Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 16, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 21, 2005
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
April 7, 1966
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0.pdf3.46 MB
April 7, 1966 Approved FCO 20 IW/ZWMAIRDPSEBM46R000400060011-0 7597 LINCOLN Mz.1JRIAL In its moss-boughs, gray in sun, green in And now, far off again, remember sadly, He knew his Bible, and his Shakespeare, well; rain; Glad to have known, sad to have left: for Surveyed raw plains, kept store, directed By the Inland Waterway there, mail; It shall grow in glory with might and main. On Crested Butte, I saw that double rainbow, Rode horseback on the Illinois trail This tree, from this Arbor Day. L fe's grief, and hope; and answer to my , A long, lank, prairie lawyer; cast a spell: -EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING. ,i prayer. "Four score and 7 years ago," said he, "Our fathers brought forth on this conti- nent A new nation"-and "new" is what he meant- Fair-founded, and "conceived in liberty." Simple his cabin birth, sudden his end: "Now he belongs," said Stanton, "to the ages." Wars of today, though fought on wider stages, Freedom still wins. Here Lincoln, free- dom's friend, Memorled is, our 16th President: Folks of all faiths still up these steps are bent. ASTRONAUT The capsule soars. The man inside Works on his own, with our world's hope Upon him. Far below that ride This world is very small in scope. In outer space, each hue, each sight Is thin and strange as upper air. What keeps him, through swift days, and night? He told us, with a prayer. -EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING. JAMESTO W N Three hundred and fifty years ago, From England over the sea On the long high wave sailed a company brave In three ships, the Delivery, The Constant, and the small trim Goodspeed. After great voyaging They reached river land on a virgin strand; And they named their port for the King. Three hundred and fifty years ago, In the Old Dominion new, Jamestown was made, in the kind trees' shade, And a strong colony grew: Church and fort were built and maintained- For God, praise; for men, laws; And through trial and strife they established a life Independent, yet true to the Cause. Cavaliers of Virginia, loyal to their King: Smith, Newport, Gates, and Dale, And Berkeley and more, through fires and war Working for right to prevail. The Starving Time passed, and the Indians settled, And the Maids fetched across the foam, They raised their corn, and the babes there born, And began to forget their home. Three hundred and fifty years later, On that island, now consecrate, Where the old church hallows the river shallows, Men still revere the great; The great Founders, and great Preservers, Through sunny years and gray, Of the first story in our South's glory- Of Jamestown, U.S.A. -EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING. FOR A LIVE-OAK PLANTING IN BEAUFORT, S.C., ARBOR DAY (1965) "A green thought in a green shade," A long-ago poet wrote down, And Marvell's "green thought" again is made A fact, in this island town: Today we are adding one more green tree To our bounty-an ever-green, With shadowed grace, over land and sea, And a haven for birds who preen UNTO THE HILLS I would not yet grow old. I would not be stiff cold With the new buds uncurled. Oh endless hills, Your agelessness I crave. Let not the severing grave Clay down the heart that thrills To the sweet sights of living, The sounds of song, and storm, And the feel, final, warm, Of love's taking and giving. Oh lovely world I see Around me, green and gold, Trees, sky, and earth-I hold My heritage from thee In humble fealty. -EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING. SONG FOR MUSIC The year is hard And countries fall. Each man's future A stone wall. The flesh of love Is blown away, Cinders, not flowers, Every day. The year is hard. The watchwords change. The only progress The bombers' range. But sometimes yet, Where men stay free, The air may shiver With harmony. Tremble of flute; Strings new-born; Challenge of trumpet; Whoop of horn. While under the wars A sleepless guard Hums a tune remembered- The year is hard. -EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING. To A COLORADO MOUNTAIN Oh Crested Butte, from far across this coun- try I crave your immobility of stone- Capture, and lose you, having left; stern- yielding You stand, immobile-changeable, alone Majestic and self-living, shades amassing Of every hue of heaven, from dawns to eves; Rock-crowned, above your timberline, breath-taking; Male as your crags, female as aspen leaves. Rigid, and quivering, guarding the green valley Which awed the first white man here, long ago- Oh Crested Butte, from far across this coun- try I yearn for you, in flower, and in your snow. Miles high, in summer's shining, stirring hours, I found, beyond the trees, such lone de- light: Peeping among your pebbles, wild English flowers, Far-Western miniatures, in the thin sun- light; Harebell, and heather; bugle, and shep- herd's purse; Across the ocean and the miles, the same. Once England, now this mountain, is the nurse, Kindly and strong of bosom, whom I claim, THE INDIVIDUAL CASUALTY IN VIETNAM-A RADIO BROADCAST FROM SAIGON Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I think we all have a tendency to become hardened by press reports of dozens of battles involving thousands of men. Arthur Koestler observed once that "statistics do not bleed." Amidst the tumult and the shouting we frequently lose sight of the individual casualty- and of the tragic cost of war. A recent radio broadcast from Saigon movingly elaborated on the meaning of this cost. The radio correspondent is a constituent of mine, Clyde Edwin Pettit, who traveled around the world on as- signment of Station KBBA in Benton, Ark., and did some most incisive report- ing on the war in Vietnam. The station to which I refer is owned by David McDonald, Winston Riddle, and Mel Spann of my State. It is a small station, without the budget or the staff or the facilities of the large net- works or the weekly news magazines. But like many other small stations and periodicals throughout our country, they try to do a good job of honest and ac- curate reporting. I believe that stations like this are to be commended on their high level of public service programing. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that a transcript of one of Mr. Pet tit's series of broadcasts be inserted in the RECORD. There being no objection, the tran- script was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: BROADCAST FROM SAIGON For KBBA news, this is Ed Pettit report- ing from Saigon. This is the last of our letters from Viet- nam. In these broadcasts we could have been talking about battalions and regiments, about casualties and statistics, about tactics and strategy. But instead we've been talk- ing about people, about GI's and Vietnamese. For it takes people to fight a war. And when wars end, as all wars must someday end, men may look back on days gone by, may remi- nisce of the pleasures of conquest, or of com- radeship, or of common fears once fleetingly known, 'But those who have seen the face of war are never nostalgic about war itself. For no man can honestly glorify nor glamorize war. That is, no one who has really been there. For war is the men in the camps, and the women who follow the camps, and it is also disease as well as death or destruction. And it is drudgery-plain hard work and the monotony of being "support troops"-the totally important men without which there could be no war. Many would like to be in combat, but they are support troops, know- ing that for the rest of their lives they will be asked, "Were you ever in combat?" They will hesitate and answer, but they now know they will never be able to explain that simply being here in Vietnam can be dangerous, and that any man is in combat the instant some- body tries to kill him. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 7598 Approved For jjj~ BRU BR I 00400060011-0April 1.966 War is the infinite beauty of a verdant Jun:,'?le anguished by a piercing animal shriek of one man bayoneting another. And his last breath is the final, pitiable groan of one you didn't even know, could hardly hate, and of whom you might have been a friend under other circumstances. I"?rr war is taking, and war is giving, and war is the sharing of common hopes and dreams. War is walking warily in the steps of the maxi in front of you, and the funny feeling of knowing that if your friend steps on a land nunc he will be the one to get it. Only the GraJ; man knows how it feels to walk in front. War is the tension of being a target, and, for some, of being hit by your own men because somebody made a mistake. If you're a civilian here, war is the chance to [Hake a quick killing in the black market. Or, perhaps, to quick killing, period, if you are paid well enough. Or, for some civilians, the chance to see your house burned to the !,,round by a bomb. Or to see your father's head cut oil before your eyes. War is the warm, rich blood of a man washing away and mixing with the black mud of the Mekong River, each cell of his blood stamped by his heredity with the uniqueness that made him, once, an indi- vidual. So war is the wicked waste and destruc- tion of the wonder of life itself. Perhaps the worst thing about war is that it changes the laughter of those who love life into the weeping of new wives and young widows. War is hardest on the living, on those who must carry on, tortured by poign- ant memories of the past, racked with the bitter reality of the irrevocable, destined al- ways to wonder. pointlessly, what might have been. War is death, and death is an indicriml,- nate harlot who chooses capriciously with whom she will lie in fatal embrace-the cow- ard today, the brave man tomorrow. And war is something that puts the really important things in their proper perspective: things like survival and health. War is the triumphantly happy smile on the face of a kid who has just been told by a doctor that only a few more operations and he may be able to see again. In war there is the joy of simple things: of basting a chocolate milk shake, or a cold beer, or of getting to see a Hollywood movie out in the field at night even if the mosqu'i- tocs are biting you. And perhaps the greatest pleasure of all: the joy of a shower once a week, if you're lucky. War is a bunch of guys having a last game of touch football before going out on a patrol from which some may never return. War is the wandering mind of a young man on guard duty, thinking wistfully of a fireplace in Vermont, or a girl in Tennessee, or a hotrod in California. War is a bangalore mine blowing the guts out of a guy from Grand Rapids. War is the form of what once was a man, covered by fifes, in a half-forgotten foreign field. `Phis might have been a doctor-- Or a druggist from Des Moines-- Or a farmer in Florida- Or a crop-dusting pilot from Pine Bluff. Or he might have been a happy failure. fitrt now he is a statistic: only one of the casualties termed "moderate" in the press reports and by the politicians. Of course, a nation must never fear to fight aggression and tyranny. But it would be a disservice to the dead not to pause and, out of respect, consider the cost. 1"or the cost of war is in the millions: the millions of homes that will never be built, the millions who will die from diseases that would have been conquered by medical re- search were it not for the cost of war. The cost of war is in the billions: the biil- lions of days that will never be lived. The cent of war is the cost of a kid from Kansas w`ro will never moe a whesi harvest again.. It is bey from Boston who will never see his own son grow up to skin his (knee on a city sidewalk. It is a 'ad from Louisiana who will never live to fall in love, ono: laugh with a girl In the rain. All these things are war, and nmiany more things, too. But fortunately for most war is coming home. And later--:much later-when ;6 summer storm conies to the dark ldlidwestei n sky, you hear thunder, and for a moment you think of gunfire, once long ago, and s , very far aw:r y. And yor. laugh, be-cause you made it back. Then yni stop smiling, as you think of friends: of Chuck and Joe and tied--who didn't muse it back. This I-, Ed Pettit reporting from Saigon for KB BA N::ws. AMERICAN' AGI UCULTUR E---THE GREATEST SUCCESS STORY Mr. RUSSELL of South Carolina. Mr. President, in a world where a sreat im- balance in the supply of food and fiber is causing grave concern on the part of all thinking men, American agriculture strands out as our greatest success story. Perhaps there is a, tendency to overlook this fact in our booming industrial econ- omy. Yet American farms have outpaced industrial productivity in our Nation by a factor of approximately 3 to 1. At the same time, our farm population has not shared the f till benefit, of this bountiful yield, either in income or other material rewards of our affluent society. If 43 percent of our farm families have annual incomes of $3,000 or less, we need to rededicate our domestic effort: on their behalf, and spend less on foreign aid. T need not remind niy colleagues that America is the best fed and best clothed Nation in the world; that our surpluses have worked. as effectively for peace as our weapons, and that in our present declaration of world war on hunger, the American farmer is once more the back- bone of this effort. But despite our tremendous successes, we cannot feed and clothe the world. I believe the challenge is more in sharing our farm technology than. our products or yield. The whole direction of our foreign aid should, be that of helping all nations become more self-sufficient, so as to reduce the mounting financial bur- dens on the American people. Indus- trially, our efforts are fruitful--West Germany is a glowing example. But so long as hunger is rampant throughout the world, the American conscience will constantly prod us into action. Let me pause here and provide a few significant figures for the RECORD. Ac- cording to the latest budget summary, our national. debt has grown i'rom $270 billion in 1946 to $318 billion. in 1965. This increase of approximately $50 bil- lion is more than twice- offset by our total investment in foreign aid and as- sistance, including food for peace, which by 1965 totaled $116 billion. Without this $116 billion expenditure, our na- tional debt might have been significantly reduced following World War 'I. Amer- ica, however, has been quite willing to mortgage the fiKure of her children in order to bring relief to friend and foe alike. Our charity would seem to exceed the demands of the Good Book itself, which should influence the relations of all mankind. I was pleased recently to note that administration officials are stressing agriculture and self-help in the new $3.3 billion foreign assistance program, which over a 5-year stretch might cost the taxpayer another $16 billion. Flow long can our wealth and resources stand this drain? For this reason, I have ad- vocated a diminishing scale of foreign aid over the next 5 years, so as to im- press foreign nations with the absolute necessity of becoming more self-sldl'i- Clent. There are many pros and cons in the matter of foreign aid. I, for one, could not give thought to this program of worldwide relief without the assurance that it was temporary, and designed to help other nations rebuild their re- sources and become self-sufficient. As I recall, the initial budget for the Marshall plan was $5 billion under a 5-year au- thorization totaling about $17 billion. This was most certainly a modest be- ginning, compared with the fact that we have now exceeded this estimate by $100 billion. This demonstrates the danger of letting the wily camel get his close under the tent. But that was almost 20 years ago, and $100 billion less. It can- not and must not become the permanent dole, as its history would indicate. There is a recent development that should give us hope in this respect. I speak of the willingness of our agricul- tural press--magazines and newspapers alike, to share the techniques of scien- tific farm production with foreign na- tions. I believe the inexpensive dissem- ination of scientific knowledge from the laboratory to the land in America is vital. For truly, our press has made a vast contribution in the science of agriculture. In a recent exchange of letters between the Secretary of Agriculture, Orville Freeman, and the president of the Agri- cultural Publishers Association, James Milholland, Jr., Cleveland, Ohio, Secre- tary Freeman recognized this program when he wrote: I was particularly interested In your com- ment that people of other nations have con- tacted your association and its members in an effort to learn more about the methods used to provide American farmers with a constant flow of vital information. This is a highly encouraging development. On my travels abroad it has been very plain that one of the biggest agricultural prob- lems facing the world in its efforts ro combat hunger and improve nutrition is how to close the gap which exists between technical data in the laboratory and the applications of these data on the land. Whatever contribu- tions you and your associates can make to help improve the diffusion of agricultural knowledge, especially in economically emerg- ing nations, will be a truly great service. Here is the very essence of a program to stimulate self-help. I am in formed a study group of weekly and small daily newspaper publishers is planning a trip to Japan and east Asia this year. James Milholland, Jr., is also planning a trip abroad this summer. In western Europe, he will confer with government leaders Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 7596 Approved For (91A.:D67-B9BMME00400060011-OApril 7, 1966 Saigon. The villazge-named Tan Phu, which means "New Prosperity"-is an ex- ample of what South Vietnam and the United States are trying to do to rebuild and unify the country. But Vietcong terrorists have now come in and murdered the village finance officer and the chief of one of the five hamlets that make up the village. In the last 2 years the Vietcong have mur- dered between 650 and 700 local officials and kidnapped another 1,500. More than 3,000 other civilians-many of them members of families of officials-also have been killed. These have not been murders of passion- even of revenge. They have been committed deliberately to keep South Vietnam from achieving the stability that can come only on a foundation of local government. The Vietcong formula is simple--kill those in important public jobs. Those who would have us pull out of the country on the grounds that the Saigon government _ccan't organize the country and get the support of its own people should consider why this is so difficult. And those who bleed over burning or using chemicals to destroy rice crops to keep them from falling into Vietcong hands should weigh that "atrocity" against the hundreds of cold-blooded murders of civilian officials. TRIBUTE TO LESLIE L. BIFFLE Mr. McCLELLAN. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an editorial, published in the Washington Post, in tribute to the late Leslie L. Biffle, former Secretary of the Senate. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: LESLIE L. BIFFLE During his 44 years of service as an em- ployee of the U.S. Senate, ending with his tenure as Secretary of the Senate in 1952, Leslie L. Billie was the very ideal of a legis- lative functionary. His infinite attention to all the details of the legislative process freed successive senatorial "employers" from duties and responsibilities that otherwise would have impinged upon their responsi- bility for policy. He was the sort of inde- fatigable, tireless, self-effacing detail man that every official searches for and that few find. Politics was his life. The son of an office- holder, he was brought up to understand public affairs and to enjoy them from early youth. He was always the faithful adjutant, but he was not without political instinct and purposes of his own. His relationships with Senator Joseph Robinson were close and his rapport with President Truman was complete. The business of Congress could not go forward without such public servants. They are often relatively unknown to most citi- zens, but the mark of their personality nevertheless is on countless pieces of legis- lation that never would come to pass without their largely anonymous contributions to congressional deliberation. Leslie L. Biffie, on his own merit and as the personification of loyal legislative servants like him, deserves the tribute of his countrymen. THE KETTLE BOILS IN VIETNAM Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, a major obstacle to bringing about an armistice and a cease-fire is and has been the refusal of warlike officials high in the Johnson administration such as Secretary of State Dean Rusk to agree to negotiate directly with the National Liberation Front, which is and has been for years the political arm of the Viet- cong. In fact, the Vietnamese fighting for the liberation of their native land were first called the Viet Minh, and the National Liberation Front was the pol- itical arm of the forces of Ho Chi Minh fighting against French colonialism. The National Liberation Front, which is headed by a Saigon lawyer who is not a Communist, presently controls proba- bly three-fourths of the land area of South Vietnam. This despite the fact that American Armed Forces who have succeeded the French in trying to main- tain a militarist regime in that part of Vietnam south of the 17th parallel are the finest soldiers in the world, and with devastating air power capability have engaged in' the most destructive bomb- ing the world has ever known. The Vietcong forces are the major adversary against which our forces are fighting. Of course, Vietcong delegates must par- ticipate in any conference if peace is to be restored to Vietnam. How can Secretary Dean Rusk defend a viewpoint that we will not negotiate directly with the National Liberation Front or Vietcong? He has made the amazing statement that the Hanoi gov- ernment represents the Vietcong, and he talks glibly about aggression from the north. He ignores the historical fact that there is no North and South Viet- nam. The Geneva accords recognized this. It is clearly stated in that agree- ment which the United States through John Foster Dulles approved: The military demarcation line at the 17th parallel is provisional and should not In any way be considered as constituting a political or territorial boundary. At the present time and for some months past our CIA and State Depart- ment officials have been carrying on se- cret negotiations with the leaders of the National Liberation Front. The purpose is to secure the release of Gustav O. Hertz, an American civilian official in Vietnam and a Vietcong prisoner. Their offer is to return a captured Viet- cong terrorist for the release of Gustav C. Hertz. It is noteworthy that State De- partment and CIA officials did not seek the release of Hertz by approaching the Hanoi government directly through an intermediary such as Algeria. They went direct to the National Liberation Front itself. This gives a lie to the claim repeatedly made that the National Liber- ation Front is simply a puppet of Hanoi. It reveals that CIA and State Depart- ment officials do in fact admit what offi- cials in Asiatic nations have been saying all along-that the National Liberation Front is essentially independent of Hanoi. The noted French historian, Philippe Devillers, a director of the National Polit- ical Science Foundation of Paris, has stated repeatedly that the Vietcong are waging a civil revolt against what they regard as an oppressive landowners' re- gime and militarists' dictatorship from Saigon. Professor Devillers was a former correspondent in French Indochina for Le Monde. He is the author of a history of Vietnam North Vietnam Today." He states that unfortunately American leaders pretend to regard North Vietnam and South Vietnam as two separate na- tions when, in fact, the people of North and South Vietnam are one people. Very definitely he repeatedly states the fact that the conflict in South Vietnam is a civil war. It is not an aggression from North Vietnam or China. Furthermore, the facts are that there is no evidence whatever that China has even one mili- tary advisor with the Vietcong forces anywhere in South Vietnam. Professor Devillers has stated repeatedly that Sec- retary Rusk's statements as to military aid coming into the southern part of Vietnam from Hanoi is much less than claimed. The Washington Post published an edi- torial, "The Kettle Boils in Vietnam," which I ask by unanimous consent be made a part of my remarks and inserted in the RECORD at this point. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: THE KETTLE BOILS IN VIETNAM The threat of civil war within a civil war in Vietnam has been averted, but only for the present. Hope for a peaceful solution of the internal crisis now lies in the summoning as soon as possible of a convention, or "assembly of leaders" who can agree on a more repre- sentative regime. Marshal Ky had to back down at Da Nang, and he has lost face. There is nothing more damaging in an oriental country. It prob- ably means that his days as a premier are numbered. The problem is to make the transition peacefully and to end up with a government that will have popular support. The United States appears to be in process of extricating itself from the commitment that President Johnson rashly made to Pre- mier Ky at Honolulu in February. There is no need for the United States to sink or swim with any particular government leader or group in Saigon. The United States has invested such huge stakes in the Vietnam war that it must oper- ate as much as possible apart from Internal Vietnamese politics and squabbles. In the presnt crisis, Marshal Ky came close to drag- ging the Americans into his factional con- flict. His troops were flown to Da Ndng in U.S. Air Force transport planes. The anti- American manifestations of recent days have taken on an ominous tone. However, the war cannot be fought in a political vacuum. There is no time to lose. If South Vietnam is to have a government acceptable to Buddhist, Catholic, student, military, and civilian elemen$s from all over the country, the "assembly of leaders" must be called quickly. Popular emotions either must get a peacful political outlet or they will be expressed in violence. POETRY OF EDITH BANNISTER DOWLING Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, South Carolina is blessed with many talented people, but none more so than Mrs. Edith Bannister Dowling. Her poetry has given pleasure and inspira- tion to a great number of people, and for the enjoyment and uplifting of my col- leagues, I ask unanimous consent that six poems and a sonnet written by Mrs. Dowling be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the poems were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 April 7, 1966 Approved Fp61MffiRJ61bytW- P 77%01 68000400060011-0 CORRECTION OF THE RECORD-NA- TIONAL GRANGE NO BEDFELLOW OF FARM BUREAU Mr. METCALF. Mr. President, on March 28 I heard AFL-CIO Vice Presi- dent Joseph D. Keenan deliver an excel- lent account of the historic agrarian leadership of this country. The occasion was a dinner honoring James Patton, who retired recently from the presidency of the National Farmers Union. On April 1, 1 inserted Mr. Keenan's speech in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, along with my own comments, beginning on page '1088. Yesterday, I was amazed to learn that the text of the Keenan speech which had been furnished me included three words which Mr. Keenan did not say. Mr. Keenan actually said, during the course of his speech: The National Farm Bureau Federation, year in and year out., in Washington and in Sue State capitals, thunders against every piece of social legislation designed to help the people in general, and wage earners in particular. They are as predictable as the National Association of Manufacturers--and they are almost always on the same side. That statement is harsh, but, in my experience, dating from service in the Montana Legislature in 1937, true. The copy of the Keenan speech fur- nished me included "and the Grange" after "The National Farm Bureau Fed- tsration." Mr. Keenan had wisely crossed out of his speech the unfactual statement that the National Grange belongs in the ,same antisocial category as the National harm Bureau Federation. 't'hat would have been an affront to the National Grange, which has a long and proud record of achievement for farm people and support for legislation that is in the national interest. 1 have worked with Grange leaders of many States throughout my political life. We have sometimes differed, and we have visually fought on the same side. Most recently I used supporting correspond- once from Orin P. Kendall, master of the Montana State Grange, to help make the case against unwise budget reduc- ;ions proposed for the Department of Agriculture. The Washington State c_, range has been one of the great leaders in western water development. The .Na- tional Grange, especially in its early years, typified the type of agrarian lead- ership of which Mr. Keenan spoke. Had he included in his speech the reference which he deleted, he would have done violence to the facts and an injustice to a worthy organization. I ask unanimous consent to correct the permanent RECORD so the second para- =,raph reads as it was delivered, as quoted in my remarks above. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore. There being no objection, correc- tion will be made. A PROPER BALANCE BETWEEN PUB- L..;IC SERVICE NEWS COVERAGE AND ENTERTAINMENT Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, as the ranking minority member of the Senate Space Committee. I have a very deep interest in our space program and I fol- low it very closely. In that interest I am concerned for the safety of the as- tronauts on every manned :flight. Over a decade ago it was my pers teal privilege to be associated with the late Edward Ft. Morrow and Fred Friendly in several of their programs of their dis- tinguished "See It; Now" series as t hey filmed several of the interviews I had with leaders of various nati ;ns throu--h- ou.t the world. Their "See Ii No?,v" series has never been equaled as a public serv- ice program. Consequently, I vigorously applauded Fred Friendly's protest resignation and his eloquent plea for a greater sons' of public service on the part of the :iet- works and less subservience to commer- cialism. Now, I am no devotee or fan of "'the Batman"--but I do think that the net- works can reach a point of overcover- age of news events and can carry the crusade of public service over entertain- ment to an extreme that is neither sen- sible nor justified nor serving a really constructive purpose. Such was the case, in mi' opinion, in the overcoverage of the Gemini 8 re- covery. Admitted that we should be con- cerned about the safety of the astronauts in the crisis that developed, nevertheless the networks went too far in their o,;er- coverage. The networks wisely and casily, and with propriety and proper c:in- cer'n, could have given the viewing ai,di- ence constant reports through the white subliminal bulletin tapes at the bottom of the screen, such as they have used in giving election returns without cutting into the regular programs. They could have done this -and when the safety-- or forbid, tragedy---had been establisl:.ed, they could have broken into the pro- gram and still provided just as much conscientious and concerned news serv- ice as they did in the uninterrupted, end- less drone that their overcoverage did produce. I had no desire to see "Batman" and I admire and find most interesting the distinguished news teams of the net- works, but enough is enough-whether it is a politician talking too long on tcde- vision-or elsewhere-or a distinguished news analyst ]being placed in the ex- tremely embarrassing position of having run out of something interesting to :ay, having run out of interesting material, and having to resort to what was noth- ing less than a, TV filibuster. Not only is this an imposition on the viewers. It is no less an imposition on the! analyst-commentators. It is time for the networks to grow up on this subject of the proper balance between public service news coverage and entertainment--to avoid the extremes of overdoing either crass commercialism nr public service news that loses its pur- pose and interest after a certain point. Nor is the overcoverage of the Gemini 8 spectacular easily justified by a ei;n- deranation of the "Batman" TV fans chools. Alrn tested are the respondent's iaonilirrity with the project objectives. It seeks to ascertain the individual's personal op`rti.ous regarding the Homewood neighbor- hood and whether the resident will stay in the neighborhood or move away. Copies of t:lie questionnaire may be obtained from the Council Office, 920 Homewood Avenue, 'iitsburgh. A 16-millimeter film, "The Voice From the :street," has been made by station KDKA in Pittsburgh, depicting the activities of the council. The 30-minute film Is available on lean, at no charge, from the Library, Depart- ment of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C., 20410. Another agency, Community Organizations of Pittsburgh (CO-OP), was founded in 1963. CO-OP coordinates the activities of a hum- her of neighborhood groups By the end of 19(:4, 30 neighborhood groups were affiliated with CO-OP and 12 others were prospective affiliates. CO-OP's main function is to rep- resent neighborhoods in issues of citywide rope and to encourage citizen support for c:rpital improvements, improved public serv- ices, code administration, and other citywide ;crvices. In 1964, the Mayor's Committee on Human Resources was formed. This agency admin- i:a:;rs the community action program under the economic opportunity program. The ,;xecutive director of the redevelopment au- i,liority is a member of thi.s committee. Thus, a constant; coordination of the urban re- newal and antipoverty programs is assured. Dozens of other neighborhood organiza- tions are in operation, representing resi- +lenls of individual areas. These meet reg- ularly with public and private agencies to ;res::?nt the views of the residents in matters affecting their neighborhoods. Inadcquaey 0f Our Merchant Marine E K'.t'ENSION OF REMARKS OF HION. THOMAS M. PELLY OF 411ASIriNCTON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESES TATIVES th'ednesday, April 6, I:a66 Mr. PELLY. Mr. Speal' 'r, I ask unaniii ous consent to include at this point it the 'RECORD an article by Hoyt S. Haddock which appeared in the NMU Pilot, t to official organ of tlut National Martime Union of America. In capsule form (his article goes to thi very core of the merchant marine crisi;. Mr. I laddock is executive secretary of Liie A -'I_CIO Maritime (o)nmittee. Hereafter is his article: LET'S FA 'r: IT, 1VIR. IYIcNAAIAJYA, Wt~ Trr. r DON'T HAVE Tilt Snres The Secretary of Defense has ;stain stated that th current merchant marine is ade- quate t:, meet emergency Defense Depart- rnerit n,ieds. Apparently, the becretary is not aware of the extreme hardshi ns that have been placed an the U.S. fleet and merchant seamen to meet the Vietnam ;situation to date or ac is too stubborn to admii, he was wrong ii. his appraisal of the merchant ma- rine in 1962. The number of ship,, necessary to fulfill any deg ?ee of military commiti:ient is not available because of its classified nature. One re,-,. -)n i; is classified is that the Secre- tary of Defense does not want the people to know just how inadequate orr merchant marine is. Another reason for 'seeping the planning classified is that it would expose cur wear nessas to our enemies. The Sc cret cry's announcement., nd his past actions, iowever, lead us to belies that this statcmei t of adequacy is completely out of step wit:r the facts and with the degree of corlimitnient the Government is now plan- ring in tae Vietnam war. The inadequacy in terms of ful-illing mili- tary req airements of the currei it fleet can be demonstrated by comparing isle current fleet wita the fleet at the outbreak of the h-orean va.r and the increase necessary at that Lim ^. At the beginning of t ',e Korea', war there were 61,:150 seamen on board the privately owned aid Government-owned r hips under bareboat and general agency charters. The number of seamen. increased to 99,700 by January 1, 1x152, to meet the Korean situa- tion. To me et the shipping requin?ments for I3:orea, tle number of ships was i ereased 64 percent 1 etween June 1950 and J:1 riuary 1952. Over this same period, the number of seamen increased by 62 percent. This increase in ships was; necessary in spite of the fact that American -flag ships were carrying 43 percent of our imports and exports in 19t;0 and 1951. Between 1950 and 1965 our imports and exports increased by :11,11 percew, but the actual ti=ns carried. on U.S.-flag ships de- creased by 43 percent, (In 195:; U.S.-flag ships car ?fed 43 percent of the imports and exports . nd in 1964 carried 8.3 percent.) The tonnage carried on U.S.-flag ships in 1904 would have to be increased by 419 per- cent to bring the carriage up to the 43 per- cent carried in 1950. in t,ern,_,s of numbers of seamen fed ships, the curre nt: number would have to be in- creased 'ly approximately 100 ,crcent to equal the number in service durlop the Ko- rean war This :increase would he larger if it was projected from the begini ing of the buildup rest year. While these figures do rot show precise numbers of ships or seamen necessary in case of a national emergency, they din, however, shed light on the statement that the U.S.- flag merchant marine is "ad.equate." But aside from the question if whether the Secretary is right or wrong is the fact that the basic responsibility for proni',iirig an American-flag merchant marire does cot reside within the Department ( I Dcdensc. This responsibility belongs to th Maritime Administrator. In developing it merchant marine, the Maritime Administrator should be guided by: the number of ships necesaa.ry to meet emergency military needs-the ab- solute minimum below which ,.vo should never drop to insure our own survival. At the same time, the Administrator has the clear responsibility to work: tow;rd a, goal of at least 50 percent of all our w;;terhorne commerce on U.S.-flag ships. But instead, the Maritime Administrator accepts these broad questionable tatenients of adequacy for defense and then further cominounds the fleets' inadequat7, by using them as maximums above which (1 . rvernnierrt. participation should not be extend,ul. The Administrator further a.l)(licaacs his responsibility when he advocate;, building in foreign yards. Further, he projects it pro- gram with no passenger ships and less cargo ships manned with less seamen carry less tl Our Aging Merchantmen and Vietnam EXTENSION OF REMARKS Or ETON. ED REINECKE OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, March 29, 19(6 Mr. REINECKE. Mr. Spea icer, cotl- cerned citizens from every part of this Nation are growing increasing], alarmed at the crisis condition of this country's merchant marine fleet. Spokesmen from labor unions, from shipbuilding com- panies, from importer and export asso- ciations, from the military associations, and from the national press are ex- pressing their alarm at the degcncration that has taken place in all phases of our merchant marine. It si'('ms, Mr. Speaker, that the burdens of the war in Vietnam have revealed a pandora's box of troubles: lack of trained pilots and merchant marine officers; lack of young, able crewmen; most ships over 20 years of age and in drastic need of repairs; lack of an adequate replacement and ship construction program; loss of inter- national trade routes to foreign competi- tors; and total decay in this Nation's leadership on the high seas. Mr. Speaker, by the Merchant Marini(' Act of 1936, as amended, the administration is charged with the responsibility to de- velop a national maritime policy. The realities of the mess in the rlercharit marine make it very clear that under this administration there simply is no national maritime policy. Where is the leadership, Mr. Speaker? Whitt is the Maritime Administration doi"p, Mr. Speaker, about this serious crisis? One of the most able spokesman ex- pressing alarm is the maritime .editor of the Baltimore Sun, Helen Delich Bentley, who has authored an article appearing Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 A2068 Approved FLOP?W6/AiRDPkfl00400060011ri1'Y, 1966 The task in which we are involved Is the developing of Latin American institutions which can attack the barriers to economic and social development; it is developing working programs In tax, fiscal, land, and credit reform; it is planning effective use of available resources in the development proc- ess; it is the training of professional and technical people for industrial and agricul- tural development. And, ladies and gentle- men, it is giving hope for a better life to that man in the rural village who is struggling at the starvation level to put food in the mouths of his children and who dares to dream of a better future for those children. It is giv- ing hope for a better life to that mother in the slums surrounding the cities of most of Latin America, whQ, sees her first born live through a long bout with disease only to face a future with little hope of learning to read or write or acquiring some basic skill on which to base q life. The task is not an easy one. It involves dy- namic forces demanding or opposing change. Nevertheless, through the government-to- government programs, i.e., the bilateral agreements reached between our Govern- ment and those of the underdeveloped coun- tries of Latin America, institutions are being built: savings and loan, private development banks, cooperatives, productivity centers, management and labor training institutions, and agricultural extension systems. Yes, the Alliance is moving. It has its slow periods and it has its violent interrup- tions. But progress is being made in the cold, hard unglamorous business of build- ing and strengthening the institutional capa- bilities of the various countries to work on their own problems. There is, however, one great gap which needs to be filled, and it is on this need-and this opportunity-that we are directing our attention today. It takes time to build an extension service to the point that it can reach out to the man in rural Latin America. It takes time to develop a savings and loan system which can provide houses for a segment of the society. In short, it takes time to develop and expand institutions. Until this can be done, there is a particular need to give a sense of movement to the alliance at the grassroots level. Your help is needed in responding to local self-help efforts in the rural villages and in the slums which sur- round the cities. The partners of the alliance, as a second followup phase of the alliance, is the chan- nel through which you, as members of or- ganizations or as individuals, can work di- rectly in an alliance with the eager people of a small but important country focusing its attention on independence and self-iden- tification. This is a private sector program which offers to you an opportunity and a challenge. If you believe that we should strengthen the friendly ties with Latin Amer- ica, you have a specific opportunity now be- fore you. Through a Michigan Partners of the, Alli- ance, there is not an individual or neigh- borhood group that cannot be a working part of a new private sector partnership with the citizens of British Honduras. There are now operating partnerships es- tablished between private sector counterpart groups in 15 Latin American republics and 29 States of the United States. These part- nerships develop in response to interest ex- pressed by these groups. Our partners office in the U. S. Alliance headquarters in Wash- ington responds to this interest and plays the role of catalyst-translating that interest into an operating program through the mechanism of Partners of the Alliance com- mittees. Once a broadly representative U.S. Partner committee is formally organized, our office takes an additional supporting step by ar- ranging for the visit of a four to five member "program development team" to the Partner area find-working with a counterpart Part- ners of the alliance group- to develop a program which they will jointly implement. Such a program, of course, should be based on the best local consensus of priority needs as related to the resources available to the partners for the task ahead. Similarly, the composition of the team selected by the U.S. partners committee should reflect these priority areas, which in Michigan's case have been suggested in ad- vance by the premier and our own Consul General in Belize in collaboration with the Peace Corps Director and other local leaders. My colleague Mr. Ruben will elaborate on these recommended priority areas. Once the committees have been formed and the program development team has made its report, the partners continue to work. together directly. Our Washington Partners staff withdraws into the wings, so to speak, but continues to be available as a resource to assist the partnership when we can and when called upon. We endeavor to provide the common channel of commu- nication through which the various com- mittees can share program experiences. These partnerships normally develop pro- grams revolving on the following five types of activities: 1. Helping local groups complete commu- nity self-help projects. 2. Technical assistance. 3. Educational scholarships and professor exchanges. 4. Cultural exchanges. 5. Investment and commercial relation- ships. In the first category are the many small projects In which local groups in a Latin American country have undertaken self-help but need some assistance in completing them. For example, in several countries rural communities have built schools but lack the materials for the roof, doors, and windows. High schools, or even elementary and intermediate school students, civic clubs, and other groups working through their State's partners of the alliance committees, may provide financing for the needed mate- rials. Other similar projects already completed have involved equipment for medical posts or small hospitals, books in Spanish or Portuguese for village libraries, hand tools for training programs, hand pumps have been provided for community wells; also blockmaking machines, chain saws, hand tools and other equipment have been pro- vided to enable slum improvement associa- tions to complete community buildings, schools and medical posts. Scores of proj- ects such as these have been completed, and many more are in process of being im- plemented. These are small projects but to villages in which the family income may range from $40 to $80 a year, this is meaningful help. In the category of technical assistance, the U.S. partners committees may develop an inventory of specialists who would be avail- able to go, upon request, to their partner area for 1, 2, or 3 months-not on the basis of a contract but solely on the basis of transportation and per diem costs. For example, the Texas League of Municipalities has offered to make available to their part- ners in Peru, men with broad experience in handling the practical problems of city gov- ernment. Similarly, a Houston television station and another professional broadcast- ing group have offered to help the Peruvian Broadcasting Association in its educational programing. The offers are expressions of keen interest at the community level in the alliance for progress. In the field of education, Florida is de- veloping a scholarship program with Colom- bia. The Florida Alliance Committee has al- ready worked with erlueattoi al institutions in establishing up to five scholarships at each of 29 junior colleges as well as a lesser num- ber at the graduate level. Plans also call for future collaboration with the barranquilla midmanagement training center and a tech- nical and vocational training center. Joint venture investments and other com- mercial relationships are developing as a natural outgrowth of the partnerships. At the first inter-American Partners of the Al- liance conference held last June, the com- mittee on industrial development and in- vestment opportunities recommended that the various partners committees in Latin America develop a list of specific investment opportunities and assign to them priority ratings based on their general contribution to the country's economic development. These lists are then made available to their counterpart group. These examples illustrate activities in re- lation to the five areas named above. Mr. Ruben in his topic, "How Can Michigan and British Honduras Collaborate in a Partner- ship?" will describe other Interesting and varied ongoing activities. One of the most important aspects of the partnership program, however, is the fact that it is a two-way program. When the late President Kennedy spoke to the Latin American Diplomatic Corps and the Members of the U.S. Congress on March 13, 1961, he said: "We invite our friends in Latin America to contribute to ,the enrichment of life and culture in the United States. We need teach- ers of your literature and history and tra- dition, opportunities for our young people to study in your universities, access to your music, your art, and the thought of your great philosophers. For we know we have much to learn." In keeping with the two-way flow of the partnership, one State university in the United States is organizing a planning de- partment and has requested professional assistance from Its Latin American partner, which happens to have a strong cadre of technicians and professionals in that dis- cipline. Costa Rica sent 12 educators to Oregon and assisted that State in upgrading the teaching of Spanish and as resource staff for social studies. In the business world, partnership signi- fies a sharing In the proceeds of business operations. Similarly, the partners of the alliance seeks to establish a channel through which organizations and individuals in every area of the hemisphere can share in the work of the development process and together reap the benefits of educational, cultural, social, and economic progress. Finally, the partners of the alliance is not a program of mutual "adoption" but rather it is a practical approach through which the people in the United States and Latin Amer- ica can work together in a direct alliance. It Is a two-way program, the scope of which is limited only by the imagination and ener- gies of the partners in each relationship. We in the United States long have talked about what we can learn from the great cultural and educational wealth of the other Ameri- cas, but we have not done enough to put that stated principle into practice. This we can help do through the partnership program. This then is the story of the partners of the alliance. It now remains for this audi- ence to decide the matter of Michigan's participation. On behalf of the partners office I pledge the support of our partners staff in your effort. Should this group organize on a statewide basis, we will support a followup program development team of members to visit British Honduras and round out a joint program. I am sure you will find the effort richly rewarding. Thank you again for your kind attention. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 zl 7- l.966Approved Fqeg ~yf , I~P6~ f5L00400060011-0 A2067 sinre the murder of I?ie,n we have put in and supported, it, comic-opera succession of inept and arrug;uxt generals, the current of whom is an admirer of the energy and dynamism of Adolf Hitler, and none of whom, according to James Reston, had a popular base with the people who "regard their leaders in Saigon as merely the suc- c cs.iors of the French colonial regime." Of course we do not have neocolonial ambitions or seek booty or territory in Viet- Wain. We are there to till a power vacuum .;o as to contain and check the threats of Communist expansionism. But, in response co our peculiarly American brand of obses- :;fve a.nticoxnnnmism, we have so frequently misled our own people that Ambassador t:;.-odberg has admitted there is a problem oP restoring "credibility" among Americans to the statements of our own Government. We have succumbed to the immorality of the end justifies the means, so that we hw!e dropped napalm bombs on children and women in villages, we have bombed a sovereign nation in outright violation of the United Nations Charter and the Geneva Ac- ccord; we have acquiesced in the brutal use all- torture by our South Vietnamese allies; we have not shrunk from defoliating crops; we have persisted in our outrageous pieties that our bombings kill no civilians while our pilots report that they blow up anything that moves down it highway; at least one hospital has been bombed and one of our pilots even informed the New York Times Chat the had thrown a Vietcong prisoner out of Ills plane to mid-air because he refused in talk. '!'here is no doubt that the Vietcong Com- munist i are fierce practitioners of terror, but it the moral distinction between them and us is obliterated, does it matter who wins Vietnarn? In this war, which is prettied up as a war for freedom in South Vietnam, there i:; no freedom now and there never has been in that ravaged turd. In this war which we pretend is a war against aggression, but which began as a civil war in violent reaction against the destruction of the Geneva agree- ments and against the repressions of the puppet Diem, we have now b- eked ourselves into what has become it fullfiedged Ameri- ra.n war in which the helpless people of Viet- uam ..u'e becoming mere pawns. We have brutalized ourselves in the dirtest war in which this Nation has ever been engaged. We have managed once again, as in Santo Ilomirigo and many other parts of the world, it) identify ourselves with the discredited ,,,zrermels and corrupt agents of an unjust :society. We have appointed ourselves policemen of the world, whether the rest of the world wants it or not. We have given ourselves to au exercise of self-righteousness flowing mom a distorted view o:f reality in which we are ready to ascribe all fault to our Conh- nulnfnt energies and to see ourselves as blameless. When we exaggerate the admit- tedly hostile intentons of our enemy, when we ignore the frightening effects upon them of our threats and actions, when we imagine we ca.u arranger the world in our way, we place all mankind in jeopardy- The Communist monolith Is dissolving and dividing before our very eyes, but we cannot ,ocean to lay down the cliches and the slogans which have befogged us for 20 years. And :;o we proceed on a course which drives Llacsoi into the arms of Peking, which ini- pairs the possibility of the Soviet-American detente which could lead to broad areas of c itilernent, which cannot possibly be re- solved by military victory, which earns the fearful trembling but not the support of our ;allies throughout the world, which wastes American blood and wealth while China has is propaganda field day at our expense while :he loses not it single Chinese soldier, and which raises the frightful possibil.ty of a nuclear holocaust. On teip of that is the folly of turi ing revoluation over to the Com- munists who, of course, seek to debase and capture the revolution for their own pur- poses, while we embrace the hated generals and the keepers of the status quo. But, we are tcld, we Jews especially must realize that this is Munich all over again and we mu", not permit Appeasement. In my judgement this is demagoguery and non- sense. Communism and nazism are both noxious bit' they are not identical. Ruma- nia, Poland Yugoslavia are Communist na- tions as well; they are not our enemies. In 1938, the n din force operating against the Czech status quo was an outside fo ce, Hit- ler's Germany; the major force operating against the status quo err South Vietnam has been an inside force, formed in 1960 into the NLF. The largest outside force in Viet- nam is An merican troops, although North Vietnam pours more regiments into South Vietnam as the war escalates. The Czech government was a stable, strong, democratic government the. South Vietnamese govern- ment is a lictatorship which we buy, sell and manipulate Like puppet's on a string. Ho Chi Minh Ia a ruthless and bloody tyrant, but he is not Hitler. Standing firm in 1.938 might have ended the danger of Hitler's Germany. .Fighting in Vietnam todiy, even if we gaiilec total victory which would mean the decimation (if all Vietm-cm, does not even engage our central foes--the Chinese Com- munists in( perhaps the Soviets. Tu engage what we regard as our real foes would require nuclear bombs, and except for it few Penta- gon madme 1, we do not seem ready or that. The analogy between Vietnam and Munich is a spurious otie; unreel used to frighten Jews it is a transparent and indefensible )iece of demagoguer V. Should w, withdraw froin Vietnam? No, that is mahilestly impossible. We should renew the ;essation of bombings i!i North Vietnam and maintain unceasing quiet dip- lomatic effi its to get negotiations started among all parties to the conflict, including the Vietcon c, which will lead to a cease-fire and an hot orable settlement. As i. Jewish community we should speak and fu 1. in be- half of pea'etul settlement of conlicts, in behalf of all movements ii*_ the dirtction of a world at law, in behalf of all eJorts to deal with the poverty and hunger aid dis- ease which ie at the root of the rev iiution- ary fever of this age, in behalf of con-?ilation, negotiation, and peace. And, in my,pinion, any Jewish agency which speaks out of a Jewish value stance will speak out for pre- cisely these kinfs of things. Isn't that a tender-hear ;eel position? Yes. That's what the Jewish iositLon has always been Rach- manim, b'n ii rachmauim---merciful sons of the Mercifu Neither America nor t is world needs us to join the mob howling I:hr more blood, more bombs, more military power or to develop position papers or strategy and realpolitic. We do not need a Jewish desk of the Rare Corp. The Communist world is already deh zmanized and we are rushing to catch up. vo, America and the world need Jews, who c re really Jews, to keep roan hu- man, to remind us again that man s a pre- cious thing that there is only one family of Dian, th:.t the spilling of blood a some- thing more serious than cracking a nut, that he who saves a hate saves a world, and that man h is a :nigher destiny than that re- vealed in th-~ cesspool of Vietnam. Long afte ? this war disappears into history, the world v'ill still remember the words of the Hebrew )rophets of 2,000 years ag-i, point- ing the patLways, of morality out of he jun- gle of inhumanity to that day when men will not hi rt nor destroy in all this holy mountain. Thai; was our mission in ancient days and it is sti'l'l our mission today. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HHON. WILLIAM S. BROOMFIELD OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, April 5, 1966 Mr. BROOMFIELD. Mr. Speaker, a group of distinguished Michigandrs will travel this Staturday to British Hon- duras, a Central American country which will gain its independence in the next few years. They will be the vanguard of other groups who will visit this country under the Michigan Partners of the Alliance program estabCished only last February. In every sense of the word, the rela- tionship between Michigan. and this soon-to-be independent country which plans to call itself Belize will be a part- nership, a mutual exchange of infor- mation, of knowledge, or experience for the betterment of both. I am proud to see this relationship come about and I am sure that the Michigan Partners of the Alliance, under the able leadership of the Honorable Alvin F. Bently and Chancellor Durward Varner of Oakland University, will prove to be of great value to the cause of better understanding between our two peoples. At the organizational meeting of the Michigan Partners of the Alliance pro- gram at Michigan State University on February 25, Mr. Theodore Tcnorio, associate director of the Partners of the Alliance program, very ably outlined the objectives and the purposes of this worth- while program. For the benefit of my colleagues, Mr. Teriorio's remarks follow: REMARKS OF THEODORE TENORIO, ASr;OCIAT]t DIRECTOR OF THE PARTNERS OF THE AI,LIANCE PROGRAM, AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING CALLED DY Gov. GEORGE ROMNEY AT THE ,.STUDENT UNION BUILDING, MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY, EAST LANSING, ON FEBRUARY 25, 1966 Governor Romney, ladies and gentlemen, on behalf of Jim. Boren, the director whose message you have just heard, and our small partners staff I: am grateful to Governor Romney for this invitation to be here this morning to talk with you briefly about the Partners of the Alliance, the grassroots op- erational program in which you are contern- plating direct involvement. The parent Alliance for Progress, which evolved from that now historic conference in Uruguay in 1961, is not a U.S. program, but rather it is an alliance involving, in the words of the charter of Punta del Este, "The full energies of the peoples and governments of the American Republics." It is therefore a great joint effort which calls for positive action not only of governments but Llso of the private sector. This means that the Alliance is a great revolutionary program for progress which must have the active par- ticipation of the people of the united States--and the people of Latin America. Business leaders, yes, but this means the small businessman as well as the director of a large corporation. Labor leaders, yes, but also the member down at the level of his local. Professional leaders, yes, but also the young dynamic near. or woman who may be starting a professional career but can make a contribution to the cause of hemi:;pheric peace. Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 A2066 Approved g1Rfsgy Q6/AtCoj tD.P&Flpg R,00040006001April "l, 2966 question in the affirmative, and Reform dent at Ann Arbor, has had his deferment tion, the lessons of-Jewish -History, the ethi- Judaism has taken the lead in mobilizing the cancelled because of his participation in a cal values of Judaism are acutely relevant, entire Jewish community to this challenge. demonstration there. It is encouraging that I believe, to an American sick and hungry For if such issues of war and peace are not the Justice Department has spoken up for the for values to live by. within our province, then we reside in the constitutional right of dissent, and it Is to Nobody pretends that we Jews have lived province of Chelm or never never land. be hoped that it will dissuade the overzealous up to that mission in our time. Individual There are many grounds for Jewish concern, from the temptation to use the draft as a Jews have won Nobel Prizes and our numbers not the least of which is our stake in main- hammer to smash lawful political activity fill the ranks of SANE, foreign policy associ- taining a healthy and vigorous climate of and to intimidate young and vulnerable stu- ations, U.N. groups and every protest group, civil liberties in America itself. dents from expressing their consciences. I but as a Jewish community we have largely If the war in Vietnam continues its spiral do not want to overstate the situation. been tepid and silent on the great issues of of escalation, we may enter a dark and There are powerful agencies of the courts, war and peace. Nowhere is the status quo dangerous era in American life in which a the press and the citizenry to resist these tendency of the Jewish community more spirit of repression and hysteria and hatred trends, and the right to protest has In the evident than in the sphere of war and peace. will make the McCarthyism of the fifties look, main been protected. But I don't think we We pay a price for being so accepted and in retrospect, like a mild national aberration. should regard these few portents as merely secure in American life. We are so in that The tension over the Korean conflict spawned transient irritants either. Even before Viet- we are losing that special angle of vision the madness of McCarthyism. As I write, we nam became a crisis, the forces of right wing which comes from being out, from being have resumed bombing in North Vietnam and radicalism were significant in American life; alienated, from being part of but apart from the Security Council of the United Nations and, despite the leadership of the courts in the general society, subjecting it to judg- is preparing to debate the question. What safeguarding civil liberties, public opinion ment and to criticism. I get woried when the lies ahead no man can see, but it could well polls in this country have always revealed Jewish position is a popular position. The be a storm which would unleash the passions widespread Impatience with the rights of dis- entire organized Jewish community today is and furies of repression here in the United senters-atheists, Socialists, Communists and in danger of becoming a nice, bright orna- States. agitators of all kinds. When this normally ment of the establishment, as predictable as Some troubling portents are already evi- fragile foundation is burdened with the a New York Post editorial and as safe as a dent. Government leaders on all levels have tensions of an actual shooting war against Chaplain blessing the House of Representa- helped shape a public mood inhospitable to Communists, when the awesome power of tives. It is against us, too, that some of our criticism of U.S. policy in Vietnam. Attorney America seems not to be capable of achiev- best young kids are revolting. General Katzenbach has held out the threat ing clean-cut military victory, when for the One can criticize religion and its place in of a full-scale investigation into the demon- first time in American history a widespread the social order, but one cannot discount the strations, promising that "we may have some protest movement evolves in the very midst significance of the Vatican Council schema prosecutions in this area." J. Edgar Hoover, of a war, then all the latent paranoid on war and peace, of Pope John's "Pacem in who can always be relied upon to appeal to tendencies in American life will inevitably Terris," and especially the moral leadership the primitive and widely held notion that be exacerbated. Critics will be told to shut on this issue which the current Pope of Rome Communists are at the bottom of all social up, rally around the flag, stop selling out our is bringing to bear. The same is true of the agitation, reassured the public that Commu- boys in Vietnam, go back where you came statement by the National Council of nists are exploiting the protest against our from, and criticism will be increasingly Churches of Christ, which similarly related a Vietnam policy. The Senate Internal Se- equated with pro-communism and with great religious tradition to the issues of our curity Subcommittee has reported that the treason. Neighbor will once again view day. Nobody would care what a Jewish bowl- demonstrations have passed into the hands neighbor with suspicion, and the hunt for a ing club has to say about Vietnam, but I of Communists and extreme elements. That scapegoat will be on. Our national character think they do care where Judaism stands, some Communists are exploiting this issue does not dispose us for that "ordeal of what we at the UAHC said in San Francisco goes without saying; that such statements patience" of which Ambassador Goldberg and what the leaders of the three faiths will by government leaders will have the effect recently spoke. The attrition of American say when they meet in a conference on re- of stifling free debate and discouraging liberties would be a greater disaster than the ligion and peach in Washington. honest dissent also goes without saying. Al- loss of Vietnam, and we must have the though the Presidents consensus curtain has courage to affirm the first amendment, to But for a Jewish community to speak to tended to muffle debate, there has been a uphold lawful protest and dissent, and to this kind of issue also requires more than an certain polarization of dissenting opinion in encourage diversity and open debate which assemblage of persons who happen to be the Congress and the country, emphasized are the true glories of American democracy, born Jewish; it requires an embodiment and by the hearings in the Senate Foreign Rela- There is another rationale for our concern.- expression of what is uniquely and profound- tions Committee, and intensified by the It is the Great Society. Despite President ly Jewish: the ideals and values which lie sharp criticisms of Senator ROBERT KENNEDY. Johnson's assurances to the contrary, I fear embedded in the Jewish historic and reli- While the burning of draft cards is a futile that an escalated war in Vietnam will also gious experience. If we have not succeeded and senseless gesture which merely beclouds spell the epitaph to the Great Society. Not in making visible and clear the relevance of the debate, young and misguided idealists only are we not rich enough to wipe out this Jewish tradition, it is our failure and who destroy their cards to symbolize their poverty, racial ghettos, illiteracy, and misery not the failure of Judaism. It may be in- conscientious abhorrance of the war in Viet- here at the same time that we conduct a convenient but dig we must into the mine of nam are treated like major threats to the protracted major war there, but I believe that Jewish teaching. American system; harsh and panicky legis- an intensification of this war will so bru- Rabbi Jacob Agus has described Jews as lation was quickly adopted to make violators talize and blunt our moral sensitivity as to the antidemonic and antimythological force subject to maximum penalties of 5 years im- drain most of the idealism out of the vision in human history. This is what is needed prisonment or $10,000 fine or both. As the of a Great Society. In connection with U.S. policy in Viet- American Jewish Congress has pointed out, I believe that our deepest rationale is the nam. Here I express my own feelings. this stands in shocking contrast to the pen- imperative of Judaism itself. Our unique I am not a pacifist; I was a gunnery officer alty for desecrating the U.S. flag: 30 days im- history has made us specialists in the survival in the Navy in World War II. I applauded prisonment or $100 fine or both. This bor- of human crisis; indeed, I think this ac- the containment of communism in Europe, ders on war hysteria and scapegoating which counts in part for the growing fascination our resistance to aggression in Korea and can lead to excesses as to which Jewish and on the part of non-Jews with literature about Kennedy's stand on Cuba. Yet I believe we other groups concerned with civil liberties the mystery of Jews, Judaism, and Jewish must expose the juvenile American tendency should at least maintain vigilant concern. history. We tend, correctly, to attribute our to divide the world into "good guys and bad This growing punitiveness was also re- drive for social justice to Jewish religious guys"; the world is too complicated for flected in the sentence of 2 years at hard la- values. We explain our position on racial simplistic dichotomies and immature ideo- bor, a dishonorable discharge and forfeiture justice in terms of the Judaic concept of the logical crusades. We must remind ourselves of pay which was visited upon Lt. Harry W. sanctity of the human personality and the and our fellow Americans of some simple Howe for participating, not in uniform and equality of all the children of God. Yet the truths about Vietnam, among which are the not on duty, in an anti-Vietnam demonstra- commandment to seek peace, to pursue it, to following: that we poured more than a bil- tion in El Paso, Tex. This is a harsh penalty be messengers of peace unto the nations lion dollars of aid into the French effort to and the victim is not only one man, but the that commandment is infinitely more em- control Indochina before France was forced first amendment to the Constitution. Would phatic and unambiguous. It was our proph- out; that after the French withdrawal, we he have been punished in the same way if his ets who gave the world the vision of uni- took over and installed Diem as puppet ruler placard had read: "Bomb the Chinese Com- versal peace; and our rabbinic literature is an of South Vietnam, gave him, military sup- munists back to the stone age"7 unceasing demand that Jews stand, as co- port in direct violation of the 1954 Geneva And perhaps most ominous. of all have been partners with God, in shaping the messianic accord, and conspired with him to subvert threats by officials of the selective service vision of a time when nations shall beat their the reunification elections promised in the program to lift the deferment of college swords into plowshares. But never before accord because we didn't like the way the students who are involved In student pro- in human history have Jews had the freedom election would have turned out; that when tests. One of the finest products of our and the security and the access to the ears his role became too distasteful to the people youth program in Reform Judaism, a deeply of the world to give universal meaning to of South Vietnam, destroying his usefulness committed and socially conscious young stu- this mandate. The insights of Jewish tradi- to us, we conspired to get rid of him; that Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0 `a2t 19 pproved For"? eE RP~5~/~gq,j9 - f&-RBP67R00446R00 400060011-0 6 W [p 7, 61 ? P, PENDIX better English thin theig mother tongue by about the time they reach third grade. "If it's not school, it is 'Batman,' " a mother said. "TV is an enormous English language influence on the kids." At a meeting of Hispanic community lead- ers here recently some speakers said candidly that they would rather use English because it came easier to them. However, "Spanish is here to stay," many of those interviewed stressed, although few would predict that New York would become bilingual in the technical sense, Like Mon.. trea.l, where English and French are officially noted. The consensus was that the Spanish Language as well as certain Latin traits would. permanently flavor the city much in the way they do in Miami, where most of the Cuban. exile; have settled. Today Spanish language mass 'media are powerful here and command great loyalty ;Lmong their audience. They include tele- vision channel 47 and three radio stations- WADO, which has been broadcasting around the clock since March 1, WHOM and WBNX. Charles Baltin, vice president of WHOM? pointed to increasing Spanish language quality advertising by nationwide food.. beverage, detergent, and tobacco manufac- turers as proof that business was expecting the Hispanic market to last for "a couple of generations at least" and rapidly gain in. purchasing power. Ralph Costantino, program director of the same station. said: "Ethnic broadcasting once was multilingual-I remember making Chinese programs. Now it is almost exclu- sively geared to Spanish. This is it heini- spheric language unlike Italian, which is spoken in a faraway country; most Italo- Ainericans think they know Italian, when all they speak is some southern dialect." Par ahead in the newspaper field is El I )iario-La Prensa with it circulation of about 40,000 and a strongly Democratic editorial Iule. Senator ROBERT F. KrNNE,DY will dedi- .:ate the newspaper's new $3 million building .iI; 181 Hudson Street on April 12. The pub- Lather, O. Roy Chalk, said he had set aside three floors of the eight-story structure for audiovisual mass teaching of the Spanish language to civil service workers and other groups as "New York very definitely is going bilingual." Mr. Chalk, who has large trans- ,orta.tion, communications, and real estate ,:n terests, said lie was preparing a national edition of his newspaper for distribution coast to coast, in Puerto Rico, Latin Ameri- can countries. and Spain. i. r,?NniAY SUPPORTER 1:1 'I'iempo started as a weekly in 1963 .and became a daily last October. It will move into new, larger quarters at 116 West 14th l'itreet on June 1, Its editor in chief, Stan- ley P?oss, reported a circulation of 35,000. The paper supports Mayor Lindsay and snakes particular efforts to reach Spanish- language readers outside the Puerto Rican community here. \few York also has 24 Spanish-language motion picture theaters, scores of Latin nightclubs, and about 4,000 bodegas (gro- owned by and catering to Puerto h,icars. A Brooklyn scrod market chain is controlled by a Puerto Rican company. Spanish-speaking persons also operate about 'L.000 barbershops, a field once dominated by Italians, as well as hundreds of restaurants, insurance and real estate agencies, and other businesses. An expert on Hispanic: business here, Julio Hernandez, said Cubans had made "tremen- dous inroads-they are very resourceful." Mr. Hernandez heads the Lower Manhattan Nosiness Development and Opportunity Corps, which receives Federal antipoverty funds and has granted 63 loans totaling $000,000 since it started 8 months ago. It also promotes what is believed to be the first ;panis:h-language basic: management course is the country. Three credit institutions here are doing business nainly with Puerto Ricans, the Banco Polular de Puerto Rico, the Banco do Ponce, anti the Ponce de Leon Federal Sav- ings and loan Association. The manager of the last establishment, Erasto Torres, said that an Increasing number of Puerto Ricans were buying homes in the $20,000 t.o $25,000 price range. The Pelham Bay ar-:a of the Bronx is favored by the new Hispanic mid- dle class. Dthers move to Long Isla al. There sage ;,till near-ghettos of Puerto Ricans in the city--''Spanish Harlem" from East 96th to 118th Street, many blocks on and off 13 oadway on the Upper West Side, and in s:uth and east Bronx. Spanish neighbnrh ids abound also on Manhattan's Lower East, Side, once mainly Jewish, the Greenpoin , Williamsburg, and Brownsville sections o' Brooklyn, anti other pockets in that berm gh and in Queens. Cubans have generally kept nr,ny from Puerto Hit an .seas. The average Cuban in New York often well educated, is ahead of the average Puerto Rican. on the scial-eco- nomic ladder even though he has the added handica.n rf alien status. Last ySi is civil war to the I'D ;minican Re?ublic t -ached off a still growing immigra- tion movement; from that country. Many Dominicans arrive with enough ;unney to buy mat or squeeze out power Puerto Ricans. The Coro: a section of Queens was found to be harboring a sizable Dominic, n colony. Conflicts : nd resentment between Domin- icans and Puerto Ricans were rc. ortcd in several art is. About 28.950 Dominicans had .o;istered as alien residents of New York in Ja.r,uary, ac- cording to Sol Marks, Deputy District Direc- tor of the U.S. Immigration and N. t:uraliza- tio:n Service. The Dominican Consulate Gen- eral estim:_ted that 65,000 D_:eninicns were living here. The discrepancy between the two figures: may be due to the fact that many e;irii'r Dominican immigrant:, attained U.S. citizenship, and others enterer on tem- porary vin s and failed to register. A total of 48,(108 Cubans and 17,658 Colom- bians also ?egis,ered in January as ,lien resi- dents here However the Cuban ands Cuban- descended population is known to be much larger bee, use many earlier immigrants are now citizens. The Put 'to Rican population of New York was little more: than 60,1100 in 19(0, about 245,000 in 1950 and about 612,000 in 1960. It may re; oh 750,000 early next year. The migration [rom Puerto Rico to Now York was higher t in 1953, with nearly 71.000 per- sons, and again in :L956, with mare than 52,000. Si ate then it has fallen off, The success of . he island's economic devrlopnent program, 'Operation Bootstrap," induced many Puer o Ricans to return home In 1961 nearly 1,80) Puerto Ricans: more returned to their homeland than those settling in New York, and is 19,33 the :net outflow w:s nearly 5,500. Since 19 A the migration here 'uis been rising again, showing a net inflow o' 1,370 in that year tnd of 16,678 in 1965. As man- power sho. tages become more pressing in many U.S. industries and wages go up, Puerto Ricans again seek 'their fortune in the big city that is 'only $45 av. Y"--the cheapest of ? fare from San Juan to No,w York. The prey on.t influx from Puerto Rico is "more sophisticated," according to 1:'rancisca Bou, assistant director of the migrlion di- vision here of the Puerto Rican labor depart- merit. "Ii past years," she said, "people from the island would come, shivering in thin clothes, with a batte,ed suit.:ise and no place to go. Now many arrive better pre- pared, and fewer get stranded or are un- skil led." Nevertheess, about 160.1100 Puert Ricans are still n t welfare rolls, enmpar: lively a higher percenta.;e than tare 236,000 Negroes and 107,000 others on relief. Close t. 200,000 A2065 Puerto Rican children are in Nc,v York's school system with only about 5,01;0 in the 12th grade. Puerto Rican leader, clamor for measures to enable many more of their community's youngsters to go t.c college. Better education for young Puerto Ricans here is indispensable for "necessary leader- ship," Teodoro :Moscoso, Mayor Lindsay's new consultant on Puerto Rican community af- fairs and economic deveolpment, The appointment of Mr. Moscoso, one of the world's leading experts on economic develop- ment and Latin American problems, was clearly meant to prove that the sew city administration cares for Hispanic New York. EXTENSION OF REMARKS'' HON. WILLIAM F. RYAN ,'` OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTA'IIVES, Wednesday, April 6, 1966 Mr. RYAN. Mr. Speaker, one of the bright spots which has pierced the gloom of war during the last few months, is the outspoken conscience of the religious community. No religious group has been more outspoken than the Jewish com- munity. In speaking out about Vietnam last November, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations brou;ht a thoughtful moral note to the di ;mansions of the war. Now, in the current issue of American Judaism, Albert Vorspan., director of the Commisison on Socha. Action of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, develops the moral argu- ment at greater length. Albert Vorspan's article is thoflLlhtiill and thought provoking. If men con- sider his position "tender hearted," lie points out : That's what the Jewish porit_on hr;S always been. He favors world law and observes: We do not need a Jewish desk of l,ho Rand Corp. I think we all can benefit from reading Mr. Vorspan's words. His article follows: VIETNAM AND THE JEWISH CGNSCI -::NCE (By Albert Vorspan, author of "( ants of Justice" and co--author of "Ju" ire arui Judaism" and "A Tale of 10 Citi(s." H's articles have appeared in Time, A ,e R - porter and many other publicatioias. Mi?. Vorspan is director of the Commission on Social Action and director of pros=rams of the UAHC.) (NOTE.-At its biennial assembly in 11..;1 Francisco in November 1965, the Onion of American Hebrew Congregations adopted a resolution calling for a ceasefire and it polit- ical settlement of the war in Vietna::i. '1',c following article is an expression of personal opinion with respect to the course s: events in Vietnam and we recognize our obligate, i to publish diverse views on so troubling and controversial a.n issue. Reactions fr)'n read- ers will appear in forthcoming is ,ices of American Judaism.) Should the American Jewish community, as such, be concerned with the moral issues raised by the growing crisis in Vetnam:' The Union of American Hebrew Ce.igreg i- tions and the Central Conference of Ameri- can Rabbis have vigorously answered this Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400060011-0