 3, 1966] A SALUTE TO CAPTAIN MILLER The county mourns with Mrs. Carl S. Mil- ler, Jr., whose husband, Captain Miller, was killed in action last week as a helicopter pilot in Vietnam. At the same time we can all be proud-as his family is proud-of the contribution he has made in the cause of freedom. Captain Miller grew up in Robertson County before embarking on a military ca- reer he realized might someday take him into combat. He had a sense of duty and was willing to make any personal sacrifice for his country-and indirectly for his three boys, who survive. As his courageous wife so plainly stated it: "Bing didn't have a choice, he was sent to Vietnam. But, if they had given him a choice, that's where he would have wanted to be." There are those who stand today arro- gantly burning draft cards and shouting for our Government to quit the fight against communism. They haven't, for the most part, been outside the country or seen the results of surrender to tyranny. Captain Miller saw the ugly face of com- munism and constantly wrote of his convic- tion that our Government was right to stand and fight. He looked on it as a privilege to join in this fight. For those of us who cherish our freedom let us salute Capt. Carl S. Miller--a patriotic American we won't soon forget. Vice Adm. F. L. Ashworth Is Acclaimed as an Example for American Youth EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. WILLIAM H. BATES OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. BATES. Mr. Speaker, almost co- incident with his 54th birthday last month, announcement was made that Vice Adm. Frederick Lincoln Ashworth had been named commander of the U.S. Navy's mighty 6th Fleet. This event led the Beverly Times, of Beverly, Mass., to A949 today's make-believe world of James Bond, the Man From U.N.C.L.E., and the Batman. But Frederick Ashworth's accomplishments are fact not fiction. And they set a pattern of old-fashioned virtues, such as loyalty, bravery, and patriotism, which are too fre- quently overlooked or ignored by 20th cen- bury youngsters. In high school, as president of the student council, he began to set the high standards which carried him through life. He grad- uated from the Naval Academy in 1933 at the age of 21 and as a junior officer served aboard a battleship, but soon transferred to Pensacola for flight training. On December 7, 1941, when Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese, he was at- tached to the Bureau of Ordinance in Wash- ington. A few months later orders came through for transfer to an advanced carrier training group and finally in 1942 he took command, of his own aerial torpedo squad- ron. Operating out of Henderson Field on Gua-, dalcanal, he won his first decoration-the Distinguished Flying Cross. His job was a dirty one. It took leadership and old-fash- ioned guts. Daylight raids on Japanese ship- ping in the Solomon Islands. Bombing mis- sions against enemy positions and always the dangers of hostile fighter aircraft. For canny planning in helping direct sev- eral key amphibious operations the Bronze Star was next. Then came a turning point in his life. He was assigned to a supersecret mission in Santa Fe., N. Mex., with the unromantic title of "Project Y." In reality it was the develop- ment and perfection of the atomic bomb. Admiral Ashworth helped supervise and co- ordinate field tests of the bomb, and then on August 9, 1945, he flew with the Army B-29 bomber which dropped the second atomic weapon on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. For this he was awarded the Legion of Merit and the, Silver Star. Back to the States after the war, he helped in the basic planning of the Bikini atom bomb test and the first stages of the under- water delivery of nuclear weapons. In the last 15 years, top commands: the giant aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt, commandant of midshipmen at the Naval Academy, carrier divisions, Deputy Chief of Staff, European Command, and finally, Com- mander, U.S. 6th Fleet. You can have your television and movie stars. Such is the stuff of real heroes. American Bar Association Unanimously Affirms Legality of American Action in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HUGH L. CAREY OF NEW YORK acclaim this naval leader's service to our country as an example which today American youth well might follow. In 1 the hope that it may inspire others, therefore, I am pleased to present the editorial from the Beverly Times of Feb- ruary 1, 1966, as follows: A REAL HERO It is always an honor to a community when one of its sons or daughters achieves un- usual distinction. Such is the case with Beverly and Frederick Lincoln Ashworth, re- cently named a vice admiral and given com- mand of the U.S. Navy's 6th Fleet, mainstay of our defense in the Mediterranean and Middle East. Admiral Ashworth whose mother lives in Wenham, which, incidentally, he also lists as his home address, was born in Beverly on January 24, 1912. His career has been ad- venturous and distinguished. It is a story which makes fascinating reading even in the IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. CAREY. Mr. Speaker, in view of the questions that have been raised con- cerning U.S. action in Vietnam, I was interested to note that on February 21, the house of delegates of the American Bar Association unanimously adopted a resolution affirming the legality of our participation in that country under in- ternational law. The chairman of the association's sec- tion on international and comparative law, which originated the resolution, is Edward D. Re, a distinguished authority in the field, who serves this country as Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 24, 1966 Chairman of the Foreign Claims Settle- ment Commission. I am proud to have Dr. Re as a close friend and constituent. I submit for the RECORD an article from the February 22 issue of the New York Times in reference to the action of the bar association: 13AR GROUP FIENDS U.S. Wen POLICY LEGAL UNDER U.N. (By Austin C. Wehrwein) CHICAGO, February 21-The American Bar Association's house of delegates today passed by unanimous voice vote and without debate :c resolution affirming the legality of the U.S. participation in Vietnam under international law, the United Nations Charter and the Poutheast Asia Treaty Organization. The resolution was intended as an answer to statements by WAYNE MORSE, Democrat, of Oregon. During last week's televised hear- ings of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee, Senator MORSE said that some inter- national lawyers believed that the U.S. posi- tion was illegal. Eberhard P. Deutsch, of New Orleans, chairman of the Standing Committee on Peace and Law Through the United Nations, presented the resoltuion at a midyear meet- ing at the Palmer House here. All 250 at- tending members of the policymaking house of delegates voiced support. Mr. Deutsch mid the Senator "perverts and misconstrues" the meaning of the United Nations Charter. He also said he hoped the resolution would strengthen the position of Senators who support the war and "fervently" hoped it would support the Iightingmen in Vietnam. The resolution was prompted by RUSSELL B. LONG, Democrat, of Louisiana, who sug- gested at the hearings that the American Bar Association reply to Mr. MORSE'S con- tention. Mr. Deutsch said he would report passage of the resolution to Senator LONG and stood ready to testify before the committee on the action if called to do so. The resolution was sent to J. W. FOresIGHT, Democrat, of Arkan- aas, chairman of the committee. Mr. Deutsch conceded that the resolution was silent on Lite question, raised by Mr. MORSE, whether President Johnson should have asked for a congressional declaration of war. However, he said that he believed it was implicit in the resolution that the war was legal regardless of a formal declara- tion. Edward W. Kuhn, of Memphis, president of the 120,000-member association, said the action "repudiated" Mr. MORSE and that his organization would "lobby" for its position. Ile did not elaborate. The resolution. was reportedly the unani- inous product of Mr. Deutsch's standing com- mittee and the section of the international and comparative law, whose chairman is Ed- ward D. Re of New York. If an association delegation should go to Washington, the two chairmen and Max Chopnick of New York, who is on the international law section, would make up the delegation. 'rhe American Bar Association's reaction was unusual in its rapidity. Although the resolution was limited to support of the administration on legal points, it amounted to support of the administration's Vietnam policy generally, a key member of the inter- national law section disclosed. NO NAMES MENTIONED The resolution. although clear as to inten- tion and meaning, mentioned neither Mr. I.oNG nor Mr. MossE by name. An accom- panying report said that international law professors in 31 universities had expressed their opinion "that the position of the United t;tates in Vietnam is legal, and is not in viola- tion of the charter of the United Nations." this was a reference to a statement by a group of professors sent last month to Presi- dent Johnson and put into the CONGRES.SION- AI, RECORD by Representative J. J. PICKLE, Democrat, of Texas. The reported declared: "Articles 51 and 52 of the [United Nations] Charter expressly provide that nothing con- tained therein `shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense,' nor preclude `the existence of reginnel ax- rangements or agencies for dealing with such matters related to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security as are appropri- ate for regional action.' The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization is such an arrangement or agency." The text of the resolution follows: "Whereas in recent hearings before the Foreign Relations Committee of the U.S. Senate, it has been stated that international lawyers are agreed that the U.S. pos.itinn in Vietnam is illegal and in violation o the Charter of the United Nations; and "Whereas articles 51 and 52 of the charter sanction steps for self-defense and c, llec- ti:vve and regional security arrangements such as the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization to which the United States is a party; "Whereas in the course of these hearings it has been suggested that an expression on this subject by the American Bar Association would be appropriate: Now, therefore, be it "Resolved by the American Par Associar.tion, That the position of the United States in Vietnam is legal under international law, arid is in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Southeast Asia Treaty; and be it further "Resolved, That the secretary of this asso- ciation be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to transmit a copy of this reso- lution immediately to the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of tb(% U.S. Senate." EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. JOHN DOWDY OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. DOWDY. Mr. Speaker, during my service in the U.S. Congress, I have tried to keep the people I am honored to repre- sent informed of my activities and r+'cord in. Congress, as well as the policies of the Federal Government. In my years here, some 16,000 bills have been voted an in the House of Representatives. Along with others of us, my record has been on several occasions misrepresented by falsehood and half-truths from the mouths of selfish special-interest groups and political opponents. I here spread my voting on the issues, that each per- son may determine for himself that my record has been made in the interest of the people. I voted for the tax reduction bills, which have encouraged. industrial and business expansion and produced more jobs. Three substantial tax reductions have been enacted during my service. and each had my full support. I consistently vote for an invincible national defense, and oppose every pro- posal to weaken our Nation through uni- lateral disarmament. I believe our fight- Ing men should have the best possible equipment in ample supply. I will con- tinue working to that end. I voted for the bill to prevent and con- trol the pollution of waters, and to pro- vide for the development of our water and land resources. I voted for the bills relating to com- munity health services, and to provide for the development of programs to help the aging, and to provide for health research facilities. I opposed the act which causes higher consumer price for coffee. I voted for :increased social security benefits, disability benefits, and increases in old age pensions and other assistance. I voted to reduce the voluntary retire- ment age to 62, and for widows, to age 60, and to allow greater earnings before reduction in social security benefits. I voted for education and training benefits for veterans, and for other GI benefits. I voted to improve the Railroad Retire- ment Act. I voted to provide more educational opportunities for our young people, and to provide loans to students. I have assisted the schools and colleges in our district in their applications for funds and loans amounting to many millions of dollars, and have successfully assisted them in their other problems with the Federal Government. I have successfully introduced and en- acted bills to ban pornography from the mails, and to allow prosecution of pur- veyors of pornography in the jurisdiction where deliveries are made, and have sup- ported other bills to protect decent peo- ple from this obnoxious traffic. I con- tinue to oppose distribution of Commu- nist propaganda through our post offices. I have introduced and supported bills to strengthen the criminal laws of this country, so that people might be safe on the streets. I have responded to every request from a community for assistance in its eco- nomic development and in its dealings with the Federal Government. This has resulted in a large number of grants and loans for hospitals, water and sewer sys- tems, libraries, :housing, airports and air- port construction, remodeling of public buildings, new post offices, public facili- ties, and countless other improvements. I have aided numerous industries and businesses that are locating in our dis- trict, or expanding their operations in our district, in their applications for loans and other assistance from the Fed- eral level. Our growth in this respect has far exceeded the expansion in any other comparable area. At times, cities and businesses have come to me for help after losing hope of success, and I have succeeded in get- ting favorable action. I have helped thousands of individuals, including farmers, businessmen, labor, veterans, housewives, the aged, disabled and dependent persons in presenting their claims and problems to the various departments of the Government. I. re- gard this opportunity of service as a privilege, and among my most treasured possessions are the letters of apprecia- tion which I have received from these people who have contacted me after all other hope of receiving help or consid- eration had been exhausted. In fact, an ex-Congressman who lives in our district, and his son, a State me -a- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 A944 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX February 2.4, 1966 In her term of office Sister Francetta was assisted by her young executive vice presi- dent, Sister Jacqueline Grennan, who is now president. She was recently appointed to Sargent Shriver's Committee for Project Headstart, which helps preschool children from poverty-stricken areas. Sister Jacque- line is also the only woman member of the President's Advisory Panel in Research and Development in Education. Their superior general in the Sisters of Loretto is Sister Mary Luke Tobin, the only U.S. nun invited to be an observer at the Vatican Council. Sister Francetta saved the story of her re- tirement from Webster as a scoop for the student newspaper. She said that she had long been a firm believer in the professional policy of retirement at age 65 and that the policy seemed pertinent to her. But she added that her order is also a service corps. She had called her old friend U.S. Senator STUART SYMINGTON to tell him of her pro- posed retirement and her interest in the war on poverty. The Senator told her to send him a letter detailing her history. In it she said, "I am in excellent physical and mental health and could perform some function in the President's war on poverty. I am tremendously interested in the anti- poverty program and the Peace Corps. I am eager to share in some phase. There is work for me within my congregation, but I am convinced that people like me, already dedi- cated and committed, can perform a service in the larger complex of the needs of the world." The letter went from Senator SYMINGTON to Sargent Shriver, and the rest is history. The Job Corps suggested that a civilian wardrobe might be more suitable. With conventual approval, she complied. Public reaction to her appointment has been good. "I have received only the highest respect for what I'm doing, and great un- derstanding. Letters have arrived from all over the country, from strangers and former pupils, with expressions of good will and encouragement." One Hundredth Birthday of Millville, N.J. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS C. McGRATH OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. McGRATH. Mr. Speaker, 100 years ago this Saturday, on February 26, 1866, the pretty city of Millville, in Cumberland County, N.J., held its meet- ing of incorporation and, during that evening, voted itself out of the "town- ship" classification and into the "city" category. This event is being celebrated Saturday in Millville with a centennial parade and civic banquet. The parade will be complete with bands, marching units, and floats, and promises to be a highlight of Millville's 100th birthday celebration which of- ficially began on January 10, 1966. On that day, a. reenactment of the first town council meeting ever held, in Mill- Ville was staged in a town meeting during which residents of Millville donned the costumes current 100 years ago and portrayed the roles of the original par- ticipants. It was probably the first town meeting ever held in which the par- ticipants received curtain calls. Saturday's parade is the second in a series of events being staged by the Mill- ville Centennial Corp., to mark the end of the city's first century. On July 4, there is scheduled a gigantic community picnic and fireworks display, and on June 30 through July 2, the formal cele- bration will conclude with a historical pageant. Mr. Speaker, today Millvilleis known as "the Holly City of America" to note the fact that the traditional Christmas season decoration is grown there in great profusion and provided to holiday time markets throughout the Nation. Mill- ville now has some 20,000 residents and, although it is a relatively small commu- nity by some standards, its citizens are looking forward to growth and progress during their city's second century. This spirit is inherent in the manifesto which the Millville Centennial Corp. issued at the beginning of the 100th birthday celebration. The manifesto states that Millville in- tends to create new civic awareness among all its citizens, plans to uncover new civic leaders, stimulate the local economy, honor its heritage, and focus its attention on the future. I might note that two of Amercia's most famous personages have joined in the centennial celebration. The Mill- Ville "Brothers of the Brush," a group of male residents who have grown beards reminiscent of the style of 1866, invited Astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell-whose Gemini V beards became quite widely remarked upon-to accept honorary memberships in Millville's bearded brotherhood, and both accepted. I cannot help but be proud of the spirit exhibited by Millville's residents- paying honor to yesterday while, at the same time, preparing carefully and sys- tematically for tomorrow. I am proud to help mark the 100th anniversary of the incorporation of this progressive, charming city and look forward to join- ing with Millville's celebrants Saturday. Charleston, W. Va., Gazette-Mail Echoes President Johnson's Call for Congres- sional Reform of Election Spending Laws EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JENNINGS RANDOLPH OF WEST VIRGINIA IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, the Gazette-Mail of Charleston speaks forth- rightly when it says: The matter of election spending has been studied to death. The need now is to do something about it, and this is not hindered by a lack of good examples. In Britain, careful limits and controls on reporting are enforced. In West Germany parties agree beforehand to spending limits and there is careful Checking and reporting. As the paper points out President Johnson recently cast a spotlight on the need for reform of laws governing election spending. 4 Because this editorial is a timely and lucid summary of the issue, I ask unani- mous consent of my colleagues to make it a part of the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows : [From the Charleston (W. Va.) Gazette-Mail, Feb. 6, 1966] ELECTION SPENDING LAWS NEED DEGREE OF SANITY President Johnson recently cast a spot- light on the need for reform of laws govern- ing election spending. In so doing, he echoed the plea of the late President Kennedy and the proposals of the Republican Coordinat- ing Committee. This is a bipartisan project, but regrettably Congress continues to ignore it. Present laws are unrealistic to the, point of being ridiculous. The Corrupt Practices Act sets a maximum spending limit of $5,000 on congressional candidates and $25,000 on senatorial candidates-limits that would as- sure defeat for any serious candidate who heeded them. Candidates therefore evade the law by proliferating campaign commit- tees and thus there are no effective limits. President Kennedy contended the need is for full reporting and publication of cam- paign expenditures, not control over amounts. As an indication of the astronomi- cal expense of campaigns today, it cost John Lindsay and his supporters about $2.5 mil- lion to win the recent race for mayor in New York. Such an expenditure does not necessarily mean there is wrongdoing. It does not in any way imply an election has been "bought." As with everything else, the legitimate costs of organizing, conducting, and giving neces- sary public exposure to a campaign have gone up, up, up. Indeed; there is more chance for skuldug- gery under the present law, when a candi- date must contrive ways to cover up neces- sary expenditures, than there ever would be under a system of full and accurate reporting of what he actually spent. Besides full reporting, such inducements as tax credits have been proposed to en- courage giving by contributors. And there are ways to keep check on reporting and as- sure its honesty. In Florida's model system, for example, a candidate can have only one treasurer and must do business at only one bank to make checking manageable. The matter of election spending has been studied to death. The need now is to do something about it, and this is not hindered by a lack of good examples. In Britain, care- ful limits and controls on reporting are en- forced. In West Germany, parties agree be- forehand to spending limits and there is careful checking and reporting. Certainly the United States, which con- siders itself quite a civilized democracy, should he able to bring some sanity into our election spending laws to assure honesty and full public knowledge about who 's going on. Congress should get busy and sthat it is Mr. Johnson Believes in Democracy for Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS ' OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, at this time when the issue of Vietnam is gen- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Appendix OF OHIO IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. DEVINE. Mr. Speaker, this month we again memorialize Abraham Lincoln, In the Columbus, Ohio, Dis- patch, an editorial appeared on Febru- ary 12, which is most helpful to those pf ogle still interested in some of the orig- inal basic American philosphies: ABRAHAM LINCOLN Throughout this broad land today the birthday of Abraham Lincoln will be ob- served in classroom studies, speeches, and by the printed word. All who comment on the life and deeds of the martyred President, especially in this particular moment of our history, can do no better than recall some of his own words. [tttered more than a century ago, these words of the Great Emancipator are still amazingly applicable to conditions in our land today: ''Til lately I have been in favor of un- lil:lited liberty for every man as our Consti- tution seems to guarantee. But is it not an ar.l; of folly to give absolute liberty of con- acience to a set of men who are sworn to cut our throats the very day they have their opportunity for doing it? 'Ts it right to give the privilege of citizen- ship to men who are the sworn enemies of onr Constitution, our laws, our liberties, and our very lives? Is it not an absurdity to give to it man a thing which he is sworn to hate, curse, and destroy? "Sooner or later the people of the Republic mast put a restriction on the exercise of lib- cr y turned toward the destruction of that from which it came " * ?. But this is the problem of another generation." Tire problem of which Mr. Lincoln was !;peaking certainly is with the present gen- er:rtion, what with the poisonous seeds of communism being sown on our university campuses, in our trade unions, and even in stir Nation's highest legislative halls. Another prized utterance by President Lincoln appraised the coveted spot the United States holds in the world: "We, the American people * * * find ni rselves in the peaceful possession of the fa [rest portions of the earth as regards extent of territory, fertility of soil, and salubrity of a:L m ate. "We find. ourselves under the government Ol a system of political institutions con- ,trtcing more essentially to the ends of civil ;i.d religious liberty than any of which the history of former times tells its. We, when m-tunting the stage of existence, found our- selves the legal inheritors of these funda- m^.ntal blessings. "We toiled not in the acquirement or estab- Ibhment of them: they are a legacy be- queathed us by a once hardy, brave, and pa- triotic, but now lamented and departed, race of ancestors." A warning as to the only way we could someday lose this great Nation was related in other words of wisdom from the humble Abraham Lincoln, born in a log cabin in Kentucky 157 years ago today and who rose to be our 16th President: "At what point shall we expect the point of danger? Shall we expect some trans- atlantic military giant to step the ocean and crush us at a blow? Never. "All. the armies of Europe, Asia, and Africa combined, with all the treasure of the earth (our own excepted) in. their military chest, wii:h a Bonaparte for a commander, could not by force take a drink from the Ohio or make a track on the Blue Ridge in a trial of cr thousand years. "If destruction be our lot we must our- selves be its author and finisher.. As a nation of freemen we must live through all time, or die by suicide." If government is kept in the hands of people. if free enterprise is allowed to flourish, if the internal threat of communism is curbed; then, as Abraham Lincoln said, no power on earth can take away the rich legacy bequerthed us by our forefathers. Job Corps Nun EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. PAUL H. DOUGLAS OF ILLINOIS IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Thursday, February 2?, 1966 Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, the January issue of Catholic Digest had an article by Rosemary Donihi entitled "Job Corps Nun." This article is about Sister Francetta Barberis, who is now 1 consultant to the Director of the Wom- en's Job Corps Centers. As this article points out, Sister Francetta has brought with her valuable experience in workin with young people. For the benefit of my fellow colleagues, I ask unanimous consent to have the ar- ticle printed in the RECORD. I am sure that they will agree, after reading this fine article, that the war on poverty has enlisted a top general in the form of Sister Francetta. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: JOB CORPS NUN-SISTER FRANCETTA Is No. 2 WOMAN IN A U.S. GOVERNMENT PROJECT (By Rosemary Donihi) Sister Francetta Barberis, S.L., on June t became consultant to the director of the Women's Job Corps under the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity in Washington, D.C. She retired. from the presidency of Webster Co- lege in. St. Louis at the same time. She has been a Sister of Loretto for 47 years, and is 65. She is called Sister in the office though now and then a wag ventures Fran since she wears secular clothing in her new position. Bennetta Washington is director of the Women's Job Corps and Sister Fran cetta is, in effect, the No. 2 woman in the voluntary training program for girls from 16 to 21. Most of the girls dropped school after the ninth grade, have sixth-grade level skills. have been out of school for more than 6 months, and come from families living in substandard housing. The first three residential centers for them were in St. Petersburg, Cleveland, and Los Angeles. Two more are in Charlestown, W. Va., and Omaha. With 1,500 girls regis- tered now, 10,000 are expected before the year is out. "Our job," says Director Washington, "is to turn out a woman equipped to work, marry, and raise a family. It is not just to train the girls as secretaries, beauticians, or dental assistants." When the St. Petersburg training center became a trouble spot, Sister Francetta was sent there. She talked with the girls, the townspeople, and the people vacationing in the city, to smooth things out. Out of the friendly conversations was born a citizens' boosters club to help make the Job Corps enrollees feel at home. When she is home from what can become a countrywide circuit, Sister Francetta lives with both telephone and address unlisted, in a pleasantly furnished efficiency apartment in Foggy Bottom, a portion of downtown Washington near the river. The old section has been modernized for Government people like Sister Francetta, who like to walk to work. Since her profession as a nun she has lived mostly in large religious houses with domestic staffs, but now she does her own cooking and cleaning. Her Sisters of Loretto have no Washington residence, but many of them visit her. Her workload is constant. She goes early to the office and leaves late, but friends have given her season tickets to the National Symphony and the experimental Arena Stage. She goes to mass at the church of St. Stephen the Worker, the late President Kennedy's White House parish. Her wardrobe is built around suits and soft-shirt dresses, more often dark than light. For summer she was equipped with three handbags: one white patent leather, one brown, and one black. She is a major Government executive and dresses for it. Her silver-threaded dark hair is medium short and softly permanented. She does it herself. She takes an engaging pleasure in your honest declaration that she looks 15 years younger than she is. Until her 18th year, Sister Francetta trained to be a professional ballerina, but then chose the convent. "Now," she says, "I am dancing in spirit all the time." Sister Francetta focused national atten- tion on Webster College during her 7 years as president. Since her arrival there in 1958, it has embarked on a revolutionary new pro- gram of teacher training, more than doubled its faculty, increased the number of lay per- sons on the faculty, and attracted professors of many faiths. Physically, the college complex has trip- led; the attendance has nearly doubled; men have been admitted to full-course schedules in the department of fine arts, music, and theater arts. A $1.5 million center of per- forming arts has been. made possible through gifts and pledges of Sister Francetta's long- time friend, hotelman Conrad N. Hilton. Theater Impact, a semiprofessional summer stock company, has been successfully launched. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX crating so much heat it is heartening to encounter the light of Mr. Spivack's Feb- ruary 17, 1966, column, "Watch. on the Potomac," in the New York Journal American. Mr. Spivack rightly points out that if the President had only to cope with those critics who openly sup- port the Vietcong, there would be no problem. But when President Johnson is faced with the kind of insidious defeatism which preaches that the Vietnamese, and for that matter all of the people of southeast Asia, do not understand de- mocracy and that it is futile to believe that democracy can live in that part of the world, then his foreign policy burdens are immeasurably increased. This kind of criticism dangerously feeds on the. reactionary belief in racial superiority and isolationism and is often mouthed by alleged liberals who believe that it is better to consign the people of southeast Asia to the "tender mercies" of the Communists than to wage a war for their liberation. I commend this article to the attention of our colleagues. HONOLULU AND THE DEFEATISTS (By Robert G. Spivack) WASHINGTON.-The President's foreign policy burdens are being immeasurably in- creased-not by "appeasers" in and out of Congress, but by defeatists. If he had only to cope with those few who openly support the Vietcong there would be no problem. If his critics argued that the way to handle a bully is to yield to him, their public support would be minuscule. Every man, within his own experience, from school days to adulthood, knows that a bully does net stop until he is made to stop. But when critics, especially those who as- sume the mantle of foreign policy "experts," argue that democracy "can't win" in south- east Asia, that the Communist tide sweeping that part of the world cannot be turned back, then you have problems. Nothing can so sap the spirit of an in- dividual, or a nation, as constant repetition of the theme, "It can't be done." It was to get away from this kind of de- pressing atmosphere that the President de- cided to fly to Hawaii to meet with the South Vietnamese leaders, to reaffirm our objectives as they were stated in "The Declaration of Honolulu" and to give hope to the people of Vietnam as well as our troops. When he returned to the mainland the President said he was "refreshed." There was good reason for it. What he heard in Hawaii was far more encouraging than what he was hearing in Washington. The Ameri- can and Vietnamese military men agreed with Premier Ky's assertion that, within 7 months, the situation in the field had changed "100 percent." Not only are the non-Communists not losing, the military initiative is now in our hands. But what greeted the President on his return to Andrews Air Force Base? First there was a columnist's broad, sweep- ing assertion that the whole Government has "gone stale." Less than 24 hours after the Hawaiian conferees had agreed to wage a war on "social misery" in Vietnam, there were whining complaints about the lack of "fresh ideas." Next came a series of recommendations from nonmilitary men that we ought to ease up on the pressure against the Communists, adopting, in effect, a Maginot Line strategy. This was hardly a fresh idea. But underlying all this criticism there' was something else-a kind of racist superiority on the part of those who; disclaim racism of any kind, some of whom have, in fact, been active in civil rights activities. A945 We are now being told that the Vietnamese It was his genius in building up General are. so different from Americans that it is Motors to one of the largest businesses in the impossible for them to have anything re- world that made it possible not only for him, sombling a democratic form of government. but for others who invested in that enter- This is an insidious kind of defeatism. prise, to earn large sums as the stock of the Although those who talk this way may con- company appreciated steadily In value over sider themselves "liberals," the appeal is to the years. the most reactionary instincts, to isolationist In 1937, Sloan created the Alfred P. Sloan sentiment, and to those who feel racially Foundation, with an initial grant of $10 mil- superior. lion, to help studies in science and economics What the defeatists overlook is the fact and broadened it later to aid in medical care that many Orientals, Japanese, Filipinos, and and research, particularly in cancer. He others are building democracy, despite their said at the time he gave away the $10 million : cultural differences with us. Certainly the "Having been connected with industry President believes it can be done. That's during my entire life, it seems eminently why the conference was held in half-Asian proper that I should turn back, in part, the Hawaii-to show the real spirit of Honolulu. proceeds of that activity with the hope of Life of Alfred Sloan Belies Red Claim of Good Life EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOE L. EVINS OF TENNESSEE IN TIIE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. EVINS of Tennessee. Mr. Speaker, Mr. David Lawrence, the dis- tinguished columnist and publisher, wrote a most perceptive and penetrating article which appeared in the Washing- ton Star, on the life of Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., a guiding force in the building of the General Motors business empire. Mr. Lawrence makes the point elo- quently that Red China could never have an Alfred Sloan because its totalitarian, communistic economic policies would preclude his development. It is the basic story of individual ini- tiative compared to the stifling of indi- vidual freedom. Because of the broad general interest of this article to my colleagues and to the Nation, I have unanimous consent that the column be reprinted in the Ap- pendix of the RECORD. The article follows: LIFE OF SLOAN BELIES RED CLAIM (By David Lawrence) In the realm of communism-whether in the Soviet Union or Red China or in other parts of the world-the constant cry is that capitalism is selfish and inhumane and that social welfare can be achieved in each coun- try only by giving arbitrary power to a small group of men. But today the people of the Communist world could learn a lesson if they read the obituaries being printed about the life of Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., who died last Thursday at the age of 90. For here was a man who amassed a fortune of more than $300 million, but gave virtually all of it away for the cause of human welfare. There have been others like Sloan in Amer- ican history, but the stories of their altruism are too often lost in the maze of other hap- penings in a busy world. Sloan was one of the ablest businessmen this country has produced. Men engaged in big business are sometimes pictured as heartless or as materialistic to the extreme. It may come as a surprise to many of. the younger generation who lean toward the Communist philosophy to discover that there are far more philanthropists among the suc- cessfulbusinessmen of American than there are selfish human beings. Sloan's case is a significant example of how money Is made and how it can be spent. promoting a broader as well as a better un- derstanding of the economic principles and national policies which have characterized American enterprise down through the years." Sloan was a modest man. He rarely made public speeches or talked about his ventures into the field of philanthropy. He was deeply concerned with the functioning of the free enterprise system and with the right of every Individual to improve his lot by his own efforts in cooperation with others. Sloan was also a great executive. He once said: "I never give orders. I sell my ideas to my associates if I can. I accept their judgment if they convince me, as they frequently do, that I am wrong. I prefer to appeal to the intelligence of a man rather than attempt to exercise authority over him. all"Get the facts. Recognize the equities of concerned. Realize the necessity of doing a better job every day. Keep an open mind and work hard. The last is most important of all. There is no shortcut." Under the American system of free enter- prise, individual initiative is encouraged. The same cannot be said of the Communist system. Indeed, the American standard of living is the highest in the world, and so are its philanthropies. Private contributions for charitable pro- grams of various kinds in the United States totaled $10.6 billion in 1964. No individual really is able to accumulate enough to give any substantial part of that big.sum. But the large givers in every city are usually businessmen. Many of Sloan's associates, for instance, have followed his example and have donated much of their earnings to philan- thropic projects. Sloan's life emphasizes the great advan- tages of the American system of individual freedom, as contrasted with the oppressive and truly selfish system of communism by which a few men achieve power and impose their will on hundreds of millions of their countrymen. There are many unsung heroes in the commercial world, but the impact of their redistribution of wealth has certainly been felt in America by universities and colleges, churches, hospitals, and other institutions supported by philanthropy. Chester W. Nimitz: An American Naval Immortal EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DON H. CLAUSEN OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. DON H. CLAUSEN. Mr. Speaker, on February 20, 4 days before his 81st birthday, Fleet Adm. Chester William Nimitz died. This Nation, and especially the hundreds of thousands of American servicemen who served under him, now Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX February 24, 1966 sadly join in a farewell tribute to a great U.S. naval figure. He came from a small town in Texas to eventually command and lead to complete victory the greatest naval force ever assembled on this globe. 'Tis service to it:s country can never be forgotten and his attributes as an Ameri- can officer will stand always as an exam- tile of the finest in a great tradition. Following his graduation as seventh in a class of 114 in the class of 1905 of the Naval Academy, Admiral Nimitz handled a wide variety of assignments in a meri- torious manner. His rise in his chosen career was finally capped by a tour of 3 years, 1945-47, as the highest uniform- ed naval officer in this country. But he will always be remembered as the man who assumed command. of the Pacific 1+'leet in the dark days of December 1941 and who led it to a brilliant victory over Imperial Japan. Combining a great strategic perspective, an eminently suc- ccrssful tactical competence, an ability to let the most from his men, and a resolu- l,ion to persevere until victory, he led the American naval forces through a series of battles and campaigns to Tokyo Bay in September 1945. He started with a badly hurt fleet and nursed it and built it into the greatest striking force the world has ever seen. After his outstanding military career be continued his public service in many positions of a private and public charac- ter. He always displayed his traits of geniality, humanity, and intelligence in a fashion to do honor to himself and his Nation. He finally retired to his home near San Francisco in 1956. It is with great pride as an American that I extend to his wife and four children my deep respects and sincere condolences on this sad day. EX'rENS'.{ON OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES D. MARTIN OF ALABAMA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday. February 24, 1966 v1r. MARTIN of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, aside from the immorality of the Federal Government taking the hard-earned dollars of working taxpay- ers to pay the rent for those unwilling or unable to afford better housing, the whole system of handouts opens the door to widespread scandals. There al- ready has been evidence of massive cor- ruption in the poverty programs, but no one seems interested in bringing it to light. Before Congress appropriates money for rent subsidies, we had better make sure that all the loopholes for chiselers and dishonest officials have been closed. 'llie well-known columnist, Lyle Wil- son, had a warning on this subject in the Washington Daily News of February 23, "Beware of Scandal." I include the article as a part of these remarks. BEWARE OF SCANDAL (By Lyle Wilson) Editorials predict that President Johnson's rent supplement plan would invite outra- geous scandal. The Miami Herald headed its editorial with these words: A subsidy for scandal. The editorial made these points in support of its prediction: Original rent guidelines were so loosely drawn that fam lies with annual incomes of $8,100 would have been eligible. The Federal Housing Administration, which would administer the rent dole, lacks both experience and the staff to prevent chiseling. There has been no effective congress seal action to assure adequately enforced stand- ards of eligibility. There is another disturbing aspect of the rec.t dole. tf is that distribution of ch;irity among the voters traditionally has bees a vital part of boss rule and corruption its great cities. William. Marcy Tweed war, the most notorious of the city bosses. Ross Treed was Grand Sachem of New York's Tammany Hall. In 1805, 16 years after or- gi;nization of the Tammany Society, it was incorporated as the charitable institution. Scribner's concise Dictionary of American History relates the sturdy growth of Tarn- m:eny Hall in part as follows: "'T'he enfranchisement of proper: yless wl-,ites (1822), which Tammany had cham- pioned, was the source of its gradual growth to power. Until the advent of William M. Tweed as leader (1860), Tammany Hall dif- fered from other urban political organiza- tions only in degree. He made it a smoothly running juggernaut, which has served as It model for city machines. Tweed controlled the mob by catering to its religious and racial groups and by gifts to the poor." Gifts to the poor. A bucket of coal, a hamper of food, clothing when needed, some folding money on election day. It all ..dded up to corruption. Boss rule and bag gov- ernment built up a foundation of which a dole or a subsidy or a supplement, all pretty much alike, created and enforced the loyal- ties upon which political power was based. Tweed happened to be a Democrat. 'there were equally corrupt Republicans in New York and elsewhere. Political corruption is not limited to but ]h; is been mos ; notable in large American cities. Corruption is likely to flourish where politicians can buy the gratitude of voters with public or private funds or can coerce voters by the power to withhold funds from reedy citizens. Poverty fertilizes the field of corruption. Bad administration of public funds invited corruption regardless of the purpose to which the funds are appropriated. A decent respect for the public welfare requires that President Johnson and the Congress take adequate precautions against the rent, dole becoming a subsidy for scandal. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. THOMAS C. McGRATH OF NEW JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, February 24, 1966 Mr. MCGRATH. Mr. Speaker- I am under more apprehension on account of our own dissensions, than the effort of the enemy. The New York Journal-American gives this quote, noting that- The deeply concerned words could well have been spoken by President Johnson who has, indeed, expressed similar concern, But 1l:iey were written by George Washington. 1'hey are as applicable today, as then. The paper feels that the dissension voiced in this country "may convey to Hanoi the tragically mistaken assump- tion that our Nation prepares to unfurl a white flag." The words of warning seem appropros, and I suggest that the editorial on the subject be made a part of the RECOTaD. It is herewith submitted. NOW, AS THEN "I am under more apprehension on ac- count of our own dissensions, than the c-Sort of the enemy." The deeply concerned words could well have been spoken by President Johnson who has, indeed, expressed similar concern. But they were written by George Washington. They are as applicable today, as then, and his birthday makes their recollection appro- priate in this time of national stress when our difficulties without are rendered more serious by dissensions within. The quitters are in full, loud voice. They would have us pull out of Vietnam, willy- nilly, in virtual surrender and world dis- grace, in shameful abandonment of pledge and honor. There are, too, sincere doubters who be- lieve our engagement in Vietnam should never have been started. These, too, are in demanding chorus. And there are, of course, the outright Com- munists within our midst, and their duped peacenicks who seek by clamor to frustrate reason. There are dissensions by many whose stature gives importance to their views and by many of low station whose importance is that their noise may convey to Hanoi the tragically mistaken assumption that our Na- tion prepares to unfurl a white flag. But the flag still is and will be, to the day of victory, a banner of meaningful stars and stripes so historically made possible by George Washington and now so historically maintained by President Johnson and the vast majority of the American people. An Atlanta Boy Meets the Poverty Program EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. CHARLES L. WELTNER OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, January 25, 1966 Mr. WELTNER. Mr. Speaker, the Neighborhood Youth Corps has come in for a certain amount of criticism lately because of a few isolated instances of apparent favoritism or poor judgment in the selection, of youths enrolled irk the program. I believe that the vast ma- jority of such cases were simply instances in which decidedly disadvantaged youth were not quite poor enough-their fami- lies perhaps had annual incomes of up to $4,000 or so, rather than the $3,150 figure established as the poverty guideline :for a four-person family. Overall, I think the Neighborhood Youth Corps program is being adminis- tered in an excellent fashion, and is achieving the intended results. As an indication of what I mean I insert at this point in the RE,coro an article by Marvin Wall which appeared in the Atlanta Constitution on January 21, concerning a disadvantaged young man who, like countless others, has found the door to opportunity through the Neighborhood Youth Corps. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD .-HOUSE SENATOR PAT MCNAMARA (Mr. VIVIAN (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. VIVIAN. Mr. Speaker, I know that I speak for the vast majority of my constituents, when I say that it was with the greatest regret and personal sadness that I learned that the great senior Sen- ator from Michigan, PAT MCNAMARA, Will retire at the end of this year. PAT MCNAMARA has been an outstand- ing servant of the people of Michigan; he has been a respected and beloved leg- islator; he has been, to many of my col- leagues, and to me, a valued mentor. In the 12 years that PAT MCNAMARA has served his State and his country, he has been a driving force behind some of the most important social legislation of the century: Hospital and health care for the elderly, aid to education, civil rights, and the first concerted Federal efforts to fight poverty. As the chairman of the Senate Public Works Committee, he has been respon- sible for programs that are helping to provide thousands of cities and towns with capital improvements that are soon translated into new jobs and improved health and welfare. This is the proud legacy that PAT MCNAMARA will leave our Nation when he retires next January. After a lifetime of dedicated service, first as a leader in trade unionism and then in public service, PAT deserves to be able to ease up a bit. I wish him well in his retirement; but the Michigan congressional delegation and the people of Michigan will miss his leadership in the coming years. (Mr. GILBERT (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. GILBERT'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] PERSONAL ANNOUNCEMENT (Mr. PEPPER (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. PEPPER. Mr. Speaker, I wish to announce that this afternoon when one vote came on a quorum call and another on adoption of the rule on the foreign aid bill I was with Dr. Irving Muskat, chairman of Interama, in conference with the Honorable John Macy, Chair- man of the Civil Service Commission, relative to some vital aspects of Interama and was not able to get back in time for these votes. However, I have, of course, voted on the other votes re- specting the foreign aid bill, including final passage of the bill today. (Mr. PEPPER (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include , extraneous matter.) [Mr. PEPPER'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix. ] REMARKS OF THE PRESIDENT AT 14TH ANNUAL PRAYER BREAK- FAST (Mr. MATSUNAGA was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this- point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. Speaker, as a strong believer in the power of prayer, I was deeply moved, as were others pres- ent, by the remarks of President Lyndon B. Johnson at the 14th annual Presi- dent's prayer breakfast meeting, held last Thursday, February 17. Burdened by the weight of decision- making demanded by his high office, and having to make decisions calling for sending of American young men into the battlefields of Vietnam, our President stated that he has found the courage to face the next day in prayer. He quoted the words of another tormented Presi- dent of. a past generation, Abraham Lincoln : I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to go. My own wisdom and that of all about me seem insufficient for the day. President Johnson added that his strength comes not only from his own prayers, but also from the prayers of the mothers who have given their sons to our country, and who in their great sor- row still found the courage to write him and to pray for him. The President was preceded by the world renowned evange- list, the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham. Mr. Speaker, in the hope that those who did not hear the president may gain a better understanding of the heart and mind of our great leader by a read- ing of the complete text of his moving and inspiring remarks made on Febru- ary 17, 1966, at the 14th annual presi- dent's prayer breakfast held at the Shorham Hotel here in Washington, under unanimous consent I include it in the RECORD: REMARKS OF THE PRESIDENT AT THE 14TI-I ANNUAL PRAYER BREAKFAST AT THE SHORE- HAM HOTEL, FEBRUARY 17, 1966 Dr. Graham, my beloved friend, Senator CARLSON, distinguished guests at the head table, my dear friends, I am pleased to return again to our annual prayer breakfast to be among so many of my old friends. In this room this morning we have been privileged to hear one of the great speakers and lead- ers of our time. He has been heard by some of the great leaders of the most powerful nations in the world, yet not a single one of ,us is ashamed to say, "I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help." Just a few blocks from here, on the front of the National Archives, is an inscription, "The past is prologue." As your President, I have had many occasions to realize the truth of that statement. Throughout our long history our Presidents have struggled with recurring problems. The way they handle those problems and their successes or failures can guide us in the actions that we are called Upon to take today. But there are some things that history cannot teach us and among them is how to bear, without pain, the sending of our young Americans into battle and how to fill the aching void as we wait for the news of their fate and how to console the wife, or the mother, or the little children when that news is bad. These are the times when I recall the wis- dom of Abraham Lincoln when he said, "I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to go, My own wisdom and that of all about me seem insufficient for the day." In private prayer at unusual mo- ments, I have found courage to meet another day in a world where peace upon earth is still only an empty dream. The Prophet Isaiah tells us, "They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint." I believe that with all my heart, but in these troubled times I am sustained by much more than my own prayers. I am sustained by the prayers of hundreds of Americans who daily take the time to look up from their own problems in order to try to give me a little encouragement in mine. Not long ago I received a letter one morning from a mother whose son had been killed in Vietnam. She spoke of the pain and the loss and the tears that are ever ready to flow, but through all of this were words of encouragement for me from this dear little lady. In her letter she concluded, "Mr. President, I wish I could tell you all that I feel in my heart. There just aren't words, so we ask God to bless you and your little family, that He will guide you in all the terrible decisions that you must make. As long as we believe, our strength is in our faith in God and He will never fail us." dear mother are to be found the greatness of this Nation and also the strength of its Pse dent. ANCING OF WAR IN VIETNAM (Mr. MOELLER (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MOELLER. Mr. Speaker, I deeply appreciate the fine explanation of H.R. 12752 provided by the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, the gentleman from Arkansas [Mr. MILLS], and I appreciate his appeal for our support of its enactment. I likewise appreciate the very pointed admonitions set forth by the ranking minority Member the gentleman from Wisconsin [Mr. BYRNES). It is heart- warming to know that an issue as vital as the financing of the war in Vietnam has such bipartisan support. However, I also agree with my colleagues who feel most strongly that this is,. at least to some degree, discriminatory legislation. Last June we removed the excise tax on many, many items, including a partial removal of the excise tax on automobiles and telephone charges. It occurs to me that we might have turned to the more luxury-type-area to reimpose the excise tax. A tax on luxury items is certainly not one that touches the impoverished or the workingman. I concede also that the machinery is still in operation for collecting the excise tax on automobiles and telephones, and for that reason, it seems most appropriate that this be the area, though I reluctantly agree, where additional revenue must be found. We all loathe war and none can'deny that we are now engaged in a cruel war in Vietnam. Our servicemen dare not Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24, 1966 be denied the implements of war or the necessities for their subsistence, but since we are now engaged in this in- volvement I find no recourse except to approved the proposed Tax Adjustment Act of 1966. I do so with the hope that in a very brief period of time we can restore these tax cuts and that the additional costs of warfare will be lifted from the backs of our taxpayers. While making this nec- essary adjustment now, I agree most wholeheartedly with the gentleman from Wisconsin I Mr. BYRNES 1, that we need to eliminate all unnecessary expenditures for domestic purposes--and such elimi- nations can be made. However, those who are suffering from inadequate eco- nomic resources today, those who have been disadvantaged by years of economic drought as many of the inhabitants of the Appalachia region, should not be made to suffer the first expenditure cuts. Wise expenditures of aid for these areas will help to replenish the treasury in the future and improve income. Again, Mr. Speaker, I reluctantly ex- press approval of the legislation in the hope that what we do here today, out of prudence, will provide assurances for victory in Vietnam. i'lIE REDWOODS DESERVE BETTER THAN COMPROMISE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under previous order of the House, the gentle- man from California IMr. C01RELAN1 is recognized for 5 minutes. Mr. COHELAN. Mr. Speaker, the President's message on conservation, de- livered yesterday, is one of the most far- reaching and far-sighted on this subject of all time. The President is to be highly commended for his generally excellent program, and particularly on his pro- posals to combat water pollution. California's Governor Brown deserves credit for his efforts leading to the in- clusion of a Redwood National Park in this program and for his work to secure provision of appropriate economic ad- justment payments. But, Mr. Speaker, I would be less than candid or honest if I were to say the ad- ministration's redwood proposal is ade- quate to preserve this great and unique resource. Unfortunately, it falls far short of what is necessary if any inean- ingful stands of redwoods are to be pre- served for future generations of Ameri- cans. It takes a thousand years or more to grow mature redwoods, and, once cut, much longer still to establish a climax forest, if indeed that is possible at all. This point, incidentally, is not the opin- ion of novices or special-interest repre- sentatives. This point was made by the National Park Service in its report of September 1964, prophetically entitled "The Redwoods, a National Opportunity for Conservation." Yet, Mr. Speaker, the administration's bill would appear to ignore this very message. It appears to disregard the simple but staggering fact that only 10 percent-or 200,000 acres-of this coun- try's original redwood forest remains to- day. It appears to ignore the reality that last year alone some 15,000 acres of redwood giants fell to the woodman's ax, and that more are being felled-many in the very area proposed for preservation- as we talk. These facts plainly indicate that bold action is required, but bold action does not characterize the administration's plan. This plan calls for a 43,392-acre park in the Mill Creek area of Del Norte County, including the present Jedediah Smith and Del Norte Coast State Parks. But when these State parks are included, only some 25,000 acres would be added to protected status; only 7,800 acres of ad- ditional virgin redwoods would be included., and much of this is either of mediocre quality or in the process of being cut. This Mill Creek area is primarily im- portant as watershed protection for the two existing State parks. It would not compare in quality or variety, in scenic or recreational features, with the 90,000- acre park at Redwood and Prairie Creeks which 28 of our colleagues in the House have joined me in calling for, and which 16 Members of the Senate introduced yesterday. Mr. Speaker, I am ,also disturbed about the plan to provide a separate unit of 1,400 acres in Humboldt County to pro- tect the world's tallest trees. It is not that these trees do not need protection; they need it desperately. But this provi- sion of only 1,400 acres raises false hopes that they could be preserved for long. Once the surrounding valley slopes are logged off, as they inevitably will be, the tallest redwoods will be exposed to wind and flood and soil erosion which will quickly number their years. The most serious weakness in the ad- m.inistration's proposal, however, Mr. Speaker, is the omission of the Redwood and Prairie Creek Valleys, where sweep- ing vistas combine with primeval forest and wild, clear streams in a setting of un- matched grandeur. Here nearly 80,000 acres of unprotected forests are avail- able, 33,000 of which are forested with virgin redwoods. 't'his is the area originally identified as most desirable for a redwood national park in a National Geographic Society study. This is the area first recommended by the National Park Service. This is the area for a redwood park supported by the Sierra Club, the Wilder- ness Society, the National Audubon So- ciety, the National Parks Association , the Men's Garden Clubs of America, the Citi- zens Committee on Natural Resources, the Nature Conservancy, Trustees for Conservation, Citizens for a Redwood National Park, and the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs. This is the area provided for in bills introduced by 45 Members of the House and Senate. It may very well' be, Mr. Speaker, that insufficient funds presently exist to ac- quire this entire area of primary desi:ra- b ility. But the answer to this limitation is not to put the limited funds available to second best use. The answer is that if only $56 million is available, it should be put to use in buying the best land available; $56 mil- lion can make a very desirable start in acquiring an outstanding Redwood Na- tional Park in the Redwood Creek area, though certainly an even more desirable one could be purchased with more plenti- ful funds. And if we begin in the right place we can make appropriate additions as this becomes possible. Compromise is not worthy of this great resource. Let 'us pursue its preservation with the vision, imagination and determi- nation it deserves. Mr. Speaker, the New York Times this morning, in an editorial entitled, "Re- treat on Redwoods," comments thought- fully and perceptively on this very prob- lem. I commend it to our colleagues' attention : RETREAT ON REDWOODS In his message on conservation yesterday, President Johnson put forward an excellent program to combat water pollution, on which we will comment later, and he reaffirmed his support for several desirable bills now pend- ing for national parks and seashores. But on one of the most controversial of current issues in this field-the size of the proposed Redwood National Park in northern California-his stand is a sharp disappoint- ment. For some months the administration has been wavering between two plans. One, em- bodied in a bill by Representative COIL LAN, of California, would establish a 90,000-acre park. More than it score of House Members have introduced similar bills. The alterna- tive plan drafted within the Interior De- partment provided for a drastically smaller park. It would have afforded no protection to Redwood Creek Valley, which has the best surviving stand of primeval redwoods. But it would have been much more acceptable to the commercial interests that want to saw these ancient trees-some of them more than 2,000 years old-into lumber for use as build- ing material, fenceposts, and similar purposes. Public protests against this timidly con- ceived, grossly inadequate plan led to the last-minute compromise which the admin- istration sent to Congress yesterday. It is a compromise that will satisfy no one who understands the values at stake in the preser- vation for all time of these unique, magnifi- cent trees. We note with surprise and regret that Senator KUCHEL, of California, has agreed to sponsor this highly unsatisfactory bill, and with even more surprise and regret that Secretary Udall lends his reputation as a conservationist to such an unworthy com- promise. Only 43,000 acres are to be included in this proposed park. Since this acreage includes two existing State parks, little more than half of the land would be newly protected. Moreover, fewer than 7,000 acres would con- sist of primeval. redwoods. The Redwood Creek Valley would remain available for pri- vate exploitation-except for one pathetically small enclosure of 1,400 acres, isolated from the rest of the park. Buying up these redwood lands from pri- vate owners would be expensive, but dollars cannot be decisive when the asset is irre- placeable. As President Johnson so elo- quently said in his message, "Despite all of our wealth and knowledge, we cannot create a redwood forest, a wild river, or a gleaming seashore." We urge Congress to take the President at his word and to create a Red- wood National Park worthy of his rhetoric and of the great trees that are an indescrib- ably beautiful part of America's natural heritage. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 3902 Approved For Release-? rMl -2J8R(446F%Q4030002-3 NUKES gram, and urge that the necessary funds be included in the 1967 fiscal year budget so this important construction program can continug without Interruption. FEDERAL REVENUES FOR USE IN STATE PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION (Mr. GURNEY (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. GURNEY. Mr. Speaker, I am to- day joining several of my Republican col- leagues in introducing legislation to share a portion of Federal revenues with each State for use in public elementary and secondary education. The bill would establish an educational assistance trust fund, into which 1 per- cent of the revenue received from the Internal Revenue Code and tariff sched- ule would be deposited the first year, 2 percent the second year, up to 5 percent the fifth year, and thereafter. Tax 'sharing for education is based on . a two-part formula: half of the money would be returned to the States on a per-student basis; the other half would be based on the amount of effort each State is currently putting into edu- cation. "Effort" is defined as the per- cent of gross personal income spent on public elementary and secondary edu- cation. The concept of tax sharing to bolster the State's abilities to provide those services which are within its domain Is an attractive one to all those who fear intervention by Washington in local matters. Education, along with other services, is becoming more and more difficult for States to afford. State taxes have risen steadily, from $4.9 billion 20 years ago to $24.2 billion in 1964. In 1963 alone, property taxes rose 7.3 per- cent over 1962 rates, sales taxes increased by 8.7 percent, corporation taxes by 7.5 percent, and personal income tax by 6.3 percent. All this has been caused by the in- crease in State and local expenditures. These have risen by 600 percent since the mid-1940's. The cost of education alone has risen over 700 percent In that time, from $3 billion in 1946 to $22 billion. And this outlay for education is ex- pected to double by 1972. State and local taxes have risen about as high as they can go, with the Federal Government preempting so much of the national income through Federal income tax. This leaves State and local govern- ments in the position of having no place to turn except to the Federal Govern- ment. However, the knowledge of local sit- uations, needs, and problems is at the local and State level. They are far better able to improve their educational programs themselves. Gigantic Federal programs too often result in Federal con- trol and the imposition of rules which are not in the best interests of education in all areas. This year we have seen several locali- ties in the United States refuse aid under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, because they feared overcontrol by the Office of Education. They would rather struggle along in freedom than lose control of the edu- cation of their children to those in far- removed offices in Washington. For experience has taught us that Fed- eral subsidy brings Federal control. The tax-sharing plan, however, lets the Fed- eral Government provide the funds and lets the States determine how these can best be used to supplement their own efforts. Built into the formula is the assurance that no State will then decide to sit back and let Uncle Sam pay the bills, for the amount a State receives depends in great part upon its own per student expendi- tures. If anything, this will spur the States on to greater effort. To assure that the money Is spent for education, plans will be submitted by the Governor to the Comptroller General of the United States each year, and at the end of the year an audit must be sub- mitted to show actual use. This ap- proach gives a tremendous boost to the education of our young people. Per pupil expenditures can increase greatly through Federal contributions and at the same time, incentive will be provided for each State to make even more effort on its own. There would be no need for a great ex- pansion of Federal personnel in Wash- ington to administer the program-it would be handled by the local officials already on the job. It would yield us the greatest return on our investment, for it would utilize the best capabilities of each level of government. Our federal system is a precious free- dom which we must strive to preserve and strengthen. It is built firmly upon the Federal-State cooperation and divi- sion of powers and responsibilities, such as I propose in this bill. And like every other precious thing we know in Amer- ica, its strength is in the education of each new generation to carry it on and protect it. Surely, then, we. can make no wiser Investment in our Nation's future than by the speedy passage of this bill. (Mr. BUCHANAN (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) [Mr. BUCHANAN'S remarks will ap- pear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. WYDLER (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) [Mr. WYDLER'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] CORRECTION OF THE RECORD Mr. MOELLER. Mr. Speaker, In the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD of yesterday at page 3615, line 44, are the words: Profound though, as prayer. Certain words of my remarks were in- advertently deleted. The RECORD should read: February 24, 1966 He was a profound theologian, as his pray- ers amply indicated. I ask unanimous consent that the per- manent RECORD be so corrected. The SPEAKER. Without objection, it is so ordered. There was no objection. The SPEAKER. Under a previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from Texas [Mr.. PATMAN] is recognized for 60 minutes. [Mr. PATMAN addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] The SPEAKER. Under a previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from Ohio [Mr. VANIKI is recognized for 60 minutes. [Mr. VANIK addressed the House. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Appgrjdix. ] N U RO TATION NOW IN VIETNAM Mr. SPEAKER. Under a previous or- der of the House, the gentleman from Wyoming [Mr. RONCALIO], is recognized for 30 minutes. (Mr. RONCALIO asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. RONCALIO. Mr. Speaker, I bring to the attention of my colleagues the fact that from thinly populated Wyoming, with less than 320,000 human beings, six families have been called upon to pay the supreme price of the escalation of our Vietnam military posture. These six fatalities are: First. Alma Jack Stumpp, Afton, Wyo. Second. Ernest Taylor, Jr., Kaycee, Wyo. Third. Robert Fred Guthrie, Chey- enne, Wyo. Fourth. Craig Blackner, Lyman, Wyo. Fifth. Sam Lee Delos, Ten Sleep, Wyo. Sixth. Ladd Condy, Cheyenne, Wyo. What is particularly tragic, Mr. Speaker, Is that in the case of at least two of the above war casualties from Wyoming had there been some type of rotation policy in effect in Vietnam their lives might have been spared. Mr. Guthrie, a young man from Chey- enne, Wyo., was killed within 30 days prior to the completion of his tour of duty-after a 4-year hitch as a corpsman in the U.S. Marines. On November 17, 1965, Ernest E. Tay- lor-a specialist 4th class-from Kaycee, Wyo., was killed in action. Two days before, he had written to friends that he expected to be released from combat duty on December 10 to begin his trip home, following- his stretch of duty. In this case he was killed less than 3 weeks prior to the completion of his tour. These two deaths show again the ne- cessity for a review now of the ,military policy that asks far too much of a few while far too many get by giving far too little in this process of defending Amer- ica in time of its military engagements. Because of my own personal experience in the 1st Infantry Division in World War II, Mr. Speaker, an American Regu- lar Army Division again engaged in com- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA'-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 4., 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE three reasons that would explain the Congress passed the Trade Act over 3 stubbornness. One is that a large trade years ago under the false impression surplus would be a great credit to the that we were riding high in foreign ex- trade agreements program. It would port markets? bear out the predictions made on behalf I do not believe that we should plunge of the program and the hopes centered blindly ahead with further drastic tariff in it. It would justify the undertaking reductions when our trade statistics, if by tyre fruits it had borne. properly reported, would reveal our weak Not to be overlooked is the reflection competitive position in world markets. that a large export surplus would also We would be ill advised, I am con- put a pleasing sheen on the feverish ef- vinced, to proceed under the assumption forts and motions of the Department of that present high levels of production Commerce to promote exports. With no surplus to show for these efforts it might be more difficult to coax more money out of Congress. The third item is perhaps the most pernicious of the three. The so-called export surplus is used as evidence that the ..ndustries of this country are indeed competitive in world markets. More- over, the high surplus shows that we could absorb further drastic tariff cuts with little risk of damage to our indus- tries;. if the authentic results of our trade demonstrate that we are not really com- petitive abroad except in two or three products, our trade position takes on a wholly different complexion. The fact is that so far as exports of manufactured goods are concerned we have been ex- periencing a shrinking in our share com- pared with other countries. The prin- cipal exception is machinery. Our ex- ports of this item have boomed hand in hand with the rising tide of investment of cur industries abroad. This may be temporary and may result in. shrinking foreign markets for goods shipped from this country in the future. Exports of [arra products have also risen to record heights, but this swelling volume is at- tributable to shipments under Public Law 480, food for peace and similar pro- grains. They do not reflect an improve- ment of our competitive position in agricultural products. it seems unthinkable that under these circumstances we should offer to the world another 50-percent tariff reduc- tion. Recently, Mr. William M. Roth, Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, in a speech before the Unit- ed States-Japan Trade Council, said: Actually, much has been accomplished so air in Geneva. Items to be excepted from the across-the-board 50-percent cut in in- dus-aial tariffs were tabled in November 1964. Our exceptions were kept at the barest mini- mum consistent with considerations of over- ridiag national security. ;.ef'erring to the so-called Kennedy round he also said: ,]'his ambitious effort, the greatest in the 20-year history of GA'I'T trade negotiations, will not fail because of any lack of will or determination of the United States to see it through to a satisfactory conclusion. ?o, Mr. Speaker, the policy is to push through the 50-percent reduction in any (vent. If the facts of our nonexistent trace surplus that have recently come to light do not greatly temper the deter- mination mentioned by Mr. Roth, we can only wonder what is the administration's real attitude toward domestic industry. Is it to be sacrificed willy-nilly because and employment in this country would justify opening up our market to grow- ing volumes of imports when it is clear that so far as really competitive trade is concerned we are running a deficit. If there is any doubt about this deficit, I think it should be cleared up. I am joining others who have intro- duced a joint resolution calling on the Commerce and Treasury Departments to issue summary trade reports that will show our true competitive standing in the world rather than obscuring the facts. I trust that the Ways and Means Committee will hold early hearings so that all. doubts can be resolved. FRE33 BUSBEY. THE RUGGED INDIVIDUALIST (Mr. ARENDS (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the :RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. A.ARENDS. Mr. Speaker, it was a great shock to me to learn of the passing of my very good friend, Fred Busboy, who served in this body with distinction in the 78th, 80th, 82d, and 83d Congresses. Inasmuch as he was elected from what is generally known as a politically mar- ginal district, he was not able to have continuity of service and the opportunity to demonstrate his full worth. Notwith- standing this, in each Congress that he served he contributed immeasurably to its deliberations. We frequently use the descriptive term "rugged individualist" without our al- ways being quite certain what it means. But I think that anyone who was privi- leged to know :Fred Bushey would under- stand exactly what is meant when we re- fer to him as a "rugged individualist." He was a man of convictions with cour- age of his convictions, and more than just ordinary courage. He would fight to the bitter end, even if he stood alone, for what he believed. Nothing could deter him. During World War I he served as a Regular Army sergeant, and he partici- pated :in some of the hardest fought bat- tles of that war. He was proud of this, and justly so. And as I fondly reflect on Fred's service in the Congress, he showed the same ruggedness and deter- mination and ingenuity that somewhat typifies a military sergeant. He did not seek glory for glory's sake. He sought results, and he got results. With the passing of Fred Busbey I. have lost a very fine friend. He will never be forgotten by any of us privi- leged to know him. MONENNY FISH HATCHERY AT SPEARFISH, S. DAK. (Mr. BERRY (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to :include extraneous matter.) Mr. BERRY. Mr. Speaker, it is very unfortunate to find that the 1967 budget for the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife does not include any proposed expenditure for the current building and expansion program being undertaken at the McNenny Fish Hatchery at Spear- iish, S. Dak. The McNenny hatchery, constructed in 1951, produces rainbow and brown trout primarily for stocking waters in the Black Hills trout management area. This area contains about 175 miles of trout streams and 1,900 acres of trout lakes, which provide an estimated 800,- 000 man-hours of angling annually. In addition to this, this hatchery supplies 17 counties in western South Dakota, 21 counties in western North Dakota, 10 counties in eastern Wyoming, and a large Bureau of Reclamation reservoir in Ne- braska. The average annual production of all species is about 70,000 pounds. During the past several years the Bu- reau of Reclamation, the Corps of Engi- neers, and State and local governments have constructed numerous new impond- ments in South Dakota, and the three neighboring States. Many of these res- ervoirs provide excellent trout fishing; however, to maintain the fishery, fre- quent planting of fingerling fish are re- quired. Requests for fingerling trout by management agencies exceed the present production capabilities of the hatchery. The McNenny hatchery also serves as a production test center for the formu- lation and testing of fish diets. This has resulted in significant improvements in our ability to produce quality diets at substantial cost savings. A new building is needed to house testing and diet form- ulation equipment, and to provide addi- tional fingerling production facilities. With funds provided in fiscal year 1966- $25,000-a well is at the present time being drilled to supplement the hatch- cry's water supply. The development program, which I shall outline in a moment, must be un- dertaken to increase the production of fish and to improve efficiency of opera- tions immediately. The expanded facil- ities would mean about 100,000 pounds of trout could be produced annually, ap- proximately doubling, the present finger- ling production. The development program includes the following items: Pipeline--------------------------- $10,000 Broodstock raceways-.------------- 20,009 Production building and facilities__ 120, 000 Residence____--._._-___.-_-____-_____ 20,000 Sewage disposal system ------------ 20, 000 Equipment---------------------.--- 15,000 Therefore, the total estimated cost of the program is $205,000. I urge the House Interior Appropriations Subcom- mittee and each Member of this House to carefully consider this building pro- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 0446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP6 Bfil E Fe&ruary 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD US bat in Vietnam-I believe it is proper to call to the attention of my colleagues at this time this glaring inequity in the Armed Forces of the United States. I have, accordingly, written to the Secre- tary of Defense suggesting a rotation policy for men in combat, and if none is forthcoming, I shall introduce legis- lation to that effect. It is evident, Mr. Speaker, that these conflicts in policing the world-and par- ticularly our Vietnam commitment- may extend for a long period of time. This being true, a certain number of set days in combat or "in contact with the enemy," becomes the only real goal which a fighting man understands in carrying out the daily ordeals of combat. We in the Halls of Congress, we in the safe, well-fed sectors of America, may be moved by the euphonious principals daily restated in these difficult times. But to men eating the C-rations and sleeping in swamps, to men digging holes in the jun- gle and fighting and dying-so many days in combat and then home-this is the only language they truly understand. A man in combat feels one thing above all else-and that is that he stays alive in order to come home to his loved ones. If a rotation policy is in effect, he is a better soldier because of it. If one is not in effect, Mr. Speaker, he has no goal; he has only bleakness and a constantly doubtful moral factor at best, which will always affect his proficiency. I stress again, Mr. Speaker, experience has taught us that the first thing for which any man fights is his self preserva- tion. I believe we had better establish a firm and definite policy of rotation for our great fighting men now. It should be so many days in combat, during all of which they may look forward to return- ing home. Thus somebody in the train- ing camps or civilian life in America, can take their place to carry on the fight which means so much to so many. I believe a strong immediate rotation policy should be placed in effect so that at least five riflemen with the most over- seas duty per company per month should be rotated home and replaced with re- cruits from stateside. I believe these five men should come from every combat unit in South Viet- nam, and I believe that at least two men should be rotated home from all sup- port, supply, and other noncombat units now in these theaters of operations. Mr. Speaker, I stress that this is a matter of equity and of the basic con- cepts of justice-and I hope my col- leagues will take an interest in this vital matter. In World War II in the Big Red One- the 1st Division-it was said that there were two ways to get home, by rotation or in a pine box-in a mattress cover, to be exact. in my sparsely populated dis- trict, which is the State of Wyoming, Mr. Speaker, six young men have come home so far via a pine box, it is time now to assure that the next six to come home to Wyoming come home alive and well, and able to know the respect and admiration of a grateful people. THE WAR THAT FOREIGN AID FIGHTS (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, I am told by those who have visited the bat- tlefronts in South Vietnam that average life expectancy in Vietnam is only 35 years. You may be surprised to learn, however, that this figure has nothing to do with the bullets of the Communist enemy. This figure is the result of the ravages of other enemies: disease, hunger, and ignorance. The United States is engaged in a war on these killers as well as the terror and death spread by the Vietcong. The soldiers on this second front are the teams of doctors being trained with the help of U.S. medical personnel and equipment provided through our AID program. Medical centers in Hue and Saigon are now graduating 150 doctors a year to take charge of the country's ex- panding medical services. More than 12,000 health centers have been estab- lished and stocked with medicines in rural health programs manned by 8,000 newly-trained village health workers. When the United States started its bat- tle against disease and squalor in Viet- nam, there were fewer than 200 civilian doctors attending to the medical needs of 16 million people. The importance of this effort is not diminished by the fact that Vietcong guerrillas destroy some of the new health units as soon as they are constructed. In every village where a Government health center is caring for the sick and undernourished there is visible proof of which side is concerned with the welfare of the people, proof which the Vietcong seek to obliterate. The AID-supported health program started with the introduction of sani- tary water supplies in the ancient capital of Hue, as well as in Saigon. In rural areas, outdoor sanitary facilities have been added. A major campaign against malaria which was initiated with the help of U.S.-trained malaria teams, has reduced the incidence of new cases to less than 2 percent a year. Deaths from malaria have been re- duced from 35,000 in 1958 to 2,000 in 1965. Seven million people have been vaccinated against cholera, and 8 mil- lion more have received vaccinations and treatments for other diseases. American civilians are responding in- creasingly to the Vietnamese Govern- ment's call for medical help. The latest group of American doctors to volunteer their services in Vietnam included 30 Cuban refugees. One hundred personnel from the U.S. Army Medical Civilian Action Program are also serving. While there are many inadequacies and shortcomings in our AID program in Vietnam, there is no questions but that this humanitarian effort equals or exceeds in importance our military effort there. The Agency and the administra- tion are now making a major effort to win the nonmilitary war in Vietnam- and are successfully persuading the South Vietnamese Government to place more emphasis in this direction. This effort as fully deserves our support as the military authorization on which we will shortly be acting. SMALL BUSINESS NEEDS HELP (Mr. OTTINGER (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. OTTINGER. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced legislation which must be passed if the small businessmen of this Nation are to receive the assist- ance the Congress intends they receive. My bill would separate the revolving funds under the Small Business Act so that the Small Business Administration could not reach into direct business loan funds even if some widespread disaster would justify that action. In the case of a disaster requiring additional finan- cial assistance from SBA, a separate sup- plemental appropriation would be re- quired. The thrust of this bill is to keep inviolate the small business direct loan program which has been so important to the small businessmen of the Nation. The legislation I have introduced would not increase the SBA appropria- tion but would divide it into three separate revolving funds reserved for specific purposes. The Small Business Act now provides for only one with allo- cations set administratively within SBA. My bill would establish one revolving fund for direct business loans under sec- tion 7(a) of the Small Business Act, prime contract authority under section 8(a), and loans under title IV of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 in the amount of $1 billion. A second revolving fund totaling $300 million is set up for disaster loans under section 7(b) and section 7(b) (2). The third separate revolving fund is set up for programs under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958-except for title IV of that act-and the bill authorizes $461 million for this fund. My bill also sets limits for the amounts of loans, guarantees and commitments which may be outstanding at any one time under each of the three funds. Mr. Speaker, the need for legislation such as I have introduced today has been amply demonstrated on a number of oc- casions in recent years. The recent transit strike in New York City drama- tized the seriousness of the failure of the Small Business Administration to seek funds necessary to maintain an effective direct loan program. Congress must take take immediate action to provide these funds. Although SBA suspended its direct loan last October 11, it took no steps to obtain sufficient funds to avert economic disaster should an emergency arise. When the transit strike became an ex- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446RD00400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --HOUSE February 79 4, '1_9766 tended emergency, thousands of small businessmen were faced with economic ruin and SBA had no resources to assist them. Instead, SBA was forced to hast- ily round up extra funds to provide direct leans. There is some question whether the $20 million SBA raised from a revolv-- ing fund was enough to meet the need. lilt the main point is that SBA's mad dash for money was precisely the wrong aplxroach and. should not have been necessary. Suspension of the direct loan program is now in its sixth month and SBA ofti-? cials still are unable to tell us when they will be able to lift the moratorium. True, SBA is studying ways of better orga- nizing the loan program, but that is little comfort to the businessman who needs a loan now. li urge all my colleagues to join with. me in taking positive action to put the small business direct loan program back: on its feet. We can afford no further delay. E &I ONIA----INDEPENDENCE DAY (Mr. MULTER (at the request of Mr.. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, it is a distinct honor to extend congratulations to the thousands of supporters in Amer- ica of Estonian independence and to the captive people of Estonia on this Febru- ary 24, the anniversary of their inde- pendence. While the Estonian nation has experienced many misfortunes since their 1918 declaration of independence,. the ebullient quest for freedom and lib- erty that was once achieved, remains strong today. Yes, Russia still wields its overpower- ing influence in Estonia, but even 22 consecutive years of Russian occupation have not succeeded in destroying the Es- tonian's determination to remain true to their own cultural heritage. The shameful and sometimes barbaric treatment of the people of Estonia at the hands of the Russian Communists is surpassed perhaps only by that of Nazi Germany. Proof of Russian brutal- ity and virtual extermination of much of Estonia's people lies in the stark popula- tion statistics of 1934 and 1959. During that 25-year :interval the Estonian pop- ulation decreased by approximately 120,- 000. Primary methods employed by the Soviets which account for those losses were purges, deportations and murders. Many Estonians were forced to become refugees, many of whom were able to come to America. But this policy of the Russians had another facet; the num- ber of Russians in Estonia grew by more than 167,000 during the same period. It is estimated that more than 240,000 per- sons from the Soviet Union have "mi- v--rated" into Estonia. We are all aware that the purpose of this Russian program was to dilute Estonian nationalism through a tremendous influx of persons loyal to Mother Russia. However, strong Estonian resistance to this im- perialist Russian subterfuge has been a leading factor in its failure and is quite reminiscent of the historic failures dur- ing the 1721-1918 period of czarist. Rus- sian occupation. Americans of Estonian descent have continued their activities in support of liberty for their captured brethren. America can take pride in the fact, that she has welcomed to her shores more than 60,000 Estonian refugees from Nazi and Communist persecution. Though naturally concerned about events in .Estonia, these Estonian-Americans have freely joined in the fight to improve man's condition wherever he is found. While much of the world's attention has been focused on such vital issues as Vietnam and proliferation of nuclear weapons, we must not, lose sight of the plain and overriding issue of funda- mental human freedom. The people of .Estonia are unfortunate victims, who bear witness to the fact that the struggle for freedom is not limited to the "un- developed" areas of the world. It is being carried out wherever one group of people uses force or intimidation to sub- ject another group to its will. It is in -this light we should consider the case of :Estonia. It is a travesty of the meaning of free- dom that these people must be forced to observe the passing of another anniver- sary while in the cruel and vise-like grasp of Communist Russia. Let us in everyway possible and at every oppor- tunity call to the world's attention the plight of the people of Estonia and the rest of the souls Communist Russia still maintains in virtual bondage. VASCO DE SOUSA JARDIM (Mr. RODINO (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point _n the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. RODINO. Mr. Speaker, last Sat- urday evening in my hometown of Newark I was privileged to join with many of my friends in the community in paying tribute to one of New Jersey's most distinguished citizens, Vasco de Sousa Vardim. Founder, editor, publish- er of New Jersey's weekly Portuguese language newspaper, Vasco Jardim's in- fluence extends well beyond New Jersey and well. beyond his ethnic associations. And for his more than 40 years of service to the community and to his fellow Por- tuguese-Americans, Vasco Jardim was singled out to receive the highest civilian honor that can be awarded by the Gov- ernment of Portugal: Conferral of the Order of Prince Henry.. It was a joyous occasion, this dinner, and I was honored myself by being asked to participate in the events. His Excel- lency Vasco Viera Garin; Ambassador of Portugal to the United. States, made the presentation to Mr. Jardim, while such leading figures within the Portuguese- American community as Father Jose L. Capote; Father Anthony Monteiro; Don- ald B. Gomes, the chairman; :Prank Soares, cochairman; Dr. Manuel L. da Silva, toastmaster; Antonio Brag a, re- cording secretary; Mrs. Daniel Rod- rigues, corresponding secretary; and Mario Teixeira, Jr., treasurer, we:?c re- sponsible for the well organized success of the entire affair. Vasco Jardim typifies the great men who have made America great since our early days. Born in the Madeira Islands of Portugal, he came to this country in 1920, settled and married in one of the largest Portuguese-American c:ominuni- ties in. southwestern Massachusetts, mov- ing to Newark in 1928. Even as in Fali. River and New Bedford, Vasco Jardim. immediately became a powerful force for good in his new community. As a reporter, he was always aware of his responsibility for truth; as a citizen. he helped weld into the community those of his own ethnic heritage and helped the community to wipe away the arti- ficial barriers that are often set around ethnic groups. Many years ago John Donne wrote : No man is an island sufficient unto itself. Each of us is touched, each of us its af- fected and changed, for better or for worse, by the actions of others. Because this is true, all of Newark, all of New Jersey and so many communities beyond our State lines stand in the debt of the man we honored last Saturday evening. Good deeds are as the stars which shine brightly in the dark sky of night. We do not notice them in the sun-filled glare of day-to-day living; but they are there, nevertheless, to brighten the world at an hour when it most needs brighten- ing. Saturday night we paid tribute publicly to one who so has brightened the world; to one who has given so much without reckoning the cost; to one who has labored so valiantly without regard for reward. Vasco Jardim has made the world a little richer, a little warmer and a much, much better place for all of us. To which we can only add our sincere and heartfelt thanks and our prayers that he will long continue to do so. ESTONIAN INDEPENDENCE (Mr. RODINO (at the request of Mr. MATSUNAGA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. RODINO. Mr. Speaker, I con- sider the setting aside today of our leg- islative duties for a few moments to rec- ognize Estonia's independence anniver- sary as being a fitting tribute to the Estonian people. And yet, as I offer my congratulations to Estonia and to her many friends here in America, the occa- sion leaves me with mixed emotions. First, I am very privileged and grateful to wish Estonia well, but at the same time I am saddened when I reflect on the suffering and sacrifice that country has had to endure only to find itself' still under the heel of Soviet Russia. Estonia is a Proud land. She endured almost 200 consecutive years of czarist domination before she achieved her in- dependence on February 24, 1918. How- ever, in spite of that fact, her nationalist fervor took root and culminated in the country's becoming independent in 1918. Ridding one's country of foreign troops almost singlehandedly is not an easy Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 CIA- 89 780 0400030002-3 February 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RE - nally on February 2, 1920, the Commu- well have fared better if sufficient ad- nists signed a treaty in which all vance storm warnings had been avail- previous claims over Estonian territory able. Across the border in Mexico the were renounced. damage from these storms has been even The next 20 years were busily spent on more devastating and the loss of life, improving the domestic situation, but far greater. The region south and the Estonian people kept a constant southwest of San Diego seems to be the vigil olr Russian intentions. That policy area from 'which a great many of these was well founded as the infamous Mu- violent storms approach. It has long tual Assistance Treaty of 1939 indi- been recognized as a sparse data area for cated. The treaty enabled Russian meteorological information, and this forces to legally occupy Estonian terri- fact has recently been confirmed again tory. Not content with the treaty pro- to me by the Administrator of our En- visions, Russia presented Estonia with vironmental Services Administration. an ultimatum on June 16, 1940 which Some information is obtained on an ir- amounted to complete capitulation. regular basis through our cooperative Through Russian manipulation and in- program of taking observations by mer- timidation a new Estonian Government chant ships and aircraft crews of inter- amenable to Moscow took over on June national flights who report in-flight 21, 1940. In July this government weather conditions when passing through proclaimed Estonia a Soviet Socialist that region. We also receive some satel- Republic. lite surveillance for the detection of From mid-1941 to the end of 1944, major storms and weather systems. nazism replaced Russian terror, murder, Our Weather Bureau has, in the past, and deportation. But unfortunately for liven consideration to the establishment the Estonians, World War II's end re- of a weather station for both surface and sulted in the return of Russian occupa- upper air observations on Guadalupe Is- tion and membership in the Soviet land, Mexico, but the establishment of Union., such a weather station has yet to be ac- The tragedy and suffering of Estonia's complished. The exhorbitant financial people under Soviet Russia are almost loss suffered by our Government and our beyond belief. Their ability to endure private citizens makes it imperative that and continue their own culture in light the Congress act quickly to authorize the of Russian occupation and impositions establishment of meteorological observa- is a truly marvelous feat. But how long tion stations on Guadalupe Island, Mex- can we expect that resistance to contin- ico, for the purpose of improving the ue without more tangible aid from the weather forecasting service within the free world? In an attempt to help al- United States. leviate this problem I have sponsored Accordingly, I am today introducing House Concurrent Resolution 290 which legislation aimed at accomplishing this would have the President instruct our purpose and the text of my bill reads Ttnited Nations representative to initi- as follows: ate action on Russia's forced occupa- Be it enacted by the Senate and House of tion of the Baltic States. Representatives of the United States of I know and feel what this day repre- America imcin the Congress assembled, That In ser der sents to men and women of Estonian to improve the States, forecasting see origin the world over. I am privileged of the United t at, the Administrator Science Adminiss trator oo to represent a large number of these peo- Athe dminis- tration shall take such action as may be pre living in the Rochester, N.Y., area. necessary to establish a meteorological re- It is my fervent hope that as Estonians porting station of Guadalupe Island, Mexico. and their millions of supporters in In taking such action, he shall cooperate America commemorate Estonia's 48th with the State Department and other de- anniversary they will rededicate them- partments and agencies of the United States, selves to work together for their peo- with t$e meteorological service of Mexico, ple's liberation and freedom. and ,lvi}h the World Meteorological Organi- ,zfkti TO IMPROVE THE WEATHER FORE- CASTING SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES (Mr. BOB WILSON (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, southern California has been beseiged by the most violent storms in recent his- tory during the past few months and costly damage to private, commercial, and military property has been wide- spread. Continued interruptions in air and land operations of the military have resulted from sudden storms and the same interferences have caused consid- erable indisposition to commercial and private traffic as well. Agricultural operators have suffered greatly from the recent unusual weather conditions and all of these interests may 3899 trade with the United States had a busi- ness-as-usual policy with the mortal enemy of American soldiers in Vietnam. The Department of Commerce has de- clared that it will deny Government- financed cargoes to foreign-flag vessels which called at North Vietnam ports on or after January 25, 1966. Although this certainly is a step in the right direc- tion, I must agree with the presidents of the International Longshoremen's Union, the National Maritime Union, and the Seafarers International Union that the administration's directive black- listing ships transporting cargoes to North Vietnam is too weak and ineffec- tive. Following are details of the regulations as they appeared in the Federal Register of February 12,1966:' The Maritime Administration is making available to the appropriate U.S. Government departments the following list of such ves- sels which arrived in North Vietnam ports on or after January 25, 1968, based on in- formation received through February 10, 1966. Flag of registry, name of ship Gross British : tonnage Shienfoon------------------------- 7,127 Shirley Christine------------------ 6,724 Wakasa Bay----------------------- 7,044 Cypriot: Amon---------------------- 7,229 Greek: Agenor---------------------- 7,139 SEc. 2. Vessels which called at North Viet- nam on or after January 25, 1966, may re- acquire eligibility to carry U.S. Government- financed cargoes from the United States if the persons who control the vessels give satisfactory certification and assurance: (a) That such vessels will not, thence- forth, be employed in the North Vietnam trade so long as it remains the policy of the U.S. Government to discourage such trade; and (b) That no other vessels under their con- trol will thenceforth be employed in the North Vietnam trade, except as provided in paragraph (c), and (c) That vessels under their control which are covered by contractual obligations, in- cluding charters, entered into prior to Janu- ary 25, 1966, requiring their employment in the North Vietnam trade shall be withdrawn from such trade at the earliest opportunity consistent with such contractual obligations. NICHOLAS JOHNSON, Maritime Administrator. REIGN-FLAG VESSELS ENGAGED IN TRADE WITH NORTH VIETNAM (Mr. ASHBROOK (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. ASHBROOK. Mr. Speaker, dur- ing the 89th Congress I, along with other Members of the House from both politi- cal parties, have protested against the self-defeating policy of doing business with foreign-flag vessels which are en- gaged in trade with North Vietnam. It is exasperating enough to learn that free world trade with North Vietnam has in- creased about 138 percent since 1955, when the United States first began ask- ing other non-Communist nations to help in exerting economic pressure on that avowed foe of the free world. But it has been downright discouraging to reflect that ships which profited from VOLUNTARY WAGE GUIDEPOSTS REFUSED BY AFL-CIO PRESIDENT GEORGE MEANY AND HIS COL- LEAGUES (Mr. MORSE (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, I believe that the House must view with con- siderable concern the refusal of AFL- CIO President George Meany and his colleagues to accept the voluntary wage guideposts proposed by the Council of Economic Advisers for this year. The idea of guideposts was first put forward in the 1962 Economic Report of the President. At that time President Kennedy said: If labor leaders in our major industries will accept the productivity benchmark as Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved Fo Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 13000 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24, 1966 a guide to wage objectives, and if manage- ment in these industries will practice equivalent restraint in their price decisions, the year ahead will be a brilliant chapter in the record of the responsible exercise of lrcedom. Implicit in the, late President's remarks was the fear that without this restraint, inflation could nullify whatever economic progress was made. Inflation continues to haunt our economy. With the grow- ing number of people living on fixed in- comes in their later years, the danger of inflationary pressures which reduce pur- chasing power and devalue the dollar is particularly acute. Thus the "produc- tivity benchmark" referred to by Presi- (lent Kennedy must continue to be our standard for ware decisions. Ideally, we would prefer that Govern- inent remain entirely neutral in the ,aecisionmaking process that takes place in. the private sector. But we must ac- ccept the fact that economic pressure at home and crises around the world de- mand the careful cooperation of busi- ness, labor, and Government. The proposed guideposts will not guarantee wage-price stability and eco- nomic growth, but in my ,judgment, they represent reasonable standards to guide private decisionmakers in making re- sponsible judgments in the public in- terest. bili.ty is ours. After all, much of r:.he The administration should not use cause of our present inflation can be these voluntary standards as an excuse directly attributed to the wild spending for questionable attempts at enforce- programs in which our Government is ment. Such recent attempts indicate presently engaged.. that we need to review our stockpiling Inflation, as we all know, means every.. Policy. They do not warrant abandon- thing costs more. rnent of the guideposts. While prices are spiraling so are the Labor should not set itself above the taxes. Social security taxes were national interest. in sustaining economic boosted with the passage of medicare; tcrowth within a framework of restraint. excise taxes are being raised back to The times demand responsibility from where they were before and the collec- cas all. + f (Mr. MORSE I at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah') was granted permis- ;;ion to extend his remarks at this point .n the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) I Mr. MORSE'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. CONTE (at the request of Mr. 13uRTON of Utah } was grand permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter. ) l Mr. CONTE'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] A BILL TO INCREASE SOCIAL SECURITY (Mr.. SKUBITZ (at the request of Mr. I3is'roN of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point i i, the RECORD and to include extraneous rrhitter.) Mr. SKIJBIT9,. Mr. Speaker, two ear jor specters haunt the American I rople today, fear of a major war in t.nia and the throat of widespread in- flation. "'lie sad effects of inflation are espe- ciafly felt by our senior citizens, most of whom live on fixed incomes either EXPORT SURPLUS OR TRADE through retirement or on social security. DEFICIT? Although the social security check is the same each month, the cost of every- (Mr. BETTS (at the request of Mr. thing from food to footwear continues to BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- risa at an alarming pace. From 1958 Sion to extend his remarks at this point until the most recently enacted increase in the RECORD and to include extraneous in social security cash benefits, recipients matter.) suffered a 7-percent loss in buying power. Mr. BETTS. Mr. Speaker, since 1960 To correct this unfortunate and un- the Department of Commerce has been necessary problem, I am introducing a announcing an export surplus year bill today which will provide automatic after year, ranging from $4.5 billion to increases in social security benefits as $6.9 billion. Recently the 1965 trade the cost of living rises. This bill calls surplus was given out as amounting to for an increase of 3 percent in the bone- $5.2 billion. Although this was still at fits whenever the consumer price index a high level, it was a decline of $1.7 bil- reflects a similar jump in the cost of lion from the high-water mark of $6.9 living. billion in 1964. This method alone among the many These high surplus figures have been proposals for improved benefits can be used both as a measure of the competi- accomplished without any further in- tive force of our industries in foreign crease in social security taxes. Acccrd- trade and of the great value of exports ing to cost studies by the Department of to our balance of payments deficit. The Health, Education, and Welfare, the amounts reported each year have been growth of the economy will provide the set against the cost of foreign aid, tour- necessary revenues to make the cost-of- ist expenditures abroad, and so forth, livi;ag adjustments proposed in my bill. to demonstrate the valuable function of in my opinion this is a just and eciui- exports and their service in offsetting table bill that should be passed. We deficits incurred from other sources. have an obligation to fulfill to our elderly Mr. Speaker, l am afraid we have been constituents for we have created this notes s ing ourselves and singing high hydra-headed monster and the responsi- n of optimisrrn when there was little t ; roil o Income taxes is being acceler- :.ted. Now the President and his ad- visers are talking about increasing in- come taxes even more so that the poor taxpayer is left With less to pay for commodities which cost more. At, the current rate of climb, one-half partment o I Commerce, the cost of ing from Europe, Asia, and Africa, this living will go up a highly inflationary understates the cost by some 25 percent. 6 percent this year. From the first of On imports of $21.3 billion, which was the last year to the first of this month it level of our 1965 purchases abroad on the rose 4.1 percent, and it looks like it w?ll basis of foreign 'value, the undervalu- beat both the Russians and us to tale ation would be serious. The true figure moon. In terms we all understand this would be closer to $25 billion. means on the average an individual h is If we wash out these two unjustifiable to lay down $1.04 on the counter today practices from our trade statistics our , for what he paid $1.00 for a little over a export surplus vanishes. This is to say, year ago, and by the end of this year it if we value our imports at their true cost will cost a dollar and a dime for whit and if we exclude from our exports the You could get with a dollar last year. goods that we sell, not competitively but Individual items have jufttped more than because we subsidize them or give them others: bacon has jumped 61 percent in away, we actually incurred a deficit of the last 10 years, a man's wool suit hens some $2 billion in 1965 in our foreign increased 23 percent in price, and a loaf trade. of bread costs 17 percent more. Mr. Speaker, there is nothing to be Until a more responsible attitude to- gained by deluding ourselves in this ward government spending is assumed manner. On the other hand, much and inflation is stopped, we must do harm can come from such an odd prac- whatever we can to protect those who are tice. We generally pride ourselves on hurt the most-the ones living on a fixed basing policies on facts or trying to do , income like our social security folks. i so. Otherwise our judgment loses its hope Congress acts swiftly and favorably value. upon my proposal to raise benefits as in- Why do we then persist in this ,prac- flation goes up. tice of self-deception? I can think of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 or no hing t0 be optimistic about, so far as our trade balance and our competitive standing in the world are concerned. For one thing, our official export statistics have included all the sales and shipments arising from AID appropria- tions. In other words, our export re- ports include goods that we ourselves have paid for out of the Treasury. By this measure it would be easy to double our export surplus. We need do no more than increase foreign aid expendi- tures sufficiently. Secondly, we have been reporting our imports at what they cost at the foreign point of shipment, neglecting to add freight and insurance costs incurred in bringing the goods to this country. This is a naive practice and we are one of the few countries that adhere to this Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040003000 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE ebruary 24, 1966 cruelty against the people to increase in- dustrial output. Furthermore, this was done at the expense of providing con- sumer goods and a program for increas- ing the living standards of the Estonian people, areas in which the Soviets exercised almost total disinterest. It is estimated by competent authorities that the Estonian people are materially in worse condition today than they were 25 years ago. It is conditions like these to which the free world must address itself in shed- ding light on actual conditions of the millions of people held captive by U.S.S.R. Our continued observance of the historic declaration of independence on February 24, 1918, is an indication to all the world that Estonia's plight is of concern to us and that we are committed to her liberty. (Mr. CURTIS (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permis- sion to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extra- neous matter.) [Mr. CURTIS' remarks will gl~pear hereafter in the Appendix.] U ~~1 YOUNG AMERICANS FOR FREEDOM SUPPORTS A STRONG VIETNAM POLICY (Mr. MARTIN of Alabama (at the re- quest of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. MARTIN of Alabama. Mr. Speaker, the Young Americans for Freedom-YAF-has been recognized as the leading student organization in the Nation supporting a strong U.S. foreign policy in South Vietnam. Practically since its founding in 1960, YAF has been regarded as a highly effective conserva- tive youth organization, and YAF's position on the Vietnam question has given it greater recognition. It goes without undue comment that I am highly interested in the student de- velopments regarding Vietnam through- out the Nation, but the activities of col- lege students both for and against the U.S. position in Vietnam on the college campuses of the Southern States are of particular interest to me. It has been encouraging to learn of student organizations, like YAF, who are supporting a strong U.S. foreign pol- icy. During the past year the student protest demonstrations from the left have grown in proportion, size, number, and volume. It is gratifying to a Mem- ber of Congress to hear of responsible student organizations like YAF, the Young Republicans, and even the Young Democrats in some instances, who are not only offsetting the leftwing student protests by having rallies supporting a strong Vietnam policy but who are also launching many constructive programs. Mr. Speaker, the position of YAF on foreign policy questions is derived from the Sharon statement which was adopted in conference at Sharon, Conn., September 9-11, 1960, at the founding of the organization. In the Sharon state- ment are found the guidelines for deter- mination of YAF's position on foreign policy questions: In this time of moral and political crisis, it is the responsibility of the youth of Amer- ica to affirm certain eternal truths. We as young conservatives, believe: That we will be free only so long as the national sovereignty of the United States is secure; that history shows periods of free- dom rare, and can exist only when free citi- zens concertedly defend their rights against all enemies; That the forces of international commun- ism are, at present, the greatest single threat to these liberties; That the United States should stress vic- tory over, rather than coexistence with, this menace; and That American foreign policy must be judged by this criterion: does it serve the just interests of the United States? Mr. Speaker, I have the privilege of serving on the National Advisory Board of YAF along with many distinguished Members of the two Houses. The Sen- ator from South Carolina [Mr. THUR- MOND], the Senator from Florida [Mr. HOLLAND], the Senator from Texas [Mr. TOWER], the gentleman from Alabama [Mr. BUCHANAN], the gentleman from Mississippi [Mr. ABERNETHY], the gen- tleman from Tennessee [Mr. BROCK], the gentleman from Virginia [Mr. BROY- HILL, the gentleman from Mississippi [Mr. COLMER], the gentleman from Flor- ida [Mr. CRAMER), the gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. DORN], the gentle- man from Florida [Mr. HALEY], the gen- tleman from Alabama [Mr. GLENN AN- DREWS], the gentleman from North Caro- lina [Mr. JONAS], the gentleman from Georgia [Mr. CALLAWAY], the gentleman from South Carolina [Mr. WATSON], and the gentleman from Mississippi [Mr. WILLIAMS], serve with me on this Advi- sory Board. In addition to these Mem- bers from the Southern States, there are 30 more Members from the two Houses who also serve on that board. Mr. Speaker, last fall I had the dis- tinct pleasure of speaking at a testi- monial dinner honoring one of the great- est men of the other House, the Senator from South Carolina, STROM THURMOND. This testimonial dinner was held in Bir- mingham, Ala., a city of fond memories to the Senator. At this testimonial dinner, the Senator made some pertinent comments regard- ing the Vietnam question. In part the Senator stated: On the international scene, you are faced with dangers to freedom from a succession of little wars and the even more dangerous diplomatic remedies to terminate them, as is demonstrated by the events this year in the Dominican Republic, and, I fear, may be soon again demonstrated in Vietnam. The mili- tary action of the Communists in Vietnam is at this point of less peril to freedom than is the potential for concessions to the Commu- nist aggressors which may be granted in the terms of a political termination of the mili- tary hostilities. The Senator went on to comment: The greatest threat is an idea, or, more precisely, a mental attitude or orientation, even a way of thinking, which is induced by an idea. Mr. Speaker, the Senator concluded his moving address by a challenge to the young people of America which bears di- rectly on the Vietnam issue: In your own time, however, you are faced with a prevalence of moral and political relativism, which is more extensive, more pervasive and more dangerous than ever before. It is your greatest obstacle in your struggle for freedom. You are the best hope for freedom. You can fulfill your promise if you will but resist moral and political rela- tivism by continuing your disciplined ad- herence to an absolute code of spiritual and philosophical values. You must continue to refuse to compromise with expediency. You must maintain the courage to defy the con- sensus. You must continue to choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong. Young Americans for Freedom, as many other organizations throughout the South, have answered this call. At the national convention of the or- ganization, commemorating its fifth an- niversary, here in the Nation's Capital early last fall, the YAF delegates unani- mously passed a resolution calling for the commitment of sufficient number of ground troops to combat the guerillas now active in South Vietnam. YAF ap- plauded the commitment of United States might and prestige on behalf of South Vietnam and supported the rec- ognition that the war must be won on the ground as military success is a precon- dition for the political and social devel- opments which will ultimately decrease the ability of the Communists to lure peasants into giving aid and comfort to the Vietcong. SOUTH VIETNAM Whereas we share the administration's view that what the Communists chose to call "wars of national liberation" constitute nothing more than a new form of aggression which must be resisted as a threat to the establishment of true peace; and Whereas the current aggression against South Vietnam takes its primary inspiration and direction from the north and has as its ultimate object the conquest of all of south- east Asia, a fact recognized by those coun- tries in the area who have sent significant amounts of combat personnel to share in the burden of defeating the Communists; and Whereas we believe that this Nation is re- quired by considerations of national interest and by moral considerations of the highest order to come to the aid of the people of South Vietnam and other countries of south- east Asia in their defense against aggression; and Whereas while South Vietnam fails to measure up to the full standards of freedom to which we in this country have become accustomed, the present form of government nevertheless affords a greater opportunity for the ultimate development of truly liberal in- stitutions than would a Communist regime: Therefore be it Resolved, That the Young Americans for Freedom applauds the commitment of U.S. might and prestige on behalf of South Viet- nam and supports the recognition that this war must be won on the ground in South Vietnam as military success is a precondition for the political and social developments which will ultimately decrease the ability of Communist recruiters to lure local peasants into giving aid and comfort to the Vietcong; and be it further Resolved, That we urge the administration demonstrate its intent to take whatever ac- tion proves tactically necessary to assure that the successful termination of the war will not be unduly delayed, including such measures as (a.), the commitment of sufficient num- bers of ground troups to combat the guer- rillas now active in South Vietnam, (b) of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 1+'eb7?uaany 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAI, RECORD -I HOUSE ;,r:essors, that is, forces which would destroy national security that he could not devote is if given a chance, had improved in the most of his time to pushing the expansion period since World War II and if our rela- of domestic public services. rive defensive strength had grown in recent Our safety at home is no better protected years. But those propositions are highly than our security abroad. In fact, it may be doubtful, to say the least. less so. An American, or a local resident, The Soviet Union devotes twice as large can walk the streets of most major foreign a share of gross national product to na- cities without fear, even at night. But tint tional defense as the United States, as Timo- may not be advisable in some residential hey Sosnovy, Soviet economy specialist at neighborhoods of Washington, Chicago, and I he Library of Congress, has pointed out and other metropolitan centers. The failure of the threat from Rod China is growing every government to safeguard its citizens is now }ear. Communist countries have vastly ex- so widely recognized that a book "How To banded their territory and population, their Protect Yourself on the Streets and in Your economic, technologlcail and military power Home" (accompanied by a letter from the ewer the past 20 years, and they have been head of the FBI) seems to be on the way to .;ble to raise their st-ttus and influence in the becoming a bestseller. (This may be an in- i core vulnerable or at least more difficult. The rapid dismantling of our Armed Forces after World War II invited the Communist takeover of Eastern Europe and large see- i.ions of Asia. Aggression in Korea, Vietnam, and other places was not unrelated to our scorning unpreparedness. In Korea our troops were almost pushed into the sea and toe United States, for the first time in its history, had to settle for a draw. In Viet- tra.m we have for some years now been unable Lo cope with a seemingly far inferior oppo- cccnt. The number of military projects or pro- g'ams scrapped, deferred, or slowed down iii recent years is in the hundreds. They were not discarded because military experts O'cubted their value or effectiveness in strengthening our defenses. The decisions fell against the military because the expan- sion of domestic services was deemed more urgent by the powers that be. The Skybolt air-to-ground missile, nuclear rocket Rover, manned space glider Dyna Soar, V.uto ram jet rocket engine and numerous other projects were turned down although the leaders of our Armed Forces demanded ti em. Approval of nuclear carriers was de- nied and authorization of manned (follow- Liu) bombers too long delayed. A fallout shelter program which could save millions of lives and might deter a would-be aggressor was deemed to be too expensive as was an effective anti-missile-missile sys- tem.. A few months ago the Nike X missile seemed to be on the verge of approval. When escalation in Vietnam called for larger funds, were offsetting savings to be made by tight- ening up on civilian type services? Not at nd'.. The Nike X antimissile missile and other defense projects fell victim to budget ai tting. Again, as in earlier years, the arcued services lost out to more charmed services--domestic welfare programs. The consequences of such policy are awesome to contemplate. Potentially more critical to national se- curity than money are the time, attention, :cud efforts of our governmental leaders which are now overwhelmingly spent on do- mestic affairs. Inadequate study and con- :;irceration may have been responsible for th,a Bay of Pigs disaster and for many other Lroubles which flare up from time to time tereslang reverse shift in responsibility: from government to the individual.) The United States, the country with i tee highest standards of living, is also the world's most crime ridden. The most powerful N:c.- tion which once set out to make the world safe for democracy seems unable or unwill- Ing to make its city streets safe for walking home at night. Crime is rising six times as fast as the population according to the latest; FBI. report. There is only one possible explanation 1';rr this phenomenon: we have not been able Lo convince would-be offenders that "crime doesn't pay." They except to get away with it. And they may well have concluded from a study of reports on crimes, arrests, convic- tion:, and terms actually served, that the sta- tistical odds are not too discouraging. It is obvious that governmental action in combating and suppressing crime is woe- fully inadequate. But so far not enough has been done about it-nor about the fact that almost 50,000 men and women are killed each year in traffic accidents, largely because gov- ernmental attention and effort are preoc- cupied with other pursuits. In conclusion: Government has multiplied its domestic activities in recent decades, malt - ing a steadily growing number of Americas s dependent upon its benefits and favors, e.- lending the area of coercion, while not adc:- quately meeting its responsibility to protect the safety of the Nation and the individual. That course, if pursued much longer, gravely threatens personal and collective liberty and security. It is high time for us to quit de- vising new programs which Government may adopt: or enlarge as substitutes for personal effort and to start thinking of means to strengthen the challenge to the individual I,i deal with his own problems. Government can be and should be man best :friend--and it, is, if it fulfills its pri ma.ry tasks well. To the extent to which it neglects its foremost duties in order to expand recklessly in other directions and harms the body politic, it becomes a foe and should, in the words of the Declaration of Independence, be altered. The time has not come when we can afford to abolish it. DOLLAR BLOCKADE OF CUBA NEEDED in distant parts of the world. (Mr. LANGEN (at the request of Mr. "Congress Needs help" was the title of a BURTON of Utah) was granted permis recent investigation and TV review of the in- lion to extend his remarks at this point, ablity of "absurdly overworked" Congress- in the RECORD and to include extraneous rncn to be adequately informed on the vital issues they are called upon to decide. Mem- bers of Congress cannot give sufficient time, Mr. LANGEN. Mr. Speaker, it is time= study, and thought to defense and interns- for the United States to declare a dollar l.ianal affairs because they are overloaded blockade of Cuba so that American tax- with civilian projects. The President, ac- payer funds do not contribute to the ex- cording to the a Newsweek story of Decem- port oi' Communist subversion through- her 20, 1965, explained that in 1965 he had out the Western Hemisphere. I make concentrated on civilian affairs "to get the domestic problems out of the way so that this suggestion after observing plans by 1 c acid give more time to foreign problems." the U:c.lted Nations to provide Cuba with dome may regard this to be the wrong order over $3 million in special funds for the of priority. In this day and age a President University of Havana and an agricul- rnight conceivably be so occupied with our tural research station. Please keep in mind that the United States contributes 40 percent of the funds used by that U-N. special agency. It means that $1.2 million of U.S. money would be used in the project. And what do they teach at Havana "U"? More subversion of the hemisphere, of course, because the university branch to be helped is headed by Russian and Cuban military personnel. Brazil and Paraguay have strongly ob- jected to helping: Castro through the U.N., and for good reason. Brazil and Paraguay are both principal targets of Communist subversion directed from Cuba. Just last month the Communist tricontinental congress on subversion was held in Cuba and was formally desig - nated as the headquarters of Communist subversion in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. If we contribute funds to this unwarranted U.N. project we will be un- derwriting that subversion. A similar effort to provide U.N. funds for Castro's Cuba was scrapped 3 years ago due to protests from many of us in the Congress. Apparently the planners do not give up easily, but my opposition to such a scheme remains just as strong. I was dismayed by the published re- ports of the official U.S. attitude toward such assistance to Cuba as stated by U.N. Ambassador Roosevelt. He says the United States will register an objection on principle, but will not withhold our share of the fund or demand rejection of the proposal. This is bureaucratic doubletalk of the worst order. It is in- conceivable that any government can be against something as frightening as com- munism and still support it. Mr. Speaker it is hoped that public and congressional indignation will defeat thin latest proposal as it did 3 years ago. ESTONIAN INDEPENDENCE (Mr. LIPSCOMB (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permission. to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. LIPSCOMB. Mr. Speaker, I would like to join my colleagues in offer- ing congratulation;; to the freedom-lov- ing people of Estonia and her many sons and daughters in America as they ob- serve February 24 as the anniversary of Estonia's declaration of independence. It is sincerely hoped that the encourage- ment and good wishes expressed by many today will serve to further inspire the Estonian people to resist communism. The fact that modern Estonia has been under the heel of the U.S.S.R. continu- ally since 1944 and has not succumbed to Soviet pressures to accept communism is a truly remarkable accomplishment. Today I would like to call attention to one particular argument to which the Communists like to :refer, namely, the al- legation that since membership in the Soviet Union, Estonia's industrial expan- sion has increased. What is not said and what we should remember is that before the U.S.S.R. captured Estonia in 1944 the country had substantial industries of its own. The Soviets applied enormous pres- sures and exercised almost inhuman Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February ,24App966 ed For RCOc~RESS O6(JL CI~-~pp67B0 t 6 000400030002-3 festive air action against Soviet-built missile sites around Hanoi and Haiphong, (c) the beginning, by calculated aerial and naval bombardment, of the destruction of the in- dustrial capacity of North Vietnam, (d) by instituting a naval and air blockade of North Vietnam, all of these steps to be taken to induce North Vietnam to cease in its support of the troops in the south, and (e) the clear communication to Communist China that any overt intervention by that country will result in retaliation by the United States and by our allies such as Nationalist China. YAF's activities in the Southern States have followed a well-designed pattern of constructive action. In Alabama, Flor- ida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, YAF chapters have engaged in construc- tive activities supporting the war effort. Mr. Speaker, a news article in the Wednesday, October 27, 1965, edition of the Durham, N.C., Sun, entitled, "Leader in YAP Hits Protesters," illus- trates the attitude of YAP toward the leftwing protest demonstrations. The article follows: LEADER IN YAP HITS PROTESTERS WASHINGTON.-A leader of the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) blasted the student anti-Vietnam protests here in the Nation's capital today as a deliberate at- tempt to defeat the cause of freedom in Asia and the world. In making the denouncement, Randal C. Teague, a member of YAP's board of directors and the leader of its Southern program, said, "Students who are burning their draft cards and organizing programs to avoid the draft and to thwart the American effort against communism in Asia are in a minority on the college campus. What they are doing is wrong-legally and morally. Those who are in violation of Federal laws shoud be pros- ecuted and severely punished by the courts." Teague, a student himself, went on to say, "These students are not conscientious objectors. Their actions show shades of absolute anarchy.. As many national leaders have pointed out, there is strong evidence that many of these protests have been led by the extremists of the radical left who often associate themselves with Communist- leaning groups. Responsible students have no sympathy with those who are deliberately flaunting the law by burning their draft cards, by blocking troop and supply convoys, and worst of all, by demoralizing those val- iant fighting men in Vietnam today who are risking their lives to insure the security of freemen." The YAF leader concluded by saying, "When our Nation issues a call to arms, it is our duty to respond to it, whether we per- sonally like it or not. Every American, from the youngest to the oldest, deserves to sup- port his Government in time of national emergency, and surely the war in Vietnam is one of the gravest situations confronting the world today." At its recent national convention in Wash- ington, YAP passed a strong resolution unan- imously calling for the commitment of sulU- cient numbers of ground troops to combat the guerrillas now active in South Vietnam. The resolution also called for effective air action against Soviet-built missile sites around Hanoi and Haiphong, the beginning by calculated aerial and naval bombardment of the destruction of the industrial capacity of North Vietnam, and by the institution of naval and air blockade of North Vietnam. The resolution concluded with the call to issue a clear communication to Communist China that any overt intervention by that country will result in retaliation by the United States and by our allies. In a telegram dated November 1, 1965, the Southern region of YAF called upon the Attorney General of the United States to prosecute violators of Federal draft statutes. The text of the telegram follows : Hon. NICHOLAS DEB. KATZENBACH, Attorney General of the United States, Washington, D.C. The Southern region of Young Americans for Freedom representing thousands of re- sponsible college students strongly supports Justice Department efforts to prosecute vio- lators of Federal draft statutes. These viola- tors must be prosecuted if respect for law and order is to prevail. We urge full execution of Public Law 89-152 against all draft card burners. We commend efforts to prosecute those deliberately disrupting the American war effort. While we support the right to peaceful protests, we cannot condone riotous demonstrations. In our opinion many of the recent protests border on sedition and trea- son. We support a strong administration policy on winning the war at home as well as abroad. RANDAL C. TEAGUE, Regional Director. Mr. Speaker, an appropriate release to the newspapers, radio, and television media was issued subsequent. to this tele- gram to make clear to the public the po- sition of YAF on the draft-card burners. I ask unanimous consent that this re- lease may appear in the RECORD at this point. STUDENT LEADER ASKS KATZENBACH To PROSE- CUTE DRAFT VIOLATORS-NOVEMBER 1, 1985 WASHINGTON.-A southern student leader today supported the Justice Department in arresting and prosecuting violators of Fed- eral draft laws. Randal C. Teague, a national board of di- rectors member of Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) and its southern Spokes- man, advised Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach in a telegram today that "the southern region of YAF, representing thou- sands of responsible college students, strongly supports Justice Department efforts to pros- ecute violators of Federal draft statutes." Teague went on to say, "These violators must be prosecuted if respect for law and order is to prevail. We urge full execution of Public Law 89-152 against all draft-card vio- lators." Public Law 89-152 is the law carry- ing a fine of $10,000 or 5 years' imprisonment, or both, for any person who knowingly de- stroys or mutilates his draft card. The law was enacted to carry a severe penalty against the draft-card burners at recent student demonstrations against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. The telegram concluded, "We commend efforts to prosecute those deliberately dis- rupting the American war effort. While we support the right to peaceful protests, we cannot condone riotous demonstrations. In our opinion, many of the recent protests border on sedition and treason. We support a strong administration policy on winning the war at home as well as abroad." YAP is regarded as the leading student group supporting a strong policy in Vietnam. Its national chairman, Tom Huston, of In- diana, appeared on ABC's "Issues and An- swers" this past Sunday to present the opin- ion of students supporting a strong U.S. policy in Asia. YAP has a southernwide program of do- nating blood to American soldiers in Viet- nam, aiding refugees and orphans fleeing from war-torn North Vietnam, sending mail praising our American soldiers to them to let them know the majority of American stu- dents are behind them, a petition campaign in support of a strong administration policy, 3897 and the presentation of debates and speeches on Vietnam on various campuses. During my recent tour of South Viet- nam and southeast Asia, one of the prob- lems of the war which struck me most clearly was the lack of sufficient material support from our allies in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and from our Allies throughout the free world. While the Republic of South Korea and the Australian Government have sent troops to South Vietnam, the remainder of the free nations of Asia or the free world have contributed little to winning this war against aggression. Fortunately, Allied support is far from being at the level required to sustain the effort. YAF realized this shortcoming in our foreign policy efforts,.and in an attempt to inform the American people, on and off the college campus, of this inadequacy, the southern offices issued a call for more Allied support in Vietnam. This release follows: STUDENT GROUP CALLS FOR ALLIED SUPPORT IN VIETNAM-NOVEMBER 8, 1965 , WASHINGTON.-The southern spokesman of the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) called for greater military and economic sup- port in Vietnam from our Allies today. Ran- dal C. Teague, a student at the American University in the Nation's Capital, called for expanded assistance to win the war in Viet- nam from our Allies in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and from throughout the free world. In making the pronouncement, Teague said, "Since 1961, the United States has borne the burden alone of defending South Vietnam and its people. Not only the security of all Asia but ultimately the security of all nations will depend on the outcome of this war. It is time that our Allies help the United States win the war. Mere moral support is not enough." Teague went on to say, "We not only need more fighting men and materials, but win- ning the war in Vietnam will require greater commitments of medical corpsmen to doctor the civilians, schoolteachers to educate the children, engineers and construction teams to build roads and hospitals, and agricultural experts to increase food production. We must win the war with the people, and our Allies are surely in a position to supply the tech- nicians required to help the people." . He concluded. by saying, "President John- son and the administration should not only encourage our allies to help us secure the freedom of South Vietnam because of Com- munist China's continual threat to Asia, but they should also encourage our allies to stop trading and shipping with Communist China and North Vietnam. Our American soldiers are being shot at and killed by North Viet- namese soldiers whose nation is being eco- nomically aided by our allies. It just doesn't make sense." With the exception of troop commitments from South Korea and Australia, very little assistance has come from our allies. YAP is regarded as one of the leading stu- dent organizations backing a strong policy in Vietnam. The student group has launched programs on college campuses in the South- ern States to donate blood to American fight- ing men, to collect food and clothing for refu- gees fleeing wartorn North Vietnam, to have fraternities and sororities adopt Vietnamese orphans, and to offset the student protest demonstrations. One of the problems in the college movement in this Nation in support of a strong administration policy has been proper coordination of activities. When Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400 3 002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE e ruar?y 24, 1966 blood donation drives, petition cam- paigns, debates, speeches, and many other actions are going on simultaneously across the Nation and throughout the South, it is difficult to get across to the American people that these actions are more significant and more representa- tive of true student opinion than the one- shot protest demonstrations lead by the radical left. In order to obtain the needed coordi- nation throughout the Southern States, Young Americans for Freedom, Inc., is sponsoring the Southern Student Victory in Vietnam Committee--SSVVC-which is calling upon the support of all campus organizations supporting a strong policy. 't'hey have called upon support from the College Young Republican clubs, the Young Democratic clubs, YAF chapters, and any other independent or affiliated group. The purpose- of SSVVC were outlined in a release of November 23, 1965, and, Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for its inclusion in the RECORD at this point. rSuDTIIERN' STUDENT VICTORY IN VIETNAM COMMITTEE FORMED--NOVEMBER 23, 1965 WASHINGTON.--The formation of the Southern Student Victory in Vietnam Com- mittee---SSVVC--to support a strong U.S. foreign policy in South Vietnam by the dem- onstration of student support was an- nounced here in the Nation's Capital today. '.1'he new committee will operate on over a hundred college campuses in eight States of the South. The committee's formation was announced by Randal C. Teague, the Southern spokes- man for the Young Americans for Freedom, Inc. (YAF), a conservative youth group, and Alfred Regnery, the national director of the recently held symposium for freedom in Vietnam and YAi"s national college director. in announcing the formation of SSVVC, Teague, who is its southernwide field direc- tor, said., "We seek the earnest support and cooperation of all college students and orga- nisations who are supporting a firm policy in southeast Asia. We will serve as the prin- cipal vehicle through which all student ac- tivities in support of the U.S. policy in South Vietnam can he channeled. We call for the support and cooperation from the college Young Republican clubs, the Young Demo- cratic clubs, the YAP chapters, and any other :student organization, affiliated or independ- ent, which seeks victory in Vietnam." 'l'eague, a student at the American Uni- versity in Wash_ngton, D.C., went on to say, "Much student activity has already been going on in the South, but during the next year this activity will greatly increase. It is not only desirable-but essential-that these activities be properly coordinated. nVVC is such r., coordinating unit." SSVVC will undertake programs on college campuses to sponsor debaters and speakers on over 50 college campuses, to sponsor blood donation drives to give blood for American fighting men in South Vietnam, to form local Victory in Vietnam Commit- tees on 107 campuses which serve as target rights, to send food and clothing to refugees and orphans fleeing North Vietnam, to have college fraternities and sororities adopt orphan children in Vietnam, to circulate petitions calling for a strong foreign policy position in southeast Asia, and several other cotzstructive programs. S-SVVC and its cooperating groups will participate closely with the International Youth Crusade for Freedom in Vietnam with debate-in's on December 7 and student rallies supporting the war effort on January 7 and 8 of next year. YAF leaders are chsJleng- it.g members of leftwing student protest groups which have been instrumental in the burning cf draft cards to debates on December 7, the anniversary of Pearl i'arbor attack. Major rallies have been planned for January throughout the world.. In addition to Teague and Regnerv. the steering committee of SSVVC will be com- posed of the field directors for each State within the jurisdiction of the new commit- tee. The steering committee's membership was announced as Judy Whorton, a student e li Sa.Inford University in Birmint:,ham; 'timothy C. Ohr, a. student at St. Petersburg, Fla., Junior College; Guy W Mayes, Jr., a student at Emory University in Atl;tnta; James If. Green, a student ate Duke Univer- sity in Durham, N.C.; Charles C. Hooks, Jr., a recent graduate of the University of North Carolina now residing in Gaffney, S.C.; Michael Everhart, a student at Southwestern aL Memphis; and Thomas B. Wright, Jr., it student it the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va. An indication of the substantial public i,uoport which the SSVVC received is an editorial which appeared in the Clear- water, Fla., Suir of Monday, December 6, 1965. This editorial follows: P. OTESTING THE PROS; ESTERS With the activities of the right-leaning Young Americans for Freedom most middle- of-the-roaders cannot always see eye to eye, but with the latest YAP project few can take exception-their creation of the Southern Student Victory in Vietnam Commitee. The newest YAF project thus become:; part cf a growing national protest against the draft dodgers, draft card burners, and peace demonstrators. As announced by Randall C. Teat ue, a former Pinellas County resident and now a student at the American University in Wash- irgton, D.C., the Southern Student Victory in Vietnam Committee has been organized to support a strong U.S. foreign policy in Viet- nam, and will operate on a hundred college campuses in this country. Teague details the aims of the new youth sr.ovement: "We seek the earnest support and coopera- tion of all college students and organiz.etions who are supporting a firm policy in south- east Asia. We will serve as the principal vehicle through which all student activities in support of the U.S. policy in South Viet- nam can be channeled. We call for the sup- port and cooperation from the college 'y'oung Republican Clubs, the Young Democratic Clubs, the YAP chapters, and any other student organization, affiliated or indepen- dent, which seeks victory in Vietnam." Some of the projects of the SSVVC. re- ports Teague, will be to undertake programs on college campuses, sponsoring debates and speakers; to sponsor blood donation drives to give blood for American Sghting men in South Vietnam; to form local Victory in Vietnam Committees on 107 campuses; to send food and clothing to refugees and or- paans beefing North Vietnam; to have college fraternities and sororities "adopt" orphan children in Vietnam; to circulate petitions calling for a strong policy position in south- east Asia. Tomorrow, the 24th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, will find the new group participating with the Inter- national Youth Crusade for Freedom for Vietnam with debates with leftwing student protest group; which have been instru- nlental in the burning of draft cards. We welcome YAF to the fast-growing; ranks of young people and Americans generally who are getting plenty fed up with this left- wing lunatic fringe, and who are letting our servicemen in Vietnam know in no uncertain terms that we are behind them all the way. Mr. Speaker, the Southern Student Victory in Vietnam Committee has been successful. Civic support of the campus program, as indicated in the Clearwater Sun article, has come from every area of the South. At a regional conference of YAF's State officers for the Southern region, held in Atlanta on February 12, new Vietnam-related programs were fornm- lated to spearhead an even larger pro- gram to support a strong policy in Viet- nam. YAF has been cautious in handlir,i; the Vietnamese situation. They are sup- porting a strong policy---not just an ad- ministration policy. They are prepared to deviate from the policy of any admin- istration when that policy does not coin- cide with the necessary action required to sustain the war against. Communist aggression. YAF has been and will con- tinue to be, I am sure, committed to an administration policy only so long as that policy is consistent with that criterion set forth in the Sharon statement. for determining American foreign policy: does it serve the just interests of the United States? HORTON URGES REDEDICATION TO LIBERATION OF ESTONIA (Mr. HORTON (at the request of Mr. BURTON of Utah) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, the ob- servance by our fellow Americans of Estonia's 48th anniversary of its dec- laration of independence is a fitting trib- ute to the Estonian people. The hope is ever present that through comin?em- orating this event of Estonian history, those Estonians now held captive and in virtual slavery by the Russian Com- munists will continue to be inspired to resist Russian efforts to make them re- ject their historic cultural heritage. In man's quest for liberty few struggles surpass those of Estonian patriots. From Russian occupation between 1721- 1918 Estonia not only succeeded in sur- mounting russification programs, but Estonian culture actually thrived. Dur- ing that period even though under Russia's heavy oppressive control, Estonia's music, poetry, plays, and books flourished. A remarkable tribute to a tenacious people. In addition, this period also nurtured Estonian nationalism which showed itself in the Estonian, re- bellion of 1905. Though Russian soldiers ruthlessly crushed the revolt, the spark of nationalism still burned and emerged again in 1917-18. Under Russia's provisional govern- ment of 1917, autonomy was granted to Estonia. She was given the right to elect a parliament and administer her own laws. German successes in pushing Russian troops out of much of the Baltic area encouraged the Estonian Govern- ment to proclaim Estonia an independ- ent state. That declaration was issued on February 24, 1918, and for the next 2 years the fledgling nation was forced to fight both Germans and Russians in order to preserve its independence. Fi- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24, 1 p6ved For COMPRESSIONAL tT~ 67%af4 2000400030002-3 price for manufactured grade milk (cur- rently at $3.24 per cwt. for 8.72 percent but, terfat milk). The increase in the support price for milk would be achieved by increas- ing the purchase prices for butter, cheese, and powder at which the Commodity Credit Corporation would pay for dairy products under the price support program. U.S. milk production for October 1965 was 2.3 percent under the previous year; No- vember, 3 percent; and December, 4 percent. Total production for this period in 1965 to- taled 28.2 billion pounds; the lowest since 1960 when production for the same period was 27.7 billion pounds. If milk deliveries continue at these levels for 1966, total pro- duction could approximate 123 billion pounds-down 2.5 billion pounds from 1965. A decline in milk production on U.S. farms of this magnitude would reduce supplies to minimum levels. Support purchases of dairy products for 1965 accounted for 5.7 billion pounds of milk equivalent-compared to 7.7 billion pounds in 1964. The 1965 figures are the lowest since 1960 when purchases amounted to 3 billion pounds of milk equivalent. If the decline in farm production materializes and commercial demand continues upward, there will not be adequate stocks of dairy prod- ucts available to meet total demand for prod- ucts in the fall months. Thus, support pur- chases would be nonexistent except for the flush (spring) months of production. Dairy farmers' income would be improved through the increase in support price. Thus, dairy farmers would be in a stronger position to meet the ever rising production costs and the Nation would have ample supplies of milk and dairy products-essential for an adequate diet. An immediate increase in the support price for milk is vital to the butter-powder indus- try. Currently, the butter and powder prices are near support levels and the gross return to a dairy plant for 100 pounds of 3.5 per- cent butterfat milk processed into butter- powder is approximately $3.68 (59.33 cents times 4.2 pounds butter plus 14.54 cents times 8.2 pounds powder). However, because of the strong cheese market, Wisconsin but- ter-powder plants report paying prices from $3.60 to 3.75 per hundredweight for farm bulk tank manufactured milk. Margins are barely adequate, if adequate, for defraying produc. tion costs (labor, depreciation, and supplies). Immediate relief is needed or many persons will suffer financial losses, plants will close, jobs will be lost, and farmers will be without markets. The current cheddar cheese price is quoted at 41.75 cents per pound for 40-pound blocks-compared to a support price of 36.1 cents per pound. Thus, an upward adjust- ment in the support price will have no im- mediate effect on the cheese market, but will improve the financial position of the butter-powder plants. If the dairy industry develops an export market (commercial and payment in kind) and the Government fulfills its obligation for dairy products in foreign lands, a steady supply is essential. Supplemental to the price support program is the authority given to the Secretary of Agriculture in section 709 of the 1965 act to purchase dairy products on the open mar- ket to fulfill commitments. We cannot stress strongly enough the ur- gency of the depressed and chaotic condi- tions facing dairy farmers, the dairy indus- try and the economy of Wisconsin. There- fore, your deliberate and forthright action in raising the level of the support price for manufactured milk is solicited. Sincerely yours, CHARLES L. FARE, Dairy Economist. THE DAIRY COUNCIL OF MILWAUKEE, Brookfield, Wis., February 15, 1966. Hon. JOHN RACE, Member of Congress, House of Representatives, House Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN RACE: America's fu- ture rests squarely on the youth of today. To insure a steady growth in a strong, healthy, vigorous America, we must develop a strong, healthy, vigorous group of junior citizens. No other Federal programs have proven themselves like the school lunch and the school milk programs have, in provid- ing the nutrition and proper diet, so neces- sary to the development of fertile minds and healthy bodies. The proposed reduction in funds for the school lunch and school milk programs in the national budget, does not appear to be congruous with an increase in the budget for the poverty program and foreign aid. It is false reasoning to deprive schoolchil- dren of the nutritional benefits of their programs which have no readymade distri- bution supervision. We urge you to use every avenue open to you to restore the budget on the school lunch and school milk programs to adequate levels. Sincerely yours, THE DAIRY COUNCIL OF MILWAUKEE, EDWIN SCHMIDT, Secretary. ALLENTON, WIS., January 26, 1966. Hon. JOHN A. RACE, U.S. Congressman, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. RACE: I am a dairy farmer in t and I urgently plead with you to make avail= able sufficient funds for the school milk and lunch program. The cut in the budget is surely going to hurt the farmer and is not good for the youngsters in school. Milk is good, pure food. I'm sure it's money well spent. Sincerely, PURE MILK PRODUCTS COOPERATIVE, Fond du Lac, Wis., January 26, 1966. Hon. LYNDON B. JOHNSON, President of the United States, The White House, Washington, D.C. SIR: In behalf of some 16?;000 dairy farmer members of Pure Milk Products Cooperative and hundreds of thousands of other farmers, school systems, children and their parents, this letter is to inform you that there is deep concern everywhere at efforts on the, part of the executive branch of our Government to bring about the announced sharp reduction in the school lunch and school milk programs. We are greatly concerned with the budget proposal which would cut the school milk appropriation for the coming fiscal year to little more than a third of current appro- priations and reduce sharply the school lunch funds. These programs have provided vital con- tributions to the nourishment of millions of schoolchildren who might otherwise suffer from malnutrition or lack of an adequate and balanced diet. To curtail these impor- tant programs, is to shortchange the chil- dren of our Nation, and to further encourage a lack of physical fitness on the part of youth of our country. It is inconceivable that we should shortchange our own children under the pretext of a balanced budget, while de- voting hundreds of millions of dollars to foreign aid programs. Not only are these school milk and school lunch programs important in meeting the 3885 nutritional needs of our children, they are also important factors in the building of proper diet habits in citizens of the future, and in establishing and mantaining markets present and in the future for the hard- pressed dairy farmers who are the backbone of American agriculture. Reduction of these programs is another slap in the face of this important segment of agriculture. They, the dairy farmers and dairy industry are still dazed by the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture's efforts to drive milk prices downward by the purchase of oleomargarine instead of butter for use in the diets of needy Ameri- cans and to fill domestic commitments. We understand that the Bureau of the Budget has issued a directive to the USDA to withhold several million dollars of the money which Congress had already appro- priated for use in the school milk program for the current year. We consider this a serious shortchanging of millions of under- privileged and improperly nourished school- children. In addition, it thwarts the deci- sions in which Congress took acton to provide proper funds for these programs. We urge immediate action to correct the flagrant departures from the stated objec- tives of the Great Society program. This can be done by restoring to the programs the funds appropriated by Congress, and by restoring to the budget for the coming fiscal years the money necessary to maintain both the school milk and the school lunch pro-- grams at current operating levels. Sincerely, WM. C. ECKLES, General Manager. VIETNAM - (Mr. CABELL asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute, to revise and extend his remarks, and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. CABELL. Mr. Speaker, it is the source of no little satisfaction to a Mem- ber of Congress who supports his Presi- dent on a matter of national urgency, to know that the people and the responsible press of his district also give the Presi- dent their support. On successive days, February 8 and February 9, two of the Nation's great newspapers editorially expressed such support. The two editorials spoke of two vital questions involved: First, our justification for being in Vietnam, and the attitude 'of the Viet- namese, and second, the two-dimension- al aspects of the conflict. In its editorial, the Dallas Morning News supported wholeheartedly the President's statement that "were the Communist aggressors to win in Vietnam, they would know they can accomplish through so-called wars of national li- beration what they could not accomplish through naked aggression in Korea-or insurgency in the Philippines, Greece, and Malaya-or the threat of aggression in Turkey-or in a free election any- where in the world." The News went on to say, "South Viet- namese have given the lie to the earlier claims by the peaceniks that their hearts were not in the fight for independence." The following afternoon, the Dallas Times Herald editorially commented on the President's conference in Hawaii and his statements, adding: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004000.30002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- HOUSE February 24, 1966 We must work as diligently at easing hardships and improving the peasants' lives as we have at formulating military strategy. And? Judging from President Johnson's insist- ence in Hawaa, the largely one-sided battle will gain this needed second dimension. I am sure that many of my colleagues would like to read these excellent edi- torials in their entirety, and I am, there- fore, attaching them to these remarks for the RECORD. IFrom the Dallas Morning News, Feb. 8, 19661 THE REASON WHY The President's speech in welcome to South Vietnam's Premier represented pure Johnson. It was a tough, succinct, hard- hitting speech. President Johnson used the occasion to blast those "special pleaders" who urge the country to sell out the South Vietnamese and our own troops. He used it to sum up, briefly and well, the reason why the defense of Vietnamese integrity is of critical impor- tance to this country and to the world. The speech he made got the job done. The South Vietnamese have given the lie to the earlier claims by peaceniks that their hearts were not in the fight for independence. They have continued to fight and die by the thousands in a war that seems to have no limits and no end. They fight, not only as soldiers, but as civil officials and administra- tors, who go to posts in Red-plagued areas where they are lucky to live for a month. The villagers themselves, whose lot is often harder and more terrifying than that of the soldiers, have continued to resist. "They fight," the President said, "for the essential rights of human existence-and only the callous or timid can ignore their cause." Unfortunately, there are some of both in the President's own country and he had some choice words for them: "There are special pleaders who counsel retreat; in Vietnam. They belong to a group that has always been blind to experience and deaf to hope. Were we to follow their course, how many nations might fall before the aggressor? Where would our treaties be respected, our word honored, our commit- ment believed?" Over and over again these special pleaders have asked: "Why are we in Vietnam?" If the Vietnam critics were listening to the President's speech, they heard the reason explained to them. But it seems doubtful that they were because, as he pointed out, they are deaf to all save the gloomy sounds made by themselves and their kind. However, the reason that this country has given the lives of more than 1,300 of its young men to defend Vietnam is a valid one, and the President stated it well. He said: "Were the Communist aggressors to win in Vietnam, they would know they can ac- complish through so-called wars of national liberation what they could not accomplish through naked aggression in Korea-or in- surgency in the Philippines, Greece, and Malaya--or the threat of aggression in Tur- key-or in a free election anywhere in the world." I From the Dallas Times Herald, Feb. 9, 19661 A Two-DIMENSIONAL WAR The degree of mutual. understanding ap- parently achieved between President Johnson and South Vietnamese Premier Ky at their amicable Hawaii conference is encouraging. The two leaders may still differ on emphasis iii the anti-Communist war, but fertile areas of agreement also have been found, judging from official statements, for a positive, grass- roots program to aid the Vietnamese people and thereby win their support for the Ky government. The Saigon leadership still prefers to talk more of escalated military action than about the civilian reforms needed to win the ulti- mate struggle with the Vietcong at the in- dividual and village level. But Ky and his aids have shown encouraging cooperative- ness, in Honolulu to President Johnson's insistence that more emphasis be placed on improving the conditions in all areas as they become secured from rebel terror by military conquest. This undertaking will be even more difficult-and less dramatic-than suc- cessful combat "search and clear" operations. But realistically, it will be impossible ever to win any thing but a tenuous temporary hold on any portion of Vietnam but a handful of cities by military means alone. This is the paradox of the conflict. It can he lost through military weakness, but it cannot be won purely by military strength. The succession of Saigon government; domi- nated by military men have too long failed to face this reality of the dual struggle, and so have many American assistance strategists. Now, judging from President Johnson's in- sistence in Hawaii, the largely one-sided battle will gain this needed second dinension. There can be no cause for overoptimism about the chances of quick success in the tedious task ahead in the villages. Similar efforts have been made before, with dismal results. But the critical situation demands a new and broader attempt, aimed at building model facilities for giving the backward, war- weary Vietnamese populace every reason to prefer Saigon leadership to Vietcong occupa- tion. Ample American aid and knew-how, skillfully applied, could still work wonders. The United States has helped establish showcases of superior Western culture and living standards elsewhere, as in West Ber- lin-where the contrast with communism's meager offerings was so painful the Reds had to wall in their people to keep thein from flocking to it. Admittedly the job is more difficult in a remote agrarian Asian setting- but so Is fighting a war. We must work as diligently at easing hardships and improv- ing the peasants' lives as we have at formu- lating military strategy. At the technological level, the Vietcong can't compete. We are not making fullest use of the best weapons we have for winning over the people who are real pawns in this struggle-and keeping them "won." PROPOSED CODE OF ETHICS FOR CONGRESS (Mr. RESNICK asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his re- marks. Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Speaker, I rise with some hesitation and reluctance to discuss a matter that to me is both un- pleasant and embarrassing. Perhaps I am breaking an unwritten rule. But the issue is of such burning importance that I hope I will be forgiven if my words seem out of order or improper in any way. For the past few weeks I have been shocked to read a series of columns by Drew Pearson and Jack Anderson which have made serious charges against the alleged activities of a Member of the other body, and his alleged relationship with Julius Klein, a public relations man, lobbyist, and registered agent for Germany. What, I found particularly paiiiful in these columns was the nature of the charges made. It was not easy for me to read that a Member of the other body stood accused of carrying out as- signments for a registered foreign agent in behalf of a foreign government. In other words, these columns pur- port to show that a strange and unex- plained relationship existed-or still ex- ists-between these two men. One letter, which I found particularly offensive, was written by a Member of the other body to a member of the German Cabinet. It strongly suggested that Members of the Congress, both Re- publican and Democrat, endorsed Mr. Klein and habitually seek his advice. I considered this presumptuous statement an insult to me and many of my col- leagues, since it presumed to speak for me and was totally untrue. I found the stories related in these columns so hard to believe, as a matter of fact, that I telephoned Jack Ander- son and demanded to see evidence of these charges. Mr. Anderson invited me to his office to inspect his files. I sent a member of my staff to Mr. An- derson's office. He was received cor- dially and given full cooperation. As a matter of fact, he spent over 3 hours going through Mr. Anderson's files, which consisted of copies of correspond- ence, telegrams, and memos between the two men, as well as the reports of pri- vate investigators. My assistant saw all of the original material quoted in the columns, all of which he told. me was unquestionable authentic. He also saw material which has not yet appeared in print, and which he assures me is even stronger and more sensational than what has already been printed in the newspapers. Mr. Speaker, I am not here to judge or condemn other people. But it seems to me on the basis of what I have seen, and in the absence of refutations or denials by the parties concerned, that these newspaper accounts might indeed be true. And if they are, one cannot avoid speculating on their implications. The American people have had their faith shaken in the past. Only a few months ago Congress received a very bad press when armies of lobbyists invaded Capitol Hill to get sugar quotas for their clients. And, of course, before that there was the Bobby Baker scandal, which needs no further amplification from in(!. Over the years, influence peddling and conflicts of interest have always been un- welcome-but hardly unknown-intrud- ers in Washington. No one questions the right--rather, I should say the absolute duty--of a Con- gressman to fight for the legitimate in- terests of his home district and his con- stituents. That is one of the reasons we are here. But we must all be constantly aware of the dangers of developing too close a relationship with people or com- panies, and being drawn into the web of opportunity. These situations, and the suspicion and shame they bring to Congress, emphas- ize the need for a congressional code of ethics. The nature of the position of a Member of the Congress of the United States gives him virtually unlimited free- dom of action. He should not be left completely to his own judgment-be- cause judgment is elastic, and varies be- tween individuals. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 3844 Approved For Re 8nafflffi9ALCJWB0qy"04000300P? .uary 24, 1966 ing the following at the end of my re- marks: I have tried to help our unemployed, in- cluding our older workers. Some evidence of my efforts is shown by my statements and the tabulations on pages 2755 and 2760 of the February 13, 1964, issue of the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD. I quote two paragraphs from a letter written me by Senator PAT MCNAMARA, March 25, 1964. He is chairman of the Senate Special Committee on Aging: "Thank you for calling my attention to the material you inserted in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD of February 13 concerning Federal employment of older workers. The staff of the Senate Special Committee on Aging tell me that they noted the data when you in- serted it in the RECORD and that it is one of the best discussions of the subject. "You are certainly to be commended for your zeal in combating age discrimination in Federal employment, and I wish you well in your further activities along this line." The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Texas? There was no objection. SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE NORTH- EAST POWER FAILURE Mr. ROGERS of Texas. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the Spe- cial Subcommittee on the Investigation of the Northeast Power Failure be per- mitted to sit during general debate this afternoon. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Texas? There was no objection. SUBCOMMITTEE ON MANNED SPACE FLIGHT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND ASTRONAUTICS Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, on behalf of the gentleman from Connecticut [Mr. DADDARIO], I ask unanimous con- sent that the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight of the Committee on Sci- ence and Astronautics be permitted to sit during general debate today. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Okla- homa? There was no objection. COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, on be- half of the gentleman from North Caro- lina [Mr. COOLEY], I ask unanimous con- sent that the Committee on Agriculture may have until midnight tonight to file certain reports. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Okla- homa? There was no objection. will be held in the Washington National Cathedral at 2 o'clock tomorrow after- noon, February 25. CALL OF THE HOUSE Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, I make the point of order that a quorum is not pres- ent. The SPEAKER. Evidently a quorum is not present. Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, I move a call of the House. A call of the House was ordered. The Clerk called the roll, and the fol- lowing Members failed to answer to their Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, I move adoption of the rule on H.R. 12169 providing for 3 hours of debate. H.R. 12169 will authorize the appro- priation of $415 million in supplemental funds for the economic assistance pro- gram of the Agency for International Development during the remainder of fiscal year 1966. This authorization is essential to carry forward U.S. efforts to resist Communist aggression in South Vietnam and else- where in southeast Asia and to build stability in the Dominican Republic. In addition, the authorization will replenish the contingency fund which provides Bandstra Farnsley Powell seen and emergency situations where Baring Fisher Reuss vital U.S. interests are at stake. Blatnik Hagan, Ga. Rivers, S.C. Burleson Hagen, Calif. Roudebosh H.R. 12169 provides $315 million in Casey Hansen, Iowa Scott new authority for supporting assistance, Cederberg Harvey, Ind. Smith, Iowa of which $275 million is for Vietnam; $15 Chelf Hibert Taylor Cohelan Jacobs Teague, Tex. million for Laos and Thailand; $25 Dawson Kee Toll million for the Dominican Republic; and Derwinski Martin, Ala. Vigorito $100 million for the contingency fund, Dorn Matthews Walker, Miss. Dowdy Miller White, Idaho for use in any part of the world where Dyal Moorhead Willis emergencies might arise. Edwards, La. Pool Zablocki There is a clear need for these funds. The SPEAKER. On this rolleall 390 Appropriations now available for use in Members have answered to their names, Vietnam and the Dominican Republic are a quorum. exhausted. The contingency fund is ex- By unanimous consent, further pro- hausted. In fact, AID has had to "bor- ceedings under the call were dispenfcd row" from other funding categories to These Vi m t i t V SUPPLEMENTAL FOREIGN ASSIST- ANCE AUTHORIZATION, FISCAL YEAR 1966 Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. now before the House would seriously Speaker, by direction of the Committee hinder our efforts to defeat the Commu- on Rules, I call up House Resolution nists in the crucial struggle for south- 742, and ask for its immediate consider- east Asia. ation. The $275 million of supporting assist- The Clerk read the resolution, as fol- ance for South Vietnam can be divided lows: into two main elements. The first is H. RES. 742 $175 million to finance commodity im- Resolved, That upon the adoption of this ports which will help to fight inflation. resolution it shall be in order to move that I think all my colleagues would agree the House resolve itself into the Committee rampant inflation poses a major threat of the Whole House on the State of the to economic and political stability wher- Union for the consideration of the bill (H.R. ever it occurs. But in a war situation 12169) to amend further the Foreign Assist- such as Vietnam, the effects are even pur Act o as amended, and order against fagmaiinensrt more serious and an integral part of our purp poses, and d all points s of said bill are hereby waived. After general program is designed to bring more goods debate, which shall be confined to the bill into the economy to keep the forces of and shall continue not to exceed three hours, inflation in check. to be equally divided and controlled by the The second major element of the pro- chairman and ranking minority member of gram in Vietnam to be financed from the shall the be read Committee for amendment on Foreign Affairs, under the the five- bill funds authorized in H.R. 12169 is $100 minute rule. It shall be in order to consider million for counterinsurgency and rural without the intervention of any point of construction. Included in these pro- order the amendment recommended by the grams are public safety, logistic man- Committee on Foreign Affairs now printed in agement, public works, refugee relief, the bill. At the conclusion of the consid- agriculture and welfare, and develop- eration of the bill for amendment, the Com- mittee shall rise and report the bill to the brief listing, these funds will have a di- and the e previous dmth may question have rect impact on the people of that war- been adopted d such shall shall be considered as ordered on the bill torn land. These funds will support the and amendments thereto to final passage outstanding work of the Agency for In- without intervening motion except one mo- ternational Development in helping to tion to recommit. build a better life and to give the Viet- Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. namese hope for the future. Speaker, I yield myself such time as I Approval of these funds will help sup- may use and yield 30 minutes to the port the military efforts in Vietnam and gentleman from California [Mr. SMITH]. carry forward the pledge made in-the (Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts asked declaration of Honolulu to win the cru- and was given permission to revise and cial battle against disease, ignorance, extend his remarks.) and poverty in South Vietnam. MEMORIAL SERVICES FOR ADMIRAL NIMITZ (Mr. ALBERT asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, I take this time first to advise the House that memorial services for Admiral Nimitz ena . n s finance our effor "borrowings" must be paid back. I am assured by AID that there are no further sources of funds and, in fact, funds for Vietnam are dangerously low. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 House of Representatives T'IIURSDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1966 The House met at 12 o'clock noon. Rev. Clarence W. Cranford, D.D., Calvary Baptist Church, Washington, :t_).C., offered the following prayer: "For as the rain cometh down, and the :;now from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater; so shall My word be that croeth forth out of My mouth," saith the /.ord.-Isaiah 55: 10-11. We thank Thee, 0 Lord, that as the :;now settles upon the earth, so Thy word can settle in our minds and hearts. Grant, 0 God, that as that word pene- trates our thinking, it may bring forth the fruit of wise decisions and right actions. We thank Thee today for him who, :aver the last several years, has led this !body so often in prayer. We thank Thee or his witness and continuing influence. ,rant Thy blessing upon his loved ones. May they be comforted by their memo- :-ies of his life, and by their hope for the life to come. We pray for the Nation for whom he prayed so often. We love our Nation, Lord. We thank Thee for its ideal of "liberty and justice for all." We con- fess we have not fully achieved the ideal, but, 0 God, keep us always moving in that direction. May no selfishness on our part, ar lack of understanding, keep us from working for our Nation's wel- fare. We pray for Thy name's sake. Amen. THE JOURNAL I'he Journal of the proceedings of yes- terday was read and approved. MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate, by Mr. Arrington, one of its clerks, announced that the Senate agrees to the amend- ment of the House with an amendment to the bill S. 251, to provide for the estab- lishment of the Cape Lookout National Seashore in the State of North Carolina, and for other purposes, in which con- currence of the House is requested. The message also announced that Mr. MAGNUSON, chairman of the Committee on Commerce, pursuant to title 46, United States Code, section 1126c, ap- pointed Mr. BARTLETT and Mr. PROUTY to be members of the Board of Visitors to the U.S. Merchant; Marine Academy. 'I he message also announced that Mr. '\4AGNUSON, chairman of the Committee on Commerce, pursuant to title 14, United States Code, section 194(a), ap- pointed Mr. BASS and Mr. PEARSON to be members of the Board of Visitors to the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. COMPENSATION OF TEACHERS AND 'T'EACHING POSITIONS UNDER THE '.DEFENSE DEPARTMENT OVER- SEAS TEACHERS PAY AND PER- SONNEL PRACTICES ACT Mr. UDALL. Mr, Speaker, I ask unanimous consent to take from the Speaker's table the bill (H.R. 6845) to correct inequities with respect to the basic compensation of teachers and teaching positions under the Defense Department Overseas Teachers Pay and Personnel Practices Act. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from P ri- zona? The Chair hears none, and ap- points the following conferees: Messrs. MURRAY, MORRISON, UDALL, CORBETT, ;,ad BROYHILL of North Carolina. PROPER LAND USE PROMISES LASTING BENEFIT (Mr. MACKAY asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute and. to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. MACKAY, Mr. Speaker, in the rapidly expanding urban and industrial area around Atlanta, we have come to appreciate the importance of wise land use planning to protect the community's valuable soil and water resources, a .ad for the long-term benefit of investors in the Atlanta economy. The Atlanta region is experiencing the same land use problems as those found in other dynamic metropolitan areas in the Nation. The answers to these problems are much the same everywhere. They are based on proper evaluation of the soils: following through with develou- ment programs that the particular tyue of soil will adequately support; taking the necessary steps to protect against erosion from land under development, and stabilizing the soil immediately fol- lowing development. Local governments, institutions, and urban and industrial developers in the Atlanta region have wisely sought, and have received, expert help from qualified soil and water conservation technicians in planning the best possible use of lard under development. The Soil Conservation Service of ti 'C U.S. :Department of Agriculture, in cu- operation with the State of Georgia, has provided vital technical assistance on soil and water conservation problems. In the State as a whole, SCS soil scientists last year completed soil survey;; on about 1,870,000 acres of land. I am confident that soil surveys will l,e used increasingly in Georgia's Fourth District to determine the best possible use of the land in a developing economy : to protect the land from erosion, the riv- ers and streams in the area from silta- tion, and those who buy and build on the land from loss due to building on soil that is not suited to the purpose. I heartily commend the Federal, State, and local cooperation which has made possible the soil surveys and other soil and water conservation measures in the Atlanta area and throughout Georgia's Fourth Congressional District. Through experience, we have come to appreciate the immense value of these services-for the lasting benefit of this important and rapidly growing region of the American Southland. HEARINGS IN REGARD TO THE B-7'.7 AIRPLANE (Mr. STAGGERS asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. STAGGERS. Mr. Speaker, I tape this time today to announce that next Tuesday, the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce will have before it in executive session the Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Ad- ministrator of the Federal Aviation Agency to discuss the subject of the B-727 airplane. All of us are aware that in the past few months there have been several regret- table accidents involving this type of aircraft. Many Members of the House have indicated to me their rightful con- cern over what has happened and what is being done to avoid repetition. I wish to indicate that the formal in- vestigations of the aviation authorities are going forward to determine what may have been the causes of the accidents and the steps that need to be taken to prevent recurrence. The record is not yet com- plete and definitive conclusions have not yet been reached. The committee has no desire to anticipate what may be the findings, nor jump to any hasty opinions. We cannot overlook, however, our responsibilities to the people and to the Members of the House in the field of aviation operations and safety, as to what, if anythinrr, should be done in the meantime. Ac- cordingly, we are having these executive meetings so that we may be assured ourselves and in turn assure the Mem- bers that the proper measures have been and are being taken adequately to pro- tect the public. CORRECTION OF THE RECORD Mr. BECKWO:R'I'H. Mr. Speaker, ask unanimous consent that the per manent RECORD be corrected insofar as my remarks of February 23, 1966, ap- pearing on page 3578 in the CONGRES- SIONAL RECORD are concerned by includ- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2 ,p deed For Re~e8RCN~g 9ALCl~- BOOR ?0400030002-3 3845 The expanded AID program in Viet- nam entails increased administrative ex- penses. AID has estimated that approx- imately $1.4 million will be required to meet recruitment costs and pay for other administrative and support services. Therefore, the committee has included authority to use up to $1.4 million of supporting assistance funds for admin- istrative expenses incurred only in con- nection with Vietnam programs. This authority would require a determination by the President that such a transfer is necessary, which determination would be reported to the Congress. The bill before the House also con- tains $15 million to support counterin- surgency and rural development efforts in Thailand and Laos. The battle for these areas of southeast Asia has been increasing in tempo in recent months. Communist subversion is being stepped up and we must meet it. H.R. 12169 thus will provide support for efforts to meet aggression and resist subversion in these key countries of southeast Asia-Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. The funds being requested are small in comparison to our military ef- forts, but they are not less important. Mr. Speaker, the bill before the House will help in the short-run struggle against communism and the long-run battle against the ancient enemies of man. As President Johnson said in his for- eign aid message to the Congress: We extend assistance to nations because it is in the highest traditions of our heritage and our humanity. But even more because we are concerned with the kind of world our children will live in. I urge all my colleagues to support H.R. 12169, which will provide one more step toward a world of stability, peace, and freedom. Mr. Speaker, I hope that the rule is adopted, and I would now like to yield to the gentleman from California [Mr. SMITH]. Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, will the gen- tleman yield to me for a point on the rule? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. I yield to the gentleman from Missouri. Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I appreci- ate the gentleman yielding and for his explanation of the bill which is to be con- sidered here, H.R. 12169, as made in or- der by House Resolution 742. My ques- tion pertains to the rules of procedure of the House and particularly to lines 6 and 7 of the resolution, where "all points of order against that bill are hereby waived." Would the gentleman from Massachu- setts advise me, in his wisdom and that of the Committee on Rules, what there is in this bill that might be subject to a point of order and, secondly, who made the request that this be included in this rule and, thirdly, why it is good proced- ure under these particular circum- stances? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Actu- ally, I do not know where a point of or- der lies. All I do know is it is the pro- cedure of the Committee on Rules, when we have a rule to write we tell the Par- liamentarian and he writes it for us, and we go on from there. I do not know whether there is a point of order that lies against the bill. As I recall it, yesterday the chairman of the Committee on For- eign Affairs said, having gone over the bill with the Parliamentarian, that he knew of no points of order but that they thought it was best because of the im- portance of the bill that they waive points of order so, in case there is a tech- nicality ruled against it, it would pro- tect it. Mr. HALL. I thank the gentleman. But, is the distinguished gentleman tell- ing the House that the Committee on Rules does not write the rules under which we consider legislation in this House? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Of course, we have as an adviser on matters of this nature the Parliamentarian, as do all the Members of the House. Mr. HALL. Is there any question in the gentleman's mind as to whether or not there is anything in this bill that is not germane? Was any point submitted that would require waiver of all points of order against the bill? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. No. I would submit there was not. Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I submit that this is a poor way to legislate. We have adequate rules of procedure which are updated every 2 years and which have been our rules since the time of Jefferson for the handling of matters pertaining to rules of germaneness, the Ramseyer rule, and every other indication that we ordinarily concern ourselves with con- cerning points of order. If they are to come in here, as they did indeed yester- day, when we had a protest vote against the rule requested by the Committee on Ways and Means, and, if all supplement- als or deficiencies and appropriations come in with waivers of points of order and "gag rules" preventing amend- ment-and this is a perfectly good rule here except for the waiver of all points of order-there are bound to be objec- tions, no action "without objection," and none will be considered under unanimous consent, and I place the House on notice that there will be protest votes all along. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. All I can say to the gentleman from Missouri is that to my knowledge there are no points of order in this legislation. How- ever, the committee felt that the bill was of such import that it did not want to take any chances, and so the waiver of points of order was placed in the bill. Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, if the gen- tleman will yield further, I understand what the gentleman from Massachusetts is saying-this was inserted by the Par- liamentarian or by the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and it was passed rou- tinely, without consideration by the Committee on Rules. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. It was suggested by the Parliamentarian. Mr. HALL. And, Mr. Speaker, if the gentleman will yield further, there is nothing in the bill itself that might be subject to a point of order? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. It was inserted by the Committee on Rules at the suggestion of the Parliamentarian. Mr. HALL. Well, Mr. Speaker, the House in its wisdom can.determine later whether the bill contains areas therein and whether it might be subject to a point of order. But with this resolution passing as written we have no right to work our will under these circumstances. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Yes, I yield to the gentleman from Iowa. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, with all due respect to the gentleman presently in the well of the House, and the Com- mittee on Rules, am I to believe now that it is becoming fashionable to simply write waivers of points of order in the rules clearing bills to the House floor? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. There was a request that this be done. Mr. GROSS. If the gentleman will yield further, is it just fashionable to do it? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. The gentleman from Iowa was in the Com- mittee on Rules when the debate trans- pired yesterday. The gentleman was there, and he knows that the chair- man of the Committee on Foreign Af- fairs asked for this particular rule, after he had talked with the Parliamentarian. At that time the gentleman could have, if he so desired, opposed the rule and the granting of the waiving of points of order that the gentleman's chairman offered before the Committee on Rules, but the gentleman sat there mute. Mr. GROSS. If the gentleman will yield further, let us get the record straight. I sat immediately back of the chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the gentleman from Pennsylvania said he did not know of any reason why points of order should be waived on the bill, and I thought that was sufficient. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. But, nevertheless, he asked for this rule. Mr. GROSS. Who is "he" who asked for a waiver of points of order? Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. The gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. MORGAN]. I presume he was speaking for the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Mr. GROSS. Who is "he"? The chairman of the Foreign Affairs Com- mittee? The chairman of that commit- tee said that he was not asking that the points of order be waived. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. But Dr. MOROAN explained to us that he had requested the rule that was suggested to him, after he had consultation with the Parliamentarian. For that reason he was offering that rule, and that is why we adopted it. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, if the gentleman will yield further, I do not know when that happened, and I insist he did not make such a request. If there is a rollcall vote on the rule I will vote against adoption for the reason that no case has been made for a waiver of points of order. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. MURPHY of New York). The time of the gentleman from Pennsylvania has ex- pired. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400~~3 002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE 1+'ebruary 24, 1966 Mr. SMITH of California. Mr. Speaker, I yield myself such time as I may consume. (Mr. SMITH of California asked and was given permission to revise and ex- tend his remarks.) Mr. SMITH of California. Mr. Speaker, House Resolution 742 provides for a 3-hour rule for the considera- tion of H.R. 12169, which is a bill to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. It does waive points of order, but it is open for amendment. The bill, Mr. Speaker, authorizes the appropriation or $115 million for the re- mainder of fiscal 1966 to support U.S. operations in southeast Asia and the Dominican Republic, and to build up the contingency fund. None of the money is for military assistance. Mr. Speaker, the funds are intended for the following purposes: $275 million for Vietnam, $7.5 million for Laos, $7.5 for 'Thailand, ;25 million for the Do- lninican Republic, and $100 million for the contingency fund, which makes a total of $415 million. Mr. Speaker, of these funds for Viet- nam, $175 million will be used to import essential consumer goods and industrial materials required to keep the economy going. The remaining $100 million is for the rebuilding of war-damaged villages, roads and bridges, increased refugee re- lief, and to finance increased counter- insurgency operations. Mr. Speaker, the $7.5 million for Laos will be used to finance a civilian air transport to outlying areas cut off from direct government contact, and to pur- chase the supplies carried in by the air- lift. Mr. Speaker, the $7.5 million ear- marked for Thailand is to be used to t:xpand programs aimed at strengthen- ing the exposed northeast area against Communist subversion from neighboring Laos just across the Mekong River. Training of local police improved com- munications and expanded health, edu- cation, and agriculture programs are planned. Mr. Speaker, the bill provides $25 mil- lion for the Dominican Republic. The :;um of $15 million will be used to help 'finance the Government and the re- maining $10 million is earmarked to continue such projects as road repairs, community development, and irrigation programs. Finally, Mr. Speaker, the bill au- thorizes $100 million to be added to the contingency fund for use in the last 3 months of fiscal 1966. The funds are to meet unexpected needs, not known ones, or programs Congress has previ- ously rejected. Mr. Speaker. I urge the adoption of the rule. I say to the gentleman from Massa- chusetts, I do not have any requests for time but do reserve the balance of my time. The SPEAKER. The Chair recog- nizes the gentleman from Massachusetts I Mr. O'NEILL]. Mr. O'NEILL of Massachusetts. Mr. Speaker, I have no further requests for time. Mr. Speaker, I move the previous ques- tion on the resolution. The SPEAKER. The question is on the motion offered by the gentleman from Massachusetts to order the previ- ous question. The motion was agreed to. The previous question was ordered. The SPEAKER. The question is on agreeing to the resolution. The resolution was agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. EXTENSION OF REMARKS \4r. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I ask unani- mous consent to revise and extend my remarks previously made. The SPEAKER. Without objection, it is so ordered. There was no objection.. Mr. LIPSCOMB. Mr. Speaker. I make a point of order that a quorum is not present. The SPEAKER. Evidently, a quorum is not present. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Speaker, I move a call of the House. Mr. LIPSCOMI3. Mr. Speaker, I was going to object to the vote on the resolu- tion on the ground that a quorum was not present. The SPEAKER. The Chair had de- cl.6red the resolution was agreed to and a motion to reconsider was laid on. the table. Mr. LIPSCOM]3. Mr. Speaker, I was on my feet and I want to object to the vote on the resolution on the ground that a quorum is not present, and make the point of order that a quorum is not present. 'I'he SPEAKER. The Chair wants to be fair and wants to protect the rights of Members. Since the gentleman states that he was on his feet for that purpose, without abjection the actions by which the resolution was agreed to and the mo- tion to reconsider was laid on the table are vacated. Mr. LIPSCOM73. I thank the Speaker. Mr. Speaker, I object to the vote on the resolution on the ground that a quorum is not present and make the point of order that a quorum is not present. 'The SPEAKER. Evidently, a quorum is not present. 'The Doorkeeper will close the doors, the Sergeant at Arms will notify absent Members and the Clerk will call the roll. The question was taken; and there were-yeas 359, nays 11. not voting 62. as follows: l Roll No. 221 'YEAS-359 Abbitt Aspinall Bolling Abernethy Ayres Bolton Adair Baldwin 110w Adams Baring Brademas Addabbo Barrett Bray Albert Bates Brock Anderson, 1111. Battin Brooks Anderson, Beckworth Broomfield Tenn. Belcher Brown, Ohio Andrews, Bell Broyhill, N.C, George W. Bennett Broyhill, Va. Andrews, Berry Buchanan N. Dak. Betts Burke Annunzio Bingham Burton, Calif. Aoends Boggs Burton, Utah Ashmore Boland Byrne, Pa, Byrnes, Wis. Herlong Philbin Cabell Hicks Pickle Cahill Holland Pike Callan Horton Pirnie Callaway Hosmer Poage Cameron Howard Poff Carey Hull Price Carter Hungate Pucinski Collor Huot Quie Chamberlain Hutchinson Race Clancy Ichord Randall Clark Jacobs R.edlin Clawson, Del Jarman Rees Clevenger Jennings Reid, 111. Collier Joelson Reid, N.Y. Colmer Johnson, Calif. Rcifel Conable Johnson, Okla. Reineake Conte Johnson, Pa. Reuss Conyers Jones Rhodes, Ariz. Corbett Jones, Ala. Rhodes, Pa. Graley Jonas, Mo. River=, Alaska Cramer Janes, N.C. Roberts Culver Karsten Robison Cunningham Karth Rodino Curtin Kastenmeier Rogers, Colo. Curtis Keith Rogers, Fla. Daddario Kelly Ronan Dague Keogh Roncalio Daniels King, Calif. Rooney, N.Y. Davis, Ga. Kag, N.Y. Rooney, Pa. Davis, Wis. King, Utah Rosenthal de la Garza Kluezynski R-ustenkow,.ki Delaney Kornegay Roush Dent Krebs Roybal Denton Kunkel Rumsfeld Derwinski Kupferman Ryan Devine Laird Satterfield Diggs Langen St Germain Dingell Latta Dole Leggett Saylor Donohue Lennon Scheuer Dow Lipscomb Schisler Downing Long, La. Schmidhauser Dulski Love Schneebeli Duncan, Oreg. McCarthy Schweiker Duncan, Tenn. McClory Sccrest Dwyer McCulloch Shipley Edmondson McDade Shriver Edwards, Ala. McDowell Sickles Edwards, Calif. McEwcn Sikes Ellsworth McFall Sisk Erlenborn McGrath Skuhitz Evans, Colo. McMillan Slack Everett McVicker Smith, Calif. Evins, Tenn. Macdonald Smith, N.Y. Fallon MacGregor Smith, Va. Farbstein Machen Springer Farnum Mackay Stafford Fascell Mackie Staggers Feighan Madden Stalbaum Findley Mahon Stanton Flood Mailliard Steed Flynt Marsh Stephens Fogarty Martin, Ala. Stratton Foley Martin, Mass. Stubbleflcld Ford, Gerald R. Martin, Nebr. Sullivan Ford, Mathias Sweeney William D. Matsunaga Talcott Fountain May Taylor Fraser Meeds Teague, Calif. Frelinghuysen Michel Tenzer Friedel Mills Thompson, N.J. Fulton. Pa. Minish Thompson., 'rex. Fuqua Mink Thomson, Wis. Gallagher Minshall Todd Garmatz Mize Trimble Gathings Moeller Tuck Gettys Monagan Tunney Giaimo Moore Tupper Gibbons Morgan Tutee Gilbert Morris Udall Gilligan Morrison Ullman Gonzalez Morse Utt Gray Morton Van Deerlin Green, Oreg. Mosher Vanik Green, Pa. Moss Vivian Greigg Murphy, 111. Waggonner Grider Murphy, N.Y. Walker, N. Mex. Griffin Murray Watkins Griffiths Natcher Watts Hagen, Calif. Nedzi Wollner Haley Nelsen Whalley Halpern Nix White, Tex.. Hamilton O'Brien Whitener Hanley O'Hara, Ill. Whitten Hansen, Idaho O'Hara, Mich. Widnall Hansen, Wash. O'Konskl Williams Hardy Olsen, Mont. Wilson, Bob Harsha O'Neal, Ga. Wolff Harvey, Mich. O'Neill, Mass. Wright Hathaway Ottinger Wyatt Hawkins Pa.tman Wydler Hechler Patten Yates Helstoski Pelly Young Henderson Perkins Younger Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24 py5~ed For ReL9KUWP 1?v9AZC ~BW63g0 00400030002-3 3847 NAYS-11 Andrews, Gross Pool Glenn Gurney Quillen Ashbrook Hall Rogers, Tex. Dickinson Passman Watson NOT VOTING-62 Ashley Fulton, Tenn. Olson, Minn. Bandstra Goodell Pepper Blatnik Grabowski Powell Brown, Calif. Grover Purcell Burleson Gubser Resnick Casey Hagan, Ga. Rivers, S.C. Cederberg Halleck Roudebush Chelf Hanna Scott Clausen, Hansen, Iowa Selden Don Ii. Harvey, Ind. Senner Cleveland Hays Smith, Iowa Cohelan Hebert Teague, Tex, Cooley Holifield Toll Corman Irwin Vigorito Dawson Kee Walker, Miss. Dorn Kirwan White, Idaho Dowdy Landrum Willis Dyal Long, Md. Wilson, Edwards, La. Matthews Charles H. Farnsley Miller Zablocki Fine, Moorhead Fisher Multer So the resolution was agreed to. The Clerk announced the following pairs : Mr. Miller with Mr. Grover. Mr. Moorhead with Mr. Cleveland. Mr. Hebert with Mr. Halleck. Mr. Brown of California with Mr. Ceder- berg. Mr. Edwards of Louisiana with Mr. Roude- bush. Mr. Toll with Mr. Goodell. Mr. White of Idaho with Mr. Harvey of Indiana. Mr. Hays with Mr. Fino. Mr. Rivers of South Carolina with Mr. Gubser. Mr. Cooley with Mr. Walker of Mississippi. Mr. Cohelan with Mr. Don H. Clausen. Mr. Holifield with Mr. Scott. Mr. Kirwan with Mr. Kee. Mr. Multer with Mr. Olson of Minnesota. Mr. Charles H. Wilson with Mr. Dowdy. Mr. Carman with Mr. Dawson. Mr. Chelf with Mr. Irwin. Mr. Smith of Iowa with Mr. Selden. Mr. Bandstra with Mr. Ashley. Mr. Grabowski with Mr. Casey. Mr. Pepper with Mr. Hanna. Mr. Matthews with Mr. Long of Maryland. Mr. Landrum with Mr. Teague of Texas. Mr. Zablocki with Mr. Dorn. Mr. Vigorito with Hr. Hansen of Iowa. Mr. Willis with Mr. Farnsley. Mr. Blatnik with Mr. Fisher. Mr. Fulton of Tennessee with Mr. Purcell. Mr. Senner with Mr. Powell. Mr. Hagan of Georgia with Mr. Resnick. The result of the vote was announced as above recorded. The doors were opened. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. AL- BERT). The Chair recognizes the gentle- man from Pennsylvania [Mr. MORGAN]. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Speaker, I move that the House resolve itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the consideration of the bill (H.R. 12169) to amend further the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961," as amended, and for other purposes. The motion was agreed to. IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE Accordingly, the House resolved itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the consid- eration of the bill, H.R. 12169, with Mr. THOMPSON of Texas in the chair. The Clerk read the title of the bill. By unanimous consent, the first read- ing of the bill was dispensed with. The CHAIRMAN. Under the rule, the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. MOR- GAN] will be recognized for 11/2 hours and the gentlewoman from Ohio [Mrs. BOL- TON] will be recognized for 11/2 hours. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. MORGAN ] . Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself 10 minutes. (Mr. MORGAN asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, H.R. 12169 authorizes $415 million of addi- tional funds for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966. Most of this money is for Vietnam, and I believe it is fair to say that if it were not for the war in Vietnam, we would not have this bill before us. Now I know that there are some of us who disagree with the policy our Gov- ernment is following in Vietnam, but I do not believe that even those who dis- agree with our policy will find themselves in opposition to this bill. As far as I am aware, none of the critics of our policy has advocated an immediate pullout of U.S. forces and termination of U.S. assistance. I believe everyone will agree that as long as our boys are fighting in Vietnam, we must back them up, and, although this bill provides no military assistance, the funds which it authorizes are absolutely essential if the civilian population is to cope with the devastation of war and the demoralization caused by inflation in that country. The funds authorized by this bill are to be used as follows: For Vietnam----------------- $275,000,000 For Laos_____________________ 7,500,000 For Thailand_________________ 7:500,000 For the Dominican Republic_- 25, 000, 000 To replenish the contingency fund---------------------- 100, 000, 000 Total------------------ 415,000,000 VIETNAM It is not necessary for, me to describe the effect which the war has had on the economy of Vietnam. Villages, roads, and bridges have been destroyed. Crops have been damaged and the movement of rice to markets has been interrupted. The Government is not able to collect its normal revenues, and it needs more more money than ever to carry on the war effort. This bill authorizes funds to assist the rural population to deal with war devastation and to finance the import of additional supplies of very essential com- modities. The sale of these commodi- ties will absorb some of the rapidly expanding purchasing power resulting from the presence of U.S. personnel and the large-scale construction program made necessary to supply and to shelter our forces in that country. At the same time, the proceeds of the sale of these commodities will augment the war budget of the Government of Vietnam. As I pointed out a minute ago, there is no money in this bill for military as- sistance. The organization and proce- dures of the military assistance program are not designed to support combat operations. The Committee on Foreign Affairs agrees with the recommendation of the President that the supply of mili- tary equipment and services to the Viet- nam forces should be at the discretion of our commander in the field and that the same logistics system should serve both United States and Vietnam forces while this present war is going on. Au- thorization of the funds to finance mili- tary equipment for the use of our own forces in Vietnam and for the Vietnam- ese forces is now under consideration by the Committee on Armed Services. Just yesterday morning I appeared be- fore the Committee on Rules at the same time the Armed Forces representatives appeared, and a rule was granted on their bill. I am sure under the leadership of the House, it will be up for discussion next week. LAOS The $7,500,000 for Laos is needed pri- marily to meet the problems of supply- ing the civilian population of that war- torn country. There are a considerable number of refugees who have to be taken care of, and many villages inhabited by people who are strongly anti-qommunist are cut off except for air transport. The United States finances civilian air trans- port to supply these people and the ex- pansion of airport facilities in order to carry the load. THAILAND The Communist campaign of terrorism and subversion in Thailand has been ac- celerated, particularly in the northeast and the extreme south. The $7,500,000 provided for Thailand is to finance the expansion of the civil police, including additional helicopters and a village radio network, and to extend the rural de- velopment program to more villages. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC The funds authorized in the bill will provide $25 million -for the Dominican Republic. Most of it will go to pay sal- aries and other expenses to keep govern- ment services going until the revenues of the Government of the Dominican Republic can be restored, and the rest to finance such essential economic pro- grams as road maintenance, repair of irrigation ditches, and community de- velopment. CONTINGENCY FUND The large item in this bill that is not programed is the continguency fund. The bill authorizes $100 million to replenish the contingency fund. Last summer, the President requested and Congress voted $50 million for the con- tingency fund. This was the first time in 10 years that the Executive had asked for less than $150 million for the con- tingency fund, although in some years the actual drawings on the contingency fund were substantially lower. The $50 million has not been enough to meet the demands on the contingency fund this year. It has all been pro- gramed, and the bill provides $100 mil- lion to take care of unforeseen situations or to deal with problems which are known to exist but where the amount of money required cannot yet be deter- mined. The Congress has established the pol- icy, which is accepted by the Executive, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February lyy 1966 t;liat the contingency fund will not be used to finance projects or operations which are already programed or for which Congress has refused to provide funds. '['here is no way we can tell whether $100 million will be enough or whether it will be too much. The Agency for International Development has in recent years made a good record of returning to the Treasury any unneeded portion of the contingency fund. The committee believes that, con- sidering the present world situation, it is in the national interest to provide the full amount requested, with the under- standing that if all the money is not needed, it will not be spent. The expanded Vietnam program has increased the cost of administration to pay the salaries of additional personnel, to meet the cost of recruiting the limited number of people with the necessary qualifications who are available for serv- ice in Vietnam and provide the necessary office space, equipment, and rental of quarters. Section 610(b) of existing law pro- hibits the use of the transfer authority or other discretionary authority con- tained in the Poreign Assistance Act to augment appropriations for administra- tive expenses. For this reason, an addi- tional authori?ation is required for this purpose, and the bill makes $1,400,000 available for such use. Mr. Chairman, this bill is very, very important to our effort in South Vietnam. As I said before, no military assistance is provided in the bill, but it is important to carry on our effort there. I hope that the House will pass the bill. Mr. PASSMAN. Mr. Chairman, will the distinguished chairman yield? Mr. MORGAN. I yield to the gentle- man from Louisiana. Mr. PASSMAN. Is it not true that this money is being requested and author- ized on an "illustrative" basis, in that if the administration does not need this money for southeast Asia, it could be allo- cated to and spent in any other country In any part of the world where we have an AID program or even in countries where we do not have an AID program at the present time? Mr. MORGAN. I am sure if the gen- tleman from Louisiana will read the hearings conducted by the Committee on Foreign Affairs, he will find that the President has already had to draw on funds temporarily unused to the amount of $64 million to keep the program going. The money in this bill will have to re- place what has already been drawn and spent. The money is actually needed right now. Mr. PASSMAN. I appreciate the gen- tleman's response; but is it not true that this money in this hill is being requested on an "illustrative" basis, and that it is not earmarked for South Vietnam or any other country? It is not like all other foreign aid: It is on an "illustrative" basis and may be spent wherever the AID agency pleases? If it is not true, please point out where in this hill you have earmarked money for South Viet- nam. Mr. MORGAN. I have already pointed out to the gentleman from Louisiana that $64 million is earmarked to replace funds already spent. Mr. PASSMAN. Is that provision in this bill? Mr. MORGAN. It has already been spent. Mr. PASSMANN. Is there such a pro- vision in this bill? Mr. MORGAN. It has been explained in the hearings. Mr. PASSMAN. I am talking about this specific bill. The program is on an "illustrative" basis. I have been lian- dl:ing the appropriations bill for this pro- gram for a long, long time, and it is still on an "illustrative" basis. Funds in the annual appropriation and in this bill are not earmarked for any particular coun- tr:;r. Also the contingency fund of $1.00 million can be used in any country around the world. In fact, AID testified before my subcommittee that they may not need. it and. may not spend it. I thank the gentleman for yielding. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself 2 additional minutes. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MORGAN. I yield to the gentle- man from New Jersey. Mr. GALLAGHER. I thank the chairman for yielding to me. Is it not a fact that the appropriation bill con- sidered by the gentleman from Louisi- ana is also on an illustrative basis and that it does give transferability author- Mr. MORGAN. This particular au- thorization has been justified on the basis that the need exists in South Viet- nam and in the neighboring countries of Laos and. Thailand. Mr. PASSMAN. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield further? Mr. MORGAN. I yield to the gentle- man from Louisiana. Mr. PASSMAN. I always seem to get this monstrosity of a program through the House on that basis. But when you, the authorization committee, make it legal to appropriate on an illustrative basis, we have no other alternative other than to go along with such a flexible procedure. This is just another piece of the ,give- away program. If you earmark these funds for South Vietnam, I will vote for it and apologize to this House for making this statement. You are not going to earmark these funds, and AID will have the right to spend it wherever they please. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, if the gentleman, who has not always been a, supporter of the program, has not been able to earmark it down through the years, I believe that what we must do is trust the administration now, as we have in the past. Mr. PASSMAN. The gentleman has made my point for me. I want to thank him for it. We understand it is not ear- marked, and you have no assurance that 15 cents of it will be spent In South Vietnam? so far as the language of the bill is concerned. Mr. GALLAGHER. The gentlem,,m's own bill is always set up on an illustra- tive basis. I believe the chairman made a point that the money has atreadv i..?.--r borrowed from other areas in order to fund the activities in South Vietnam. Mr. PASSMAN. I read the hearin' a and I still do not know where the money has been spent. It is the same old cab- bage. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, will tiic gentleman yield? Mr. MORGAN. I yield to the ;gcn Ha- man from Iowa. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, is it not true that if the contingency fund in the amount of $100 million is approved it can be spent in Indonesia or on behalf of Nasser or Sukarno, or in any other place around the world? Mr. MORGAN. The gentleman un- derstands the definition of "contingency fund." Of course, it can be used any- where there are unforeseen emergencies, anywhere around the world. The gen- tleman knows, as I know, that in the bill of last year we established a special contingency fund for South Vietnam in the amount of $89 million. It, has all been allocated to that area. This is the reason why none of the $50 million from the contingency fund was used in South Vietnam. The gentleman can be sure, without that special contingency fund for South Vietnam, the $50 million would have been used in South Vietnam. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Indiana iMr. ADDAIR]. (Mr. ADAIR asked and was given per- mission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. ADAIR. Mr. Chairman, the bill before us today presents a very serious question for many people, including my- self, who have been critical of our for- eign aid programs for many years. If this bill is to be supported-and I think it should be-it should be supported on the basis of the fact that we are in Viet- nam. Whether we like it or not, we are there. If we are there, we should provide every resource, every facility for our fighting men there. It may be said, perhaps, that in this bill we are being overgenerous. I think we are. In my judgment there is a place where this bill can be reduced and should be reduced. But we must not err on. the side of denying any dollars to the ac- tivity in Vietnam which will lead to its speedier conclusion and may in any sense result in the saving of lives. Upon that sober basis, I think this legislation should be considered. Mr. Chairman, this legislation is not perfect. It is not without fault. It does not do many of the things that ought to be done. It leaves unanswered certain questions. However, it is a step in the right direc- tion and possibly, only possibly, the best step that we can take at this time. There are areas about which several of us on the committee who filed supple- mental views were deeply concerned. First of all, we are concerned that ships of friendly nations, ships of countries Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 BRJ0400030002-3 3849 February 4pp-ygpd For Relee /~Q Af lftffgBOlfi4 to which we have given assistance,. are even now continuing to carry goods and cargoes into North Vietnam, into the harbor at Haiphong. We feel something should be done about that, something far more than has been done and is be- ing done. Secondly, although we did not go into this in the supplemental views, we are aware that great delays are being en- countered in the offloading of cargos at Saigon and Da Nang and elsewhere. We think this is inexcusable. If, during World War II, we could, by the use of breakwaters and otherwise, unload fan- tastic amounts of cargo and great num- bers of men onto the Normandy beaches in a combat situation, then there is ab- solutely no excuse, Mr: Chairman, for the fact that cargo ships are lined up wait- ing. to be offlpaded in Saigon and else- where in Vietnam. This, I say, is inex- cusable. Thirdly, Mr. Chairman, everyone who has visited Vietnam comes back with re- ports that there is a black market there. Admittedly, in a wartime economy, it is difficult to stop black-market operations, but if they cannot be stopped entirely, at least they can be limited. We who filed supplemental views suggested a means by which this could be done. We sug- gested that all civilian dependents be sent home. There are no civilian de- pendents there now of U.S. Government personnel, military and civilian, but there are some contractors' civilian de- pendents there. We have reason to be- lieve that if these dependents were sent home, at least one type of black-market operation would be curtailed, if indeed not done away with completely. Reference has been made to the con- tingency fund. For this fiscal year there was provided $50 million, which was all committed or at'least earmarked in the first 7 months of the fiscal year, none of it for Vietnam. At the request of the President, special funds for southeast Asia were made available which were or are being used in Vietnam. Now we are asked to provide another $100 million in contingency funds for the balance of this fiscal year. At the maximum this will only be 4 months. I think that is far too much. In a period when we are tightening our belts and we are trying to continue pro- grams here at home and do a great deal for people abroad the contingency fund should be and can be severely limited. I am sure that an opportunity will be of- fered to the Members of this House to do so. Mr. Chairman, I conclude as I began by saying that although this bill before us is one which presents many questions and raises many doubts and leaves is- sues unanswered, if we take the position that the war in Vietnam must be won, if we take the position that we cannot deny anything which will contribute either di- rectly or indirectly to victory there, then I think we must support this bill. Mr. BROOMFIELD. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. Yes. I yield to the gen- tleman from Michigan. Mr. BROOMFIELD. Mr. Chairman, first I would like to compliment the gen- tleman from Indiana for his very excel- lent statement as to his reasons for sup- porting this legislation. (Mr. BROOMFIELD asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. BROOMFIELD. Mr. Chairman, I rise in support of H.R. 12169. I fail to see how Congress could do otherwise, any more than it could fail to authorize payment of the water bill for the fire department while it was in the midst of attempting to stamp out dan- gerous fires in many parts of the city. The bill before us today is emergency legislation. It is designed to authorize the expenditure of $415 million in tax dollars, most of it to be spent in the short space of the next 4 months, in order to repair the damages caused in many parts of the world by ignorance, by unconcern, by miscalculation and misunderstand- ing. It even provides an additional $100 million for our $50 million "petty cash drawer" in case dollars are needed to sprinkle on other brush fires which might erupt in any part of the world. , I am sure that the Congress will en- act this bill into law rapidly, as it should. This money is needed, and quickly, in such places as South Vietnam, Laos, the Dominican Republic and Thailand. But throwing dollars at our problems is not a solution to them, no matter how many dollars we have and however, tempting this solution may appear. The best that dollars can buy is time. The worst is complacency and the failure to even see problems as they develop. We need more fire prevention as well as fire control in the world, and we can't have it unless and until we start using these dollars as tools to implement for- eign policy rather than as replacements for a foreign policy. Unfortunately, the funds we are au- thorizing today ere not tools, not imple- ments, but payments for mistakes. Let us hope we have fewer of them in the future. Mr. MIZE. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield for a question? Mr. ADAIR. Yes. I yield to the gen- tleman. Mr. MIZE. Will the gentleman in the well please give me a few hypothetical illustrations on which this money from the $100 million contingency fund could be spent? Mr. ADAIR. I think the chairman of the committee answered that a little ear- lier. I could only use generally the same illustrations. A contingency fund is, as its name implies, a fund to, be used for unseen eventualities. We in the Con- gress and particularly in the House and those of us on the Committee on For- eign Affairs have been in the past-and I count myself among those-particularly critical of the way that the contingency fund can be used, but there are-and I will say to the gentleman very few-lim- itations, as long as it falls within the broadest outlines of foreign aid, on the manner in which this fund can be used. It can be used for situations which arise, for example, in a country which is newly threatened with revolt. It can be used for problems which present themselves in the field of education or matters of that sort. It is subject to the very widest use. Mr. MIZE. I thank the gentleman. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentleman from Missouri. Mr. CURTIS. The gentleman heard the remarks of the gentleman from Lou- isana, the chairman of the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations for foreign aid. Is it accurate that these funds are not tied down on that this au- thorization of funds is not tied down to Vietnam? Mr. ADAIR. It is true that by the terms of this bill it is not tied down to Vietnam nor indeed to southeast Asia. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, could I ask the gentleman one further question? Mr. ADAIR. Let me continue. How- ever, if you read the record of the hear- ings, and if you consult the report, there is no question as to the intent. Since the gentleman has opened the question let me state that we are acting upon this as a measure apart from some money for the Dominican Republic, a measure basically for southeast Asia. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from Indiana has expired. Mr. ADAIR. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself 2 additional minutes. Accordingly, I would think that the administration which has presented it to the Congress in that way as a measure to contribute to stability in southeast Asia would feel bound to use it for that pur- pose. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, if the gentleman will yield further, why would not the administration have this in this bill? Mr. ADAIR. That is a question which the gentleman, I believe, should address to the author of the bill. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. CURTIS. I am quite interested in this question. Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentleman from New Jersey. Mr. GALLAGHER. I am very happy to point out that of the money which has been earmarked, $275 million of this request has been justified on the basis of its need in South Vietnam. Mr. CURTIS. If the gentleman will yield further, yes, but-no, no, if I could interrupt there just a minute. You are not responsive to the issue. You say "earmarked," and that struck my interest. But then you go on, as has just been talked about, and say something else. I want to find out why it is not actually tied down and actually earmarked by language, and not on the basis of just these statements. Mr. GALLAGHER. If the gentleman will yield further, it has never been ear- marked in such fashion in any of the history of the foreign aid bill. During the history of the foreign aid bill it has never been specifically earmarked. Mr. CURTIS. I know, and that is one of the troubles with this bill. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R0004 Q030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE ebruary 24, 1966 Mr. GALLAGHER. Or any other appropriation. Mr. MORGAN. Or in the appropria- tion bill. The gentleman from Missouri wants to change the rules on matters of liiis kind. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, if the gentleman will yield further, I believe that is one reason our foreign aid pro- ,;rams have been so poor, if I may draw that conclusion. Certainly, to come here at a time when we are in war over there, and say that this is for Vietnam and if you expect to get the vote on the assur- ance that that is what it is, I certainly believe that this rule should be changed and we should tie it down. Mr. Chairman, I doubt if I will vote Cor this unless it is tied down, because I have seen instances in these programs and I am about to conclude that the administration does not follow what it says in those examples which it gives as to where the money is to be spent. We e:ould not rely upon this. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the r,entleman from. Indiana has again ex- ;ired. Mr. ADAIR. Mr. Chairman, I yield 4.-oyseff 2 additional minutes. I say in response to the remarks of the gentleman rom Missouri that it is my understand- ing we will have an opportunity to con- nect these more closely and explicitly ,with Vietnam and southeast Asia,. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, if the !;entleman will yield further, will a pos- aible amendment be offered? Mr. ADAIR. I understand that such is the case. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, if the =,e ntleman will yield further, I want to lovclop one other point, if I may. I was trying to firad-and I have not had in opportunity to look through all of the hearings, although I have read the re- port-I was interested in seeing what balances we have not just in the foreign aid funds, but Public Law 480 funds, and how this money that we recently voted or the Asian Pank, which I hope will ;:a; available particularly in Vietnam, how this is coordinated. But I find no discussion of it contained in the report. As I stated earlier, insofar as I have been ,blc to ascertain from the report, and I have not read the hearings, there has oen no interrogation on this point. Could the gentleman tell me whether the committee did go into all aspects of financing that is available in Vietnam, not ;just through this bill, but through the use of Public Law 480 funds, the lend- ing that might be available in the Asian Sank, and so forth? Nfr. ADAIR.Ha.ving in mind the great multiplicity of lending institutions that are available for activities here and else- where, I would have to say to the gen- tleman, it would be almost impossible to go into all of them. Some of them do not even come within the purview of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. We did ;ivo some consideration-perhaps not ;moogh-to the general subject. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Chairman, if the gentleman would permit me to make this observation before he yields further, it seems to me that is what we would ex- pect the Committee on Foreign Affairs to do even though it is not within their jurisdiction-at least to have a kno,,.l- edge of the funds that would be going in to hit at the same problem so at least there would be some consensus of this whole problem that the House could consider. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman. yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentleman. Mr. GALLAGHER. There is a corn- plebe report on all of the expenditures available for all Members. But if I might follow up what the gentleman from Indiana has already said and nail it down, we are talking about funds I ci.- mnarily to be used in Vietnam. For ii:- stance, the $100 million of this request is for additional economic assistance that will be used for rural constr:te- tion. and counterinsurgency activities. AID needs $175 million for Vietnam to help finance the import of essential commodities in order to help comeaat inflation. Rice imports needs $21 million. Medicines and pharmaceuticals re- quires $9 million. Needed for petroleum products, 1,;12 million. Needed for iron and steel, $50 million. Needed for fertilizer imports, $4.5 million. Mr. Chairman, over half of these coan- modities will be utilized in areas out! ide of Saigon. All of the $275 million is pun- pointed for use in 'Vietnam. Mr. CURTIS. In what way is this .,led down? This is simply a statement. Low call the Congress know that this actually is the way this money will be spent? Mr. GALLAGHER. We would assume, of course, that the administration is t,c~ll- ing the truth, as we have during all the time that we have had this program in operation. .Mr. CURTIS. If the gentleman will yield further just for this observation, that is the whole point that the gentie- man from Louisiana made, as I under- stand it, and to the extent that I have been able to study this matter of ex- penditures, the administration-and r his is not just this administration, it was true in the Eisenhower administration as well. Mr. GALLAGHER. That is right. Mr. CURTIS. There was not ?.ids kind of followthrough on how they sh,cat the money. Mr. GALLAGHER. There has been that kind of followthrough and the t, is why we have confidence that the money will be properly used. Mr. CURTIS. In other words, the gentleman is saying that he feels I aicr in error in concluding that there has not been a follow !Ji rough? Mr. GALLAGHER. Yes; I would con- clude that the gentleman is in error if he says that there has not been a follow- through on this. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentle:r!an from Iowa. Mr. GROSS. The gentleman from Missouri [Mr. CURTIS] raised the ques- tion of committee consideration of the Southeast Asian Development Bank. That was subsequent to the hearings held by the committee on this bill. More- over, we are never consulted by the Com- mittee on Banking and Currency, so far as I know, with respect to financing any of these wonderful giveaways around the world that they get into. Mr. CAHILL. Mr. Chairman, will Ll.-.e gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentleman from New Jersey. Mr. CAHILL. Mr. Chairman, can the gentleman tell us whether or not. there is any existing statutory authority at the present time to permit the President or someone to order the dependents of the U.S. citizens back home? Mr. ADAIR. The President in my opinion has the authority. I think there is no doubt about it. It has be?n exercised, I am told, in a number of in- stances. Mr. CAHILL. Can the gentleman ad- vance any logical reason as to why this authority would be utilized as far as military personnel are concerned and not so far as civilian dependents are concerned. Mr. ADAIR. Not at all. That is the point I was trying to make earlier and I appreciate the gentleman's concur- rence in my views. Mr. CAHILL. I think the gentlemen is making an excellent point. One of the things that I have observed is that there is a tremendous housing shortage in Saigon particularly. I think this is one of the elements involved in the black market and certainly it is something that needs looking into. I think the gentleman has made a very valuable contribution to the discussion of these problems. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentle- man. Mr. GALLAGHER. I would like to point out that all civilian personnel of the Government have been ordered home. The only civilian personnel re- maining there or family of personnel are the wives and families of the private contractors who are there. Mrs. KELLY. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ADAIR. I yield to the gentle- woman. Mrs. KELLY. Mr. Chairman, I take this time to compliment the gentleman from Indiana for his constructive criti- cism. I have always had a great deal of respect for his position in this regard and for his sincere endeavor. I would like to ask the gentleman a question at this point. Is it not true that the criti- cism that you have brought out on the floor at this time regarding civilian de- pendents and supplies was thoroughly discussed by us in the consideration of this bill and that at the present time we have the statements to the effect that the supplies have been speeded up and that we might take up the problem of civilian dependents? Mr. ADAIR. The gentlewoman is cor- rect. Efforts are being made. My point is that they are tardy and far too little. If we can get cargoes across beaches un- der combat conditions, I see no reason Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2 pp-d For Rele6e / ?~9ALCl- R6ZB004Hf6UQR0400030002-3 why we cannot do the same in areas where there is no danger of aerial attack. Mrs. KELLY. I agree with the gen- tleman. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from Indiana has expired. Mr. MONAGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 3 minutes to the gentleman from New York [Mr. RESNICK]. Mr. RESNICK. Mr. Chairman, I think we sometimes tend to forget when we talk about AID appropriations, and funding, and economic development and all the other technical jargon, that at the grassroots, out where the action is, the AID program means people at work-dedicated people; people with a job to do; people who get tired and scared and shot at and worried and who keep right on doing their jobs the best way they can. I would like to tell you about just one of these men I met dur- ing my recent trip to Vietnam. I spent 1 day in the Mekong Delta with the U.S. operations mission there. I could not get in the area I was supposed to visit because they were afraid for my safety. The man running that area was Eduardo Navarro. Eduardo Navarro is a retired U.S. Army colonel. He knows how to use a gun if he has to but he does not carry one. He is a civilian working for the Agency for International Development as a Provincial representative in Vietnam near the Cambodian border. He is con- cerned with the welfare of 250,000 Viet- namese in an area infested with Viet- cong. After being ambushed several times on the road to Saigon, he finally gave up driving. He has had several narrow escapes from daytime bombings in the streets of the city. The villagers regard Ed Navarro as their friend. He works closely with the Province chief and American and Viet- namese military personnel to improve life in the Province while maintaining the best possible security. About 30 of his villages are considered secure and have qualified for Government help by routing out the Vietcong and agreeing to carry out self-help projects. He is proud of the more than 100 schools which have been built by the village parents with cement and roofing supplied by AID. Nearly 200 teachers have been trained in short courses. Several clinics have been built and stocked with medical supplies from the AID commodity import program. Occa- sionally, the Vietcong steal them but the people know where they come from. He uses his warehouse of food-for- peace wheat, oils, and dried milk as pay- ment for work to benefit the community and make life worth fighting for. On a demonstration farm 2 miles out of town, production is being increased by use of fertilizer and new seed. The Provincial hospital has a new surgical wing built by AID, staffed by a team of Filipino doctors and nurses paid by their own Government. In fact, no aspect of life is overlooked. All the resources of AID in Vietnam are available to Eduardo Navarro to help the Vietnamese people build a better life. Not many Americans will ever hear of Ed Navarro or of his counterparts in every Vietnamese Province. But we in the Congress must not only know of. what they are doing, we must support them. Perhaps this war cannot be won by civilians armed with seed, cement, and goodwill, but neither can it be won without them. I believe the budget requests for AID are minimal and I call for their speedy approval. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Iowa [Mr. GROSS]. (Mr. GROSS asked and was given per- mission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, I would address a question to the chairman of the committee, if I might have his atten- tion. This bill, as I understand it, and as I believe the Members of the House understand it, is to provide additional funds for economic aid to the Viet- namese and contiguous territory, plus $25 million for the Dominican Republic. Mr. MORGAN. Plus $100 million for the contingency fund. Mr. GROSS. Yes. But is not the bill designed for the purpose of aid to Viet- nam? There is nothing whatever for the military effort. Mr. MORGAN. Seventy percent of the funds in the bill are designed to sup- port the war effort in South Vietnam. Mr. GROSS. Then why should we be dealing in this supplemental with any other areas other than those enumerated in the bill? Mr. MORGAN. We are not. That is my opinion. I understand that all of the supplemental appropriations re- quested in this bill are for areas that are of vital importance to the security of this country. Mr. GROSS. Will not the distin- guished chairman agree with me that there is nothing whatever in the lan- guage of this bill that holds its provi- sions to Vietnam or any other specific place in the world? Mr. MORGAN. As the gentleman knows, this is a supplemental authoriza- tion and is an amendment to the regular foreign aid bill. Mr. GROSS. Yes; it is an addition to the regular foreign handout. Mr. MORGAN. This is the procedure. Any other method would require us to bring out a separate AID bill for South Vietnam. Is that what the gentleman is suggesting? This is an amendment to the regular AID bill. Mr. GROSS. I think a substantial number of the Members of the House are willing to vote for a bill today supple- menting the foreign aid appropriations where such funds are designated for the purpose of doing something about aiding and brining about a successful conclu- sion of the Vietnamese situation and sorry state of affairs in the Dominican Republic. It will be my purpose later on to offer an amendment to the bill to restrict the expenditures to those areas. It will be my further purpose to move to strike out all of the contingency fund in- crease, and I will argue that point later, because as the supplementary views in the report clearly show, not one dime of the $50 million previously appropriated- and this was the statement of the dis- tinguished chairman before the Rules Committee yesterday-was used in Viet- nam. So it is incredible that we should be called upon today to provide $100 million to beef up the contingency fund when we are dealing with a bill specifi- cally designed to take care of the situa- tions in the Domican Republic, in Viet- nam, Laos, and Thailand. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield further? Mr. GROSS. I yield. Mr. MORGAN. Is it the gentleman's intention, on Tuesday next, when H.R. 12335 comes to the House, containing approximately $4 billion for military use in southeast Asia planning, to do the same thing and to pinpoint it in the same way? Mr. GROSS. There is a great differ- ence between military assistance and the giveaway program. Mr. MORGAN. I do not believe there is. It is all part of the same thing. Mr. GROSS. Especially when the giveaway program can go to any country in the world under the terms of this bill- to any country in the world. Mr. MORGAN. Is it the gentleman's intention to pinpoint each item in the military authorization for Vietnam? Mr. GROSS. Surely the gentleman is not trying to compare military assistance with this bill, which happens to come from the committee of which I am a member. I know a little something about this bill. Mr. MORGAN. The gentleman is making an argument about the economic portion of the bill, but I still would like to have an answer to my question in re- gard to military funds authorized for the same area. Mr. GROSS. I happen to know some- thing about this bill. I am not a member of the Armed Services Committee and, therefore, I cannot say that I know as much about military assistance needs in the areas covered by this bill. Does the gentleman know about the military bill? I shall be glad to support amendments, if the gentleman will offer them, with regard to military assistance, if he can find anyplace where we are going to give military assistance to any- one outside the southeast Asia area un- less that country is fighting in Vietnam. Mr. MORGAN. The gentleman from Pennsylvania has no intention to offer amendments. What I am trying to say to you, Mr. GROSS, is that I have con- fidence in my President. When he says he is going to spend $275 million in Viet- nam I have confidence that he is going to spend it in Vietnam. Mr. GROSS. Then suppose you tell me what happened to the $50 million in the contingency fund which was ex- pended last year? Suppose you tell me where the President is going to use the $100 million in 120 days or less. Suppose you give me some idea as to that. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. GROSS, there was a contingency fund every year of the Eisenhower administration and every year since, and not one dime of this authorization has ever been programed in advance. If you will allow me the Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - DOUSE February 24, 1966 time, I will read that information into the RECORD. fvir. GROSS. No ; the gentleman con- f : ols ample time for that. Mr. MORGAN. As to all of the ex- iwnses since 1956. Mr. GROSS. Just a minute, now. 5iou have ample time or time of your own. Mr. MORGAN. And not one dime out cis the contingency fund has been pro- ,r named. You know the definition of "contingency fund" and I know it. It is for unforseen emergencies. 1. do not know today where one dime of this money is going to be spent, and t do riot believe the administration does. Mr. GROSS. We put $50 million into ilie contingency fund last year. Mr. MORGAN. Yes; and I know where every dime of it was spent. So do you. Mr. GROSS. Let us get it in the I Z,ECORD. Mr.. MORGAN. You know and I know that security is involved, and we cannot introduce it in the RECORD. Mr. GROSS. Much of it ought to go in the RECORD. Much of it should not lue classified. It should be made avail- able to the people who pay the bills. Mr. MORGAN. You know very well IA tat it cannot be put in the RECORD. Mr. GROSS. You know that there is plenty of it that ought to be put in the I1XCORD. I believe we ought to take a look at the help we are not getting in Vietnam these days, along with the tremendous ex- oenditure of money we are making and being called upon to make under the terms of this bill. So far as I know, there are only three +eounlries--Australia, New Zealand, and '-,outh Korea-which are supplying any combat troops at all. New Zealand is :,applying one battery of artillery. Aus- I.ralia is supplying a battalion of combat '':coops. And South Korea, on the basis of the last information I have is supply- ng a division of combat troops. I have not seen any figures with regard o casualties of Koreans. I suppose they are engaged somewhere in Vietnam, but the newspapers do not provide us with he casualty fgures insofar as the Koreans, the Australians, and the New ealanders are concerned. Otherwise they are deeply gratified- ::s Ifenry Cabot Lodge said when he ap- peared before the committee not too long ago--the other countries of the world are deeply gratified that we are doing the lighting and dying in Vietnam, along oath the South Vietnamese. but us consider the Philippines, for instance. At present the Philippines have 70 personnel in Vietnam. These consist of military and civilian medical cams and a military psychological war- f.i,re detachment. Would one not believe that the Philippines could make some kind of combat contribution to the war in Vietnam, to some of the fighting and =lying going on over there? Japan has provided over $55 million worth of economic assistance to Viet- nam. 'I'bis is money. We are talking about money exclusively now. This Is reparations money they owe the Vietna- mese as a result of their defeat in World War II that they would pay under any circumstances. Yet the State Depart- merit has the colossal gall to hand out a statement of this kind indicating that the Japanese are making a contribution in Vietnam when they give them $55 million of money which they owe them as reparations for damage when they occu-? pied the country in the last war. You talk: about having confidence in people. Let us have a decent and a fair story from some of these people in i:he State Department and in the White House. Greece has contributed medical sup- plies. I do not know how much. This is the State Department report which says Greece has contributed medical sup- plies- I hope it is remembered that we put a lot of money into Greece in other years, yet we get no real help in stop- ping communism. elsewhere. Turkey has provided medicines and has also offered to provide some cement. Some cement--no troops. Iran has contributed 1,000 tons of petroleum products to Vietnam and has dispatched a medical team. Hundreds of millions of American dol- lars are going into India, a country that had 5 million or more under arms in World War II yet; it will not provide a single combat soldier to help us out in Vietnam. India has provided cloth for flood relief, says the State Department, and has under study the creation in Vietnam of a factory for the preparattton of tea and another for sugar so, they will have tea with their sugar and sugar with their tea. This is within the framework of a program of technical assistance and economic Oaoperat-on. India is also considering providing equipment for what? For a blood transfusion center. They do not offer to give any blood, but will provide the center for somebody else to give their blood. How nice. Pakistan. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the Gentleman from Iowa has expired. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield the gentleman 5 additional minutes. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, I th.+ark the gentlewoman from Ohio for yielding me the additional time. Pakistan has contributed some finan- cial relief for flood victims, and it, I.oo, donated some clothing to Vietnam. No troops. Israel made a gift of pharmaceutical supplies and has offered to train Viet- namese in Israel in various fields, what- ever that means. No troops. Belgium provided medicines. Ilow much? The State Department does not say. No troops. Canada is providing a professor of orthopedics at Saigon University. A big help. Also about 200 scholarships both academic and technical. They are also providing about $150,000 worth of flour. If I remember correctly, Canada has been selling about $400 million worth of wheat a year to Red China, but they cannot afford to get into Vietnam on a bloodletting basis. So, no troops. I al- most forgot-Canada has agreed to con- struct an auditorium for the Faculty of Sciences at Vietnam's Hue University. Denmark has provided medical sup- plies and is willing to train Vietnamese nurses in Denmark. No troops. France since 1956, says the State De- partment, contributed $111 million in assistance to South Vietnam. That is since 1956. A big contribution. No troops. Germany has provided 12 personnel in Vietnam and has agreed to provide 14 more for a total of 26. They, too, are providing a large amount of help. No troops. Ireland has contributed 1,000 pounds to Vietnam through their Red Cross. No troops. Italy, where we have dumped more bil- lions of dollars--and I mean billions- have provided a nine-man surgical team and are providing science scholarships. No troops. The Netherlands. The Dutch have given antibiotics. No troops. Spain has provided 800 pounds of med- icines and has agreed to send a military medical team to Vietnam. No troops. Switzerland, the home of a lot of our gold and bank accounts. I wish there were some way we could find out how many of the black marketeers and cor- ruptionists in Vietnam have unnumbered bank accounts in Switzerland as well as some other people. However, the Swiss have provided microscopes for the Uni- versity of Saigon. No troops. Now we get down to Britain, which is threatening to invade little Rhodesia and bring that friendly country to its knees. In one of the most outrageous enter- prises in the history of this country, President Johnson has joined the British in their boycott of Rhodesia. The Brit- ish have provided six civilians for the British advisory mission in Vietnam and a professor of English at Hue University. With 8 Vietnamese already in training in England, Britain has agreed to provide for 12 more this year. That is the British Empire or what is left of it. They are perfectly willing, apparently, if all else fails and they are losing their boycott of Rhodesia-they are perfectly willing it seems to send two divisions there to beat that little country down and stir up more ferment and more trouble in Africa in the process. Appar- ently the explosion and massacres in Nigeria have not given the United States enough to handle for awhile, so this administration has to help stir up more trouble in Rhodesia. Now getting to Latin America, the Ar- gentines have sent two observers to Viet- nam to examine the possibilities for Ar- gentine assistance. They are going to send some observers down to find out whether there is any place for them to do any fighting or dying in Vietnam. Brazil has provided coffee and medical supplies. No troops. In the Dominican Republic they are having their own. troubles, but they hays offered some cement. So it goes around the world where we have frittered away at least $130 billion trying to buy friends and influence peo- ple. Yes, as Lodge reports, most of the rest of the world. is deeply gratified that we are fighting and financing the war in Vietnam. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Utah [Mr. KING]. (Mr. KING of Utah asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. KING of Utah. Mr. Chairman, there are some who may be reluctant to approve further public funds for non- military purposes in South Vietnam until they are assured that private philan- thropic agencies are also given a full op- portunity to assist. Let me assure the members of this committee that private philanthropic groups are giving valuable assistance in South Vietnam. Their story is a noble one, that deserves to be told. A recent on-the-spot survey by repre- sentatives of the American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service reported that "the refugee situation in Vietnam is in good hands." They found 43 voluntary agencies with either opera- tional or supporting interest in Vietnam. Their varied programs are supplement- ing that of the Government of Vietnam and the Agency for International De- velopment. These nongovernmental groups serve special needs and establish direct person-to-person relationships where Government programs cannot operate so easily. Twenty-eight private agencies were running refugee relief programs. For example: CARE is distributing packages financed by donations of the American people, including school sup- plies, tools and seeds; needle trade kits to accompany sewing machines, and rice, salt; and fish, purchased locally. Catholic Relief Services Is expanding its services by 2 percent for school lunch programs, family feeding stations, and relief of war victims. It will quadruple its shipments of medicines, expand its vocational schools and cooperatives, and increase orphanages and social welfare services. Church World Service took part in the initial refugee program in 1954 when 800,000 Vietnamese fled south. It has re- turned to Vietnam to serve the new in- flux of refugees, providing nurses and medical units, community development and agricultural teams, and some sup- plies for direct relief. Other church-related agencies provid- ing similar services and supplies include the Christian Children's Fund, the Amer- ican Friends Service Committee, and the Mennonite Central Committee. Other agencies with special competence are helping with the blind, lepers, orphans, foster parents, public health, and rural electrification. The International Rescue Committee, in cooperation with AID, has accepted the responsibility for six medical teams to be assigned to refugee areas. Leading American drug companies already have donated a substantial supply of drugs for civilian use, and the Medical Civic Action Program will distribute them throughout Vietnam. International Voluntary Services has been operating a program in Vietnam since 1957. Under an AID contract, IVS has 50 young men serving throughout the rural regions, working`on projects in agriculture, science education, teaching English, and in work with youth and refugees. The number of refugees will soon ex- ceed a million, and will seriously tax the resources of all agencies. The most pressing need, according to the American Council of Voluntary Agencies, is for more personnel. Supplies there are, but people are needed to help in the camps where 450,000 refugees are now being cared for, and in the villages to which they return or are resettled. Doctors, nurses, administrators, social welfare, and community development experts are wanted on short- and long-term assign- ments both by voluntary agencies and by AID. In spite of all the difficulties, the ref- ugee problem in Vietnam is being han- dled with vigor, and great self-sacrifice. I, for one, want to see that every cent of the AID request is provided for this vital work. Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. KING of Utah. I yield to the distinguished gentleman from Florida. Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Chairman, I wish to compliment and commend the gen- tleman from Utah for pointing out to the Members of the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, and to the country, the splendid effort being made by the private, voluntary, and religious organizations in Vietnam and in the rest of the world. Mr. Chairman, I would add to the remarks of the gentleman, if I may, that our Subcommittee on International Or- ganizations and Movements has studied the scope of organizational contributions to human betterment, in the areas of economic well-being, education, health, and all others. Our study fully corrobo- rates what the gentleman has reported about the voluntary agency and religious group effort to help in South Vietnam. The report shows that there are several thousand such organizations in the United States helping throughout the entire world, and it is estimated that such private assistance amounts to about $600 million a year. This represents a substantial and knowledgeable effort on the part of U.S. citizens to express their interest In the welfare and freedom of other people of the world. This is a story which ought to be told more frequently. It Is a story that all of the American people ought to un- derstand and in which they ought to take great pride., Mr. KING of Utah. I thank the gen- tleman. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman has expired. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Penn- sylvania [Mr. FULTON]. Mr. FULTON of Pennsylvania. Mr. Chairman, I rise in support of this legis- lation because I believe it is necessary that the U.S. Congress provide all neces- sary funds for Vietnam and southeast Asia. We people on the Foreign Affairs Com- 3853 mittee of the House have had adequate hearings and have discussed this' legis- lation and the need for it. I would say to the House, I believe this is a good bill and should be passed so that there will be adequate supplemental foreign assist- ance authorization for the fiscal year 1966 under H.R. 12169. I have several amendments I think should be placed in the legislation. The first one refers to the $25 million for the Dominican Republic which is shown on page 3 of the section-by-section analysis of H.R. 12169. I recommend that item should be spe- cifically made by, the United States not as a grant, but on a loan basis. The rea- son being this item is not just for current expenses but is to help on capital budget costs in the Dominican Republic. Capi- tal expenditures should as a policy be ad- vanced on a short- or long-term basis. As a matter of fact, in the hearings we had the statement from Mr. Bell of AID as follows: Our money has been going to an increas- ing extent to capital development, to techni- cal assistance and to more permanent con- struction and long-range efforts to establish a stronger economy in the Dominican Re- public. When the purpose of the $25 million is for longtime capital purpose, then I be- lieve Congress should specify it should be on a loan. But you say to me-FULTON, are we go- ing to be depriving the Dominican Re- public Government of needed assistance? The answer is "No." If you will look at page 20 of the com- mittee hearings, you will find that since the date of'the revolution which occurred on April 24, 1965, through January 10, 1966, the great U.S. Government and the greater U.S. taxpayers have put in $86.3 million as grants to the Dominican Re- public. These were supporting assist- ance grants for Government operations and maintenance. In addition to that, there is $50 million current 1966 authorized money in the President's contingency fund plus $4.1 million carryover from 1965. I am not allowed to give you the details of it, but there is an allocation of $37.3 million to the Dominican Republic out of $54.1 mil- lion remaining in that contingency fund as of this time. That is not obligation- that is allocation. So that adding the $86.3 million makes a total of $123.6 mil- lion that the United States is providing now to the Dominican Republic. The President now proposes to add $25 million more as a grant. So this addi- tion will mean since April 24, 1965, U.S. grants of $148,622,000. I believe that is one of the highest rates of grants we have ever had to a country of this size. But you say to me-How about the present loans of the Dominican Repub- lic? They have some loans under 1 year-$30 million worth of loans due under 1 year. Those loans are owed to foreign banks. So we in Congress are just simply going to pick up the $25 mil- lion of commercial foreign bank loans. The Dominican Republic Government owes $153.5 million on loans that are Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040 93 002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE l e ruary 2.~, 196E Prom 1 to 8 years maturity. The United States could make a 40-year loan to the Dominican Republic with 1-percent in- terest for 10 years, and 2i/2-percent in- terest for 30 years. This type of loan is authorized under present Federal acts. So that if the United States gives the Dominican Republic $25 million as a loan on a long-term basis, they are not in such bad shape, as the United States has really given wonderful help to the Dominican people as follows: U.S. assistance to the Dominican Republic, Ltpr. 24, 1965, to Jan. 10, 1966 ,supporting assistance grants for Government operations and 486,300,000 Administered tl,rouh OAS --- 57, 000, C00 Administered through AID --- 29, 300, 000 Approximately $40 million of these funds have been used to pay salaries of employees who were on Government payrolls, or were employed by municipalities or Government- owned corporations before April 24, 1965; $12 million was made available to the Govern- ment-owned sugar corporation through a loan by the Organization of American States. The balance was provided for disaster relief including food and medical supplies and emergency public works activities which are being undertaker. by the provisional Govern- ment and AID. "Technical assistance grants totaled-------- 44, 438, 000 Agricuture___..___ 941, 000 ';ducation__-_ __ -------------- 396, 000 Transportation - 212, 000 11tiblic dminhtr,Aion____-___ 1,161 , 000 Community deve!opment___-_ 128, 000 Other project:.._____________ 1,600,000 Development lams authorized: National Housing Batik ------- 5, 000, 000 Food for peace----------------- '1,858,000 Title I1[ approved fiscal year 196G -------------------------- Another question you should ask me is who are the creditors of the Dominican Government and to whop; are those loans owed? Obligations from 1- to 8-year maturity are owed to the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank and the U.S, Treasury. On loans over 8 years, obligations of the Dominican Republic Government are owed to the International Bank, AID, Export-Import Bank, and to the U.S. Treasury under Public Law 480, title IV. Why should the United States adopt a business basis and free enterprise policy toward the Dominican Republic at this time? The reason is that the Dominican Government is holding many businesses that are now Government owned and Government operated. These businesses are being operated at a deficit. The Dominican economic situation is this. First, there is a low rate of savings and. investment. Nobody much in the Dominican Republic is saving or trying to help their government by avoiding in- flation and seeking stable economic con- ditions. Second, the Dominican exports are still being emphasized on commodities like sugar and cocoa which are In great oversupply at the present time and low priced on the international markets. The Dominicans have not changed their agricultural programs to realism and ef- fective demand. This should be done at once both at home and abroad. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman has expired. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 2 additional minutes to the gentle- man from Pennsylvania. Mr. FULTON of Pennsylvania. Let us face it. Too large a share of the econ- omy of the Dominican Republic is owned and operated by the Government at a loss. If we will simply insist in this (":'on- gress that the Dominican Republic change over and make immediate plans for changing to a private economy, the U.S. taxpayers will be much better off, rather than financing indefinitely the $5 million a month Government deficit, and deficiencies in foreign trade because of inflation at home and continued defi- cits caused by excessive imports com- pared to exports. My other point is this: I propa:,e to offer an amendment to cut the Presi- dent's contingency fund for from $150 mullion, which it would be if Congress adds $100 million more under this bill, to $100 million total for the 3-month period to the end of the current fiscal year or June 30, 1964. As has been pointed out, this contingency fund will be spent over a 3-month period-over April, May, and June of this year-so that if the President has $50 million added on by this bill as :I propose he will be getting undesignated contingency funds at the rate of $200 million a year. This is in addition to the $89 million special contingency fund for southeast Asia we in Congress have given the Presi- dent for use in this current fiscal year, which is all the President asked. In the current fiscal year we have in the contingency fund $50 million cur- rently authorized and appropriated, and allocated but not yet obaigated. In this fiscal year 1966 we have also $4.1 in Ilion of contingency funds carried over from 1965. That means a total of $54.1 mil- lion presidential contingency funds on hand now, of which about $37 million has been allocated to the Dominican Re- public and the rest to other places, which I should not give specifically. My amendment will give the President $50 million more for the remaining 3 months of this fiscal year, until June 30, and I believe that is enough. If it is any larger, if the crisis anywhere abroad is any larger, I believe the President should come to Congress and get an authoriza- tion. So I would say to this House of Rep- resentatives that we should hold the purse strings and watch expenditures closely. We should not move this con- tingency fund back up to the $200 mil- lion contingency fund annually as it had been some time previously, several years ago, when the amount authorized any appropriated was not fully used. The reason I say that is as follows: In fiscal year 1965, $150 million was au- thorized for the President's, contingency fund; $99.2 million was appropriated and, as a matter of fact, the obligations were only $57 million. In 1966 there was $50 million authorized and appropriated, which appears to have carried the con- tingency fund for 9 months. So I believe $100 million extra added on for a 3- month period is at too great a rate for the President's contingency fund. I therefore recommend by my amendment that $50 million now be added by the Congress to the President's contingency fund for the remaining 3 months after enactment until June 30, 1966. This will result by my amendment in a bud?c,t saving of $50 million. I do not favor Congress blindly auth- orizing and appropriating large sums of undesignated, unallocated, and unpro- gramed funds. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to our distinguished majority leader, the gentleman from Oklahoma LMr. ALBERT]. (Mr. ALBERT asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Chairman, the dis- tinguished chairman of this committee, with his typically accurate and effec- tive argument, has stated the basic :rea- sons for this legislation. Most of the money in this bill is for the economic support of South Vietnam. This little country is wartorn and threatened with runaway inflation. She has committed thousands and tens of thousands of her sons to battle, and all reports that have come to my attention have indicated that her men are fighting with ever-in- creasing effectiveness, and that they are giving magnificent accounts of them- selves in the field. But this bill is also a part of a wider effort about which our President spoke in his great address in New York City last night. He said: The strength of America can never be sapped by discussion-we are united in our commitment to free discussion. So also we are united in our determination that no foe anywhere should mistake our arguments for indecision--or our debates for weakness.. As this House acts on supplemental legislation for supporting our civilian and military men in Vietnam, I have no doubt that there will be vigorous debate. But let there be no mistake about our determination to resist Communist ag- gression in Vietnam. We have not sacri- ficed in Western Europe, in Berlin, in Greece and Turkey, in Korea, in the China Straits, in the missile crisis in Cuba, and now in Vietnam in vain. We are going to be true to our great prin- ciples of freedom, and to our commit- ments to help others preserve their in- dependence. I have heard it said that this is not a popular war, as if any war were popular. Some say the public does not under- stand why we are fighting-why we have such a vital interest in southeast Asia. And I say, as the President said last night-if you do not know, if you are not sure, ask the men who are there. They know. Or ask the South Vietnamese, who have fought so valiantly to defend them- selves. Ask the widows of the village chiefs who have been murdered by the Communists. Ask their sons and daughters. And they will tell you what Communist terror really means. Or go through southeast Asia and ask leaders of Thailand, Malaya, the Philip- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24fAp ~~~ed For R CONGRESSIONALCRECORD BOHOUSE 0400030002-3 pines, Japan, why the war in Vietnam is important, and they will tell you. Or, if you still do not believe, ask the Communists. They know what they are doing. They are not just fighting to win in Vietnam. They are fighting a so-called war of liberation which is a prelude to similar wars in every other underdeveloped country in the world. As the commanding general of North Vietnam said recently: If the special warfare that the U.S. im- perialists are testing in South Vietnam is overcome, then it can be defeated everywhere in the world. Let us be clear on this point-we are not fighting against a Democratic rev- olution within South Vietnam. We are not even fighting just the Vietcong. We are fighting Communist aggression. It is a different form of aggression than we faced in Berlin or Korea, or Cuba, but for that reason it is even more dan- gerous. Earlier forms of Communist ag- gression were easier to combat. Peo- ple's emotions are more readily aroused in a war of invasion than they are in a war of infiltration. The Communists know that, and they are counting on us not to have the will to fight. By passing this legislation by an over- whelming vote the House will demon- strate once again to the entire world, and especially to the Communists, the resolve of our country to stand firm against communism. As the most powerful democratic na- tion on earth, we must bear the heavy responsibilities and burdens of leader- ship. Th'e price of leadership is sacri- flee-of men, of resources, of the normal pursuits of life. But these are small com- pared to the costs of failure. We have shouldered burdens before, and there is a long, hard road ahead. But there is a human greatness in the democratic spirit, and in the soul of America, which will sustain us now as it has in the past. Without heroics, but with quiet courage and determination, Vietnamese and American men and women are proving once more the strength of free societies. Sergeant Walling, U.S. Army, was such a man. You may remember what the President said about him: On the 19th day of June, this year, a young and brave American set out into the jungles of a distant land-half a world away. He walked at the side of a patrol of young and brave Vietnamese. Their purpose-and his-was to defend freedom against its aggressors. The nameof that American was Harry A. Walling. He was a sergeant of the U.S. Army-and a proud member of the proud Special Forces who wear the green beret. When the Vietnamese patrol came under attack, the only thought of Sergeant Walling was for the patrol-and its success. He gave no thought to safety or to self. Those who recovered his body found that, before he died, Sergeant Walling had fired his every round of ammunition. We have come today to bestow upon Ser- geant Walling one of our country's highest honors. No medal, no words, no eulogies of ours can honor him so highly as he has hon- ored our country and our cause. But we can-and we must always-honor ourselves by working everywhere we can, in every way we can, for a world of peace in which the young and the brave need not die in war. When Sergeant Walling fell, he left behind his young widow and three young children- the oldest age 3, the youngest now 4 months. Mrs. Walling's bravery is no less than her husband's. Two nights after she learned her husband would never return, Mrs. Walling wrote out a message to the other wives of her hus- band's unit. That remarkable letter has deeply touched all who have read it-includ- ing the Commander in Chief. I would like to read these lines from it: "I know you are all afraid for your. hus- bands and love them as much as I loved my husband. He loved me just as your husbands do you, and he didn't want to die. He had so much to live for. But he was a brave man and a fighting man. My husband died for what he believed in, and if he had a choice of where and how he would die, he would choose the same place-fighting for a decent world for his children to grow up in. "So don't let the world, the loneliness, the despair, and the fear get you down. Stand as tall as that man of yours who wears the beret and thank God you got him * * * my prayers are that all of your husbands come home to you safe and well." I am proud now on behalf of the Nation to bestow the Silver Star posthumonsly upon Sgt. Harry A. Walling. Mr. Chairman, Sergeant Walling knew why he was in Vietnam. Now is the time for this House to show, once again, that it does too. Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Chair- man, will the distinguished majority leader yield? Mr. ALBERT. I gladly yield to the distinguished minority leader of the House. Mr. GERALD R. FORD. Mr. Chair- man, I appreciate the distinguished ma- jority, leader's yielding to me at this point. I subscribe almost entirely to what the gentleman from Oklahoma has just said. I want to emphasize that we on our side of the aisle strongly favor a position of strength against Communist aggression in South Vietnam, southeast Asia, Berlin, or anywhere else through- out the world. We have in the past and will in the future. I am proud of the fact that the House of Representatives is taking up this im- portant legislation today, acting upon it, I believe, constructively, acting upon it promptly, with a minimum of contro- versy and, I trust, with a minimum of opposition. It does deeply disturb me, however, that some Senators at the other end of the Capitol-I do not question their mo- tives-are delaying the consideration of and the approval of legislation that is important to the execution of a policy of strength in Southeast Asia. The en- actment of this legislation will have an important impact, a favorable one, on the morale of our troops and our South Vietnam allies. Prompt action in the Congress will demonstrate to our en- emies that the elected representatives of the American people can act affirma- tively and constructively with the back- ing of a majority of the citizens in this great country. and by the expeditious manner in which it acts, how it stands on this matter. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Illinois [Mr. DERWINSKI]. (Mr. DERWINSKI asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. DERWINSKI. Mr. Chairman, it is my intention to direct constructive criticism toward this bill and the gen- eral problem which we face. I first wish to compliment the chairman of our com- mittee for the very scholarly, the very distinguished, and the very statesmanlike manner in which he has conducted the operations on this side of the Congress. I would think the very least I could say about this bill as we process it this after- noon is that we are proceeding in a more practical way than our counterpart com- mittee on the other side of the Congress and in a more practicable and reasonable fashion. I do commend the chairman, therefore, for his leadership and his sob- erness, even though I may not always agree with where he is leading us. I should like to point out that there is really no argument for the passage of this bill. It is a $415 million blank check for 4 months; that is, for the remaining 4 months of this fiscal year. If we had assurance that this money was intended entirely for South Vietnam in direct and practical support of our efforts there, I would have no criticism of it, but the fact of the matter is, as it was brought out in the discussion earlier by the gen- tleman from Louisiana [Mr. PASSMAN] and the gentleman from Indiana [Mr. ADAIR], that there is not a single dollar of this that must reach Vietnam. It could be diverted to any place in the world. For the Congress to hand the AID agency or the State Department a blank check for $415 million is, in my opinion, an abdication of legislative responsibil- ity. If we were to pin this money down without any doubt and were in effect to say to the American public the situation in Vietnam is so complicated and so dan- gerous in all its ramifications that we ab- solutely need $415 million for that world trouble spot, then I would not object. But that is not what we are saying here this afternoon. I suppose it would be asking too much for the Members to have their attention directed to the supple- mental views. However, if you will note, this report was written because we wanted to provide some constructive sug- gestions and voice some practical ideas on how this bill should be analyzed by the Members. I should like to reemphasize a number of points. For example, the question of AID borrowing millions of dollars from other sources supposedly to assist programs in Vietnam; the com- pletely loose bookkeeping procedures fol- lowed in the various agencies with which we are working. None of these charges in the supplemental views have been an- swered because they cannot be answered. At the same time I am sure the Members are not really asking for an answer . Mr. ALBERT. I thank the distin- From what I have gathered, the deter- guished gentleman for what he has said. mination of the President-and I am Certainly the House can demonstrate commending him in it-has been greatly this afternoon, by the size of its vote fortified by the return of the Vice Presi- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -I [OUSE February 24., 1966 dent from a recent trip to eight capitals States. When the shocked members money to finance the war effort. AID re- where he was received enthusiastically wanted to know why, he explained it quires that these imports be American and some degree of at least verbal, if not thusly: That their government was bank- made and that the American supplier be actual, support was given to our efforts. rupt, their people were grumbling at the paid in dollars by AID when he ships his I would certainly hope that any vote here lack of progress arid comfort, and he felt merchandise to 'Vietnam. Thus, AID is this afternoon would be interpreted as that by declaring war on the United not providing dollars to Vietnam that support of the basic position of our coun- States and immediately losing the war, can feed a black market in currency. try as outlined by the President and not the country would then qualify for mas- There is a black market in Vietnam, the unfortunate and headline-hunting sive rehabilitation at U.S. expense. but it is not being fed by our aid. U.S. type of procedure followed by the other Mr. Chairman, it appears that this personnel in Vietnam, both civilian and body. But I do not think it is at all prat- resolution was going to pass in this par- military, are paid in script to avoid cur- tical or wise for the House of Representa- liarnentary body and that they would rency inflation. But in any country Lives to have its action interpreted as have declared war on the United States, where foreign exchange is rationed for handing the All) agency $415 million to so as to reap the benefits which they essential purposes, there are those who spend as they please. In the atmosphere hoped would follow. At that point a seek to obtain hard currencies for their of the crisis in Vietnam, we are giving very astute member of that body rose personal use and. are willing to pay high this agency, which probably has the poor- and raised one question. This question prices for dollars or pounds or francs. est overall record for efficiency and ef- was: What will we do if we win the war? American officials and the South Viet- fectiveness, this huge sum without any Mr. Chairman, what will it take to put namese Government are attacking these practice conditions attached. I do not South Vietnam back into its normal, problems at their source, and the im- believe any sober reflection could sus- quiet, sleepy, traditional basis? I do not provement of the Vietnamese adminis- tain this. I do hope when we finally get believe it is at all realistic for the United trative ability and strengthening of con- to the bill for fiscal 1967, there we em- States to be pumping these millions of trots will tend to dry up black market phasize the fact that we ought to keep dollars into dubious domestic programs operations. stringent congressional control of these in South Vietnam, when their economy, But the surest way to eliminate such funds. Secondly, we ought to study operations is to bring supply more nearly their traditions, and everything else in- in balance with demand-and this is these funds in the light of their practical volved in the history of that country, will use and not the blind support which is show that they are not equipped to ab- what the commodity import program is demanded by the executive branch. sorb it. designed to do. It may seem a small We could do a far more reasonable task part, but let me assure you it is an ex- of supporting the President If we would To sum it up, logical support of the tremely important part-of the total ef- connstructivetive and necessary President is an act. of statesmanship. fort to help repel Communist aggression aask sk m moror,e not the it of unnecessary Tlris blank check is irresponsibility. and to help the Government of Vietnam criticism but in the spirit of helpful criti- Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield develop a society resistant to subversion cism, which he sorely needs. 5 minutes to the gentleman from Ten- and capable of independent progress. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, nessee [M:r. Gr:mcnl. AID's commodity import program for will the gentleman yield? (Mr. GRIDER. asked and was given Vietnam may be as important to our Mr. DERWINSKI. Yes, I yield to the permission to revise and extend his ultimate success as any of our military gentleman from New Jersey. remarks.) weaponry. I fully support the supple- Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, COMMODITY IMPORTS mental request to carry this program not to invoke an unharmonious note into Mr. GR.IDER. Mr. Chairman, the forward. this discussion, I do not want the RECORD Congress has before it an urgent sup- Mr. MAcGREGOR. Mr. Chairman, to state, as indicated, that the majority plemental. request from the Agency for will the gentleman yield? view was less than sober, as the gentle- International Development for $275 mil- Mr. GRIDER. I yield to the gentle- man has said, and to reflect here and lion in order to carry on its program of man. there upon the sobriety of the decision of supporting assistance in Vietnam. Mr. MAcGREGOR. In light of the the majority members of the committee. 'rho bulk of this appropr]ation will be statement that the gentleman has made So, Mr. Chairman, I would like to cor- used to finance imports of essential about the commodity import program rect that impression. No agency in the commodities. strengthening the Cao Ky government, I history of our Government has been more wonder if the gentleman would comment closely scrutinized, down through the During 1966 it will be critically im- on the testimony of Mr. Bell, the AID portant to step up the export of Amer- administrator, which is found on page 8 years, than has the AID agency. To say ican steel, oil, medicine, building of the hearings where Mr. Bell stated: it has the poorest record in efficiency is supplies, and machinery to support; the not quite accurate. All of us look it over economy and avoid disastrous But I would not argue the slightest there general ' is not some diversion both in the he sense e of very carefully. The gentleman from inflation in South Vietnam. people putting money outside the country Louisiana [Mr. PASSMANI, looks at it very Inflationary pressures will mount in in Hong Kong and Switzerland, and in the thoroughly. this House trecord e cit of very 1966 unless Vietnam can import roughly sense of significant amounts of resources thoroughly. of the high-water ]D agency believe the one of double its 1965 imports and unless other being obtained by the Vietcong from Saigon ciency tks of is really al stabilization measures are taken. If not and the import system. the hc , es er marks checked, runaway inflation in Vietnam I assume he was referring to the fact tionc reection of Mr. Dr... , Davunder Bell. the able d di- - could cancel many of our most important that we are not dealing here in the com- Mr. DERW'INSKI. Mr. Chairman, gains. modity import program with the South may I say when I used the term "sober," We must see to it that the shoe is; not Vietnamese Government but rather with it is to compare our actions with those lost for want of a nail. private importers who may in many cases of the committee of the other body. That With a, war-disrupted economy, South misuse the privilege they have of ex- is the context in which it is used. V;:etnaxn has been unable to earn the for- changing piasters for military pay certif- However, Mr. Chairman, when we eign exchange needed to pay for these icates at very profitable rates. think of this $415 million blank check irrrports. Without them, the economy Mr. GRIDER, I will say to the gentle- arid the fact that it is being requested to cannot function. Without enough of man, this of course is a possibility. I support a war effort in South Vietnam, them, the already serious burden of in- mentioned in my remarks that this con- it raises many other additional questions, flation would become backbreaking dition was being improved. I would not I relate an incident which supposedly Most of the commodity imports fl- suggest, and I do not think the gentle- occurred in a parliament of a so-called Danced by AID move through rc iular man would suggest that the whole import friendly country. commercial channels-meaning .,bout program be turned over to the Govern- Mr. Chairman. it seems that during 2,000 licensed importers in Vietnam. ment. We are trying to stimulate pri- debate in this parliamentary body, one These merchants pay for aid-fine.nced vate enterprise in South Vietnam. of the parliamentarians rose with a reso- imports with their own currency, the Mr. MACGREGOR. I am glad to hear lution asking or demanding that Its piaster, The payment goes to the Viet- the gentleman say that. The gentleman government declare war on the United n,a,mese Government which uses the indicated in his statement that the Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 A4proved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 21 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE recipient of this aid is the Government of South Vietnam. It is my understand- ing that the direct recipient, and prop- erly so if we are going to recognize the value of the profit motive, is the private business sector in South Vietnam. That sector, of course, pays taxes on many of these commodities-rice is not one of them-but on many of these items in- cluded in the commodity import pro- gram. Is that not a correct statement of how the commodity import program works? Mr. GRIDER. That is not to say that we should abandon the program because some of the people importing have been guilty of misfeasance; no. Mr. MACGREGOR. And that the gen- tleman from Minnesota did not say or suggest. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from New York [Mr.REID]. Mr. REID of New York. Mr. Chair- man, I rise in support of H.R. 12169, the supplemental foreign assistance au- thorization for fiscal year 1966. Having just returned from an official but brief trip to South Vietnam for the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives, I believe it is important to report briefly on a few of the matters before the House today. It is correct that this overall author- ization of $415 million is essential to the success of our joint efforts in South Viet- nam-for financing the import of essen- tial commodities, for rural construction, for port expansion, for refugee relief, and for general development. The conflict in Vietnam cannot be won by military means alone because the mil- itary operations there are important largely as they allow the country to pro- ceed with its social and economic recon- struction programs. Given the . defeat of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese main force units, the civil actions programs in the villages and hamlets may have the security with which to proceed. I would like to stress to my colleagues, Mr. Chairman, the seriousness and the magnitude of the problem-and the major job that has to be done. First, a word about the general logistic situation and the port of Saigon. We are some 3 to 4 months behind in catching up with our supply effort and our logistic needs. This has not been clearly stated, and I think it should be. The administration did not anticipate- even though this may have been difficult to foresee-the magnitude of the supply buildup. They did not get on top of it fast enough nor establish clear priorities. Moreover, the Government in Saigon has been very slow to organize and direct the actual port operations. For many years there have been six or more differ- ent agencies involved-a system that is inefficient if not worse. At last I think we have had some serious discussions with the Government in Saigon on the need for single port management, and we are now starting to take corrective and vigorous measures to catch up. The new port at Cam Ranh Bay is encouraging, and new port and airfield facilities now under construction will markedly help. However, it is still a major problem. Second, the question of inflation is real. During the past year the price of rice to the consumer in Saigon has gone up about 40 percent. Hopefully Prime Minister Ky, with a budget of 55 billion piasters, will try to keep expenses in line. It is something of a commentary on the conflict in South Vietnam, and also an element in this import financing pro- gram, to note that a few years ago South Vietnam exported about 300,000 tons of rice. It was a significant part of the rice bowl in southeast Asia. Today, because of Vietcong terrorism and the actions of main force units, Sai- gon has to import about 400,000 tons of rice. This is a measure of the problem. The real job ahead, however, lies in the rural areas; in the villages and hamlets of South Vietnam representing about 80 percent of the people. We should recog- nize in this House that this is very nearly a lost revolution. For almost 20 years or more, very little has been done by the Government in Saigon to meet the revo- lution of rising expectations, to reach and work with the people in the villages, to offer them genuine participation in their Government and their future. Hopefully, and at last, a program has been started that will give the people of South Vietnam some hope that the Gov- ernment cares about their concerns, is going to work with them, and is going to meet the problem. During my recent trip I visited a village where the civil action program is in operation and a camp where political 'action workers are being trained. In the camp there are 3,000 students enrolled. The women are being trained in first aid, teaching, and health education; and the men are be- ing taught construction and trade skills, the elements of rebuilding hamlet gov- ernment, and necessary paramilitary skills. Once trained, the students are divided into teams of approximately 40 members and sent back into the province from where they were recruited by the South Vietnamese province chief. They will work, live, and sleep in their villages. All too often in the past because of the Vietcong terror, village and hamlet chiefs left their village in time of peril to seek sanctuary in the district of pro-, vincial capital. Needless to say, this did not always enhance respect for them in their own villages. By the end of 1966 it is expected that civil action teams will be in 1,000 of the country's 12,000 vil- lages and hamlets in four areas. But I do not think we should kid our- selves about the nature, the character, or the extent of this commitment. We are dealing with a situation that is politi- cal and military-unless there is real security in the villages and hamlets, the pacification program will not really get off the ground. Over 20,000 village and hamlet chiefs have been assassinated in the last 3 years-one of the most recent wasthe tragic assassination of the popu- lar mayor of Ap Quang Nam, a quiet, peaceful village which appeared to be on the road to pacification. Equally the civil action program and rural reconstruction are long range and will take at least 5 years-possibly 10 or more. 3857 Furthermore, Mr. Chairman, I would state that unless the central government in Saigon initiates genuine and far- reaching reforms in education, in land reform, in opening opportunities to the refugees, and in creating a sense and a conviction as to opportunity and partici- pation for all people in South Vietnam., the work in the villages will not be sup- ported and hope will be dashed. We and our allies are committed in South Vietnam. We must fully back our men in the field-whose morale is mag- nificent-and we must do all we can to encourage South Vietnamese efforts at reform and reconstruction. Hence the need for this authorization which I sup- port today. And at all times we must utilize every resource of diplomacy-including the United Nations-to reach the conference table and an honorable peace. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Florida [Mr. FASCELL]. (Mr. FASCELL asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. FASCELL. Mr. Chairman, if I have been surprised by anything in this discussion today, I must confess that what surprises me most is the unanimity of opinion that seems to be apparent. If I had a hat, I think I would take it off in salute to those gentlemen who have joined in a bipartisan foreign policy ef- fort which is so vital to the security of the United States and to the free world. I would trust that we would have more of this kind of support of our effort on the part of both sides of the aisle. I am a strong one for dissent, and I am a firm believer in discussion. I think the discussion here today, how- ever, has made it extremely clear-at least to me-that everyone recognizes full well the depth of the crisis. We might have doubts; we might have res- ervations; we might have wishes; we might have our "druthers"; but it looks like what we are going to 'do is to sup- port this authorization as a matter of correct policy for the United States of America just as we supported the res- olution giving the President the full au- thority in 1964 to use armed force in Vietnam. And we ought to support this authorization because it is the right thing to do. I do not know what is going to happen in the other body or what kind of debate will take place in the other body from this time forward. But for me here to- day I am perfectly satisfied with the dis- cussion and the debate which has trans- pired in behalf of the American people. We have been holding hearings in the Foreign Affairs Committee almost daily since we reconvened this year. We have had full debate and discussion either in the full committee on the authorization or in one subcommittee or another on this entire subject of southeast Asia, in- cluding Vietnam. Everyone has had ample opportunity to get their viewpoint across, to be heard, to criticize, to delve, to contradict, to distract, or to do any- thing they want to do. All members certainly have ample op- portunity here on the floor, to say any- Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040 0 0002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24., 1966 thing they wanted to about the policy of this country. But we are at the crux of C oited States-Vietnam policy today with the vote on this particular authorization. With the transpiring of the events since we last convened here in this body, we know a major change has taken place not only in Vietnam and around the world but also in the thinking of the American people. 't'hat is why this vote important. When we vote today we give a re- ;;funding vote of support to the Presi- dent, and we are giving a resounding vote of support to the policy of this '5ountry. 1. Shall support, this authorization and the necessary appropriation and the sub- sequent defense supplemental authoriza- i,ion and appropriation, because, as far os I am concerned, the military effort and the economic effort in Vietnam are inseparable in the policy of the United ,.;testes in dealing with the problem of Vietnam. southeast Asia, the free world, and the security of the United States. t am delighted at the courageous ;t;atement on the part of the gentleman from Indiana IMr. ADAIR], who says he will support, if I understood him cor- rectly, this authorization for those very swine reasons. We all have recognized the tremen- dous cost of doing a job that needs to he done and that has never been done before in the history of the world, in waging the kind of fight we are fighting in Vietnam and at the same time trying to lie:lp in maintaining a government and reconstruct the country while the war- fare is going on. 'I'h:is only points out what we should have recognized and do now recognize, that we-the United :3tates and the free world-must have a nonmilitary answer to the subversive thrusts of communism anywhere in the world. I disagree with those who say that we ought to always support the status quo, or that we should let people stew in their own juice, or that we should let the rest +rf the people of the world wallow in the depths of their own misery. This indi- cates to me a kind of blindspot, that we in the United States can live in some- way apart from the rest of the world, and that we can bulldoze our allies into doing what we want to do when we want to do it, as if they have no sovereign rights, no right to independent thought, no right to independent action. Certainly I get aggravated because other countries on not agree with me and my country at a time when I think rirey ought to. But is this not the very strength of our free and democratic sys- tem? The United States makes no claim of having a totalitarian hold on the rest of the free world. We act in concert but do so voluntarily. Is not this the kind of Freedom we fight for? We are trying now to help the people of South Vietnam, who have fought for 100 years to throw off the yoke of oppression. Is this not what we are trying to do? Of course it is. We know it-the whole world knows it. States, but also to assure that freedom as such-the concepts that we hold so dear and that we have fought for and that we are fighting for right now-have a chance to live. Because without that, then the money does not have any meaning. So I want to join all of you today on the floor of this House who say: "We trust our President, our military and political leaders who support this re- quest pending here." I believe that we .have to do what is necessary, in what is a. war zone, not only in the military sense but in the political sense. k 1r. Chairman, I have one concluding thought, I trust this authorization will be overwhelmingly approved. It should be. Airs. :BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I am very happy to yield 2 minutes to the dis- tinguished gentleman from New Jersey 11Vlr. CAIIILL 1. (Mr. CAHILI., asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- ins rks. ) .Mr. CAHILJ- Mr. Chairman, my participation in this debate, completely unexpected, was prompted by the re- marks of the gentleman from Iowa I Mr. Gaoss], NN 110 made a disclosure on the floor of this House which, to say the least, surprised if not amazed me, when he recited the participation of other na- tions to the w~,r in Vietnam. Now let it be known, I have supported the administrrtion completely in its views on Vietnam because I believe if Vietnam falls, s,o does all of Asia fall. I also believe that our Nation should Jeep its word. We were a signator to the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty. I quote from that treaty. Article IV reads: Each party recognizes that aggression by means of armed attack in the treaty area ;;g;;.inst any of She parties or against any ^tste or territ :?ry which the parties by unanimous, agreement may hereafter dcsfg- nate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger, etc. This document is one of the legal and moral basis for our involvement. We are keeping our pledge. But what about the other signatory to the treaty? What about the other nations in Asia who are so vitally affected? I would, like to propound three ques- tions either to the Chairman or to any member of they Committee. In vies; of the reasons advanced as to why we are in Vietnam I would like to know, first, what are the Asian countries doing to protect Asia? It seems to me that if there were a Itoc:d in Pennsylvania and I were asked to come over and hell' the people of Pennsylvania to still the flood- waters, I would expect every Pemisyl- vanian to be there helping me. Our people want to know why Asia is not helping Asia. The second iluestion is this: What, are the other signatories to this treaty do- ing to help implement the treaty and to carry out their word of honor that they would participate and oppose aggres;ion? The CHAIRMAN. The time of the Most of the American people care, gentleman has again expired. support this principle, and the price not Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield only to assure the security of the United the gentleman. 2 additional minutes. Mr. CAHILL. Third, and I guess the most important question, because I think the first two questions are already an- swered by the disclosures of the gentle- man from Iowa-the most important question is this, in my judgment, and. I believe it is in the judgment of the Amer- ican people: What is the administration doing to-and for want of a better word I say-to persuade the Asian countries and the signatories under this treaty to make a comparable-if not an equal at, least a comparable-contribution to the one which we are making by giving each day that goes by our men in order to save southeast Asia for the Asian coun- tries and for the world and to carry out our pledge? I yield to the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. GALLAGHER] for an answer to those questions. Mr. GALLAGHER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to point out that there is a considerable effort being made on the part of our allies to bring stability and peace to southeast Asia. While one of the gentlemen on the other side has derided the efforts of some of these na- tions, nevertheless Australia is making a substantial contribution. Australia has sustained casualties and men have been killed. South Korea is making a substantial contribution. They have 20,000 troops there and there is an addi- tional troop contingent earmarked for Vietnam. The British, as signatories to the treaty, have 50,040 troops in Ma- laysia fighting the same kind of problem which we have. We have significant forces in Japan. The Philippines are our great friend and ally. They are sending troops. I am sure history will record that Thailand is making one of the great and valiant contributions to the activities in Vietnam. New Zealand has troops there. India and Pakistan, of course, we recognize have problems of their own, but by and large there is a great conh;;ri- bution being made by our allies there. I think our Secretary of State and our Vice President, on the recent trip he made, have had some encouraging re- ports on the contribution which is going to be made on the part of our allies. I think we should start to focus on what is being done instead of what is not being done. Mr. CAHILL. If I may, Mr. Chair- man, I would just like to finish the :cast minute by making this observation. I have particular reference to the signa- tories to the treaty. The United King- dom, New Zealand, France, Australia, Pakistan, and, of course, what the gen- tleman from Iowa put into the RECnr:,D which is represented by him at least to have come from the State Department delineating what their contributions are. My only point is this, Mr. GALLAOITEC. I, of course, as I say, have supported the administration but I think there o '-`A to be a greater effort made on the part of the administration to bring to the attention of these countries in southeast Asia the great danger which is facing them. They should be urged, if not persuaded, to :make a contribution of military forces. I think the signatories to this treaty also ought to be urged to Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 nAA Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CI 7B0 o February 24, 1966. CONGRESSIONAL R - ffffli do likewise, because until they do that our people at home do not realize and do not appreciate that they are making what should be one of the real contri- butions to this overall effort. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from New York [Mr. RYAN]. (Mr. RYAN asked and was given per- mission to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. RYAN. Mr. Chairman, today, as we all know, some 200,000 American men are engaged in a war on the mainland of Asia, some 10,000 miles from our shores. Last night the President of the United States said he could not predict how long we would bear this burden. There is mounting evidence that the more men we involve in the jungles of Vietnam, the more men North Vietnam and the Vietcong are committing. The escalation continues. Mr. Chairman, it is reliably reported that the United States may have to double its manpower in Vietnam to 400,- 000 men, or even 600,000 men, in order to stabilize the situation and to bring under control any significant part of the territory of South Vietnam. The callup of Reserves appears to be imminent. Mr. Chairman, on past occasions on the floor of this House I have expressed my reservations and my misgivings about our policy in southeast Asia. I have proposed alternatives. On June 10, 1964, during debate on the Foreign As- sistance Act of 1964, I urged a negotiated settlement and spelled out specific pro- posals. I pointed out then that any sblu- tion must be accompanied by genuine economic and political reform. Now we are engaged in a land war in Asia, a war that prominent U.S. military experts have advised us against. Since May 5 of last year when I opposed the $700 million supplemental appropriation for military activities in Vietnam, a war in which we were supposedly performing an advisory capacity under the military assistance program, has been converted to an American war which we are in fact waging on a much larger scale. Mr. Chairman, I believe it has been a fundamental error to rely, as we have, upon a military solution and to have underestimated the economic aspects, the social aspects, and the political aspects of this struggle. We are today considering a bill which Is concerned with the economic aspects, concerned with the social aspects, and concerned with the political aspects of this struggle. It provides $175 million for the commercial import assistance program, which in effect Is a program to support the war-torn economy. it pro- vides $100 million for what is called rural construction. In the past our 'AID programs have not put sufficient emphasis on this rural construction effort. They have not given enough attention to the need to reach the people out in the countryside. Mr. Chairman, I support this bill. I do so even though much of the money and effort will be drained off by the growing conflict. I hope we will be able to see some day- light in reaching into the hearts and the minds of the people in South Viet- nam. This is a struggle which, if it is going to be won, is going to have to be won politically; it is going to have to be won diplomatically, and in terms which the people themselves will be able to under- stand. However, as long as the war escalates, our economic assistance program tends to become an extension of the military program since it is used to meet the effects of the war, not to develop a future peacetime economy. U.S. military expenses in Vietnam are running at about $10 billion a year, while economic aid for Vietnam is costing about half a billion dollars a year. In yesterday's New York Times, Sey- mour Topping, respected southeast Asia correspondent, writes: The South Vietnamese population is, ac- cording to all accounts, suffering more from military operations, terrorism, economic dislocation and corrputfon than at any other time during more than two decades of intermittent war. He goes on to say that the social fabric of the country "seems to be unraveling." We should recognize that the $275 million increase in AID funds are un- likely to bring about significant changes in the dreary and frustrating picture de= scribed by the New York Times corre- spondent as long as the war continues to expand. The American people should not be misled into thinking that our AID dollars will build a Great Society in South Viet- nam. The fact is that, of necessity, more, and more AID money is going into the support of the war economy and not on economic development that will have long-range benefits for the Vietnamese people. Eighty percent of the population lives in rural villages, but AID, because of the war, can take only token steps to im- prove the lot of the peasants. In appearing before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on January 26, Secre- tary of State Dean Rusk said: The free Vietnam we seek to preserve through military efforts and sacrifices must not be undermined by economic and social chaos and despair. The expanding scale of Communist aggression and military response Lave added new dimensions to the task of AID. He added that he regarded economic assistance programs in Vietnam as of equal importance with military assist- ance efforts. An increasingly larger share of, AID funds will have to be directed to the task of keeping the Vietnam economy from collapsing under the inflationary pres- sures produced by the war. Rural con- struction programs in the villages and rural areas to develop school systems, water supplies, health stations, and agri- cultural know-how will be affected by the need to use funds to check the run- away inflation and by the realities of the military situation. Vietcong terror and destruction will prevent their im- plementation in 75 percent of the coun- try. 3859 David E. Bell, Administrator of AID, in appearing before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, stated that our sup- porting assistance obligations had reached $235 million by the end of 1965. This is almost the entire amount-$255 million-appropriated for fiscal 1966. To cope with rampant inflation, AID has expanded the financing of commer- cial imports. Of the additional $275 million that is sought, a total of $175 million will be allocated to this import program. And Mr. Bell states that he expects these inflationary pressures to be far more severe in 1966. Assuming the supplemental funds au- thorized by the bill before us are appro- priated, it is estimated that some $370 million of the total $530 million AID funds for Vietnam for fiscal year 1966 will be used for this import program. For fiscal 1967 this figure is expected to increase to $420 million. This program finances the import of both consumer goods and industrial ma- terials to keep manufacturing and con- struction going, and to absorb the increased purchasing power. The dis- ruption of the economy by the war ne- cessitates this expanded assistance. In addition to the $175 million to fi- nance an expanded import program, a total of $100 million is asked for an ex- pansion of counterinsurgency efforts or for "logistics, construction, welfare, and development projects." Here again, it is clear that these efforts for the most part are related to the military situation in the country and are war-support measures, involving construction proj- ects to ease critical problems caused by damaged bridges, highways, clogged ports and warehouses. Also some $20 million is needed to operate the growing refugee program, again a war-related project. Only about $50 million of the total $530 million available is intended for the rural pacification or rural construc- tion programs that attempt to satisfy some of the basis needs of the 13 million Vietnamese peasants. It has been reliably estimated that at least $390 million of the total $530 mil- lion will be spent on programs and proj- ects that can be attributed to the de- terioration of the Vietnam economy because of the war. Therefore, only some $140 million is to be used for eco- nomic development programs, either of the rural variety or of the type involv- ing the construction of highways or the training of teachers. While I support this supplementary authorization, we should not be deluded into believing that these funds will somehow open up a new era in the eco- nomic development of Vietnam and that this will turn the military tide. Can war be waged and meaningful, grassroot economic development of a peasant economy be carried out con- currently? More than $2.7 billion has been poured into economic assistance programs in Vietnam in the last decade. Because it has mainly been used to sup- port the savage war, there are precious few results to show for our munificence. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24, 1966 Let us not expect any dramatic results from the $275 million that we are asked to approve for Vietnam today- Let us be frank with ourselves and with our fellow Americans. The war in Vietnam has claimed many victims, including Great Society pro- g;rams at home. The long-range pur- pose of the AID program is one of the casualties. I fear that this will continue to be the case until there is peace in that war-torn country or at the very least until there is a cessation of hostilities. The goals outlined by the President at the Honolulu conference are both admir- eble and praiseworthy. Plans were ar- ticulated for more intensive efforts to pacify the countryside by economic and political means so that a government apparatus can be set up that might be responsive to the needs of the vast ma- jority of the population. President Johnson has said: The war we are helping them fight must Kre won on two fronts- One is military. The other front is the struggle against social injustice; against hunger, disease, and ig- ,torance; against political apathy and indif- zerence. Of course, we ought to direct our en- ergies and efforts to the second front that the President talks about. However, it is going to be almost im- possible to succeed against political apathy and indifference while the Viet- namese peasant is trapped and buffeted by this war. One day the Vietcong at- tack his village and destroy his home; the next day American bombers wreak havoc in his hamlet, in quest of the Viet- cong. '].'lie limited rural pacification program that AID is undertaking may be about all that can be don.. in the incredibly dif- ficult circumstances of a full-scale land war. if the Vietnamese peasant is to be persuaded, if imaginative programs con- cerned with the welfare of the Viet- namese people are to be set up in the provinces, then first a way to end the fighting will have to be found. Only then can meaningful economic develop- ment of the country be carried out. If the Saigon Government hopes to be successful when free elections are finally held, it must forge firm political, eco- ifomic, and social links with the people. Mr. Chairman, the United States is turw encouraging the central government 1.o adopt a program which will build hospitals, and health stations and schools, and help with the development of the agricultural economy. This, the I. resident talked about at Honolulu as the second front in this war. But let us face the fact that we are really not going Igo be able to succeed with this second front so long as it is operated concur- ccntly with an enlarged and escalated military effort. The second front to gain the support cP the people, the war to conquer disease tnd hunger in South Vietnam, is ham- :,1,rung by this total involvement in mili- I,:o,ry operations. As long as the South Vietnamese peasant is caught between the Vietcong on the one hand and the U.S. military forces on the other, he sim- i,ly is not going to have an opportunity And we have heard of the many hun- dreds of thousands of refugees who are presently in South Vietnam- provision of medical teams and individual doctors and :nurses; building or repairing of hospitals and veterans' rehabilitation cen- ters; leasing; of ships for coastal and ocean supply operations; expanding civil airlift ca- pacity; building of warehouses, bridges, roads; repair of war-damaged rail and other facilities; installation of temporary and per- manent electric power services; construction of workers' housing and training centers; police equipment and training- Quite obviously, the list is long. The needs of South Vietnam are tremendous. It is quite evident that if we do authorize the money, it will be spent in that coun- try and, of course, in the countries around Vietnam in the amounts which have been requested. I myself believe that an argument can be made to support earmarking funds in a foreign aid bill. In this case, however, it is unrealistic for us to argue that there is any need to earmark these particular funds. It is quite obvious that the basic necessity is there. The necessity is obvi- ous from the fact that we have already borrowed almost $64 million from other funds within the foreign aid program. From the amount being requested, that sum must be reimbursed. So the basic issue should be, not how much might be diverted to areas not of primary concern such as Vietnam, but how much more will be needed in that country. Whether or not language is put in the bill to require earmarking, it is quite clear the administration will do as it has indicated. We have every reason to trust them. One final point, Mr. Chairman. There has been some indication of dissatisfac- tion with the contributions of our allies to the effort we are making in Vietnam. Of course, our effort is tremendous. Of course, every effort should be made to have that burden shared with our friends and allies and others who have an inter- est in southeast Asia. Yet we do our- selves no good and we surely are not recognizing the contributions that our Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 to develop the relationship which is needed with his own government. So, Mr. Chairman, while it is necessary to expand and extend our economic as- sistance, nevertheless, we should not be- lieve that this will open up any Great Society for the people of South Vietnam. This is doing nothing more than en- abling them to keep their heads above water economically. It should be rec- ognized and supported for what it is. It is imperative that we spare no effort and leave no stone unturned to reach a peaceful solution of this tragic conflict. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from New York has expired. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield the gentleman 1. additional minute. Mr. RYAN. Mr. Chairman, I thank the distinguished chairman of the Com- mittee on Foreign Affairs for yielding, me the additional time, In summary, I believe the objectives of this proposal, particularly of the rural construction program, are meaningful objectives, and I hope that from this point on a great deal more effort will be put into political and social programs which should, if properly carried out, reach the people. This is a struggle for the hearts and minds of men. In the long run it will be won by the power of our ideals. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. FRELCNGHUYSEN1. (Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN asked and was given permission to revise and ex- tend his remarks.) Mr. F.R:ELINGHU:i'SEN. Mr. Chair- man, the discussion today has indicated quite clearly why we can be confident that there will be virtual. unanimity in favor of this bill. I surely hope that will be the case because in my opinion, this is a, most important bill. It is important also that we move with reasonable spited. There has been some indication dur- ing the debate today about whether or not we are wise in mounting the mili- tary effort that we have been making in Vietnam. However, there can be little debate however on. the advisability of the funds which are being sought in this bill. These funds are not being requested to prosecute a war, although they are, as President Johnson indicated, of equal basic importance to our military effort there. Unquestionably, the aid which will. be provided in this bill will be used to :help provide a strong front against aggression. As 'Vice President Hum- rxaEY said at a 'briefing at the White House today, we are concerned both with a war against aggression and a war on misery. Quite briefly, these funds are to help us in the latter struggle. I should like very briefly to report what the Secretary of State said before the Committee on Foreign Affairs when he ;justified the funds. I quote: The free Vietnam we seek to preserve through military efforts and sacrifices must not be undermined by economic and social chaos and despair. The expanding scale of Communist aggression and our military re- sponse have added new dimensions to the task of AID. Without our AID programs we could win the major military battles in Viet- nam and still lose the war and the peace. For this reason I regard our economic as- sistance programs in Vietnam as equal in importance, although not nearly so large In scale, with our military assistance. I should also like to give the two major reasons why the Secretary of State ap- pealed for these funds. He says the first reason is to meet, and I quote: First, to meet the rising and severe threat of inflationary pressures, additional funds are needed to finance imported goods; $175 mil- lion are now needed to finance importation for commercial sale of goods such as ride, construction materials, petroleum products, fertilizer, drags, and many other commodi- ties. In this way we contribute to economic and political stability, by offsetting shortages in local production and maintaining morale essential to the entire effort. Second, $100 million is needed to fund new or expanded activities to strengthen the Gov- ernment of Vietnam's work in contested rural areas. These AID operations include refugee relief- February , ppr966 ov d For Ret1KEE55i81~-AL%MRb7 0qf6 0400030002-3 3861 allies have made, or that they might cause I was an American and repre- make, by in effect belittling and sneering sented that country which had helped at what they have done. them to live the better life that they are In many cases these countries are poor now enjoying. and primarily concerned with their own Mr. Chairman, the people of Korea are problems. In many cases there has been truly grateful for what we have done to a substantial contribution already made, help them through our AID programs. and more are evidently in the works. And so are the people of Japan, Oki- Without any question the neighbors of nawa, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thai- Vietnam realize the importance of what land, and South Vietnam. But there is is going on there. There is an increasing much more that needs to be done and awareness of the practical problem that must be done, if we are to win the peace, we have faced up to so deliberately. especially in South Vietnam. Quite practically, one of the reasons In South Vietnam the farmer culti- why some of our small allies or our less vates a land capable of great produc- wealthy allies have not done more may be tivity. Despite a primitive system of because they are somewhat intimidated agriculture, inadequate tools, and lack of by the nature and the size of the effort technical knowledge, South Vietnam used of the United States. When we can to be the rice bowl of southeast Asia. afford to pour the billions of dollars that The Vietcong with their acts of terrorism we do into this effort of ours-and it is have changed it from a land of abun- primarily our effort-it does make any dance to a land of hunger. minor contribution from a small country Plagued by mass murders, fire, and de- seem like very little. Yet the sacrifices struction, South Vietnam has become an involved in order to make those small importer instead of an exporter of rice. contributions should, I believe, not only With the assistance of American AID be recognized but should be received with programs the people of South Vietnam thankfulness. are striving to make the land productive In conclusion I should simply like to once more in the midst of war. AID seeks reiterate that the funds we are request- to give the Vietnamese farmer a stake ing here today are a relatively small part in his country and a chance to live in of the fight and the effort which We are peace and security. More than 1,000 making in southeast Asia. But these agricultural extension agents have been funds are of equal importance and sig- trained with U.S. help since 1955. More nificance to our military efforts in the than 800 of these are working in the success of our efforts. I hope we are rural areas of the country. Three new virtually unanimous in supporting the vocational agriculture schools have more bill. than 1,500 students enrolled. And an in- I yield back the balance of my time. creasing number of skilled specialists Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield have been graduated from agricultural 5 minutes to the gentleman from Hawaii colleges since 1962. Experimental sta- [Mr. MATSUNACA]. tions in agriculture have been established (Mr. MATSUNAGA asked and was with U.S. help in a nationwide network. given permission to revise and extend A national seed board has been orga- his remarks.) nized to plan and expedite the multipli- Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. Chairman, I cation of superior seed varieties, tested am not a member of the Foreign Affairs and produced by the experimental sta- Committee, but I had the good fortune tions. Improved rice seed has been dis- of going on a study mission to the Orient tributed to more than 50,000 families. during the last congressional recess. Where fertilizer has been distributed, Mr. Chairman, I rise in support of crop yields have increased by as much as H.R. 12169. I do so because I have seen 40 percent; and these programs are con- what our dedicated AID people have tinuing. Pesticides, too, are helping the done and are continuing to do in our farmer increase his yields-he can take friendly Asian countries. They have advantage of these benefits through lib- performed and are continuing to per- eral credit programs-and he does. form near miracles in helping our Asian He has been able to get breeder pigs, friends to help themselves. corn to fatten them, and concrete to In Taiwan, for example, our AID build sties. An AID-sponsored veteri- people have helped to create such a vi- nary program has eliminated hog chol- able agricultural economy that the farm- era-a serious killer disease, and the er and the farmworker enjoy a higher farmer now has new income from the income than the factory worker. sale of his pigs, and he can continue mov- ing toward a better life. In Korea, our AID program under Public Law 480 has been 'so successful Until peace comes to the land, how- our explanation of it to our people at that we have virtually wiped out hunger ever, its fullest productivity cannot be home, and of the use that is made of the and so-called spring scarcity in Suwon relized. And so, we give to our allies in money-that we will be able to demon- Valley and other once poverty stricken South Vietnam the benefits of crops strate more and more each day that we areas. I was never so proud of being an grown in our own land. Through the are there because we were invited; that American as I was last November, as food-for-peace program, in what must be we are still there because we cannot be- I stood atop a knoll overlooking the the most graphic illustration of what the tray those people over there and leave rice fields of Suwon Valley, and the program can mean, we are making a them to the Communists. Governor of Kyonggi Province pinned a number of our products-such as sweet- It is my earnest hope, Mr. Chairman, medal on my chest as he conferred an ened condensed milk, wheat flour, rice, that this bill may be passed practically, honorary citizenship on me. I knew and vegetable oil-available to supple- if not entirely, unanimously. then that I was being so honored, not ment the produce of South Vietnam. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield because I looked like one of them, or Progress has been made in the fishing 5 minutes to the gentleman from Con- because I spoke their language, but be- industry, too. At least 14 major fish necticut [Mr. MONAGAN]. markets and wharves have been built and put, into operation. More than 10,000 boats have been equipped with motors, and all time highs are being reached in the catches. Thus fishing is becoming a major source of income and the increase means that food is available at lower cost to the Vietnamese consumer. Mr. Chairman, through AID programs we have been able to show the South Vietnamese that he now has a stake in the outcome of the war. By helping himself and learning new and better methods, the Vietnamese farmer realizes now that he is building for a better fu- ture for himself and his loved ones. If we are to win the war in Vietnam we must continue to expand our efforts to improve Vietnamese agriculture and pro- vide a solid basis of security for the Vietnamese people. If we are to win the peace we must increase our efforts to ex- port our know-how and show-how to those in need. This our dedicated AID people have done most commendably, and through the support of Congress must continue to do. Mr. FULTON of Pennsylvania. I wish to congratulate the distinguished gentle- man from Hawaii [Mr. MATSUNACA] for his excellent statement. It is a pleasure to report to the House on the great serv- ice that he rendered our country on his tour of the Far East during the congres- sional recess. He was certainly a one- man ambassador of good will for the United States and the American people in all the friendly Asian countries we on the committee visited. Mrs. BOLTON. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may require. I have been deeply interested through all of this debate, interested particularly in the unanimity that seems to pervade this Chamber. We do not agree on all of this bill, and a good many of us would like to see the contingency fund changed. We will see what happens when the amendments are suggested. The war there is something that we are quite unable to understand unless we have been fortunate enough to have gone over -there, as I was fortunate enough to go to Europe during the war, and to have seen the way things really happen. You have seen what it does to our men. I hope you saw what I have had told to me so many times-the tremendous courage of our soldiers and their cer- tainty that they are fighting the fight for right, for freedom, for everything that matters in living, and that they propose to win. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24, 1966 (Mr. MONAGAN asked and was given allies and associates I should like to add permission to revise and extend his to what the gentleman from New Jersey remarks.) [Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN1, said about some Mr. MONAGAN. Mr. Chairman, I am of them; namely that there are two delighted to share in this rising tide other countries who have very sub- of unanimity and to announce my sup- stantial problems of their own and are port of this legislation that we are con- still dealing with them. One of these is sidering here today. Malaysia where the British have contrib- too, want to compliment those Mem- uted 50,000 troops, and the other is bers on the other side of the aisle who Indonesia which is going through revo- have recognized that support of our lutionary throes now because of the country and support of the President in Communist aggression in that country. these difficult days does require that we join together at, times like this with the objective of backing up our men in uni- form and our civilian administrators who are in the field in southeast Asia and at the same time helping to strengthen the social fabric of our friends in South Vietnam. It is particularly important in consid- ering this legislation to see just what it does in its significant sections. Mention has already been made of the $175 million that would go for the financ- ing of additional imports, but it is in the $100 million section, I think, that most of the impact resides. This see- Lion affects people. It involves refugee relief. It involves activities to improve conditions in rural areas. It involves the provision of doctors and nurses and medical teams. It involves the con- struction or the repair of bridges, roads, and rail facilities. It involves the con- struction of hospitals and workers' hous- ing. Finally, it involves training of police and security forces who will help to bring to the countryside and to the people protection from the depredations of the Vietcong which have terrorized them for so long. The gentleman from New York [Mr. RYAN] said that we are not going to build a great society with this program. That Is true, but I am sure that no one con- nected with this bill at any stage had any idea that we would do such a thing. First of all this is an emergency program and is limited in scope. Second, the ele- ment that has been preventing us from moving into the field of assistance where we could consider cooperation on a peacetime program has not been any ac- tivity of ours but the aggression of North Vietnam and the terroristic activities of the Vietcong. Certainly we could co- operate in a peacetime constructive pro- gram if these destructive activities were curtailed or eliminated. This then is foreign aid, but it is for- eign aid that is specialized and limited. I certainly have no doubt, even though doubt has been expressed here today by some people, as to what will be the des- tination of the funds that are authorized in this legislation. There is no ques- tion in my mind. that not only these funds but several times the amount of he funds provided in this authorization could be and will be probably used in a relatively brief time in South Vietnam. Of course, we are dealing through this bill and through the defense appropria- tion bill which will come to us very shortly with the aggressive Communist imperialism. Certainly we want to do everything we can to repel this imperial- ism. Incidentally, in considering the activi- Lies and contributions of some of our So I think this legislation does say that this program is important. It does say that it is needed now. It does say that it is so important that it cannot wait for regular legislation to be taken up in the normal process of things. It is serving a vital program of our Nation. It is backing up the 500,000 men of the Republic of South Vietnam who are in the field and are saying by their presence there that they are worthy of our sup- port. I am sure that the House will do no less than give Its overwhelming and I hope unanimous backing to this bill. Mr. MORGAN. Mr. Chairman. I yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Ohio [Mr. HAYSI. Mr. HAYS. Mr. Chairman I, too, want to say that I am pleased at the unanimity that is shown here this after- noon on this particular piece of legis- lation. There may be disagreements on some elements of it. I think the House is aware of the fact that I have been as much of a critic and watchdog of the AID administration as most anybody in the House. I asked the Secretary of State when he was testifying before our com- mittee on this bill. about the black mar- keting in Saiegon. I pointed out that when the staff director of our committee and I were there we had been apprised of one person who sent a substantial surn of money back to the United States. The Secretary assured us that day he would have the matter looked into very closely. I have learned only today that one civilian employee of a contractor out there has been ordered out of the country and has had his passport invali- dated because he sent back $30,000 to the United. States and could not explain how he got it. This sort of thing is, unfortunately, almost inevitable in a situation like this, but I am delighted to be able to say that the people responsible for the AID pro- gram and for our conduct out there are alert and that when these matters are brought to their attention they do some- thing about them. I believe that is a helpful thing, as far as I am personally concerned, and should be as far as the House of Representatives is concerned. Mr. Chairman, there is one other mat- ter that I would like to mention. I would like to sort of apologize to the House of Representatives. There have been a lot of remarks made on the other side of this building which I believe have aided our enemies out there, because I believe they are hoping for us to get tired of this war and quit. I further believe that is the reason they think they are win- ning. Mr. Chairman, yesterday the junior Senator from my State made a personal attack upon the Secretary of State and said that he ought to resign. On be- half of the people of my district I want to apologize, because I supported the junior Senator a year ago last fall. He ran 1,025,000 votes behind the President in Ohio, the junior Senator's majority in the entire State of Ohio was 16,000 votes. He received a larger majority than that in my district. So, Mr. Chairman, on behalf of my constituents I want to apologize for his intemperate attack upon the Secretary of State, whom I think is doing a great job under very difficult circumstances. Mr. SWEENEY. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. HAYS. I am delighted to yield to my fine colleague from Ohio, the Con- gressman at Large, and who represents all of the State of Ohio. Mr. SWEENEY. Mr. Chairman. I want to commend the distinguished gentleman from Ohio [Mr. HAYSI for the courageous position he has taken .here today in offering an apology to the House of Representatives and to the Nation for the quite intemperate re- marks of the junior Senator from the State of Ohio made in the other body here yesterday. Mr. Chairman, on behalf of the people of the State of Ohio, I would like to join with the gentleman from Ohio. I feel we can be doves and hawks and of var- ious opinions without resorting to such disagreeable tones. Mr. Chairman, as the distinguished gentleman from the State of Florida [Mr. FASCELL] said earlier this after- noon, these are times when great una- nimity must be displayed by those of us on the side of freedom. I feel that the intemperate personal attack upon the most distinguished for- eign minister this Republic has had in many years is certainly out of order, and I certainly offer an extreme apology on the part of the people of the Buckeye State. Mr. HAYS. I thank the distinguished and hard-working gentleman for his contribution. Mr. Chairman, I want to say that, I support this legislation, and I support the President's position. As I told a member of the administration today, the gentlemen on the other side of the Capitol who are attacking us, who are attacking our being in South Vietnam, have nothing to lose politically, because if we win this thing they have 4 or 5 years to go before they are up for elec- tion, and everyone will forget their position. Mr. Chariman, if, God forbid, we should lose it, they can say "I told you so." So, Mr. Chairman, they have nothing to lose politically; they cannot lose. In conclusion, I would like to allude to one remark that our junior Senator made. He said he would sleep better at night if somebody else were Secretary of State. Well, if he sleeps at the switch much more than he does now, he will be asleep 24 hours a day. Mr. TUNNEY. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make a statement on H.R. 12169, a bill to authorize the appropriation of supplemental funds for fiscal year 1966 AID economic assistance programs total- ing $415 million. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2 ;p~ 6ed For Re~ 8Nfflffil8pALC P BO(1JQ0400030002-3 A significant portion of this supple- mental request, $275 million, is designed for use in South Vietnam. I traveled to Vietnam after the 1st session of the 89th Congress adjourned last year be- cause I wanted to see for myself the ex- isting conditions in this distant land where our servicemen are fighting to preserve and protect the freedom of the people of South Vietnam. It is.apparent that the mood of good will which prevailed when American troops first landed is showing definite signs of deterioration. There is a pos- sibility that our relationship with the South Vietnamese people could further deteriorate as the full impact of Amer- ican spending hits the economy and more of the technically skilled South Vietnamese move to cities adjacent to U.S. military installations where huge construction projects are being pushed to provide logistical support for our com- bat troops.. One Cabinet Minister in the South Vietnam Government told me with a trace of irony in his voice, "An American staff sergeant earns more per month than I do." In my opinion, the only way the war in South Vietnam can be won is to win the battle for the hearts and the minds of the people. The past year has demonstrated that a clear and unequivocal military policy by the United States could produce a rapport with the South Vietnamese Gov- ernment for the benefit of the country. If our policy is just as clear with respect to the South Vietnamese Government instituting social, political, and economic reforms, can we not expect a greater response in this direction than ever has occurred in the past? I think that the United States must not only implore, but demand, that the Ky government overhaul its policies anc: the apparatus of its administration to guarantee a maximum of public acceptance and identification with the national govern- ment in Saigon. We must insist on gen- eral elections at the earliest possible time. We should not be satisfied with lip service being given to reform. We should insist that positive steps be taken. It is not an easy task to remake a poor nation into a developed nation. Nor is it easy for the government of a poor na- tion to gain the confidence of its people. I was told by U.S. officials in Vietnam that 70 percent of the people are illiter- ate. A majority of South Vietnam's 151/2 million population is tied to the land in little better than subsistence agricul- ture. Only 18 percent of the children who complete primary school go on to secondary school and a significant pro- portion of the children never go to school at all. There are over 1 million refugees from the combat zones banded together in numerous camps awaiting relocation of the cessation of hostilities to return to their own farms and villages. There are few schools available for children of. refugees and sanitation conditions in the camps are primitive at best. Disease is widespread throughout the country. One Navy corpsman told me that if there were enough soap available for the peo- ple in the villages and if they would use it, disease could be cut down 50 percent. The people do not have a sense of national identity the way Americans do. The nation-state is for us the focal point of political loyalty, economic strength, social order, and defense against foreign enemies. The Vietnamese have social and cultural homogeneity; but never having known true statehood, and after being a colony of France from 1885 to 1954, they have but limited loyalty to the National Government. An over- whelming majority of village dwellers in the countryside have never seen a high National Government official, let alone never having voted for one. Too often the only contact the people have with the Federal Government is the payment of taxes, with no services or security being provided in return. Living as many of them do in wretched physical circum- stances, they are relatively easy targets for Communist propaganda and prom- ises. There. is no way of avoiding the fact that 22 percent of the population and over 50 percent of the land in South Vietnam would not be under the control of the Vietcong if the people themselves were not actively or tacitly accepting the Communist presence. The problem is intensified because of poor communi- cations between villages. Roads are few in number and travel is made hazard- ous as a result of repeated Vietcong am- bushes along the highways. Telephones and telegraph are nonexistant in many parts of the countryside. The fact that the people have no national identity does not mean this must always be so. The United States has entered into a substantial economic aid program for Vietnam. In fiscal year 1965, we con- tributed $283.2 million. We have already obligated all of the $255.5 million appro- priated for fiscal year 1966 and we are asking for supplemental funds in the amount of $275 million. The object of our program is to develop the resources of the country and to give the rural and urban population, a feeling that there is a better life obtainable in the future and that their own government is better able to provide it than the Communists. Among other things, the United States is supplying agriculture extension serv- ices, fertilizers, pesticides, and medical care; building roads, schools, and hos- pitals, and helping develop local govern- ment administration in rural areas. In my opinion, we are not doing enough for the approximately 800,000 refugees that are currently in the South Vietnam Government controlled areas. I visited a number of camps where the conditions were very poor. Sanitation facilities are often nonexistant and educational oppor- tunities for the children are totally un- satisfactory. A small vocational training course has been initiated to provide tech- nical training for less than 1,500 persons. This is insufficient to have any real im- pact upon the refugee population. There is no question that South Vietnam is going to need an increasingly large num- ber of trained technicians to support industrial growth. An effort should be made to train these refugees who sit in their camps all day without work. By doing so, many of these homeless people could be kept temporarily occupied and made productive members of the society, rather than charity cases draining off an inordinant amount of the nation's lim- ited capital resources to keep them alive. It is commonly pointed out by AID officials that most of the refugees are women and children who are waiting to return to their villages and to their agri- cultural way of life. This does not mean, however, that many of these refugees would not prefer an education and voca- tional training so that they could take up a new life in the urban areas. It has also been suggested by AID officials that if life is made too pleasant in the refugee camps that the refugees will not want to go back to their farms and work for a living. No one is suggest- ing that the refugees be made permanent welfare cases. What I am saying is that the refugee children should be able to receive as good an education as other children in the country. To date the children of the refugees are offered a substantially inferior education, with many refugee camps not providing any schools at all. Only an infinitesimal per- centage go to secondary school upon the completion of primary school. This sit- uation must be corrected. I am disappointed that of the $275 mil- lion requested for supplemental economic assistance to South Vietnam in a cur- rent fiscal year, only $11.6 million is allocated to refugee programs. What is more, $10 million of the $11.6 million is already obligated to pay past debts. This leaves only $11/2 million in fiscal year 1966 to finance programs designed to aid approximately 800,000 refugees. This is dangerously insufficient to ease their condition and to promote their allegiance to the Government of South Vietnam. It is significant that the refugees are made homeless by terrorist activities of the Vietcong, American and South Viet- namese bombardment and combat in and around their villages. The refugees have made a positive commitment to come over to the side of the South Vietnamese Government. They did not go to the Vietcong secured areas. We must not allow this large population of tired, frightened, and homeless people to be- come so frustrated in their refugee camps by lack of concern for their well-being and inability to carry on productive lives that they become a force for sedition rather than a force in support of the South Vietnamese Government. There can be no excuse for failure to take posi- tive action regarding the present condi- tion and future destiny of the 800,000 refugees in South Vietnam today. I am voting in favor of this supple- mental appropriation bill because I feel that it is needed. It is essential that an economic and social revolution accom- pany our military efforts- in Vietnam. Our economic assistance is the critical prerequisite to such a revolution taking place. Although we know there is a cor- ruption in South Vietnam and although we know that much of our AID funds are siphoned off to the personal advantage of numerous corrupt officials, still the program is necessary. We must work to tighten up the administration of the pro- gram, but we must not sacrifice the pro- gram itself because of certain failures in that administration. I would like to say in conclusion that I think that David Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 2.?, 1966 I-ell, the Director of AID, has done a magnificent job in bringing new imagi- nation, talent, and leadership to our eco- nomic assistance program. I am con- lident that he has the ability, if any man has it, to insure the success of the AID program in South Vietnam. Mr. McVICKER. Mr. Chairman, I should like to join with my colleague in urging favorable consideration of the supplemental appropriation bill before us. I should like to speak particularly on behalf of the $25 million amount con- tained in that bill for assistance to the Dominican Republic. It is worth noting, that the provisional government of Hector Godoy operates under the most severe handicaps. Thirty years of dictatorship followed by politi- cal instability and the destruction and hatred of civil war have left the Domini- can Republic ill prepared to create a democratic society. Yet, that is what the Organization of American States, the United States and Dominicans of mod faith are committed to today. Elements of both left and right would exploit the heritage of tyranny and the present unrest to gain control for themselves, but the provisional gov- ernment is determined to steer a course toward democracy, and it is in this, that additional assistance is needed from the United States. Support of the provisional government and of the Organization of American States by the United States has helped to prevent anarchy in the country. Gradually, that assistance is being shift- ed from emergency stopgap aid to devel- opment assistance that will build a foundation upon which the people of the Dominican Republic can create a demo- cratic society. 'fhe provisional government has had the support of OAS troops from the United States and Latin American coun- tries. Technical and economic assist- ance has been given to prevent economic deterioration and to give the Domini- cans themselves time to raise from the ashes a new society. The cost has been great. Yet, if dol- lars, and technical assistance, and an understanding heart can be substituted for bloodshed and destruction, we must be prepared to pay the price. A hemi- sphere at peace, where men may lead good lives and may know social justice is our goal. It was the goal of the na- tions that met at Punta del Este in 1961. It is the goal of the Alliance for Progress. It must remain our goal until every ves- tige of hopelessness and violence born of desperation is banished from our hemisphere. We are asked now to do that which is deemed necessary to give the Domini- cans time to conduct an orderly election in June and to install a democratic gov- ernment. For now, I am convinced that the immediate task of supporting the provisional government warrants our making available the supplementary amount requested by the President I urge my colleagues to approve the supplemental appropriation that is be- fore us. Mr. FULTON of Tennessee. Mr. Chairman, I support the administration's request for a $25 million supplemental appropriation for the Dominican Republic. The Dominican economy has been be- set with a number of enormous problems in, recent years. Following. the fall of Trujillo, the Dominican people demanded a better way of life and something more than a subsistence wage. High wage levels, however, created increased de- mands for imports, the meeting of which created balance-of-payments difficulties. Spending for consumption of imported goods left; little for capital investmr nts, public or private. In 1964, this situation was fin ther complicated by a spectacular drop in sugar prices, in which the economic health of the country rests.. The civil war has severely dislocated economic activity in the country. Total production of goods and services has de- clined and unemployment has increased. Commercial activity in Santo Domingo still suffers from the turmoil of last April. Strikes and other disturbances continue to plague the country. The U.S. objective in assisting the Do- minican Republic is twofold. On the. one hand we are providing aid to relieve immediate suffering, to build stable con- ditions conducive to the holding of free elections, and get a society moving wain. One example is assistance to repair of irrigation ditches which both liberates a material resource and provides the op- portunity to put human resources to work again. To this effort other na':?ions of the hemisphere have contrit uted medical personnel and emergency food supplies. At the same time, we arc looking be- yond immediate measures in an effort to help the Dominicans start the task of building for the long-term growth of their country. The United States is pro- viding technical cooperation to advise the Dominican Government in long-range problems of administrative, fiscal, and monetary reform.. We are assistin;; the stimulation and expansion of food crops and the diversification of agriculture. We are helping community developnent projects including rural access roads, re- forestration, and community centers, in all of which the great part of the job is borne by the local populace. Teacher training and vocational education are also being assisted in other efforts to reach the people directly. While today, the most immediate need is for short-term assistance, assistance which has to date directly affected more than 200,000 people, this effort is a step only in a. long-term drive to help a nation help itself. I urge support of this appro- priation as a measure vital not in putting out a fire but as a link in a program to build an environment in which fire. will become less likely. The threat of Communist subversion is still very real in the Dominican Republic. Cuba stands in the Caribbean as a con- stant reminder of Communist ability to seize power by force and fraud. Economic stability in the Dominican Republic and throughout Latin America is the best possible insurance against communism and that is the purpose of this appropriation. Mr. CHAMBERLAIN. Mr. Chairman, for the past several years I have voted against foreign aid legislation. My rea- son has had a single purpose; namely, to 'register a protest against a program which in sum has been too often poorly conceived and poorly administered. By this I do not mean to say that there has been no good in our foreign aid programs. But I determined some time ago that the only way to encourage the necessary re- forms was to put the executive branch on notice that there were those in Con- gress who are dissatisfied enough with its overall operation to give it a vote of no confidence. The bill before the House today is a supplemental request to the bill which I voted against last session. Its basic pur- pose is to support our efforts in southeast Asia and especially in South Vietnam. While I am certain there are many as- pects of this program that could and should be improved, I do not believe that this crucial hour with so many boys in daily combat is the time to register a pro- test which might in any way be construed to indicate a lack of support on my part for our overall effort in South Vietnam. Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. Chairman, because the attention of the American people is generally focused on reports from the war front in Vietnam, little is known of our fight to provide a perma- nent line of defense in the struggle for men's minds in Vietnam. With cement, roofing materials, and technical assistance supplied by AID, the people of Vietnam are building thousands of classrooms throughout the country- side. Of 9,000 classrooms constructed in the last 5 years, 1,600 were put to- gether by the villagers themselves---a fact which has not been lost on the Viet- cong. Knowing the value that the Viet- namese people place on the education of their children, the Communist guer- rillas hesitate to destroy these new schools. The steady accumulation of teaching facilities--made possible by the assist- ance of U.S. aid-now embraces half of all the primary school aged children of the country. And AID is introducing practical subjects into the public school system to help the people solve their immediate problems; to grow better crops, improve their health, and raise standards of nutrition. More than 14 million textbooks have been distributed by AID, and in the na- tion's four normal schools and 21 indus- trial schools, AID is helping to train teachers in new techniques of practical instruction. The normal schools are now graduating more than 2,000 teachers a year. In addition to equipping and improv- ing these permanent training institu- tions, AID is helping to set up rural training programs to meet the demand for teachers in the villages. Local citi- zens are being prepared to take over classrooms after 3 months of intensive instruction. In one region of the coun- try, the emergency sessions have pro- vided nearly 600 new teachers. By way of incentive, the Vietnamese Government has increased the monthly rate of pay from $6 to $14-well above the average Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February AAppr966d For Release 005/ I61& - POP36LB00f4i.~g~0400030002-3 per capita income of the people as a whole. A U.S.-financed television network is being set up to extend public education to every hamlet in the country. "Air- borne classrooms" will be broadcasting courses to television receivers in commu- nity centers around the country. This new TV circuit represents an important advance in the war on ignorance as well as a way of answering the Communist propaganda being circulated by the Viet- cong. These are additional reasons why we must. support H.R. 12169-to win the peace in southeast Asia. Mr. PURCELL. Mr. Chairman, the request for supplemental AID appropria- tions which we are considering today will make possible the expansion of certain AID programs, particularly in the field of agriculture. As a result of the President's Honolulu meeting with Premier Ky and the Vice President's tour through southeast Asia, the United States is planning to step up its programs of assistance to the rural areas of Vietnam. In addition to the food-for-freedom program, AID is already conducting numerous other programs to help raise the level of living of rural people in Viet- nam. These existing programs will form the basis of the expanded programs. In Vietnam today, AID is conducting programs in four agricultural subject- matter areas as follows: First, agricul- tural service and extension; second, crops and livestock production; third, credit and cooperatives; and fourth, agricul- tural resources development. Some accomplishments to date are: First. Extension training: The 1,004 Vietnamese agricultural extension agents have received valuable training from AID specialists through a systematic in-serv- ice training program. After having their own skills upgraded, these Vietnamese extension workers have assisted 1 million farmers in increasing their agricultural production and in raising their level of living. Second. Assistance to youth: During 1965, the number of 4-T club members reached 46,454 in 1,200 clubs. These are the equivalent of 4-H Clubs in this country. Third. Agricultural research: Since 1962, agricultural research stations re- leased more than 20 high-yielding varie- ties of field crops and vegetables. Fourth. Participant training: Between 1951. and 1965, 611 Vietnamese received special agricultural training in the United States or in a third country under the AID participant training program. Fifth. Information program: In 1965, AID assisted the GVN in producing over 3 million leaflets and booklets and over 230,000 posters and wall newspapers. Also, AID helped to produce 45 radio tapes, 514 radio broadcasts, and 22,000 technical magazines for use by profes- sional agricultural workers. Sixth. Sewing machines: in 1965, our AID mission distributed 1,000 sewing machines to needy rural families and leaders. Seventh. Fisheries: In the fisheries program, AID assisted in establishing 79 fishing cooperatives with 17,000 mem- bers. Also, fish production has increased from 52,000 tons in 1955, valued at VN$3.3 billion, to 368,000 tons in 1965, valued at VN$15 billion. Approximately 10,500 powered junks are now in operation, an increase of 6,900 since 1962, and 50,000 sets of improved fishing gear have been distributed. There are now 15 fish- landing facilities to assist marine fisher- men. Eighth. Livestock: Swine production increased from 1,694,000 head in 1955 to 3,600,000 in 1964. The chicken popula- tion increased from 16,655,000 in 1960 to 22,401,000 in 1964. About 33,000 im- proved chickens and 315,000 hatching eggs were distributed or sold at nominal prices from January 1964 to May 1965. There are 27 commercial farms with an average flock of 5,000 birds each. Ninth. Fertilizer: Approximately 276,- 000 metric tons of fertilizer were im- ported in fiscal year 1965 as compared to 42,877 metric tons in 1955. This fer- tilizer was used by 700,000 farmers on about 2 million acres and provided ap- proximately VN$1.5 million additional farm income. Tenth. Plant protection: For the pur- pose of increasing agricultural produc- tion, assistance was given in setting up a plant protection service, training the local staff, and providing necessary equipment. Through this system, crop losses from insects, diseases, and rats were reduced by 50 percent between 1961 and 1965. About 360,000 farmers par- ticipated in antirat campaigns in 1964 using 39,000 tons of rat poison. They killed an estimated 38 million rats, sav- ing about 95,000 tons of food. In 1964, about 600 tons of insecticides were used by 500,000 rice farmers and 2,000 vege- table farmers. The program saved about 150,000 tons of rice. Eleventh. Irrigation and water re- sources: Since 1954, improved practices in irrigation canals, flood protection, and salt water control have been applied to 610,000 acres. In 1965, approximately 24 miles of new irrigation canals were completed and 5 miles rehabilitated; 42 dams were built or restored which bene- fited 27,740 acres of land. These accomplishments under existing AID agricultural programs should be a source of pride and satisfaction to all of us. Our affirmative vote on this request for supplemental appropriations will make possible the expansion of these vital programs and bring new hope and progress to the rural people of Vietnam. Mrs. KELLY. Mr. Chairman, I rise in support of the measure before the House of Representatives, H.R. 12169 to au- thorize appropriations of supplemental funds of $415 million for fiscal year 1966 for economic assistance programs. The funds previously appropriated to AID for this fiscal year have not met the needs in a few of the important danger areas of the world, particularly Vietnam, for which the bill now under considera- tion provides $275 million in supporting assistance funds. We know that the problem in South Vietnam is the determined effort of North Vietnam to impose its will by force. We know that Hanoi has sent arms, and 3865 tens of thousands of armed and trained men-including units of the North Viet- namese Regular Army-into South Viet- nam. This is why U.S. forces are in that country. We will continue to repel this aggression while we persist in our efforts toward a peaceful solution. These ef- forts to date have been numerous, and in the past months have been carried into every major capital of the world. They have brought no encouraging response from Hanoi. Even while we halted our bombing of North Vietnam, the military operations of the north continued. The expansion of Communist aggres- sion has called for the increased military response of the United States and, thus, added to the task of AID. Our economic assistance programs in South Vietnam are as important as our military assist- ance. We must, together with other free nations of the world, reinforce economic and social progress in that country, so that a social revolution-as well as peace and freedom-can be obtained in south- east Asia. I have said that the funds appropriated by Congress have not met the needs of AID; in fact, they do not cover even one- half of the currently estimated require- ments for fiscal year 1966. Two princi- pal elements are involved in the request for supplemental funds: First, to meet the rising threat of inflation, $175 million is needed to finance the importation of food, drugs, and other commodities; and second, $100 million is required for new or enlarged Government activities in rural areas. I also support the request for the fol- lowing additional funds included in H.R. 12169: First, $7.5 million each in sup- porting assistance for Thailand and Laos, to assist them in developing and maintaining economic and political sta- bility, and to withstand increasing Com- munist 'pressures; Second, $25 million for the Dominican Republic, where last April's revolution resulted in economic and political instability, and where we- with the Organization of American States-are determined to help the pro- visional government reach a stable en- vironment prior to the coming elections; and third, $100 million to replenish the now-exhausted AID contingency fund. I urge my colleagues to support this measure in its entirety. Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Chairman, the Re- public of Vietnam is presently engaged in a courageous struggle for survival against the threat of Communist sub- version. Despite the long and difficult war, the Vietnamese are determined to create a new nation, and the institutions essential to sustain that nation, during the years ahead. Whether you talk to a farmer working in the riceflelds or to a high government official, you will quickly learn that the people of Vietnam place'a high value upon educational oppor- tunity. Consequently, the war against the Vietcong has not obliterated this goal or weakened the resolve of the peo- ple to improve educational opportunity. Instead, it has created a strong sense of urgency which is shared by both the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and the AID mission. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE February 24, 1966 The program of educational assist- ance, which was conceived jointly by the representatives of Vietnam and the 1 Juitcd States, has been characterized by two approaches. First, a long-range program was organized to develop it sys- tenl of education which will produce the trained manpower required for social end economic progress. This -system is p an red not only to facilitate the trans- 1cr of knowledge and the training of =kills, but also to assist in creating a so- ciety which will initiate and successfully urselves in, that President Eisenhower lid not promise, but merely offered eco- tomic aid-and that with many condi- ions, none of which were ever fulfilled- ,nd that President Kennedy merely tdded to our advisory role by sending tome 15,000 to 20,000 advisers. But it is >nly in the last year or so that we have sent our men into combat, that we have made war without a declaration of war voted by the Congress. The latest jus- tification, now being refurbished, stems back to the SEATO treaty, in which it is alleged we made a commitment to do what we are doing. But when one examines the SEATO treaty one finds that in the first place, we are in violation of that treaty, be- cause in article 1, the very first article, It says: The parties undertake, as set forth in the ;barter of the United Nations, to settle any .nternational disputes in which they may be .nvolved by peaceful means in such a man- ier that international peace and security snd justice are not endangered, and re- rain in their international relations from he threat or use of force in any manner nconsistent with the purposes of the United Tations. Therefore, as we have gone to war, as ve have used armed force, we are in vio- ation of the very treaty which is now nvoked as a justification for our actions. No. 32-9 It is pleaded by those who use this SEATO Treaty as a later justification for action that article 4 says: Each party recognizes that aggression by means of armed attack in the treaty area against any of the parties or against any state or territory which the parties by unani- mous agreement may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes. In other words, if we are to fulfill the obligations such as they are now alleged to be under the SEATO Treaty, we would have had to go to Congress and ask for a declaration of war, which we have not done, for that way, and only that way would we be acting "in accordance with" our "constitutional processes." Consequently, this later argument, now dredged up, when the previous argu- ments are shown to be mythical, also falls to the ground. It is a tragic situation for those of us who deeply love our country, who have been steeped in its ideals and traditions, to have to stand by and see the course we are following. That course can only lead to disaster. It is already disaster. It is time we confessed to error-the greatest, most tragic error we have made in our history-and use every decent means to get out at the earliest possible moment. Any withdrawal which will stop the useless slaughter of American boys and the killing of civilians would be preferable to continuation of the course in which we are now involved. Mr. President, I yield the floor. EXHIBIT 1 AUGUST 20, 1965. Hon. LYNDON B. JOHNSON, The White House, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: It was very good of you to see me yesterday and to give me the opportunity to present to you my views on the present situation in Vietnam. Enclosed is a copy of the speech I had on my desk when I spoke to you yesterday. This was prepared for delivery yesterday and in it I offered an amendment to the defense appropriation bill prohibiting the sending of draftees, without their consent, to southeast Asia. You will recall I spoke to you twice about this,'and that at your earnest request I agreed not to introduce this amendment. In compliance with your wish, I shall not introduce this amendment at this time, al- though I feel deeply that at the very least the Congress should pass on the sending of our draftees into the war in southeast Asia. However, as I suggested to you at our meeting, I strongly urge you to announce publicly that-at least until there has been a review of the entire situation after the Congress returns in January or unless a grave national emergency develops-draftees will not be sent to southeast Asia unless they volunteer for such duty. Such a public an- nouncement from you would do much to re- assure the people of the United States. I was pleased to hear from both you and Ambassador Goldberg of the strenuous ef- forts to secure peace in southeast Asia. As I told you, I was particularly gratified to notice your clarification of your position since your Johns Hopkins speech. Your announcement at your press conference on July 28, 1965, that there would be no par- ticular problem in bringing the Vietcong and the National Liberation Front to the conference table, as I had been urging for some time, was most reassuring. 3813 I was also pleased to hear your changed stand on the reunification of Vietnam through internationally, supervised elections as provided for in the Geneva Conventions of 1954. Of course, as I said, it is difficult to convince those with whom we are seeking to arrange a cessation of hostilities of our bona fides while we continue the bombing of North Vietnam. With best wishes, I am, Cordially yours, ERNEST GRUENING, U.S. Senator. ExHmrr 2 [Parade, the Washington Post, Jan. 30, 19661 Universal draft. Young men the world over are facing the same problem: military conscription. Britain (alone of the great powers), India, and Pakistan are among the few large countries relying solely upon vol- untary enlistment in this deeply divided world. Poverty is so rampant in India and Pakistan that there are more volunteers than military facilities to house, clothe, and feed them. Elsewhere the rule is conscription. In the Soviet Union all youths 17 and 18 who have completed secondary school are inducted. Service ranges from 2 to 5 years with leave only for emergency or outstanding service. Pay is $3.30 per month. Israel, surrounded by hostile Arab nations, requires military training of all men and unmarried women, 18 to 26. Reserve duties are obligatory for men until age 49, for childless women un- til age 34. In Red China which has a vir- tually bottomless pool of manpower, every man according to Maoist theory, is con- sidered a soldier. In South Vietnam all men, 18 to 35, face 3 years of military service. A large percentage of South Vietnamese con- scripts desert each year. South Vietnam hires mercenaries to fight against the Viet- cong. We support the South Vietnamese economy. Without us that country would go broke. Whether indirectly we are paying the South Vietnamese mercenaries is a ques- tion Washington declines to answer. Certainly we have fought side by side with mercenaries, employed their aid and infor- mation. France, Germany, and Italy all use conscription to supplement their regular forces. In West Germany every youth at 18 is liable for 18 months of service. In France boys are drafted at age 19 for 18 months active duty, 40 months availability, 12 years of reserve duty. On the U.S. borders things are not so stringent. Canada has no conscription. In Mexico the young man chooses a white ball or a black ball. The white ball permits him to perform his military service by march- ing each Sunday for a year. The black ball puts him in the barracks and regular army duty for 1 year. Argentina uses a lottery system to select the unlucky few. EXHIBIT 3 TOTAL IS PUT ABOVE 96,000-U.S. AIDS CON- CERNED: 1965 DESERTIONS UP IN SAIGON FORCES (By Neil Sheehan) SAIGON, February 23.-About 96,000 men deserted from the South Vietnamese armed forces last year, a total equivalent to nearly half of the American force that has been committed to the defense of this country. Actually the figure reported by the South Vietnamese Government was higher, but in- formed sources said it did not take into ac- count the fact that some of the deserters had later reenlisted. In addition, the figures are considered less than completely accurate be- cause of the crude administrative procedures of the Armed Forces. Nevertheless, the sources said, U.S. military officials consider the desertion rate very high and are deeply concerned about it. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For CONGRESSIONAL 2RECORD P6 ,Q~ R000400 ,3e~00 u2a-ry 24, 1966 Total desertions for 1965 were put at 113,- 000. Of these, 47,000 were from the regular Armed Forces-Army, Navy, and Air Force- and 17.000 were from the Regional Forces, equivalent of the U.S. National Guard; 49,- 000 were from the Popular Forces, or local militia. 't.'he sources could offer no specific reasons for the high rate of Government desertions other than the intensification of the fight- ing and a general war weariness that has overtaken the country. Most of the men who desert, the sources said, do so either while still in training camps or while moving to their first assign- ments. Figures were not available for desertions during 1964, but it was understood that they had been substantially below the 1965 figures. Desertions from the regular Armed Forces nearly doubled (luring the last year, reaching about 1.4 percent of their total strength. Desertions from the 270,000-man army, which forms the great bulk of the regular Armed Forces, showed it gradual increase during the year. They ran near 18 percent of total strength in December. The Armed Forces discharged 48,000 men for various reasons in 1965 and suffered 13,- 000 killed, 23,000 wounded, and 6,000 missing in action or captured. OVERALL FORCE INCREASES Despite the high desertions and other losses, the Government relied on intensive recruiting, more stringent conscription methods, and the return of wounded to duty to increase the overall strength of the Armed forces from 510,000 men in December 1964, to 571,000 in December 1965. The regular armed forces, for example, in- ducted 114,000 inen during the year---77,000 volunteers and :37,000 conscripts. Most of the deserters were men who had originally volunteered for service. The Regional Forces and Popular Forces-two militia units heavily affected---are composed entirely of volunteers. A majority of men in the regular armed forces also enlisted. Most deserters, qualified sources suggest, do not defect to the Vietcong, but return to their homes in the villages, go into hiding or drift into the cities to look for civilian jobs. Vietcong defections to the Government during 1965 totaled about 11,000. No esti- mates are available for guerrillas who de- serted from Government units and did not report to Government authorities, but the number is believed to equal only it fraction of the desertions from the Government armed forces because the Vietcong usually exercise tighter control over their areas. FOE urn.L OUTNUMBERED Although Government force:, still out- number the enemy by more than 2 to 1, the Vietcong have shown an ability to increase their overall strength more quickly than the Governin.ent. The total enemy force in- creased in the last year from 103,000 at the beginning of 1965 to 230,000 in December. About 20,000 troops were North Vietnamese regulars who had infiltrated the south since last winter. A,out 40,000 more are political and administr hive workers who do little lighting. In another report made available here to- day, a U.S. military spokesman said that in the week that ended Saturday, 83 American servicemen were killed in South Vietnam, 354 wounded, and 4 reported missing in action. 't'welve South Koreans and Australians were also killed, 17 wounded, and 1 reported missing. In the same period, 197 South Vietnamese troops were kil Ied. The Vietcong guerrillas suffered 1,357 dead and 122 captured, according to the spokes- Man. EXHIBIT 4 [From the New York Times, Feb. 24, 1966] MCNAMARA HINTS CALL-UP OF RESERVISTS FOR VIETNAM (By Jack Raymond) WASHINGTON, February 23.-Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara told Congress today that partial mobilization and a Reserve crdl-up would be necessary if the enemy in South Vietnam widened the war. The i.hrust Of his remarks indicated he thought these actions would be required. The Secretary pointed out, in a 221i-page "posture" statement on U.S. global defenses, that the administration had not waned to call Reserves, preferring to rely on the draft. But he also called attention to growing strength of Vietcong and North Vietnamese regular army forces in South Vietnam and to what lie described as Communist China's increasing militancy. Mr. McNamara emphasized evidence that the Peiping Government had undertaken serious insurgency in Thailand, siml far to that in Vietnam. HEARING IN SENATE Appearing before a joint session -,f the Senate Armed Services Committee and the Senate Subcommittee on Defense Appropria- tions, he said: "In view of the continued buildup o'. Viet- cong and North Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam, we now believe we should be pre- pared to deploy promptly additional forces to that area if required. "President Johnson has stated categi rically that we will give our commanders in Vietnam all the resources they need to carry out their mission. The deployment of additional forces to southeast Asia would require' some further increases in our force structure and military strength." After outlining impending increaser, most of which had been previously anneinced, secretary McNamara went on "Although the President has repeatedly stated that the United States has no desire to widen the war in southeast Asia, vi' can- o.ot precllude the possibility that our oppo- c.ents will nevertheless choose to do ;o. "Such a contingency would necessitate at least a partial mobilization including the callup of som.e or all our Reserve forces and the extension of active duty tours." Mr. McNamara spoke to the Senate panels in closed'. session, but a censored transcript cf his report was released. Annually it has constituted the most comprehensive review of U.S. foreign policies and military commit- ments and plans by any Government friicial. As Mr. McNamara testified, the Pentagon announced a call to Selective Service head- quarters for ,he drafting of 900 male nurses beginning in April. The Defense Department said th F con- scription. of male nurses was necess; ry be- cause of additional medical services seeded for the treatment of casualties from Vietnam and also because of the general increase in the size of the Armed Forces. Selective Service headquarters ann 'rnced that the first deadline for student registra- tion for planned draft deferment testi would probably come in late April. Selective Service said it expected i.o sign within a, few days a contract with a resting agency to prepare qualification tests amilar to those used during the Korean war. In these tests students seeking deferment, who believe that their local draft board aright regard. their standing in class as too low to be considered "satisfactory" under the draft law and thus not warranting defer- Inent, may take a test. Their grades on the test may be submitted as evidence c; satis- factory educational progress. L'SENIEB TIMES REPORT Secretary McNamara, who was accompanied to the Senate hearing by General Earle G. Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, talked briefly to newsmen after a 2- hour morning session in the committee room. He denied a report published in the New York Times on Monday that the United States had spread thin its trained military manpower because of the demands of the war in Vietnam and elsewhere. The defense Secretary, when questioned about the article, asked General Wheeler to comment first. General Wheeler said he did not agree with the article but acknowledged that there had been what he called a "draw (town" of some U.S. forces because of Vietnam. Secretary McNamara then said: "It is ab- solutely false to say that we are overextended and that we cannot fulfill our military re- quirements. "We have never been better prepared." In his formal statement to the Senate committees, Mr. McNamara devoted a lengthy section to rebutting allegations of shortages of arms and other military equipment After reviewing his logistics policies and reporting on experiences In the Vietnam war, the Secretary went on: "This is not to say that every one of the tens of thousands of Defense Department supply points is without it single inventory shortage. Anyone who has had experience with large supply systems knows that some- where, sometime, something will be lack- ing." The question. of shortages "must be viewed in perspective," he said. "The acid test of our logistics system is the ability of our forces to take the field and engage in combat," he asserted. "Never before has this country been able to field and support in combat so large l force in so short a time over so great a dis? tance, without calling up reserves and with out applying price, wage and material con trols to our civilian economy." In his assessment of the international sit nation, Secretary McNamara noted that "th focus of the U.S. defense problem has shifte perceptibly toward the Far East." He emphasized time and again the admir istration's concern over Communist Chin In his report he included an appendix cue taming excerpts of a policy statement 1 the Communist Chinese Minister of the D fense, Lin Piao, last September and quoti Secretary of State Dean Rusk's characteriz tion of it as being "as candid as Ilitles 'Mein Kamp.'" The war in Vietnam is a test case in Communist Chinese "version of the so-calls wars of national liberation, one of a serf, of conflicts the Chinese hope will sweep tl: world," the Secretary told the Senators. Were the effort to bring about Comniunis takeover through "subversion, Political as sassination, and other forms of terrorism successful in Vietnam, Mr. McNamara safe Peiping would "move forward with increase, confidence and determination" elsewhere. "Indeed," he said, "even without such success, Communist hina already has name Thailand as its next victim." The Secretary described the insurgent start in Thailand as follows: "A Thailand Independence Movement an Thailand Patriotic Front have already bee established. The first is, apparently, it tended to be the equivalent of the Vietcor and the second of the National Libcratic Front in. South Vietnam. Large sums Thai currency have been purchased 1 Peiping in Hong Kong, and the study of tt Thai language is now being emphasized Communist China. "In recent months a number of village of cials and policemen have been assassinat, in the northeastern areas of Thailan Clashes have occurred with small bands armed Communists, seemingly well equippi and trained; and a Voice of Free Thailai Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 24Appb~~ ed For RVbR&J%%WPf X, C q- X87BORE4N NE0400030002-3 radio station has apparently been established in Communist China. Obviously the appa- ratus for the war of liberation in Thailand is being created." Mr. McNamara said that the Soviet Union's leaders "fully appreciate" the perils of local wars that might escalate to nuclear war and that he believed the Communist Chinese were "reluctant to challenge the full weight of our military power." "But it is clear," he said, "that we have yet to convince the Chinese Communists that their new drive for world revolution, using what they euphemistically call people's wars, will not succeed. But convince them we must." He repeated his conviction that if Peiping's "challenge in southeast Asia" were not met the United States would be confronted with it later "under even more disadvantageous conditions." He emphasized the administration's readi- ness to "cope with any further escalation of the conflict on their part" and at the same time its readiness "for a just settlement" "But we have no intention of negotiating the surrender of South Vietnam," he said. Mr. McNamara hinted that Communist China's aggressive attitude and her develop- ing nuclear capability might compel the United States to develop and install an anti- missile defense system geared to a nuclear attack threat from Asia. The Defense Secretary has been doubtful in the past on proposals for establishing an antimissile defense system against a Soviet nuclear threat, on the ground that it would prove prohibitively expensive for the defense it would provide. However, it has been indicated that he be- lieves an antimissile system against Commu- nist China might be feasible because of the more rudimentary nature of the Peiping government's nuclear arsenal, Mr. McNamara in other portions of his military planning treatise indicated he was considering recommending three rather than one more nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. He also disclosed plans for purchases for the Air Force of the Navy's A-7 attack aircraft s,s a weapon in Vietnam. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- lent, do I understand the burden of the Senator's argument to be that we should ;end the Reserves before this Nation ;ends any more draftees, or is his argu- nent that we should not send anybody? Mr. GRUENING. My argument is ;hat we should not send the draftees without the consent of Congress. That is all my amendment does. I think it is about time Congress took a little responsibility for involvement down there, and that is what my amend- ment seeks to accomplish. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. My feeling was that we gave the President the au- thority when we authorized him, in Au- gust of 1964, to take whatever steps he found necessary to resist aggression in that area of the world. That was cer- tainly, in my judgment, broad enough to ,over putting troops in there, when the [Vorth Vietnamese sent their troops in. The Senator has dwelt at considerable ength on the question of the Reserves, lnd I just wondered if he is advocating ,hat the Reserves be sent; or is he ad- 'ocating that neither Reserves nor lraftees should be sent? Mr. GRUENING. I am not advocating he method of fighting this war. See- ,etary McNamara, in the hearings before he Armed Services Committee, stated- nd I have read extracts from the hear- ings-that there was very little likelihood of their being sent. That was only a few weeks ago, and yet today a leading front page story in the New York Times indicates that he has changed his mind. I am not prepared to argue that this is desirable or undesirable. I am stick- ing to the fact which is the basis of my amendment, that I think that Congress should take a position on the matter. I think we should vote it up or down; and that Members of Congress should have a greater inclusion. As the Senator from Louisiana knows, I was one of two Senators who voted against that resolution at the time of the Tonkin Gulf incident. I have no criticism of my fellow Senators who did not agree with me, but I think there is no question but that a great many Sen- ators-and I think the Senator from Louisiana will agree with me-who voted for that resolution did not realize at the time that it would involve such a large escalation and increase of activ- ities. There are many Senators who would like to have a reaffirmation of the power of the President, or some variation to bring that authorization up to date. I do not know whether the Senator from Louisiana anticipated such a large involvement as a result of his support of the resolution. Maybe he did. Maybe he was more foresighted than others, but I think the issue now is that the draftees, at least in my judgment, are in a somewhat dif- ferent category from those who entered the service voluntarily, have been paid for it, and are now part of what we might call the regular Military Establishment. If Congress decided it wishes the draftees to go, then it should vote accordingly. If Congress does not decide it wishes the draftees to go as volunteers, then it should vote accordingly. My amend- ment is an effort to get Congress to ex- press itself and to participate in this great and vital, major undertaking that we have got into. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. The Senator has stated that this is an illegal war. Is he familiar with article 51 of the United Nations Charter, which explicitly states that nothing in that charter denies any nation the right of collective self- defense until such time as the Security Council of the United Nations has acted and taken steps to relieve that necessity of collective self-defense? Mr. GRUENING. Before we get to article 51, there are articles 1, 2, 33, and 38 which forbid the use of armed forces in situations of this kind. I also wonder whether the Senator means that this is a war of self-defense for the United States. I do not consider it so. I be- lieve that we have intruded into an- other country which is taking part in a civil war and we are fighting their war in a civil war. The question of self- defense is not involved in the slightest degree, in my judgment. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Article 4 of the SEATO Treaty and the protocol to the SEATO Treaty which refers to arti- cle 4 are definitely collective defense ar- rangements to which we are committed. We are there in compliance not only with that treaty but also in compliance with a resolution which Congress passed last year. The Senator from Alaska voted against that resolution. That was his privilege. Since that time, he has made speeches against it about once a week. Sometimes he has done so once a day ever since he voted against it. Mr. GRUENING. I believe that the Senator from Louisiana overestimates my capacities. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. The vote on the resolution was voted by 416 to 0 in the House, and 88 to 2 in the Senate. The Senator was one of the two who voted against it, and has since spoken against it. This vote represents 99 per- cent of Congress, yet at least approxi- mately once a week and sometimes once a day, sometimes twice a day, the Sen- ator from Alaska has spoken against it. Mr. GRUENING. That is because there were 504 votes on the other side. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. The overall vote exceeded 99 percent. Congress passed its resolution in both Houses and it was signed by the President. We said that we feel the SEATO Treaty applies here, that this is a collective defense treaty, and that we are obligated to help these people who are defending them- selves. We also said that the President should take whatever steps he deems to be necessary to resist aggression in the area. When we said that, we gave the Presi- dent a mandate to do whatever would be necesary to resist aggression. When the North Vietnamese troops marched down, we felt-and I feel now and am ready and prepared to say so-that the over- whelming majority of Congress had ex- actly that kind of mandate for the Presi- dent in mind that when the North Viet- namese marched in their troops, that the President has the power-indeed, the duty-to resist aggression and to send in our troops if he thought it to be neces- sary to meet that aggression. The Senator from A::aska has declared that this war is illegal. Is he familiar with the fact that outstanding law pro- fessors of international law, at Harvard, Yale, and in schools all over the country, signed a resolution some time ago de- claring that in their minds there is no doubt that not only is U.S. action in compliance with the United Nations Charter, but it is also in compliance with our obligations under the SEATO agree- ment, and in compliance with the resolu- tion of Congress. The President did not even really need the resolution. He had the power any- way as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. Presidents have done that more than 125 times in the history of the country-even in the absence of a congressional declaration, or a treaty requiring us to do so. Mr. GRUENING Lot me say, in re- sponse to the Senator's comments, that there are a great many lawyers in this country who regard it as unconstitu- tional and illegal. I placed a brief in the RECORD a few days ago, signed by a number of distinguished law school deans, to which I invite the attention of the Senator from Louisiana. But, let Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE February 24, 1966 us go back to the claim that the SEATO Treaty justifies what we are doing. Article 4 states in part: 1. Each Party recognizes that aggression by means of armed attack in the treaty area against any of tiie Parties or against any uAate or territory which the Parties by unan- imous agreement may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes. We are not meeting in accordance with the constitutional process. Our Constitution provides that only Congress can declare war. That we have not done. Another thing, this is supposed to be a collective defense treaty, but where are the cosigners? France is not there. They are violently opposed to it. Pakistan is not there. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. How about the other five countries? They are there. Mr. GRUEN[NG. They are there, feebly and belatedly, after much prod- ding on our part. They did not come in jointly with us at the beginning. We did not call any meeting of the seven nations saying, "Come on, boys, let us go in to- gether." We knew they would not go along. It took us all these years to get those few nations to make token con- tributions. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Let us discuss the legality of what we are doing in Viet- nam. A few days ago the American Bar Association considered the question. A distinguished Member of this body sug- gested on television that our conduct was immoral, illegal, and that America was an international outlaw. The American Bar Association is sup- posed to understand this sort of thing; and after studying the problem they voted 279 to 0. if I recall correctly that what we were doing in Vietnam was en- tirely legal, in line with precedents, in line with International law, and in line with the Charter of the United Nations. They specifically referred to article 51, which states that nothing whatever in the U.N. Charter would deny the right of self-defense, individually or collectively. This is collective self-defense we are talking about. The Senator from Oregon h. s not seen that resolution. I read somewhere in the press, that the Senator from Oregon said that the whole group which had agreed unanimously should take a refresher course in international law. Well now, if they are going to have to take a refresher course in international law, where would they go to take it? I hope they would go to an outstanding university where they teach interna- tional law. Mr. GRUEN[NO. I will tell the Sena- tor where they could go, to some of the law schools whose deans have taken the oiiposite posit) in. M . LONG or Louisiana. The Senator may state the.t there are deans of law ,schools who arc opposed to the U.S. po- sition, but the Senator knows that there are no many schools who teach inter- national law. I happen to be a :raduate of Louisiana State University. We do not practice much international law down there. At LSU we do not teach it. 'T'hus, if you wish to study interna- tional law, you have to go somewhere else, or buy a law book and read about it. If you want to study international law, a good place would be Harvard. They have been teaching it there for a great many years. Here is the professor of international law at Harvard.-he teaches intcrna- ti.onal law-and he wrote a second let- ter to the President reaffirming his position, that what we are doing is entire- ly legal, and that the unanimous vote of the American Bar Association, 279 to 0, is correct. Here is a man who teaches international law at Yale Uni- versity. That is a good law school. They teach international law there. They agree with us. Here is a fellow who teaches tnt:'rna- tiional law at the University of Michi- gan. I know about that university. I have read their Law Review many times. Here is a professor who teaches in- ternational law at the University of Virginia, where they have taught inter- national law for a considerable period of time. Thus, when we really get down to it, if we are to take a refresher course in international law as was suggested to the entire American Bar Association- I repeat, the entire Amercan Bar As- sociation-we had better not go back to law schools that have a longstand- ing reputation in the field, or we will have to be prepared to be in disagree- ment with the Senator from Alaska and the Senator from Oregon. Mr. GRUENING. Let me ask the Sen- ator from Louisiana, was it not the American Bar Association from which the Chief Justice resigned in disgust a few years ago? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Let me say to the Senator from Alaska, if he has any doubts about the matter, I wish he would make some effort to see what the Chief Justice thinks about the issue hero, be- cause he was on television last night ap- plauding the President-I saw it wi, lh my own eyes--when the President was mak- ing his speech in support of this Nation's position. Whom else is the Senator from Alaska going to rely upon b 'sides himself and one other Senator? There Is hardly an international lawyer in A.merica who agrees with him. ivir. GRUENING. The Senator from ;Louisiana does not know many lawyers, eaten. There are many who disagree. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I know a great number of them. Let me ray to the Senator that there are several right here in the Senate. Two-thirds of Sen- ators are lawyers. Sitting in the Cham- ber at this moment is the distinguished Senator from North Carolina [Mr. E1avIN], a distinguished Senator and a distinguished judge. He is sitting right beside me. I had occasion to be a delegate to the United Nations to consider these m:i.tters. All the Senator has to do is to read arti- cle 51 of the United Nations Charter, and he will see very clearly that we have a :right to engage in collective self-defense. That is what the treaty permits, so far as United Nations Charter is concerned. Some have suggested that the issue be taken to the United Nations. All right. We knew that very little would be achieved, but we did go up there. What was achieved? That and zero are the same thing. That being the case, we have the responsibility to maintain our position in Vietnam. Does the Senator want to respond? He had the floor. I will yield to him to respond. Mr. GRUENING. I shall be glad to re- spond to anything the junior Senator from Louisiana wishes to have me re- spond. to. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Might I sug- gest to the Senator that what the Sena- tor from Alaska [Mr. GRUENINGI sug- gests is what could properly be described as a surrender at Washington resolution. It is said that the French were not de- feated at Dienbienphu but at Paris, be- cause the French Government did not have the courage to give their courageous volunteer fighting men the help they needed. They would not draft men to send there. They had a number of cou- rageous volunteers who were fighting there for the honor and position of their country. But when they were sur- rounded, no one else came to help the French troops who were already there. We have sent to South Vietnam some of the finest fighting men in the uniform of the United States, some of which divi- sions have fought for the United States ever since its foundation, practically. The 1st Division is as old as the coun- try. The 1st Cavalry is practically as old. The 1st Marine Division is an old division. We have the 101st Airborne Division there. We have some special forces. The 25th Division is there. These are among the best fighting mer we have ever had. I would be embarrassed to have Con- gress vote that these divisions, whicl have never been defeated, when the! have been were confronted by an enem: force, would have no help coming fo them if help were needed. It would b a great disservice to men in division that marched behind George Washing ton, to those whose division raised th flag at Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima-; monument commemorating that batth is close by across the Potomac River-t( say that no help would be sent them ii they were confronted by an overwhelm- ing force. That would not be in accord- ance with American traditions, because we do not run out on our allies, and cer- tainly we do not run out on our own boys. Mr. GRUENING. I think the sequel, the subsequent remarks of the Senator from Louisiana, are not particularly pertinent to the subject we are discuss- ing. We are discussing the issue of whether draftees shall be sent to Souti Vietnam without consent of Congress. do not question the gallantry or, tin courage, and all the rest of the superla tive qualities, of our men who are there That is admitted. Nobody question, that. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. How abou the draftees who are there now? Sup pose they were confronted by over whelming odds, by an overwhelmin; number of men who came down iron North Vietnam and surrounded them as happened to the French at Dienbien Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 2 4 Amryed For R054WI1 ~R5'IWA9I. IJ1~q 7B% 4ATE 0400030002-3 N 3817 Phu. This country is 190 million strong, they are to the man well able to take amendment that has been suggested by Does the Senator propose to leave those care of themselves. men there when they are faced with su- They are not timorous. They are Pemy friend Alaska [Mr. . rson lly,f I can see no reason forrdraft- perior numbers, and say we will not send satisfied they will be successful. ing men into the armed services if they them any help? The only thing that would worry them are not to be sent to fight. Mr. GRUENING. That is not the is- would be to have Congress adopt a law Mr. LONG of Louisiana. My reaction sue. They should not have been sent that would result in leaving them there to this whole matter is shared by the there. and having them decimated, as the Mr. LONG of Louisiana. But they are French were in Dienbienphu, when the of tiemfareoconfused asttoihow we got there. The Senator would not have sent French Chamber of Deputies did not there, but they say, "While I do not un- them there. He voted against the reso- have the courage to draft men to send derstand how we came to be there, the lution. But they are there. They are over there. our own boys. Are we to leave them fact is we are there." Mr. GRUENING. I would like merely M My people say that we should either there to be surrounded by superior to reply that there would be no question go all out or get out. The people say enemy forces? of the united, 100-percent support of they prefer to go all out. The men have Mr. GRUENING. Nobody is going to any action necessary to defend our coun- not been defeated, and they say that if leave them there. That is not a relevant try. We are not, in my judgment, de- our Nation's honor is committed, go argument. fending our country. We have barged ahead and fight. They believe in fight- Mr. LONG of Louisiana. The Senator into a country which, we are told, has ing to win, not fighting to lose. Amer- is saying, "We will send no more boys." had 96,000 desertions from their own icans do not surrender if they have not If they are surrounded, what will we do? forces, and to defend that country we been defeated. Mr. GR'_TENING. No; I say Congress are sending our own troops to take the Mr. ERVIN. Mr. President, I have ought to stand up and be on record, and place of the deserters from their own not supported many of the foreign aid if they want to send more boys, vote country. That is all I am talking about. programs, which were passed on the against the amendment. My idea is that Mr. President, I yield the floor. theory that someone else will fight for Congress should be on record on an issue Mr. ERVIN. I rise to ask a question, us when the chips are down. I have not of this importance. The only thing on The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does been in favor of the United States polic- record is the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, the Senator from Alaska yield to the ing the entire universe. which many Senators voted for not Senator from North Carolina? knowing what it meant. The question before Congress now, as I Mr. GRUENING. I have yielded the see it, is not whether we ought to be In Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Let us see floor. South Vietnam. As Grover what the Senator's amendment provides. Mr. ERVIN. Well, then I shall ask would say, we are confronted by aecondi- Am I to understand the Senator is say- my question of one and all. I had the tion, not a theory. ing that no boys will go over there un- honor at one time of wearing the red "1" We are there. Our boys are there. As less they volunteer? So if a wife or patch of the First Division on my left I see it; the American Government and mother says, "Don't go, don't go, par- shoulder. The boys who belong to that the Congress should give them all of the ticularly don't go, because if you do no- division now are fighting in Vietnam. support they need. When all is said, body will help you," what do we do with They were sent there by the Government there is only one of three things we can the boys who are left over there? Does of the United States. What I am inter- do. The first is to settle the controversy the Senator want to get the boys out of ested in is giving those boys whatever in South Vietnam by negotiation. Ap- there as fast as they can get out, turn help they need. What I want to know is parently the President has been willing tail, or will they have to stay there with- when I am going to be given the oppor- to negotiate with anybody on the face out help and die for their country which tunity to vote to aid them, is capable of sending 100 times their of o e h nobody who can put an If the Senator from Louisiana can end the to th the fi fighti ting is is willing to negotiate. number if need be? Are we going to say answer that question, I would certainly Hence, negotiation is out the window for that we are not going to help men in the appreciate it, because I have two speak- the time being. We have only two al- 1st Division, the 1st Cavalry, the 1st Ma- ing engagements in North Carolina to- ternatives remaining: one is to fight and rine, the Airborn troops, if they are faced morrow. I am supposed to attend a the other is to withdraw. with an overwhelming force, and, if they Jackson Day dinner in North Carolina i believe that if we were to withdraw ),re surrounded, leave them, as the on Saturday also. I wonder whether from South Vietnam, all of Asia would French left their troops at Dienbienphu, I should stay here in order to vote to fall into the hands of the Communists. .)r would the Senator rather say that we aid those boys who wear the red "1" on We then would be confronted by the are a nation of 190 million people, and an their left shoulder, or whether I can keep questions of whether we would stand and enemy should not take us on unless he those speaking engagements, and attend fight in Japan, whether we would stand realizes that we are strong and have the the Jackson Day dinner. courage to stand behind our fighting and ould in the and Philippines, h in or whether men? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I wish I we would stand and fight in Malaysia or Malaysia o Mr. GRUENING. We have mare than could say to the Senator that we will in Australia, or whether we would ulti- 300,000 troops G. We who are trained, vote tonight, or right now. However, mately have to fight, on the American in Eur many of whom havo enlisted, and they those who oppose the position of their mainland to defend our liberty. could be sent. That is what an andl theNation do not appear to be willing to Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I agree with could of this ew proposed That is amendment will vote. They want to make more speeches. the Senator. showtion Nobody wants to do what amendment able They certainly have that privilege, as Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the Senator from Louisiana to d is wsuggesting. hat the able the Senator well knows. Senator From a parliamentary standpoint, the yield? Mr. LONG o. I . Nobody wants to leave those boys there. amendment has not yet been offered. I Mr. MORSE. of IfoI may have thelatten- Mr. LONG of Louisiana. :r was at Fort wish the amendment were offered, so tion of the Senator from Louisiana and Polk a couple of weeks ago. I saw some that I could speak against it and vote the Senator from Illinois. The Senator of these boys being trained. Many of against it. It is inappropriate to speak from Illinois stepped out. He may be them were 20 years old. I felt a little against an amendment that has not been back shortly. sorry for them, thinking how young they offered, and certainly one cannot vote I believe the Senator asked a proper seemed. But then I did not feel so sorry against it until it has been offered. question to get_ an as to when I remembered that my crew which One cannot even move to table the the Senator thinks the prospects are hso volunteered to take the first boat of its amendment until it is offered. I hope far as the schedule of Senators is con- kind to the beaches of south France in the Senator from Alaska will offer his cerned on this debate. World War II, was about the same age amendment. He said he wants to go on The Senator from - Louisiana [Mr. at the time. record on this subject. I want to go on Lorrol, the Senator from Illinois [Mr. As a reservist myself, when I saw some record, too. of these young men, sorry though I may Mr. GRUENING. It will be offered. morning, at their r questwas to what we have felt, I would not want to take any of . Mr. ERVIN. I share the position of thought the prospects are of having a them on in a free-for-all fight, because the Senator from Louisiana on the final vote on this matter. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67 OAQ14E46R00040~,0~3 24 19GF~ 3818 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SE I am certain the senator from Louisi- proceed with whatever discussion there though a relatively small number of :ana would not think it improper for me may be. I will have bespoken myself on Senators were in the Chamber. to disclose that it was pointed out by the the amendment on Monday. It will take The debate on the pending bill has minority leader---and that is why I wish me only 5 or 10 minutes to recapitulate. been going on for many days. The bill he were here-that several Senators on Then, I assume the Senator from has been before the Senate for 2 weeks. their side and several Senators on this Alaska will offer his amendment. There We have been debating it for 7 days on side, whom we ail know about, are not may be other amendments. I do not the Senate floor. If Senators desire to s;oing to be here tomorrow and Saturday. know. I cannot imagine not having this make speechesmaky should Tcome hey to the T. had said yesterday, and I meant it disposed of by Tuesday. Chamb. then and I mean it now, that if the bill Mr. ERVIN. I fully understand the to be willing to make them today or went through its regular course of de-, position of the Senator from Oregon. I tomorrow. bate, the probabilities were that we could believe that the safety of our Republic If a filibuster is not taking place, Sena- vote by the end of this week. I thought is dependent upon Senators standing on tors should not insist that a quorum be so then. I do wish to say that after the the floor of the Senate and expre?,sing present to hear their speeches on Satur-t the aoiloquy on the door of the Senate yester- their honest convictions concerning mat- day. er nato make tt ospomheto The clay I was quite surprised to learn that tern pending before the Senate. Chamb. there are substantially a larger number For this reason, I do not advocate bill has been lbefore the Senate for 2 of speeches to be given on the bill than prematurely setting any time for voting. weeks. It was announced 3 days prior 1. was aware of yesterday, when I said I believe that so long as a Senator feels to its consideration that it would be the to be taddit onal titmetoto aken the regular course of this that we scio ussdisometng to say which c ate s, it is not only his rsr ht, should note ill could probably vote his week. compose their remarks; they ought to be hut even taking those speeches into but his duty, to say it. consideration, I wish to say to the Sen- In view of what the Senator has said, ready to come to the Chamber and speak [anon from North Carolina, I am just as could we reach some agreement not to on behalf of their position. If they wish certain as I can be of anything that has vote before Monday? Such an ree- to take a stand one way or the other, uncertainty connected with it-and in nrent would not forestall. debate or inter- they ought to come to the Chamber and debate on the floor of the Senate there Iere in any way with adequate pre. snta- take it, so that the Senate can reach a is always some uncertainty as to the tion on both sides of Louisiana. matter? t'resi- vote. bill was taken up following the - cleat, the uggestion that the Senator conclusion of a successful filibuster. length of d d y cannot the assump- beyond Tuesday night t on the assume- lion that because of the absentees on from Louisiana urges most strongly is Now Senators are holding up the con- Saturday there.` probably would not be a that if Senators wish to make speeches sideration of other important bills. An- Saturday session. But that has not been Co please come to the Chamber and make otthethe r rgent bite eonsFore yn repil,i acid decided yet, as the acting majority leader the speeches. will probably tell us in a moment. The Senator from Oregon IMr.IlGRSEI The tax bill now in the Committee on Inasmuch as 1 have been involved in has been most considerate on many oc- Finance will be reported next week. The this debate as,, one who is considered to casions when he felt that he wans.;ed to Government loses $8 million every day be among those opposed to the bill, the discuss something at considerable length that Congress fails to pass the tax bill. senate is entitled. to know my plans. My and felt that it might inconvenience that will help to pay not only the cost glans are to snake my major speech to- other Senators in getting on with bills of the war in Vietnam, but also the cost; morrow. As soon as we call for a quorum that they were trying to have passed_ of the Government in general. it will be a signal for the Senator from He would, en occasion, come to the So once again, I say that if Sena. tors , they ti'ennsylvania. I Mr. CLARK I to come to the Chamber on a Friday afternoon and talk cowish to me to thee'hpeeche and make ought to C'hamber to make his major speech this at considerable length. afternoon. I beiieve there are one or two I remember when the Senator from I hope the Senate will remain in session other speehe today. .3r cgon was the lone spokesman for the until 7 o'clock tonight. I shall endeavor Then, I intend to present my amend- Independent Party of the Senate. I vol- to be present. Senators who wish to rnent on Monday because I have been as- unteered Lo sit in the Chamber on Friday make speeches should not continue to cured Senators will be back on Monday. afternoons because I know a lot of people hold up authorizations and other rmeas- T am willing; to have my amendment like to go away and have a long week- ures that are need to help our boys who broug: t up on Monday. end--as part of the TGIF crowd "thank are fighting for our country today and The difficult matter, the so-called God it's Friday"-and like to get. away our allies who. are seeking to come to our delicate matter, is that some would like ahead of the, crowd to take a weekend air/Ir. ERVIN. Mr. President, I am not it have a unanimous-consent agreement rest. to fix he time to vote. I will not agree The Sen~Lor from Louisiana colon- in disagreement with anything the Sen- to that. A matter of the historic im- tecred to preside and to listen to the Sen- ator from Louisiana has said. I do not; oortance of t,lus bill should be handled ator's speeches. I thought they were desire to make a speech on the floor of its regular debbate. I will be no party to good p c ;ices. I learned son mething the Senate, but I have assumed the ob- dilatory tactics. If there ever is any in- from them. Even when I did not agree ligation of making two speeches in North dication that anybody is engaging In with the Senator from Oregon, his Carolina tomorrow. All I ani trying to filibuster tactics, I will sign a cloture speeches were still good speeches for his find out is whether I can go to North r,etition. point of view. He made his record with- Carolina and make the speeches, or After this matter is decided and Con- out impeding the conduct of the Nation's whether I should o I anc theSenat;or from greys speaks, there is no question that we business. have to proceed to see to it that our sup- It is not within the power of the ma- Louisiana a moment ago that as one who Ov lines are maintained. jority leader or the minority leader to at one time had the honor of wearing I believe the Senator from Louisiana compel a barge number of Sen.-,tors to the big red "1" on my left shoulder, I will not think that I am in any way vi- be present to hear speeches. If Sena- am ready to vote at any time the cis - olating any confidence when I say that tors become interested and their atten- cumstances permit to send aid to the the information presented to us from the tion is attracted, perhaps they will stay; boys of my old division who are fighting administration is that right now there but it is not in the province of the lead- in Vietnam. is no shortaee of supplies. But one can- ers to com.p)el other Senators to come to I am also interested in getting some riot go on indefinitely without having the Chamber to make speeches or to hear strength for the Democratic Party in shortages of supplies, and no one could speeches made by other Senators. North Carolina. A Jackson Day dinner . usti y that situation. The speeches appear in the RECORD. is scheduled in Raleigh on Saturday. I Limiting myself to the matter of If a Senator makes a good speech, other am trying to find out from the Senator schedule, it is my suggestion for what- Senators will read it. If it is not a good from Oregon whether, in his judgment, ever it is worth, that we proceed with speech, they will make short shrift of there is any possibility of a vote being debate today and tomorrow. I will offer it. if it it, an impressive speech, it will taken on this issue, or any amendment my amendment on Monday, and we can attract the attention of the Nation, even to it, prior to Monday. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 February 14Ap Aged For R "e RJRqgff i CWfffff7B0~0 6 0400030002-3 I merely wondered whether the Sena- tor from Louisiana, as the assistant ma- jority leader, and also as acting majority leader, would not reach a unanimous- consent agreement that there would not be a vote on this issue before Monday. If he should do so, I could make some speeches, not on the Senate floor, but in the great State of North Carolina. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I cannot give the Senator from North Carolina any such assurance, but I can make a pretty good prediction of what is likely to happen in the next couple of days. I cannot give the Senator any assurance because, so far as I am concerned, we ought to be voting on the measure. If Senators will seek to press for a vote to bring an end to talking, so that people around the world will know where we stand on this issue. But it is not within my power to make Senators stop talking. That being the case, we are in for more conversation. The Senator from Oregon has informed us that he wishes to speak on this sub- ject. I heard by the grapevine that he is thinking about talking for 10 hours. I am fully confident that he can talk that long; I have heard him do so. If the Senator from Oregon plans to make a 10-hour speech tomorrow, my view is that the Senator from North Carolina can safely go home. Mr. MORSE. That grapevine had no grapes- on it. I have no idea where any- one got the idea that I was planning to speak for 10 hours. Mr. ERVIN. Perhaps the Senator from Louisiana can help me out of a quandary. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that there be no vote on the pending measure of any amendment to the pend- ing measure prior to Monday of next veek. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I object. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Objec- ion is heard. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, will the Senator from North Carolina yield? Mr. ERVIN. I gladly yield. Mr. DIRKSEN. We discussed the sub- ject at great length this morning. The distinguished Senator from Oregon was as cooperative as I thought he could be under the circumstances. I read into the conversation an assurance that there will certainly be no vote on the bill before Monday. I discussed the situation with the act- ing majority leader at considerable length not only today, but yesterday, as well. On the basis of that conversation, I am quite sure that there will be no vote before Monday. I have taken unto myself the liberty to say to Senators on the minority side that they are free to go home this week- end to make speeches, to pursue their ;ampaigns, and to do what ever else is necessary, with a free and easy con- ;cience, and with no apprehension that ;here will be a vote. Mr. ERVIN. I have the assurance of ;he Senator from Illinois; but I find it mpossible to get the assurance of the Senator from Louisiana. Under these ;ircumstances, I intend to back up those vho are fighting the war in Vietnam. They are not forsaking their posts of duty; I do not feel, under the circum- stances, that I can forsake my post of duty. Mr. DIRKSEN. The distinguished Senator from Louisiana and the distin- guished Senator from Oregon were most considerate of the dilemma that con- fronts the minority leader. It is one of those things that happen about once in 25 years. They have been most sympa- thetic, almost to the point where they wept over my difficulties. I am sure that that weeping will endure for more than a night, as the Scripture does not quite say. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. The Senator from North Carolina is one of the most diligent attendants and most indefatig- able Members of this body. I am sure he realizes that we who wish to pass the measure should try to bring it to a vote as soon as we can. The Senator himself has so indicated by saying that the boys in Vietnam are not working bankers' hours; they are not taking off weekends. If they took off weekends, the Com- munists would likely clobber them on those weekends. The fact that Ameri- can soldiers are fighting in Vietnam means that we should try to back them up; we should press as far as we can with diligence toward the passage of the bill. If the Senator from North Carolina feels that it is necessary for him to re- turn to his State, I suggest that we will try to obtain a pair for him, or that we will try to have him return before the vote, in the event that a vote appears to be imminent. We shall cooperate with him in every possible way that we can. At the same time, I feel that we ought, to the best of our ability, seek to bring the discussion to an end without denying any Senator his right to make a speech, so that we may then move ahead with the Nation's business. Mr. ERVIN. Mr. President, I appre- ciate what the Senator from Louisiana has said. However, his statement. does not give me any assurance that I shall not miss a vote on a bill which I deem to be a bill of major importance. It seems to me, from what the Senator from Illinois has said, that this is a situa- tion in which the Senator from Louis- iana might very well adopt the wise pol- icy of cooperating with the inevitable and agreeing that there will not be any vote prior to Monday. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I have been trying for the last 8 years to restore the respectability of the live pair. Back in the old days, Senators used to have standing pairs. If a Senator found it necessary to be absent for a week, he would make arrangements with another Senator. When a vote was had, a Sen- ator from the other side of the aisle would simply say: "I have a pair with such and such a Senator. I do not know how he would vote, but since we are paired, I withhold my vote." The pair would be so recorded. Neither side would be recorded as to how they would have voted. Neither of the Senators voted-at all. That would be taking it to the extreme, but it would seem to me that, with the telephone service being what it is today, we should be able to say that if a Sen- ator has commitments which would keep him away, we could accord him a live pair, and that pair could be recorded as if he were present and voting. Mr. ERVIN. Mr. President, I appreci- ate that. However, those in Vietnam cannot get a live pair. I cannot see any- thing to do under the circumstances other than to cancel out my plans. My primary duty is to remain on the Senate floor. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. My calcu- lated guess would be that we shall not vote. However, I hope that we shall. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I yield. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the pros- pect stares us in the face as clearly as anything can that we shall not vote un- til Monday. I have tried to cooperate. I could bring up my amendment on Mon- day and start on Monday. The minority leader has already said that he has advised people on that side of the aisle that if they have engage- ments over the weekend they should feel free to keep the engagements, if I under- stood him correctly. I believe that is the meaning of what he has said. As the Senator knows, several Sena- tors on this side of the aisle have already made it clear that they cannot be present on Saturday. Some of these Senators want to get away tomorrow. I am not so sure that we can get a quorum on Sat- urday. I believe that we shall save more time in the long run if we go through with our regular schedule on tomorrow and adjourn or recess until Monday. We could find out when the Senators will get back. I believe that most of them will be back by Monday morning. We could go ahead on Monday or Tuesday and get this out of the way. It is for the Senator from Louisiana to decide. However, in my judgment, under these circumstances, there will be other Senators who will want to be present. I do not believe that we would profit by holding those Senators here who have other engagements. I believe that we should go over to Monday. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I appreciate the view of the Senator from Oregon. However, I have noted that when an announcement has been made in the past that there would not be a vote or that nothing would happen, Senators who had intended to make a speech would tend to postpone their speeches until the Senate reconvened. They did this because they felt there would not be the proper atmosphere when many Senators were at home, and people could not care less about what was said on the Senate floor. If we proceed on the basis that a vote is not likely but might happen, the in- terest in the debate will be greater. There would be a better chance of per- suading Senators to go ahead and make their speeches. I know that we shall not vote right now. I cherish that hope, but I know that it will not happen. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00040 ,0 0002-3 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE February 24, 1966 T should prefer for Senators to make their speeches. I should hope that we might vote tonight. If we do not do so, [ shall accept that result. However, if I were to announce that there would not be a vote, Senators would go home say- ing: "I shall wait until we are ready to vote, and then I. shall make my speech." That being the case, I hope that we shall persevere in the matter and come to a vote. Senators can trod out what will hap- pen in the next day or so. The prospects or voting soon do not appear to be very mood. I do not want to make a commitment l.hat we will not vote at this time be- cause Senators would put off their speeches. I hope that Senators will make their speeches, and, I am not try- ing to cut off any Senator from making speeches, but the Nation cannot wait on them indefinitely. Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, will the Senator yield? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I yield. Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, I un- derstand the situation of the distin- guished Senator from North Carolina. However, I also understand the situa- tion of the acting majority leader. Is the acting majority leader able to give the Senator from North Carolina and other Senators assurance as to whether it is his intention to attempt to call the Cenate into session on Saturday? It ;.ems to me that would clear the matter top. If I were acting in the position of the distinguished Senator from Louisiana, I should not make an agreement either. This is too vital a matter. As has been staled, the boys out there do not have any pairs. I am sure that it would be of assist- ance to the Senator from North Carolina if it were known that we would not have a Saturday session. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I have sometimes given assurance t.o Senators on my own, not as the major- 11,y whip or a acting majority leader. I n,call one occasion when I was making , . i :other lengthy speech on the floor of the Senate at a time when I was out- raged about what was being passed through this body. Some Senators said Lucy had engagements. They asked me whether they could leave. I told them : "Go right ahead. I will give you my firm assurance that nothing will happen before midnight tonight." Senators can assure one another that before a vote is had on Monday, they will make a speech and hold the floor [or such a length of time that no vote will occur. I do not want to take the responsibil- , ty of making such a commitment at this time. This is an important measure. Those who say that we must not vote may go ahead and make their speeches. is hope that no one will tell us that we ;,hould not vote because they have other r;ommitments that we should hold up an important measure such as this until they can make a speech somewhere or leave for the week end and then come back. I shall cooperate in every way that I can and try to give the necessary notice for Senators to return. Mr. RUSSELL of Georgia. Mr. Pres- ident, will the Senator yield? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I yield. Mr. RUSSEhL of Georgia. Mr. Pres- ident, I have listened with interest to the remarks of the distinguished acting ma- jority leader. I do not know what the prospects are of a vote on the bill. I hope that we might have a vote at least on some of the amendments to the bill this afternoon or this evening. What are the plans of the Senator as to the length of the session today? Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent. I hope that we shall be in session until 7 o'clock tonight. We could at least get some more speeches out of the way. I hope that Senators will make their plans, in the event we have a quorum coa1 as late as 6 o'clock, to he available. Mr. RUSSELL of Georgia. Mr. Pres- ident, no one is more dedicated to the right of full and free debate in the Sen- ate than. is the Senator from Georgia. However, I hope that the Senator will give us an opportunity to have ample, full, and free debate. I hope, if we are not going to vote this week, that we will have lengthy sessions next week and that we will get away from this rather des- ultory system that we have employed until now of addressing ourselves to this bill, and will actually get down to offer- ing some amendments and bringing them to a vote. This is a very important measure. It does not loom large in the fiscal sense when compared with some others that we see. However, some items invoh- owitz, to be captain, and ending Charles it. Polly, to be chief warrant officer, W-:3, which nominations were received by the Sen- ate and appeared in the CONGRESSIONAL R:EC- ORn on February 18, 1966. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Februaj,4p~-~red For R~8Q~paf/2WI07BMW0400030002-3 are of the community facility type, and the program is administered by the Community Facilities Administration, a constituent agency of HHFA (HUD). Action taken: On January 7, 1965, the State of Alaska accepted the offer of the U.S. Gov- ernment to purchase $25 million worth of bonds, at 3% percent interest, as authorized under this section. This would include $19.5 million in series B bonds, with maturity be- tween 1970-94 and $5.5 million of series A bonds with maturity between 1955-2004. This guarantee has made it possible for the State to sell temporary notes at a reason- able rate of interest, and funds obtained from these sales have financed recovery programs in Anchorage, Valdez, Cordova, Kodiak, Sel- dovia, and Seward. The following describes the status of these two separate issues: Nineteen and one-half million dollars in series B bonds: There have been no further developments with respect to these bonds since February 3, 1965, when the State of Alaska sold bond anticipation notes totaling $19,104,100 at 2.29 percent. The supporting bond issue must be delivered to the ultimate purchasers not later than October 1, 1968. Five and one-half million dollars, series A bonds: As indicated in the report for the previous period, judicial determinations were required before this part of the loan could be finalized. We are advised by bond coun- sel engaged by the State-Hawkins, Delafield & Wood-that action to secure determina- tion as ,to the validity of the sale of these bonds Was filed in the Superior Court of Alaska in September 1965. Briefs have been filed by both appellants and appellees in the Supreme Court of the State of Alaska. Bond counsel reports that notice was received on November 26, 1965, that the case is scheduled for oral argument on February 1 and 2, 1966, in the Supreme Court of Alaska. Section 57. This section provides Federal financial assistance to the State of Alaska to support a mortgage indemnification program to retire or adjust outstanding home mort- gage obligations upon one- to four-family homes that were severely damaged or destroyed by the 1964 earthquake or subsequent seismic wave. Authorization for a $5.5 million grant by the Federal Government is established, to be matched by an equal amount to be contributed by the State of Alaska. Federal responsi- bilities under this program have been delegated to the Federal National Mortgage Association, a constituent agency of HHFA (HUD). Action taken: As of June 30, 1965, it was reported that the formal Alaska mortgage adjustment plan was in the course of being amended to change the date before which all claims must be filed from July 1, 1965, to July 1, 1966. On July 6, 1965, the executed amendment was received by Federal National Mortgage Association, the agency represent- ing the HHFA Administrator in the per- formance of duties delegated to him by the President in Executive Orders 11184 and 11196. The amendment had been executed by the HHFA Administrator on June 24, 1965, and by the Governor of Alaska on June 29, 1965. The suit in the State courts of Alaska test- ing the constitutional validity of the State's prospective issue of series C bonds for financ- ing the State's contribution to the Alaska mortgage adjustment fund has proceeded to final decree in the trial court. The decree affirmed that the Alaska mortgage adjust- ment plan, the amendment thereto, the spe- cial session laws of Alaska implementing the plan; and the program of borrowing and ex- pending money of the State, authorized pur- suant to said plan and said statutes, are legal, constitutional and valid in every respect. The decree was entered on July 13, 1965. An appeal to the Supreme Court of Alaska has been perfected and it is now expected that the matter will be considered and ad- judicated by the supreme court in early 1966. Regulations of the Alaska Mortgage Adjust- ment Agency, with amendments as required by the HHFA Administrator, are to be ap- proved and issued when the plan is put into operation. Two things remain as prereq- uisites before the plan can be put into operation. They are (1) an appropriation by Congress and (2) a favorable ruling by HE AMERICAN CONSCIENCE AND VIETNAM Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, the Reverend Duncan Howlett, minister of the All Souls Unitarian Church of Wash- ington, recently preached an able ser- mon on the American conscience and Vietnam. Mr. Howlett is in no sense a war hawk. He appreciates the feelings of many conscientious Americans that we should withdraw in order to reduce immediate bloodshed. But he correctly points out that if North Vietnam were permitted to take over South Vietnam by force, a reign of terror would follow. Santayana once observed that those who refused to learn from history were con- demned to repeat it. This, in my judg- ment, applies to the present situation. To allow the police state of communism to sweep on unchecked is to reenact a second Munich and to assist in a cumu- lative ascent to power of tyrannical forces. Dr. Howlett is to be commended for his vigorous and brave defense of freedom. I believe that as the issues become more clearly understood, the liberal and re- ligious forces of the Nation will more and more agree with President Johnson's program for South Vietnam: First. To resist and root out Commu- nist attempts to take over South Viet- nam by force and terror. Second. To resist efforts to widen and deepen the war and to bomb the city of Hanoi. This would kill tens of thou- sands of innocent men, women, and chil- dren, set the public opinion of the world against us, and run the danger of bring- ing first China and then Russia into the war. If this last development were to happen, a nuclear war would almost in- evitably result. Third. As fast as territory is cleared from the Communists, to introduce land reform, the furnishing of seed and work animals. In any event, Dr. Howlett's sermon is worthy of careful reading. I ask unan- imous consent that it be printed in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the sermon was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE AMERICAN CONSCIENCE AND VIETNAM There are two sermons I have owed you for a long time, one on the sex revolution, which comes next week: the other on Viet- nam, to which we come today. Few ques- tions have troubled me as much during my years in the ministry and none any more than these two. There is no unanimity in the congregation on either issue. On both, feelings run high and convictions lie very 3781 deep. According to our tradition I shall not attempt to resolve either question on your behalf, Having thought each through as far as I can, I set the result before you in the hope that it may be of some use to you as the many people with whom I have talked and the many things I have read have helped .me. Perhaps never in our history have we, the people of the United States, wrestled with our conscience as people as we are doing today over the war in Vietnam. To begin with, it is not even a war in the technical sense that it has never been declared. Yet, because of the size of our military commit- ment, everybody, with full justification, speaks of the struggle as a war. Moreover, we are a peace-loving people and we always have been. We have our hawks and doves, to be sure, but as in the kingdom of birds, the doves far, far outnumber the hawks. Our blood curdles at pictures of wounded and dead Americans, wounded and dead Vietnamese, North, South and the Vietcong. We cannot bear to look at the pictures of wounded children, helpless victims of a con- flict of which they know nothing. As civilians, safely at home, comfortably housed, secure from ambush and terror, we nevertheless cannot quite escape the war, among other reasons just because it is not a war, officially speaking. With no censorship as in wartime, the news media, in particular the TV cameras, constantly thrust the hor- rors of the conflict before us. The Second World War, infinitely worse, at least in mag- nitude, was carefully screened from us at the time, except insofar as the suffering it caused could be used to inflame our passions against the enemy. But now for the first time we are permitted to see what war is like while it is going on, to know what American soldiers look like when they have been hit by enemy fire, and to see pictures. of little children maimed for life by our machines of destruc- tion. We see, and we turn away, our con- science as a people seared by the wrong that we do. "In God's name stop it," cried a group of clergymen and others in a New York Times ad 2 years ago, after seeing some of these pictures. "Get out of Vietnam," cried an- other group unable to tolerate any longer for any reason American bombing of Vietnam villages and American killing, even of Viet- cong soldiers. Since American soldiers first moved from advising to fighting, the call for a ceasefire has mounted steadily. Now we hear it in Congress as well as in teach-ins and peace marches across the land. "Nego- tiate. To the peace table. Now." And this cry, echoing up and down the United States, echoes and reechoes around the world. Except for a few hawks who would like to tackle China before she becomes a full- fledged nuclear power, most of the American people agree with these sentiments. We want a world as peaceful and as prosperous as our own country. We believe such a world is possible. But we believe that it can come only as the democratic ideal itself is made real among the nations of the earth. As Clarence Streit reminded us before the Sec- ond World War, democracy has brought peace wherever it has gone. Wars of aggression always come from tyranny and dictatorship. The people, given the chance to make their views known, demand peace. The truth of Streit's observation has been demonstrated over and over since he first made it 30 years ago. But the two ideals, democracy and peace, are not necessarily consistent. They were not when we entered World War I: they were not when we entered World War II, or the Korean war, and they are not now. Other- wise we should have no problem in Vietnam. If peace and democracy required the same course of action, we should call an immediate Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 CONGRESS][ONAL RECORD - SENATE February Id, 1966 ceasofire and go forthwith to the conference table. But this is not the case in Vietnam. Neither the Vietcong nor North Vietnam ac- cept the democratic ideal. South Vietnam (toes, although even there it is an ideal far from being fully realized. If the Vietcong and North Vietnam took over South Vietnam, as they would cto if American forces were withdrawn, world democracy would shrink and world dictatorship would advance by that much. This is the American dilemma. In Vietnam today the two ideals of peace and freedom dictate two quite different courses of action. Most of the argument raging about the Vietnam war has to do with detail: to bomb or not to bomb? the effect bombing has for and against our cause; when, where, how often to bomb, with what kind, and so on. Should we return to the Geneva accord of 1954? Should there be a new Geneva con- ference? or soma other kind of peace talks with Hanoi? or the National Liberation Eront? with whom, on what, when, where, ander what conditions, if any, and so on. The proposals can be numbered by the dozen. Should our policy be one of containment? or enclaves? or all-out attack with inva- sion of North Vietnam? Shall we use nu- clear weapons? What about the U.N.? the elforts of the Pope and other intermediaries? I would not minimize the importance of any of these considerations. Decisions of many kinds must be made and in great detail. But if the average citizen like you and me is to talk intelligently on these questions, he has first to make up his mind on the central issues. Having done so, he earl then more profitably move to the debate on the specifics. Do we choose peace or do we choose freedom? Here the battle on the facts begins and the basic issue is soon forgotten. Those who choose peace say that it will eventually lead to freedom, and those who choose freedom say it can only be estab- lished by driving out the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese. What is the truth? '['be administration has chosen freedom and has been pursuing it by military in- tervention of ever increasing size, scope, and cost in human lives on both sides. If you project where we are to be 5 years hence lcom the distance we have come in. the last 5 years, you might find us at war with China. Is this the intent of the Govern- ment? The American people want to know. We are aware that there is a political and social revolution in process in Vietnam to- da.y and that this revolution is but an aspect of the movement; of peoples everywhere from traditional cultures, centuries old, into the commercial, industrial, technological civ- ilization of the 20th century. In Vietnam and everywhere, this movement is accompanied by an equally basic political turnover-the emergence of millions from colonialism to self-government, whether by democracy or dictatorship. We are aware, too, that our involvement in Vietnam has no meaning apart from our involvement in the world struggle for power. The President has seemed to say on more than one occasion that because of this, he and the military had a virtual blank check to do what they thought necessary in Vietnam. He rig's steadfastly refused to say how far he wetcld go. But the clamor of public opinion in the teach-ins, peace orarches, and public statements, backed up by the Senate hearings, demanded that the President more sharply define his objectives and. the method:; he will use to achieve them. it is all to the good. The American peo- ple on the whole want to get off the war escalator. It has, they feel, gone far enough. Only the war hawks, of whom there are at- ways some around, want to go to Peiping. But our military presence in Vietnam raises a deeper question. Even though we escalate the war no further: even though we adopt General Gavin's and Ambassador Kennan's enclave formula, have we any right to be in Vietnam at all? Can we sup- port this war in any moral sense? What is the national conscience on the more basic issue of war itself? We can answer this ques- tion, like the others, only by arguing ilt out with each other as we are now doing. In my mind the debate that has been going on. for several years, now mounting to a climax through the nationally televised hear- ings of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee, is a great thing. For in this debate, as in all things, we are, united as a people, not because we agree as to the course we should follow. but because we agree on the ideals in accordance with which we shall decide what to do. One of the favorite ways of attempti ug to solve the problem is by historical analogy, in psxticular with the thirties, when Hitler was rapidly gaining strength, and E grope had to decide whether to let him go of gob- bling up territory or to risk war in au at- tempt to stop him. From the second alterna- tive Europe turned away. for the suffering, death and destruction of the First World War were still too vivid in the minds of everyone. There was much talk even then that another war would bring an end to civilization. Almost any alternative seemed better than to resort 'to arms. Most observers quite properly dismiss this analogy as too facile. But to reject. the Munich accord analogy is not to dismiss all history as worthless in this instance or any other. Surely history can help us to profit by our mistakes. And certainly it car: help v to understand current thought treeds by tracing them back to their roots. In my mind, the present torrent of declarations by churchmen, educators, and others on tie war in Vietnam is understandable only in terms of the background out of which they come. The most immediate and therefore the most obvious of these origins is the civil rights movement. The remarkable involvement of the -?lergy, rod to a lesser degree students, educators, and others, in the civil rights movement in the last 3 or 4 years did two things. It gave thousands of individuals a chance to par- ticipate actively in social change, when here- tofore they had been, at best, commen tators upon it. Secondly, it gave them a sense of power. No one doubts that the physical participation in freedom marches by men and women from all walks of life had much to do with the progress we have made in civil rights legislation and practice. The peace-now people who were active in the civil rights movement naturally feel that their views on Vietnam might be as succeeslully advanced by peace marches as their views on race were advanced by freedom marches. There is, however, it profound difference beneath the superficial similarity betwe.,n the two movements. The civil rights protests were directed against an intransigent gov- ernment by an oppressed segment of our people. When the protests failed, as they did at first, citizens who were not oppressed be- gan to join in the demonstrations. They reined in ever greater numbers until et last the government began to mend its was. By lust year, solid citizens were march.i ug in America's streets for freedom for the Negro, who would have been appalled at such e n idea not long before. The Vietnam protests are different. To say this is not to deny the right to stage peace protest demonstrations. But it is to em- phasize the fact that these are not protests made in the streets, because they can be heard nowhere else. The demand fcr civil rights want almost unheeded the American people took to the streets in great numbers. This is not true of American for- eign policy in Vietnam. Protests against it have constantly been heard, weighed, and considered in high places. The organized de- mand that we get out of Vietnam goes back far beyond the civil rights movement. It has its roots in the peace movement itself as it emerged among clergyman and others in this country during the latter part of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This was the pe- riod of the establishment of the Hague Peace Conferences, and the International Court of Justice. At that time many ministers took the position publicly that all war was wrong. Many held to that position when war broke out in Europe in 1914. But when the United States became one of the belligerents in 1.917, almost to a man the clergy repudiated their former position and led the call for the rais- ing of arms and men to defeat "the Beaus of Berlin," in that instance Kaiser Wilhelm II. When the war was over and the world had been made "safe for democracy," in Woodrow Wilson's words, the denouement came, and it was shattering. The war to end war had not brought war to an end, for fight- ing continued in various parts of the world. Neither was the world safe for democracy, for communism and dictatorship was now on the march. Nor was it any longer so clear that the Kaiser alone had brought on the war. Historians began to point out that the economic and political rivalry of France, Germany and England, and to a lesser degree Italy, Austria and Russia, had been basic factors in bringing the nations to a test of arms. Many of the atrocity stories that had aroused the ire of the Americans were shown to have been pure propaganda. The com- plete turnaround of the clergy was then documented in it biting volume, "Preachers Present Arms" by Ray Abrams. Many a minister was truly ashamed to think that he had been so easily led to abandon his prin- ciples. In a wave of repentance, many signed peace pledges renouncing all war as an evil in and of itself. As a result, during the years when Hitler strode to power in Europe, the American Protestant clergy, to a marked de- gree, took the high-principled but simplistic position that all war is wrong. They called, not for resistance to nazism, but for negotia- tion looking toward keeping the peace. The revelations following the Second World War were opposite to those that followed the first. We learned in the late forties that the worst atrocity stories we had heard about nazism were not half as bad as the truth. Far from being the victims of propaganda as we had been in World War I, during World War II we had neither known nor believed when we heard the depths of bestiality to which the Nazis had sunk. These revelations had a profound effect upon the group we used to call the absolute pacifists. And again there was a change of heart. There were few now to say that war against another Hitler might not he justi- fied. It is one of the dogmas of our age- one to which I fully subscribe-that the Nazi regime was the personification of evil, and that since it employed force to seek its ends, only force could have deposed it. There- fore such a war is justified. In this I wholly concur. As a result we are more sophisti- cated today, and there are few to say that they would never fight a war under any cir- cumstances. What the Nazis actually did virtually destroyed the power of the pacifist arguments of the 1930's. Nevertheless we hear today the same sim- plistic approach to the problem of peace we heard before the First and Second World Wars. Today again we hear the demand for peace on the part of high-minded people who find it intolerable to be citizens of a nation that visits the horrors of war upon another people. There might be war that could be justified, they say, but this is not one of them. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Februt Aj ._Z,AWffed For P t_)3 R" 8%% RECORD 7BSENATE 0400030002-3 I share their sense of shame and guilt. I face the fact, as we all must, that every bomb that is dropped in Vietnam, I drop; every child that is hurt, I hurt; every vil- lage that is destroyed, i destroy. I settled for that that back in the thirties, when in the face of the rising Nazi menace, I parted com- pany with the pacifists forever. I first faced the fact then, and I hold to it today, that my guilt is not lessened by becoming a conscien- tious objector, and my hands are not kept clean because I personally do not wield a knife or discharge a gun against the enemy. While I enjoy the peace and safety. of this country, I kill and destroy with the Armed Forces that keep this country safe from sub- version at home and safe from invasion from abroad. Can I then assuage my guilt for the havoc wrought by American arms in Vietnam by seeking to force the administration to ter- minate the war? Like everyone else, I de- voutly desire peace, and think we should pursue it by every means possible. But here, it seems to me, history does have something to say to us. It can remind us that the simple way of peace was wrong in 1916. It was wrong in 1939, and I would say that for the same reason it is wrong In 1966. If peace is right now, then we never had any business in Vietnam in the first place. Some say we didn't. How you resolve this ques- tion depends upon your view of the role of the United States in the contemporary world. Are you one who thinks we should stay home and mind our own business? Or should we take a hand in the political af- fairs of the world? Should we withdraw from Germany? From our military bases around the world? If not, then why from Vietnam? The one question we must an- swer is: Where shall we take our stand for freedom, even if we have to fight? Where shall we say to those who would subvert a nation through terror: Beyond this point you shall not go. We would all say it, I suppose-or almost all of us-should terrorists appear in the United States, whose purpose was to claim this country for the Communists, the Amer- ica Firsters, or the Ku Klux Klan. We have asserted the right to do this In Europe, and there have been few to complain chiefly perhaps because we have not had to fight in order to do it. Do we draw the line there? At the moment we are saying to the Viet- cong in Vietnam, "This land you shall not bend to your will by terrorizing its people." The origin of the liberation front in the revolt against the Diem regime does not alter the situation that exists now. The justice of the cause that brought the liberation front into being does not justify eiher the presence or the methods of the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese in South Vietnam now. We have chosen freedom in Vietnam rather than peace. But the trouble is, it has never been really clear that our choice was freedom for the Vietnamese. It has never been clear that we were doing more there than fending off the ultimate Commu- nist threat to ourselves, with little or no thought for the Vietnamese themselves. To. many, it looked as though we were trying to impose a new kind of colonialism on Viet- nam as intolerable to most Americans as to the Vietnamese. As the weeks and months went by, as the war steadily escalated and the bombing of North Vietnam increased, stopped, and began again, the conscience of the American people was increasingly troubled. as that declaration stated, the reconstruc- The cost of this program is not of such tion of the economy of Vietnam is our aim, magnitude to forestall other major pro- if a free and independent Vietnam is our grams of importance. The program, in goal, then we have a role to play in that fact, is one expenditure where there is unhappy country that we can defend on prin- definitely great value received for the ciple and point to with pride. dollars spent. The administration would have been in a far stronger position if it had formulated these policies and declared them definitively long ago, rather than now, as it appears, under the duress of an aroused public opinion. But the administration has now stated its objectives in Vietnam and now we know what they are: (1) to drive out the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese, and (2) to help the South Vietnamese to live In free- dom, in peace, and in prosperity. We have long been engaged in both endeavors and our growing success may be seen In the increas- ing number of Vietcong defectors now com- ing over to the South Vietnam side. These defections show that the Vietnamese want what we all want-a chance to live In peace under a regime stable enough to maintain it. We have now to remain true to these two specific goals, whatever the cost. While the military are driving the North Vietnamese and the Vietcong out, let us proceed with our program of hospitals, schools, dams, and factories. This program we can support with all our moral conviction. For every soldier we send to Vietnam, let us send a worker for AID or one of the several voluntary agencies now helping there. For every rifle, let us send a plow, for every round of ammunition a set of handtools. Let the buildup of arms be matched by the buildup of econ- omy. Let an ever-widening stable social order be established In the wake of our military successes. Let the world see by what we do that we are in Vietnam, not for our own good primarily, but for the good of the free world as a whole. If the Honolulu declaration is our blue- print, then our conscience as a people Is set free again. In the light of that statement, amplified by testimony at the Senate hear- ings last week, we can support administra- tion policies, despite our abhorrence of war and the suffering it brings. We can do so because we have been offered a course of action dictated by harsh reality, but guided by the humanitarian ideals for which we, as a people, have always stood. In Vietnam today, as so often in the past, we have chosen freedom, even in the face of war. We have done it because we believe it to be the only road to a final lasting peace. Prayer: God of men and of nations, lead us to the right whence both peace and freedom flow. Amen. PROPOSED REDUCTION IN THE SCHOOL MILK PROGRAM Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, at this time I wish to state my opposition to any reduction in the school milk program. I feel it is an efficient but effective way of helping provide a soundly nourished Youth in this country. In the past decade attention has been brought to the need for a healthy young America. We have initiated all manner of 'programs, on Capitol Hill and else- where, aimed at improving the overall physical condition of the Nation's young- sters. The school milk program has certainly contributed to this. For whether we like it or not, too often youths not considered financially needy are nevertheless nutritionally needy. Cash in the pocket does not always mean 3783 According to the President's proposal, the current appropriation of $103 mil- lion for the school milk program across the Nation would be reduced $21 mil- lion-an 80-percent cutback. The Department of Agriculture esti- mates for this year indicate this program will help provide 36.6 million half pints of milk for Kansas schoolchildren. Un- der next year's proposal this would be reduced drastically-and thousands of children would be excluded from it. Looking at it financially, it would cost Kansas taxpayers nearly $1 million in additional revenue to maintain the pro- gram as it now operates. Here we have a program that is oper- ating effectively and without problems, and it should be retained. REORGANIZATION OF GOVERN- MENT EFFORTS: POLLUTION Mr. MONTOYA. Mr. President, the President yesterday called upon the Congress to do something about restor- ing the quality of the American environ- ment. It was a strong message, but it certainly did not exaggerate the urgency of this need. It would be impossible for that need to be overstated. The deterioration of our environment has become an extremely serious matter. It is something we may have been able to Ignore or overlook in the past, but it is a problem we can ignore no longer. For we now possess means to eliminate the human race. We normally think of this awesome possibility in terms of the atomic bomb. Thousands of words have been written and spoken about the dangers inherent in our use of atomic fission. But the poet who said that the world will end, "not with a bang, but a whimper," he may have been more prophetic than he knew. The simple fact Is that we now pos- sess means more insidious than the atomic bomb to eliminate ourselves from the face of the earth. More Insidious be- cause they are less dramatic, less ob- vious, more pervasive, more subtle, more a part of our daily existence. The auto- mobile, the powerplant, the diesel en- gine, and the rest of our industrial complex, as it expands to meet the needs of increased population, threatens our very existence. If it Is to be used wisely, and by the very nature of water itself the attack upon pollution must be carried on in the context of a unified water conservation program. The Department of the In- terior has traditionally been concerned with the wise conservation and develop- ment of our water resources. Assigning the war on pollution to the Department will complete the gearing up process. The full, comprehensive and concen- trated fight to clean up our rivers can now begin. REPORT BY THE ADVISORY COM- MISSION ON INTERGOVERN- MENTAL RELATIONS Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, the re- cently issued seventh annual report of Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 1: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE February 24, 1966 the Advisory Commission on Intergov- But there are sr, many fields in which all Bryant, Jack Jones, Peter Leeds, Kaye the segments of government can play their Stevens, Carroll Baker, Joey Heatherton, Crmnental Relations has been receiving roles in a cooperative manner for the bone- Dianna Lynn Batts, Fayard Antonio considerable attention around the coup- fit; of the people. The Commission ills Nicholas, and Harold Lloyd Nicholas. try. The Commission is a bipartisan sought above all else to promote these pro- This trip was a great success and I know group charged with exploring problems grams in order to vitalize the federal system. and relations among Federal, State, and Undoubtedly, the Commission will soon be it helped to convey to our fighting men local governments. It has been my making inquiries into the three fields in the appreciation of the American people pleasure to serve as one of the three Sell- which States Fedene Gover entrhas o us ed for Twe San they Diego are doing editorially com- ate of twi the Commission since ene its intent of making sure that the States and mented on the Christmas 1965 trip and Ii 0111 Maine elong wth the e senior the local units of government retain as much made particular note to Bob's closing fen Mator 1 from Mr. M North thlE.l and the [seniMr? senior s, y as possible in them. words on the Chrysler television special, Seno It does no good to moan that the e which highlighted the trip. Because I SRHIN I . c overnment should not be in these three One of the major dilemmas of our areas because the moves were made with- believe as did the editorial a Bob's s el d Federal system as highlighted in the re- out ie great outcry from the States ant the queen concluding that Latelenet this counted tbemselveii. cent report O the Commission liis des- ho i' The Commissicn, if it is to be effective in regarding the role of the United States cubed in a recent article Mr. J the Idaho its avowed purpose of trying to strengthen in Vietnam, I requested a complete tran- d:venin~ State _man by Mr. John Corlett. the Federal sy:..ein, must receive -Iii the script of his closing remarks so that my [ic pleads for greater compassion by the moral support possible from the States, the colleagues and the Nation might benefit Congress toward the States in the light counties, and the cities. of the efforts they are making to meet Legislatures, county commissioners, and from them. counc their problems. I ask unanimous ent nyof their owersband bui ting fneces- Mr. er editorial fromi the San article con the sent to place the text of f the article at t this point in the RECORD. vary public support for themselves. Con- Diego Union together with the closing There being no objection, the article press listens to strongly expressed public television remarks of Mr. Hope be printed. opinion. at this point in the RECORD. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, This doesn't mean that the States must There being no objection, the material ,as follows: take an "anti-.Federal" strand, but they must, was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, IF'rom the Idaho Evening Statesman, Feb. 1, as the Commissions report pointed out, seek 19661 to be "real partners" in the Federal system." as follows: S.J. RES. 88 STATES MUST ? EEK To CE PARTNERS IN FED- More importantly, they can not look to the ERAI.LY AIDED PROGRAMS Federal Government exclusively for funds Joint resolution authorizing the issuance of or public programs, no matter what they a gold medal to Bob Hope (?;y John Corlett) ac, but must share with the Federal Gov- Whereas monnents enriched by humor are 'I'lze Advisory Commission on In.tergovern- ernment in program costs. moments free from hate and conflict, and ,rental Relations was created 7 years ago by "If the Staters stand aside and do not therefore valued by mankind; and Congress with the avowed purpose of creating participate in % massive financial way in Whereas Bob Hope has given to us and to a climate of cooperation among National, these programs," the Commission said, "the the world many such treasured moment:,; 4tate, and local units of government. problems to which the funds are directed will and It was hoped that the Commission would eventually come to be viewed as primarily a Whereas he has done so unstintingly and :verve as the forum for strengthening the fed- Federal responstbility.? unselfishly, with heavy demands on his time, oral system whereby there would be a balance The States have been assuming a greater talent, and energy; and of power among tike Federal, State, and local responsibility in the solving of problems in Whereas his contributions over :h long governments. this growing age of urbanization. Most period of years to the morale of millions of he Commission has. moved strongly in States are taxing almost to their limit and members of the United States armed services, this direction., but in its seventh annual re- are making far-reaching changes in their in addition to those of our friends and allies, port, just off the press, it notes that the last governmentul form This Congress -lust be have been of immediate and enduring value; eralism by which the National uoveruu,e' assumed greater powers. This, of course, serves to unbalance the federal system. The report noted that the National Gov- ernment, by congressional action, moved into three fields in which the States heretofore held nearly unlimited autonomy-voting rights, financing, and administration of the Inrblic schools, and law enforcement. In ad- dition, a bill. has been Introduced which would place tine Federal Government squarely in the field of State taxation. This would be done in the name of "interstate taxation." but the States would lose many of the pow- ers they now hold in assessing taxes within their own borders. The last Congress enacted some 25 grants- in-aid programs or major expansions of ex- isting programs, including the National Gov- a~rnnient's advent into the three new fields listed above. It is no wonder that the Commission views these steps with some alarm, particularly since they all were consummated in such a short period of time. In the short time it has been in existence, the Commission has sought to develop stud- ics and programs in which roles of National Government, the States, the counties, and the municipalities are clearly outlin.ed. The Commission., by its very makeup, is not anti.- r'ederal or anti-State. Instead its research programs are based on the assumption that in governmental fields where the Federal Government should be supreme, the States have no pl..ce in them. And conversely, if the States have unquestioned dominance in other fields, the Federal Government ought to stay out. BOB HOPE Mr. MURPHY. Mr. President, for many years, Bob Hope has been touring areas all over the world bringing laugh- ter, entertainment, and an all-too-brief moment of pleasure to our men, who man freedom's battle stations throughout the world. These trips have been conducted dur- ing the Christmas season at a time when all of us like to be at home with our families. With the lovely family that he has, I know it is not easy for Bob to be away. Fortunately for our troops, his wife and family are most understanding. The Congress of the United States, of course, is very much aware of Bob's great contributions, and in 1962 enacted Public Law 87-478, authorizing the is- suance of a. golad medal to him in recog- nition of his services to the country and his work for peace. I would like to ask unanimous consent that the law be printed in full at the conclusion of my remarks. As all my colleagues know, Bob's most recent trip was to southeast Asia where he entertained our young men who are doing such an outstanding job resisting Communist aggression. Joining Bob and also to be congratulated were Jerry Colonna. Les Brown and his band, Anita made during Christmas and at other times by personal contact in countless miles of travel around the globe, to the farthest out- posts manned. by American youth, during times of peace and war, often under danger- ous conditions and at great personal risk; and Whereas while at home he has given firm and imaginative support to humanitarian causes of every description; and Whereas in all this Bob Hope has ren- dered an outstanding service to the cause of democracy, as America's most prized "Am- bassador of Good Will" throughout the world: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Rep- resentatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President is authorized to present in the name of the people of the United States of America a gold medal of appropriate design to Bob Hope in recognition of his aforesaid services to his country and to the cause of world peace. The Secretary of the Treasury shall cause such a medal to be struck and furnished to the President. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated the sum of $2,500 for this purpose. Approved June 8, 1962. [From the San Diego (Calif.) Union, Jan. 24, 19661 THANKS FOR MEMORIES About 30 years ago when Will Rogers, en- tertainment's early-day Art Buohwald, died in a plane crash, a fellow named. Bob Hope Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 Februar pp owed For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3 y , 966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE like MIKE MONRONEY, FRED HARRIS, and ED EDMONDSON plying the skill and resource- fulness and persuasion for which they are known, I firmly predict that no amount of obstruction will be able to hold back in- definitely the coming reality of the central Oklahoma project. As one Congressman from a neighboring State, I pledge to you that-as long as I have the privilege to serve on the Public Works Committee-this practical and neces- sary development will have my hand and my heart, my voice and my vote, and whatever help that I can give. The time is rapidly coming in the United States when that area blessed with a maxi- mum development of its water resources will be better off by far than if it had oil or gold or uranium, or any other resource of the earth, but lacked water. I have never heard a more ridiculous or more specious argument than that forced upon the Corps of Engi- neers by the Bureau of the Budget that a better set of freight rates through other modes of transportation, brought about by a navigation project, should be considered as a cost rather than a benefit factor. It is obvious that the better rates will not come unless the canal is built. And if they should come as its competitive result, then I can't count that as anything but an addi- tional benefit to the people. the first functions of government recognized vided the basis for billions of dollars of by the Congress in the 1st decade of the new industry along these waterways. 19th century. But the history of their de- Mr. President, I join with others of this velopment has been a history of thinking too body in resisting a policy that is a detri- small and acting too slowly. benefit by the central Oklahoma project. The best homiletic I have ever read on the subject was delivered on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1848 by a young Congressman named Abraham Lincoln. He was speaking out against a Presidential veto of an omnibus public works measure. Lincoln demonstrated through the flawless logic that came to be his hallmark that, be- cause of an inland waterway in remote Illi- nois, the sugar merchant in New Orleans sold his wares a "little dearer" and the housewife in Buffalo, N.Y., sugared her husband's coffee a "little cheaper." The history of that splendid professional group known as the Corps of Army Engi- neers has been a history of cautious calcula- tions and conservative estimates to tonnages. The Engineers' projection on the Missis- sippi waterway was 9 million tons a year. in 1963, it carried almost 40 million tons-or 344 percent of the estimated volume. The Engineers projected 9 million tons a year for the Ohio waterway. In 1963, it was carrying 88 million tons, or almost 9 times the estimated amount, and the locks were having to be rebuilt to accommodate the burgeoning volume of usage. The original estimate, just a very few years ago, for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway be- tween New Orleans and Corpus Christi was only 7 million tons a year, That canal last year exceeded the official estimates by more than 10 times. Mr. President, the central Oklahoma project, an extension of navigation from the Arkansas River to the vicinity of Oklahoma City, has recently undergone emasculation due to the application of this formula. Although the district en- gineer and the division engineer recom- mended to the chief of engineers the au- thorization of the central Oklahoma project, the Board of Engineers for Riv- ers and Harbors, after reviewing the project and applying the new formula, recommended deferment of navigation until a demonstration of its worth could be made. We had been told repeatedly that the central Oklahoma project was one of the best, if not the best, of the navigation projects the corps had before it for consideration. It is my understanding that this new criteria will result in no more navigation projects being built in the United States until the Congress or the executive agen- cies of this Government determine that the developing of the water resources of this country is of such importance to our growth and economy that they will re- turn to the criteria which built the in- SPEECH OF LAST NIGHT AND VICE PRESIDENT HUMPHREY'S RECENT TRIP TO THE FAR EAST Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, it was my privilege to hear the television broadcast of the President's speech last night. He spoke the senti- ments of the overwhelming majority of the American people in support of our Nation's position and in support of our men who are fighting in Vietnam at this very hour. This morning it was my privilege, along with other Senators, to hear the Vice President speak about his trip to the Far East-Vietnam and other nations in that area-and his discussions with heads of governments there. In my opinion, that was one of the most eloquent and impressive statements which this Senator has had the privilege of hearing in a great number of years. It is my hope that in due course the Vice President, while eliminating from his statement items that are necessarily confidential and secret, will make avail- able to the American people information But the value of water resource develop- about his experiences and his conclusions ment cannot be written in tonnages alone. as the result of his trip to that area. The great complex of industrial development Our Vice President exposed himself to in the United States has grown up primarily considerable danger in order to visit our along our inland waterways system, and from men on the battlefield, and in order to this the Nation has benefited beyond discuss with many leaders of foreign na- measure. tions the desirability of stepping up aid Last year, some 300 new industries sprang they are giving this Nation, and also the up along the banks of our Nation's navigable desirability of working together toward streams. This development not only creates social and economic reforms. a tax base for the local communities, it pro- vides the payroll which generates other eco- It would be best for the Vice President nomic activities ad infinitum. In context to speak for himself in these matters. with all we have been discussing, this may be Any Senator did not hear the Vice Presi- far more important for the future than we dent this morning would be well advised realize. to seek the opinion of the Vice President 3771 and let him explain what were his ex- periences and what his conclusions were. Senators, of course, are privileged to know a great deal of secret information that the Vice President would not be privileged to give to the Nation as a whole. One fortunate thing about our Vice President is that he is not inarticulate. He is very well able to explain his views and get across his ideas, even though some of the information _ he might like to marshal on which his conclusions are based might be of such secret or con- fidential nature that it cannot be made available generally. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The time of the Senator has expired. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I ask unani- mous consent to proceed for 1 additional minute. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. I repeat, as one who was fortunate enough to hear the Vice President this n}orning, I was extremely impressed. I hope all Sen- ators who, for one reason or another, did not have occasion to hear him will have occasion to speak with him. EXECUTIVE SESSION Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to the consideration of executive business and take up certain nominations on the Executive Calendar. The motion was agreed to; and the Senate proceeded to consider executive business. EXECUTIVE REPORTS OF COMMITTEES The following favorable reports of nominations were submitted: By Mr. BIBLE, from the Committee on the District of Columbia: George A. Avery, of the District of Colum- bia, to be a member of the Public Service Commission of the District of Columbia; and Brig. Gen. Charles M. Duke, U.S. Army, and Paul L. Sitton, of the District of Colum- bia, to be members of the Advisory Board of the National Capital Transportation Agency. By Mr. RUSSELL of Georgia, from the Committee on Armed Services: Irma V. Bouton, and sundry other officers, for promotion in the Regular Army of the United States. The PRESIDING OFFICER. If there be no further reports of committees, the nominations on the Executive Calendar will be stated. Mr. LONG of Louisiana. Mr. Presi- dent, I ask unanimous consent that we pass all matters on the Executive Calen- dar and start with the nomination of Lee C. White to be a member of the Fed- eral Power Commission. The PRESIDING OFFICER. objection, it is so ordered. FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION The legislative clerk read the nomina- tion of Lee C. White, of Nebraska, to be a member of the Federal Power Commis- sion. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400030002-3