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March 7, 1966
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United States of America Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 ? Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE Q 09th CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION Vol. 112 WASHINGTON, MONDAY, MARCH 7, 1966 No. 40 House of Representatives The House met at 12 o'clock noon. Reverend Father Michael Urbana- wich, Marianapolis Preparatory School, Thompson, Conn., offered the following prayer: Let us pray in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Almighty God, the Lord and Ruler of all nations, today in this glorious House of Representatives of the United States of America we glorify Thee on behalf of the people who, led by Thy providential hand, came to this country from Byelo- russia. We thank Thee for the blessings Thou hast bestowed upon America. Bless, 0 Lord, our President, our Speaker, our legislators, our clergy, and the Armed Forces of this land of free- dom. Bless the freedom-loving people of Byelorussia who 48 years ago on March 25, 1918, proclaimed the independence of their Byelorussian Democratic Republic. Freedom and democracy were short- lived in Byelorussia, because the Red army drove them out. Still., the Byel- orussian people never lost their hopes for national independence and each year commemorate proclamation of independ- ence-the historic March 25. As we once more commemorate Byel- orussian Independence Day here in these glorious United States, we pray Thee, 0 loving Father, to give the entire Byel- orussian people spiritual strength to re- sist godless communism and preserve their ideals of liberty. Look down with favor, 0 Lord, upon Thy children who cry out to Thee in anguish for their deliver- ance. We humbly beg Thee to grant that they may soon see the dawn of a better day, when together with all free men they might live in peace and prosperity, worshiping Thee, their only true God and Redeemer, with dignity and honor. Amen. THE JOURNAL The Journal of the proceedings of Thursday, March 3, 1966, was read and approved. MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT A message in writing from the Presi- dent of the United States was communi- cated to the House by Mr. Geisler, one of his secretaries. MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate by Mr. Ar- rington, one of its clerks, announced that the Senate had passed without amend- ment bills of the House of the following titles: H.R. 1484. An act for the relief of Mrs. Loneta Hackney; H.R. 1918. An act for the relief of Eligio Ciardiello; H.R. 2627. An act for the relief of certain classes of civilian employees of naval instal- lations erroneously in receipt of certain wages due to misinterpretation of certain personnel instructions; H.R. 3076. An act for the relief of the estate of Bart Briscoe Edgar, deceased; 3236. An act for the relief of Louis Shchuchinski; HR. 4928. An act for the relief of Chizuyo; H.R. 4995. An act for the relief of Muham- mad Sarwar; HR. 5231. An act for the relief of Jack Ralph Walker; HR. 5530. An act for the relief of the estate of Robert A. Ethridge; HR. 5973. An act for the relief of Edwin F. Hower; - B.R. 7667. An act for the relief of Donald F. Farrell; and HR. 10338. An act for the relief of Joseph B. Stevens. The message also announced that the Senate had passed, with amendments in which the concurrence of the House is requested, bills of the House of the fol- lowing titles: HR. 2752. An act for the relief of Kock Kong Fong; Ha. 2938. An act for the relief of Przemy- slaw Nawakowski; H.R. 2939. An act for the relief of Manojlo Verzich; H.R. 3875. An act for the relief of 1)/frs. Panagiota Vastakis and Soteros Vastakis; H.R. 4743. An act for the relief of Ralph Tigno Ecinuid; H.R. 6112. An act for the relief of David Glenn Barker (Jai Yul Song) and Richard Paul Barker (Pil Su Park); HR. 9442. An act for the relief of Ki Sook Jun; and HR. 10403. An act for the relief of Edward F. Murzyn and Edward J. O'Brien. The message also announced that the Senate had passed bills and joint resolu- tions of the following titles, in which the concurrence of the House is requested: S. 146. An act for the relief of Delma S. Pozas; S. 153. An act for the relief of Matsusuke Tengan; S.265. An act to authorize conveyance of certain lands to the State of Utah based upon fair market value; 3.920. An act for the relief of Laura Rut. Wei Wong and her children, Janet Wong and Simon Wong; S. 1213. An act for the relief of Richard K. Jones; S. 1375. An act providing a method for de- termining the amount of compensation to which certain individuals are entitled as re- imbursement for damages sustained by them due to the cancellation of their grazing per- mits by the U.S. Air Force; S. 1661. An act for the relief of Samuel C. Neiburg; S. 1923. An act to amend chapter XI of the Bankruptcy Act to give the court supervi- sory power over all fees paid from whatever source; S. 1960. An act for the relief of Capt. Rey D. Baldwin; S.2153. An act to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to use appropriated funds for the payment of medical care of temporary and seasonal employees and employees located in isolated areas who become dis- abled because of injury or illness not attrib- utable to official work, and for other purposes; S.2177. An act for the relief of Donald I. Abbott; S. 2265. An act for the relief of Konstadyna Byni Deliroglou and her minor child, Alexandros Deliroglon; S. 2307. An act for the relief of certain civilian employees and former civilian em- ployees of the Bureau of Reclamation at the Columbia Basin project, Washington; S. 2356. An act for the relief of Raymond T. Grachek; S.2696. An act for the relief of Abraham Ezekiel Cohen; S.J. Res. 18. Joint resolution to provide for the designation of the fourth week in April 4803 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2Q05/07/13_,? CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 4804 cONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE March 7, 1966 each year as "Youth Temperance Educa- tion Week": and S.J. Res. 133. Joint resolution designating Pehruary of each year as American History Non th, P ERSONAL ANNOUNCEMENT Mr. ANNUNZIO. Mr. Speaker, be- cause of illness last week I was not pres- ent during the vote on S. 1666, which provides for the appointment of addi- tional circuit and district Judges. Had I been present, I would have answered "yea" to roll No. 28, which was taken on the passage of this legislation. was also not present during the vote on H.R. 12889, the supplemental defense authorization, Had I been present last week, I would have answered "yea" to roll No. 26, which was taken on the pm- sage of this bill. I would like the R,Ecora) to show my Position on these measures. _nye? PEDERAL LAKES AND RESERVOIRS STIOULT) REMAIN FREE TO THE P (TEEM Mr. EDMONDSON asked and was riven permission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. EDMONDSON. Mr Speaker, I have today introduced a bill to repeal all authority for Federal entrance and ad- mission feca at virtually all Government lakes and reservoirs. am convinced the imposition of such fees at reservoirs primarily built for flood control, navigation or power, is neither justified nor necessary. ieurthermore, such fees constitute a bieiach of contract with the people, whose Lax money has been used to acquire the lands and build the dams which make the reservoirs possible. In ninny instances, construction of these reservoirs was approved and sup- ported by local people with the definite understanding that no Federal interfer- ence of any kind would take place with tl ie time-honored rights to fish and boat on the waters impounded. In the case of our Indian people, many of whom were guaranteed perpetual rights to hunt and fah without interference under treaties many years ago, the new fees are a fla- grant violation of traditional, historic rights?and are totally indefensible. it is one thing to collect a user fee from an individual using a facility like a bathhouse or a special campsite with utilities?both requiring continual main- tenance and personnel in attendance. It is entirely a different matter to charge for access to the land and the water which belong to the people in the first place, and have long been used by them tor recreational purposes. Especially is this so at reservoirs where recreational .facilities are largely incidental to other major reservoir purposes. These fees, Mr. Speaker, should be pro- hibited by the Congress, without further delay. VIETNAM l(vIr. DOW asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- ute and to revise and extend his re- mark;.) Mr. DOW. Mr. Speaker, in the last few clays, we should all he concerned about the indications that our side is escalating the war in Vietnam. How long can we continue to talk peace on the one hand and raise the level of bombing on the other? They say our bombing in Vietnam is now comparable to any in World War II or in Korea Yes eirday the paper reported that we were bombing rail lines near China. Also, it said that at least one of our military leaders proposed tr e mining of Haiphong Harbor. It may not be too long before the Chinese ,.1),row their horde; of infantry into Vieta am, as they did into Korea. If we mine the harbor at Haiphong, and interfere with Russian shippi ion then we have put tl,eir national pride on the line, and they have to react somehow whether they want to or not. nne Epeaker, none of w should be afraid to face either China or Russia in a clear situation of our own telf -defense. But, I fail to see how a foothold in Viet- f as any value in our e'en self-de- fense. How does our fight in that one place .i.ssure that insurgency will disap- pear in every other place on earth? Until elections are held in Vietnam, we cannot even be sure that we are fight- ing for what these people want. Considering all these uncertainties, Mr. Speaker, how can the United States pro- ceed w th such assurance and coolness to tempt the gods of world war III? I must strongly protest the steps of escalation that we are taking. These mean danger to every family in Amer- ica?and yet they are based on reasons that ale not quite good enoue h. PERSONAL ANNOUNCEMENT Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Speaker, I regret that illness last week prevented me from voting on the bill HR. 12889, providing necessary funds for our military opera- tions in Vietnam. If I had been present, I would have voted for the hill without reserve ion. THE NEW GI Buz, (Mr. 1,'EIGHAN asked and was given permission to addresS the Haase for 1 minute mci to revise and extend his re- marks.) Mr. FEIGHAN. Mr. Speaker, the new GI bill signed into law by President Johnson will benefit large numbers of young Americans who have served in the Armed Forces of our country'. In my district alone it is estimated that ap- proximately 10,300 veterans are poten- tially eligible for the benefits and serv- ices under the new bill. This ,.ncludes education and training programs generally patterned after the highly successful GI bills of World War II and the Korean conflict. The educational provisions el the bill are expected to provide veterans in the 28th District of Ohio almost $828,000 in direct benefits in the first year. Vet- erans' Administration guaranteed loans totaling $2,876,000 to some 190 veterans are also expected in the first year. New hospital benefits made available to these veterans are expected to total $42,000 in the first year. Mr. Speaker, the education and train- ing provisions of this program will help a great deal to prepare more of our young men and women to realize their full po- tential in life. I know they are wel- comed by the veterans in my district. HALL URGES RETENTION OF SCHOOL. MILK PROGRAM (Mr. HALL asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. HALL. Mr. Speaker, I have today introduced legislation to insure that the school milk program is extended with adequate appropriations to assure the continued availability of milk at mod- erate prices in the Nation's schools. There is growing concern with the ad- ministration's actions in refusing to re- lease $3 million for the special school milk program this year. I cannot agree with the President's proposal to cut funds for the school lunch program by 12 per- cent and the special milk program by almost 80 percent for the coining fiscal year, while flaunting other areas of do- mestic fiscal responsibility. These cutbacks, coming at the same time that "poverty warrior" salaries are being escalated and foreign aid ex- panded, make no sense to either our dairy farmers or to our schoolchildren and their parents. These programs have, through the years, proven to be especially effective means of assisting schools in providing nutritionally desirable diets to grade and high school students at moderate prices. They have contributed to the health and development of the Nation's future gen- eration. As a "doctor in the House," I am certainly for these efforts, under local school board control. During fiscal year 1965, 61.7 million ad- ditional half-pints of milk were served to students in the State of Missouri, alone, under these extremely successful programs. Under the administration's proposed program, this would be drasti- cally curtailed. If under the new pro- gram, a school district determines that $3,000 income is the difference between a needy family and a prosperous family, then, the child of a family with $2,999.99 income will pay nothing for a half-pint of milk. How utterly foolish. I would much rather see a cut in Mrs. Johnson's so-called beautification pro- gram, Or in the poverty program, than the $80 million cut in this vital and im- portant program for our schools, and leaders of tomorrow. (Mr. FINDLEY asked and was given Permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD.) [Mr. FINDLEY'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] THE OPPORTUNITY CRUSADE ACT OF 1966 (Mr. QUIE asked and was given per- mission to address the House for 1 min- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 March 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE 4853 countries around the world will breathe a high of relief and be glad that it has come out that way. Mr. BOGGS. Would you mind in that con- nection talking about?and I know this has military implications?but the dieffrent posi- tion today in Vietnam today, both military and economic and politically, as compared to just 8 months ago. Mr. Russ. Well, I think in the first place, for the past 3 or 4 months the South Viet- namese and allied forces have clearly been on the initiative. If you follow the opera- tional reports as closely as Mr. BOGGS does, you will notice that most of the larger opera- tions are on the initiative of the South Viet- namese and allied groups?some 25 to 30 of those separate operations every day. Of course, now, our own newspapermen out there concentrate on the American forces and we lose eight of the fact that about two- thirds of those operations are conducted by the South Vietnamese themselves?and it remains their war. It has not become an American war. We are supporting them. But the initiative is clearly with the South Vietnamese and the allies. The other side has been taking very serious punish- ment. During 1965, for example, the Viet- cong suffered in numbers killed as many as the United States had killed throughout the entire Korean war, and, since the first of this year, those casualty rates have gone up?so they are running into serious trouble not only in the effectiveness of their operations, but also in morale and supply. Now I think another important phase of the battle is the one we discussed in Honolulu in great de- tail?that is to get on with the economic and social development of the country. That has been given new impetus?the Vietcong still try to disrupt it by attacks on local officials and by disrupting lines of communication and these are tough problems they have there, but the present government, and cer- tainly our Government, are committing themselves fully to it and I would expect in- creasing rapid change in that field as well. Mr. BOGGS. Now Mr. Secretary, we just have time for one or two other questions. The suggestion has been made by some that we, in our efforts to go to the bargaining table and negotiating table with a peaceful conference that we include the Vietcong. Would you mind disposing of that contention? Mr. Rusx. Well, in the first place the other side has made it quite clear that their condi- tion is that the Vietcong be accepted as the sole representatives of the Senth Vietnamese people. They haven't been qualifying this demand. Secondly, the Vietcong is an arm of Hanoi. Their views can be ascertained, but we shan't impose upon the people of South Vietnam this outfit, which has not been chose by the people of South Vietnam and which represents somebody else. Mr. BOGGS. It's a front, pure and simple. Mr. Rusx. Now, if the South Vietnamese have some peace and can have their elections, they can choose whatever government they want. I'm eonvinced myself that the South Vietnamese people are not going to choose a liberation front or the representatives of Hanoi?a million people, you remember, hale, left Hanoi after the division of Vietnam in order to escape this Communist regime. Mr. BOGGS. Right, Mr. Secretary, do you feel we are making progress in an orderly fashion?would you venture a prediction on how long military operations may have to continue? I know that this is a difficult thing. Mr. RUSK. No; it's hard to predict. There is a long, hard job ahead, even if the main military operations were to be brought to a conclusion, you'd still have a considerable guerrilla problem and sabotage in the country for the South Vietnamese to dispose of, but in these crises we have had since 1945, the end comes rather quickly and unexpectedly. I am thinking now about the Greek guerrillas and about the Berlin blockade, even the Korean/war?so it is a little hard to know just when it will come. I think it will come when Hanoi fully realizes they are not going to have South Vietnam by force, and then we will see a break in the situation. Mr. BOGGS. One final question?Do you think the vote in Congress this week was helpful? Mr. Rusx. It was indeed and I think that very strong vote in support of what is going is going on in South Vietnam will be helpful not only in the housekeeping aspect of it but as a demonstration of determination to the South Vietnamese and indeed to Hanoi, and I must say I was deeply grateful for the over- whelming vote that you gentlemen down here gave us on that bill. Mr. Boacs. Well, Mr. Secretary, I know we could go on for a much longer period, but our time has expired. Thank you very much for joining with us this morning in this report to our people in south Louisiana. Mr. Rusx. It is a great pleasure to bei e e. Mr. Boacs. Thank you, sir. THE U.S. LEGAL RIGHT TO BE IN VIETNAM?THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION'S HOUSE OF DELE- GATES SPEAKS (Mr. BOGGS (at the request of Mr. DE LA GARZA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker there has been debate in the our country about the U.S. legal right to be in Vietnam. The American Bar Association's House of Delegates spoke loud and clear on this issue at its midwinter meeting in Chi- cago February 21, 1966. That body unanimously adopted a res- olution and report supporting the posi- tion of the United States. The resolu- tion should put to rest any doubts about our position. Mr. Speaker, I would like to add that the resolution was the work of one of my constituents, Eberhard P. Deutsch, chairman of the Standing Committee on Peace and Law through United Nations. Mr. Deutsch is a world renowned at- torney who has given of himself for the past 41 ye-ars in perfecting the American system of justice, both in the practice of civil and military law. All Americans owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Deutsch. May we all continue to deserve his efforts. Following is the resolution and report adopted by the American Bar Association in addition to a brief biographical sketch of Mr. Deutsch: AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SPECIAL JOINT RE- PORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON PEACE AND LAW THROUGH UNIIT,L) NATIONS AND THE SECTION OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARA- TIVE LAW RECOMMENDATION Whereas in recent hearings before the For- eign Relations Committee of the U.S. Senate, it has been stated that international lawyers are agreed that the U.S. position in Vietnam is illegal and in violation of the charter of the United Nations; and Whereas articles 51 and 52 of the charter sanction steps for self-defense and collective and regional security arrangements such as the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization to which the United States is a party; and Whereas in the course of these hearings, it has been suggested that an expression on this subject by the American Bax Association would be appropriate; Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the American Bar Association, That the position of the United States in Vietnam is legal under international law, and Is in accordance with the charter of the United Nations and the Southeast Asia Treaty; and be it further Resolved, That the secretary of this asso- ciation be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to transmit a copy of this resolution immediately to the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the U.S. Senate. REPORT The attention of the committee and the council has been called to the recent widely publicized hearings on appropriations for support of the U.S. forces in Vietnam before the Foreign Relations Committee of the U.S. Senate. At these hearings, it has been suggested that international lawyers are agreed that the U.S. position in Vietnam is illegal and in violation of the United Nations Charter. Articles 51 and 52 of the charter expressly provide that nothing contained therein "shall impair the inherent right of individ- ual or collective self-defense," nor preclude "the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters re- lating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action." The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization is such an arrangement or agency. Professors of international law of some 31 law schools have expressed their opinion, and it is the opinion of the members of this as- sociation's Standing Committee on Peace and Law Through United Nations and of the members of the Council of the Section of International and Comparative Law, that the position of the United States in Vietnam is legal, and is not in violation of the Charter of the United Nations. During the course of the Senate commit- tee hearings, it was suggested that it would be desirable to have an expression on this subject by the American Bar Association. The matter was taken up at a joint ses- sion of the committee and the council of the section which now jointly recommend adoption by the house of delegates of the resolution herein above set forth to the effect that it is the position of the American Bar Association that the presence of U.S. forces in Vietnam is legal under international law, and in accord with the charter of the United Nations and the Southeast Asia Treaty. EBERHARD P. DEUTSCH, Chairman., Standing Committee on Peace and Law Through United Nations. EDWARD D. RE, Chairman, Section of International and Comparative Law. Recommendation adopted unanimously on February 21, 1966, by the house of dele- gates of the American Bar Association at its midwinter meeting in Chicago, Ill. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF MR. EBER,HARD DEUTSCH Eberhard P. Duetsch was born on October 31, 1897, in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he com- pleted his early studies. His parents were Dr. and Mrs. Gotthard (Hermine Bacher) Deutsch of that city. In April 1917, he enlisted in the 1st Illinois Cavalry?later the 122d U.S. Field Artillery? in which, with the 33d Division, U.S. Army, he served throughout the First World War, rising to rank of lieutenant. In. 1925, he completed his studies as a special student at the College of Law of Tulane University, and has been engaged in the general practice of civil law ever since at New Orleans, where he is senior member of the law firm of Deutsch, Kerrigan St Stiles. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 4351 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? HOUSE Mai?ch ;t; In 1942 he again entered military service, o,aching the rank of colonel, and serving triith variOUS combat and mfltary-govern- (tient tier in throughout, and following close et, the Second World War. iffilonet Deutsch completed his tour of ii ii military duty in the fall of 1946, hay- served croon close of hostilities in Europe, principal legal adviser to Gen. Mark W. twit its (Thief of the Allied Legal Di- reetterate, in the miltary administration of nilatria, and in the re-creation of that coun- t.'y its a Tree and independent :nation. I )tirine hie. service in Austria, Colonel Lod sch devised, and assisted in nutting into otect. Ito eo-called negative veto, under 'a loch decrees promulaged by the Austrian croyernment and legislation enacted by the Peen:Hi/lent of Austria, became effective LI roughout, the country in 31 days unless unanimously rejeci,ed by the quadri-nartite ( :tinted States, British. French, and Soviet) Allied Mit Lary C.lormnission in the meantime. Colonel :Deutsch took paet in 12 major en- gegen:lents, including the invasion of Sicily and in airborne landing behind the lines in Normandy. He has a total of some 16 Ameri- can and _French decorations and service medaIs. (:010Tlel Deatech ia HMET1J-;1.IV CollS111. of the Ifepublic 01 Austria tit New Orleans. and ovilian aid or the State of Louisiana, to the Secretary .af the Array. iii1936, Mr. Deutsch was counted for pub- tethers in their successful attack on a Lnui- inn art t. ri isirie tax, declared unanimously Try the Supreme Court of the 'United States 1.0 constittite an in tringernent of the consti- ti it:tonal guaranty of a free press. Ft 1950 53, Mr. Deutsch. as Special As- sistant to the Attorney General of the United States, suifficesfully prepared and prosecuted the appeal of the United States from adverse judgments in the vast Texas City disaster liligiction is, lieved to be the largest civil aettion ils kind iii the hi tory 01 the world. He leis been (19131-62) chairman of the American Bar Association's Standing Com- mittee on Admiralty and Maritime Law, and for many youis a member, and chairman (1963-63 tonl 1965 to date) of that associa- tion's Standing Committee on Peace and Law Through United Ntions. Be is, and has been tor several years, cbairman of the Louisiana Statii Bar Atisociation's Standing Committee oft Law lottorm, and regularly takes In lead- ing part in many civic activities. Mr. Deutsch is the author of a plan for reetonstitiition of the international Court (IC JUSUI,O, to give it uniform. universal, corn- ptilsitry jurisdiction over ail nations. with- re it undue surrender of their sovereignty. The plan is described in Mr. Deusch's lead- ing article in the Americaa Bar Association Journal nit: June 1963, and was approved unanimously in August 0965, by the house lie' delegates of the American Bar Association. Mr. Dentsiiii has been a frequent contribu- tor to American Bar Association Journal, and is the author of ninny leading articles which have appeared in various legal publications during the ;last 30 years, on constitutional, maritime and international law. aiVir. CON VERS (at the request of Mr. :DE LA GARZA) was granted permission to edend his remarks at this point in the Racouri and to include extraneous mat- ter.) I Mr. CONYERS' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] ITE SNIFFING (Mr. ARBSTEIN (at, the request of Mr. DE LA (iARZA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- t)'r.) Mr. PARBSTEIN. Mr. Speaker, for a number of years the subject of glue sniffing has occupied the time and energy of many local governments and has been studied at the National level. Many municipalities and States have enacted statutes aimed at either promiscuous uses of these so' vents or at restrici:Mg the sale of products containing- toxic !:iolvents, as in the case of the New Yor City ordi- nance. However, no concrete action on iNatianal scale has been sts 'ted to dis- courage and prevent glue smiting. The problem is not abatine but rather Is increasing. Reports contanie to pour in from my district telling if teenagers drunk, dizzy, and euphoric fr-an inhaling fumes of plastic cements an other or- ganic solvents. Similar even .:s have been reported in Memphis, Boston, Hawaii, and other areas throughout tlie Nation. It is clear from existing rc-;c:arch that this form of aberrant beh.avioy among our teen and preteenagers can-es a syn- drome resembling acute alcoholic intoxi- iiation. Apart from the incalculable harm none while ch'ildren a re under its iminence, inhaling the solvents from glues and other substancss produces physical injury. It is appall: it from the many ,irticles and clinical e; dence that yours.i.- body can be seriously damaged from uhalation of certain solvents. I do not be Sieve we need wait any longer for additicsail evidence and more substanti- atilig eases attesting to damage of the human body. It is time to irati ate a pro- gram to deter and prevent Vie practice. Mr. Si,eaker, it is my intent" in to intro- duce legislation amending ..he Federal Hazardoas Substances Labcnng Act to regain manufacturers of glues and other substmices containing toxic solvents to label their product with a skull and crossbones and the word "poison." In additicia. the tube or bottle containing the product should bear a laaxil warning that the vapor may be harmful and that the product should be used Only in a well- ventilated area. The legislation will apply to glues and other substances containing the organic solvents most frequently pro- ducing the intoxicating effect, such as toluene, xylene, methyl isobutylketone, methyl cellasolve acetate isopropyl alcohol, methylethyl ketoiaa acetone, ethyl saietate, or their combii ations. lu addition, it will also require that products containing these is manic sol- vents be removed from the vieD serve- yourse, I shelves of stores. Mr, Speaker, I do not deiade myself that this legislation will refol:m existing sniffers, but it may deter any new con- verts so this dangerous practice. We must direct efforts aimed at correcting the underlying emotional disorders to make any real headway with the hard core toxic solvent sniffer. These young People are potential drug addicts of tomorrow. Let us take steps ro nip many of these, at an early stage when the job of rehabilitation is not so difficult it task. might add that I believe the Con- gress should push vigorously ahead with pending legislation covering civil com- mitment for drug addicts and a Federal aid program for drug treatment centers. We must realize the seriousness of the problem and take creative steps to aid those human creatures lost in a world of opiate dreams to find a pl,ace in lhe real world. A FATHER AND HIS SOXT SPEAK ABOUT VIETNAM (Mr. RODIN() (at the request of Mr. DE LA GARzA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Mr. RODIN?. Mr. Speaker, when we- talk about Vietnam, no one is more de- serving of being heard than the young men who are there fighting for us all and the families of those men here awaiting their return. A few days ago, I received a ,elter Iroit the father of one of those young men, one who though wounded is still there in Vietnam engaged against ale enclay. Nothing that I can say can add to the courage and determination manliesied by the words of this father and his son. I am sure that all my colleagues, all Americans will share my heartfelt grati- tude to these two great men and the pride that they are of us. And, above all, like our President and all Americans, I pray that a just and honorable way may soon be found to end this conflict, so that Jack and all his comrades may be home again with their families. The text of the letter follows: GLEN RIDGE, NJ Februarl, , lion. PETER W. .RODIN 0, JR., Commerce Court Building, 10 COM771CITC Court, Newark, N DEAR PETER: That was very nice oi you, PE1E, to drop roe a little note commenting on our son Jack being wounded in Vietnam. This is typical of the thoughtlulness and consideration you have for your oinstititents, regardless of their party affiliation, which has endeared you to so many tl ousands 01 people in the district. As a Member of Congress you may seen be called upon to express an opinion either in support of or opposed to the administra- tion's policy in Vietnam. You may there- fore be interested in this excerpt from a letter we recently received from Jack: "I was very lucky previously and there is a chance I won't be so lucky next tion-. If anything should happen I don't- want any big moping going on. I chose to ')?, here and I am proud to do my job." As President Johnson said kit L night- on. the television, the boys who are doing a job like our son Jack have no di iubts at all whether they are doing the right thing for our country and our freedom. From your letter, as well as the fact that y(Ik k have twen over there personally, I know that, you under- stand this too. Thus, I know you 'won't be sidetracked by the strange views of sonar' 01 your colleagues in the Senate whose motives are so hard to understand. Thank you again for your letler. I hope you will take every opportunity to become as vocal as possible in sunputing our mission in Vietnam. With kindest regards,. W. JEFFERS, : N !i HR. 13319. EXTENSION OF THE LIBRARY SERVICES AND CON- STRUCTION ACT (Mr. PEPPER (at the request of Mr. DE LA GARZA) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release ZQQ6/97/13 ? eJAzIRDP6ZBOI1146R000400050004-9 March 7 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENA 4927 Companies that will help feed the world-Continued Company Operating data Stock data Assets (millions) 1965 revenues (millions) 1065 net income (millions) Latest 12 months earnings per share Recent price 5-year price range 1866 indicated dividend Yield (Percent) CONSTRUCTION Foster Wheeler Kaiser Industries Morrison-Knudsen Pullman GRAIN-CARRYING RAILROADS Atchison, Topeka ck Santa Fe Chicago, Milwatikee Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific C Illinois entral Industries Missouri Pacific Union Pacific $96 1 $228 $1. 9 $2. 65 481/2 51%-22% 6 $1.40 2. 9 441 7 452 11 15. 1 3 .73 1374 15-51/2 (5) 135 314 5. 3 2. 57 291/2 351/2-26% 1. 60 5.4 300 601 20.6 4. 51 66% 7371/2-2034 2. 40 3.6 1, 857 677 91. 0 3.45 411/2 42 -201/2 1. 60 3. 9 682 241 7. 3 2. 16 611/2 64 - 7 1.00 1. 6 497 211 3 1. 5 650 42% 47 -14% (5) 743 283 9.8 6. 66 78% 81 -311/2 2. 40 3. 1 1, 190 417 26.3 14. 20 941/2 961/2-35% 5. 00 5.3 1,765 549 03.8 4. 03 47% 491/2-27% 1. 80 3.8 112 months ended Sept. 30. 2 Excludes excise taxes. 3 None. 4 Stock data for Unilever NY. shares. TWICE AS MANY SUKARNOS? Each generation faces its own crisis. In the thirties and forties it was the rise of fascism. In the fifties and sixties it has been communism. In the seventies and eighties it's likely to be an even more virulent threat: Hunger. Americans probably won't go hun- gry, but most of the rest of the world will, and we won't be able to escape the conse- quencies. On pages 19 through 26 of this issue, the editors of Forbes examine the economic im- plications of population growth pressing against an inflexible food supply. The work of a six-man Forbes team, the report takes a generally optimistic view about what U.S. business can do about the situation-and how it can benefit from it. But not everybody is optimistic, and we think it only fair to expose our readers to the views of an extremely well-informed businessman who thinks the prospects for feeding the world over the next few decades are dim, He's Thomas M. Ware, 47-year-o1d chair- man of International Minerals & Chemical. Under Tom Ware's brilliant direction IMC has been extremely aggressive in expanding in the fertilizer field. But that isn't Tom Ware's only credential. He is chairman of the Freedom From Hunger Foundation, a nonprofit organization that promotes sup- port among businessmen for the food pro- grams of the United Nations. Most im- portant of all, Tom Ware is an engaged and aroused citizen. ''Hope always springs eternal," he told Forbes late last month. "But I don't see how on earth it's possible for the world to feed itself in the years ahead." UNDERUSED TOOLS It isn't a shortage of fertilizer, he em- phasizes, of implements, of seeds, or even of land. The trouble is even more basic: It lies in the human mind. "Intelligence," he says, "is capital. We've spent billions on education in this country to get the amount of intelligence we have today. The under- developed countries haven't, and they aren't going to be able to catch up overnight. "We've got the tools," he goes on. "TV is a great tool for mass education. Com- puters and jet planes give seven-league boots to brilliant men. Satellite communications can spread ideas instantaneously. "But, because of a lack of education, of intelligence, many of our tools are not being used properly. Atomic power cannot be used for digging irrigation projects because of politics. Population control cannot always be used effectively because of religious ethic. And remember that the sword we give some- Estimates. Plus stock. 212 months ended June 30. 3 Deficit. one to cut food can also be used to slay somebody else." Ware believes that hunger itself breeds ignorance. "If half the people in the world are starving," he says, "then half the world's minds are permanently maimed. They just don't have the voltage between the ears to get any work done. How can a mental dwarf who has no energy grow more food?" TO THE SKY? In his own field of fertilizer, Ware says, proper use takes intelligence and education. "Every soil is different, and needs different treatment," he says. "An American farmer knows just what he needs, and has the capital to pay for it. But a man who can't read might put fertilizer on a plant a foot thick and expect it to grow to the sky. In- stead the plant would grow at all." Ware is concerned too that Americans aren't sufficiently aroused and may wait too long to take really effective action. He points out that it took 15 years to open up his company's big new potash mine in Sas- katchewan. "For the first 5 years, we had to sit and assay the market. The next 5 were taken up with design and planning. The third 5 were spent actually digging the hole. In addition to all that time, there was the $60 million we spent. That experience has made me very respectful of the meaning of a doubled population in just 35 years." SCORCHED EARTH Finally, he speaks about the scarcity of arable soil in the world, and of the fact that world hunger will create turmoil that de- stroys soil. "The soil was destroyed by war in the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean Basin, and now it's being scorched in Viet- nam," he says. "When you double the population, you're going to double the num- ber of Sukarnos, Cubas, Vietnams, library burnings, and the like. More accurately, you're probably going to get eight times as much trouble." We hope Tom Ware is wrong in his pessi- mistic view. In fact, he hopes so, too. But unless the American people and American business make a mighty effort, and soon ? ? * well, Ware knows what he i talking about, if any man does. CAREFUL ASSESSMENT OF DO S- TIC PROGRAM EXPENDITURES URGED Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, for some- time I have been convinced that we must assess very carefully and wisely the expenditures for our domestic pro- grams in light of the needs to win the war in Vietnam. If we are to have a "win" policy in Vietnam, we must look at the domestic programs to determine where cuts should be made. These cuts rightly should be channeled into our military effort so that we may be able to win the war at the earliest opportunity. I believe the editor of the Farm Jour- nal in the March 1966 issue made a very valid point when he asked: Isn't it about time we all got into this war, all made some sacrifice? Should we just leave all the sacrificing to 200,000 or more American boys in Vietnam? The editor is convinced that we can- not continue full speed ahead on both the domestic and Vietnam areas without a necessary trimming back on the do- mestic front. This editorial should be required read- ing for those who believe we can do both, I ask unanimous consent that the edi- torial, "It's Our War," be placed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: IT'S OUR WAR Isn't it about time we all got into this war, all made some sacrifice? Should we just leave all the sacrificing to 200,000 or more Americans boys in Vietnam? We may as well admit it: For the most of us except those boys and their families back home, life has been going on pretty cozily. We've followed the news of the war, but then have gone on about our affairs undisturbed. Most Americans have been doing pretty well financially. They've en- joyed all the usual pleasures and some extra ones, kept comfortable and snug. Partly this was because we hoped that this war which we drifted into would soon end, and that the Vietnam nightmare would somehow go away. But we see now that likely we are in for a long and dirty fight and that the cost in men and money will probably go up, not down. What can we noncombatants do? Well, for one thing, we can realize we are 'in a war and act like it. We can ask our Government to do the same. In his annual budget message the Presi- dent called on us to "support the struggle in Vietnam" but then added that "the strug- gle for a Great Society must go on una- bated." Unabated, with a war going on? Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 4928 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE March 7, 1966 We doubt that he really meant it, for already some spending programs have been cut back. But they need to be trimmed a lot more and the effort turned to the military struggle and the prevention of more inflation. Those are the two big jobs on our hands now. That's plenty: other things can surely wait. We can make the draft more fair. It can never be fully fair, but so far it has been falling too heavily on the boys not shielded by the sanctuary of college. ft we need more taxes to curtail Govern- ment deficits let's have thern, unpleasant though taxes are. But not unless or until we've cut out spending for things we can forgo or at least postpone. Let's try that liret. lIi today's world we need allies. World opinion is a powerful force. But how many American boys should we sacrifice for fear of offending "allies" who are sending food one materiel to a shooting enemy? ft seamen to us that the bombing lull, the dispatch of our emissaries to all parts of the WOEld, the appeal to the United Na- tions, futile as that organization is, were all worth trying. We favor making every other possible attempt at peace. The President has tried hard. What we are asking now is that he first consult fully with Congress, which he hasn't done, then have the courage to tell us what is necessary and when. In brief, let's all of us begin to share this war, so far as possible, with the boys doing the fighting. It will be mighty uneven sharing at best, but at least we can start acting like this is our war, not their. OUR NATION'S CAPITAL COLORING BOOK Mr. M.ILLF:R. Mr. President, in digni- fied impressive ceremonies at Valley Forge, Pa_ on February 22,1966, the U.S. Capitol Historical Society was presented with its second Freedoms Foundation award. Honored with a 1964 citation for we, the people, the society was rec- ognized again for its 1965 publication, Our Nation's Capital Coloring Book. The principal Americana Award was presented to the U.S. Capitol Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Honoring, our Nation's Capital Coloring Hook, using the historic and scenic monu- ments of the Capital City, re-created our heritage in story and picture and included a recommended reading list, a full oolor page of State flags, a tour map of the city and note pages. Representing the society at Valley Forge was tire driving force founder, acal first lavsident of the society Fred Schwerigel of Davenport former Con- gressman frorn the First District of low a. Ti presenting, the George Washington Honor Medal, Dr. Kenneth D. Wells, pm;ident of the Freedoms Foundation at 'Valley Forge. made the following re- marks: This next award goes to show what can be done with an idea in this great free society of ours. The stair of the U.S. Capitol Historical Society, ever mindful of the importance of history to the impressionable young, decided Ilona in order to meet the minds of our youth it must bend to the child's own media. The result was a combination history-coloring book that is now being used in classrooms all over America. It is one thing to produce a coloring book, but another to rank among the top echelon of Freedoms Foundation awards. Our jury felt that this was a great thing being done for millions of young Amer- leans and we are proud to present this medal to the society. Our most sincere ongratula- Vona. Mr. President, I am sure this is an honor with which all Members of Con- gress and millions of other pet ole are in full agreement. All of us know of the outstanding job that the United States Capitol Historical Society has been doing to make our people more acquainted 'with the facts and traditions of the U.S. Cap itol. I believe that the untiring work of Mr. Schwengel should sharc in this recognition because I know liow long and how hard he has labored so that the United. States Capitol Historical So- ciety will fulfill the dreams of As f ers. WETNAM: CONTAINMEIT OR ICCOMIVIODATION Mr. MeGEE. M. Presid the Washington Sunday Star, in its lengthy and well-put lead editorial :,,estexday, examined the crux of the cum at debate over America's Vietnam pc hey, cut through the entangling maze of ques- tions and answers and reached a conclu- sion. That conclusion was thi t, "Given the importance that Vietnam has as- sumed as a test case for Mao's doctrines of revolutionary conquest, th is, at present no realistic alternativi. to mili- tary containment" of Red China. The Star's editorial com.mards atten- tion, Mr. President, and I ask ulanimous consent that it be printed in th,! RJ:COMe. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in tin: RECORD, as follows: Luroz., the Washington (D.C.. Star, Mar. 6, 19661 CRT ISSTJE : CO FITATNME: r OR ACCOATMODNTION The no tinning debate on Vig nam has not produced a solution to our mioblem in that part of the world. But it has succeeded to an erica meaging degree in gettine the prob- lem down to its essentials. More and more, In recent clays, :.he debate has begen to transcend the ambiguities a Vietnam [self and center on the problem of the containment of Communst China. More and more, both those who defend our policies iv Vietnam and those who criticize them bave east their arguments terms of a tient ne dation between Ameri( an power and that of the vast nation which has taken over as the primary global ante gonist of the Unite ,1 States. Most serious critics c-f the adm eistration now admit that the containment (--tf China, is: soothe vitt Asia nod elsewhere is a vital interest iS the United States. Ti' question is simply ',whether or not the war c Vietnam serves this purpose. Are we containing or provoking China in Vietnam? Are we de- creasing or increasing the risk of all-out con- -eV-it9 IT. i' we the means of mitt: Vning our Objectives? I: there, in fact, a practical alternativii to the military conta mnent of Chinese expansionism in Viet ,ern and elsewhere'- This an; wers to ail of these quo -tions de- pend finally on an assessment of 0. ii capaci- ties and an bitions of the regime to Peiping. It as the critics fear, the capacities of Red China are virtnally unlimited, military con- tainment is indeed a dubious proposition. And if, E.:3 they hope, its ambi Lions are modest, an alternative :might be found. The alternative suggested, most explicitly by Chairman FULBRIGHT of the Stivate For- eign Relations Committee, is what he cells an "accommodation" with China on a large scale. Peiping, he believes, can be induced to settle for the neutralization of southeast Asia in return for the withdrawal of Ameri- can power from the area. If this were done, he implies, the aggressive nature of the Com- munist regime would change and stability would return along China's borders. In our view the main trouble with this analysis is the fact that it Is refuted by virtually every scrap of available evidence about the capacities and ambitions of the regime in Peiping?which, incidentally, greeted Senator Fimanniceir's suggestion with the revelation that he and his feliow doves are as big "fools" in Peiping's book as are the American hawks. It is also in contradic- tion with the major conclusion based on this evidence: That today the ambitions of the leaders in Peiping far exceed their material capabilities and that the military contain- ment of China has been an established fact for 15 years. Those who would seek to assuage China's aggressive expansionism by any sort of a deal In southeast Asia must first close their eyes firmly to the dimensions of Pelping's terri- torial appetite. The neutralization, or even -the outright surrender of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia would amount to a drop in the bucket to a regime which loudly asserts traditional claims to hundreds of thousands of square miles on its periphery. The presence of American power in Viet- nam is a minor irritant compared to the presence of American power in South Korea or Nationalist Chinese power on Taiwan. Appeasement in any form is hardly a realistic solution for a. country whose list of demands also includes large parts of Siberia, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thai- land, and Malaysia. These territorial claims, combined with the militant spirit of the regime in Peiping, have in fact forced a policy of military containment on most of China's neighbors since the consolidation of com- munism on the mainland in 1949. The Chinese have contested this con- tainment many times in nanny places, sometimes with success. Tibet has been invaded and occupied. Direct negressien has been fostered against South Korea... Many clashes have occurred riling the Chinese-Russian border. Probing attacks have been made on India. The Nationalist Chinese islands of Quemoy and 11Io TJ111 in the Formosa Straits have come under bombard.- ment and the threat of invasion from the mainland. Yet, with the exception of Tibet which lead no means of military defense and India where the Chinese still occupy some con- tested border territory, the lines of con- tainment have held. Today, the encircle- ment of China about which the loaders in Peiping constantly complain is very real Indeed. And the pressure of American power from northern Japan to Theiland on which a major sector of the ring of contain- ment depends has grown to formidable proportions. Since Korea, the leadership in Peiping has carefully avoided the risk of a direct con- frontation with this American power. Fur all the bluster about paper tigers they have backed away from every situation which threatened to involve American an-power against Chinese territory. Confident as they ma.y be of their ability to defeat any actual invasion of the mainland, the healers in Peiping are thoroughly aware of Chinies vulnerability, even in terms of :nonnuclear weapons that could be brought to Pear. The formula of conquest by proxy, de- veloped from Mao Tse-tung's doctrines of "peoples' wars of national liberation," has in recent years provided an ingenious solution to the dilemma which has confronted China. Without risk of direct involvement, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 March 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE 4929 the encouragement and support of indigenous rebellions in areas marked for conquest have promised to provide the key to unlo6k the wall of containment and satisfy at least some of Peiping's territorial ambitions. Vietnam offered the ideal terrain. Since the French occupation, all the apparatus for successful subversive warfare had been at, hand. A successful "war of national libera- tion" in Vietnam?particularly one which ended in the withdrawal of American power from southeast Asia?would open up in- numerable opportunities for the expansion of Chinese domination in southeast Asia. Above all, perhaps, in the struggle with Rus- sia for domination of the world Communist movement, success in Vietnam would provide the vindication of the Peiping's militant doctrines. On the other hand, if Chinese ambitions should fail in Vietnam the outlook from Peiping's point of view would be a good deal less encouraging. If the result of the war there turned out to be a massive new injec- tion of American power, the containment of the rebellion and the strengthening of re- sistance to subversion in other less vulnera- ble areas, the leaders in Peiping might be induced to modify some of their most cherished hopes. Indeed, there is good reason to believe that this result is well on its way to being achieved. In Laos and Thailand, the Amer- ican buildup in Vietnam has brought about a remarkable stiffening of resistance to Com- munist pressures. In Indonesia, the hope of the Communists of turning the American position by seizing power has ended in stun- ning disaster. In Ghana and Cuba, Mao's theories of the exportability of world revolu- tion have suffered serious reverses. The fact which emerges, and which should impress itself on American doubters, is that the very survival of neutralism today in Asia?in Burma, Cambodia, and Indonesia, for instance?depends very much on the suc- cess of the containment effort in Vietnam. The leaders in Peiping have been impressed enough by the difficulties which they are en- countering everywhere to warn their people that they must expect temporary reverses and retreats along the road to ultimate vic- tory. Given the importance that Vietnam has assumed as a test case for Mao's doctrines of revolutionary conquest, there is, at present, no realistic alternative to military contain- ment. The time to begin talking about ac- commodations will come when the door to aggressive Chinese expansion has been firmly closed once and for all. Under these condi- tions, a genuine accommodation would take the form of opening the door to China's entry into the community of responsible nations. And this is the ultimate objective to which American policy in Asia should be unswerv- ingly directed. COOPERATIVE WEATHER OBSERVERS Mr. MURPHY. Mr. President, for more than a hundred years in this coun- try devoted public servants have been daily performing a public service of which most Americans are not aware. These men are the cooperative weather observers of the U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau. Under this program, the observer is furnished the necessary instruments and without compensation he takes and records daily observations of the weather. Today in the United States there are over 12,000 of these observers, and it is estimated that these volunteers give to the Government about 1 million hours yearly. Mr. President, recently the Commerce Department published a book saluting the fine record of those who have been making weather observations for 30 or more years. In my own State of Cali- fornia, there are more than 900 coopera- tive weather stations in operation and 13 of the men who man these stations have given over 30 years of service to the Weather Bureau. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that the information from "The Cooperative Weather Observer," salut- ing the efforts of the California volun- teers, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CALIFORNIA A natural resource of first importance to California is the diversity of its climates. Found within her boundaries are the dry desert climate of the southeast and the humid region of the northern coastal moun- tains. Temperatures range from the searing heat of the desert and the interior valleys to the usually cool pattern of the north coast and the cold winter of the high Sierra Nevadas. It is the cooperative observer who has documented these several climates through the years so that we can tell what they are. The records have many applica- tions. Consider, for example, the western portion of the San Joaquin Valley. This is an area with a desert-like climate. Few people live here, but for 50 years the operator of an oil company pumping plant maintained a cooperative weather record. Today plans are being made to bring in irrigation water, and the long and complete record from Middlewater forms a basis for estimating the climate of the rest of that area so that growers will be able to make effective use of the newly opened agricultural area. Form time to time flooding has occurred in one part of the State or another, and the records of the cooperative observers are of vital signiflance in an analysis of these floods. Not only is it important to know What rain fell during the flood situation, but long records of more normal conditions are necessary if users are to evaluate properly the significance of the periods of iligh rain- fall. Damage suits in some flood damage cases amount to several millions of dollars. Of interest in delineating the climate of an area are the infrequent extremes that suggest the outside limits of weather that can be expected. Typical is the high tem- perature of 134 degrees F. observed at Green- land Ranch on July 10, 1913. Snowfall amounting to 60 inches was reported in a 24-hour period on January 18 and 19, 1933, at Giant Forest. The total for a season was 884 inches at Tamarack in 1906-07. Some of the hee,veist precipitation rates are 1.03 inches in 1 minute at Opids Camp on April 5, 1926, 11.50 inches in 80 minutes at Campo on August 12, 1891, and 26.12 inches in 24 hours at Hoegees on January 22, 1943. Without the help of the cooperative ob- servers who make their readings regularly each day we would have no information on which to base an estimate of these extremes. HOWARD It, ALLARD, WILLOWS Mr. Allard has been the official observer in Willows since 1926, continuing a record started in 1878. For 36 years he was with the irrigation district until his retirement in 1956, and since that time he has served as a city official in Willows. He has taken an active position of leadership in the com- munity, in his church, and in the several branches of the Masonic lodge. At Willows, as at many stations, the weather observa- tions have been a family project. ERNEST J. ANDERSON, ORLEANS Mr. Anderson became the observer at Or- leans in 1932, continuing a record that started in 1885. For his outstanding work he was given the John Carnpanius Holm award in 1964. ROBERT E. BURTON, SANTA CRUZ Mr. Burton has operated this station since 1931, except for the war years when he was on duty in the Pacific with the U.S. Navy. During that time he served on Ponape and operated a weather station there. His wife, son, and a neighbor operated the Santa Cruz weather station during that period. As a special project Mr. Burton has devised equipment for estimating the amount of dew deposited on redwood trees and has found as much as 40 to 60 gallons of water per acre on some nights. He received the John Cam- pa,nius Holm award in 1964. At the present time Mr. Burton is a county supervisor for Santa Cruz County, CARLOS A. CALL, FORT ROSS In 1907 Mr. Call succeeded his father, who had been observing precipitation at Fort Ross since 1874. A storm in November of 1874 gave a measured total of 18.06 inches of precipitation in 24 hours, and probably the amount was more than 20 inches. The gage ran over at one time during the storm. Mr. Call has sent us copies of data extracted from the records of the Russian colony that manned Fort Ross as early as 1810. The 91-year record within the family and the 58-year record by Carlos Call are out- standing not only for their length but also for their quality. Mr. Call was chosen in 1960 to receive the John Campanius Holm award and in 1965 the, Jefferson award for outstanding service as a cooperative observer. WALTER CANTRALL, JESS VALLEY Mr. Cantrell was born in Jess Valley and he continued to live there to the present time. He has been the sole observer at this station since its establishment in 1929, and the record is not worthy for the total lack of missing data. Shortly after this station was established Mr. Cantrall assisted water resource officials In the selection, measurement, and marking of a new snow course that is still in use more than 30 years later. EDWARD C. GERLACH, LONE TREE CANYON Mr. Gerlach has been the 'observer ever since this station was established in 1933. It is in an area of precious little rainfall, where an accurate measurement of what little does fall is of vital importance. He is interested in community activities and has donated land to the Rod and Gun Club for their rifle range. LEROY KEMP, SQUIRREL INN NO, 2 Mr. Kemp was first appointed as the offi- cial observer in 1929, although he had in fact been taking observations for several years prior to this, both at Squirrel Inn No. 1 and No. 2. He visited the San Bernardino Moun- tains for a summer vacation in 1924 and has remained there for 40 years. During that time he has worked for the Squirrel Inn, the school district, and the fire protection dis- trict, among others, retiring in 1960. For many years he has sent in special weekly snow reports during the winter for the Na- tional Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin. ARCHIE C. LEACH, CAMPO Mr. Leach is a rancher who was formerly with the engineering department of the city of San Francisco. His engineering back- ground and his present interests lead to close attention to the accuracy of his precipitation records. He has operated the Campo weather station since January 1926. This station experienced a cloudburst on August 12, 1891, that produced 11.50 inches of precipitation in 80 minutes. . The-intensity of the storm is documented by newspaper accounts of the damage done. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 4930 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? SENATE March 7, 1966 i;0 0 N a. PAULSON., ST. HELENA Mr. Paulson was born in St. Helena, and except for brief periods of work in other communities he has lived there to the pres- ent time. He became a printer in 1902 and worked at that trade until he retired in 1955. He has been the weather observer at St. Helena since 1921, continuing a record started in 1907. His station was one that was chosen to test the dial thermometer a few years ago, and Mr. Paulson received the John Cam- panins :Holm Award in 1961. He lives on his own ranch with his two brothers.. anima C. RICE. Los BANoS "Mr. Rice is a licensed civil engineer, em- ployed as watermaster and chief hydrogra- pher for the network of irrigation canals serving morn of central California. Prior to his present employment he was with the U.S. Geological Survey and with Southern Cali- fornia Edison Co., serving at various times in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Honolulu, Kansas, and Arizona. He has published a number of articles in his field, including one that, appeered in the Monthly Weather Re- view. Mr. Rice has been the official observer at Los Banos since 1931 and has done an out- standing job of summarizing weather records that go back to 1873. In 1962 he was awarded the John Campanius Holm Award for outstanding service. WILLIAM B. TEMPLE, cOVINA TEMPLE Fc 19:3 Mr. Temple,. a leadre in civic affairs in the Covina area. is continuing a precipitation record started by his father in non and as- sumed by him in 1930. In recent years the eisrms orchard that surrounded his home has given way to a subdivision that has built up in the area. muoviN H. TING, EsnoNineo Mr. Ting has been the observer at this station since February 1935, when he :re- placed Mr. Moon, who had served for 41 years. Mr. Ting is a pharmacist and owns and op- erates his own drugstore. wHITTIER CITY HAIL 'Mr. Warren is an official of the Whittier Water Co. and reports rainfall information to the Los Angeles County Flood Control Dis- isriet aI wed its to the Weather Bureau. Tit E AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE POLICY Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, the el-airman of the House Committee ,on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, Repre- aitative EDWARD A. GARMATZ, of Mary- hind, recently spoke before the Maritime Administrative Bar Association on the subject of American merchant marine policy. I ailing his 18 years in Congress, Rep- re;entative GARMATZ has acquired an ex- pert knowledge of the problems facing our merchant marine. He is eminently tit:alined to speak on maritime matters. 1.,?:enresentative GARMATZ, in his speech, calls for an end of the proliferation of studies of merchant marine problems and a beginning of effective remedial ac- tion. He points especially to the con- st.aiction of nuclear propelled merchant vessels as a stimulus to reverse the de- ne of the merchant marine. F am in complete agreement with Rep- ic!;entative GArincourz' plea to end the i:revailing in our maritime program. Mr. Pi, ?tient, I ask unanimous con- sent that; die speech of Representative GiaRMATz to the Maritime Administrative liar Association on February 10, 1966, be printed in the RECORD. The being no objection, the speech was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Its.mARE a OF HON. EDWARD A. GARMATZ, CHAIR- MAN, HOUSE COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES, BEFORE THE MARI- TLY1E ADMINISTRATIVE BAR ASSOCIATION, Lawysas CLUB, WASIIINGToN, D.C., FEBRU- ARY 10, 1966 We have all been reading and nearing that the immediate months ahead are critical ones for the .American merchant marine and ship- building industry. PerhapS they will be, but T suspei that the important matters for ad- Ministrati ve, executive, and legislative deci- sion, will be of a different nature than many people are thinking. do not expect that 'vie will be ectively con- cerned iluring this session of Congress with any drastic or revolutionary overhaul of our :national maritime policy or programs. Whatever else might be said about the American merchant marine, it has hardly been the subject of insufficient study. Since I was first elected to Congress 18 years ago, there has scarcely been a year when sonic governmental committee or quasi- governmental committee, was not analyzing or dissecting the American merchant marine. During those years, we have witnessed at least 25 major studies of varying descriptions by the executive and legislative branches of our Goy ernment?not to mention countless minor studies. In more recent years, we have had the project Walrus report of the National Acad- emy of science, the report of the Maritime Evaluation Committee of the Department of Commerce, the Interagency Maritime Task Force Report, and the report or the Presi- dent's Maritime Advisory Committee. I am ready to make one prediction?that WO are reaching inevitably the end of an ern?the time is approaching when there must be a. halt to this proliferation of studies. Either we will find a way to follow through with ths effective execution of our mari- time poliny and programs, as enacted by Congress, or there will no longer be a sub- ject available for study. I am confident that the way for promoting and sustaining a healthy American merchant marine and ship Minding industry, will be found. in 111 y (minion, the difficulties which now beset our maritime industry are largely at- tributable to the ineffective, and half-hearted adminisiration of the statutory programs, rather than to any basic deficiencies in the programs themselves. Indeed, all of the maritime studies, except one-- the Inter- agency Meritime Task Force Report?seem to agree with that conclusion. in any hearings which our committee may hold on this subject, I intend to investigate se fully as possible the underlying reasons tor the persirtent and continual Administra- tive that has, ianforturintely, char- acterized our maritime programs_ Recently the thought has been advanced that the revclutionary ideas proposed by the present :Mt Mime Administrator have accom- plisned um very worthwhile and beneficial purpose- elf nothing else?they have caused the Ic fit; -try -7,o think. Obyk.raly, I must agree, as I iiixpect any- one would, that thought is giiod. Such platitud( a, however, do not alley my con- cern for those who would seek to deviate from or to destroy our basic maritime legis- lative pr,l.graM. Thougat without action in a commercial HEllistry is merely stultifying. Se are not attempting to develop a group of philoso- phers. A diagnosis without a cure or continuous aeliberation without a decision eventually will pro ince stagnation and pc-vent any progress. T am f earful that the present chaotic and frenzied state of affairs has produced harm- ful rather than beneficial results. Announced confusion over the administra.- tion of our maritime programs has created uncertainty. A prospect that domestic operators may be allowed to construct vessels abroad certainly discourages new construction by ,iuch opera- tors in domestic shipyards. The threat that our cargo preference laws may be repealed hinders new construction by operators of bulk carrier vessels. These vagaries in our own maritime pro- gram have impeded the development of the American merchant marine and have un- wittingly given encouragement tri the mer- chant marines of other nations. The Maritime Administrator keeps calling for something new?the miracle that will solve all of our problems. I see many new developments, especially in the area of nu- clear propulsion and containerization?but I see virtually no action by the AT:datum Ad- ministration. " Six years ago I introduced a bill, to en- courage the construction of nuclear merchant vessels, as the second phase of our nuclear ship program, but I have heard of little in- terest in this field by the Maritime Admin- istration. How new must something be to whet the whistle of those who chase the rainbow? Perhaps even nuclear propulsion is now too antedated for them and some more exotic technological change is sought. Let us return to reality. The United States has spent a lm-re amount of money to develop what is still the world's only Commercial nuclear vessel ..- the N.S. Savannah. That vessel is now outmoded, 15 we knew It soon would be. Yet the money has been wisely spent, ir we move ahead promptly in the second phase of our nuclear ship program which will be far less expensive than the first. If we do not move ahead, the substantial moneys that have been expended will have been wasted. I believe that we are now on the verge of a technological breakthrough, in the con- struction of nuclear propelled merchant vessels. Nuclear propulsion is n 1 longer a fanciful dream, or something that is not firm- ionic-ally feasible. We have the present ability ti cres to a fleet of large, fast, nuclear-pow red ships, which by their size, speed and ability to load and discharge, could, in a comparatively short time, dominate the point-to-point com- mon carrier movement of the world's com- merce. I believe that a program designed to pro- vide support for a minimum r umber of nuclear-propelled vessels must be com- mended immediately in American shipyards. There is at least one American-flag operator ready and willing to pursue such a progrern, and ham confident that others will follow. At the present time, the United States has a temporary advantage in the field of nuclear propulsion, but the real advantage will be ours, only if we capitalize on it. Eoreign operators are not emir ebered by the type of inertia that prevails in our time program and they will eventually move forward. The Germans are now building the Otto Hahn, a nuclear bulk carries, and the Japanese are contracting for a nuelear pro- pelled oceanographic vessel. The Russians have the Lcnin, a large nuclear icebreaker. These are the foreign equivalents of the NS Savannah, except, that at least in 0 of these foreign nuclear vessels already incorporate reactor designs that I am informed are superior to the Savannah. Ironically enough, these foreif a reactor designs were derived directly from our own maritime reactor program. If we are to maintain our lean in nniri- time nuclear power, and simultaneously to capitalize upon current developments in ocean transportation, we must make a deci- sion now?thinking about it is not enough. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For March 7, 1966 CON without a country to indulge in sneaky tricks. The crux of the matter is that Nkrumah condemned Prof. Kofi Abrefa Busia, one of the most brilliant Africans, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, our most able politician, and other Ghanaians to the same fate he faces now and does not like the idea in the least. He is, in effect, tasting his own medicine and feels the tang of the bitterness of it. What does Sekou Toure hope to achieve by acceding to such a preposterous idea and step down as President? This is obvious if the situation of Africa is known. Sekou Toure, like many other African lead- ers, is not secure in his own country. It is a fact which is well-guarded. His fear is to avoid the fate which befalls all ambitious people?overthrow; the fate which Nkrumah has suffered. Besides, Sekou Toure, Modibo Keita of Mali as well as many other African leaders, are not very sure of their footing in the world poli- tics without Nkrumah's guidance. (This is the reason for Nkrumah having little regard for their intelligence.) They follow in Nkrumah's footsteps like faithful dogs. Without Nkrumah to dictate and direct their affairs, they are like toddlers who do not understand the world about them and are therefore unable to decide things for them- selves. Sekou Toure wants Nkrumah .in power?. in Ghana, that is?to continue following him like the faithful dog he is. It is at once selfish and uninspired. If Sekou Toure fails?as he is bound to? in this strategy, what does he expect to do? Nothing much as far as can be seen. While desperation may force both Nkrumah and Sekou Toure to some rash action, war with Ghana has to be ruled out. Apart from the inferior equipment and ill-training of the Guinean Army as compared to that of Ghana, an army from Guinea will have to cross the Ivory Coast which divides the two countries. This is something too farfetched to be be- lieved since Nkrumah and Houphouet- Boigny, President of the Ivory Coast, never saw eye to eye. Besides, war is the last thing any African leader thinks about. What may not be ruled out is harrassment by Sekou Toure, Modibo Keita and Nyerere of Tanzania of the Ghana Revolutionary Council on international platforms. What the council needs therefore, is the quick rec- ognition due it from governments of the rest of the world?especially Western countries. This will stymie the attempts not only of Eastern countries but also of eastern-inspired and eastern-leaning countries which might want to involve themselves in the affairs of Ghana. We are rid of a dictator and tyrant. We are rid of a regime which took us from one form of oppression to another more oppres- sive, more cruel and more exploiting. We are rid of a regime which was filled with liars and self-aggrandizing neosocialists. The wish of every Ghanaian in these mo- ments is to see a new government comprised of young, intelligent, honest and sincere peo- ple who will bring to our people the happi- ness and prosperity to which they are rightly entitled. Our wish is to see a government devoted to removing the cancer of ignorance, disease and poverty which has riddled Africa for centuries and introduce the economic, polit- ical, and social possibilities which will make it possible for us to forge ahead in the world. And, by Jove, we are going to get it?in spite of the designs by other African leaders who seek to further their political ambitions at the expense of Ghana and Ghanians. se 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 SSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX A1217 The Insight of Carl T. Rowan EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GEORGE A. SMATHERS OF FLORIDA IN THE SENATE OF' THE UNITED STATES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, Carl T. Rowan is one of the newer nationally syndicated columnists now commenting on national and international affairs. In my judgment, he has demonstrated over the past few months that he has sound judgments and superior writing skills. His exposition of difficult prob- lems is always lucid, calm, and thought- ful. In my opinion, Mr. Rowan brings some special qualifications to the com- mentator's art because, unlike a num- ber of his contemporaries, Carl Rowan has rendered distinguished service to the Federal Government?as an ambassador and later as director of the U.S. Infor- mation Agency. In short, having seen government both as a journalist and as a public official, Mr. Rowan seems to be happily free from the "beast theory" of the conduct of public affairs and in my opinion writes about men and events in terms of actu- ality, rather than some vague or ima- gined conspiracy. I find his columns refreshing and al- ways interesting. I call attention to his column of March 4, 1966, which appeared in the Washington Evening Star, and ask unanimous consent that the column by Carl T. Rowan be inserted in the Appendix of the RECORD. There- being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE REASON HUMPHREY EXPLODED (By Carl T. Rowan) To understand the vigor of Vice President HUBERT HUMPHREY'S disagreement with Sen- ator ROBERT F. KENNEDY, Democrat, of New York, on Vietnam, you have to understand the nuances of what HUMPHREY was doing on his par East trip. HUMPHREY exploded when he heard of KENNEDY'S proposal that the United States promised the Vietcong a role in a future gov- ernment of South Vietnam because he felt KENNEDY had undercut the major achieve- ment of his journey. During the summit meeting in Honolulu, President Johnson had become concerned about the delicate political situation in Saigon. 4e had been impressed by argu- ments that the talk of negotiations had freightened some powerful forces in the south. There was some danger that the gov- ernment of Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky would collapse if it were not made clear that there was no scheme afoot to abandon South Vietnam to the Reds. SO HUMPHREY'S first job was simple?to convince leading South Vietnamese that the United States was not going to surrender the south to Hanoi?but that neither United States nor world opinion would permit Saigon to take the truculent attitude of op- posing negotiations. Hunarrumy left Saigon feeling that he had calmed South Vietnamese anxieties and con- vinced Saigon of the desirability of a peaceful settlement. Then, in New Zealand, he saw KENNEDY'S proposal for a coalition. "Oh, no," he reportedly exclaimed, "this will frighten the South Vietnamese to death." Without waiting for instructions from Washington, he denounced the idea of put- ting Communists in the Saigon government as like "putting a fox in a chicken coop." Back home, the Vice President has told in- timates that he wants to avoid a fight with KENNEDY "but I can't remain silent in the face of talk that is so stupid. No labor or- ganizer in his right mind would announce before negotiations what he was prepared to give up. It's like saying publicly that you don't really want a strong organization to represent the workers but you'd be satisfied with just a little company union." Johnson also is eager to avoid an open fight with KENNEDY, which is why so many people spent so many hours trying to gloss over KENNEDY'S initial break with the ad- ministration. But in private, top members of the Johnson team express their irritation with KENNEDY by asserting that he is "only after the head- lines." They point out that KENNEDY had access to the most sensitive intelligence informa- tion and knows that the Vietcong is simply the instrument through which Hanoi set out to conquer South Vietnam. Administration spokesmen show particular irritation when they ask, "Why didn't KEN- NEDY propose the coalition 3 years ago when he could have shared the responsibility for It?" As for other aspects of the Vice President's travels, I reported on January 7, after his early trip, that he had arranged for greater Asian involvement in the war?if the peace offensive failed. The Koreans have just an- nounced that 25,000 more troops are going to Vietnam. And Philippines President Ferdi- non E. Marcos, who a year ago opposed in- volvement of even a Filipino engineers unit in Vietnam, has disclosed that HUMPHREY convinced him he ought to send Filipino troops to South Vietnam. One of the most important and unpubli- cized achievements of the Vice President's recent mission was to arrange to keep chan- nels of communications open to Hanoi, Peiping, and Moscow. The war plans are being stepped up but the Vice President arranged that?through the Pakistanis to the Chinese, through the In- dians to the Russians, and through some delicate channels directly to Hanoi?the olive branch is to be constantly dangled. If a peaceful settlement of this wretched war is achieved, it very likely will be because of communications through these channels? but surely not because of any widely debated proposals and gestures on the American political scene. Changing Agriculture EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT DOLE OF KANSAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. DOLE. Mr. Speaker, at a time when nationwide, in fact worldwide, at- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP671300446R000400050004-9 AI218 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX March 7, 1966 ten Lion is focused upon assisting hungry nations, the outstanding editorial which appeared in the Kansas City Star just yesterday. March 6, is of particular in- terest. The editorial by Rod Turnbull, the Star's agricultural editor, discusses world food needs and the possible effect on domestic farm plans. As he states, 'Once a commitment has been made, it will be difficult to turn back." Mr. Turnbull is widely recognized for his knowledge of agriculture and, with- out question, one of the Nation's top agricultural editors. I believe everyone will agree his editorial is an exceptional one. Panw SuRFLUSES FALL AS A VICTIM OF DEMAND ItPee00r an executive of a wheaterower organization wrote to his members: "If some- one had said to me 2 years ago 'your excess supplies of wheat would be gone by July 1, 1966; I would have said, 'listen Bud, you have your bead in the clouds.' " 'ibis comment illustrates tam national sur- prise over the apparent disappearance of the U.S. farm surplus problem. No doubt it has crone as a surprise--if in fact we can say that the surpluses are gone. Actually, it does seem as if all at once au- thorities are speaking of our farm surpluses as something in the past and are referring to stockpiles as reserves, rather than prob- lems. Certainly this wasn't the attitude even less than a year ago, when the 1965 farm act was passed by Congress. The new law provided for still greater reductions in acreages to control production. Now, in contrast, the Department ol Agri- culture is ever so slightly loosening some of the reins on production in 1966. Also there are people who propose that this country had better hurriedly return to using its idle acres before we run into serious worldwide food problems. What happened? How could the change come so fest as between surplus piles and re- serves, or even shortages? it is'., long story, difficult to explain in all its details. But in the main, the big change that has come faster than most people antic- ipated her been in demand, both domestic aid worldwide, and in both the dollar mar- kets and our giveaway programs. A second major shift has been in attitude, perhaps induced by the rapidly expanding demand. Surpluses are not measured en- tirely in pounds or bushels alone, we are learning. Another factor is whether the public or the market regards a certain quan- ti ty as a surplus or a. reserve. leer any valid assessment of the current situation as to surpluses versus reserves, it should be kept in mind that this country has substantial stocks of grains on hand. Esti- mates are being made that as of July 1 this year the wheat surplus may be down to 600 million bushels. Tins would be the carry- over of wheat on hand as the new harvest began. incidentally, that 600-million figure is one often proposed as the amount this country always should have in reserve--it is approximately what we use annually at home for food and seed. 'the United States never had a carryover or 600 million bushels until 1940. This ISOUIlt was depleted during the war years and the total did not get back up to the 600- million figure again 'until 1953. We will also have more than a billion bushels in corn on hand next October 1. Again, the carryover f8 this feed grain never in all history reached a billion bushels until 1955. So we're not yet scratching the bottom of the barrel when it comes to supplies of these grains. That cir- cumstance, indeed, is one thing that has the administration worried. It fears that de- mand for increasing production will break tee dike again and bring about a return of surplus piles before an absolute outlet for all can be assured. the urplus piles, which have impressed themselms ?0 much upon the Nation, grew in the late 1950's. The decisive jump in carryover wheat stocks came after the huge 1958 crop of 1,457,435,000 bushels. Inciden- tally. the average per-acre yield that year was 27.5 buithels, a figure never achieved before nor since. The wheat carryover continued to grow urell 1961 when it peaked at 1,411 mil- lion bushels. As mentioned, predictions are that it will be at around 600 million bushels this Jule I. The feed emmr'. surplus likewise grew in the 1950's, reselling a top of 4,700.000 tons in 1961. IL is expected to be at ar tund 6 mil- li, in tons this next October. Strangely enough, while the feed grain yields were Large in the 1950's, they have been even huger in the 1960's, with alltime records set in 1965 on corn, eats, barley and grain sorghun The surpluses accumulated, obviously, be- cause production was greater than consump- tion. In turn, the surplus piles are growing smaller now for the simple reason that larger amounts of 'rhe grain are being consumed. The reasons why are impressioe and their development, which seems to have caught so many by surprise, is interesting The one word that describes tile situation still is demand. Demean has skyrocketed because of, among other things: Prosperity in the advanced nations of the world. Hugh needs in the less-advanced nations of the w arid. The rapidly increasing world population. On the opposite side of demand significant developments have included short wheat crops in both Australia and Argentina, tradi- tionally important exporting nations. Not to be overlooked is the shock that came to the world when the Soviet Union, a former exporter, had to buy wheat in huge quantities. iiirdareied against all the indications of in- creasing demand is the realization that the only major grain surplus-produeing area in the woied is North America-- the United States and Canada. All these factors together have changed attitudes in just what constitutes a surplus. In otIng words, a given quantity of wheat or corn dosen't appear so big or market- frightening as it did some year: ago. Now as For these forces that are skyrocket- ing demand. It will be observed that many are interrelated. First, world prosperity, which affects the United States and most of the other advanced nations. In this country the utilization of feed grains, 85 percent of which go I or livestock .end poultry feed, has been rising markedly since the middle 1950's. Both population growth and prosperity have con tributed to such expanding use. In the marketing year 1954-55, the United States required 89,700- 000 tons of feed grains to feed its livestock. This year art estimate is that the correspond- ing utilzation will be 119,100,000 tons. But even more dramatic--and greater in percentage--has been the increase of feed grain exports. Th.ey, too, began to rise in tIre middle 1.950's. The total in 195.1-55 was fj, million, tons. Without an exception there has been an increase each year since then. And in 1966 the total should reach an amusing 25 million tons. The major feed grain is corn. A 3-billion- bushel crop used to be considered a big one for the united States. All through the 1950's, when surpluses were building up, the corn crops were running above 3 billion and approaching 4 billion.. Our first 4-billion- bushel crop was harvested in 1963, Last year, an alltime record was set with 4,171 million bushels. The significant point Is that we apparently are going to use it all this year, domestically and in exports. The carryover next October 1 will be approxi- mately 1,200 million bushels, or just about the same as it was on the same date a year ago. A record crop, but no increase in surplus. More poultry, more livestock in Europe and Japan spell big business for U.S. .feed grain exporters. People in the countries are, as we say in the United States, eating higher on the hog. The first part of this year, for example, combined exports of grain sor- ghums and corn to Italy were up 70 percent over the same period in the previous year. Japan is the No. 1 importer of liL, corn and and soybeans and its take of these two grains was up 61) percent the first quarter of this year. Spain, West Germany, the Neth- erlands, and Belgium all are taking more and more. American salesmanship has some- thing to do with this boost in trade, j ut general prosperity can't be discounted Hardly anybody back in 1955 would have predicted totals in exports that are being experienced today. There were authorities at that time, however, who were contending. that the way to get rid of surpluses was to get out and sell them. The feed grain exports go mostly for dollars. It is a different story with wheat. But the effect on the surplus pile is the same. The United States has been sending more and more wheat abroad since 1955. Here poverty and famine in the world are dominating factors. In the current year the total may reach 900 million bushels. A major part of this will be under the Public Law 480 program, even though our dollar exports have been increasing also. Domestic consumption, plus exports, will require some 200 million more bushels of wheat than the United States raised last year. It will be observed from the foregoing data that the utilization of grain produced in this country took an appreciable upward trend in the middle 1950's which not only has continued to this day, but appears to be accelerating. At the same time we have had a farm program which has taken some 50 to 60 million acres out of production. This decrease must have had some effect on production, even when record yields were being experienced. Farmers in the Corn Belt, it has been estimated, have almost doubled their use of fertilizer since 1960. To whatever extent the farm program has checked total yields, it has helped, along with greater utilization, to reduce the surplus piles. Thus we find ourselves today with sur- pluses in smaller quantities than was the case a few years ago. Plus the fact that because of current and pending demand, a given quantity of surplus doesn't frighten us as much as before. With this new situa- tion in regard to surpluses, we face new decisions on how to proceed in agriculture. One major decision must be on how much we intend to commit to the hungry nations of tile world. The result will have its effect on all farm plans. Once a commitment has been made, it will be difficult to turn back. After deciding what we intend to supply to the hungry nations then, since we have a Government-planned agriculture, it will be up to the administration to determine what the production acreage should be and what reserves should be maintained. Thc assump- tion now is that acreage controls will be re- laxed to some extent, with possibly all re- strictions on plantings removed by 1975. The weather remains an unknown factor. We have experienced in recent years perhaps the best crop-growing period in recent his- tory. Suppose there is a trend the other way? It will take a master hand on the con- trols lever to determine just what acreage Is needed in the various crops which have been under Government guidance but which Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 ? GIM3DP679t9MN24000500041yarch 7, 1966 A1244 CONGRESSIONAL iltuu tt u find more nonessential areas in which to do it rather than take a chance on cut- ting down and into our wisest investment in the future of America, the encourage- ment of a healthy, well-nourished, whole- some, American youth, in the best edu- cational environment we can devise. Greek Lesson Applies to Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ABRAHAM J. MULTER OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. MULTER. Mr. Speaker, Seymour Freidin has pointed out in the following article from the February 26, 1966, edi- tion of the New York Herald Tribune that the situation we face in Vietnam today is directly analogous to that we faced in postwar Greece when the Truman doctrine saved that nation from certain Communist takeover. Mr. Freidin's article is very much to the point and I commend it to the at- tention of our colleagues: OITR GREEK LESSONS APPLY TO VIETNAM (By Seymour Freidin) SAIGON.?This is a war the Vietnamese must fight and win, with help, but none of the choleric critics and self-appointed peace- makers abroad really consider them. After 20 years of bloodletting and terror there is a pronounced battle fatigue. But the people of South Vietnam show no sign that they are ready to yield. Indeed, if they didn't have the will to persist, all Viet- nam. would by now have been in Communist hands. This fact has been ignored by the critics as they search for methods of bypassing the South Vietnamese. The determination to 'assure social re- form, the vast military operation?which confounds the Communists?and the proj- ects for pacifying South Vietnam are really just beginning. Their successful comple- tion requires time, stamina, and compre- hension. T.J.S. forces speak with assurance and ad- miration of the Vietnamese and the future of their country. The Americans here are quite a new breed from those we knew in World War IL They are, in the main, knowl- edgeable and compassionate. Moreover, they know why they are here. A realization, therefore, has grown rapid- ly that the nearest parallel to South Viet- nam in contemporary history is that of post- war Greece. There, Communist guerrillas included combat forces and highly organ- ized, tightly discipline political activists. Desperately poor, the country depended on its tough-willed but have-not rural popula- tion to power the economy. By the time the Truman. doctrine was promulgated nearly 20 years ago, the Greek Government was most unpopular and inept. Haying been short circuited immediately after the war by the direct role of Win- ston Churchill, Communist cadres cached Weapons and munitions. They had a huge frontier sanctuary across the Albanian, Yugo- slav, and Bulgar borders. Soon they were falling upon mountain villages, exacting bloody reprisals and exorting taxes and ran- som. Government forces were riddled with intrigue and bad leadership. The nation had avaricious politicians to match. When we came to Greece, after Britain bowed out due to exhausted resources, Com- munist guerrillas were at the gates of Athens. Our first move was to try and pour tangible aid into the country. ? Profiteering com- menced and corruption spread. Sound familiar? There were the critics of the "Truman intervention" who said Greece was too far gone and that we didn't belong there anyway. Gradually, the whole program was upgraded, emphasizing security and social reform. With the rejuvenation came a govern- mental and military shakeup. Marshal Papagos became the take-charge man for Greece. We sent in skilled officers, who worked down to the company level with a refitted Greek Army that went out to seek and destroy the guerrillas and their nation- wide network. In mid-civil war, Tito, having broken with Stalin, closed his borders to the Greek guerrillas, sealing their doom. But before that, assistance teams went out to the re- motest, most wretched hamlets and worked at reform, which the Communists always tried to prevent. The lamenters and the cynics declared that the Greek-American plan couldn't possibly work; that the Communists were riding the wave of revolution. Moreover, they worried, the Soviet Union could not stand by idly and see our presence so near. What happened in Greece is history. Lots of the same treatment?curing social in- justice and, above all, providing security? is on the way to Vietnam now. The Government has a chance under Nguyen Cao Ky. He is young and impatient but intelligent. Ky knows that the real battlefront is reform and development. To win takes time. The Vietnamese know it. So should we. Greece is our shining ex- ample. "Job Center To Be Reality" EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. SAM GIBBONS OF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. GIBBONS. Mr. Speaker, busi- nessmen the country over are taking an increasingly active role in the War on Poverty. As an example of this fact, I cite an article appearing in the Omaha, Nebr., Woild-Herald of February 20, dealing with the efforts of one Omaha businessman, J. 0. Grantham, director of long-range manpower planning for the Northern Natural Gas Co., to help secure a men's Job Corps center at the Lincoln, Nebr., Air Force Base. I commend this article to my col- leagues: JOB CENTER To BE REALITY?OIVLAHAN SAYS LINCOLN WILL GET APPROVAL The Omahan spearheading a drive to cre- ate a men's Job Corps center at the Lincoln Air Force Base said Saturday he is confident the center will be approved. J. 0. Grantham, director of long-range man power planning for the Northern Natu- ral Gas Co., said he hopes the remaining hurdles can be cleared Tuesday when two Federal Job Corps officials from Washington spend the day in Ornaha and Lincoln. Mr. Grantham said he feels the Federal Government no longer questions the capabil- ity of Northern and the University of Ne- braska to start and successful operate the center. But Federal officials aren't satisfied with the proposed educational program, he said, specifically in these areas: How the basic education of the corpsmen will fit into their vocational training. How their 24-hour living schedule will fit into the vocational training. How Northern and NU will train ,the staff to work with corpsmen, most of whom are school dropouts. How Northern and NU plan to improve the program as it goes along. If the Federal Government wasn't in- terested in creating the center, it wouldn't send Drs. Ray Keating and Chester Hall here Tuesday for further talks after days of dis- cussions in Washington last week, Mr. Grantham said. The Office of Economic Opportunity is proceeding slowly in creating new centers, he said. It has had time to evaluate weak- nesses in its first centers and is eliminating them before opening new ones, he said. Mr. Grantham said the proposed center, which would open next summer, has more potential significance to Nebraska than just Its economic impact on Lincoln. The number of top staff personnel it would attract and trained corpsmen it would produce could be a significant factor in attracting new industry to the State, he said. Jets Broaden Markets EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. FRANK HORTON OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ,Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. HORTON. Mr. Speaker, Marion Sadler, president of American Air- lines, addressed the Rotary Club of Rochester, N.Y., on March 1. In reporting this important talk, both the Rochester Times-Union and the Demo- crat and Chronicle emphasized the im- portance of direct air service in expand- ing domestic markets and developing for- eign markets. Particular emphasis was focused on the expanding markets in the Far East. The airline president told members of the Rotary Club that American, along with most other air carriers was receiv- ing a great many new jet aircraft, mak- ing it possible for American to improve service to Chicago, New York, and other cities. Mr. Speaker, because of its interest to my colleagues, especially those serving communities having similar industrial and commercial roles to those of Roch- ester, I am pleased to have Mr. Sadler's excellent speech published in the CON- GRESSIONAL RECORD: ROCHESTER AND THE SUPERSONIC AGE (By Marion Sadler, president, American Air- lines, Inc., before the Rotary Club, Roches- ter, N.Y., Mar. 1, 1966) I thank you for inviting me to be with you today. It is good to be in Rochester, and it is good to be at Rotary. For 5 years, I was an active member of Rotary in Buffalo, and my father was an early president of the Rotary Club in Clarks- ville, Tenn., soon after World War I. I sort of grew up with Rotary, and I regard it as a privilege to be able to break bread and talk with you Rochester Rotarians today. Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 March 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX Al nl for other policies where our leadership is still in dispute. The formula program has made agricul- tural research in the States most successfulo This is because it provided a continuity of research support and therefore made it pos- sible to keep highly qualified personnel. Genetic research such as you describe in your letter would have found less success if carried on with grant fonds rather than formula funds because of the long-term nature of the research. It is an example of research mains tained successfully by a station only be- cause of the confidence in the ability to fond long-term research. This confidence was based largely upon our history of formu- la binding. The continuing aspect of this program is a principal source of its strength. We feel that any attempt to trade formula funds for grant binds would be a violation at the original philosophy contained in the Hatch appropriation and would jeopardize he continuity which has made the Hatch program so effective. Turning to specifics defined in your letter, we are prompted to remind you of the long history of the Minnesota Experiment Station in water research, toxicoses, and our current heavy involvement in studies involving vari- IMS mycotoxins as they affect livestock and humans. This important work has been car- led on with the assistance of Hatch funds and, as you indicate, deserves continued at- tention and support. In addition, Minne- sota has had a long history of State support for plant protein research. We fear that a reduction in experiment station funds might shift priorities and threaten this vital and ongoing research. We are cognizant of increasing national In- 'west in the area of resource development. Worestry is obviously an important portion of this field of study. We feel it important that McIntire-Stennis funds be increased to now additional work in this area. While we recognizo that at a Federal level priorities can be addressed to agricultural re- search, we would hope that it be recognized that the same process operates at a State level. We would hope, too, that it would be apparent that the tradition of research in the State, the strengths of research staff, and the needs and desiras of the people of a specific State are strong directives in for- mulating these priorities. We like to feel that our 15- to 20-percent adjustment in pro- gram each year, arrived at in consultation with USDA, represents a diligent and respon- sible effort to address ourselves to tasks of aurrent importance. We hope that our concern for the proposed ants in USDA research expenditures has been made clear. Further, we hope that possible shifts in the method of deployment of these osuds will be reconsidered. We strongly urge that the serious concerns of this institution and our sister institutions throughout the country will prompt a restoration of a budget !;hat makes possible the research in State universities and colleges that is so obviously important to the health of the Nation. Sincerely yours, ) MEREDITH WILSON, President. g, ?I am sending a copy of this letter to Dean Sherwood 0. Berg, with the request that he provide you specific information re- eording the impact on University of Minne- ,ota programs. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, WaShington, D.C., January 26, 1966. President 0. MEREDrm Ws:Isom, iininersity of Minsesota, Sfinnaapolis, Minn. DEAR PRESIDENT WrisoN: This letter is to banner you about this Department's 1967 ;midget proposals. These include funds for support of research in the State agriculture oxperiment stations, cooperative State for- estry schools, and funds for project grants ad- ministered by the Cooperative State Research Service. We are asking for increased project grant funds to support research on problems of highest priority in States where such sup- port can be gotten most effectively. Specific areas for new research emphasis will include more efficient use of water, ways of elimi- nating food poisoning and toxin-producing organisms from our food supply and other issues of press mg importance. Increased support is proposed for ret, arch on plant proteins, including soybeans, to help expand markets and to contribute to world protein food needs. Some new funds are re- quested to accelerate research on the role of cooperatives in farm marketing systems Funds are included to continue project grant support for research to find ways of reducing the costs of prod uMng and market- ing cotton. This new reeearch will all contribu te to achieving the missions and goals that this Nation has set out. Of especial importance to one of these goals, about $1 million are requested for the first time to support research in the 16 former Negro land-grant colleges. They now have little research support from any source. They provide training for a rapidly increasing number of students, presently about 40.000. Provision of research support for their facul- ties is essential to their further growth in excellence. The research to be supported will be responsive to the needs of the rural communities from which their students come. Support for forestry research under the McIntire-Stennis Act complements that of the Forest Service. This new research pro- gram is off to a very good start. It will pro- vide a much-needed increase in the supply of trained research people for all our forest- related activities. It will speed the research results needed di the several States. Fends asked for this area of research are continued at the 1966 level, $2.5 million. We are deterrained to continue support to the research in the State agricultural experi- ment stations. We will continue to work with them to make that research even more productive, to further improve its quality, and to assure its concentration on research of highest prionty. The research at the State agricultural ex- periment stations which is supported by funds appropriated under the Hatch Act and by State appropriated funds continues to make outstanding contributions to the solu- tion of agriculture's problems. For example, is recent discovery has been made at the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station at Purdue. Genetic research there has devel- oped corn breecing lines and hybrids which are high In. protein. This discovery may be epochial not on..y for the feeding of pigs and poultry, but for people for whom corn is an important food, too. Adjustments proposed in the 1967 esti- mates will permit continuation of research on such urgent problems as pesticides for which the Congress provided special funds in 1965 and on other problems of high priority. We have always emphasized the neceesity for elimination of research of low priority. About 20 percent of all projects terminate each year. Many of these are replaced by projects in new areas. This year's budget proposals for fonds Ander the Hatch Act select this continuing policy by a proposed reduction of $1s5 million. This reduction amounts to only about 4 percent of funds from all sources available to the State agri- cultural experiment stations. While it will necessitate elimination of low-priority research, remaining funds and the new grant research funds can accelerate needed concentration on high-priority prob- lems. ? The long-range study of research needs now underway will more clearly identify areas of greatest urgency for future budgetary consideration. The administration is determined to sup- port research needed for economic growth and for human welfare. We will find within our current funds as much of that needed for research as we can. Pruning out low-priority research will make the new growth snore fruitful. Sincerely yours, Osivn,LE L. FREEMAN. The School Lunch and Special Milk Pro- grams Are Vital to the Continuing Good Health and Proper Education of Ameri- can Children EXTENSION OF REMARKS OP HON. HAROLD D. DONOHUE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. DONOHUE. Mr. Speaker, liko a good many colleagues here I am very deeply concerned about and very deeply and earnestly question the economic urgency and wisdom of the Administra- tion's request for apparent major reduc- tions in the appropriations for federally impacted areas and the school lunch and special milk programs that have, over these past several years, been so health- fully enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of American children. The President himself has said that, "a poor diet is a root cause of disease." I am sure that every American agrees with him in that statement. The school milk program is of vital im- portance for our school youngsters be- cause, according to all of the authorities, milk contains nutrients essential for good health. They further tell us that milk is a basic factor in building proper diet habits. And even further, we all know that a well-nourished child learns better than an undernourished child. The school officials themselves testify to us that the proposal to distribute the milk and limit the program on the basis of need is both impractical and unwork- able. Under this proposal it would seem that school administrators would be asked to separate the students whose parents have a low level of income from those who are assumed to be able to afford to buy the milk. This certainly appears to be inducing school officials to do something our schools are not set up to do and it is also quite likely to create an artificial barrier between and among the students. Mr. Speaker, in my opinion our school- lunch and milk program is basically and primarily a health program, not a welfare program. The savings projected in the proposed appropriation reductions are so small in comparison with some of our overly generous expenditures for projects ahd programs in other countries and other people all over the world that they appear unjustifiable on any normal, eco- nomic or practical standards. Whatever the need, and I think there is real need, to sensibly restrict Govern- ment expenditures, I would hope we can Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/97/13. lAti9P67A9M 982 0400050004Rarch 7, A1248 CONGRESSIOIN AL It:Ec W 1966 This is representative of several sim- ilar news articles that have appeared throughout the 19 counties in the Sev- enth Iowa District. It indicates a strong support by the farmers in our area of this program. I feel it is important to get this infor- mation before my colleagues so they will not be misled by uninformed news media. The article follows: SIX HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THREE SIGNED TJP FOR FEED GRAIN PLAN (By Donald H. Severin) A total of 633 farmers have signed up for the 1966 feed grain program. This com- pares favorably with last year so far. The signup by township in past years got about half the signers and 2 or 3 weeks before the deadline another 600 or 700 sign .up. The signup period this year ends on April 1. Many farmers have mentioned they like the feed grain program this year because it is more flexible. It is designed so farmers can plant whole fields of corn or divert whole fields. Last year farmers had to plant all of the permitted corn acres or take a reduc- tion in payment. This year farmers can sub- stitute soybeans fcr corn on all of the per- mitted corn acres. For example a farmer with a 100-acre corn base could divert 20 acres and grow 80 acres of soybeans with no reduction in feed grain payments. This year farmers can divert from 20 to 50 percent of the corn base. Since the pay- ment for diverting more than 20 percent is high many farmers have diverted more than 20 percent. For example, a farmer with a 100-acre corn base might have a 25-acre field to divert. This extra 5 acres above the first 20 percent would earn about $60 per acre. Farmers wanting more details can talk to a township committeeman or call at the ASCS office. Farmers have signed up for a number of ACP practices they plan to start this spring including tile, terraces, ponds, and wind- breaks. With the open winter, a number of farmers have already spread lime. For lime the payment is 50 percent of the cost or no more than $8 per acre. The field limed must be seeded down for two consecutive years. Several farmers have signed up for wind- break practice around farm buildings. Prob- ably due to the rather mild weather and little snow farmers haven't felt the need for a good windbreak around the farm. This practice has a good payment rate. The trees and shrubs must be ordered from a commercial nursery. Democracy: What It Means to Me EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JOE SKUBITZ OF KANSAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. SKUBITZ. Mr. Speaker, the voice of democracy contest sponsored by the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States and its ladies' auxiliary is one of the finest programs offered the youth of this Nation. I am especially proud that the win- ning speech from Kansas this year was delivered by one of my constitutents, Mr. Bill Ray Hutchison, of Chanute, Kans. Reading his oration reinforces my faith in the teenage generation of Amer- ica. We often read the headlines about the young anti-Vietnam demonstrators whose militant individualism leads to a general rejection of traditional morality. However, I am convinced these are a small minority who blacken the name of the dedicated, hardworking, clear- thinking majority. I suggest that anyone who has doubts as to the direction our younger gen- eration is headed should read this young man's speech. Listen to what he says about democracy and what it means to him; see how he feels to be an American. It may not make the headlines, but you can be sure it is a much truer re- flection of the pulse of young America than that you read in the morning paper. The speech follows: DEMOCRACY: WHAT IT MEANS TO ME (By Bill Ray Hutchison, Chanute, Kans.) A 17-year-old American girl brings honor to her country by her victories in Olympic swimming competition. An 18-year-old chemistry student gives the patent rights of his new process to the Government. An out- standing high school leader inspires the Na- tion by voicing his views of democracy. Freedom means a lot to these young people, and they dedicate their superior talents to make that freedom better because of their sacrifices. I feel that same desire to make America stronger, and I have a job to do in this democracy. I don't have a vote, so my part is to en- courage others to vote, both by words and by action. I am willing to give rides or baby- sit to allow others to vote. This is not being entirely selfless. After all, people are squan- dering my freedom, too, when they "take the liberty," as it were, to stay home on elec- tion day. I cannot live in my own one-man democracy, so I must encourage others to help preserve the freedom we live in. So even as a high school student. I have a place to fill in democracy to keep it alive and working. I am studying to gain an ap- preciation for my heritage, to learn of the Government's institutions and methods, to gain an understanding of my duties and privileges as a, citizen, and to become a pro- ductive member of our free society. In short, I am learning about the freedom I have. After all, I really don't have total freedom until I know all the things I am free to do. A football player who is not sure about all the rules severely limits his actions to avoid 'breaking a role. And he can't contribute much to the game, just as I can't contribute much to our democracy if I don't know all of its rules. Book-learning, however, is not enough by itself. The nature of democracy calls for action. I belong to the school service club, which builds character and serves the com- munity and Nation by its projects. I repre- sent a class of students on the student coun- cil, our own democratic system. In this position of trust, I work to change proce- dures or policies when they are not in line with democratic principles or when the change would benefit the group, for we pro- tect our democracy by using it fully. If we practice only following the directions of teachers and administrators, we cannot ex- pect to step out into the world ready to live in a democratic community. If our generation is to keep America strong and free, we must be willing to participate in our Government. Of course, everyone can't be in public office, but we all play a part in Government. That's what makes this a democracy. Each of our representa- tives in the governing body needs an indica- tion of his area's thinking. Letters from electors do not give an accurate concensus, because most Americans of this era seldom write their leaders unless they have definite feelings against an issue. Lord Bryce, in his "American Commonwealth," said Amer- icans were concerned when opposing a piece of legislation, but were, as he put it, "timid in advocacy as well as infantile in sugges- tion." " What we need in more consciousness of ' our freedom in our everyday lives. Democracy isn't limited to politics. Real freedom man- ifests itself, in for example, staying within even the unreasonable speed limit, dropping papers n a trash can instead of on the street, and choosing to put savings in Government bonds instead of a bank account. Then democracy begins to mean more. We begin to thank God for our America and pray for guidance for its leaders. We might join the organization, people-to-people, to make an- other friend for ourselves and our country through the mail. When the flag goes by in a parade, we will salute it and show every- one we are proud of our country. There are many ways of practicing our freedom if we will become aware of them. Our America can become the country whose leaders know what the electors want, a coun- try whose flag passes with the saluations of its proud and free people, a country whose citizens are vigorous in advocacy as well as aggressive in suggestion. Our generation will become the freest people in the world if we take another look at the freedom we ha Long, Hard Road in Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HERVEY G. MACHEN OF MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, March 2, 1966 Mr. MACHEN. Mr. Speaker, in a February 28 editorial the Baltimore Su* points out that President Johnson can help to keep the war in Vietnam in per- spective by reiterating what he said dur- ing a recent press conference that "now we will have a long and hard road," in Vietnam. The Sun editorial quotes the President to the effect that the war in Vietnam is not going to be easy or short; it is going to be difficult and it is going to require sacrifices. The Sun points out: A necessary part of this summing up is Mr. Johnson's emphasis on the point that the United States' objectives are limited? to defeat the act of aggression against South Vietnam, to search for an honorable and just peace and to try to establish a stable, demo- cratic government. In the conviction that others will find the Sun's lucid editorial a clarification of the issues facing us, I am offering it to the RECORD, where the article may be read in its entirety: LONG, HARD ROAD President Johnson can also help to keep the war in Vietnam in perspective, and he can expect firm and steady support from the American people, by reiterating what he said during his Saturday press conference: "Now we will have a long and hard road." As the President said further, it is not going to be easy or short; it is going to be difficult and it is going to require sacrifices. A necessary part of this summing up is Mr. Johnson's emphasis on the point that the U.S. objectives are limited?to defeat the act of aggression against South Viet- nam, to search for an honorable and just Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 March 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX Inequities of the Draft EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. F. BRADFORD MORSE MASSACHUSETTS EN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. MORSE. Mr. Speaker, there is a growing concern in the country about the efficiency and adequacy of our present system of obtaining necessary military manpower. We have seen too many ex- amples of inequities and inefficiencies; we have seen too many instances of poor planning and lack of priorities in our draft calls. Last week I was proud to join with a number of my Republican colleagues in pointing out some of the present short- comings and in calling for a thorough congressional investigation of the Selec- tive Service System. I am pleased that the House Armed Services Committee will give its attention to this subject within the near future. On Sunday, Martin F. Nolan, of the Boston Globe Washington bureau, sum- marized the recent comments on the draft and discussed a number of pro- posals that have been made for its im- provement. Under unanimous consent, I include his article in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD following my remarks: NEw FACTOR IN VIETNAM DEEATE: INEQUITIES TIIli DRAFT (By Martin F. Nolan) WassuNcToN.--Shortly after Gen. Matthew IS. Ridgeway took command of U.S. troops in Korea in 1951, he said: "In my brief period of command duty here I have heard from several sources, chiefly from the members of combat units, the questions 'Why are we II ere?' are we fighting fort" "The answer to the first question," Ridge- way said, "is conclusive because the loyalty we giVe, and expect, precludes any slightest questioning. "The second question is of much greater significance," he added. "The real issues are whether or not the power of Western civiliza- tion, as God has permitted it to Rower in our own beloved lands, shall defy and defeat communism." in Vietnam and over here, the same ques- tions are being asked today. 'a seems unlikely that Gen. William C. Westmorela.nd, however much he would agree wien Ridgeway's first answer, would adopt the apocalyptic view of the second. A changing American attitude toward the infallibility of American foreign policy, new appraisals of the supposedly monolithic menace of conspiratorial communism?many factors have changed the Nation's attitude toward its goals of war. None, however, nas been as profound or as symptomatic as the changing American atti- tude toward the military draft. Debate on the draft provides a curious counterpoint to debate on the war in Viet- natn. Sometimes the discussions coincide, sometimes not. In either case, the draft remains a key political issue, at least in living rooms where teenage sons reside. Nffit week, 30 Republican Congressmen? some liberal members of the Wednesday Club, some not so liberal?urged an investigation of the Nation's 25-year-old system of pro- curing military manpower. In doing so, they enraged neither hawks nor doves. One of the least-noticed comments of Sen- ator ROBERT F. KENNEDY in his celebrated February 19 statement on Vietnam was his reference to inequities in the draft. "The war perpetuates discrimination," KENNEDY said, "for the :poor and the less for- tunate serve in Vietnam out of all proportion to their numbers in the United States as a whole." Negroes, who comprise about 10 percent of the Nation's ??opulation, provide 14 percent of the Army's total manpower, according to Pentagon statistics. But Negroes make up but 3.5 percent of the Army's officers. Self-evident flaws anti subtle ones, glaring Injustices and petty mistakes?Lt. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey dismisses them all with charac- teristic bluntness: "Absolute equity has never been attained." The father of the draft, its custodian and most vigorous de- fender, thus hurls an implicit challenge at his critics: to something better. One at them has. John U. Monro, dean of Harvard College, suggests a national lottery to choose draftees. Dean Monro sees I tick as a more suitable standard for his students than the present Selective Service plan of making the bottom half of freshman stu- dents available for the draft. The lottery- has all the statistical logic of and automobile accident. But its prestigous sponsorship alone will bring discussion of the draft into clearer focus, as well as pro- vide a clear-ever view of the war in Vietnam. A lottery does not ask the question: Which is more iimiortant, education or war? A lottery is indiscriminate, but so is the war. The Selective Service System, in Beer Rabbit fashion, has been hitting away at that tar baby mass of fluctuating needs, standards and deferments until it has become hope- lessly entangled. The analogy of American involvement in Vietnam to the moral of this Uncle Remus tale is clear. General Hershey, who has not gone out of his way to please professors, may find his academie adnersaries more formidaWe now than every before. During the Koren war domestic hysteria made professors suspect; no billboards proclaimed then that; "College Is America's Best Friend." Now, they do and it is. The drafting of college students may have an ultimate knelt of curing this problem of civilian morale and fitting conscription?as well as its cause --into the philosophy (.4 mod- ern Ameriea. Serious thought on the legal and moral aspects of the draft can do noth- ing but good. The resources of Academe, never really used on behalf of selective service before, may help the draft law live up to its claim that "in a free society the Obligations and priv- ileges of serving in the Armed Forces and the Reserve components thereof. should be shared generally:' Legal Help Is Poverty Item EXTENSION OF REMARKS PION. SAM GIBBONS CF FLORIDA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATI VES Moisday, March 7, 1966 Mr. GIBBONS. Mr. Speaker, we con- tinue to read and hear a ;?;reat deal about legal help for the Nation's poor. I noticed ah interesting story in the Escanaba Daily Press, Escanaba, Mich., of January 31 describing some action taken by the Community Action Com- mittee of the Michigan State Bar Asso- ciation to help provide such services. I commend it to my colleagues: 41247 ? LEGAL HELP Is POVERTY ITEM When the community action committee of the Star bar met in Lansing recently to consider a pilot project for providing legal services to the rural indigent, six of the seven members of the committee were urban lawyers and Walter T. Hartland of Houghton was the sole attorney from a rural area. According to Hartland, the program would cover education on legal services to the rural indigent and provision for legal consultation and representation. To date, especially in the Houghton- Barage-Keweenaw area, the means of provid- ing legal services to the rural poor has not been developed past the level of largely gratuitous services by private attorneys act- ing voluntarily through the Copper Country Bar Association. This results, Hartland said, in a sporadic contact between the poor and the lawyer which results in an insufficient use by the rural poor of the services of an attorney. An initial hypothesis of the project, is that such services can be provided best by pri- vately practicing attorneys within the com- munity. It is based upon such factors as the knowledge of such attorneys of the rural community, the position they hold in the community, their geographic availability to the rural resident and their ability to resolve problems of the rural poor within the rural community. It is expected that the Michigan Bar As- sociation would propose that one attorney be assigned to the Upper Peninsula through UPCAP. His responsibility would be to co- ordinate, educate, and develop the program through the six functioning community ac- tion agencies. Each CAA would in turn re- quest one legal social worker who would work in conjunction with the area representativ-es. Referrals would be made by the legal social worker to local attorneys who would be re- imbursed for their services using the State bar minimum schedule and billing through UPCAP. Research and evaluation of means of pro- viding timely representation in misdemeanor cases will be conducted and various methods attempted to provide representation. Also included in this study will be a bail project for the purpose of obtaining release on per- sonal bond for indigent defendants. Six Hundred and Thirty-three Signed Up for Feed Grain Plan EXTENSION OF REMARKS (IF HON. JOHN R. HANSEN OF IOWA Monday, February 28, 1966 Mr. HANSEN of Iowa. Mr. Speaker, there has been a clamor in the eastern press recently about a lack of enthusiasm in the Midwest for the 1966 feed grain program. This misinterpretation of the situation in my area needs to be corrected so that it will not damage the excellent program passed by Congress last year. The tardiness of farmers to sign up for this year's program has nothing to do with a lack of support. A recent story in the Carroll Daily Times Herald by Donald H. Severin, manager of the Car- roll County ASCS office, indicates that the number of farmers signing up for the 1966 program compares quite favorably with the number signed up at this time In 1965. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Mar-ch 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX A1249 peace, and to try to establish a stable, demo- cratic government, This, as he said, will take time. If we look back for a moment, we can see that one of the worst errors in our policy in Vietnam has been the all too frequent out- burst of easy optimism that has been shat- tered by subsequent developments. State Department reporters can remember a brief- ing, some 12 years ago, in which it was pre- dicted that with increasing help from the United States the French soon would be able to put down the Vietminh. Not long there- after the ,series of setbacks began which led to the defeat at Dienbienphu and the French withdrawal. In the years since, each measure of increas- ing involvement by the United States has usually been accompanied by forecasts of early success. It is small wonder that our words have been questioned. Now, at last, our policy is beginning to show signs of for- ward movement. The Senate debate has pointed up the inadequacy of quick or inex- pensive solutions. Emphasis on our willing- ness to follow a long, hard road is an essential step toward a settlement?so essential that it bears repeating many times. The Traditional American; Probate Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom of Worcester, Mass. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. HAROLD D. DONOHUE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 7, 1966 Mr. DONOHUE. Mr. Speaker, on Sunday, February 27, last, with an ap- propriate ceremony in the Beth Israel Synagogue Hall at Worcester, Mass., Worcester County Probate Court Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom, became the fourth recipient of the Beth Israel Brother- hood's Good Neighbor Award for his "betterment of understanding among men of all faiths." Several hundred men and women from the city's major faiths gathered in the congregation's social hall to honor Judge Wahlstrom who was chosen for this par- ticular distinction by a committee made up of the past recipients, A. Alfred Mar- cello, day city editor of the Worcester Telegram, 1963; Very Rev. Armand H. Desautels, A.A., 1964, then president of Assumption College and now provincial superior of the Assumptionist Fathers in North America; and Rev. Kenneth E. Bath, minister of Greendale People's Community Church, 1965. A unique silver bowl signifying the Good Neighbor Award was presented to Judge Wahlstrom by Melvin Merten of the brotherhood. Multitudinous past distinctions have been bestowed upon Judge Wahlstrom in recognition of his most unselfish and effective civic leadership and only last November he was specially honored at a great public testimonial upon the com- pletion of 25 years as probate judge in our area. He is a graduate of Worcester, Mass., Commerce High School; Clark University in Worcester; and Boston University Law School. Also, he is an acknowledged ex- pert on Lincoln lore, a director of col- leges, businesses and associations, and an honorary 33d degree Scottish Rite Mason. Mr. Speaker, it was my special pleasure and privilege to sum up the tributes to Judge Wahlstrom that were given by various city officials, educational direc- tors, prominent judges, and spiritual leaders on this occasion. I emphasized that in the torturous pursuit of solutions for the tremendous problems plaguing ourselves and the world today it is imperative, if we are to be successful, for all of us to per- severingly follow the inspiring example of the life and conduct of Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom so truly representative of the traditional American virtues upon which this country was founded and only upon which it can endure and will prevail. The text of my summation follows: SPEECH OF CONGRESSMAN HAROLD D. DONOHUE AT BETH ISRAEL ANNUAL GOOD NEIGHBOR AWARD TO JUDGE CARL WAHLSTROM, BETH ISRAEL SYNAGOGUE, FEBRUARY 27, 1966 Rabbi Kazis, other members of the clergy, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen of Beth Israel Congregation, it is a par- ticular pleasure for me to take part in this well-deserved public tribute to my dear friend and our good neighbor, Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom. On the basis of distinguished judicial stewardship alone, Judge Wahlstrom pre- eminently merits the special honor you are conferring upon him this morning. In his court, the probate court, legal issues and disputes embrace the most intimate ac- tions and vital interests of human beings at their best and at their worst. Their settlement demands the most searching analysis and the most equitable judgment. To successfully preside over and decide upon these most stirring judicial challenges very truly requires possession of the per- sistence of Diogenes, the patience of Job, and the wisdom of Solomon; yes, requiring the exercise of the fullest understanding, the deepest compassion, the utmost tolerance, and the kindliest firmness. Judge Wahlstrom possesses these rare qualities and that is Why he is an excep- tional judge. Judge Wahlstrom applies these attributes in all his actions and that is why he is an extraordinary person. Together with his acclaimed leadership in multitudinous community objectives, at great sacrifice, it is the practice of these com- bined virtues in all his daily associations that makes Judge Wahlstrom our good neighbor. Perhaps not too many know that he was a student leader and outstanding athlete at Clark University in his college days and served his country as an infantry lieutenant in World War I. Judge Wahlstrom's career reveals a prime example of the full, wholesome, balanced life. Besides all this, he is an outstanding scholar and is recognized as one of the Na- tion's authorities on the life and works of our revered 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is significantly indicative of the charac- ter and disposition of our honored guest that he would be so vitally interested in the life of one of the greatest men of our history whose stalwart qualities and attributes are so well mirrored in his own personal and professional career. Judge Wahlstrom's distinction in connec- tion with this great American patriot prompts the reflection that perhaps we might suitably and profitably dwell, this morning, on a comparison of the problems that con- fronted President Lincoln and the country with the crucial challenges facing us in this nuclear age. Of course, our problems today are tech- nically different and our challenges are now expanded beyond and above the horizon. But there is a similar height of urgency In our affairs today. We are at a similar crossroad of our destiny, a destiny involving the world's future. The various problems bedeviling us today comprise a lengthy and fulsome list. Their broad recitation would include such soul- searching questions as: How shall we exercise our traditional right to differ while we carry out our patriotic obligation of unity in purpose? How can we effectuate the guarantees of Civil rights while we fulfill our duty of civil obedience? How shall we apply the restraint of recommended guidelines without suffocating the fruitful energy of personal effort and private enterprise? How shall we extend our spending while we contain inflation? How shall we share in the privations of our servicemen fighting overseas while we enjoy the extravagances of domestic plenty? And finally?How can we negotiate an end of agonizing war without yielding to dis- honorable peace terms? These are a few of what we might term the umbrella challenges, It would take a hundred mornings and a hundred nights to itemize all the problems that would come under them. And although I receive in my daily mail about 50 earnest and thoughtful suggestions for their settle- ment, I don't think anyone yet possesses the full answer to each different problem. It is my opinion the proper answers and full solutions will have to come out of a nationally unified character and-atmosphere of moral responsibility, patriotic sacrifice, and dedicated unselfishness that was urged by the voice, and personified in the life and death of Abraham Lincoln. In this country today we have the great wealth and the highest standard of living of any people in the history of the earth and there is even mare in sight on the nu- clear energy horizon ahead. If Lincoln were alive we fear that he would have to question the existence of that moral character and atmosphere in our country to- day. We fear Lincoln would join with many authorities today who express the deepest doubts that proper solutions to our problems will not be found until substantial turn- about changes are made in a great many cur- rent attitudes and practices that seem to be corrupting the core of our modern society. But, as we look about us today, I think you might agree there are far too many re- gettable signs of widespread immorality in conduct, indifference to recognized ethical standards, defiance of legitimate authority, disrespect for hallowed traditions, disregard of our historical ideals, and even some thoughtless ridicule of the heroic sacrifices of our servicemen abroad. These unhappy signs of dangerous weak- nesses in our prosperous society emphasize the wisdom of the warning advice contained In the question President Lincoln asked of the people during a speech in Illinois back in 1858. This was his question?"What constitutes the bulwark of our own liberty and inde- pendence? It is not our frowning battle- ments, our bristling sea coasts, our Army, and our Navy. These are not our reliance against tyranny. All of those may be turned against us without making us weaker for the struggle. Our reliance is in the love of liberty which God has planted in us. Our defense is in the spirit which prized liberty as the heritage of all men, in all lands every- where. Destroy this spirit and you have planted the seeds of despotism at your own doors." Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 ..250 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPEN It would appear that this question by i'resident f.ineoln is even more pertinent to our affairs today than it WM back in 1858. t;o't it; the strengths of this traditional 1301 I el and American spirit that we must help to place bark into the hearts and minds of II Americans and into the basic structure if mix national character if we are to find surviving situ tins to the problems of our- selves and the world? a few da ya ago, as I thought of this meet- ing this morning, I recalled a story of the itder and of the little boy who wanted to be. doing something. The fatner was stretched out in his easy oils jr after a day's work to read his news- paper before dinner. He was interrupted by ilie normal iiomplaint of children about hav- ing nothing to do?S0 he assigned a minor household chore to the youngster.. Li no time the boy was back for another OSIS?gninen r]. This was repeated several times anci finaily his father, in desperation, picked pp a map of 1.11e United States from a table beside his chair, tore it into many dozens of pieces, and said: "Here, son, take this and out the country back together again." 'the boy happily went to work on the homemade jigsaw puzzle. His father again mottled back with the newspaper?but be- fore he had read as far as the sports page the child tugged at his arm and proudly oointed to a perfectly put together United ilia Les of A En er iCa Pleased arid Junazed by the lad's knowledge of geography and his speed in applying it, the father said: "That's really wonderful. tint how did von dolt?" remeninered," the boy explained, "that on the back side of that map was a picture of a man. And I figured that if I just put man together right, the country would come 'int in. pretty good shape." Don't you think it is about time for you and for me and for each American to start patting ourselves to right and the country back in good shape? Isn't it high time for us to get to work to restore proper reverence of our churches, decency in tannic conduct, ethical, standards in business, recognized discipline its educa- tional institutions, obedience to our laws, acceptance of parental authority in the home and a mature, moral example for the proper encouragement of our youth? Aad while we proceed with the develop- ment of a (treat Society let us wisely insure the construction of a, good society. Tnis. I think. was what President Lineoln was urging when, speaking in Milwaukee, on SepLember In, 1859, he said: "Let us hope USD I. by the best cultivation of the physical world beneath and. around us, and the best intellectual and moral world within us, we rmlsali secure an individual, social, and polit- ical prosperity, and hapiness whose course shall be onward and upward and which, while the earth endures, shall not pass Above all, then, let us remember the true mission of all mankind is not for nations to war with each other unto death but to live with, each, other in a brotherhood of good will and under a peace of honor forever last- ing. That, I believe, is the true significance and the true meaning of our meeting and ceremony here this morning in this hall, adjacent to your temple of prayer. That is the true worth of Carl Wahlstrom's contribution of virtues and talents as a good. man and a good neighbor. That, I think, is the true value of your exercise here this morning, in the encourage- merit of fellow citizens to emulate the, example of a good neighbor, for the better- ment of their community, for the progress of their country, and for the peace of the world. If then, we and our fellow Americans will unite in our faiths and, consolidate our moral spirits in patriotic sacrifice to preserve our liberty arid repel tyranny I am supremely confident we will not just survive?we will prevail. Statement on Electoral College ----- PIXTENSION OF REMA' ?ICS HON. BERT BANDSTRA OE IOWA IN THE ROUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, February 22, 1966 Mr. BANDSTRA. Mr. Spealzer, today I testified on the subject of "Electoral College Reform" before the Su!,,commit- tee on Constitutional Amendments of the Senate Committee on the judiciary. On twp occasions, first on February 1, 1905, and again an January 20, 1966, President ,Johnson urged the Congress to approve a constitutional amendment abolishir g the electoral college. The draft of a proposed electoral re- form amendment, which the President sent to the Congress last year, has been introduced in the Senate as Senate Joint Resolution 53 and in the House of Rep- resentatives as House Joint Resolution 278. The Senate subcommittee began hear- ings a week ago but, as it happens, I was the first witness to testify in support of the basic approach to electrol college re- form as incorporated in the President's proposal. In moat respects, I think this proposal is a sound a:nd kealistic one. However, as I pointed out in my prepared state- ment to the Senate subcommittee, I feel that there is room for improvement. Since electoral college reforin should be a mat`,er ef great concern, n> it only to the Congress but to all Americans, I am including the text of my prepared state- ment in the Rucosu: STATEIVIEN' ON ELECTORAL COLLEGE, BY BERT BASSI-1.9711A, U.S. REPRESENTATIVE F1I0M IOWA; STTEMIT7 ED MARCH 7, 1966, To SUBCOM- MITTEE ON CONSTTTUTIONAL AIVLOSDMENTG, COMMITTEE ON THE .ItTGICIARY, U S. SENATE Mr. Chairman., members of the su.bcom. mittee, I am here today -to express my con- viction that a constitutional amendment is urgently r.eeded to abolish the electoral col- lege and to further modernize our presiden- tial and vice-presidential election process. I am also appearing to place myself on record In support of the basic approach to electoral reform as Incorporated in Senate Joint Reso- lution 58 and, at the same time. 1.0 suggest some possible improvements to this proposal, The electoral college, in my view, is a seri- ous threat to orderly and democratic govern- ment. This opinion is based in part on per- sonal experience. Nearly 2 years ago, I served as a presidential elector for my home State of Iowa and, in that capacity, I had the snore or less anonymous distinction of being one of the 538 citizens who in 1964 actually cast ballots for the President and Vice Pres- ident of the United States. Having partici- pated myself in the workings of the electoral college, I can say with some authority that the institution is not only useless but dan- gerous. I have also given some close study to the way in which the electoral college system has operated in the past, and this has further convinced me that our Constitution today contains serious defects which could at some future date turn a presidential elec- tion into a national calamity. DIX March 7, 'I 9 6* Consequently, I am hopeful that this ses- sion of the Congress will approve and send to the States for ratification a constitutional amendment to remove the long-existing flaws in our presidential and vice-presiden- tial election process. My feeling is that such an amendment should be confined to making limited reforms, as is the case wit Ii Senate Joint Resolution 58, and that efforts to fundamentally alter the baste operation of our electoral system should, for the time being at least, be put to one side. An amendment aimed at limited reform would, I think, be most beneficial if it were drafted so as to (1) abolish the electoral college and automatically award a State's total electoral vote to the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who carry the State and (2) re- duce to the very minimum the chances of a presidential election being thrown into the House of Representatives, as now provided by the Constitution, or into a joint i'ession of the Congress, as proposed by Senate Joint Resolution 58. The electoral college and 'the contingent election, as the provision for choosing the President in the House is often called, are 'the two major defects in the Constitution as it relates to the selection of the Chief Execu- tive. Both these flaws can be removed by an amendment which would in no way en- danger our present two-party sysaem, and which would simply give the constitutional seal of approval to our presidential election process as it is expected to operate today. And I firmly believe a limited reform amend- ment of this sort is critically needed in order to place our constitutional provisions for the presidential election on a secure and demo- cratic footing. Accordingly, last year I in- troduced such a proposed amendment, House Joint Resolution 327, in the House of Repre- sentatives. Since then, in order to make two technical but necessary revisions, I have re- introduced it in the form of House Joint Resolution 819. This proposal, in agreement with Senate Joint Resolution 58 would make no sweeping changes in our presidential election system. By contrast other approaches to the electoral college problem would make fundamental, and perhaps even revolutionary, changes in our existing election process. These alter- native proposals, of which there are basically three, are all aimed at abolishing the gen- eral ticket system, under which a State awards all its electoral votes to the presiden- tial and vice-presidential candidates who carry the State. There is, to begin with, the proposal for the direct popular election of the President, thereby eliminating the electoral college, electoral votes, and States lines as voting factors. This plan has the merit of insur- ing that the candidate with the most pop- ular votes will automatically become Presi- dent. It is, in fact, the only proposal that would do so. However, the blunt truth is that this proposal, whatever its virtues, has almost no chance of adoption. Electoral votes, as the Constitution has always pro- vided, are awarded to States on the basis of their representation in both the House and the Senate. Thus, no matter how small a state's population, it is assured of at least three electoral votes. And it is hardly likely that the smaller States would ratify an amendment abolishing a voting system weighted in their favor. Secondly, there is the district system pro- posal. Under this, the electoral college would be retained, but with the express re- quirement that electors credited to a State on the basis of its representation in the House be elected from single-member dis- tricts. Another two electors, like U.S. Sen- ators, would be chosen in a statewide vote. One drawback to this proposal is that it would open the door to possible gerryman- dering of electoral districts. It would also divide the Nation into 481 separate presi- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP671300446R000400050004-9 March 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ? APPENDIX A1269 200 miles out from shore. Besides, it is not just coastal overfishing that threatens the sportsmen. The pelagic fish he most esteems are far-ranging wanderers, and it matters not a whit whether they are destroyed 5 miles out or 500. Since no practical means of controlling the long-liners has yet been devised, or even proposed, a few frustrated sport fishermen have been taking matters into their own hands. Long-line sets have been destroyed In the Atlantic. Off Adapulco, sport fisher- men, persistently wreaking havoc on long- lines off their coast, forced one Japanese ves- sel to abandon the area as too expensive. U.S. sport-fishing boats sailing off the shores of Baja California play a game called "ocean skeet." They shatter the long-liners' glass buoys with shotguns. The damage inflicted by such means is, of course, a mere nuisance and will have little or no effect on tht enormous enterprise that long-lining has become. But when a Japa- nese long-liner ran aground last September on the southernmost tip of Baja California gleeful Mexican fishermen indulged in soul- satisfying fantasies to account for the wreck and take credit for it. The 350-ton vessel crashed onto a reef at about 2 a.m. The 18 men aboard all got ashore safely. Some commercial and sport fishermen went aboard and found the boat equipped with the very latest in navigational and fish-finding equipment, from radar to sonar. Stacked in her freezer locker below decks were an estimated 140 tons of tuna, 40 tons of marlin and an unknown quantity of shark meat, in addition to dolphin, wahoo and sailfish. How to account for the wreck? The Mexi- cans wink and tell any of a number of sto- ries: 1. Mexican fishermen turned off the light In the lighthouse. (Ah, but with all that electronic gear a modern vessel does not bother with lighthouses.) 2. They turned off the light and set up another light atop a high cliff to lead the Japanese astray. (But the radar would have indicated the huge land mass?cliffs several hundred feet high on the beach?behind the Judas light.) 3. Long-line sets are equipped with tran- sistorized homing buoys that send out a signal to guide the fishing boat to where the sets have drifted. The Mexicans took one such buoy and put it on the beach. (This one is more ingenious than plausible. The Japanese navigational gear again would have foiled the plot.) What hope is there, since even the wishful cleverness of Mexican wreckers is no match for the vast Japanese fleet. One theory, not very attractive, is that overflshing will solve Itself. "In some ways long-lining may be con- sidered self-limiting," says Frank J. Mather III, associate scientist at Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution and himself a sport fish- erman. "When the catch declines enough it becomes unprofitable. I think there is cause for concern but don't know what can be done. Agreement among all the nations involved would be very difficult." "We know the extest of long-lining," Mather says, "but we have no idea of the size of fish populations." Such knowledge would be essential to the establishment of meaningful international controls, but it simply is not there to be laid on the bar- gaining table. There is unanimity among marine scien- tists that research is a sine qua non of in- ternational controls. "We are getting more and more letters from Congressmen inquiring about long- lining," says Albert H. Swartz, assistant chief of the Division of Fishery Research of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. "Some people are advocating an extensive re- search program. Others are talking about an international convention?but there are no facts to bring to it. A research program would take about 5 years before we could go to the Japanese regarding conservation measures." Swartz made a point that sport fishermen and their associations might consider. "Until now," he said, "international con- ventions have always been on food fish. The sport fishery has never been represented. Now sport fishing should be represented. The International Game Fishing Association should have a voice." It should indeed. And so should Ml sport fishermen, organized or unorganized, who know the names and addresses of their Con- gressmen, who, in turn, might well be per- suaded to initiate preliminary negotiations with the Japanese while a crash research pro- gram is underway. The extent of this crisis cannot wait for precise scientific determina- tion. The commonsense evidence is plentiful now. At this juncture the need for con- trols is clear. In the long run, controls need not deprive the Japanese of their protein supply. They could, in fact, preserve it. Edward W. Allen recently was chairman of an international meeting which sought, unsuccessfully, to institute new controls on fishing in the North Pacific. Though he spoke in another context, in a statement to the conference he may have suggested the theme for a preliminary meeting of world sport fishing associations and the leading fishing nations. He put it this way: "Ocean fisheries should not be deemed to exist merely for the benefit of [commercial] fishermen and cannery operators, but should be considered to be a great trust for the ben- efit of humanity." Southeast Asia EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. DONALD J. IRWIN OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday, February 23, 1966 Mr. IRWIN. Mr. Speaker, a day does not pass but that I receive mall from people in my district who are concerned about the war in Vietnam. By far, most of it expresses firm support for Presi- dent Johnson and the policies the ad- ministration are following in southeast Asia. A few days ago my mail included a letter from a close personal friend not in my district but in Thailand, where the Government is already faced with the all too familiar tactics of Commu- nist aggression in its northern Prov- inces. His letter, a portion of which I have , unanimous consent to include at this point in the RECORD, is illuminating. It is the result of careful observation and evaluation by a man who is living and working in southeast Asia. Along with his letter, he sent a copy of a letter writ- ten to the editor of the Bangkok Post by a group of American scholars who are specialists in Asian affairs. It too is an illuminating commentary and I insert it, too, in the RECORD at this point. The letters follow: DEAR DON: It Was very good hearing from you. My faith in the American political process is always made stronger by the knowledge that such people as yourself are representing the American public. I like to think that in a private capacity, I am making a contribution to a better life for a small segment of Asia in a socially stable but progressive context. The work is reward- ing?if exhausting?I travel a great deal, particularly to Laos. I am still the "last of the New Deal Democrats" domestically, Don, but I am perturbed that the liberal Democrat is becoming identified with the Lippman- Morganthau-Fulbright position. I feel it is essential to pursue the objective of peaceful negotiations to the best of our ability. I also feel that the ultimate battle for Vietnam will be won by achieving a social revolution that entails such things as land reform, local democracy, community development pro- graming, etc. At the same time, however, it seems to me absolutely essential to stand fast in military terms while pursuing the other objectives noted above. We must not allow the Com- munists to feel that their "wars of libera- tion" subversion and infiltration doctrines will prevail and represent the wave of the future. The Communist goals are outlined plainly and their objectives and methods are stated boldly. They believe their hegemony will hold sway over all Asia and by ideological imperative of their doctrine wars of aggres- sion and infiltration are justified. We can- not abandon Asia to such a doctrine either in our interests or in the interests of the free Asian nations. The domino theory has an element of truth. The pressures on Laos and conse- quently on Thailand will be overpowering if the Vietcong and Hanoi and Peiping gain control over South Vietnam through their aggression. There is no doubt the subversion In northeast Thailand is directed by and sup- ported by personnel trained in Commu- nist-controlled areas outside of Thailand. This is clear and certain and if our resolve is weakened and our position compromised in Vietnam, such subversion and infiltration will be increased and the resolve of the Thais and others to combat such subversion will be weakened. I am enclosing a letter for the editor written to the Bangkok Post by eminent and respected scholars in the field of Asian studies. You may have already seen this letter. I know most of the signatories per- sonally. They have all traveled widely in Asia and have an intimate knowledge of Asia, of Communist objectives, of the Vietnam sit- uation. Their views are sound and well reasoned. I agree with their conclusions. If this statement has not already appeared in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?it should. Please forgive me for rambling on. We who are working in the field are involved and committed to seeing a better world created in Asia. I hope it will be achieved. But it will not be easy. [From the Bangkok Post, Jan. 29, 19661 U.S. GROTJP SUPPORTS VIETNAM WAR To the EDITOR: We, the undersigned, write as scholars and specialists most of whom have devoted much of their adult lives to study and work in south and east Asian affairs. Included in our number are most of this Nation's small nucleus of specialists on Vietnam. Many of us have lived in Vietnam itself. . We feel compelled to write in response to what we consider the distortions of fact and the emotional allegations of a small but viciferous group of fellow university teachers regarding the war in Vietnam. We must first observe that those who have signed ad- vertisements and petitions represent a very small proportion of all university professors. Further the petition signers include dispro- portionally fewer schools in the fields of gov- ernment, international relations, and Asian studies. To our knowledge, no acknowledged expert on Vietnam itself has signed the ad- vertisements appearing in the New York Times protesting U.S. policy in Vietnam. A Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67600446R000400050004-9 A1270 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-- APPENDIX March 7, 1966 mere handful of scholars with Far East credentials identified themselves with these irotests. Quite apart from the merits of American policy?past or present?we believe the man- ner in which the petition and many "teach- ins" have been presented is a discredit to those who would call themselves scholars. The Vietnamese war and its related political context are enormously complex. Even the most qualified experts disagree on important facts or the meaning of those facts., It is no eurprise that they also disagree on alterna- tive courses of action. It serves no useful purpose, therefore, to engage in name-calling, distortion, emotion- alism and gross oversimplification. Many of our fellow scholars, no doubt eminently eualified in their own fields, arc in our view guilty of unacademic behaviour in their pro- teats of Vietnam policy. Poe the record, therefore, we feel compelled to make the following assertions of fact: L The Vietcong initiated the present war in South Vietnam. They did so in gradual stages, beginning with assassination, terror, and bellicose propaganda. This was followed by sabotage, subversion, and small-scale guerrilla attacks; in later stages, large-scale Frontal assaults were employed. Only in the last stage did the U.S. Government feel com- pelled to increase its military involvement substantially. '2. The Vietcong is a Communist-led and Communist-controlled political movement, Its aim is to establish, by any available means, a Communist rule in South Vietnam, 3. It is false to compare the war :now being fought in Vietnam with that which was Fought by the French between 1946 and 1951. That was a colonial war, fought by Vietna- mese of every variety of political complexions to achieve national independence. The Gov- ernment of Vietnam since 1954 has been is truly Vietnamese national regime, end it is lighting now to maintain its independence.. That it is not without faults goes without saying. This, however, is not the issue. surety, it is of some significance that not one prominent nationalist of all the thou- sands of such men in South Vietnam has defected to the Communist since 1954. 4. The People's Revolutionary Party, which leads the Vietcong, is a segment of the Lao 1)ong (Communist) Party of North. Vietnam. The Vietcong itself was organized by the North Vietnamese, armed by the North Viet- namese, and trained by the North Vietnamese. 'teils is not to deny the fact that many of its cadres were originally born in South Vietnam, and later trained or indoctrinated in the north. Nor is it to deny that thousands of zeroth Vietnamese were persuaded or forced; to join the Vietcong in the south. e. The Vietcong have employed methods of terror, torture, and outright murder that? nit a smaller scale, rival the atrocities of the Axis Powers in World War II. Thousands of innocent people (including women and chil- dren.) have been deliberately slaughtered by the Vietcong as "examples" for the other South Vietnamese. Beheading and mutila- tion are not uncommon. For American academies to bemoan the "brutality" of the South Vietnamese response; without the telt* test comment on the initiators of the brutality, is the epitome of bias. 6. The Communist regime in North Viet- nam is among the harshest and most brutal in Asia. All opposition has been exter- minuted. The society is organized into cells of mutual surveillance. Cis, free elections of any kind have been. permitted. The living standards of the people are low even by Asian standards. 7. In contrast, the people of South Viet- nam, until the stepped-up Vietcong attack? were enjoying a far better living tetandard. Hunger was virtually eliminated. Industries were expanding. Schools, clinics, and sobial weleare services were proliferating rapidly. Between 1954 and 1961, there were four elections, conducted with varying degrees of freedom. 8. The Ceneva accords were brc ken first and repeatedly by the Communists, as documented by the records of the Interna- tional Controls Commission, 9, The President has offered to imold un- conditional peace talks with Hanoi and has been reject ed repeatedly by Hanoi, Peiping, and Moscow. The burden of prise C is now on the Coirununists. 10. Cominunist conquest of South Vietnam would, in our view, lead inevitaely to a deterioration of resolve througho" it south and southeast Asia. While the non-Com- munist states in the region are not likely to fall in actual geographical sequence (that is, tee "domino" theory), we believe these nations would eventually succumb politically and/or militarily to Chinese ex- pansionism following an Americen with- drawal from Vietnam. We further believe that Chinese hegemony over southeast Asia would be disastrous to American national interest and will severely compromise the capacity of Japan, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan to survive as independent nations. If there is any lesson that should have been, learned by us since 1919, it is that col- lective secority is the only effective means to deal with totalitarianism on the march. Our negot; ations and agreements must not be "Munichs." Rather, they must be backed by clear evidence of our determination to maintain the arrangements agreed to as the conditions for peace. Men who prize liberty are unwilling to settle for peace at any price. Nor does negotiate ea from weakness ,ind without conditions serve to piacate imperial ambitions. The surest guarantee or peace in Asia is evii 'it; it has always been eeerywhere; recognithin by all that our commitments to our allies will be honored. And we shall use the peace thus secured as .Americans used it in postwar Europe, end as President Johr son has pledged to use it for Asia. The beefs for a lasting, settlement in Asia will be built as we create the conditions for freedom through social and economic programs no less than through military means. The, sip ners ( organization al ffiliations listed for identification purposes onlY) Dr. Wesley R. Fish el, Michigan State Uni- verstty; Prof. P. J. Honey. Univer- sity of London; William P. Maddox, New York City: Prof. .1M1ph L. Turner, Michigan State University, Dr. Charles Wolf, Jr., the Rand Corp.; Dr. George E. Taylor, University of Wash- ington; Prof. William B. Dunn, TJni- versety of the State of New York. Prof. john D. Montgomery, Harvard University; Dr., Frank N. Treger, New York University; Rev. Frances J. Cor- ley, St. Louis University; Dr. Ches- ter L. Hunt, Western Michigan Univer- et.ty: 'Dr. Lucian Pye, Mass ichusetts Institute of Technology; Dr. David A. Wilsori, University , of Calif or aia. Dr. Annom H. Katz, the Reed Corp.; Dr. Jelin T. Dorsey, Vandei Silt Uni- versity; Dr. I. Milton Sacks, Brandeis University; Dr. Charles A. Joiner, Tem- ple University; William Henderson, So- cone- Mobil Oil Co.; Dr. Gu.. H. Fox, Michigan. State University; Dr. Ralph H. emuckler, Michigan State Univer- sity; George K. Tanham, the Rand Corp.; Dr . Karl J. Selzer, Yale Univer- sity. LAWS RELATIVE TO THE PRINTING OF DOCUMENTS Either House may order the printing of a document not already provided for by law, but only when the same shall be accompa- nied by an estimate from the Public Printer as to the probable cost thereof. 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