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May 9, 1966
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Approve~~F If o 966 YA- AF A446R000400070014-6 fy Authority of April 28, 1966: S. Res. 252. Resolution extending birthday greetings to the Honorable Harry S. Tru- man upon the occasion of his 82d birthday: Mr. AIKEN, Mr. ALLOTT, Mr. ANDERSON, Mr. .BARTLETT, Mr. BASS, Mr. BAYH, Mr. BIBLE, Mr. BOGGS, Mr. BREWSTER, Mr. BURDICK, Mr. BYRD of West Virginia, Mr. CANNON, Mr. CASE, Mr. CHURCH, Mr. CLARK, Mr. COOPER, Mr. DIRKSEN, Mr. DODD, Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. EASTLAND, Mr. ELLENDER, Mr. ERVIN, Mr. FuL- BRIGHT, Mr. HARRIS, Mr. HART, Mr. HARTKE, Mr. HAYDEN, Mr. HILL, Mr. HOLLAND, Mr. INOUYE, Mr. JACKSON, Mr. JAVITS, Mr. JOB- DAN of North Carolina, Mr. KENNEDY of Massachusetts, Mr. KENNEDY or New York, Mr. KUCHEL,- Mr. LAUSCHE, Mr. LONG of Mis- souri, Mr. LONG of Louisiana, Mr. MAGNUSON, Mr. MANSFIELD, Mr. MCCARTHY, Mr. McGEE, Mr. MCGOVERN, Mr. MCINTYRE, Mr. MONDALE, Mr. MONRONEY, Mr. MORSE, Mr. MORTON, Mr. Moss, Mr. MUNDT, Mr. MusKIE, Mr. NELSON, Mrs. NEUBERGER, Mr. PASTORE, Mr. PEARSON, Mr. PELL, Mr. PROXMIRE, Mr. RANDOLPH, Mr. RIBICOFF, Mr. ROBERTSON, Mr. SALTONSTALL, Mr. SCOTT, Mr. SIMPSON, Mr. SMATHERS, Mrs. SMITH, Mr. SPARKMAN, Mr. STENNIS, Mr. SYMINGTON, Mr. TALMADGE, Mr. TYDINGS, Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey, Mr. YARBOROUGH, and Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Authority of May 3, 1966: S. Con. Res. 93. Concurrent resolution providing that no Federal agency take any action to discourage parity prices for any agricultural commodity: Mr. CURTIS, Mr. HRUSKA, and Mr. MORTON. S. Res. 256. Resolution relating to United States denunciation of the Warsaw Conven- tion: Mr. BASS, Mr. BOGGS, Mr. BREWSTER, Mr. CURTIS, Mr. DIRKSEN, Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. EAST- LAND, Mr. HART, Mr. HRUSKA, Mr. INOUYE, Mr. JAVITS, Mr. LONG of Missouri, Mr. MILLER, Mr. MONDALE, Mr. MORTON, Mr. MUNDT, Mr. RIBICOFF, Mr. ROBERTSON, Mr. SALTONSTALL, and Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. world. Complete, close, and continuous medical care and treatment are pro- vided to all supported military and civilian personnel. The members of this dedicated team of highly trained profes- sional and technical personnel are lo- cated at all echelons of command from the forward combat areas to the most rearward enclaves, insuring that our most precious commodity, the individ- ual soldier, is provided immediately re- sponsive, effective care and treatment. The soldier wounded in Vietnam has the benefit of methods and materials far superior to those available a few years ago. The mortality among the wounded reaching a hospital in Vietnam is the lowest in history. In January 1966, it was 2.8 precent of which the majority occurred within 24 hours of hospitaliza- tion. The mortality rate after 24 hours was only 1.2 percent. These splendid data may be attributed to many factors involving planning, logistics, and profes- sional capabilities. I will mention a few of these factors. Helicopter evacuation is used for prac- tically all of the casualties for transpor- tation to a hospital. The more seriously wounded usually reach a hospital within 1 to 2 hours after wounding and have been known to reach a hospital in less than an hour. This is exceedingly im- portant Mississippi may proceed for 3 ad- Whole in the overall low mortality rate. from from M M minutes. Whole blood is available in abundant ditional The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- quan clears only i s and at but times in even di- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. vision clearing stations and at Mr. STENNIS. I thank the majority in battalion aid stations. Infusion of leader. blood for the critically wounded con- Mr General Heaton and all President , . tinues during helicopter evacuation to a his associates are to be highly com- hospital. mended for their splendid work in this There are adequate numbers of fully field. The Army Medical Service per- surgeons, and surgical whom sonnel in Vietnam deserve special tribute egcone, the great majority of f whom and commendation for their dedicated gram of s of career the officers, Army trained Medical i Service, the pro- service. It is because of their work that gr, and Heaton was able to assure me thermilit lit ryframewor workk so that working each within n that "no U.S. Army soldier in Vietnam the primary mission is of today lacks required care and treat- familiar mmiliar ary with framework the surgeon in a combat zone and the ment." General Heaton is not only a truly indicated staging of the surgery of the great administrator, he is an outstand- At battle least d ed wounne., and in some hospitals ing active surgeon and a highly dedicated o soldier and nd American. two and three, well trained anesthesiol- All Americans, and particularly our ically njurede d during surgery, or the crit- fighting men in Vietnam and their loved ogists anesthesia operative resuscitation tand participate surgpeones at home, can be reassured and com- in the rive treatment in the forted by the high standards of medical recovery postoperative being provided and by the fact that ecovery or intensive e care units. no avenue of medical support is being ADDRESSES, EDITORIALS, ARTI- CLES, ETC.,, PRINTED IN THE APPENDIX On request, and by unanimous con- sent, addresses, editorials, articles, etc., were ordered to be printed in the Appendix, as follows: By Mr. BURDICK: Statement by him regarding the artificial water recharge system of Minot, N. Dak. Poem entitled "To Those Who Plowed With a 'Walker'-That Is," written by O. A. Olson, of Fargo, N. Dak. By Mr. RANDOLPH: Speech delivered at Widen (W. Va.) Arts and Crafts Fair, May 7, 1966. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro term pore. Is there further morning 1 ness? ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE IN VIETNAM Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President, I wish to bring to the attention of the Senate the outstanding and truly excellent medical care being provided Army per- sonnel in Vietnam under the high stand- ards laid down by the Surgeon General, Lt. Gen. Leonard D. Heaton. The U.S. Army Medical Service in Vietnam has the mission of providing effective medical support to the U.S. Army troops and other U.S. military and civilian personnel in Vietnam. In accomplishing this mission the U.S. Army is proving that it is one of the finest military medical teams in the Our most significant disease problem overlooked or left unattended. in Vietnam today is that of malaria. The Mr. President, if I may have one ad- incidence of this disease increased last ditional minute, I wish to point out that fall concurrent with the buildup in troop excellent medical support not only exists strengths in Vietnam. The malaria en- in Vietnam and the immediate support- counter decreased tin Vietnam has treatment ing hospitals in the Pacific area, but the with synthetic l antimalarial drugs. For- more severely wounded are returned to with caes usl respond to o For- the continental United States and placed ery, these cases usuallyy quinine. As a in hospitals all over the Pacific side of furth treatment fur result with qwe have this country, as well as back here in em- result of this experience effort to find new hanew Walter Reed and other hospitals in the b on drugs a an all-out effective in the sup- United States, where several hundred pr that will effec of tive malaria. - of them are now receiving excellent pression and treatment l. New attention. regimens are also being tested and a multimllion-dollar research effort is well is Let point out quickly teat the Army exceptional underway. United States combat troops in Viet- medical services are found in the Navy, nam are a highly mobile force which the Air Force and the Marines, and they operate in and out of very restrictive ter- do a splendid job. It does happen that in rain. Casualties resulting from these the war in Vietnam the Army is carrying 9583 operations must be evacuated by a re- sponsive mobile force capable of operat- ing in the same terrain and under the same conditions. The Army Medical Service is meeting this challenge with helicopter air ambulance units in direct support of the combat soldier. Casualty pickups are being made at the place where the injury is incurred and many times while the combat operations are still in progress. The fact that a soldier can be evacuated from the place of injury to a medical treatment facility within minutes not only helps the morale of the fighting man, but has been one of the important factors in reducing the mor- tality rate to the lowest of any war in history. Approximately 90 percent of all casualties in Vietnam are evacuated by helicopter. Army Medical Service helicopters are averaging over 4,000 pa- tient evacuations per month. Vietnam helicopter evacuations have already sur- passed the total helicopter evacuations made during the entire Korean war. The ACTING PRESIDENt' pro tem- pore. The time of the Senator has expired. Mr. STENNIS. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may proceed for 1 additional minute. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Senator Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6 9584 Approved For Releasb 0 / (MAt-ffFE8~~ 7,. 004 6ROO040070014-6 a r May 9, 1966 t g ea er part of the load because they are the ones in combat and also because to a degree, they are taking care of the men on the immediate battlefields. These things do not just happen. It is with the greatest pride that every Ameri- can can look at the record and have the finest assurance that if their loved ones are in Vietnam, they are being very well looked after. Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, will the Senator from Mississippi yield? 1 Mr. STENNIS. I yield gladly to the Senator from California. Mr. KUCHEL. I associate myself ful- ly with all the comments which have been made by the distinguished Senator from Mississippi. Miracles are being performed today by the men and women in the Medical Corps of the several U.S. military services, those intrepid people who bind up the wounds of Americans who have fallen in defense of freedom In southeast Asia and around the globe elsewhere. Speed and skill in medical treatment in all the services have reached new highs. Great new hospitals have been erected here and in the far Pacific. Mo- bile hospitals are in South Vietnam. Particularly on this occasion, I am glad to join the Senator from.Mississippi in paying a full need of respect to the Army Medical Corps, from the world-renowned Walter Reed Hospital in Washington to Its selfless activities across the seas. I have, as the Senator from Missis- sippi knows, particular reason to be ac- The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President there will be no business on the pending legislation, but It will be the pending business tomorrow when those most in- terested will be on hand to take it up. It would be my suggestion that the administration take the initiative in call- ing a world conference for this purpose. The stability of one of the major mining industries Is at stake and, as always, its effect on the economy, as a whole, will be of the highest significance. WE SHOULD OFFER DIPLOMATIC WORLD COPPER CONFERENCE RECOGNITION TO COMMUNIST Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, his- CHINA torically, the mining of copper has been Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr,. Presi- an extremely important element in the dent, the recent hearings on China con- economy of the State of Montana, and ducted by the Senate Committee on for much of the West. Therefore, the Foreign Relations clearly indicate the status of the industry throughout the need for better communication between world is of considerable concern to those the United States and Communist China. of us who represent the Treasure State. The Peking government has for 1.7 years In the past several decades, the industry ruled some 740 million men, women and has been plagued by many boom and children-nearly one-fourth of the bust periods. The London market is far world's population. The establishment too high and I believe that a time has of a workable relationship with the Red come to attempt to reach some form of Chinese Government is one of the most international agreement on production important problems facing our Nation and prices. It was with this thought in today. mind that I proposed a world conference, China will be incapable for many years, on a recent visit to Butte, "the richest if then, of developing weapons necessary hill on earth." to challenge our security. Nonetheless, I feel that there is a strong possibility it is the most powerful nation in Asia that copper may be pricing itself out of and in years to come will have a pro- the market because these inflationary found influence upon the kind oi' world prices are stimulating the greater use of in which our children and grandchildren substitutes for the red metal. will be living. There is This situation has developed since probably no Chile raised the greater threat to world peace today than price to 62 cents and the threat posed by the arrogant, hostile Zambia increased its price to equal that Red Chinese dictators who are violent- of the London exchange rate. ly Communist in the Stalin Incidentally, according to the New Time alone will lessen the bitter Y s k T th ne or s ey imes this morning, Peru has feel toward the nations of the Western Army-General Heaton. He is a great joined the parade. These are tremen- world that oppressed China and degraded American, a great soldier, a great physi- dous increases. This trend can be dan- the Chinese during the 18th, 19th and cian, a great surgeon, and a great admin- gerous. If this continues it will be around the turn of the 20th century. Istrator, who has successfully discharged extremely difficult to maintain a 36-cent- The time has come for the United his responsibility over this farflung, a-pound price in this country while the States to recognize the Red Chinese Gov- worldwide corps with all its skills in med- rest of the world goes way beyond. In- ernment. Nations, like individuals, icine and in surgery by which personnel cidentally, I want to state that the do- should not ignore the facts of life. Rec- in the Army are miraculously cared for. mestic copper producers-Anaconda, ogntion of one nation by another never I venture to hope, on this occasion, that Phelps-Dodge, Kennecott, and the rest- means approval of the ruling regime of the people of the United States, and the have been most cooperative with the that country. Offering diplomatic rec- men and women In the U.S. Army, may Government in its endeavor to keep the ognition and reestablishing our Embassy have the benefit of General Heaton's con- price of copper from going out of sight. in Peking would be a step toward world tinuing service for many years in the Releases of Government stockpile cop- peace and could not possibly bring harm future. per help to alleviate the U.S. situation to our . I thank the Senator from Mississippi for a time but, unfortunately, our do- Today weuntry must rely on our consul for yielding to me to make these com- mestic producers cannot increase pro- general in Hong Kong and on Great ments. duction to meet demand. Other metals Britain,, France, Canada, and other na- Mr. STENNIS. I thank the Senator. such as aluminum and steel can be pro- tions that recognize Red China to relay I certainly share those views and hopes duced at higher levels to meet demands to us information about that govern- with the Senator from California. but this is not the case in the n t I s an DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA TEACHERS' RETIREMENT AND ANNUITY FUND Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that Calendar No. 1101, H.R. 11439, be made the pending business at the conclusion of morning business. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. The bill will be stated by title for the information of the Senate. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (H.R. 11439) to provide for an increase in the annuities payable from the District of Columbia teachers' retirement and an- nuity fund, to revise the method of de- termining the cost of living increases in such annuities, and for other purposes. te ment. Hong Kong, Incidentally, was of copper. taken from China at the end of the Stability in the market is a require- opium war which England declared on ment for continuous production and sta- the Chinese Government because the ble employment. This stability means Chinese tried to prevent the English from prosperity to copper-producing areas of profiting by traffic in opium to the injury, my State, as well as in other sections of of the Chinese people. At the same time, the country. there are many vital problems facing This is something that might very well mankind that cannot be resolved without be handled at a world conference to dis- direct communication with the Peking cuss the adoption of an agreement on regime. production designed to avoid "ups and Our allies, including neighbors such as downs" in an industry which can thrive Canada, have recognized Red China and only on a stable production-pricing sys- are prospering by trade with that coun- tem. This proposal immediately raises try. In 1964 Chinese trade with non- questions of international cartels and Communist countries exceeded $2 billion. violations of antitrust laws but I hope Very definitely, American producers and that the experts- within the Department manufacturers should be permitted to of Justice will understand the gravity of sell to Red China at world prices for gold the problem and cooperate on this mat- whatever the nationals of that nation ter, may wear, eat, drink, or smoke. Approved For Release 2005/06/29: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6 Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6 May 9, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE view of the future. I give it to you political scientists whose work is often permeated by pessimism under the guise of realism. I leave you as you adjourn your important conference with this optimistic view. Can we call my view other than optimistic since edu- cation is indeed an end in itself? It is the very essence of the American dream. It is now as well a means to many ends. Some of these will increasingly guide the conduct of our foreign policy. For this, I am thank- ful. Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, if one's greatness is measured by his character and integrity and by the courage of his convictions, then truly Pat McNamara was a great man. A man of very humble beginnings, he began his life working with his hands and, although he later held one of the highest offices of this Nation, he never forgot his early associations with men and women of labor. He never suc- cumbed to the temptations of power and the vanity of prestige. He was con- cerned with the plight of the elderly, the ill, the uneducated, and the youth of our Nation. He was truly a friend of the forgotten underdog. If one's greatness is measured by the warmth of his heart and the milk of hu- man kindness which flows through his veins, then truly Pat McNamara was a great man. Although he was a man of huge physical proportions, he responded to the cries of a little infant and was concerned with the plight of helpless animals. He was truly a compassionate person. Pat McNamara was truly one of the finest men I have met along life's path- way. In his passing, our Nation has suf- fered a great loss, but because Of his presence in this world, our Nation today is a greater and much better place. Our Nation will miss him and I will miss him. INFLATIONARY TRENDS Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, indic- ative of the increasing concern through- out our Nation over inflationary trends are the comments expressed in an edi- torial which appeared in the Friday, April 22, edition of the Pratt, Kans., Trib- une. This thoughtful piece, entitled "From All Points of the Compass," emphasizes the paradoxical effect on our economy of vast Federal defense and welfare pro- grams. I would commend this editorial to the attention of my colleagues and ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: FROM ALL POINTS OF THE COMPASS Inflation news is coming in from all the points of the compass nowadays. For Instance, says a Herald Tribune News Service dispatch, wholesale prices took a big jump in February, according to the Depart- ment of Labor. It was the biggest for any February in all of 16 years. And it "lifted the closely watched price Inflation barometer 4.1 percent above its year-ago level." Government spokesmen, the report goes on, express the hope that the wholesale price index may soon stop its upward surge. Just about everyone will concur in that. But, as past history has proven, this may turn out to be whistling in the dark, and the forces which are now shouldering prices and costs upward may prove irresistible. The ordinary citizen, worriedly watching further degradation of the dollar can only hope for the best. Each of those dollars buys a little less each month. And there can be small doubt that this will continue so long as we attempt to fight a major war, de- clared or undeclared, and with It carry on welfare programs of unprecedented scope and cost. It cannot be too often repeated that in this way we create new classes of poor at a time when a major governmental purpose is U~ A SOUND VIEW Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, the "sound view of Vietnam," held by Secre- tary Freeman has been lauded by the Denver Post. The Post quotes Freeman as saying that "agriculture is the key to lasting victory in Vietnam," and the paper adds: More and more, this is being accepted as truth. Military effort, by itself, is not enough. Only a sweeping modernization of the Vietnamese economy-particularly in the rural areas-will achieve the lasting victory we seek. Because we are concerned about the "second front," and because this edi- torial on the subject is most informative, I ask unanimous consent that it be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: FREEMAN HAS SOUND VIEW OF VIETNAM Orville Freeman's view of the problem in South Vietnam differs little from that held by other members of President Johnson's Cabinet. Nevertheless, having recently toured rural areas of South Vietnam as an expert observer, the Agriculture Secretary gives an Impression of persuasive credibility. He believes, in the words he used in ad- dressing the National Farmers Union con- vention in Denver, that "agriculture is the key to lasting victory in Vietnam." More and more, this is being accepted as truth. -Military effort, by itself, is not enough. Young peasant volunteers must be organized In a concerted program aimed at opening up what Freeman calls a- "second front" In the long Vietnamese war. The military fight for territory has made some progress.' But only a sweeping mod- ernization of the Vietnamese economy-par- ticularly In the rural areas-will achieve the lasting victory we seek. . President Johnson expressed this view in the Declaration of Honolulu, which followed his conference in Hawaii with leaders of the South Vietnamese Government. Johnson's Agriculture Secretary gave the Declaration full support in his Denver speech last week. Rural uplift Is not new. But the effort needs to be so much greater than we have hitherto been willing to hazard that it amounts-at the very least-to a major shift of emphasis in the Asian war, The reason for the difficulty is that on- going programs are hard to maintain in the face of hit-and-run terrorism by the Viet- cong. Secretary Freeman said the 1,500 vil- lage chiefs killed in South Vietnam during the last few years are equivalent "In the United States to assassinating 60,000 Ameri- can mayors and county commissioners. ' Obviously it is difficult to bring progress. Few villagers want to volunteer for the firing. Squad. - 9597 Nevertheless, this is what must happen. Progress and modernization must be made so attractive that the South Vietnamese peo- ple are willing to take the gamble because they are convinced the Vietcong represent only bloodshed and repression. The $275 million aid package now before Congress, plus expanded aid to be sought in the next fiscal year, is the first installment in the sweeping program aimed at escalating rural progress in the war-torn country. We believe, as does Secretary Freeman, that this will be money well spent. Military ef- fort alone will not get the job done; a com- bined effort has a good chance of bringing peace to southeast Asia. Perhaps the program envisioned by Secre- tary Freeman-improved agricultural tech- nology, education, land reform and an up- grading of rural life generally-will someday produce a pattern of peaceful development which can spread from South Vietnam to other underdeveloped nations. That would be a marvelous bonus, indeed, because the killer in other countries-the specter of famine-poses a threat which is far more deadly in its implications than the Vietcong. PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS FOR MICRONESIA Mr. FONG. Mr. President, it was with a deep sense of personal interest and sat- isfaction that I note that the Department of the Interior and the Peace Corps have announced plans to recruit, train, and assign as many as 750 Peace Corps vol- unteers to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands-Micronesia. On March 21 of this year-more than a month and a half ago-1 urged the Secretary of the Interior to seek the serv- ices of Peace Corps volunteers for Micro- nesia which the Interior Department ad- ministers. In my letter to Secretary Udall, I stated that it was -"not only proper but a matter of priority that the Micronesians receive urgent assistance from the Peace Corps." Specifically I referred to the need for improving edu- cation, medical and health services, eco- nomic development, and other activities. Secretary Udall responded to me at that time by saying that "your proposal is indeed intriguing and we shall want to study it very carefully." It was my concern over the failure of the Interior Department to utilize Peace Corps volunteers long before now which prompted me to write to Secretary Udall. For it has been evident for some time that the Interior Department has not come to grips with the many problems of this far flung and underdeveloped area of the western Pacific. I am very pleased, therefore, that the Interior Department now agrees with my proposal to use Peace Corps volun- teers in the Trust Territory. I am doubly happy that both the Interior De- partment and the Peace Corps are mov- ing with unusual swiftness to carry out my proposal. I ask unanimous consent to have printed at the end of my remarks the texts of my letter of March 21 to Secre- tary Udall and his acknowledgment to me; a fact sheet issued by the Peace Corps titled, "Peace Corps and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands-Micro- nesia;" and a news article from the Washington Post of May 7, 1966, titled, Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6 9598 Approved For Release. 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE "Pacific Islands Showplace Is Peace Corps Aim." a The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 1), Mr. FONG. Mr. President, it is a mat- ter of deep pride to the people of Hawaii that the training of the Peace Corps vol- unteers for Micronesia will take place in Hawaii. Hundreds of Peace Corps vol- unteers have been trained for service in various Asian countries at the Hilo cam- pus of the University of Hawaii and at the Peace Corps camp in Waipo Valley operated by the university, both located on the big island of Hawaii. The experi- ence already gained by the Peace Corps Staffs in Hawaii will be of great value in training the prospective volunteers for the trust territory. The Peace Corps volunteers will give the Micronesians the kind of practical assistance they need and have asked for-in education, community develop- ment, public health and public works. The volunteers will thereby help the trust territory people build the social, economic and political basis for self- government. As the Micronesians progress, they will be better able to decide the type of poli- tical status they wish for themselves. Looking toward this eventuality, I intro- duced in the Senate, on August 18, 1965, a resolution which would open the way for the trust territory to be included in the State of Hawaii if the people of Ha- waii and the trust territory are in favor of such inclusion. The assignment of Peace Corps volun- teers to t4e trust territory will go a long way toward preparing the Micronesians to decide their future status. I am, therefore, very pleased and enthusiastic over this development. EXHIBIT 1 Hon. STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: In line with my gen- eral concern for the status of the people of Micronesia, I am writing to recommend strongly the ? use of Peace Corps volunteers in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. There is a clear and current need in the Trust Territory for the type of services which the Peace Corps can render. As High Com- missioner M. W. Coding said In addressing the opening session of the first congress of Micronesia on July 12, 1965, at Saipan: "There is a tremendous job that remains to be done. Many of the problems we face might be described as being typical of any growing but undeveloped economy. One of the most challenging problems and one that will require bold and imaginative approach lies in improving living conditions, in sup- plying adequate medical services and educa- tional opportunities for people In the more remote and thinly populated islands of the Territory." Commissioner Coding thus noted that while some progress has been made, a great deal of work lies ahead in improving educa- tion, medical and health services, economic development, and other fields, Volunteers of the Peace Corps have been notably success- ful in helping people help themselves in these activities in underdeveloped areas else- where. They can render invaluable services to Micronesians if assigned there. Since the well-being of the Trust Terri- tory people is a responsibility of the United States, and more particularly of your Depart- ment, it would seem to me not only proper but also a matter of priority that the Mic- ronesians receive urgent assistance from the Peace Corps. If there are legal, technical, or other rea- sons why Peace Corps volunteers cannot be assigned to the Trust Territory, I wish to be fully advised on this matter and would ap- preciate information as to what steps can be taken to overcome such obstacles. May I hear from you at your earliest con- venience. With warm personal regards and aloha, I am, Sincerely yours, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Washington, D.C., March 24, 1966. HOn. HIRAM L. FONG, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR FONG: I am acknowledging your letter of March 21, in which you propose the use of Peace Corps volunteers to assist the Micronesian people, Your proposal is indeed intriguing and we shall want to study it very carefully. We shall be writing you further on this subject at the earliest possible time. Sincerely yours, STEWART L. UDALL, Secretary of the Interior. PEACE CORPS AND THE TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS (~MiMICRONESIA) WHAT Is IT? The trust territory consists of 2,141 islands spread over 3 million square miles of the Western Pacific. Taken from Japan in World War II, the islands were placed under a United Nations trusteeship in 1947. Their administration was assigned by mandate to the United States, which in a string of bloody battles, had driven the Japanese out of them. WHAT IS MICRONESIA? This is the name given to those Pacific island occupied by the Micronesian peoples, seafaring first cousins to the Malays. Greater Micronesia Includes the Gilbert Islands, which are under British administration. Otherwise, Micronesia and the trust territory are the same---embracing the Marianas, Marshall, and Caroline Archipelagos. Guam, the largest of the Marianas, is not included in the trust territory since it became an American possession in 1898, when it was ceded to the United States by Spain. WHO ARE THE MICRONESIANS? They include most of the 88,000 inhabitants of the 97 populated islands of the trust territory. (Two of these islands, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi, are homes for another people, the' Polynesians.) They speak nine separate Micronesian languages with dialectical variations. They came to Micronesia in prehistoric times, probably sailing their great oceangoing out- rigger canoes from lands lying to the east. They were already settled in the Marianas when Ferdinand Magellan discovered them for the West in 1521. WHERE IS MICRONESIA? Mill, the westernmost of the Marshalls, is less than 100 miles east of the international date line. More than 3,000 miles farther east, Tobi in the western Carolinas lies off the northern tip of New Guinea. Almost 2,000 miles northwest of Tobi, the remote and uninhabited Farallon de Pajaros juts its rocky peak out of the ocean less than 700 miles from Japan. In all the huge expanse of water included in Micronesia (larger than the land area of the United States), only 687 square miles are above sea level. May 9, 1966 WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPAL ISLANDS? Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas be- came the sites of B-29 bases in World War II from which Japan was regularly bombed. The Enoia Gay took off from Tinian on the fateful day when it dropped to atom bomb on Hiroshima. Bikini, in the Marshalls, was the site of America's first H-bomb explosion. In preparation for World War I:1, the Jap- anese constructed major fortifications on Yap and Truk in the Carolines. The Ameri- can assault against the Japanese brought the names of other islands to the attention of the world-Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Ulithi, the Palaus. WHY IS THE PEACE CORPS GOING TO THE TRUST TERRITORY? The Micronesians asked for Peace Corps volunteers-for teachers, engineers, survey- ors, health experts, agricultural extensioniets, draftsmen and persons who know how to or- ganize and run cooperatives. And that is what the Peace Corps plans to send. WHEN WILL VOLUNTEERS GO TO MICRONESIA? Two waves of volunteers are now planned. The first, to arrive by October .1966, will begin programs in elementary education and community development, public health, and public works. The second, to begin in Jan- uary 1967, will concentrate on secondary edu- cation, cooperative and credit union devel- opment, agriculture, public administration, communications and transportation. These two waves will involve as many as 750 vol- unteers. Others will follow later. WHERE WILL THEY TRAIN? The prospective volunteers will take their training at the Hilo campus of the Univer- sity of Hawaii and at the Peace Corps camp in Waipio Valley operated by the university. Their training conditions will simulate as far as possible their later working conditions. WILL THE PEACE CORPS PLAY A SPECIAL ROLE IN THE TRUST TERRITORY? In his May 5, 1966, letter to Peace Corps Director Jack Vaughn, President Johnson said: "I will be asking the Congress to ap- prove the Department of the Interior's omni- bus legislation which seeks to improve the capital budget of the territory and to raise the level of the Interior Department's con- tinuing effort in the territory. However, I see the Peace Corps role as a very special kind of effort being separate and apart from the daily tasks of civil administration." This "special kind of effort" will lie at the heart of a fresh attempt to fulfill America's responsibilities in the trust territory. I will seek to improve the conditions of life for the people of Micronesia. Finally, it will help build the material and spiritual circumstances in which the people of the trust territory can intelligently and successfully-and in the not-too-.distant future-chose their own form of government. [From the Washington Post] PACIFIC ISLANDS SHOWPLACE IS PEACE: CORPS AIM (By Bryce Nelson) Several hundred Peace Corps volunteers will be sent to the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in an effort to make them "a showplace for the world," the administration announced yesterday. Arthur J. Goldberg, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, declared that the United States already had done much for the trust territory but that "We have to do better than we have done, very frankly." U.S. administration of the 90,004 people, who live in the 2,141 Micronesian islands scattered across 3 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean, has been under increasing criticism in recent years, both domestically and at the United Nations. The United States was given trusteeship over the area Approved For Release 2005/06/29 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400070014-6