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March 9, 1966
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Approved Fot itX/Ll2ke?1fEfi71 L6R0004000500 ~ch 9, 1966 proved-the way exemplary utilities such as American Electric Power and Detroit Edison have proved-that it is on the same side as the customers. But then Chairman Eble thinks it has. "In a broad sense," he says, "the goals of Con Edison and the city are in harmony." Then in an odd twist he adds: "But you know, I'd never use Charlie Wilson's phrase, 'What's good for the company is good for the city.' " After we are assured that a recurrence of the November blackout is remote, perhaps, one day soon, I hope, Fortune magazine will publish an article entit d: "Con Edison: The Company Y To Love." FACTS AND FIGURES ON VIETNAM (Mr. STRATTON (at the request of Mr. JONES of North Carolina) was grant- ed permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, to quote a well-known military writer: A year or two ago a collapse (of the South Vietnamese army) would have been possible, but not today. This is the opinion by Richard Fryk- lund, writing recently in the Washington Evening Star. His article quotes officials as saying it is easy now to rule out a collapse of the South Vietnamese army and adds: It has never been in better shape. It is fighting at least as well as the enemy. It is growing. it is getting better equipment. Its morale is good. The facts and figures given by this distinguished writer, and particularly the manner in which South Vietnam deser- tions are reported, seem most pertinent to our current discussion on develop- ments in Vietnam. For that reason, I am taking the liberty of bringing the full text of Mr. Fryklund's article, from the March 1 issue Of the Star, to the attention of my colleagues, as follows: VIET DESERTIONS: FIGURES AND FACTS (By Richard Fryklund) The Government of South Vietnam has added up the number of deserters from its armed forces during the last year. The total is more than 100,000. In fact, South Vietnam has counted about 100,000 deserters annually for 3 years. This is a huge number for a country that has only 675,000 men in all its forces, regular and home guard. In fact, any army that loses 100,000 men through desertions 3 years running simply cannot survive. Clearly something here does not make sense. Either the Army of South Vietnam is collapsing or the figures are wrong or those men are not really deserters. Washington officials say it is easy to rule out a collapse of the South Vietnamese Army. It has never been in better shape. It is fighting at least as well as the enemy. It is -growing. It is getting better equipment. Its morale is good. A year or two ago a collapse would have been possible, but not today. Could the figures be wrong? Certainly not that wrong. The South Vietnamese Army keeps pretty good statistics now, using methods taught by American military advisers. The men are fingerprinted and photo- graphed as they are enlisted. The roll is called every morning and anyone who does not answer "here" is put on the deserter list. This is where we find a departure from the practices of the American forces. Here, a man is listed as "absent without leave" when he first fails to turn up and becomes a de- serter only when it is clear that he does not intend to return. But even if a missing South Vietnamese soldier returns the next day and apologizes for overstaying a pass, he still becomes a number on the desertion list. No one knows how many of the listed deserters are really AWOL, but there must be many of them. Under the South Vietnamese system, a de- serter can also be a man who transferred himself to another outfit without any legal formalities. American advisers in South Vietnam say that it is common for a soldier, particularly a new recruit or a draftee, to leave his as- signed base, return to his home village and reenlist as a home guardsman or even a regular. He is listed as a deserter from his original outfit, but the South Vietnamese Govern- ment understands the deep feelings of a peas- ant for his home and for the graves of his ancestors and so it tolerates such transfers. Some men, of course, are real deserters. They go over to the enemy or go home. What this true figure is, no one can cay for sure. Pentagon estimates indicate it has been about 20,000 or 30,000 a year for several years. This is a high desertion rate, too, but it also is misleading. Men seem to desert without too many qualms and often without severe punishment from the armies on both sides in South Viet- nam. The Communist forces, regulars, irregulars and organizers who can bear arms, number about 235 0,00 men now. About 1,600 of these men deserted in January and came over to the Government's side. How many went home is not known. Through February 15, another 1,167 deserted. On an annual basis, the enemy probably has a desertion rate therefore, of something like 5 or 10 percent. The South Vietnamese rate cannot be any higher. It it probable, however, that the Vietcong rate is going up while the Government rate is going down. For the last 3 years, the strength of the Government forces has in- creased from 400,000 at the end of 1963 to 575,000 at the end of 1964 to 675,000 at the end of 1965. But the official desertion rate has been rather steady. The present high rates on the enemy side are setting wartime records and may indi- cate an important new trend. Despite desertions, both sides are able to maintain their strength and even grow, mostly by volunteers. Draft figures on the enemy side are not known but the South Vietnamese regular armed forces have only 13 percent draftees- a figure comparable with that of the Ameri- can army. All of the home guard forces, about 100,000 men, are volunteers. The South Vietnamese people then, must be roughly as willing to fight for their village or country as are Americans. If, even after all the corrections the deser- tion figures for South Vietnam cannot be easily reconciled with American experience, it may simply be because of differences in custom and outlook. The figures may always puzzle us, but they need not be cause for alarm. AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE VIETNAM DEBATE (Mr. STRATTON (at the request of Mr. JONES of North Carolina) was granted permission to extend his re- marks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. STRATTON. Mr. Speaker, in the recent debates that have been taking place, both here and in the other body, some question has been raised as to whether historical parallels are really ap- plicable. In that connection I believe a recent column by Mr. Kenneth Craw- ford, of the staff of Newsweek maga- zine, may be helpful. Perhaps is should also be borne in mind that Mr. Crawford has a long record of support for liberal causes. The article from Newsweek for Feb- ruary 28, 1966, follows: YET ANOTHER DEBATE (By Kenneth Crawford) The Vietnamese war debate is like the music that goes round and round and comes out here, exactly where it came out before. That is what happened with the campus de- bate last year. That is what is happening with the congressional debate now raging. When it is all over, the conclusion will be that no better alternative to the President's course-fighting a limited war while continu- ing the quest for peace-has emerged from the talk. The necessary funds will be voted. The bad business of war and the hopeful business of diplomacy will go on at the old stand. At the end of the campus teach-ins, their more restrained leaders, those who did not favor a North Vietnamese takeover of South Vietnam, conceded that the United States couldn't honorably withdraw from southeast Asia until some kind of peace had been arranged. Responsible Senators are coming to the same conclusion, some of them be- latedly. If the doves choose to believe that it was their protests that inspired the John- son peace offensive and Secretary McNamara's announcement that Hanoi industry and Haiphong Harbor would not be bombed, no- body will begrudge them that satisfaction. Senators who decide to vote for war , ap- propriations out of a sense of obligation to the U.S. fighting men already in Vietnam while disavowing sympathy for the Presi- dent's war policies out of considerations of political expediency will be understood, if not necessarily admired. As Senator WILLIAM FuLBRIGHT has suggested in mitigation of his weakness on civil rights, a politician must make concessions to the prejudices of his constituents to survive in public life. THE CRITICS' CASE Actually, the area of disagreement between critics of Mr. Johnson as a war President and administration spokesmen is quite narrow. The critics' case is more clearly and thought- fully delineated by Columnist Walter Lipp Mann than by witnesses appearing before the Foreign Relations Committee or by Sen- ators speaking at the hearings and on the floor. In lucid newspaper commentaries printed last week, Lippmann agrees that "the containment of Red China today, like the containment of Stalinist Russia after the World War, is necessary to the peace of the world and is a vital interest of the United States. But he goes on to say that the difference between successful containment of Stalin- ism after the Second World War and the present attempt to contain Red China lies in diplomatic policy. In the case of Europe, he contends, the United States led an alliance of Western Powers while in the case of China it is virtually alone. The fact is, however, that when Truman policy was initiated to save Greece from a Communist takeover, America's only active ally was Britain. Italy was paralyzed by communism, France by in- stability, and most other U.S. allies by a state of postwar shock. CONFLICTING VIEWS Lippmann opposed Truman policy at its in- ception in Greece as he now opposes what he Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 196(i CONGRESSIONAL RECORI:) - HOUSE 'I'ris i'OLITiCAL PRICE OF POWER With the election of John Lindsay, Con Edison's relations with city hall may not he quite so smooth as they have been in the past.. For one thing., Lindsay is death on clubhouse politics, and has bitterly attacked partisan political patronage and the "power brokers" who, he charges, have long manip- ulated city government. One of his first actions--a call for the abolition of all coal burning in order to cut down air pollution-- would have a direct effect on Con Edison, which burns approximately 5 million tons of coal a year in its city plants. One of Con Ed's most furious political tiles was fought and-by its management's lights, at least--won 7 years ago. The op- ponent was that old nemesis, public power. The three powerplants the city had owned since La Guardia's day needed to be mod- ernized. Faced with an expenditure of $100 million, the city had either to take the plunge and possibly extend power distribu- tion to other public agencies and authorities, or to sell the plants to Con Edison.. But be- fore the city could sell the plants it needed enabling legislation from the State capital. In Albany, Con Edison put on a display of political lobbying that professionals still re- call with awe and admiration. The bill was finally passed with only a handful of dis- :;cnting Voles. But if the political generalship was mas- terly, the price paid for the obsolete genera- tors was extraordinarily high. Con Ed gave the city the book value of $126 million for the three 50-year-old plants, whose real valve was probably much lower. Moreover, the company since has had to spend heavily to maintain the equipment, and as the pic- Lure on page 123 indicates, even that has not been enougiz. Former Chairman Harland Forbes admitted that the economics of the powerplants was questionable, but that it was important for Con Ed to get the city out of the power business. It was not the first time that Con Edison paid dearly to stifle the threat of public power. In the mid-fifties a group of power- ful legislators were fighting hard in Wash- ington to lead the Federal Government into the ownership of nuclear powerplants. To stave off this threat Con Edison made a sur- prising decision. The company plunged headlong into its plans for the construction of the first privately owned nuclear power station in lie Nation, at Indian Point, on !,tie Hudson firer. Con Ed refused all Gov- ernment ass stance arid subsidies, except for the $500 million Federal Indemnity insurance that, is mandatory under the Price-Anderson Art. It also rejected the thought that it might share the cost of a pilot plant with other public utilities, as was done by utilities in New England and the Midwest. The first estimate for Con Ed's spectacu- lar plant was $55 million. But it was plagued by engineering difficulties. took 4 years to build, and finally cost $127 million. A conventional plant of the same capacity would have cost about $190 per kilowatt of capacity; Indian Point cost between $450 and $500 per kilowatt. To make matters worse, the State public service commission has decided not to include the plant in the company's rate base. "There simply is not sufficient evidence," said the commission., "to ream. a, proper conclusion on appropriate and proper treatment of the costs of Indian Point operations, either capital costs or operational costs." IF AT F'rssT YOU DON'T SUCCEED Despite the jolting experience with its first nuclear plant, Con Ed is determined to try again. It is convinced that in its area, where fuel costs are high, nuclear power will be competitive with energy produced from coal or oil. This summer Con Edison expects to receive a construction permit from the No. 42----5 Atomic Energy Commission for 'MI 873,000- kilowatt plant that will be located near In- dian Point I. This time, however, having been burned when it acted as its own gen- eral contractor, Con Edison is buying a turn- key installation from Westinghouse at a cost of $125 per kilowatt. "By canning In- dian Poin; II at 80 percent of capacity," says Senior Vice President Mowton W :ring, "we can deliver power at 5 mills, about. as low as you can get with any conventiona; system." Placing the plant 24 miles up:'iver from New York City is a bow to public opinion. In 1962, Con Edison applied for a license to build a nr_clea;c plant in Queens, then had to abandon she project because of fierce pub- lic opposition. But executives line Waring are so enthusiastic about nuclear power that they plan to make another attempt, to locate a generator within city limits in the 1970's. Such a plant would enable Con Edison to scrap some of its inefficient coal-burning stations. (Steam from the boilers could also be sold for h=ating and air conditioning.) "We're going -co fight to put the next nu- clear plant right in the city," sa',s Waring. "We know it's safe, and the Atomic Energy Commission ii; convinced. The public has yet to be persuaded." Another of Con Ed's ambitious projects whose ou.come is questionable is the pro- posed cos struction of a. 2-millio,i -kilowatt pumped-storage plant at Cornwall, 8 miles upriver from the nuclear generator. On paper, this h'fdroelectric scheme seems to make sen^e: It would, Con Ediso'r told the Federal Power Commission, pro vide large blocks of power at low cost, alleviate air pol- lution. prov:de reliability of service. pave the way for use of large nuclear plant:, and im- prove the company's bargaining position in purchasing other fuels. "I do not know of any projer't the company has undertaken," intoned liarla.nd Forbes, "that offered so many benefits of such great sign ficance to the public as the company's Cornwall pumped-storage project," T?r 3 EVER STUBBORN CITIZENRY But in ;his case also the public has yet to be pcrsua_led. Although the FPC granted a permit for the construction of the $162 mil- lion plant, conservationists carried the case to the ,econd Circuit Court of Appeals, which ha:; set aside the FPC decision. The FI'C must now, at the direction of the court, undertake a study of other methods of power generation, su,h as gas-turbine plants. No- body at Con Edison is betting on the final decision. Besides giving consideration to the Corn- wall project, Con Edison has been negotiat- ing with the Quebec Hydro Electric Com- mission for the purchase of 1,500,000 kilo- watts of Canadian power. Talks have bogged down. on costs ("We're about half a mill apart," says a Con Edison executive). How- ever, in a prospectus; issued last November, the comp my said that conditions ire prom- ising for the importation of Canadian power sometime in the 1970's. Currently Con Edison is revamping its system to guard against another disaster like the November blackout. The company has purchased 28 diesel generator eats. They will provide an emergency source of power to insure a safe shutdown of turbine gen- erators aad help start up smaller units. Larger generators have been ordered to pro- vide start-up power for units in the newer stations. Company executives are also work- ing out ;, method of providing ?mergency power for the city subway system. The cost of this backup service will be an estimated $10 million. All this expansion is intended to do more than just to supply the needs of Con Edi- son's customers. By extending ca:_racity and its high-voltage ties with other utilities, the company hopes to become a major regional supplier of p';wer. It is already connected with upstate New York and New England. A new interconnection will link Cori Ed with plants in Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jer- sey, and New York. The benefits of such interconnections are obvious: each utility can use the most economical source of power within the pool, and large generating plants can be operated at high capacity. In the past Con Ed attempted t.:i acquire the neighboring Long Island Lighting Co., a more profitable utility with both the indus- trial and residential growth that Con Edi- son lacks. Both attempts were blocked, first by the regulatory agencies, and then by Long Island Lighting's directors. But with the promise of high-voltage interconnections, Eble no longer see a need for the actluisition. "We can really get the same results under separate managements through cooperation and joint planning," he explain:+. "That way, you don't get into trouble politically, and you don't antagonize people." THE PLEASANTNESS OF CIIANt. is This state of affairs would be a nice change for Con Ed, many of whose customers feel a good deal of antagonism at the moment. The long series of rate increases ha: brought some customers, at least, to the belief that they are being penalized for management's ineptitude. Some of the largest real estate companies in the city evidently shared that view. The real estate companies, banding together in the Owners Committee rim Electric: Rates. Inc., have spent $320,000 over a 12- month period fighting the company's last major rate application. Although the court of appeals upheld the $27 million increase, the group considers that its tactics were well worth the cost: The delay saved time group $22,500,000. Con Ed's growth depends on future construction in the city, and this battle has probably been a deterreni.to other builders. Charles Ebie takes such opposition in stride. A prodigious worker, Eble has come to symbolize Con Edison to what lie con- siders its most important constituents --Wail Street, the political power struct tire, and community organizations. In his spacious office on the 16th floor of Con Ed's com- mand post, Eble puts in a 12-hour day, mainly on financial matters. Since the com- pany must borrow constantly for its con- struction program. Eble juggles deftly to keep the capital structure in balance, to avoid in overload of debt, and to pave the w y for an equity issue tentatively scheduled for 1967. And since all construction projects must be coordinated with other companies, Eble spends a considerable amount of time shoring up relations with. other utility executives. Eble also lends his talents to a number of outside business and community organiza- tions. Among other posts, he Bolds the posi- tion of chairman of the once moribund Greater New York Safety Council, designed to promote safety on the roads and m indus- try, and reactivated it by incretsing its budget and by persuading some prominent; businessmen to serve on the board. Some of the intense pressures on Con Editor;, and on its facilities, may be allevi- ated in a few years if the company's exptol- sionary plans are translated into reality. But Con Ed also has a conspicuous weak- ness: a consistent reluctance to fird within itself the reason for Its consistent unpopu- larity. That failing is likely to endure, partly because the company has no visible second- line young managers to generate rtew ideas along with the generation of more power. Executive Vice President Otto Manz seemed to recognize the weakness when he said re- cently, "We're always the whipping boy. We just don't sit here in the tower and decide to do in the customers. We mutt find a way to show people that we don't have horns." In fact, the company has never Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 Approved Ff1f"k0L711KJeFIDPRJ46R000400050002-1 believes to be too broad an Asian commit- ment. He advised American leaders not to get entangled "as partisans in a Greek civil war" until diplomatic explorations had been conducted in Moscow and satellite capitals and only then to consider defense of Crete and other maritime areas off the mainland. So he is consistent in saying, as he has, that the United States should recognize that it is a sea, not a land, power and comport itself accordingly in Asia. Lippmann is against what he calls an un- limited commitment in Vietnam because he thinks the United States can't win without destroying the country, is making a land war with China well-nigh inevitable, and can't prevent similar wars elsewhere. All of which is reminiscent of his warning that Truman in Greece was projecting a vague global pol- icy and an ideological crusade that has no limits. As it turned out, what Truman started in Greece saved Europe. The President trusts that his Vietnam pol- icy can do as much for south Asia. He is probably no stranger to the kind of fore- bodings Lippmann shares with several Sena- tors, including FULBRIGHT. But the Com- mander in Chief cannot permit himself to be dominated and immobilized by a doomsday reading of the uncertain future. Like Tru- man, he will do the necessary and hope for the best. CAB ZOOMS IN (Mr. ROONEY of Pennsylvania (a' th was granted permission to extend re- marks at this point in the R RD and Mr. ROONEY of Pe ylvcnia. Mr. Speaker, the Februa 6 issue of Busi- ness Week has a s ry I think all of us in Government should be interested in because it pertains to regulatory func- tions of the Civil Aeronautics Board. Written by Bruce Agnew and entitled, "CAB Zooms in on Thriving Airlines," the article is an excellent story on the Board's role in promoting and regulating the airline industry. In am aware that the story has been well received both in the industry and at the Civil Aeronautics Board, an indication that the story is fair and accurate. The article follows: CAB Zooms IN ON THRIVING AIRLINES-WITH INDUSTRY PROFITS SOARING, THE AGENCY WINS PROMOTIONAL FARE CUTS, AND PRE- PARES To COPE WITH LONG- AND SHORT- HAUL FARE DIFFERENTIALS, AND THE SUB- SIDIZED LOCAL CARRIERS Airline profits are the time and the tide that govern the affairs of the Civil Aero- nautics Board. Bad times mean CAB must play the role of solicitous parent, and try to nurse the industry back into the black even at the extreme of calling for fare boosts. But good times mean elbow room to work In. These days, with airline profits soaring past 13 percent on invested capital, CAB is flexing its muscles. The Board this month chalked up one major policy objective. Without bogging it- self and the industry down in the costly redtape of a general fare investigation, it pressured airlines into proposing a package of promotional fare cuts that one airline estimates could save travelers $74 million a year-while attracting enough new business to increase revenues. HOLDING THE LINE The promotional fares, unforeseen out- come of a 7-month debate with industry over the traditional fare increases when new jets are brought into service, have satisfied the Board's demand for a "hold the line" policy. No new pressure on the overall fare level is likely. However, the Board will devote increasing attention to two deep-rooted problems of adjustment and balance: Should changes be made in the relation- ship between fares for long-distance and short-distance flights, possibly lowering the fares on some long hauls and boosting the price for some short hop? Can the still-subsidized local service air- lines be strengthened by changes in their route structures, even though the changes might mean more competition for the moneymaking long-haul airlines? At the same time, the everyday run of business will present the Board with a series of policymaking opportunities. Among them: No in process or soon to get underway are fo r major route cases affecting the east coast, the Pacific Northwest-Southwest, and links with South America and across the Pacifi . Pro eedings are on tap to develop a new subsi y formula for local service, to set a new onsubsidy rate for carrying mail and to d ermine a new, probably reduced, rate for ilitary passengers and freight. I an international doubleheader next we , bilateral talks on air right will begin wi Britain, and international airlines flying t e Pacific will begin meetings to discuss wanted to have chopped. Any Board-induced adjustments in the fare structure will be selective and slow in coming. Chairman Charles S. Murphy-a longtime Government hand and former at- torney for the Democratic National Advisory Council-says the staff "has just made a good beginning" in its study. MAYBE A YEAR "Maybe in 2 or 3 months we'll have some- thing we want to get accomplished," Murphy says, "but I would not expect any major results in terms of changes being made for maybe a year." The premise behind the CAB exploration, however, is simple. Long hauls are by their nature more profitable than short hauls. Maintenance, reservations, and other fixed costs can be spread thinner; even the planes can be operated more cheaply on a long, non- stop flight. But, says CAB member Whitney Gillilland, "at the same time, if we'd permit an air carrier to charge a profitable rate for a short haul, we'd probably drive him out of business." Current fares reflect the disparity. In varying degrees, the long-haul earnings of the profitable trunks internally subsidize some of their shorter routes. And CAB directly subsidizes local service airlines, which just don't have enough long hauls to make ends meet. OUT OF LINE The degrees Of such long- and short-haul differentials vary widely. And in a fare structure that was laid down, and is changed, route by route, there is a growing suspicion within CAB that some of the fares are out of line with the overall pattern. "We think this thing is pretty much out of balance in the air carrier industry," says Gillilland, who was appointed to the Board by President Eisenhower in 1959 and served as Chairman in 1960 and 1961. But he adds: "We need to know more about it than we do now." Not all the members of the Board are c on- vinced that major changes are needed. Airline spokesmen welcome the Board study. Murphy, for his part, has made clear that no decisions will be made on theory alone, in the vacuum of the CAB boardroom: "I suspect that before we reach any con- clusions," Murphy says, "we will have sonle fairly extensive, comprehensive exchanges of views with the carriers-both written com- ment and oral discussion." RESTRICTIONS The problems of the local service airlines, which still require about $75 million Federal subsidies annually, reflect not only the differ- ence in profitability between long- and short- haul flights but also another built-in handi- cap: System for system, the regionals are re- quired to serve a much higher proportion of low-volume points than are the trunks. There is no chance that the regionals will be able to fly without subsidy any time soon-or for that matter any time in the for- seeable future. But with the new twin-en- gined jets, which can operate profitably on hops as short as 100 miles with a standard of service equal to that of the trunks, Board members see new opportunities for fatten- ing local service route structures. "Among the top 300 domestic markets," Murphy recently told a meeting of local serv- ice airline officials, "there are 101 markets under 300 miles in distance. These are mar- kets for which your equipment and experi- ence would appear especially adapted. Yet the total traffic in these markets is less than 6 percent of the trunkline revenue miles." EASING UP In more than half the markets Murphy has in mind, local service airlines are com- petitively hobbled by route restrictions, such as puddle-jumping requirements that make them touch down at cities en route instead of flying nonstop. But Murphy makes clear that the Board would consider pleas for au- thority to fly nonstop after making a mini- mum number of touchdowns daily at the cities on route-or in some cases even to break into a new short-distance market. Such steps presumably would increase competition between the local service air- lines and the trucks on some segments. Murphy and other Board members insist that the local service airlines' routes could be strengthened without biting deeply into the trunks' business. "The trunks are so much bigger in relative terms than the local service carriers." Murphy says. "I think there's room to strengthen the routes of local service carriers without impairing the opportunities of the trunks." RIVALRY The prospect of increased competition ap- parently will not be a major bar. Vice Chairman Robert T. Murphy, appointed to the Board from the Senate Commerce Com- mittee in 1961, notes: "I'd much rather de- pend on competition to do the regulating than on a series of rules, reading like an insurance policy, emanating from a regula- tory body." Whatever steps CAB takes are certain to be taken in close communication-perhaps even harmony-with the industry. In com- parison with other regulatory agencies, the board has unusually close contact with company executives, and has easy access to unusually detailed management data. Carriers subject to CAB regulation file quarterly financial reports so detailed that they even show the cost of inflight meals. The Board also can send Its own auditors into airline offices to check the books-which it does regularly for subsidized airlines, and occasionally for the trunks. TRAFFIC SURVEYS The airlines also voluntarily submit surveys at passenger origin and destination, so that the Board can compile industrywide traffic figures. These are circulated among the airlines. CAB depends heavily on all segments of the industry-manufacturers, airlines, and crew members' organizations-in its role as investigator of accidents. In major crashes CAB technical investigating groups are headed by Bureau of Safety staff experts but Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE March 9, 1966 Meshed cut by industry representatives. The practice serves two aims. It gives CAB in- vestigators access to industry expertise, and it guards against snap conclusions about the probable cause of the crash. i 'LU0DI:iIt Board staff officials tend to share one quality that eases communication with air- line executives: They're aviation happy, to the clublbsh degree of sporting aerospace tie- ,;lasps and dressing up their offices -with Mastic desk models of aircraft. A current favorite scans to be the Air Force's experi- cncntal supersonic RS-70. The five Board members, all lawyers, came !;o the Board from different routes: Chairman Murphy, who had served as an issistatit to President Truman in 1947 to 1953, was moved to the CAB from the post if Under Secretary of Agriculture last (unmcr. Vice Chairman Robert T. Murphy, it Demo- crat whose term runs out at the end of this year, had served as an aid to the Aviation oubcomrnittee of the Senate Commerce Com- nitttee before his appointment by President Kennedy in 1961. (1. ,insepti Minetti, a Democrat and senior member of the board, had held a number of hew f! ork City positions and was a rnem- ber of dhe Federal Maritime Board when noimmated for the CAB by President Eisen- hower in Liecember, 1955. (,illilland, an Iowa district judge in 1938 to 1941, served briefly in the Agriculture De- partment in the Eisenhower administration, and was; chairman of the Foreign Claims 'iettlemeni, Commission for 5 years before being named to the Board in 1959. He was CAB Chairman in 1960 and 1961. ,John Cs, Adams moved up to Board mem- bership alst summer from the post of Di- rector of toe Board's Bureau of Enforcement. NOTABLE SPEECH The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. AT,DFRT Under previous order of the [louse, the gentleman from Delaware i Mr. MCDOWELL] is recognized for 15 eniilutes. 1Mr. M :DOWE L asked and was given permission to revise and extend his re- marks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. McDOWELL. Mr. Speaker, the Philadelphia Inquirer has hailed the in- ternational leadership and distinguished public service of Mrs. Lyndon B. John- son. in her energetic campaign for high- way and roadside beautification. The paper says a recent speech. she made in Denver did not deal in abstract theory but that it was "highly pertinent and applicable to imminent decisions in current highway planning." I think we can all be grateful of the leadership being furnished along these lines and for the attention being given esthetic values. Because we are all con- corned about these values, I insert the editorial on the subject in the RECORD: I h'r,nn =.-he Philadelphia (Pa.) Inquirer, Fob. 27, 1,0661 i.ADY'S ADVICE TO ROADDUILDERS Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson continues to pro- vide inspirational leadership and perform distinguished public service in her energetic campaign for highway and roadside beauti- tication. She directed some excellent advice in the right direction last week in an address to the American Road Builders Association, meeting in Denver. The First Lady called for greater coopera- tlon between Government agencies and the general public in planning highway projects. She urged that openminded and sympa- thetic aeari.ng be given to citizens who seek to safeguard communities and landmarks against the ugliness and blight threatened by badly Located or poorly designed high- ways. She appealed to highway planners to give mare attention to "esthetic values." We believe that Mrs. Johnson's remarks are timely and to the point. Public-spirited organioatioas and individuals- -who are in- terested in making new highway Construc- tion at pleasing as possible to the eye, and compatible with surrounding landscape-- find it enormously difficult to get their mes- sage across to the engineers who prepare highway plans, often with insufficient re- gard for scenic considerations. A prime example, in Philadelphia, was the origim.l "Chinese Wall" design for the Dela- ware Expressway, calling for an elevated ninnst:-osity through the histe-ic Independ- ence )fall area. The design, after a hard fight, wits modified, but there :till is uncer- tainty whether the highway will be an un- sightly open ditch or will ha,'c an attrac- tively landscaped cover that will be a credit, instead of a detriment, to historic shrines nea.rb'.'- Mrs Johnson's notable speech in Denver docs'ot deal in abstract theory but is highly knt and applicable to imminent deci- n it current highway planning. MEKONG DELTA PITS HOME GUARD Ti-LOOPS AGAINST VIETCONG Mr McDOWELL. Mr. Speaker, it is becoming more and more apparent that the South Vietnamese are adopting a tried-and-true method of home guard defense. The article which I shall in- clude in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD as part of my remarks indicates that a sys- tem of what we have known for many years in this country as the National Guar3 under control of the several States is arising as a main force for defense in South Vietnam. I submit the article at thif point: [Front the Washington (D.C.) Post, Mar. 3, 19661 MEKONG DELTA PITS HOME (,oARD TROOPS AGAINST VIETCON (By Ward Just) My'aao, Sotrrll VIETNAM, M arch 2.-More than the infantry regiments of the Army of South Vietnam, more than 1i S. advisers or the jet-powered bombers of the Air Force, the war in the Mekong Delta. is fought by low-paid, lightly equipped, erratically trained troop:; called regional forces and popular force: - They get almost no publicity, but to the extent that there is stability and security in the Delta, the PF and RF as a the reasons. "They are the most courageous. people here," rays Maj. Homer Stapleton, an American adviser to PF units. In the 40-square-mile subsector called Chau;hanh, which includes he capital of Dinhruong Province, Mytho, there is an 86- man company of regional fortes and 800 in the popular forces. These troops are spread over to outposts in the subsector. RECRUITING DIFFICL I.T It is indicative of the difficulty of recruit- Inent and the subsequent leanness of the PF and RP units, that the subsector chief, Maj. Ho Van Trinh, is authorized 17 com- panies of RF and has 1. The reasons are partly pay an RF soldier receives less than $35 a month, even with it with and child. Popular forces earn less than that, and both must provide food and lodging even when on an operation) and partly the terms of employme;it. They play a very dangerous game. Regional forces are at the disposal of the district or province chief, and are sent on patrols or used as a security force following large ARVN operations. Popular forces, re- cruited from the towns and villages where they live, are posted as a kind of home guard. Popular forces are controlled by the sub- sector chief'. In the delta, where the military situation has been mostly static for the past year after a long deterioration, the PF and RF forces are the most vulnerable. The Government controls the major population centers, and most of the roads, but the Vietcong controls the countryside and there are vast tracts of Dinhtuong Pi vine in which the enemy moves freely. OUTPOSTS ATTACKED Every night, at official briefings in Saigon, there are two or three sentences devoted to this or that outpost which was hit or overrun with a few casualties-and with the Vietcong withdrawing at daybreak.. The PF or RF defenders then move back in. The point is that in the delta, the Viet- cong can seize-for the moment--almost any- thing they want to seize. Their firepower and their training is superior to both PF and RF forces. ARVN troops are often unavail- able. There are no U.S. units in the delta, only advisers. The PF static defense posts are sometimes only that: static posts around which the Vietcong move freely, on a kind of you-leave- me-alone and I-will-leave-you-alone basis. Major Trinh, an ARVN veteran, has been building up new outposts at the so-called New Life Hamlets that are strung around Mytho. These are supposedly secure areas in which peasants can live without fear of Vietcong terror or taxes. One of these outposts is at Luongthien, a neat, carefully laid out, narrow string of grass huts. It is on the main route from Saigon to Mytho, and extends perhaps 2,000 yards in from the road, across narrow canals, through palm groves and tree stands. At the outermost edge stands the Popular Force fort. It is made of dried mtid and contains 20 men. Three strings of barbed wire surround it. The men are equipped with M--1 rifles, grenades, a few Thompson submachineguns, and a Browning automatic rifle. The fort, with its peepholes for weapons, its barbed wire, its trenches and battered yellow and blood-red flag, looked like a movie set for a bad Rider Haggard novel, In the silence of the noon beat, the men had been lying in hammocks nod listening to transistor radios. The atmosphere was tranquil. This is in an area that is secure enough for the Vietcong that they sometimes use it as a rest and recreation center. One hun- dred yards east, the territory is theirs. Last month, in actions in the subsector, the Viet- cong lost 68 dead, the PP and RF lost more than 100 killed, wounded, and missing in action. MOVE OUT AT NIGHT But the 200 people of the Luongthien hamlet are said to feel secure. In the. eve- nings, the 20 men of the Popular Forces shoulder their weapons and move off into the banana groves in small units. They camp there overnight, waiting and listening for a Vietcong attack on the hamlet, and return at dawn. It was explained that they could not stay in the fort Itself, for the fort is vulnerable to mortar fire. "They are much safer if they disperse," said an American major advising Trinh, "and they are in a much better position to trip Charlie if he tried an attack on the hamlet." What the major said was substantiated by his associates and by the Vietnamese with whom he works. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 ApproveeS]!V yggf45A(W(L51a'g1 3bR~1A_RjRbU,400446R000400050002-1 51.71 Yet it was an indication of the state of Dinhtoung Province that Government forces, even in a fort, are not safe from attack. And it is an indication of their courage that they remain. VIET GENERAL OPPOSES ROLE FOR GI's IN DELTA SAIGON, March 2.-Gen. Dang Van Quang, commander of the South Vietnamese 4th Corps area-the Mekong Delta where Amer- ican combat troops have not been commit- ted-has given notice that he'd like to keep it that way. The delta, the richest rice-growing area in South Vietnam with a population of about 5 million, is the only one of South Viet- nam's four Corps areas defended entirely by Government troops. In the 1st Corps area, for instance, around Danang, there are more American Army and Marine troops than there are Vietnamese troops. Quang is reportedly concerned about an American " pacification" program that might bring a great invasion of U.S.. advisers into the area. In an interview with the Agence France Presse, Quang said he feels that the "pres- ence of foreign troops in the delta may give the Vietcong the pretext to propagandize that the Americans are replacing the French In that area." OBLIGATION The SPEAKER pro tempore. Un previous order of the House, the ge e- man from New York [Mr. R Y] Is recognized for 10 minutes (Mr. ROONEY of New York asked and was given permission to revise and ex- tend his remarks and include extraneous matter.) Mr. ROONEY of New York. Mr. Speaker, a week ago President Johnson signed into law the cold war GI bill which extends benefits, similar to those granted World War II and Korean veter- ans, to veterans who have served after 1955. In keeping with this spirit I today have introduced legislation which would grant to aliens serving in the U.S. Armed Forces after January 1, 1963, exemptions from the normal naturalization process. This country has led the way for the world in caring for her veterans and sur- vivors. It has in the past, out of grati- tude, welcomed alien veterans who have borne the battle as true sons. This privi- lege should not be denied to those who already have fought, and are still to fight, in Vietnam. The dying there is no easier than it was in the Argonne For- est, the Battle of the Bulge, or Porkchop Hill. If we can draft a man who is not a citi- zen and send him off to Vietnam or else- where to fight for this country, the very least we can do in return is offer him the chance to immediately enjoy the benefits of citizenship. We have passed legisla- tion in the past to advance this privilege to aliens who fought in World War I, World War II, and Korea. It is fitting that we do the same for those called upon to presently serve. LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent, leave of ab- sence was granted to Mr. RONCALIO, for 6 days, on account of death of Jane Hynds Griffith, of Cheyenne, Wyo. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legis- lative program and any special orders heretofore entered, was granted to: Mr. WILLIAMS, for 20 minutes, today. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. JONES of North Carolina) to revise and extend their remarks and to include extraneous matter:) Mr. McDOWELL, for 15 minutes, today. Mr. ROONEY of New York, for 10 minutes, today. Mr. WILLIAMS, for 30 minutes, on March 10. By unanimous consent, permission to extend remarks in the Appendix of the RECO D, or to revise and extend remarks was g anted to: Mr. MADDEN and to include his state- ment before the Banking and Currency Com ittee. Mr ROGERS of Colorado in the body of the ECORD following the President's mes age on crime. and to include extraneous matter, Mr. ALBERT to extend his remarks on the subject of the President's crime mes- sage. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. HANSEN of Idaho) to revise and extend their remarks-and include extraneous matter: ) Mr. REINECKE. Mr. HosMER in three instances. Mr. GURNEY. Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. MCCULLOCH. Mr. MORSE in three instances. Mr. CLANCY. Mr. CEDERBERG In two instances. Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin in two in- stances. Mr. ERLENBORN. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. JONES of North Carolina) and to include extraneous matter:) Mr. ANNUNZIO in three instances. Mr. YATES. Mrs. KELLY in three instances. Mr. KEOGH. Mr. RODINO. Mr. MOORHEAD in six instances. Mr. MULTER in three instances. Mr. GALLAGHER in two instances. Mr. EDMONDSON in two instances. Mr. MONAGAN in two instances, Mr. CALLAN. Mr. DULSKI in two instances., Mr. GIBBONS in six instances. Mr. TEAGUE of Texas, SENATE BILLS REFERRED Bills of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the Speaker's table and, under the rule, referred as follows: S. 2266. An act to authorize the Attorney General to transfer to the Smithsonian In- stitution title to certain objects of art; to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. S. 2540. An act to authorize the conclusion of an agreement for the joint construction by the United States and Mexico of an in- ternational flood control project for the Tiju- ana River in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of February 3, 1944, with Mex- ico, and for other purposes; to the Commit- tee on Foreign Affairs. S.2729. An act to amend section 4(c) of the Small Business Act, and for other pur- poses; to the Committee on Banking and Currency. ENROLLED BILL SIGNED Mr. BURLESON, from the Committee on House Administration, reported that that committee had examined and found truly enrolled a bill of the House of the following title, which was thereupon signed by the Speaker: H.R. 2627. An act for the relief of certain classes of civilian employees of naval installa- tions erroneously in receipt of certain wages due to misinterpretation of certain person- nel Instructions. ADJOURNMENT Mr. JONES of North Carolina. Mr. Speaker, I move that the House do now adjourn. The motion was agreed to; accord- ingly (at 1 o'clock and 20 minutes p.m.) the House adjourned until tomorrow, Thursday, March 10, 1966, at 12 o'clock noon. EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. Under clause 2 of rule XXIV, executive communications were taken from the Speaker's table and referred as follows: 2160. A letter from the Deputy Secretary of Defense, transmitting reports covering the same number of violations of section 3679, Revised Statutes, and Department of Defense Directive 7200.1, "Administrative Control of Appropriations Within the Department of Defense," pursuant to the provisions of sec- tion 2679(1) (2), Revised Statutes; to the Committee on Appropriations. 2161. A letter from the Secretary of the Interior, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend the act of October 4, 1961, in order to facilitate the efficient pres- ervation and protection of certain lands in Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Md., and for other purposes; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. 2162. A letter from the Chairman, Federal Trade Commission, transmitting the 51st annual report of the Commission, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1965; to the Com- n-.atee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. 2163. A letter from the Attorney General, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to establish a Commission on Revision of the Federal Criminal Laws; to the Commit- tee on the Judiciary. 2164. A letter from the Attorney General, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to establish a consolidated Federal correc- tions system, and for other purposes; to the Committee on the Judiciary. 2165. A letter from the Attorney General, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to amend the Law Enforcement Assistant Act of 1966, and for other purposes; to the Com- mittee on the Judiciary. 2166. A letter from the Secretary of the Army, transmitting a report of claims settled during fiscal year 1965, pursuant to the pro- visions of title 10, United States Code; to the Committee on the Judiciary. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON PUB- LIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports of committees were delivered to the Clerk Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE Marcia. 9, 1966 For printing and reference to the proper calendar. as follows: Mr. THOMPSON of New Jersey: Joint Com- mittee on the Disposition of Executive Papers. House Report No. 1311. Report on the dis- position of certain papers of sundry executive deparLine nts. Ordered to be printed. PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 4 of rule XXII, public bills and resolutions were introduced and sev- erally referred as follows: ::v Mr. SAYLOR: I.R. 13417. A bill to amend the act of October 4, 1961, to facilitate the efficient preservation and protection of certain lands in Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Md., and for other purposes; to the Committee on interior and Insular Affairs. I ty sir. ABERNETHY: f.it. 13418. A bill to amend title 38 of the United States Code to permit certain In- creased amounts received as a result of en- n.eianent of the Social Security Amendments of 19115 to be disregarded in computing in- coine for the purpose of determining eligi- bility .for a veteran's or widow's pension under title 38; to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. i if ivlr?. ASPINALL: i.IL 13419. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of the Interior to engage in feasibility investigations of certain water resource de- velopment proposals; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. ity Mr. COLLIER: lilt.. 13420. A bill to provide that the United. States shall make no payments or contributions to the United Nations for fur- nishina assistance to Communist countries; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Isy Mr. COOLEY: It.',?- 13421. A bill to amend the Agricul- tural Act of 1949. as amended, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Agriculture. Ity Mr. DYAL: [.1t. 13422. A bill to establish a U.S. Com- rnittee on Human Rghts to prepare for par- ticipation by the United States in the observ- ance of the year 1968 as International Human Rights Year, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Ily Mr. FASCELL: H.R. 13423. A bill to amend the Older Americans Act of 1965 in order to provide for a National Community Senior Service Corps; to the Committee on Education and Labor. 11V Mr. FIND: 1I.E. 13424. A bill to amend the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 to place limitations on. the amount which may be expended for housing accommodations and meal allow- ances; to the Committee on Education and Labor. Ly Mr. WILLIAM D. FORD: 1Il1. 13425. A bill to provide for the strengthening of American educational re- source:; for international studies arid re- search; to the Committee on Education and Labor. My Mr. FRASER: 13426. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of Agriculture to regulate the transpor- tation, purchase, sale, and handling of dogs and cats in commerce; to the Committee on Agriculture. 1iy Mr. FULTON of Pennsylvania: 1113-1. 13427. A bill to provide a permanent special milk program for children; to the Committee on Agricutlure. Ily Mr. GILLIGAN: 13.14. 13428. A bill to establish a U.S. Com- mittee on Human Rights to prepare for par- ticipation by the United States in the ob- servance of the year 1968 as International Human Rights Year, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, By Mr. GURNEY: H. :t. 13429. A bill to amend section 161 of the Revised Statutes with respect to the authority of Federal officers and agencies to withhold information and limit the avail- ability of records; to the Comrnittee on Gov- ernment Operations. By Mr. MACHEN: U1 . 1.3430. A bill to amend the act of Oc- tuber 4, 1.961, to facilitate the efficient pres- ervation and protection of certain lands in Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Md., and :or other purposes; to th? Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. -ly Mr. MILLS: 3114. 13131. A bill to extend the Renego- tiation Act of 1951; to the Committee on Way; and Means. '3y Mr. PEPPER: 13. 4. 13132. A bill to amend section 201(c) of the Federal Property and Administrative tierviecs Act of 1949 to permit further Fed- eral ase and donation of exchange sale prop- erty; to the Committee on Government Operations. 'BV Mr. R.ODINO: H 3. 13133. A bill to provide a, permanent special milk program for children; to the Committee on Agriculture. By Mr. RONCALIO: IT, 1. 13134. A bill for the establishment of a. Ci.ilian Aviation Academy; to the Commit- tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. H'.' 13135. A bill to establish a National Highway Traffic Safety Center to promote re- search arid development activities for high- way traffic safety, to provide financial assist- an.ce to the States to accelerate highway traif:, safety programs, and for other pur- nose.;; to the Committee on Public Works. By Mr. ROONEY of New York: HJt. 13136. A bill to amend the Immigra- tion and Nationality Act and for other pur- pose:;; to the Committee on Public Works. By Mr. SCOTT: 13.=4.. 13137. A bill to extend and amend the Ltbrarv Services and Construction Act; to the Committee on Education and Labor. Bar Mr. SICKLES: H.7.. 1:3138. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of Agriculture to regulate the transpor- tation, sane, and handling of dogs, cats, and other animals intended to bo used for pur- poses of research or experimeitation, and for other )purposes; to the Committee on Agri- culture. r'rv Mr. STRATTON: H. 4. 13139. A bill to provide a permanent special milk program for children; to the Comrnittee on Agriculture. HR .. 13440. A bill to amend the Public Worl:s and Economic Development Act of 1965 to extend for an additional year the eligibility of certain areas of substantial un- cmploynn,nt; to the Committee on Public Worl a. By Mr. TODD: 1.it. 13.141. A bill to promor.e international trade in agricultural commodities, to combat huihl.;er and malnutrition, to further eco- nom?c development, and for other purposes; to tie Committee on Agriculture. By Mr. WOLFF: 141?. 13442. A bill for the e: tablishment of a. Ci,tlian Aviation Academy; to the Com- mittee on. Interstate and Foreign Commerce. By Mr. ASPINALL : Ii. ~. 13443. A bill to require "'that certain officers in the Department of I be Interior and the Department of Agriculture be filled by appointment by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. H.R. 13444. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of the Interior to establish a National Visitor Center and for other purposes; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. By Mr. BENNETT: H.R. 13445. A bill to provide for a con- gressional comptrollership to promite fiscal responsibility in the Federal Government; to the Committee on Government Operations. By Mr. BINGHAM: HR. 13446. A bill to provide for the estab- lishment and, operation of a National Regis- try of Art for the purpose of maintaining and administering records relating to the origin. transfer, and ownership of works of art; to the Committee on House Administration. By Mr. DINGELL: HR. 13447. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of the Interior in cooperation with the States to preserve, protect, develop, restore. and make accessible estuarine areas of the Nation which are valuable for sport and commercial fishing, wildlife conservation, recreation, and scenic beauty, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. By Mr. DULSKI: HR. 13448. A bill to amend title 39, United States Code, with respect to mailing privi- leges of members of the U.S. Armed Forces and other Federal Government personnel overseas, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. By Mr. HELSTOSKI: HR. 13449. A bill to provide a special milk program for children; to the Committee on Agriculture. HR. 13450. A bill to amend title XI of the National Defense Education Act of 1958 to permit the Commissioner of Education to carry on institutes to improve the qualifica- tions of junior college teachers; to the Com- mittee on Education and Labor. HR. 13451. A bill to provide for the strengthening of American educational re- sources for international studies and re- search; to the Committee on Education and Labor. H.R. 13452. A bill to amend the Older Americans Act of 1965 in order to provide for a National Community Senior Service Corps; to the Committee on Education and Labor. HR. 13453. A bill to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for the estab- lishment of a National Eye Institute in the National Institutes of Health: to the Com- mittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. By Mr. MORRISON: HR.13404. A bill to amend title 39, United States Code, with respect to mailing privileges of members of the U.S. Armed Forces and other Federal Government per- sonnel overseas, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Post Office and Civil Serv- ice. By Mr. RHODES of Pennsylvania: HR. 13455. A bill to amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide payment for podiatrists' services under the program of supplementary medical insurance benefits for the aged; to the Committee on Ways and Means. By Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina: HR. 13456. A bill to authorize appropria- tions during the fiscal year 1967 for procure- ment of aircraft, missiles, naval vessels, and tracked combat vehicles, and research, de- velopment, test, and evaluation for the Armed Forces, and to maintain parity be- tween military and civilian pay, and for other purposes; to the C'ommii.tce on Armed Services. By Mr. WYATT: H.R. 13457. A bill to authorize the Secre- tary of the Interior to develop, through the use of experiment and demonstration plants, practicable and economic means for the pro- duction by the commercial fishing industry of fish protein concentrate; to the Com- mittee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. By Mr. HORTON: H.J. Res. V86. Joint resolution designating February of each year as American History Month; to the Committee on the Judiciary. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE and pay the cost of transfer. Let me say, parenthetically, that I said as much in London last fall when this move by France seemed to be on the horizon. The cost of such a transfer will be approxi- mately $1 billion, a necessary price to pay for the continued security of Europe, a reasonable price which must be paid for the linchpin of the Free World, a small price considered in relation to the ex- penditures of the struggle In Vietnam. If President de Gaulle, wants SHAPE out of Paris, we must begin making pre- parations to move it to the Low Countries or to Great Britain. The organization must never stop functioning for a moment. I am proud to say that I support the President's rejection of President de Gaulle's offer for bilateral talks and bilateral arrangements with France. NATO is an organization not an ad hoc committee. The members are com- mitted to acting together as a unit and not on a bilateral basis. The precedent of bilateral negotiations could lead to a breakdown of the whole NATO frame- work. Special arrangements will de- stroy the common purpose and create confusion. President de Gaulle has raised the call to nationalism in an age of interna- tionalism and multilateralism. I have confidence that the French nation will find a way to get along with the other 14 nations in NATO and that the i14 VIETNAM: THE WAR IS WORTH WINNING Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, Hedley Donovan, the editor in chief of Time, Inc., has written a vital editorial in the February 25, 1966, issue of Life magazine. Mr. Donovan makes a convincing case on two counts : First, that our military task Is a feasible one in Vietnam and shows likelihood of success; and, second, that our cause there is a just one and is worth pursuing. Many myths have grown up around the struggle in Viet- nam, about the invincibility of wars of national liberation, about our objectives in the area, and about the meaning of the war in general. Mr. Donovan's careful attention to the facts of the military situation should go a long way to dispel these myths. He points out that pacification is only the first step and must be a prelude to the next and longer phase of the economic, political, social, and psychological con- struction of the country. He concludes- and I am in full agreement with him on this-that the real meaning of the con- flict in Vietnam is the future of Asia. I ask unanimous consent to have Mr. Donovan's editorial printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: VIETNAM: THE WAR Is WowTa WINNING (By Hedley Donovan) The war in Vietnam builds up. It is often called a war without "fronts" or "lines," but there are authentic battles and all too au- No. 42--B thentic casualties, in rising number. There is a quickening of ambush and counteram- bush, patrols, sweeps and armed convoy runs, up and down the 900-mile curve of this lovely, tortured land. The buildup is felt from the sector of the "Paddy Rats," the 21st ARVN Division (Army of the Republic of Vietnam), at the tip of the steamy Mekong Delta country, all the way north to the U.S. 3d Marine Division encampments in the wildly complicated terrain around Danang- jungles, canals, rice fields, swamps, red clay hills, sharp little mountains, teeming towns, broad sand beaches. In shabby, swarming Saigon, people speculate about all the VIP traffic from Washington; many of them work prodigiously hard; some profiteer and rack- eteer, and at least a few work for the Vietcong at night. The supply lines pump harder. They stretch back halfway around the world through the Philippines and Okinawa through Hawaii, to the training camps in California and Georgia, the factories In St. Louis and Cleveland. Vietnam begins to dominate the public life of the United States and the private thoughts of many an American family. It dominates the Presidency of Lyndon John- son, the economic outlook, the intellectual climate. But it is still a mystifying war to many Americans, despite heavy press coverage; loud public dialog, and all the earnest ex- position of Lyndon Johnson, Robert Mc- Namara, and Dean Rusk. It is certainly not a popular war (though it may be noted, to the general credit of mankind, that there aren't many popular wars nowadays). Some of the country's misgivings are reported else- where in this issue, not the sloganeering of the well-publicized "Vietniks," but the thoughtful, responsible dissent and doubt. In this article Life offers its own general judgments and guesses about Vietnam. What might it take to end the business? What would be victory? What is this strange war all about? For all the war's strangeness and difficulty, and for all the dangers and uncertainties ahead, our side in fact Is doing fairly well. The war need not last a generation, or 10 years or 6 or 7 years (to cite one curiously precise guess that recent press stories at- tributed to unnamed Pentagon observers). There is a reasonably good chance the pres- ent phase of the war can be successfully wound up in 1967, or even late 1966. President Johnson's peace offensive was well worth trying, and there is still a remote possibility that the diplomacy he set in mo- tion could lead to a satisfactory negotiated settlement of the war. The likeliest ending is not around a con- ference table, however, but in a quiet with- drawal of main-force North Vietnamese units, after they have been hurt enough, back to the north, and a gradual tapering off of the Vietcong military effort in the _ south. This would not leave South Vietnam fully pacified by any means; there would still be strong VC pockets and sporadic violence and terrorism. But the war of battalion- and regiment-size battles, and big airstrikes, would be over, in the next phase of the struggle, though there would still be shooting, the war would be essentially economic, political, psycholog- ical. Heavy U.S. economic aid would still be required, and some continuing U.S. military presence. This phase might indeed last for some years. We are not bogged down in Asia. We are deeply, inescapably involved with Asia and have been for decades. The involvement has its perils; it also holds high promise. The war in Vietnam is not primarily a war about Vietnam, nor even entirely a war about China: It Is a war about the future of Asia. It is very possibly as important as any of the previous American wars of this century, in fact this ugly, maddening, big-little war may some day be remembered as a his- toric turning point. Many peoples of the West as well as Asia could have reason for gratitude to the extraordinary generation of Americans now serving in Vietnam (their harassed chiefs in Washington might even rate a word or two of thanks), and to the- long-suffering troops and people of South Vietnam, In the United States the most persistent question about Vietnam is why the injection of 200,000 Americans has seemingly made so little difference. The Injection of the 200,000 has in fact made an enormous difference. It prevented what otherwise might have been the col- lapse of the Soutli Vietnam Government and Army, late last spring, and the defeat of all the previous years of American effort. When Senator FULBRIGHT and Walter Lipp- mann and other opponents of the adminis- tration policy say, as they frequently do, that our side controls no more territory to- day than we did a year ago despite all the buildup and fighting in 1965, they are being technically accurate and totally misleading, A year ago, the South Vietnam Government's grip on what it ostensibly held was begin- ning to disintegrate very rapidly. The start- up of U.S. air operations against the North in February 1965, and the arrival of the first few thousand U.S. Marines in March, briefly slowed but did not halt the deterioration. The Government continued to lose territory and population through spring of 1965, and more fatefully, the ARVN was losing its last thin reserve of mobile battalions, while the people were losing their last shreds of con- fidence that the Vietcong could ever be de- feated. Perhaps because they never confessed how desperate the situation was last May and June, neither the Saigon government nor the Johnson administration has given any detailed accounting of how much better the situation is today. In the United States, this leaves critics free to argue that no amount of U.S. effort and sacrifice seems to accom- plish anything in Vietnam, so we should dis- entangle ourselves from a hopeless venture on the best terms we can get. A turnaround did begin in early summer. By that time the United States had 75,000 troops in South Vietnam, and on July 28 President Johnson made his announcement that another 50,000 were on the way. The announcement itself had a salutary effect on the stability of the Saigon regime and on the attitudes of the fence-sitters, a numerous element, understandably enough in the Viet- namese population. Today, although there is no such thing as total security anywhere in the country, in- cluding the most heavily guarded military bases, the Saigon government has reasonably good control of territory containing about 50 to 55 percent of the country's population. This contrasts with a highly precarious con- trol of about 45 percent last June. The ter- ritory under the government's control in- cludes all the cities, all 43 of the provincial capitals, all but half a dozen of the 241 dis- trict capitals. - There has been a decided ex- tension of government control in the popu- lous Mekong Delta area, source of most of the country's rice supply and in the past a rich recruiting ground for the Vietcong as well as the ARVN. About 20 percent of the country's population is in disputed or fluid territory or places that neither side is bother- ing with at the moment. The rest is under fairly solid Vietcong control. The Vietcong dominate at least half the country's area, but much of its domain Is jungle, mountain, and mangrove swamp. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 5192 Approved For R 0 - ? CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 ,~ L RECORD - SENATE March ~), 1966 The 10-man military directory headed by are perhaps 25,000 to 40,000 South Vietnamese summer the effects of all our efforl, shonhl Air Vice Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky has now troops, including some tough marine and really begin to be felt on the batth?fields. A been in office 8 months, which nobody would airborne battalions, that could be considered point comes in a war when momentum de- have dared predict last summer. It can fully mobile offensive forces, unencumbered velops; cumulative and multiplying effects scarcely be described as strongly entrenched by fixed-defense responsibilities. Adding in spread across a whole theater; one action or broadly popular, but it looks much more a robust little Australian-New Zealand con- goes well, and things seem to go better in half effective than the revolving-door regimes that tingent, and the marine brigade and Tiger a dozen other places. The momentum was followed the fall of Diem (nine of them in Division that Korea has sent, the allies have running strongly for the Vietcong in early 19 months). It has lived down the bombas- a total striking force of 150,000 men at the 1965. It could be running strongly for our tic pronouncements of Ky's first weeks in of- most, and by the maximum mobility test side in late 1966. Itce, suppressed one minor coup attempt, and the total would be more like 100,0(0. Barring a negotiated settlement, nobody made some fairly convincing announcements They are up against. a fanatir,illy brave will ever be able to name the exact date when about the drafting of a new constitution and and :highly resourceful army of al:out 90,000 the present phase of the war came to an end. Ole introduction, perhaps next year, of a men, Viet_ong main-.force units pl ? rs perhaps But the day should come, late this year or limited measure of democracy. With power- a dozen regiments of the North Vietnam next, when it will be possible to add up sonic fnl prodding and backing from the U.S. Em.- Army, always free to group and stnke against such set of facts as this: dwindling south- bassy artd A ID mission, it began an ambitious a weaker force wherever they can find it, bound traffic on the Ho Chi :Minh Trail for new program of economic reconstruction in since the,, themselves hold no intrinsically several months; increase in northbound the more or less pacified parts of the country- valuable territory that ties them dawn to de- traffic; no firm contact with a full VC regi- ride. There have been. previous efforts-and Tense. (The VC may have a.nothtrr 100,000 rnent or battalion for several weeks; There occa.- iailures--in this field, the strategic hamlets men in small local cadres, in porter gangs sional capture of VC or North Vietnam regn- program, the new life hamlets, etc. The Ky along the supply trails, part-time nerrillas, lars now operating with small local guerrilla regime has been going at it quite seriously, etc.) however, and its program now has the direct The units; y contain of government control to slid insistent patronage of Lyndon Johnson 10 to 1 much quoted suppress dictum that a: takes a territory c decline 75 percent of the po this himself, as announced at Honolulu and am- suorce ts to suppra d:gospe n territ lation; decline of VC incidents dents within tints piified by the new wave of emissaries he sent guerrilla force Is not, regarded as gospel in territory, This would be the end of the big- Lo Saigon. Vietnam. No modern counterguerrilla, army unit war, and the first installment of victory, has ever operated with such a tremendous and this the United States does tacitly rec- Meanwhile, South Vietanam's badly bat- margin of firepower and mobility as the ognize. To turn the South over to com- i,ered army has had it chance to catch its United Sts.tes has introduced into Vietnam. munism which would almost certainly be the breath. A number of understrength units But it is generally agreed that we will need consequence of a peace negotiated from a, have been considerably beefed up in men. a manpower superiority of at least. to 1 and few enclaves, would be defeat. and equipment The desertion rate has been very possibly 3 to I in mobile offensive Assuming we will not settle for that, and reduced, though it is still shocking. There forces. that we persevere that we p has been. an encouraging through the big-unit war, pickup in defec- Most of the reinforcements will have to we should then see Hanoi quietly deescalate. lions from the Vietcong-11,000 in 1965 come from the United States. Among the would presumably stop bombin the versus 5,000 in 1964. One of the most sensi- Vietnamese north, live indicators of all--the willingness of themselves there is not very north, and perhaps announce a provisional much young manpower not already in one and gradual schedule of withdrawals of a people out in the countryside to furnish uniform or another, though some existin major intelligence on VC movements-points to a g Part of the American force. (t so so ARVN units can probably be upgr:.ded into north could come back in, of course, but healthy increase in popular confidence in the a higher offensive capability. No eery rig- could we.) In the new phase of the war, ultimate defeat of the VC. nificant allied contributions are :n sight. more and more of the military responsibility Where doer. the war go from here? The We must bo, prepared, therefore, for the total would revert to the rebuilt ARVN, which by ::host urgent need right now is to break the U.S. commitment in Vietnam to rise from the then should include a number of highly i:xntteneck in port facilities Saigon itself present 200,000 men to at least: 400,000 men, creasingly equipped, capable trained of and seasoned units, in- is a second-rate river port, 50 twisting miles assuming t-eat half or more of the new forces scale VC attacks which would doubtl r so dealing with the small- upstream from the South China Sea, with are in ground combat units that can seek out ess per- antiquated docks and stevedoring techniques. the Vietcong. This would mean acommit- sist for some yea re, or moving rea in some 3t Until a few months ago virtually all ocean- meat about on the scale of the Ko'esn war of the remote VC redoubts. Increasing gly, the borne supplier, for the South Vietnam econ- at its peak. American support of South Vietnam would only congested and the. war had to pass through this But what if the enemy simply feeds more ta i channeled into it t rmsc, medical, e miii- port. Last June, U.S. Army and more men into the war? The fact is he rt', aid. In civil are as well a' ili- Engineers and civilian contractors went to would find it very difficult to match our corn, the Vietcong art deeply r side.,h n, work at the superb natural harbor of Cam buildup. The VC have pretty well scraped considerable areas of the countryside. Thad Ifanh Bay, previously untouched, and before the bottom of the barrel in recrtritint within on village life will economic and psychological hold the end of this year it will be handling more South Vietnam. From the north it is pot- just because not troops g necessarily underground. rw cargo than Saigon. Construction work con- ust because vein tent s y pre times at a furious pace at Cam Ranh Bay; Bible to infiltrate only 2,th)0 to 4,Otk} men a P go iMinuet a are ions expanded m month over the Ho Chi Minh trail, and the that The it Saigon government will a l have physical "ici itie and lesser being ports; and some Qui Nhosi, capacity ca i't be much increased as long safety from provide the villagers rep as we keep up our air attacks. the run, the aVC, t but mote imp lyta r von uients a.re in progress at Saigon. At most ga long x co that It is not simply a rival of those places, however, ships still wait 30 Conceivably, North 'Vietnam m,igh!; decide gang of tax collectors. o these days for unloading. It t Await 30 on overt, all-out invasion of the south, and So the second installment of victory would be another 2 or 3 moahs before the parts are launch thereat of its army-perhaps a dozen come, probably fully eto the support of the troops first-lin.e divisions, totaling more than when VC activitytinefSouth Vietnam lhad fly equal Vietnam, support oft the s troops 200,000 men, across the demilitarized zone been reduced to the proportions of it already lnew arrivals. pal of u pry- along the 17th parallel. Then there would police problem, wh n troops cou all or almost all the indeed need to be a big American Army In ca (we still ority roust go to the enlargement of military Y keep troops could be brought ea), lit' still :;forage facilities, and improvement: of the Vietnam-perhaps the million men who keep two divisions in Korea), when a highways in theman Operating areas. figure in some of the forebodings here at thoroughly viable economy was operating. Ilow mmore major will be nome. But for t:he enemy to pour min down when an independent, effective and stable for the many n- unit U.S. phase troops the war? needed Fewer the narrow coastal corridor, or in fact try to government (by the standards of Asia, not. than half b the troops now in Vietnam get large bodies of troops into the south by Switzerland) seemed established. That she aci;u ally a.v U.S. U.Sle for offensive operations any other route, would be to sacrifits most would be victory for the prodigious Ameri- am of the advantages of the hit-and-run jungle can effort in this country of 15 million people against the Vietcong on the ground. As in warfare he 1,1 so expert; at. Every tune full some 8,000 miles from San Diego. any war, the men up front are supported regiments have been brought to battle by III a way, it doesn't sound like much For by a long train of medics. truck drivers, con- U.S. forces, the enemy has been badly beaten. these modest purposes, in a far distant place. struction battalions, headquarters, staffs, If North Vietnam went all-out, it would can the United States really be preparing to etc. And in this particular war, where VC have to offer is concentrated targets- massed send hundreds of thousands of Americans squa urn where icide have thousandstof combat-unit m a n tied trails. 1Ho Chip Minis would fiber isk;ns h is into ab llows and spend. tens of billions of ome down by static-defense duties around our whole army, and with it his rule. The re- into allowing a bitter du tigen b e come major bases. Perhaps 80,000 to 90,000 of the peated U.S. assurances that we do not seek into American life, connng abuse from Americans now in Vietnam are. available for to overthrow the North Vietnamese regime world Opinion Chin, and eve nwo d faint risk of serious offensive action; only about 50,000 would surely be the first casualty of any war with China, and ayn world war III? of these can range far from their bases to all-out attac:c from the North. The Communists this ts just that the Americans seek out the VC. Wouldn't in all is they ust for the of ig t. Let , and Total. strength of the South Vietnam about lVietnam), that the North does rrnot But the Johnson administration has never armed forces is generally put around 650,000 come down In at big way, that the U.S. successfully articulated the broader pur- to 700,000 men, but this total must be buildup proceeds, that the bottleneck In the poses of our Vietnam commitments and the stripped down even more drastically. There ports is largely overcome this spring. By very promising possibilities it could create. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 A d F ~ ~6 1 w rt- Auammn 000400050002 1 ' It is deplorable that such a courageous and far-Sighted policy should be so badly ex- plained. The administration offers a good many dull and lofty generalities about helping to pre- serve the freedom of South Vietnam, These are not entirely satisfying since South Viet- nam is not really a nation yet-it ie an arti- ficial half of one of three countries carved out of a, former French colony only 17 years ago-and in its short life it hasn't even been fully free, either of Communist aggression or domestic autocracy. The administration is more eloquent and persuasive when it stresses the importance of honoring our commitments. If we do not stand fast in Vietnam, who else will trust our guarantees? This leads into the famil- iar domino argument-if South Vietnam falls to communism, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand would go next; Malaysia, Singa- pore, and Burma soon after; then Indonesia; neutralism, anti-Americanism and pro-Pef- ping sentiment would spread in India, the Philippines, Japan. The damage to U.S. credibility could spread further-to Berlin and NATO, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Mr. Johnson and Mr. Rusk do not themselves spell it out in such lugubri- ous detail, but that isn't necessary. "Honor. ing our commitments" has become a kind of ing what had been an increasingly Peiping- life. Meanwhile the Communist takeover of oriented policy with a strongly nationalist China gave the earth's most populous coun- independent line. try the most strongly South Vietnam is one of the last major ment it has known since the Chin dynasty positions not buttoned down, all around the fell in 207 B.C. Out of all this upheaval a rim of China. Laos is mushy, of course, new Asia will form. The pattern is not yet though its neutralist and pro-Western fac- set. Vietnam is one of the places, at the tions have been doing fairly well In their moment the most crucial place, where the exotic little war against the pro-Communist next Asia is being shaped. Pathet Lao. Neutralist Burma also seemed Less than a year ago Cam Ranh Peninsula last year to respond to events in Vietnam was little more than a hook of sand locked and began acting as neutralist toward China around a magnificient but totally neglected as it long has toward the West. The most natural harbor, 185 miles northeast of sensitive of all China's frontiers, of course, Saigon. Today the expanding port is the are the long reaches where it faces the Soviet logistical gateway to the war. At least half Union. The state of Soviet-Chinese relations of the American troops committed to the must contribute, to say the least, to sensa- struggle-and many of South Vietnam's tions of isolation in Peiping. But If South forces as well-soon will be wholly dependent Vietnam is held, China is substantially "con- for supplies on Cam Ranh. Cam Ranh's tained; on the borders facing the non-Com- new port facilities expand almost hourly, munist world. This could open up a whole pressed along by the seething activity of new era of promise and growth for the poten- Army roustabouts and engineers who work tially prosperous and stable nations of south- day and night in temperatures that often east Asia. soar to 130?. Though the port is not yet South Vietnam itself could be a dazzlingly fully operational, warehouses and supply successful country. It has immense food and dumps already sprawl along the peninsula timber resources, limitless water, hydroelec- as far as the eye can see. The mountains of trfc possibilities, rubber, superb beaches and material are destined mainly for combat scenery, energetic, attractive people. Along troops operating across central Vietnam. with the tragic destruction of war, it is also The 12,600 men who keep the ac ort f uirin i ll p q g, unc- w y-nilly, the best port facilities tioning-their job is considered the toughest shorthand for a whole train of disasters that between Hong Kong and Singapore, and half in the country short of combat-handle the could ensue if we pulled out of Vietnam, a dozen first-class jet airfields. It shares the beans, bullets, and black oil routinely re- It is a sound argument, at least as applied great Mekong Valley system with Cambodia, quired by an expeditionary force. Through to the southeast Asian peninsula, but it is Thailand, and Laos. President Johnson, in their hands also pass such sophisticated field a needlessly grim backs-to-the-wall sort of one of the few really affirmative specifics he expedients as pods for flying cranes and in- argument. It casts our whole effort in South has ever put before Asia, made a generous fiatable warehouses. * * * aid a big Mekong mustad in to epreventea catast ophe. Tiss projectf in his J hnsrHopkins speech of last This is the theater n wad, unique in ads negative argument offers no hint of the very April. In a situation which permitted some military history. Connected by a few tcds difficult problems that face Communist China degree of trust among these countries, an for 900 miles and thousands h hidden j nungles, it stretches today, or the ways in which those problems international effort to harness the Mekong an rice hrough enemy is mountains have been intensified by our stand in Viet- could be one of the most exciting engineerinad ricfields. The enemy and edicated and nam. It offers no vision of the positive good and political ventures in the world. tough, expert fighting. surprise anhit-and-run that could be accomplished in Asia if our If southeast Asia, instead of being a temp- guerril he war. For yond to hat been , Vietnam effort succeeds. tation to aggression and a threat to world winning the war. and espond his tactics, You would never know it, from listening peace, became a strongpottnt of economically devised v United two-par aSouth Vietnam have either to the Johnson administration or its vigorous and fully independent states, the ficult: (1) Or 1) Or snit strategy, necessarily di critics, but China had a very bad year in beneficent effects would spread well beyond order ganize their striking power in n 1965. Despite the advance hand-wringing in the peninsula itself. Communist China enemy to expand. their territory) mand eeep the the United States, the fears early last year would be contained in the best sense, not just enemy off btlance; (yremain even more that China might come in if the United in military positions but in terms of perform- mobile than the enemy-not also not only him States bombed North Vietnam or put ground ance, by the dynamism of Japan on the to his thrusts but also to track hm down combat units in South Vietnam, China did northeast and this healthy new growth cen- and destroy him. not come in. Nor did the growing U.S. ter to the south. South Korea, Taiwan, the The overall scheme is shown on this map,' effort in Vietnam prove to be "the One thing Philippines, Burma, Indonesia, would all ben- The Army of the Republic of Vietnam' that would bring China and Russia back to- efit to some degree; even India's staggering (ARVN) has divided the country into four gether." -If anything, China-Russia rela- problems would look a little less hopeless, corps areas, each with its own command. tions are worse than a year ago, and Viet- It might be that these vistas will be open- To augment this pattern the United States nam seems somehow to have inflamed mat- ing up at the same time that the first major has strung a series of enclaves along the ters. changes In the Chinese Communist leader- coast. Each serves a multiple Vietnam is precisely the kind of war of ship take place. Mao is 72, and said to be is a port for bringing in supplies. It Is an national liberation that China has pro- sick, Chou En-lai is 67; most of the rest of airbase for planes that constantly harass the claimed to be the wave of the future all the Politburo, old comrades of the long march enemy. And it is a fortress so well de- through the underdeveloped regions of Asia, of the 1930's, are in their late sixties, If fended (with support from U.S. Navy carriers Africa, and Latin America, the Communist the defeat of the Communist attempt to take and guns offshore) that it could withstand a revolutions that would sweep the rural areas over South Vietnam comes around the same combined assault of enemy troops and planes. of the world and eventually bring down the time that new men are moving into power in The scheme is expensive in its use of man- world "city" of Western Europe-United Peiping, this could be a very interesting mo- power. Because the enemy infests every States-Japan. (The Soviet leadership some- ment In history. In several interviews with corner of the land, some 90 percent of the times wonders whether Russia is considered foreign visitors, Mao has expressed with 680,000 South Vietnamese troops are tied part of the city, too.) China has given loud startling frankness his doubts as to the revo- down in static defense or by local militia polemical sponsorship to the Vietcong-North lutionary militance of the next Chinese gen- duty. Of the 200,000 U.S. troops in Viet- Vietnam cause, and it supplies a good part eration. They might even be men with nam, some 7,500 are assigned to ARVN units of the north's arms, but it has been very whom the West could attempt a comprehen- as advisers. Thousands more are engaged careful to avoid any move that might bring sive settlement of the major issues dividing in truckdriving, air supply and other logis- a direct confrontation with the growing us: nuclear proliferation, China trade, the tical chores-leaving only about 90,000 U.S. U.S. power in Vietnam. And this certainly partition of Korea and Vietnam, the status troops for actual fighting. Thus the United had something to do with the decline last of Taiwan, admission of mainland China to States will probably send at least 200,000 year in China's prestige among the under- the U.N. developed and uncommitted. In the India- the past 25 more bat to Vietnam to build up the ratio Pakistan skirmish in September, China at- three years Asia has experienced of combat troops. h tempted a kind of ultimatum to India, but up severa centuries' - changes that have filled worth of ua ower-paced, India paid very little attention, and China old-fashioned history. World War II, the had to back down. China has suffered Bev- first war ever to sweep all of Asia, brought eral recent rebuffs in its courtship of the all of Asia irrevocably into the main currents new African states, and is even having a of world politics. The breakup of the British, noisy quarrel with Castro. The upheaval French, Dutch, and Japanese colonial em- in Indonesia, starting with the suppression pires created a dozen new nations-total of the Communist coup attempt on October population 800 million-of meager civil ex- 1, has been a major defeat for China, repfac- perience but powerful aspirations for a better pprove o $ - 5193 The enclaves are not passive, Maginot- like turtles, maintained solely for defense. These are dynamic offensive installations, de- signed to force the enemy out of the area. The men not required for guard duty are sent out in actions ranging from squad patrols to major amphibious and helicopter assaults, to hunt the Vietcong and keep them on the defensive. In recent weeks the Marines and U.S. Army troops carried out the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ---SENATE March A, 6tj largest operation of the war so tar. It took place in the central highlands, a key tacti- c.?,tl area that; both sides are fighting to control. UQW THE. ALL ED AND ENEMY E?ORCES ARE DEPLOYED The enemy directs his war from the North Vietnamese capital of Hanoi. Much of his Chinese- and Soviet-built weaponry arrives through the port of Haiphong and over two railroads running from China to Hanoi, Soviet surface-to-air Missiles (SAM'S) help cfefertd Hanoi against U.S. jets flying out of 'I'tnaiiand and South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) shares some bases with the United States. Though Soviet Mig's have seldom appeared in combat, these are poised on the Chinese mainland and the island of Hainan and at bases in North. Vietnam. Most enemy troops and weapons enter South Vietnam along the Ho Chi Minh ']'rail Most U.S. supplies come by ship and are unloaded at ports ringed by enclaves. The key Co victory in South Vietnam lies in the central highlands area shown here-and in marked rectangle on preceding page-a roan; of mountains, trails, and tiny villages dotting the valleys. For even when the Marines succeed in expanding their enclaves it). the north and other allied units control the Mekong Delta rice fields in the south, the enemy could still frustrate the total strategy by holding these highlands in be- tween. For this would cut South Vietnam in two, disrupt communications and prevent the kind of national unity South Vietnam must achieve- 'I'h.is is precisely what the enemy has been trying to do, and the terrain is a factor that works heavily in his favor. The Ho Chi Minh 'f'rail spills right into the area, providing a steady stream of men and weapons. The mountains .wed jungles afford excellent hid- ing places for units as large as regiments. The tide is now beginning to turn. The mountainous area does lack food., and in re- cenit weeks enemy units from the highlands have had to move down to the coast where other Vietcong have long controlled the rice fields. The allies were waiting for this. Mounting Uperation Masher, a large-scale attack that included U.S. Marines landing by sea and U.S. Army troops coming In by hell- copter, they forced entire enemy regiments back into the mountains. Tn.llltrati.ing over die Ho Chi Minh trail, North Vienamese troops have joined up with Vietcong units in the central highlands. Scone have hidden out in staging areas (across-hatched red zones) or settled down lit organized units with several regimental and at least one divisional headquarters (see chart at left for unit designations). To meet this challenge, the South Vietnarrtese Army (ARVN) has set up a corps headquar- ters at 1 telku and stationed battalions, at K_oritum. Special Forces camps, manned by local tocps under U.S. advisers, are situated si.t key points near Laos arid Cambodia to guard communications and set up islands cf resistance along infiltration routes. The enclave of Qui Nhon, supervised by the 1st U.S. Logistical Command and guarded by AIIVN and South Korean divisions, provides most supplies for the area. The biggest U.S. unit is the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) with headquarters and a huge helicopter field called the golf course at An Khe. It constantly sends forces along the An Khe- Qui Bison road to keep it open. Recently 13.000 troops from the 1st Cavalry moved over- land by copter or north along Route I to launch Operation Masher in the vicinity of Bong Son. Some 6,000 marines made an amphibious assault 20 miles to the north. 'Then the Marines and more 1st Cavalry troops linked up in the An Lao Valley. Bad weather hampered further operations and many of the main enemy force estimated at 8,000 men escaped. But they left 1,300 dead, 000 prisoners and had taken a stiff beating. The tactics of the elusive enemy and the difficult terrain on which he operates have forced the United States to exploit a method of infantry warfare which could prove to be the most etfecti.ve means of putting down guerrilla brush wars. Its essence is the mo- bility provided by fleets of highly specialized helicopters-- with the superior firepower they can deliver--that can gain the initiative against the enemy. There are now more than 1,600 helicopters operating Its Vietnam, These include arm- ored gunships bristling with macl;ineguns, troopcarrie:-s like the Chinook that can set a platoon down almost anywhere, and "flying cranes" which can pick up loads as heavy as a 105-millimeter howitzer. Recently a pair of U.S. chopper pilots chatted with a, French- man. who had served during the Indochina war. "Ali, my friends," he said, "i3 only we had had your helicopters, it might have been a very different story." Helicopter at work: Returning rim a mis- sion in the central highlands, gunships of the 1st Cavalry come in near Pleiku to gas up from doughnut-shaped "refuel bladders." In a thicket too dense for the C,i_inook to land, troopers climb down a ladder. Troops disembark from the rear of Chi- nook which has found a clearing. Helicop- ters stand by on division's main base at An Khe, the biggest chopper pad in Vietnam. Field was dubbed the "golf course" because it was hand cleared. Airborne hospital: At its home ':rase at An Khe, a flying crane helicopter swoops down in a swirl of dust. Clutching onti a mobile surgical pod it. soars :away on an urgent medi- cal mission Into the thick of ha ttle. The fatality rate among the wounded in Vietnam is far below that of World War II and Korea, largely because the techniques of evacuation of casualties have been keyed to the new con- cept of mobility. The pod is an emergency clinic, with X-ray, laboratory and all-purpose surgical facilities. 'Within minutes of being hit a man can get surgical care even before he is evacuated. Interlude: Logistics is a sweeping term that inc? odes. the import of stateside enter- tainers ti boost the morale of the troops. At Cana Ranh Bay, GI's, who are allowed 1 day off every 2 weeks, cluster around a girl from back home.--and are momentarily distracted by photographer's helicopter. She is Leigh Anti Austin, Miss Texas of 1961, who was flown out to Vietnam to sing for the Ameri- cans and got her own taste of the war's swift mobility- by being whisked from one U.S. base to the next. UNITED STATES ENCOURAGES DOMINICAN MILITARISTS Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, it is now almost a year since more than 30,000 amen of our Armed Forces were sent into the Dominican Republic--enough almost to ,sink that little island. I said at that time and, I consider it a sound statement now, that the threat of a Communist takeover was misrep- resented. and greatly exaggerated. I think it was nonexistent. Our President ordered this action on the advice of Am- bassador W. Tapley Bennett, who was on that day in charge of our Embassy In the Dominican Republic. President Johnson is not to be blamed for relying upon Mr.:Bennett's poor Judgment. Am- bassador W. Tapley Bennett became panic stricken and unduly excited when it appeared to him that the military junta which had taken over the Government from the duty elected civilian President was about to be chased out of the island. Now, almost a year later, our service- men are still In the Dominican Repub- lie and there is still unrest in tii tt. un- happy island. It is time that we estab- lished a clear and definite policy toward the Dominican Republic and fulfill our pledge to bring order, stability, and a freely elected government to that nation. It is unfortunate that we have in our State Department some officials who seem to denounce as Communist:, Latin American leaders who take action in op- position to the wealthy economic royal- ists of any Latin American country. They failed to distinguish between Vic Communist elements and the truly dem- ocratic elements in the citizenry seeking to release the people from the strangle- hold of absentee landlordism and to help free the impoverished, underprivileged laborers and peasants from misery and squalor. W. Tapley Bennett and others misrepresented the facts claiming some 58 Communists were among the thou- sands of rebels seeking to oust. the mili- tary junta. It later developed there were duplications of names in this list of 58 and that only a few-2 or 3---Communists or Communist sympathizers were among the leaders of some thousands in the rebel forces. Mr. President, there appeared in the Cleveland Press of February 15. 1966, an outstanding article on this subject en- titled "United States Encourages Domin- ican Militarists" by Clayton Frit;hey, one of our Nation's outstanding journalists. I commend this to my colleagues and ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD, at this point, as part of my remarks. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Cleveland (Ohio) Press, Feb. ',5, 1966) UNITED STATES ENCOURAGE:' D(IICINICAN MrrrrArusTs (By Clayton Fritchey) WASHINGTON.--It's about time for a, slow- down on American policy in the Dominican Republic. The question, which the adrnin- istrati,on has been persistently evading, is whether or not we are going to support the provisional government we installed with the avowed purpose of paving the way for a new democratic system. The test of our sincerity, which many still doubt, revolves around the defiance of a group of officers, supporters of the former military dictatorship, who have been ordered to leave the country by the provisional Presi- dent, Garcia.-Godoy. The renewed rioting In Santo Domingo is a warning of what's ahead if the United States continues to shirk its responsibility. Many weeks ago President Godoy assigned a group of constitution:r.liat rebel officers and it rival group of regular army officers to diplomatic posts abroad, so that preparations for the proposed June elections could be carried on peacefully. The constitutionalists departed, but the ex-Trujillo army clique has refused to budge, showing Its traditional contempt for a civil- ian president. Not having an army of his own, the provisional President must rely on the Inter-American Peace Force (a euphe- mism for U.S. troops) for support in attain- ing the objectives to which the United States says it is so devoted. But the United States, which has coop- erated with the military junta over since it overthrew Juan Bosch, the country's only elected president, has been strangely impo- tent. In fact, long after he had openly defied President Godoy, one of the leaders of the Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE all they can to insure that the benefits arc utilized by all. I also believe that after the 31st of March, a full report on the numbers signing up for the medical benefits should be sent to the Congress by the De- partment of Health, Education, and Wel- fare. At that time, with the full details available, the Congress should consider the possibility of taking further steps which fully implement the legislation passed last year. AN ORATION ENTITLED "DEMOC- RACY: WHAT IT MEANS TO ME" Mr. CURTIS. Mr. President, a young lady from Nebraska is visiting Washing- ton to learn more about our Government and the system of democracy under which we live. She came here because she won the Nebraska Voice of Democ- racy oratorical contest conducted by the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the ladies auxiliary of the VFW. While she was here learning more about the way we function I feel she con- tributed greatly to the understanding of our heritage and our responsibilities in her oration entitled "Democracy: What It Means to Me." Therefore, I am asking unanimous consent that her oration be printed in the RECORD. This is the text on the speech given by JoAnn Fricken- stein, of Creighton, Nebr. There being no objection, the oration was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: DEMOCRACY: WHAT IT MEANS TO ME America and democracy-perhaps the two most cherished words ever spoken; certainly these are two words that have become almost synonymous today. Yet, the term "democ- racy" usually only relates to a form of gov- ernment. But, to me, it means much more than this. Democracy is more than just a government of the people, by the people, and for the peo- ple. To me, democracy is my life, my home, my school, my church, my community, and my country. Democracy itself gives its fol- lowers faith and hope in greater tomorrows yet to come. As a young American citizen I know that I must in the near future choose my position among the adult citizens of these United States. It is comforting to know that I will be able to do this freely and without f ear. In this country I am assured of many rights which are taken for granted in these modern times. I know that I am free to voice my opinions, to say I agree or I disagree. I am free to worship my Creator in any church or in any manner I so desire, free to stand up and proudly say, "I am a Republi- can, or to say I am a Democrat," and free to do what I know is right without any fear of oppression. These are the rights that fill each and every one of us with the desire to live, to learn, and to love. No other form of govern- ment in the world could offer me such great privileges and honors. I consider these and other rights granted to me by a democracy to be of far greater value than anything money could possibly buy. These rights have been purchased by the sweat and bloodshed of our loyal and brave ancestors whose only goal was to create a situation in which their followers might live happily as free individuals In a free society. Democracy to me is a privilege which en- ables me to live in this great land of op- portunity. But I also realize that with every right goes a corresponding duty. I believe my duty in the society is to help preserve these rights and privileges which our forefathers so nobly fought for. We must maintain these rights that have been so abundantly bestowed upon us. It shall be my sacred duty as well as that of my young fellow citizens to safeguard these rights for coming generations. The torch of democracy must be held high by those of us who will soon be tomorrow's leaders in this land of the free and home of the brave. My home, my school, my church, my community, and my country are all a result of democracy. They are my pride and joy for they will create my to- morrows. I must help safeguard democracy not only for me, but for all future gen- erations. Democracy means that I must work to instill or to strengthen, whichever the case may be, the values of democracy among my fellow citizens. I will be joining other loyal Americans in a united effort. Our democracy must be a candle, spreading light to dark and troubled portions of the world. I am confident that we will have nothing to fear. Democracy is a task laid in hand of each And every individual today for it is truly a task of preservation. To me, it means work and wholeheartedness to todays world of turmoil. The results will be most re-, warding, for they will mean generations of continued happiness. When our forefathers achieved democracy for this country. I am sure that they never dreamed it would be what it is today. Everywhere we look we see their democracy. We live and breathe it. Therefore, democracy is my assignment for it is truly my American way of life. 14 EDITORIAL APPROVAL OF HEAR- INGS ON VIETNAM CONDUCTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, every Senator hopes that his actions in the Senate will be received with approval in his home State. I am no exception. Consequently, I was greatly encouraged by editorials which have appeared in some of the fine newspapers in the State of Arkansas. These editorials endorse the decision of the Committee on For- eign Relations to hold hearings on our problems in Vietnam and the role of Communist China in these problems. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that editorials from the following newspapers be inserted at this point in the RECORD: Arkansas Democrat, February 10, 1966; Northwest Arkansas Times, Febru- ary 15, 1966; the Baxter Bulletin, Febru- ary 17, 1966; and the Arkansas Demo- crat, February 23, 1966. There being no objection, the edito- rials were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Arkansas Democrat, Feb. 10, 1986] BENEFICIAL DEBATE Without the blessings of the administra- tion, Senator J. WILLIAM FUL33RIGHT and his Foreign Relations Committee are doing an admirable job by their forthright inquiry into President Johnson's Vietnam war policies. While much of the testimony has been extremely tedious for the public to follow, It is of unquestioned value to the members of the Foreign Relations Committee and to the other lawmakers. It is imperative that Congress know all that should be known about the war and about the administration's policies regarding it. After all, Congress is responsible for ap- propriating funds for the war, and while it has not refused any money requests, it is aware of the need to know the full picture, so that it, as well as the executive branch of the Government, can act in the best inter- ests of the Nation. The pressures being placed on President Johnson by the hawks and the doves is fairly understandable, and he must weigh gravely the options he chooses. He is explicitly com- mitted to seek peace as well as to carry out his pledge in war. His is the problem to scale up the American attack or to scale it down. In reaching his decision he should properly consider the views of the Senate. Those views were not being expressed 6 months ago as they are today. We uphold the debate as a means for the President's decision to be influenced and guided by the best judgment of Congress. [From the Northwest Arkansas Times, Feb. 15, 1966] OPPORTUNITY To KNOW The people of the United States have rea- son to thank the Committee on Foreign Re- lations of the Senate for the inquiry it is conducting concerning the Nation's role in the Vietnam war. The people need to know the circum- stances and reasons for the developments which have taken place to date. And they need to be able to understand what future steps are likely, why they may be taken, and the probable results. This is a most peculiar war in its relation Ito those who will fight and pay for it-the country is full of people who don't know why American soldiers are being killed in battle 10,000 miles from home, how many will be committed before the year is out, what accomplishments these men are supposed to record, or where the present war may lead. Headlines from day to day report half a hundred or so Vietcong troops are killed by United States and South Vietnam forces; the enemy escapes traps carefully laid; Amer- ican planes and pilots are lost to North Vietnamese groundfire; villages are overrun by troops searching the countryside for northern fighters; the jungle is smashed by bombs from the air and shells from warships. American forces are being stepped up in numbers soon to reach a half million or more Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force personnel. Where it will lead nobody knows. Whether it will bring Red China into the fray is un- settled. If the Chinese Communists fight Americans, what will Russia do? How close to a nuclear war will it take the world? These things deserve the closest kind of attention, not only by policymakers in the American Government, but by the people, who will pay the piper. They need to know the present aims of the administration in Washington, what it will mean to them for this Government to achieve its stated aims, what may occur if the goals are reached. There is great danger in the air today. War fever definitely is discernible among a portion of the American population. Some say: Bomb the rascals where they live, attack their strongholds, show Red China some real power, spread the assults further north. There is even some sentiment to hit China itself "before that country gains a nuclear force." As long as this philosophy is preached and practiced by a weak minority it is not a men- ace, but it is spreading as the Vietnam war stretches out in time and grows in size. It Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE March 0. 19(16 could make enough noise to influence policy of those directing the war effort-and this could lead directly to a third world war. All this might be prevented if the people of the United States discern the possibili- ties---and the Senate committee, under the able leadership c4 Senator FrnsaacHT of Ar- kansas, is alerting htern so they can exer- cise some judgment. The United States now has troops on the alert in Korea, Clermany, Santo Domingo, and lighting in Vietnam-to name a few of the snore urgent situations. The people of this country are told all this is done to halt the spread of communism, to stop aggression, to prevent expansion of it form of government .;lieu to our own. American forces are killing in pursuit of this policy. The spread of fighting is immi- nent. Where'. A. will take us is a most pressing question which the people of the United Itates must consider before they become committed to a policy of victory or surren- cler-t sentiment which is being accepted by s, growing portion of the population as the fighting is extended. 'f'he duty of the Foreign Relations Com- mittee and its chairman is entirely clear - and they are pursuing the correct course. The people have the right to know and to discuss and to decide, and the only way this decision should be made is with a knowledge of the present situation and what may fol- Lfw. A difference in convictions among the Members of Congress exists, just as is evident among the people themselves. Both sides deserve a hearing. Cit;zens of this country owe a debt of .gratitude to the committee which is striving to bring to pubic attention not only details cf where this country has gone, but the direction the road leads so that intelligent conclusions may be reached. If the public can understand what is involved, commit- ment to further escalation of the war to a highly explosive point may be averted. Americans deserve to know. The oppor- tunity to find out, is being provided by the t;carings the committee is conducting - tifrrik goodness_ 1':'he naxier Bulletin, Feb. 17, 19661 1+';, f,nmmGIIT lfftt,OGNIZr:s REsroNSIBIISTY senator Bif,f. FTLBRIGHT has staked out a lonely and exposed position for himself as the Vietnam storm darkens and crackles. I L would be easier to be a follower in this 1-rrilous and nuzzling time. It would be simpler and haler for the Senator to sup- press any negative questions which might prise from his conscience or evaluation, as a number of other Senators have done. lust Senator 1''uLniii err has chosen to lead tine Foreign. Relations Committee which he heads into a thoroughgoing investigation of too Vietnam war--of how we got into a Mounting major conflict on the Asian mail- l.;ind .weld of our prospects for success. lie also hopes the clearings, which are being tele- vised and include some "star" figures, will roved the philosophies and trends of overall CS. foreign policy. a'hc decision is in the best tradition of 1.,pslative responsibility and the Senator is I,,; be congratulated for his courage. He is nut against the President; he believes that he to for the American people and that, if they are asked to mike great sacrifices, they have a right to know what forces are in motion ;vice what the costs and risks are. The in- clniry he is conducting is, in fact, a bit late, because never before has a commitment on cro?lr a scale been made by this country with ;o little discussion and debate at the highest lovels. The ln,e,isiative branch has followed in sa, docile way, but now it is resuming its hishmric functions, 1lIds is the field in which Senator FuL- i3ai er is especially well equipped, through ,r.ci!.fi ?ag and experience. If he believes that the evidercc weighs against the Johnson administration's policies anywhere, it is his duty to te'l the people what he thinks re- gardless of whether his statements :ire polit- ically advantageous. These are the gravest of times and the worst that can happen is perhaps worse than the average person thinks. This is not the year for shallow political calculating. FULBRICHT could be wrong, of cofrse, and he is no dcubt ready to accept theoenalties if time disproves his assescsrnent. He is against the escalating of the cmviict, be- lieving that that can easily lead to war with Red China and perhaps with Russia. and that a nuclear exchange could be the final result, He favors a holding strategy and a continu- ing effort to settle the conflict through ne- gotiations. lie fears that the country is already in sou deep and that there c:in be no successful resolution of the dilen; cat from our standpoint. 11 he is wrong, it can be recalled that the prophecies of administration officials have also failed thus far. According to Secretary McNamara's statements earlier in the war, the troops should already have bcreu home. The strategy has not worked as envisioned, We fervently hope that the Senator is wrong-thee the Vietcong will capitulate be- fore the swelling U.S. forces and that South Vietnam w it be made into a me( el Asian democracy, flourishing through programs ini- tiated by fits country. Perhaps the United States has the power to make it work out that way. But a good many knowledgeable people believe the odds are not encouraging, and certainly all the facts should b laid on the table. 't'he President has beet unduly sensitive it scenes, about full discloure and criticism. The Foreign Relations Committee hearings at least are a counterbalance to tl:e hawks who are strong in government and w: ,o coun- sel a pungc into a much hotter and broader war than tie President is ready to it ulertake at this time. The hear;ngs deserve attention bw people in Arkansas and elsewhere. The ,xspulace is being given an unusual opportunity, through television, to become informed and to particip:,te in history. And the people have a hen my stake in the policies that are being discussed. Fuf,imroo rr is being accused by some people of being an appeaser of communism, but he has no use or communism and believes that he is a realist in matters concerning not only the the survival of democracy but of mankind. His ideas are presented impres- sively in his book, "Old Myths and New Realities," published last year. He is also :an erudite student of history, who knows cat wars are almost always popular in their early days, but not always in the lengthening years of combat. History shows that wars of attrition cannot easily he won. by the stronger force-perk ps can- not be won at al-if the guerrillas have the support of a. sizable portion of the popula- tion. The American Revolutionary War is an early example, the French experience in Vietnam aid Algeria are later or_c-s. The French suffered ghastly losses in Vietnam, in a military effort largely financed by the United Statess. They finally threw in the towel in V.einam because they could not sustain two wars, and their "honor" was committed in Algeria, nearer to home, In Algeria, too, they failed dismally, leaving many thousands of dead behind, bee muse the foundation for any success of their policy was absent. He remembers, too, that the philosophy in Vietnam has changed radically in a short time. In '.963 President Kennedy said, "They're the ones (the South Vietnamese) who have to win or lose it. We can help them, give them equipment. We c ;n send our men out there as advisers, but they have to win it." The situation is different now, and the men over there have the support of Ameri- cans. But that does not mean that all inquiry must come to an end, that altera- tions in our world policies cannot he criti- cally examined. FULBBIGHT believes he is working for a stay of execution for the human race, and that is no mean motivation. From. the Arkansas Democrat, Feb. iii, 1966 J MORE LIGHT ON VIETNAM POI.rCIF.'S Senator FuLBntcz7:T's statement that there was It possibility of another round of di;;- cussions on Vietnam before the Foreign Re- lations Committee is an encouragiol; one, because such discussions are bound to bring further enlightenment on this grave problem. Anxiety about the future of adrninistra.- tion policy has drawn more Senators into the arena, where eminent critics, as well a8 leading supporters, of the Vietnam war have been heard. It is highly beneficial to the Nation for the Senate to become ren.l:stically engaged in probing the depths of this prob- lem of war. By all means, let the experts on China be heard. Through them it may be possible to develop a meaningful appraisal of China's attitudes, intentions and present capabilities in regard to Waring with the United States. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's position of declining to testify for :security reasons is not a valid one. There already has been far too much silence and "cover- up" in the name of national security. Even if the sessions must be closed, the lonators should be able to question tlt'e Defense Secretary. THE 119TH BIRTHDAY ANNIVER- SARY OF THOMAS ALVA EDISON IN MILAN, 01110 Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senator from Ohio [Mr. LAUSCHE I , who i ; pres- ently ill, may be allowed the privilege of having printed in the RECORD his re- marks concerning an editorial published in the Columbus, Ohio Dispatch, which is a fitting tribute to the 119th birthday anniversary of Thomas Alva Edison, whose birthplace was in Milan, Ohio. There being no objection, the state- ment and editorial were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: STATEMENT BY- SENATOR LAUSCIn: In a recent editorial published in the Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch, fitting tribute was given to the 119th birthday anniversary of Thomas Alva Edison, whose birthplace was Milan, Ohio. I can sure that the editorial will remind my colleagues in the Senate and otters of the many conveniences and luxuries of to- day's modern life which are a result of Mr. Edison's foresight and ingenuity. [Editorial published in the Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch] OUR HERITAGE FROM EDISON Today is the 119th anniversary of the birth of the man who gave light to the world. Any schoolboy can tell you that we mean, of course, Thomas Alva Edison. Possibly no other man in recorded his- tory has had such an impact. upon the civilized world as did this former railroad newsboy whose formal education was limited to a mere 3 months in the public schools. In addition to his most famous achieve- ment-invention of the electric light Edison either invented, improved or found practical application for the phonograph, the motion picture camera, the auto storage battery, the teletype, the Ediphone, radio and television Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 March 9, 1966 Approved CONGRESSIONAL/RECORD DPffK%qff6R000400050002-1 mended extension of this program for 3 more years and an increase in the funds to be authorized for construction grants in fiscal 1967. This program will not only help our colleges and universities provide necessary facilities for the grow- ing number of students; it will also as- sist them substantially in holding down their tuition charges and fees. Only last week, President Johnson signed into law the cold war GI bill of rights, which will provide educational opportunities to hundreds of thousands of young veterans. This new program exceeded the amount requested by the President by almost a quarter of a bil- lion dollars for fiscal 1967. Over the next 5 years, it will exceed the scope of the President's recommendation by more than $1.8 billion. In the face of such programs, no one can argue that we have neglected the field of higher education. In fact, we have done very well for higher educa- tion. We have not met every goal. But we have accomplished so much that the need for any further action now must be weighed very carefully against the effect on the budget. This brings me to my second argument against enactment of the Ribicoff proposal now. We have before us the President's tax program, which will increase revenues by $1.2 billion during the remainder of this fiscal year and $4.8 billion in fiscal 1967. These additional revenues will come on top of the revenues generated by greater economic growth-which is resulting in part, from the tax reduc- tions we enacted in 1964 and 1965. To- gether, the increase in revenue from eco- nomic growth and from these tax pro- posals will total $11 billion in fiscal 1967. Unfortunately, most of this increase in revenue will be offset by the demands posed by our defense of freedom in Viet- nam. The overriding concern in all our budgetary considerations at this time is, in fact, the Vietnamese conflict. The President has asked for a supple- mental authorization of $12.8 billion for Vietnam. We have just passed a part of that supplemental authorization total- ing $4.8 billion. This commitment to the defense and assistance of a brave ally is adding $4.7 billion to fiscal 1966 expenditures over original estimates. It is expected to add $5.8 billion above that level to our ex- penditures in fiscal 1967, making a total of about $10.5 billion in that fiscal year in additional expenditures for Vietnam. The war in Vietnam will absorb most of the increase in revenues generated together by economic growth and by the tax program we are considering today. Further, between today and June 1967- the end of the fiscal year for which we must budget now-we cannot know at this time that nothing will occur which will require still greater expenditures. We hope no such development will occur, but the matter is not ours alone to control. The President in his 1967 budget did a magnificent job in holding the deficit to $1.8 billion while providing for fore- seeable requirements of our commitment in southeast Asia. His budget is ex- tremely tight. In fact, that is exactly the point I want to make. There is no room-no slack-anywhere in the re- sponsible forecasts of revenues and ex- penditures for any program not already contemplated in the budget. Since we cannot foresee what situation we will face in the years beyond, we have no choice but to assume that the budgets will be similarly tight. We cannot at this time predict that either in fiscal 1967 or at any specific future time, there will be slack in the budgetary equation which will allow for the cost of more than $1 billion resulting from the Ribicoff proposal. At this point in time, therefore, we must look at it for what it is, a proposal to spend money which we do not have- a proposal which, without an accom- panying and offsetting revenue-raising plan, would of necessity increase the deficit. Finally, we have still another cold reality which we must face. For 5 years, we have enjoyed unprece- dented prosperity. But even as we in Congress have deliberated the tax pro- posals before us now, the green light of safe and healthy economic growth has changed to the amber of caution. There are a number of respected voices within Congress and still others outside which are already calling for tighter reins on the economy. Many respected observers of the economy are urging tax increases in addition to the tax adjust- ments proposed by the administration. The proposal of the Senator from Connecticut will have its day in court. I have always supported aid to higher education, both in the Maryland Legis- lature and in the U.S. Senate, but for the reasons that I have cited, this plan is not appropriate today. The time has not yet arrived for it. Reluctantly, then, I shall withhold m support from it and wait for a more pFopitious time to cast my lot in its favor. APPOINTMENT BY THE VICE PRESIDENT The VICE PRESIDENT. Pursuant to Public Law 170 of the 74th Congress, the Chair appoints the Senator from Okla- homa [Mr. MONRONEY] as an additional Senator to attend the Interparlia en- tary Union meeting at Canberra s- tralia, from April 11 to 16, 1966. VIETNAM-SUDDEN REDISCOVERY OF SEATO Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, the emi- nent columnist for the New York Times, Mr. Arthur Krock,.has written an excel- lent article on March 6 entitled "The Sudden Rediscovery of SEATO." Mr. Krock notes, as several of us in the Sen- ate have noted, that the administration has suddenly shifted its emphasis to SEATO as the fundamental source of the President's authority to sustain the war in Vietnam. Mr. Krock calls the belated argument a fragile claim. He cites Senator George's statement in the 1954 Senate debate on the treaty that "if any course of action shall be agreed, or decided upon, then that action must have the approval of Congress, because the con- stitutional process-of each signatory- is provided for, we have no obligation to take positive measures of any kind. All we are obligated to do is to consult together about it." Mr. Krock then takes note of the fact that if we have been acting in Vietnam under SEATO we have been violating the treaty for years because we have not been reporting the measures taken to the Security Council. But the most interesting part of Mr. Krock's column is the composite he drew up of comments "made by persons inter- viewed by this correspondent who par- ticipated in the drafting of the treaty in 1954." This composite of their com- ments included the following points: The reservation requiring constitu- tional processes in the case of action was written into the treaty at Secretary Dulles' insistence in order to put the other signatories on notice that the final decision to make war was vested in Con- gress. Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos are not parties and the signatories are not bound to them. They were added to the treaty area by a protocol-not for their bene- fit but for the benefit of the signatories. Our trouble in Vietnam is that we have not been proceeding under the treaty, but going it alone. I think that Mr. Krock's reference to the sudden rediscovery of SEATO is most apt. The latest memorandum of law is- sued by the Department of State on this subject was, as far as I am aware, dated March 8, 1965. It was entitled "Legal Basis for United States Action Against North Vietnam." This statement does not mention SEATO. Several days be- fore the memorandum was published, the Department of State issued a statement that South Vietnam and the United States were engaged in a collective de- fense under the inherent right of indi- vidual and collective self-defense re- corded in article 51 of the United Na- tions Charter. SEATO was not men- tioned. I believe that Mr. Krock has analyzed clearly and objectively a point of consti- tutional law. In this case it is the power of Congress to make war~,that is involved. it is time to rediscover our Constitu- tion, just as Mr. Rusk has rediscovered SEATO. I ask unanimous consent to have Mr. Krock's column for March 6 printed in the RECORD at the conclusion of these re- marks, as exhibit 1. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. PROXMIRE in the chair). Without ob- jection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 1.) Mr. MORSE. I also ask unanimous consent to have printed as exhibit 2 an editorial from the St. Louis Post-Dis- patch of March 6 entitled "Agreement with Peiping?" The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 2.) Mr. MORSE. As the editorial points out, those seeking to downgrade and dis- count the proposals of the Senator from Arkansas [Mr. FULSRICHTI for a neutrali- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400050002-1 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE March, 190r, zation of southeast Asia are the same pcople who profess adherence to the. Ge- neva agreement of 1954 on behalf of the hinted States. The very purpose of that alp;reement was, of course, to neutralize a la..?gc area of southeast Asia-Indochina. We gave li,pscrvice to it even as we began vi:aating it. Now, our Government offi- cials try to discredit the whole idea even though they are fighting a war for ob- jcotives that are supposed to bring about a ?eturn to the 1954 agreement. b'in.ally, I ask unanimous consent to hsve printed as exhibit 3 an editorial from the Washington Post of today, March 9, entitled "hatchet Job." file PRESIDING OFFICER. Wit:trout of jection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 3.) Mr. MORSE. The editorial comments on the calculated, planned operation to rirl the State Department of a liberal cfiil chnldcr, Mr. Abba Schwartz. It is nit to be wondered at, of course, that a State Department managed by Dean li,usk, George Bell, William Bundy.. and 'Plsomas Mann cannot tolerate nien in its midst who believe in freedom to travel and freedom of ideas, as a part of Amer- ican foreign policy formulation. I do not agree for a moment with the Post's explanation that Mr. Schwartz was a victim of McCarthyism on the Hill. Ile is a victim of McCarthvism's residue in the State Department. Perhaps the legacy of the McCarthy era on the Hill is involved in that it deprived the Arneri- can Department of State of most of its tap men who were willing to think in terms of optimum freedom rather than optimum security in its most narrow and limited sense. I'he hetchetmen who did in Mr. Schwartz are in the administration, and particularly in the Department of State. I wish there were something Congress could do about it; but as with our China policy, which is another product of the residue from McCarthyism in the State Department, I am not very hopeful. FXrrn3TT 1. From the New York Times, Mar. 6, 19661 '.PTIE i(Iin!'FN REDrscovEny of SEATO 3y Arthur Krock) `VAsTTING'roN, March 5.-The citation by Secretary of State Rusk of the Southeast Ada Treaty of 1954 .as the fundamental source of President Johnson's authority to commit the. United States to whatever ex- penditure of manpower and treasure be deems "necessary" to sustain the w.r in Vietnam was a shift of emphasis by the administration. And the reason is as plain as the ground is weak. The reason was that influential ;senatorial voices were rising in protest against the administration's oft-reiterated claim that the President:'s open ended commitment in Vietnam. derives from the so-called Gulf of Tonkin concurrent resolution approved by Co;gress in 1964. ','*he voices arose from Senators who had been given officially to understand at the time that, the resolution would not he so construed by the administration, and some I,f them had stated this reservation in voting Ins the measure. It was in the presence of this disturbance that Rusk, in the course of hiss testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, fell back on the treaty ns a sworn national obligation which the President Is executing with steadily mount- ing employment of armed force. ARGUMENT DAMAGED This belated argument has since been badly damaged in the critical analysis to which ii has been sub ected. Mr. Johnson app earec. to recognize its vulner, bility when he i.nter.so+=ecl in the debate a reminder that ho is als_a Commander in Chief o[ the armed forces, and believes thin role gives him the obl Igatir n ar; well as the power to make : uc i use. of these forces as he considers es- cential to preserve the national se urity when he adjudges it to stand in peril. 'l'houeli there are impressive constitutional orialleng^s of this ir,terpretatio!i of Com- inender in Chief power when the United :sates i,; root: formally at war, :t has been esto.bi isi cd in previous practice. And the iiupreme Court has dismissed all such chal- len es which have reached it far review. The acLial consequences are tacit (1) any President can involve too Nation in war and maintain It there indefinitely without the lorma.l declaration which the Cori. aitution re- icrves as an exclusive power of C