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June 27, 1966
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IM70$ Approved For ReleaseWR7ESSIQNAL RECORD 46 HOUSE 00080004-6 June 27, 1966 wards' not only to our citizens but to it down from an already tight request (Mr. BINGHAM (at the request of people the world over. It has strength- prepared at NASA after much painful Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ened our defense and eor}tributed to the scrutiny, extend his remarks at this point in the peace of the world. And we are still very The request for funds for fiscal 1967 RECORD and to include extraneous early in the growing stage. The future was $5.012 billion-down $163 million matter.); history. We cannot jeopardize its fu- pressures on the core of NASA's effec- "I / /FREE ELECTIONS IN SOUTH titre or allow it to falter Li . __ i ve e ts munication over vast portions of the facilities that make our participation in (Mr. EDWARDS of California (at the globe, promote our defense, and further the space age possible. request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted per- the cause of understanding between na- The program as presented allows no mission to extend his remarks at this tions. Weather satellites photograph margin for insurance, and no room for point in the RECORD and to include ex- cloud cover all over the world and make error. Surely no businessman would in- traneous matter.) the rrreteorological information available vest tens of thousands of dollars in a lo- Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. to all nations. Scientific satellites re- comotive and then allow it to rust in the Speaker, I am today introducing a con- turn information about the universe that yards for lack of a $5 part. Neither can current resolution identical to that spon- man has sought throughout history and we invest tens Of billions in a space pro- sored by my very able colleague, Con- enlarge our knowledge not only of the gram and leave it to falter for the lack gressman ROBERT E. SWEENEY, to express sun and stars and planets, but of our of funds. the sense of the House of Representa- own earth and immediate environment. We cannot put important elements of tives in support of free elections in South Man himself, in our manned space pro- our capability into mothballs. We must Vietnam and to urge the sponsorship of gram, has at last ventured away from use it or see it rust. Retrenchment puts these elections under an impartial inter- his gravity-bound existence. us in the danger of seeing the Soviet national body. The space program has provided work program surge past us again as it did in A critical look at the current situation for 400,000 men and women working in 1957. If we cut back we may not be able in Vietnam can only relay to us a feeling 20,000 plants across the country. to develop the scientific information and of caution regarding the meaningfulness In my own State of Louisiana, the de- advanced technology required for the of the election in September. In any na- velopment of the Saturn facilities at needs of U.S. industry and Government. tion when leaders are chosen by the elec- Michoud has proved of the greatest im- Critical reduction in funds will not al- toral process, there needs to be a basic portance to the economy of the State. low us to continue to energize large seg- stability, a culture which supports the The plant there that had built boats and ments of the scientific community or ideals and mechanisms of representative other war items during World War- II bring our resources to bear on the critical government. In a time of internal tur- and tank engines during the Korean con- problems of the modern world. moil, in a nation which has a previous flict had largely been idle since 1954. It It is likely that any major setbacks at history of subverted elections, it is naive was acquired for NASA at no cost to the this point, or any cut below the present to expect an election to be a fair reflec Government,. and using it represented frugal level of funding, would require an tion of the desires of the people. great savings in taxpayers' dollars. To- assessment of all of our target dates, International supervision of the elec- day Michoud is a vital part of our pro- not only for the lunar mission in manned tions in South Vietnam is of utmost im- gram to reach out in space as far as the flight, but for a host of other highly im- port, therefore, as at least a partial bal- moon. Not only has it provided work for portant unmanned projects. ance to other factors jeopardizing this nearly 10,000 people, but it has attracted Weather information from space can effort to create a more popularly based the kind of employees that today's econ- be increased until it will be possible to civilian government. A serious obstacle omy, oriented to science and technology, program the earth's entire atmosphere is evident in the events of recent weeks requires. It has created thousands of on a computer and to make long-range in Hue, Danang, and Saigon. The sup- other jobs for all of the service personnel weather forecasts for the entire world. pression and arrests of Buddhist leaders required by this employment-for home- Some inkling of the importance of by the Ky government forecasts little builders, storekeepers, and schoolteach- weather forecasting can be gathered if likelihood that the dissent which exists ers. Space agency contracts amounted to you consider that it has been estimated will be allowed and expressed. Difl'icul- more than $355 million in Louisiana in that the construction industry in the ties exist as well in the South Vietnamese 1965. United States could save up to $1 billion election law. Candidates are denied the All of the Deep South has benefited a year by using the weather information right to campaign as an organized slate. from the space program-indeed, the now available. Consider how much more In some situations, the same representa- area stretching from Houston, Tex., to can be saved as our weather-forecasting tion would be given districts with 25,- Cape Kennedy, Fla., has come to be tools improve. 000 people as districts with 125,000 peo- known as the Space Crescent. Multipurpose communications stations pie. Our conquest of space is a tribute to can provide TV and radio broadcasting Neither is Vietnam's past experience the economic and political system of the +., +r,e ,.,,+;,,,, ,,,,,,,,a ____ aaac. ceasing speed and volume of traffic on Dam have participated in elections which We responded to the challenge of the world's airways. Satellites show have been corrupted and manipulated to Sputnik with Explorer I. We countered promise in such various areas as ocean- insure a particular result. To call for Gagarin with Glenn, Leonov with White, ography, studying water resources, and elections means nothing if what follows and Luna IX with Surv9yor. detecting diseased areas of forests, is a hollow mockery of the entire proc- We have an edge on the Soviet Union I do not believe that anyone can pre- ess. The inevitable consequence is a cyn- in many regards. We have chalked up diet or even imagine the uses to which ical distrust and confusion and, more- more man-hours in space. We have had our space program can be put to improve over, an understandable refusal to accept a high degree Of success with our plane- the lot of mankind, the results. tary probes and scientific satellites. But We can move ahead with our space The opportunity lies ahead. Under .we have no reason for complacency. program toward these goals only if we the circumstances which I have dis- Our position as leader. of the free world make a prudent investment. And Presi- cussed, there is no guarantee that the demands that we forge ahead at a pace dent Johnson's request for funds for 1967 election will be a fair reflection of Viet- consistent with our needs and our re- is indeed prudent. The Congress would namese thinking. There is no guarantee sources. be shortsighted in the extreme if it failed that it *111 not. However, the probability President Johnson prepared an austere to meet these minimum needs to carry of fair elections is enhanced with super- budget for the space agency. He pared our space program forward, vision by an international body such as Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 June 27, 1966 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD --HOUSE 137W State and county Number of hospi- t Number of beds Average daily census Percent P occu- panel ercent I medicare recip- cents Rank State and county Number of hospi- tals Number of beds Average daily census Percent P occu- pancy ercent medicare recip- louts Rank Alabama: Shelby ----------- hita O 1 1 55 156 u 156 100.00 100.00 8.5 9.4 18 Illinois: 16 Montgomeryy------------ 1 68 13 62 660 91.18 57 92 16.0 10 1 35 73 ____.._____ uac Arkansas: RockIsland___ 3 7 . . 92 Florida 1 25 25 100.00 6.4 15 Woodford __ 1 31 29 93.55 11.4 Okcecb Okcecbobac -------------- kcechgton_____.__.._____ Wash 1 52 62 100.00 11.0 19 Indiana: Clark 1 173 157 90.75 7.2 75 Georgia: h 1 94 93 98.94 8.0 . S8 Hendricks-------------- 1 70 70 65 64 92.86 91 43 7.9 12 6 41 52 _________________ c ______ Camden 1 25 24 96.00 5.3 46 Jefferson ---- ----------- 1 0 1 1 . 92.50 . 7.2 63 __________ Cobb------------------- obb--- 1 280 2fi6 95.00 4.8 1 50 bionroe..______------ _- __-- 10 Monro 1 36 34 94.44 13.2 29 t--------------- C 3 86 86 53 100.00 00 100 7. 2 3 ______________ 11 Porter -------------------- 1 230 207 90.00 7. '2 90 Houston________________ 1 1 63 100 97 . 97.00 . 8.4 34 , Starke ------------------ 1 31 29 93.55 12.0 11 9 31 65 Laurens_________________ _________ Wayne 1 74 73 98.66 5.8 32 I Tipton _-____------------ 1 1 70 74 74 68 93.67 91.89 . 14.8 85 _________ Iowa: 31 88 96 161 8 Iowa: Davis_____________ 25 Kentucky: Letcher_________ 2 118 107 90.08 6.7 9 Clarke__________________ Dallas___________________ 1 1 32 16 16 . 100.00 . 14.6 9 Michigan: kl nd 36 O 3 712 672 94.38 5.5 33 PaloAlto___ 1 45 43 95.56 11.5 ---------------- a a Ogemaw________________ 1 50 46 92.00 13.3 67 Kansas: 1 - 42 42 100.00 17.5 6 Ontonngon-------------- 1 37 34 91.89 10.7 63 Allsn------- c_______-___ --- Grant 1 37 36 97.30 4.4 82 Mississippi: 1 30 27 90.00 10.0 44 ---------------- M?.rshall---------------- 1 36 36 100.00 17.1 12 Jasper-__________________ Pontotoc________________ 1 56 93.33 12.1 51 Kentucky: - All n 1 46 45 97.83 14.1 22 Missouri: 1 52 49 94.23 20.2 37 ------------------- e Caldwell_________________ 1 39 42 107.69 14.8 8 1 Grundy----------------- Charles --- 3 St 1 175 - 161 92.00 7.3 76 La:.irel------------------ 1 28 31 110.71 9. ----------- . Now Jersey: Ocean--------- 3 371 838 91.11 11.8 60 Louisiana: _____ _ Sabin 1 32 31 96.88 11.8 20 New York: 3 444 414 93.24 12.4 64 __ __________ St. Tammany__,._..------ 2 104 108 103.85 8.2 9 4 2 Jefferson ---------------- _______ 4 Putnam 1 51 47 92.16 9.9 38 Terrebonne____.._..______ 1 1 100 67 103 64 103.00 95.62 . 7.9 _________ 56 North Carolina: 8 8 94 Maryland: 1 22 22 100.00 10.5 7 Avery- ____.._____-______ 2 135 122 90.37 94 29 . 0 9 39 Minnesota: Carlton.. ------- 1 26 25 96.15 18.2 26 Davie ..-____-.______------ 1 3b 22 . . Missouri: Dade -------------- North Dakota: Towner_____ 1 26 25 96.15 9.3 3 14 50 Ohio: ---- 6 Fa ette 1 68 63 92.65 12.2 42 Ohio: Adams_______________ 1 54 64 63 100.00 36 96 . 3 8 y --------- 40 Hancock ---------------- 1 170 155 91.18 11.0 62 57 South Carolina: ]hamburg... 1 55 21 20 . 24 95 . 13 5 27 Jefferson ---------------- 3 413 392 94.92 9.3 81 South Dakota: Bon Homme_ 1 . . ---------------- Lucas 8 2,212 2,021 91.37 9.8 Tennesmc: 1 76 75 00 100 9.2 ...- 8 Sumrnit_________________ 4 1,610 1,463 90.87 2 8.2 7 9 74 55 Cumberland____________ 1 40 40 . 100.00 9.2 14 Trumbull --------------- 2 479 442 92. 8 . M anroo_________________ Rutherford______________ 1 111 109 98.20 7.7 21 Oklahoma,: 49 Cle land 1 100 90 90.00 8.6 58 So uatchie______________ 1 30 29 48 96.67 00 96 8.7 9 6 --------------- _ ve 28 Garvin ----------------- 1 26 24 92.31 10.9 29 Wiliamson_____________ 1 1 50 74 71 . 95.95 . 11.5 30 Puerto Rico:a 4 796 718 20 90 5.6 ________ Wilson__________________ West 'Virginia; S3 63 00 100 9 5 Pence----------------- 13 San Juan ---------------- 8 1,482 1,375 . 92.78 5.0 -------- Mineral----------------- Wyoming --------------- 1 1 60 69 . 98.33 . 4.7 23 Tennessee: Brad 17 1 152 140 92.11 7.3 80 Wisconsin: Pepin___________ 1 35 35 100.00 13.3 ibson ___ ____________ G 3 139 129 92.81 12.4 43 hilab ran lln________________ - 1 74 67 92.97 10.2 69 Texas: k[n - ---- 86 Ho 1 65 59 90.77 .1 16 48 Russe Russell____________.__-- 1 128 119 92.97 6.7 7 9 ----------- - p __ ------------- 79 Webb 1 150 142 94.67 6.5 45 -----------__ Tuscaloosa California: Siskiyou________ 1 _ 2 363 148 327 137 90.08 92.57 . 9.4 - 72 Virginia: Fairfox --------- 1 282 258 91.49 2.8 68 Florida: 2 - 103 93 29 90 8.7 --------- 77 Prince George__________ 1 80 72 45 90.00 90 00 2.9 4 3 95 47 Columbia--------------- Santa Rosa ------------- - - 1 81 75 . 92.59 6.5 Anne__--_-_____ 70 Prince Roanoke 1 . so 969 919 . 94.84 . 7.5 93 Georgia: 1 162 151 93.21 5.D _ 84 Washington: Jefferson---____ 1 57 62 91.23 11.1 86 Glynn------------------ Muscogee-------------- - - 2 ' 436 395 90.60 4.7 6 89 West Virginia: _________ 77 Hancock _ 1 175 183 93.14 7,1 83 Poach__________________ _ 1 46 32 42 29 91.30 63 90 7. 9.7 ______ 78 --- 1 95 7 92.94 0 38 11.7 13 6 71 61 Rabun----------------- - 1 . ---------- Taylo----- 1 2 2 5 94 4 85 . 9 90.43 . 12.5 54 Wisconsin: Monroe_________ _ I Communities ranked in order of expected difficulty in meeting Increased demands average daily occupancy rates of 90 percent or higher over the past year. Lowest es base for ce and nk- the percentage of amedi arehrec pients pin the dcommun ty. Allf havailable ospitals reported re2 No-gr r nnkeddbut lcul ist as a ieetin tica l .increased demand. (Mr. HOWARD (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter. ) [Mr. HOWARD'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] (Mr. GONZALEZ (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) IMr. GONZALEZ' remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL LAUNCH IN THE FAMILY OF ORBITING GEO- PHYSICAL OBSERVATORIES (Mr. BOGGS (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include -extraneous matter.) Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, the period recently past has been a time of high adventure in space for the United States. We have been witness to another success- fullaunch in the family of orbiting geo- physical observatories-this one carry- ing 21 experiments out as far as 76,000 miles from earth to investigate portions of the earth's environment never before studied. We followed the flight of Gem- ini 9, shared the astronauts' frustrations and their triumphs. I am sure, you were as elated as I with the amazing success of the Titan - III launch of our Department of Defense communications satellite system-eight relay stations in space from the power of one rocket-and of the first Surveyor flight. The specialists working on the Surveyor project are reported to have estimated the odds against accomplish- ing a soft landing on the first attempt at better than 100 to 1. Yet it was achieved and Surveyor's camera has sent back more than 10,000 photos of the moon's surface. The detail of these pic- tures show objects as small as a twentieth of an inch can be seen. Remarkable as these pictures are, it is perhaps more im- portant that Surveyor has validated the concept that is under development for a manned lunar landing and ends doubt about the adequacy of the bearing strength of the lunar surface for the manned mission. These dramatic successes confirm me in my belief that the exploration of space is one of the most rewarding and excit- ing programs ever undertaken by the United States. It has challenged our imagination, developed our resources in manpower and material, and reaped re- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 June ', Approved For Rel ~ ~ ~~1~- 00 ~ the United NStions and I urge that we extend warm congratulations and best take action to support as a collective wishes for continued progress. body this course of Diction. The Malagasy Republic, formerly (Mr. EDWARDS of California (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted per- mission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) [Mr. EDWARDS of California's re- marks will appear hereafter in the Ap- (Mr. FASCELL (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his reinarks, at this. point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) [Mr. FASCELL'S remarks will appear hereafter in the Appendix.] QN THE PASSING OF EDWARD J. REARDON LL (Mr. JOELSON (at the. request of Mr. ATTEN) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. JOELSON. Mr.. Speaker, I am sorry to have to inform my colleagues that last week Edward J. Reardon passed away. Ed Reardon was for many years a respected member of the House press corps and was a beloved figure in the Capitol. He possessed unusual integrity and was a newspaperman's newspaper- man. The core of Ed Reardon's work was fairness and honesty. He never broke a confidence and he never wielded a poison pen. Ed reported the news in such a way that the public could always depend on the truth of his reports and on the de- cency of his motives. He served the Herald News, which is published in the congressional district which I represent, faithfully, and I am sure that he will be missed by his many friends on the staff of that fine news- paper. I ersonally have lost a dear friend whom' I shall never forget, and whose memory I will always revere. INDEPENDENCE DAY-MALAGASY REPUBLIC (Mr. CONYERS (at the request of Mr. PATTED) was granted permission to ex- tend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. CONYERS. Mr. Speaker, the Malagasy Republic celebrates its sixth anniversary today as anindependent na- tion. This day is indeed a proud and an important one in the colorful history of this. Island country. The people of the United States are proud to join with the many friends of the Malagasy Republic in paying tribute to the Malagasy people and government on the joyous and ?meiiioi'able occasion. To His Excellency, President PhiljJprt Ts-irana ar d His Ex- cellency, Mr. Louis Rakotamalala, Am- bassador to the United States, I wish to people of the United States. Trading first took place between the twc coun- tries during the last years of the 18th century when an American buccaneer ship brought the first Malagasy rice to the State of North Caroling. Some 30 years later, our first American "ambassa- dor", Trader Marks conducted a lively trade in Malagasy goods. His small trading operation was to herald the in- creased commerce between the two coun- tries. In 1881, Malagasy and the United States signed a treaty of commerce and friendship. Today, the United States continues a close trade association with Malagasy. As Malagasy's second best customer, the United States purchases almost 18 percent of her exports. However, the interest of the United States in the Malagasy Republic is not limited to the area of trade. Although, American investment is not large, sub- stantial amounts of U.S. technical and economic aid demonstrates the strong American concern for this developing country. In agreement with the Mala- gasy Government, a strategic tracking and data gathering station, part of the American space program, has been built by the United States on Madagascar island. The island of Madagascar, fourth largest island in the world and four other small islands comprise the Malagasy Re- public. They are located in the Indian Ocean 250 miles across the Mozambique Channel from the southeast coast of Africa. More than 6 million people make up the 18 different ethnic groups. The Merina closely resemble the first non- African inhabitants of the island and are thought to have come from the southwest Pacific area several centures after the birth of Christ. They hold leadership positions in the government and professions. President Tsirana be- longs to the COtiers, a coastal people who are an admixture of Arab and Negroid blood. In addition, the large number of Indians, Chinese and Indo- nesians who have settled in Malagasy make this island nation truly "Afro- Asian." The language spoken through- out the republic is of Malayo-Polynesian origin. The economy of Malagasy is heavily agricultural with such principal crops as sugar, manioc, coffee, tobacco, and va- nilla. Several disadvantages such as shortage of skilled technicians and low world market prices for Malagasy have restricted the expansion of the economy. ernment has initiated a new 5-year plan that emphasizes commercialization of agricultural production in livestock, sugar and coffee, and so forth. The United States in accordance with these goals will provide aid for agricultural ex- pansion, police communications, main- tenance of roadbuilding, and ground water development. The United States is very proud of its long tradition of friendship with the peo- ple of Malagasy and we look forward to the continuing growth of friendly rela- tions between our two countries. We are 13709 also proud of the steady, deliberate prog- ress that is taking place in Malagasy and again wish. the people and leaders of Malagasy continued success and pros- perity as they celebrate this historic occasion. EQUALIZATION OF MILITARY TIREMENT PAY (Mr. WHITE of Texas (at the request of Mr. PATTEN) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous mat- ter.) Mr. WHITE of Texas. Mr. Speaker, today I am joining a number of my col- leagues in introducing legislation to cor- rect a gross inequity in the pay of men and women who served this country bravely and well and have now retired from the military service. My bill would amend title 10, United States Code, to equalize the retirement pay of all mem- bers of the uniformed services of equal rank and years of service. Under present legislation, Mr. Speaker, military personnel who retired prior to 1962 are being deprived of the benefits of three pay raises which have been given to the military since 1962. Certainly the cost-of-living increases which brought about this increase in pay scales have had the same effect upon retired mili- tary people as upon those who remained in service, or those who retired later, with higher retirement pay. The legislation which I have intro- duced would recompute the pay of mili- tary personnel who retired without the benefit of these recent increases. Even though their service may have been as long, and their rank as high, they are now paid considerably less than those who have retired under higher pay scales. Many of the military personnal who will benefit from this legislation are veterans of both World War II and Korea. Many of them have chosen my west Texas district as the place of their retire- ment, and I would like to join in urging the approval by this Congress of legis- lation which will show our appreciation in a most practical manner. PROGRAM FOR TOMORROW (Mr. ALBERT asked and was given permission to address the House for 1 minute.) Mr. ALBERT. Mr. Speaker, I take this time to advise the Members of the House that tomorrow the continuing appropria- tions resolution will be called up, and also the four bills previously announced from the Committee on Armed Services: H.R. 5256, H.R. 14741, H.R. 15005, and H.R. 12615. LEAVE OF ABSENCE Mr. DE LA GARZA (at the request of Mr. ALBERT), for the remainder of the week, on account of death in the family. Mr. THOMPSON of New Jersey, for June 28 through June 30, on account of official business. Mr. O'NEAL of Georgia (at the request of Mr. DAVIS of Georgia), effective to- . Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 13710 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080 04=6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD HOUSE June 27, 1966 day, on account of advice of Capitol physician.., Mr. NELSEN (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), for today, on account of illness in his family. Mr. McDOWELL (at the request of Mr. B3oGGS), indefinitely, on account of iIl- ness. Mr. MAILLIARD, for the balance of the week, on account of official business. Mr. Hlcxs (at the request of Mr. ADAMS), for June 27 and 28, on account of official business. Mr. HAGAN of Georgia (at the request of Mr. ALBERT), for today and tomorrow, on account of official business. Mr. FPLTON of Pennsylvania (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), on ac- count of legal business in Erie, Pa. Mr. FLYNT (at the request of Mr.. AL- BERT), for today, on account of official business. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent, permission to address the House, following the legisla- tive program and any special orders heretofore entered, was granted to: Mr. RousH, for 60 minutes, May 28, 1966. - Mr. PATMAN, for 80 minutes, May 28, 1966; to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter. Mr. ALBERT, for 60 minutes, today; to revise and extend his remarks and in- clude extraneous matter. Mr. SWEENEY (at the request of Mr. PATTEN), for 30 minutes, on June 29, and to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter. Mr. SCHMIDHAUSER (at the request of Mr. PATTEN), for 30 minutes, on June 28, to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter. Mr. MURPHY of New York (at the re- quest of Mr. PATTEN), for 60 minutes, on July 12, to revise and extend his remarks and to include extraneous matter. Mr. MCGRATH (at the request of Mr. PATTEN), for 60 minutes, on July 12, to revise and extend his remarks and to in- clude extraneous matter. EXTENSION OF REMARKS By unanimous consent, permission to extend remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD, or to revise and extend remarks was granted to: Mr. SuiEs in five instances and to in- clude extraneous matter. Mr. WHITENER to revise and extend his remraks on=H.R. 15858 and to include a letter from the National Capital Plan- ning Commission. Mr. EDMONDSON and to include extra- neous material. Mr. MATSUNAGA and to include extra- neous matter. Mr. CUNNINGHAM to include extraneous material in remarks made during debate on H.R. 14904. (The following Members (at the re- quest of Mr. DAVIS of Wisconsin), and to include extraneous matter:) Mr. HOSMER in two instances. Mr. BROYHILL of Virginia. Mr. DERWINSHI in two instances. Mr. DOLE in two instances. Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. ARENDS. Mr. PELLY. Mr. MATHIAS in four instances. Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. CONTE in two instances. Mr. MOORE in three instances. Mr. WYDLER in two instances. Mr. MORSE. Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Mr. CAHILL. (The following Members and to in- clude extraneous matter:) Mr. LEGGETT. Mr. VAN DEERLIN in two instances. Mr. CRALEY in 10 instances. er e rese p struction engineering programs of the Post Office Department, and for other purposes. Mr. CALLAN. Mr. ULLMAN in five instances. BILLS PRESENTED TO THE Mr. BOLAND in two instances. PRESIDENT HOWARD in five instances. Mr . Mr. BURLESON, from the Committee Mr. BINGHAM. DUNCAN of Oregon in two in- Mr on House Administration, reported that . that committee did on this day present stances. bills for his approval President th t SCHISLER Mr , , o e . . of the House of the following titles: Mr. MOORHEAD in six instances. H.R. 1582. An act to remove a restrictior. Mr. WRIGHT. on certain real property heretofore conveyer Mr. MORRISON. to the State of California; Mr. DYAL in three instances. H.11.3438. An act to amend the Bank- Mr. ULLMAN in two instances. ruptcy Act with respect to limiting the Mr. GONZALEZ in two instances. priority and nandischargeability of taxes in Mr. HEBERT. bankruptcy; Mr. SCHMIDHAUSER. H.R. 7371. An act to amend the Bank Hold- MCFALL in two instances. Mr ing Company Act of 1956; . Mr. TENZER in five instances. H.R.10721. An act to amend the Federal Emplo ees' Compensation Act to improve its Mr. DINGELL. Mr. FASCELL In four instances. Mr. EVERETT in two instances. Mr. KASTENMEIER in three Instances. Mr. LoyE in two instances. Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. BOGGS. Mr. MILLER in five instances. Mr. PATTEN. SENATE BILLS AND CONCURRENT RESOLUTION REFERRED Bills and a concurrent resolution of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the Speaker's table and, un- der the rule, referred as follows: S. 3005. An act to provide for a coordi- nated national safety program and estab- lishment of. safety standards for motor ve- hicles in interstate commerce to reduce ac- cidents involving motor vehicles and to re- duce the deaths and injuries occurring in such accidents; to the Committee on Inter- state and Foreign Commerce. S. 3484. An act to amend the act of June 3, 1966 (Public Law 89-441, 80 Stat. 192), re- lating to the Great Salt Lake relicted lands; to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. S. Con. Res. 98. Concurrent resolution to provide for the printing of additional copies of the pamphlet entitled "Our Capitol"; to the Committee on House Administration. SENATE ENROLLED BILL SIGNED The SPEAKER announced his signa- ture to an enrolled bill of the Senate of the following title: S. 3368. An act to amend section 14(b) of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, to ex- tend for 2 years the authority of Federal Reserve Banks to purchase United States obligations directly from the Treasury. ENROLLED BILLS S?JGNED Mr. BURLESON, from the Committee on House Administration, reported t1litt that committee had examined and found truly enrolled bills of the House of the following titles, which were thereupon signed by the Speaker: H.R. 136. An act to amend sections 1, 17a, 64a(5), 67(b), 67c, and 70c of the Bank- ruptcy Act, and for other purposes; H.R. 13431. An act to extend the Renego- tiation Act of 1951; and H.R. 13822. An act to provide for an addi- tional Assistant Postmaster General to fur- ment and con- arch and develo th th y benefits, and for other purposes; and H.R. 12270. An act to authorize the Secre- tary of Defense to lend certain Army, Navy, and Air Force equipment and to provide transportation and other services to the Boy Scouts of America in connection with the 12th Boy Scouts World Jamboree and 21st Boy Scouts World Conference to be held in the United States of America in 1967, and for other purposes. ADJOURNMENT Mr. PATTEN. Mr. Speaker, I move that the House do now adjourn. The motion was agreed to; accordingly (at 6 o'clock and 25 minutes p. m.) the House adjourned until tomorrow, Tues- day, June 28, 1966, at 12 o'clock noon. EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. Under clause 2 of rule XXIV, executive communications were taken from the Speaker's table and referred as follows: 2514. A letter from the Deputy Secretary of Defense, transmitting reports of violations of section 3679, Revised Statutes, and De- partment of Defense Directive 7200.1, pur- suant to the provisions of section 3679(i) (2). Revised Statutes; to the Committee on Ap- propriations. 2515. A letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting a draft of proposed legislation to except real property owned by the Gov- ernment of New Zealand from the provisions of certain laws regulating the locations of chanceries and other business offices of for- eign governments in the District of Colum- bia; to the Committee on the District of Co- lumbia. 2516. A letter from the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, transmitting the fourth semiannual report on the problem of air pollution caused by motor vehicles, and Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 June 27, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE he will shortly renew our urgent pursuit of a treaty to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. It is a source of great strength to me to know that, in dealing with this vitally urgent problem, I have the support of the United States Senate. Sincerely, LYNDON B. JOHNSON. Mr. President, I have permission to release this letter, and I believe the re- lease serves a useful purpose. I think the Senate should know, and the Ameri- can people should know-indeed, the en- tire world should know-that this ad- ministration is committed unequivocally to a nonproliferation policy. I am very happy to confirm that commitment, and I am sure the Senate and the people of the world are happy to have this official assurance. THE TYONEK STORY Mr. GRUENING, Mr. President, an excellent summary of the good fortune that has befallen an Indian. village in Alaska, and the intelligent way in which its people have utilized it, is found in the current July 1, issue of Time magazine. The second half of this premise- namely, the wise use of the financial windfall that has come to the people of Tyonek-is due in very large part to one non-Indian individual. He is Stanley J. McCutcheon, Anchorage attorney, former territorial legislator, and speaker of the house of representatives in pre- statehood days. As a boy, he played with Tyonek youngsters, had developed a keen affection for these long-disadvantaged aboriginal inhabitants, and later, as an attorney, had given them legal and other advice, free of charge. When the prospects of oil deposits ap- peared, McCutcheon moved swiftly to foreclose the inevitable efforts of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. to take charge and run the village's affairs which would have spelled the imposition of a wardship that he-and the villagers-considered undesirable and needless restriction on their freedom. It was his legal know- how that secured for the villagers the best possible terms for their oil poten- tial. His efforts have been ably seconded by village chief Albert Kaloa. The grat- ifying results of self-rule under the en- lightened guidance of a dedicated and competent adviser are visible in the fine new homes, the school and other proj- ects for self-help and community im- provement and in the evident hope and happiness in the Tyonek villagers' hearts and minds. I ask unanimous consent that the article ent4tled: "Alaska: The Tycoons of Tyonek," bye printed at this point in my remarks : There being no objection, the article was ordered to be- printed in the RECORD, as follows: ALASKA: THE TYCOONS or TYONEK Perched on the rugged shore of Cook Inlet, the remote Alaskan community of Tyonek might well pass for an upper-middle-class Midwestern suburb, Its 60 houses (average price: $25,000), all equipped with modern appliances and television, stand along wind- ing, tree-lined streets., it has a glistening community hall, its own airstrip and guest- house. Construction is under way on a.mod- ern $737,000 schoolhouse; in the works are a power plant, fire station and store. Yet Tyonek's conspicuous prosperity is a remark- able recent phenomenon: until the last year or so, the Athabasca Indians who largely make up the village's population of 270 lived in dismal shacks, barely subsisting by trap- ping and fishing. Just a decade ago, resi- dents'recall vividly, donated food had to be airlifted from Anchorage to save them from starvation. The sudden transformation was wrought by the prospect of petroleum deposits on the Tyonek Indians' 27,000-acre Moquawkie res- ervation. Even so, the ill-clothed, disease- ridden villagers needed pluck as well as luck to reap the benefits. They also needed the dedicated help of Attorney Stanley McCutch- eon, 4.8, onetime speaker of Alaska's territor- ial legislature, who, as a young man, had be- friended the Indians on business trips to Tyonek, and was determined to keep them from being exploited. DOWN FROM KILIMANJARO The villagers' first intimation of possible underground riches came in the late 1950s; in 1962, oil companies moved onto the In- dians' ancestral hunting grounds with rigs and drilling permits from the U.S. Interior Department. The Indians, who had not been consulted, countered by winning a court in- junction and $15,000 in fees for the right to drip. But the funds were under the control of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and when the Tyonek village council tried to tap the ac- count for needed improvements, the bureau was slow to respond. The Tyoneks were even more unhappy when the Interior Department in 1963 began soliciting bids for the long- range leasing of exploration rights on the reservation. Though the proceeds were to be held in escrow pending a decision as to whether the Indians legally owned the rights, Tyonek's elders went to court once again and succeeded in stopping the bids. At one point in the dispute, Village Chief Albert S. Kaloa dispatched a telegram in- forming Interior Secretary Stewart Udall: "We are not savages but civilized human be- ings in need. If we were savages, we would have your bloody scalp in the potlatch im- mediately," Added Kaloa: "`We suggest you come down off Kilimanjaro and attend to the needs of the people of Alaska as we pay you to do." Such ,badgering had its effect: de- claring in 1964 that the Indians were the rightful owners of any mineral deposits, the Interior Department provided federal help in working out an economic-development pro- gram for the suddenly wealthy village. The windfall: $11.2 million in exploration rights, plus royalties that could amount to $60 mil- lion a year in case of a big strike. What followed was a spending spree-but one plotted with care. Tyonek Business Manager Seraphim Stephan Sr. took a course in tribal-business administration in New Mexico. An outside accounting firm was hired. Carefully investing their fortune, the Indians bought into the Anchorage construc- tion firm that built their new homes, are acquiring an interest in an air-taxi service whose owner flew countless mercy missions for them before prosperity struck. TAKING THE HINT Having won their struggle with the Fed- eral Government with such heady results, the new-found tycoons of Tyonek were ready for other challenges. When their decision to _ construct a $1,000,000 office building in Anchorage was blocked by the city council, the Indians pointedly went to Seattle to buy $1,500,000 worth of home furnishings. Local merchants took the hint, pressured the au- thorities in Anchorage into issuing a permit for the building-whose first tenant will be the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tyonek next outflanked an electrical cooperative that had been pushing for higher rates for serving the 13739 village. By a stroke of luck, gas had just been discovered, and the village decided to use it to generate its own electricity. If all goes well, the Tyonek Indians may become Alaska's biggest power producers. Even more promising is the emphasis that Tyonek elders have put on education and jobs. The village council authorized a $5,000 grant for everybody on the tribal roll, specified that most of it had to be applied toward home construction-except when in- vested in schooling. Already three Tyonek Indians have enrolled to study oil-rig work in California, another has learned diesel en- gineering in Chicago. Moreover, every con- struction contract entered into by the village provides for the hiring of local residents, many of whom are thereby learning to be carpenters, plumbers and electricians. In fact, the Tyoneks expect to fish and trap only for sport in the future. "We will always work," said Village Council Secretary Emil McCord, 33, as his two sons watched a TV We to t week in their new living room. t'O o se, it won't be so hard." NDING BOMBING IS RISKY Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, last Wednesday Marquis Childs, the noted columnist, wrote a most discerning col- umn under the title "Mapping the Risk of Wider Bombing." He spoke of the President's press conference and inter- preted its "warning that the war may be enlarged" as meaning increased bombing around Hanoi and Haiphong. As Mr. Childs notes, the American public has not been told the nature and extent of the risk that has been involved, a risk which has been clearly spelled out by Mr. Childs. He notes the specific geography involved, and shows how the involvement may very well increase our encounters with Chinese planes, with re- sultant pressure on us to strike their Chinese bases over the border. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the Childs' article from the June 22 Washington Pbst may appear in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: MAPPING THE RISK OF WIDER BOMBING (By Marquis Childs) On the top secret maps in the situation room in the White House are the target areas in North Vietnam. Because the Pres- ident and the President alone determines the range of the American bombers from day to day, he studies these maps with the in- tense concentration he brings to every de- cision large and small. His press conference warning that the war may be enlarged seemed to mean just one thing: Bombing will strike the indus- tralized area around Hanoi, the capital, and Haiphong, the port through which military supplies continue to come. This is what the Joint Chiefs of Staff urge with a growing in- sistence. But a strike against Hanoi-Haiphong will risk, as has been clearly spelled out in a half- dozen memoranda passing across the Presi- dent's desk, greatly expanding the war. That risk is one reason the President and Secre- tary of Defense Robert S. McNamara have until now resisted the pressure of the joint chiefs. As with so many aspects of this unde- clared war, the American public has not been told the nature of that risk. It is clearly spelled out on the maps the President stud- ies with such care. They show three air bases close to Hanoi and three around Hal- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 1.3740 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1966 phong. The largest base, in the Hanoi area., took ' in the Dominican Republic last no more turmoil. The Communists may Li Phue Yen, which can handle MUG-21 year. continue to create trouble wherever they eupersonio aircraft. Phuc Yen is 15 miles The latest to come to my attention is in can. :north-northwest of Hanoi and 81 miles from the Wyoming Eagle, which recalls that And, even if political stability is achieved, the nearest point on Red China's border. there will be a tremendous job of economic That means, at supersonic speeds, that China the President was criticized for sending reconstruction ahead. is only minutes away. U.S. troops to protect our citizens and But, as of now, the Dominican Republic The other two fields are Bae Mai, three frustrate a Communist takeover in San- is not another Cuba in the Western Hemi- iniles south of Hanoi, and Gia Lam, two to Domingo. sphere. :Hiles south of the capital city. Each has But now the Dominicans have held an The newly-elected President will be in- a potential for taking jets, according to in- orderly election and taken an important augurated on July 1, and it may be possible for telligence estimates. step along the road to recovery, the the peace-keeping forces to be withdrawn, Two air fields for the defense of Haiphong Cheyenne newspaper notes. And this, leaving the new administration with com- are Kien An and Cat Bi. Potentially they plate sovereignty. can take jets, but it is doubted that either in the newspaper's opinion, adds up to a The Dominican Republic has taken an weld can handle them at the present time. major victory for the United States and important step along the road to recovery. A third big field, Kep, is in the Hanoi- for the Johnson administration. And, although there are still the critics, it :Haiphong complex, 32 miles northeast of I ask unanimous consent that the edi- appears that President Johnson's actions :Hanoi along a railroad line. Kep can take torial be printed in the RECORD. more than a year ago may have been "the jets and probably the advanced MIG-21s. A There being no objection, the editorial stitch in time". half-dozen times bridges on the nearby rail was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, line have been hit. The important fact, however, is that up as follows: JUDGE RUDOLPH I. MINTZ to now not one of these bases has been hit. [From the Cheyene (Wyo.) Eagle, President, recently Before the oil and other installations in and June 11, 1966] Mr. of the ERVIN. Mr. outstanding Presid it North around Haiphong can be bombed-leaving STITCH rN TIME one oneo f t received an honorary doctor h out Hanoi, with the potential of large civilian There was a very important election the casualties-the bases and the related ground- other day-in the Dominican Republic. laws degree from his alma mater, North to-air missile sites must in large part be Joaquin Balaguer, a conservative, was Carolina State University. Judge neutralized. elected president of that strife-torn Carib- Rudolph I. Mintz is one of the ablest But what happens at the first radar warn- bean island in an election that was described legal craftsmen on the North Carolina trig of an impending attack on the air bases? as "unusually orderly for Latin America. bench and bar. He has been honored by The MIGs take off for bases already pre- His election was seen as an overwhelming his hometown newspaper as the subject pared just across the border in Red China rejection of the Communists who have been a few minutes away. From there they would stirring up trouble in the Dominican Re- of two articles in the Wilmington Morn- have virtually the same capability for attack- ing Star of June 5, 1966. ing American bombers and fighter-bombers. public for more than a year. The election was a big step in the direc- Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- At that point, beyond a doubt, the pressure tion of political stability. sent that these articles be printed at this from the military would be turned on to And it could point toward economic re- point in the RECORD. take out the Chinese bases. And from the covery. There being no objection, the articles viewpoint of military logic, trying to secure Balaguer said his government would con- were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, the American strike against the Hanoi- centrate on economic reconstruction to get as follows: Haiphong industrial complex, this pressure the nation back to solvency. would be hard to resist. Meanwhile, it was announced in the wake [From the Wilmington (N.C.) Morning Star, That is the warning from those who fear of the election that, if all goes well, the June 5, 19661 the risk of an enlarged Asian war. They 5,700 American peacekeeping troops still JUDGE Mix= A SELF-MADE MAN believe that if China received a direct blow, serving in the Dominican Republic may be (By Jerry Tillotson, staff writer) wiping out some of its air bases, it would withdrawn by July 1. Judge Rudolph I. Mintz, Superior Court feel impelled to retaliate with a massive The orderly election and the sound rejec- Judge of the Fifth Judicial District, is a reprisal. What form the reprisal would take tion of the Communists added up to a major self-made man, but he doesn't tell you this. they do not presume to say. victory for the United States-and for Presi- Yet, it won him sufficient recognition for his The administration line is that discontent dent Johnson's administration. over the Vietnam War reflected in the polls It will be recalled that President Johnson Alma Mater to grant him an honorary de- over largely from the "hawk" side, from gree. sent American troops into the Dominican you discover it accidentally through con- those demanding expanded bombing on the Republic in late April and early May, 1965, versation with him, with his law cohorts or get-it-over-with-and-get-out theory. This to protect U.S. citizens and to prevent the coincides with growing uncertainty over the by researching his professional development. inside China. The specula- establishment of another Communist re- In a career that began with his job as power struggle gime in the Western Hemisphere. Brunswick County register of deeds in South- tion familiarout of Hong Kong and Tokyo has a He declared that what had begun as a port, he has built himself a position as a fam ring. Reports of who's up and who's . , popular democratic revolution" dedicated down sound like the theorizing after the pop leading state figure in educational and legal death of Stalin as his heirs quarreled over to democracy and social justice had been issues. the successorship. Much of that specula- taken over "by a band of Communist Last week he sat in a favorite chair in the conspirators." study of his home. The room was notable tion was egregiously wrong. After arrival of American troops, a cease- The thesis is of of China as a helpless giant may "firm truce" were established in the for its distinctive personality reflected in have a factual base. But to act on this as- fire and the pipe-rack, the book-lined walls and a revolt-torn island. crystal jar of beans on the mantleptece. dangerangeroouus would wishful seem to thinking. be If a indulging wide- - A few days later in May, 1965, the Organi- jelly dangerous Mintz is a slender man of medium zation of American States (OAS) voted to height. His face is a plateau of serene lines spread power struggle resolved in favor underway of f the send an inter-American peacekeeping force and deltas. hrd-liners could s n e sto an American at- to police the Dominican Republic. Under He was resting up for what he terms the har e response ases.- the resolution, the OAS would be in com- most difficult aspect of his work: traveling. tack -lk This is, bases. fete control of the peacekeeping force. "There's nothing glamorous about being a This , of course, e say nothing about the subsequent months, President reaction of f the e Soviet t Union. The extent to to p g judge. It's drudgery but there is some which Soviet personnel man the air bases and Johnson was subjected to considerable crit- prestige, influence and professional pride the missile sites and train the Vietnamese icism for sending American troops into the that goes along with the job." The smile he pilots is an unknown "X," with the intelli- troubled island. flashed took the bite out of his description. gence estimates of it a carefully guarded But his prompt and decisive action did He remarks on the importance of his work secret. prevent a Communist take-over-and it did that "it's a sizeable decision to determine An end to the war by bombing has a popu- point the way toward the day when the citi- whether a man or woman retains a child or lax appeal, as Republicans, notably Rep. tens of the island, through self-determina- whether both parents keep him." GERALD FORD and Richard Nixon, are demon- tion, could reestablish a firm government- When he first started out as judge his strating. President Johnson, studying his a non-Communist government. reaction toward the plaintiff would shift. maps, can feel the hot breath of the In effect, President Johnson had given He said: "I wondered why a person did what bombers-military and political-on his neck. new meaning and new life to the doctrine he did. I had to restrain myself from mak- laid down by President James Monroe on ing suggestions or prompting. This mental Dec. 2, 1823. state didn't last long." DOMINICAN "STITCH IN TIME" Certainly, no one could say at this point He came from a large family in Brunswick that all of the problems of the Dominican County, the second son of Harry L. and Minta Mr. McGEE. Mr. President, there has Republic have been solved. Catherine Mintz. His career began when he been a continuing expression of editorial While the election was very encouraging, entered State college in 1925 on a tuition praise for the action President Johnson it by no means guarantees there will be scholarship. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release.2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 '742 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD .- SENATE June 27, 1966 A PROPOSAL TO SAVE OUR PARKS expressway along the length of this charm- AND HISTORIC SITES ing tourist attraction, cutting it and, even more disastrously, its charming Jackson Mr. YARBOROUGH, Mr. President, Square, from the Mississippi River. an article by the distinguished architec- tural critic, Wolf Von Eckhardt, in the Sunday, June 26, Washington Post, points out the need for a new policy in highway building which will give adequate con- sideration to preserving parks and his- toric sites: The highway builders won another impor- tant battle a few days ago in New Orleans with the approval of an elevated freeway- Mr. Von Eckhardt writes But even so, there is cause for hope that the monstrous concrete ribbon that .will reck- lessly slash through the city's picturesque Vieux Carre might be the last of its kind. I hope that we may see the day when architects, city planners, and highway engineers can sit down and develop sen- sible proposals that will help ease our urban traffic problems without making our cities places which are fine for cars but unfit for people. Toward that end I have introduced an amendment to the Federal Highway Act which would create a national policy that in building highways under the Federal aid highway program "maximum effort should be made to preserve Federal, State and local government parklands and his- toric sites and the beauty and historic value of such lands and sites." We need such a national policy now, before more irreplaceable parks have been ground to bits under the engineer's bulldozer. Already New Orleans, San Francisco, Washington, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Baltimore, and New York have had cause to regret the loss of parks and historic sites to the onrushing freeways. I ask unanimous consent that excerpts from Mr. Von Eckhardt's article be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: CITYSCAPE FINDS HOPE: FREEWAYS RUN INTO A BLOCKADE . (By Wolf Von Eckardt) The highway builders won. another im- portant battle a few days ago in New Orleans with the approval of an elevated freeway. But even so, there is cause for hope that the monstrous concrete ribbon that will reck- lessly slash through the city's picturesque Vieux Carre might be the last of its kind. There is a revolt against the senseless indignity of urban freeways ruining cities and parks, and on the Federal level, at least, the highway builders are beginning to take it seriously. The revolt started in San Fran- cisco and spread to other cities, notably Washington, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Baltimore and New York, But what troubles the Bureau of Public Roads is that the revolt is beginning to reach. Capitol Hill-the most important place of all to a Federal agency. Sen. JOSEPH S. CLAR$ ID. Pa.) told the Senate recently: "It is time that Congress took a look at the highway program be- cause it Is presently being operated by bar- barians, and we ought to have some civilized understanding of just what we do to spots of historic interest and great beauty by the building of eight-lane highways through the middle of our cities, New Orleans' Vieux Carre, or French Quarter, is, of course, just such a spot of his- toric beauty. For years the Louisiana State Highway Department planned an elevated As elsewhere, study after highway depart- ment-sponsored study "proved" the infalli- bility of the highway department's decision. As elsewhere, the city planners failed to do any planning and therefore could not pro- pose any alternatives. It was a long and bitter battle that at- tracted national interest because of the Vieux Carre's significance as the legacy of French culture in America. Those concerned with our cultural heritage felt badly betrayed last winter when the Fed- eral Highway Administrator, Rex M. Whitton, approved the destructive expressway. He had just returned from a tour through Europe where, at the invitation of a private founda- tion, he and other Government officials stud- ied means of historic preservation. The pressures won out when the New Orleans City Council voted five to two to go ahead with the freeway. No alternatives were considered; no reprieve for further study was granted. Whitton however, has said that he is "still open to any consideration to enhance the area." Just what that means, nobody knows, but it seems to hold some faint chance that the Vieux Carre can be saved. The Louisiana highway builders have rejected the idea of tunneling the expressway as infeasible and too expensive. As presently conceived, a 20 foot high structure filled with trucks and care will blight Jackson Square much as the Embarcadero Freeway blights downtown San Francisco or the Whitehurst Freeway blights Georgetown's waterfront. Our children will not thank us for it. But Whitton and the Bureau of Roads seem to realize that the battle of New Orleans may be their last victory. They agree with Sen. CLARKE that "we must find new and more imaginative ways to design urban high- ways and the necessary dollars to finance them." A test of the Bureau's true willingness to find such ways is now imminent in Phila- delphia. There, too, an elevated freeway was to cut a historic area-Society Hill and nearby Independence Hall-from the water- front. Whitton seemed to feel that the high- way builders had made all the concessions they could to beauty and sentiment when they agreed to some rerouting to save historic buildings and to depressing the freeway. The Philadelphia Planning Commission agreed. But a committee of Philadelphia archi- tects supported by some 80 organizations and no less than 10,000 individuals felt otherwise. The committee has drawn up a well,-studied and documented plan whereby the ten-lane Delaware Expressway would be completely covered for six blocks along So. ciety Hill. Thus city and waterfront would be united and the expressway cover would be turned into a handsome 15-acre park with room for playgrounds and other ameni- ties. Although he feels that urban freeways should enhance areas through which they run, Whitton is opposed to this much en- hancement. He fears the expense and is worried about drivers who might feel unsafe in the tunnel and miss the view. The committee retorts that on the basis of land acquisition cost, increased land val- ues and tourist spending, the long-range economic advantages of the tunnel far exceed the added $25 million construc- tion cost, As to motorists, the com- mittee asserts that an imaginative tun- nel design with improved lighting could be both safe and attractive. It points out that a, view from a trench is no prettier than from a tunnel. This is an interstate and commuter freeway and not a scenic recrea- tion facility for motorists. The question, in short, is whether the highway builders will seriously consider and accept urban freeway design when it is of- fered. The American Institute of Archi- tects is discouraged on this point. Citing the New Orleans elevated expressway as an example, AIA's president, Morris Ketchum, Jr., charged that Federal policies on the de- sign of highways within cities are producing disastrous results. He resigned from the National Advisory Committee on Highway Beautification be- cause AIA could not be placed in "a position of tolerating, or even approving, policies of which it disapproves-policies which are also in direct opposition to those of President Lyndon B. Johnson." Besides the official beautification commit- tee, Whitton has informally asked eight lead- ing city planners, architects and engineers to advise him on route location and urban freeway design. The group includes out- standing landscape architects Michael Ra- puano, Lawrence Halprin and John O. Si- monds and architect Kevin Roche, an asso- ciate of the late Eero Saarinen. The group is now working on a sort of white paper which will set forth design stand- ards and ideas for a new kind of limited access roads in a city. The group may also recommend a National Design Review board to assist state highway departments with a more creative approach, This thinking coincides with that of the AIA, which may, at its forthcoming conven- tion, urge creation of an advisory task force on urban freeways. It also coincides with recent proposals in Congress, notably those of Sen. CLARK and Sen. CLIFFORD P, CASE (R.-N.J.). The Bureau of Roads, meanwhile, is doing some hard new thinking of its own. A part of its $20 million annual investment in high- way research is devoted to urban transpor- tation and design problems. Among the emerging new Ideas is use of air rights over freeways and the phased redevelopment of entire city blocks in a combination of high- way construction and urban renewal to pro- vide housing for those who are displaced; It is too early to tell, however, just hove far and how soon more creative and constructive highway design will come about. Up to now, the state highway departments have largely ignored various missives from Washington urging them to be more responsive to their social and esthetic responsibilities and "to be more considerate of all human values." Lately, however, the Federal highway builders have been using plainer language. Thomas G. McGarry, Whitton's special assist- ant, recently told a meeting of public works officials: "We can respond to our responsibil- ities out of our own initiative and our sincere concern fort the public interest, or we can be dragged ki ing and screaming to them by I(rON METROPOLITAN WATER PROJECT Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, over many months past, the deep concern which each of us shares over the course of events in Vietnam has been expressed in many different ways. While for the most part reports from that area have been anything but cheerful, from time to time a ray of sunshine does come through which is more than just an ex- pression of hope. It is tangible evidence of the greater promise in store not only for South Vietnam, but for all southeast Asia when peace in that area can be secured with honor. It is my pleasure to call the Senate's attention to the completion of a water treatment plant for the city of Saigon. On June 18th last, raw water began to Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 14 44 ? June 27, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 137 He worked his way through school, hold- Jean is a head nurse on the surgical floor mostly light and medium arms and replace- ing a number of jobs which limited his time of the Medical College in Richmond, Va. ments of outmoded equipment, have run to for campus activities. Rudolph Jr. is a junior in the medical about $25 million more. Now, under an Upon graduation in 1929 with a B.S. degree school of the University of North Carolina amendment sponsored by Senator FULBEXONT, in civil engineering, he took a job with Bell at Chapel Hill. the $55 million would become a ceiling that Telephone Company of Pennsylvania until The judge's philosophy has always worked would have to cover all arms sales and mili- 1931. for him and he uses it everyday. "I have al- tary technical assistance as well as grants. He returned to Brunswick County to as- ways had the desire to work; the harder you The result would be to out the existing pro- sume the duties of his deceased brother as work, the better luck you have." gram by more than half. register of deeds in Southport. It is easy to assume that this is a way His constant association with lawyers in [From the Wilmington (N.C.) Morning to discourage military regimes. But the this job-made him think of the possibility of Star, June 5, 1966] facts indicate otherwise. The major aims of entering law. HONORED sY STATE the military assistance program have been, He nments establish internal "It was in Southport that I got my first first, to help gover Judge Rudolph I. Mintz of Wilmington re- taste I ye it," is the jownudge under er the ceived an honorary degreee of Doctor of Laws security and carry out counter-insurgency He b beggan n to studdy on his training (some of the aid for these purposes guidance al a practitioner and received much from North Carolina State University at is in communications equipment) ; and, see- Raleigh a week ago wife. nd The Commencement program statement ond, to provide civic action programs-road profession age nt from from arent lawyers encouragement feofo his pare y Stuart u wibuilding, community development and the an former He married d aderst Cran- "Son follows: of North Carolina and of North Caro- like. In some Latin-American countries the anding mer in 19t and o talk an w. Mrs. Mints military is presently the most effective ally Nv to line State University. Rudolph Ivey Mintz has tud it came and tasking taw. Mrs. Mintz exemplifies those qualities of service and agency for these civic purposes. has studi ed law and has us saciced it. leadership upon which the well-being of the Three democratic governments in Latin Bemuse s his rigoro card studying Law Examiners rs commonwealth depends. America-Colombia, Peru and Venezuela-are in 1f 9ally passed the Board of Law "Leaving his alma mater as an engineer, he coping with active insurgent movements. wouldn't turned his interest to politics and Another country where a new Social Demo- that way," he advise anyone "It's to do it the law, in which, although without formal cratic President is about to be inaugurated, that way," he commented. "Ins law very, today very training, he achieved a preeminence acknowl- Guatemala, faces a similar threat. In Chile should A man interested in should attend a good school." edged by his appointment to the Superior the democratic government of President Eduardo Frei is under opposition fire for fail- He developed his private mitted at rac t ce Bench. But ure to provide adequate internal security. in port from and was practice "For many, this would have s. Drastically reducing military assistance is the State e Courts of North rth Carolina. to these accomplishments we must tdadd d a a hotel the way to assist such countries to In 1940 he was admitted to practice in the distinguished military career, service in the y General Assembly, and above all continued maintain order and progress. Ds t is States District Court for the Eastern devotion to the sound health and develop- American military assistance of one kind DiWorl of North me rupt ment of the University. or another goes to all the Latin countries World War interrupted his career. "Now rounding out his 20th year as a except Haiti, although Venezuela and Mexico to dlieu- uty Trustee, in addition to his service on the receive no grant aid. Few heavy arms have As a reserve from officer he first went s eo active acommth ding executive committee, he helped. to draft the been supplied, and the effect of the military to ant co colonel. lieutenant tenant on the as served n E gl the 'University's administrative code and par- assistance has not been to promote an arms Troop p officer Carrier three ree bases I Command. In England with t ticipated in the selection both of the Presi- race. In the net the aid averages only about Troop of the University and of the Chancellor 4 per cent of total Latin defense budgets. He 6 and raan unoppe osed of for the Southport a Seenof this institution. To one so disposed, ac- Latin-American military spending is rela- in :tor and Tenth SDistrict, Staistrictte Nom- Sen- tivity in alumni and civic affairs comes as a tively low in relation to gross national prod- posed the Brunswick Tenth Senatorial and Colu , nom matter of course. uct; and U.S. military aid is only 7 or 8 posed 47 he served in the State StSenate with Se ate w it"A University's good name depends mainly Per cent of the total assistance from this In 19 o he teed assignments being on the service of her alumni. For sons country. to- major coons Co amittee, s being the Ap- such as Judge Mintz we are grateful and In point of fact the happily brief trend to-propria Committee, Committee, I e, Committee. Utilities proudly acknowledge our gratitude by con- ward military dictatorship in Latin America Committee, Judiciary Ciseferring upon him the degree of Doctor of has been significantly reversed. Haiti, which He was also active four-year medical the session which Laws Honoris Causa." receives no aid, has the only really ferocious est Department th of the Health thA at the school Univer- dictatorship, although the durable regime shoo for rolina and the Initial ro- of General Stroessner in Paraguay has dicta- priaions for Carolina aPo the u hor y, and TALK ON LATIN AMERICA tonal facets. Bolivia, where a popular mili- oi uto for the State Ports Authority, and tary junta has been in control, will have coHe practiced of the "Truck Act." Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, the what promises to be a reasonably free elec- to practiced law in Wilmington from 1947 Washington Post editorial section today tion next month. In Ecuador a military Burgwin and Mi n. with Fro the m firm 1951 m o to of 1959 he Stevens, was senior was sentor r includes some very cogent commentary junta has yielded to a de facto civilian gov- presi- parMt;ner In his own firm. on our foreign-aid posture with regard ernment. eBrazil this will fall have that an may no indirect t be as Governor Luther Hodges appointed him as to Latin America. It seems that even demise election lec representative as some a would wish, t but the resident judge of the Fifth Judicial District among the Committee on Foreign Rela- worst excesses of military rule so far have in 1959. tions there remain some old myths, as been avoided. In Central America there is a In 1960 he was nominated and elected the Post editorial so accurately points heartening trend away from caudillo-type without opposition to complete the unex- out. Because I have studied our Latin regimes. pired term and in 1962 he was nominated and elected for a full eight-year term. American policies for some years, I be- In short, the familiar cliches about mili- He occasionally hears from some de- lieve the Washington Post editorialist tary governments scarcely pertain to reality Pendant he has sentenced. "Every now and has correctly separated fact from fanta in Latin America. There is of course a risk sy, that military aid could be used to prop up then I receive letters from prisoners who say: and I commend to my colleagues the a rotten government that deserved to be "I've learned my lesson so can you cut my editorial which appeared today. ousted. There have been instances in which time In half?" I ask unanimous consent that the edit military regimes have upset elected govern- VVhetepe dye men go straight after re- tonal entitled "The Arms Reflex," which ments and become oppressors. But there Mintz lease says. n "If on they the were environ guilty m of ent, fJudge was published in the Washington Post of also have been instances in which regimes felonious have come to power by military means assault a crime of passion the perser, June 27, 1966, be printed at this point that have been more progressive and representa- tive goes straight afterwards; however, in the RECORD: than the fictionally "democratic" gov- the person committing a premeditated act There being no objection, the edi- ernments they replaced. It is doubtful in bears close scrutiny after release." torial was ordered to be printed in the most of these situations that American mili- Fle notices that a basic and outstanding RECORD, as follows: tary aid has been a significant factor in the aspect of crime in general is the widespread THE ARMS REFLEX military overthrow of a government. But ditesnect toward law and order across the military assistance can be a significant factor Naation. In slashing the authorization for arms in enabling elected democratic govern- Judge Mintz feels that he has many things assistance to Latin-American countries, the m enabling now constitute a democratic over-- now which have completed his life's dream. Senate Foreign Relations Committee seem- in protect their countries against external He has seen his children build their own fngly has been influenced by a series of out subversion and preserve the internal order niches successfully in life. model cliches about military dictatorships. Mary Mintz is living in France with her For some years the United States has been that is a necessary prerequisite for public surgeon husband, Dr. Stephen David -Bour- furnishing some $55 million a year in grants confidence and social and economic develop- geofs of the United States Air Force. of military hardware to Latin America, Sales, ment. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13: CIA-RD67B00446R000400080004-6 Jul. ,2 7, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE be pumped from the Deng Nai River through the new treatment plant which provides the city of Saigon with its first supply of pure, treated water in its history. -This event marks the culmination of many years of planning and construction effort. In 1958 our International Co- operation. Agency reviewed a survey and feasibility report covering the need for Improvement and expansion of the in- adequate and contaminated water sup- ply system of the metropolitan area of the city of Saigon. As a result, on No- vember 2, 1960, the development loan fund loan agreement No. 62 was executed between the Republic of South Vietnam and our International Cooperation Ad- ministration, now a part of AID, for the Saigon metropolitan water project. The loan was for $17,500,000 to be furnished by the United States with an additional $10 million to be put up by the Govern- ment of South Vietnam. On April 25, 1963, bids were received for the construction of. the intake. and ,treatment complex which was the initial phase of the project in the amount of $11 million, and on September 23, 1963, the contract was awarded to a joint ven- ture known as Hawaiian Dredging-Sai- gon with headquarters in Honolulu, Ha- waii. However, because of a, crisis in- volving a radical change of government prevailing at that time in South Vietnam, -AID approval for proceeding with the contract was withheld until late Decem- ber 1964. Hawaiian Dredging-Saigon, the joint venture contractor for the project, started' work on January 9, 1964. In the intervening 30 months construction pe- riod from January 9, 1964, until its com- pletion on June 17, 1966, the work force consisted of 25 American supervisors, 25 nonresident specialists, and 1,100 South Vietnamese workmen of various classi- fications. - To give you some idea as to the magni- tude and significance of the project in terms of benefits to be derived by the residents of Saigon, I. will briefly out- line a few pertinent statistics. The treatment plant is located 10 miles out- side of the city of Saigon adjacent to the main highway running between Sai- gon and Bien Hoa, which is on the Dong Nai River 17 miles northeast of Saigon. During the period of construction, I might add, this location was not by any means secure from possible infiltration and exposure to Vietcong attack. The Intake point at which the water is drawn from the Dong Nai River is approxi- mately' miles from the treatment plant, opposite Bien Hoa and adjacent to one of the most impenetrable Vietcong strongholds. The water is pumped from the intake site through a 72-inch diam- eter pipe to the treatment plant where It is, chemically treated, settled, filtered, stored and ultimately pumped 10 miles to Saigon through a 78-inch pipeline by 5 pumps with over 6,000 combined horse- power. The treatment plant is capable of pro- ducing 125 million gallons of pure, treated water per day meeting U.S. stand- ards in all respects, and in an amount sufficient to supply the over 2 million inhabitants living in Metropolitan Sai- gon-a population equal to about one- third that of Greater Los Angeles. The difficulties encountered by the contractor were staggering and difficult to imagine viewed from almost any point in the United States. Not Only did the joint venture have to contend with long interrupted lines of supply, unskilled labor, intense heat, and monsoons, but in addition, there was political unrest, inflation, escalation of the war effort, and the ever-present threat of Vietcong attack. Notwithstanding these difficul- ties, the project was successfully com- pleted on June 18, 1966, and safe drink- ing water is now available to the inhabit- ants of Saigon. The completion of this phase of the Saigon metropolitan water project, it seems to me, stands for much more than just the completion of another facility regardless of its importance. "It is more than a significant technical achieve- ment bringing the most modern water treatment plant to the Far East. It is not just a monument to U.S. architec- tural design and building standards, which adds a dramatic touch to the land- scape along a major South Vietnam high- way. In my opinion this project stands as a symbol of hope amid chaos and an illustration of what could be provided on a far broader scale if the area could only be returned to peaceful pursuits. It stands as a reminder of the part the United States is capable and willing to play in helping free men everywhere-not just as a part of the U.S. mutual security project. It is an eloquent example of what President Johnson has generally proposed for all southeast Asia in return for a peaceful and just settlement in the area. I think I may be forgiven for express- ing pride in this accomplishment. It is a tribute to America's generosity and con- structive helpfulness to a developing new nation as well as to American construc- tion skill and knowledge. The fact that our Government and an American con- tractor have combined money, men, and equipment in the face of hardship, delay, inflation, and personal danger in order to provide delivery of pure water on schedule to a people long deprived of such a facility, should not go unrecog- nized. May this example of what can be done inspire us all to continue our dedicated efforts in the uplifting of mankind everywhere, and may God guide us and bless us in this endeavor. COMMENCEMENT SPEECH AT THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY BY HENRY H. FOWLER, SECRE- TARY OF THE TREASURY Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, on June 12, 1966, the Honorable Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury, addressed the graduating class of the College of Wil- liam and Mary at Williamsburg, Va. Secretary Fowler said: It is no longer possible for any of us to fol- low Voltaire's advice and, fenced off from the rest of the world, to cultivate our pri- vate gardens-to engage In our private pur- suits and leave public problems to those who occupy public positions. A bomb that ex- plodes in Watts or Saigon shatters windows in Washington and Williamsburg as well. No longer can we close ourselves up In our personal ambitions and concerns, our per- sonal interests and endeavors, for at every step of the way we will encounter larger in- terests and wider concerns to challenge our conscience and to engage our efforts and our energies. In todays' world, we are all-in varying degrees-public servants. I ask unanimous consent for the in- sertion of Secretary Fowler's speech in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the address was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: REMARKS BY THE HONORABLE HENRY H. FOWLER, SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, AT COMMENCEMENT EXERCISES, WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE, WILLIAMSBURG, VA., SUNDAY, JUNE 12, 1966 There are in this country few places whose roots reach farther and deeper back into this nation's beginnings, into the origins of all that as a people we are and try to be, than this city of Williamsburg and this college of William and Mary. Here, more than two centuries ago, came the young Thomas Jefferson, eager to explore _ all man had done and dreamed so that he could better understand all that man was and could be. And today, two centuries later, it is through his voice still, and the vision that he held forth, that we understand most deeply all that America is and can be--a land where every man can and not only infinite promise but abundant opportunity for a full and free life. And today, two centuries later, it is Jeffer- son's vision of all America is and can be that still summons -forth our best efforts and energies-the vision set forth so eloquently for our time in President Johnson's call to the building of a Great Society in whose abundant life every man could share to the fullest measure of his ability and his desire. But if the vision is the same-if the dream and the ideals remain unchanged-the world in which we seek to realize them bears little resemblance to the world of Jefferson's day. We can no longer seek-as a nation or as individuals-to pursue our dreams alone and apart from the world around us. As a na- tion and as individuals, we are all inescapa- bly caught up in events and changes whose pace and scale seem-in contrast to earlier eras-so much larger than life. No sooner do we begin to become accustomed to one environment, to one situation, to one set of circumstances, than we discover that another has taken its place. The late Professor Nor- bert Wiener observed of "modern technique" that "every apparatus, every method is obso- lete by the time it is used. Techniques are developing so rapidly that we cannot, unless we are going to have a large period of chaos, allow our thinking to lag behind the tech- niques and the possible modes of develop- ment." And what is true of technological events is equally true of human affairs. It is no longer possible for any of us to follow Voltaire's advice and, fenced off from the rest of the world, to cultivate our private gardens-to engage in our private pursuits and leave public problems to those who oc- cupy public positions. A bomb that ex- plodes in Watts or Saigon shatters windows in Washington and Williamsburg as well. No longer can we close ourselves up in our personal ambitions and concerns, our per- sonal interests and endeavors, for at every step of the way we will encounter larger in- terests and wider concerns to challenge our conscience and to engage our efforts and our energies. In today's world, we are all-in varying degrees-public servants. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 :13744 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 946 What, then, is the job before us-at home First, the challenge posed by the Commu- and broad? nist commitment to world conquest-and in At home, we face first of all the job of sus- particular by the Communists' effort to im- +taining our unprecedented economic pros- pose their will and extend their influence parity, for it is this prosperity that must by outright aggression and by subversion underlie our efforts to achieve all our other backed by the threat of aggression. goals at home and abroad. To sustain that Second, the challenge posed by the col- prosperity will require that we continue to lapse of colonialism and the emergence of follow a policy mix that is inclusive rather new nations-thus far more than fifty in than exclusive, that seeks not one economic number-coupled with the growing demands goal at the expense of all others, but all of of underprivileged peoples everywhere for our major economic goals at one and the full and immediate deliverance from the same time-our paramount goals. of strong hunger and the disease and the illiteracy and steady economic growth, of full employ- and the grinding poverty that had ruled anent, of reasonable price stability, and of their lives for centuries. relative equilibrium in our international Third, the challenge posed by the spread- balance of payments. To sustain that pros- 'ing outbreak of excessive nationalism-most perity will require that all segments of our noticeable and understandable in some of economy-government and business and the less developed countries, but highly vis- labor-continue to work together in a grow- ible as well in some of the world's more :ing partnership for prosperity. developed nations-that considerably com- But prosperity is not nearly enough. The plicates the efforts of nations to work to- time has long passed-if, indeed, there ever gether on a multilateral basis to attack com- 'was a time--when the task of sustaining a mon problems and to achieve common high level of economic advance seemed chal- 'objectives. lenge enough to occupy the bulk of our ef- These are the overriding challenges that fort and attention. The time has long since will, continue to require our fullest energies passed-if, indeed, there ever was a time- and efforts for long, hard years to come. For when we could justify a prosperity that surely there is not one of us who has not long meant only more for those who already had ago shed-if, indeed, we ever entertained- enough, that meant only a growing gap be- the illusion that these challenges will sur- tween those who share and those who failed render to sudden or simple solutions. to share in its fruits-if it meant continued And surely we realize as well that our re- neglect of needs too long left unmet and of sponsibilities in the world are not ours alone problems whose solution has been too long either to determine or to bear. For our re- postponed. sponsibilities are determined by the realities We seek prosperity-we strive to sustain and events of the world in which we live, it-because it alone will enable us to better realities and events which are often open to achieve our goals as individuals and as a na- our influence but beyond our control. And tion. We seek it because through it alone they are shared by all the other nations of can we develop a society that deserves to be the Free World-by all nations who cherish called great. their freedom and independence as we do That is the task to which President John- and who equally labor to further the cause son has awakened us anew-the task to of peace and justice and freedom and well- which he has already aroused and engaged being throughout the world. so much of our efforts and energies-the task To meet the great and common challenges in which already he has led us to such bold before us-the opportunities as well as the beginnings. dangers-will continue to require of us and We have begun to make real inroads upon our allies the highest qualities of leadership the acute social ills too long obscured or on two major fronts: ignored in the life of our land-the ills of First, leadership in standing firm and poverty and prejudice and ignorance-. We united against Communist aggression and have begun to make real advances toward the subversion with sufficient force and power day when ability to learn rather than abil- to deter such efforts and to demonstrate be- tty to pay will be the sole standard of educa- yond any doubt that they are too unreward- tional opportunity in America-toward the ing and dangerous to be worth the risk. day when no American need fear the eco- Second, leadership in assisting on a multi- nomic consequences of unemployment, of old lateral basis the new nations in their struggle age or of ill health-toward the day, in short, to achieve both essential stability and suffi- when every American can enjoy the opportu- dent progress toward meeting the rising pity of a full and free life. needs and demands of their people. I do not suggest that the millennium is at On both of these fronts-over a period of hand. The tasks ahead are staggering. And two decades and under the leadership of four today, as in times past, the distance between Presidents--ours is a record of the most un- deed and ideal is long and difficult. But relenting effort and the most enduring ac- while I would not underestimate the difficul- complishment toward the preservation of ties ahead, neither would I underestimate peace, the protection of freedom and the our capacities to overcome them. promotion of human rights and human wel- Not the least of those difficulties is the fact fare. that we must pursue our goals at home in We have helped counter aggression in all its full awareness and full acceptance of our re- guises-whether open or concealed-on near- sponsibilities for leadership in a deeply in- ly every continent on the globe, in countries terdependent world, great and small-in Greece, on Turkey and No longer can it be said of us-as Lloyd in Berlin; in Lebanon, in Iran and in India; George said of us when we rejected our in Taiwan, in the Congo, in Laos and now in world responsibilities in the aftermath of Vietnam. World War I: "The Americans appeared to We have sought, not to act alone and assume responsibility for the sole guardian- apart, but to join with other nations in forg- ship of the Ten Commandments and for the ing effective alliances against aggression- Sermon on the Mount; yet when it came to aggression in the Atlantic Community a practical question of assistance and re- through the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- sponsibility, they absolutely refused to ac- zation, aggression in Southeast Asia and the cept it." Pacific through the Southeast Asia Treaty For we understand-and our deeds have Organization, aggression in Latin America demonstrated our understanding-that they through the Organization of American States, way in which the United States exercises its and aggression anywhere in the world international leadership will do such to de- through the United Nations. termine the future for the world and for We have made the required sacrifices, and succeeding generations of Americans. we have borne the required costs. The challenges before us are many, but Nor have we been found wanting on the surely these are three of the most basic: second front-where also we have led the way toward helping assure throughout the Free World the economic development and the social progress that alone will enable men to better their lives. There has been in the decades since World War Ir no great multi- lateral organization or effort for peace and for the works of peace whose advent and whose accomplishments do not reflect, in large measure, our leadership and our sup- port-the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Mar- shall Plan, the Inter-American Develop- Bank, the Alliance for Progress and most re- cently the Asian Development Bank-a ven- ture in which we have joined with 31 other nations, including 12 nations outside Asia, and which seeks to open up for the peoples of Asia far fuller opportunities for sharing in the economic abundance and social prog- ress that so much of the rest of the world can take for granted. Through these multilateral efforts, through bilateral government aid, and through num- erous private channels, we have devoted a vast share of our wealth and our resources to the task of helping others increase their share of the world's abundance. In the postwar decades we have contributed a net total of some $100 billion of our national wealth to helping better the lives of others through our major government foreign as- sistance programs. Indeed, in meeting the great challenges of our times, we have not been found wanting. Never in the memory of man has any nation done so much and at such great cost, not to gain dominion over the lives or the resources or the territory of others, but to help others gain full and free dominion over their own destinies. We do not say we have always been right. We do not say we have always been success- ful. But no man and no nation can justly deny what history makes manifest: in the hour of need, we have not been found wanting. And we will not be found wanting now. We must continue to yield to no nation the patient pursuit of peace and the works of peace-and continue to demonstrate, as we do in Vietnam, that we have the will and the weapons to resist aggression. ? We must be willing to bear the burdens and accept the uncertainties and the un- pleasantness and the imperfections that come with such a war as Vietnam. For Viet- nam is a war of wills as well as a war of weapons. It is a test of our willingness to survive-to surmount-the strain of con- stant, continual conflict whose end is never clearly in sight. At the same time we must continue-to- gether with other developed nations of the Free World-to carry our share of the bur- den of leadership in the common task of helping the devolping nations of the world to realize their destiny and enrich the lives of their people in dignity and freedom. And we are taking the initiative in these endeav- ors-seeking assiduously in both quiet and public diplomacy to enlist the cooperation of our allies in bold new efforts to promote free trade, to strengthen the international monetary system, and to make available to needy peoples everywhere the opportunity and the means and the incentives for con- quering hunger and disease, and for living under the liberating light of education and knowledge. For we seek for others no more than we seek for ourselves-the opportunity for a full and free life. Abroad as at home, our efforts reflect our awareness that with might must come maturity, with wealth and riches must come wisdom and responsibility, and with success must come sacrifice. This, indeed, must be our awareness-not only as a nation but as individuals-in the days ahead. For the challenges before us are too great and the world is too small for any of us to retire into an island of purely Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Ji ne:?27, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL R15CORD - SENATE private concern-into what one observer has called the "cult of private sunshine and se- cluded complacency." I do not share the view, held by some, that these years of academic education you are now completing have been years of isolation from the world, from life and its problems. I know, on the contrary, that they have been, in the profoundest sense, years of entrance into the world, years of real encounter with life and with its problems and its promise- years for deepening and developing in a multitude of ways that understanding that Alfred North Whitehead deemed the most essential end of education-"the understand- ing of an inelstent present." The present, Whitehead rightly declared, "contains all there is. It is holy ground; for it is the past, and it is the future." I know that it is your experience here at William and Mary-and that of others like you at colleges and uni- versities throughout our land-that helps us heed the warning uttered by that same thinker half a century ago: "In the condi- tions of modern life th rule is absolute, the race which does not yalue trained intelli- gence is doomed." But, as I have tried to suggest in all I have said-as, indeed, all the awesome and awful events of recent decades so unanswerably argue-the "trained intelligence" alone is not nearly enough. For as individuals and as a nation, we can accomplish all we seek to ac- complish, and avoid all we seek to avoid, only to the extent that we exhibit in abun- dance, not only the trained intelligence, but the active and engaged intelligence, the in- formed and awakened imagination, the aroused concern and the committed con- science. As one who has known the privilege of spending many of his years in formal public service, I hope very deeply that some of you will seek to know that privilege. I would urge, indeed, that all of you ' give serious thought to the possibilities of public service, not only on the national level, but on the state and local level as well. Everywhere throughout the country our states and our cities struggle to cope with the most stagger- ing problems, and everywhere those citizens who have most to offer are often the most reluctant to become involved in local and state affairs. I know that only some of us can-that only some of us should-enter formal public service. But all of us can and all of us must, in the broader sense, accept the obli- gations and opportunities for public service that in today's world exist in such abund- ance. I urge each of you, whatever your career, to interest and involve yourselves-for you have so much to give-in all those issues and affairs that so critically affect our lives but lie beyond the narrow boundaries of our own personal pursuits. I urge-you to do all you can In every way you can to bring to life in your businesses and your professions, in your towns and your communities, in your cities and your states, in your nation and your world, that vision evoked for all time by Thomas Jef- ferson two centuries ago-and set forth so eloquently for our own time by President Johnson-the vision of an America and a world in which men and men's hopes can not only survive, but flourish. OUR "GO-IT-ALONE" POLICY Mr. HARTICE. Mr. President, while it is impossible to capture the full flavor of a political cartoon in words, I should like to note that the Washington Post yesterday reprinted a noteworthy car- toon from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. It captured and summed up very well No. 105-15 the fact that we are standing virtually alone in South Vietnam, that despite the claims of the State Department of sup- port from numerous nations, we have no real support,. The cartoon shows a line of men, rifles to shoulder, stepping off in parade uni- form with every boot in lockstep. Over them floats a banner labeled "Western Alliance." But in the foreground, hur- rying in the opposite direction, is a familiar figure, battle-uniformed and jungle-helmeted with full equipment, in- cluding a shoulder bag labeled "U.S. Position in Vietnam." From the corner of his mouth he is grimly saying: I don't think y'all realize it, but every- body's out of step but me! In a speech on April 19 at Ball State University in Muncie, Ind., I commented on that situation, in which we have pro- duced for ourselves a new isolationism by the rejection of the rest of the world of our policies in Vietnam. Here are some of the facts I noted then, which has not changed. Our SEATO allies include Great Brit- ain, which has furnished assistance through 11 police instructors, a professor of English, and some technical and con- struction equipment. France belongs to SEATO. France has sent 600 educators, medical, and tech- nical personnel. Of the others among the 39 nations which the State Department says are helping in our struggle, Italy's assistance is a 9-man surgical team and science scholarships. Belgium has contributed some medicines. Pakistan has given some clothing and $10,000 for flood relief. Thailand, like Pakistan a SEATO mem- ber, has furnished cement and some as- sistance of a classified nature. Iran's assistance is a 22-man medical team and 1,000 tons of petroleum. India has given only clothing for flood relief. So it goes down the list. This is what is meant when the press speaks of "token assistance." And it is this of which Clayton Fritchey spoke recently in his Washington Star column under the cap- tion, "Most Nations Oppose U.S. Asia Role." Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that Mr. Fritchey's article of June 13 may appear in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the article was orded to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington (D.C.) Star, June 13, 19661 MOST NATIONS OPPOSE U.S. ASIA ROLE (By Clayton Fritchey) Secretary of State Dean Rusk has returned from the Brussels' metting of the North At- lantic Treaty Organization with little to show for American leadership or general sup- port ofU.S. foreign policy. It was the same story at the last two previous meetings of NATO. Yet just before leaving for Brussels, Rusk made a major speech In which he foolishly and incautiously said, "I have found that the objectives of American foreign policy are widely understood, respected and supported." He added that " a large majority" of the na- tions of the free world are "sympathetic to our efforts in Southeast Asia This statement is so palpably wide of the mark that it is embarrassing. It does dis- close, however, the administration's present capacity to deceive itself. Other nations may be wrong, or misguided, but that is another argument. Rusk's con- tention is not that they should back the United States, but that they do. The pain- fully evident fact is, they don't. The Johnson administration .likes to be- lieve that President Charles de Gaulle's op- position is personal and spiteful, and does not reflect French public opinion. Yet the most recent French poll showed (1) strong support for De Gaulle's anti-U.S. policy, and (2) no confidence in U.S. leadership. Our other great European ally, West Germany, has just given the State Department fits by agreeing to finance a large steel plant in Communist China. In the non-aligned world, it is the same. And Nasser denounces. the United States at every opportunity. Tito accuses the United States of "Jeopardizing world peace." When Dr: Nurredin Attassi recently became the new Syrian chief of state, he promptly charged that U.S. policy in Viet Nam "springs from nothing but-lust to dominate the peoples." The African nations have demonstrated time and again in the United Nations their lack of confidence in U.S. policy, just as in the Organization of American States most of the important Latin nations have frowned on American interventionism in this hemi- sphere and elsewhere. The United States has repeatedly said it is in Asia to protect Asians, but it is an eloqu- ent fact that no large power In that area backs the policy that Rusk says is so "re- spected" and "supported." Despite an. Amer- ican combination of arm-twisting, vast for- eign aid, and cajolery, India, Pakistan, Japan (and now even anti-Communist In- donesia) want no part of our Viet Nam adventure. India's new prime minister, Indira Gandhi, publicly rebuffed Vice President HUBERT HUMPHREY when he coupled a plea for sup- port in Viet Nam with the announcement of a $100 million dollar loan. President Ayub Khan of Pakistan says, "There is no danger to the subcontient from China provided no uncalled for provocation is aimed against that country." The Japanese government like the British government, feels compelled to pay lip serv- ice to U.S. policy, but no one pretends this reflects popular feeling in those countries. A poll taken by Asahi, Japan's largest news- paper, showed 75 percent of the people against the Viet Nam war. To sum up, there are 116 nations in the United Nations but only two (plus our pup- pet, South Korea) are supporting us with troops in Viet Nam. New Zealand has sent 150 men, and Australia, 1,400. The United States has 300,000 in the theater. Despite this, the President and Rusk keep telling the American people that over 40 na- tions are providing, assistance to Viet Nam. Actually only 31 nations (mostly under U.S. pressure) have made any contributions, and even they are merely token offerings. It may be tha the United States is a de- serving maid, b not even Rusk can make her look lik th belle of the international ball. f Ulide t Johnson administration, Miss A. as all to obviously become a ERIC SEVAREID ON VIETNAM Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, that noted and distinguished broadcaster, commentator, and columnist, Eric Sev- areid, has just returned from a visit to southeast Asia, the theater of our un- declared war. He has reported his find- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 13746 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27,,,19v6 ings and feelings over the CBS television network. His reportage provides much material for study and soul searching. Why, for instance, must the United States--in addition to its 300,000 men in uniform in Europe-have an additional 669,000 men in the Pacific with major troop installations in 10 Pacific coun- tries and areas? Why is it, that non-Communist coun- tries much closer to China, such as Japan, are much more unconcerned and relaxed about the possible menace of Chinese aggression than our policymak- ers? Mr. Sevaried obviously is doubtful about the administration's contentions that our invasion of Vietnam is the way to stop the advance of Chinese commu- nism. He fears that our policy will in- volve us in a greater war. He is clear that it is a civil war which we got ourselves into-which the admin- istration seeks to deny-and he finds little to sustain its justification for its policies and actions, He points out, also, how deceptive are our reports of casualties. He points out what has been painfully evident to a few of us who have voiced our dissent from our administration's policy for over nearly two and a half years-that "there is not a single leader of countrywide prestige in South Viet- nam," and that our attempts "to apply Western logic and experience to this oriental land" are futile. Mr. Sevareid's views on our military activities in southeast Asia have under- gone some modification over the last 2 years. So have those of others-despite the misleading propaganda that comes from the seats of U.S. power, There is a gratifying change of public senti- ment as the truth emerges, but thus far it seems not to have registered effectively with those who are responsible for send- ing our young men to fight and die in a cause that does not correspond to the fictions which are advanced to justify this needless slaughter. I ask unanimous consent that the CBS news special report entitled "Viet- nam: Eric Sevareid's Personal Report," which was broadcast over its television network on Tuesday, June 21, 1966, be printed in the RECORD at this point in my remarks. There being no objection, the report was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: "VIETNAM: ERIC SEVAREID'S PERSONAL REPORT," AS BROADCAST OVER THE CBS TELEVISION NETWORK, TUESDAY, JUNE 21, 1966 Good evening. I'm Eric Sevareid. I pro- pose to sit here for the next thirty minutes and talk about America in Asia, about war and about truth. This may set television back a long way. We'll find out. I am not an authority on Asia. Asia is :far too big, changing far too rapidly for many certainties. I am not an expert on war, There is no such thing as military science. War is a rude art, in which human character, will and faith play at least as great a role as figures and logic. About truth, I hope I know more. It is a reporter's business to tell appearance from reality, rhetoric from fact. He often falls. In this Vietnam war, he fails unusually often because he is normally a stranger to the land, its language and its people. And because at every level-military, political, economic, psychological-the truth is frag- mented In a thousand pieces. At each level it is a jigsaw puzzle that no single man is able to piece together. We are therefore confronted with an ex- traordinary condition: no honest man can return a convincing answer to the great and obvious questions that all men ask: Is our action there Insurance against eventual war with China, as the Administra- tion asserts, or is it increasing the risk of such a war? Will the Vietnamese pull them- selves together politically, or fall further apart? Are we winning this war? Do we have a clear strategy for winning it? How many years and men will it take? To each question the official rhetoric of Washington gives the optimistic response. These officials speak from faith, not fact. The total of the known facts does not deny their optimism, but It does not confirm it, either. Through this fog of uncertainties the reporter must pick his way; he must report out of instinct, experience and impression. He can guess, estimate, and try to project what seem to him the probabilities. And his first task is to break through the crust of his own pre-conceived notions. I think I was only dimly aware of what the American power In the Pacific world really means. As you fly the great arcs to Alaska and Japan, and down the eastern rim of Asia's land mass, you begin to understand. The vast Pacific. and the skies above it belong to American power. America-its men, money and machines-is intermingled with the affairs of governments everywhere, the daily lives of hundreds of millions of people. Consider the world of the Pacific Ocean and the southern seas in this American era: Alaska, 30,000 military men; Hawaii, 100,000 military men; Guam, 20,000; Okinawa, 25,- 000; Japan, 39.000; Korea, 55,000; Taiwan, 10,000; the Philippines, 25,000; Vietnam, about 285,000; Thailand, 20,000. Besides, of course, the 7th Fleet itself-60,000 to 70,000 men. This is the legacy of the defeat of Japan in World War II; of the take-over of China by the Communists; of the collapse of Euro- pean rule; of the Korean War; and now, of the fighting in Vietnam. It is also the legacy of habit, of the military man's fear of ever giving up any salient, of the idea that Com- munist China is bent upon military aggres- sion, as were Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. There is a strange phenomenon that comes Into play in the relationship between impres- sions and reality. It has to do with time and space. For distance lends not only enchant- ment, but apprehension. So to Americans at home, the Buddhist riots in Saigon mean that all Saigon is in turmoil. But the man sitting in a cafe a block from the riots is relaxed; he knows it is not. So to us at home, China appears a frightening monster, straining at the leash, eager to smash her neighbors. But some of her neighbors are far more relaxed than we. This is true of the govern- ment of Japan, the most powerful non-Com- munist society of eastern Asia. Their view of China as an aggressive threat is closer to the view of Senator FULSRIGHT than to that of Secretary Rusk. They believe that China Is already contained. She is contained by the existence of the nuclear bomb, by the simple knowledge that If she marches over the bor- der of a friendly country that we are able to help, we shall immediately help. She is con- tained by this gigantic ring of steel built by the United States along her eastern and southern borders and by Russia's ring of steel along four thousand miles of her west- ern border. if she feels encircled, no big power ever had more right to feel that way. She fears what the United States may do more than some of her neighbors fear what she may do. China can try the methods of subversion In Southeast Asia; she has and she does. But it is doubtful how successful she would be, even without our presence and resist- ance, in Vietnam. Nationalism is basically stronger than any ideology. Most nations are not dominoes that fall over with a click. These nations of Southeast Asia, like Thai- land or Burma, are more like sponges. Their edges can become waterlogged with Commu- nist-trained resistance groups, but there are a thousand natural obstacles to the water seeping through the whole organism. One Is the historic dislike and distrust of the Chi- nese throughout these regions. A crucial question is whether our resist- ance in Vietnam is preventing the spread of Chinese dominance in other Asian countries through their propaganda, Infiltration and subversion. The Administration points to Indonesia, where the powerful Chinese-in- spired Communist apparatus was smashed not long ago. That would never have hap- pened, they like to think, were we not there, In Vietnam. If this is true, all of us would feel very much better about this war in Vietnam. My personal Opinion is that it's not true. Indeed, it was the conclusion of Japan's ambassadors to Southeast Asian countries, in recent con- sultation, that Vietnam had nothing to do with those events in Indonesia; that internal, domestic pressures alone were responsible. Korea in the north and Thailand in the south are exceptions to this line of thought. The men who rule Thailand have thrown in their lot with the United States and its argu- ment, contrary to Burma on their west and Cambodia on their east. They do fear China and communism In general, and they have given welcome and facilities to American power. The Thai government tries to keep as much of this secret as it can; and we helped them in this out of diplomatic considera- tions. But the truth is that we have up- wards of 20,000 military men in Thailand, mostly on the great bomber bases from which we hit North Vietnam and the Ho Chi Minh trails. Reporters are not permitted to see these bases. Twenty thousand is more men than we had In Vietnam itself when Mr. Johnson became President. Our military wanted, at one time, to put ground combat units into Northeast Thai- land, where skirmishes go on with Chinese- trained guerrillas. Our diplomats stopped that; but we have more than a few Special Forces and advisory fighting teams in the Northeast. And there one sees how war tends to spread and of why military men must be kept in constant check by political men.. Laos, technically neutral by the Geneva Agreements, is thoroughly engulfed in the war already. The North Vietnamese run their supplies and fresh soldiers through much of Laos; and therefore we bomb it con- stantly. We admit to no men on the ground in Laos. My information, from people I con- sider reliable, is that we have several thou- sand soldiers inside Laos, including spotter groups and Special Forces teams. When an American is killed in or over Laos, his death is officially registered as having occurred in Vietnam. Cambodia Is becoming more and more deeply involved in the fighting. We have bombed and shelled Cambodian territory, more than once, for some time back because we have had to. I believe our front line in- telligence reports and our eyewitnesses. When General Larsen, Commander of our Second Corps, whose boundaries lie along the Cambodian line, said there are heavy North Vietnamese troop concentrations inside Cam- bodia I am inclined to believe him rather Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 27, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE than the Pentagon's immediate denial of this. After all, he is on the scene. This, then, is how war spreads-in spite of all the official proclamations that we shall not allow It to spread. War has a logic, a momentum, fmperatives of its own.' And in this process, language Is adulterated, reason twisted, policy follows in the wake of actions, instead of the other way around, and the inner sequence of cause and effect is lost to man's comprehension. And so the Administration argues that un- less we stop communism, or China, or both in Vietnam now, other nations will fall, as happened in Europe in the thirties, until the grand confrontation of World War III with China will be forced upon the world. It seems to me that it is quite ' as logical to argue that our very presence in Vietnam, with this inevitable osmotic spread of hostili- ties across other borders, is just as likely to produce war with China, unless we are ex- tremely careful and extremely lucky. And if that happens, it will be like World War I, if not World Wear II. Men still argue how World War I got started, as actions led to reactions and still further reactions, en- gulfing nation by nation. If we are sucked Into collision with China in these regions, we will never be sure of the precise point in space or time when it happened. How the Vienam war goes will be the test of all this; Vietnam is the anvil on which our future relations with vast, emerging China are be- ing hammered out, and the sparks fly in all directions. Until we got into it, the Vietnam war was essentially a civil war; a civil war and a so- cial revolution and a struggle for national identity and freedom from European rule. For legal and diplomatic reasons, Washington must argue that it is not a civil war at all, but an aggression and an Invasion by an external power. But when men speaking the same language, living within the same cul- tural context, raised in the same cities and villages fight one another by the thousands that is civil war. When men of the North (including Prime Minister Ky) are part of the government of the South, and vice versa, it is civil war. Even the Geneva Agreements called the two "zones" of the one country, not sovereign states. North Vietnam has gone to the Chinese weapons system; their material help from China and Russia Is considerable. But no Chinese officer or soldier has ever been found among the enemy's fighting cadres, to my knowledge. It is the apparent conviction of Washing- ton that if North Vietnam will just stop its infiltration into the South the war could be settled. Not necessarily, not unless Hanoi also ordered a cease-fire all down the line. One of our leading generals there argues strongly that the units from the North need the local guerrillas far more than the guer- rillas need them. The guerrillas are home; they need ammuniton but not trucks or oil or great depots of rites. How many men are coming down from the North? Last fall, Secretary McNamara said it was 4500 a month; this April we were told in Saigon that it had gone higher and might reach 7,000. The other day the Pentagon again said 4500. These figures are educated guesses, no more. How many in all have come down? At the Saigon headquarters you are told there are, at a generous estimate, fifty battalions of North Vietnamese now in the South. Their battalions are far smaller than ours-perhaps four or Ave hundred men. That means about 25,000 Northerners In their own combat units. That in turn, is only ten per cent of the estimated total of a quarter million orga- nized and semi-organized fighting men that we and the South Vietnamese now face. On both sides, it is a much bigger war than a year' ago, when it was nearly lost and when President Johnson ordered the massive in- fusions of American troops. Our Intelligence people out there believe that the enemy is now better armed, man for man, than our South Vietnamese allies. Far worse armed, of course, than we. Our fighting men, our weapons and devices, our tactical ingenuity-all are profoundly Impressive. We could not fight this war at all were it not our side that enjoys the real "privileged sanctuaries"-the sea and the sky. Both are denied to the enemy. If our tactics are ingenious, our grand strategy remains a mystery, at least to me. We are fighting what is essentially a war of attrition, the most disagreeable kind of war, counting progress by the number of enemy bodies. The count Is accurate when our men can actually go among the bodies; when the Air Force claims so many Vietcong killed from bombing and strafing runs, those are foolish guesses. The claims of enemy killed by the South Vietnamese forces-and the figures on their own casualties-may be approximately right or wildly wrong; none of us can really check. It might be better if we in the news busi- ness reported weekly progress in terms of hamlets restored or re-settled, classrooms built, village chiefs who feel it safe to go back and sleep in their own houses. That, after all, is what the war is about. And in this respect there is progress. It is some- thing to see tough American Marines acting as dedicated social workers; it is a fact worth knowing that of the three thousand Marines who have voluntarily extended their term of duty in Vietnam, most are those men who work daily with the ordinary people. Prog- ress, but painfully slow progress, and against it must be set the great numbers of refugees who come into our secured areas. About a million of them now. Not all of them, by any means, fleeing from Vietcong terror; many fleeing from the terror of our napalm and high explosives which have inescapably killed and maimed hundreds of innocent people. We Are not really conquering territory. Our official statement is that at the end of last year eight and a half per cent of the total land area was considered secure; at the end of February nine and a half per cent; all the rest is In enemy hands or disputed and unsafe, or empty. About eight million peo- ple, a bit over half the population, are in secure allied controlled areas. We are using giant sledgehammers to kill hornets. The Vietcong's National Liberation Front in the South has an annual budget estimated at about ten million dollars. Our annual costs in this war run to about fifteen billion. The enemy needs an estimated eighty-seven tons of supplies each day; the American establishment alone needs about twenty thousand tons a day. In terms of last year's total expenditure for the war, each enemy soldier killed last year cost us well over a million dollars. What of our human Investment and hu- man losses? Of the total American military in-country, say 285,000, only a distinct mi- nority do the real fighting, on the ground and in the air. They alone are the heroes. All the rest, in the enormous support and supply echelons, in the cities and ports, In the countless offices-they may occasionally court danger, but their life is wholly differ- ent, usually comfortable, for a great many enjoyable. We had, when I left, five combat divisions and, two brigades in the field, around 85,000 men. Add to that the Special Forces teams and the combat filers. Of these I would guess, generously, that about 60,000 can be defined as men in frequent combat. Now this is an arbitrary definition, but neces- sary-some definition's necessary-if we are to think at all about our human Investment and losses. And thinking from this lough definition, one feels obliged to say that our casualties are high, not low. They are low 13747 in relation to the total number in Vietnam, mostly men who never or rarely ever see the enemy, and low compared to-enemy losses. But our losses in combat dead and wounded have mounted rapidly to the current rate of about 30,000 a year. One year is a man's term of service there. On the simple statis- tical face of it, then, the chances for the individual fighting soldier in an active com- bat zone avoiding death or wounds in his twelve months are not great, about fifty- fifty. What lengthens his odds is the in- creasing rotation of more units, not just between home and Vietnam, but between the fighting zones and the rest zones. And if enemy attacks slacken off, that, of course, will improve the odds. For every man ad- mitted to hospital in Vietnam for combat wounds, three times as many are admitted for non-combat injuries and disease. In terms of the combat troops, one is then forced to the conclusion that we lose the ,equivalent of about a battalion a week; most of them, of course, to return later on. But this is a rather constant process, and the need for more men and more rotation in combat operations would seem obvious. In this sense, our casualties are high, not low. And by the other relevant measuring rod, the lasting gain from the average com- bat operation-some Vietcong killed, some rice destroyed, a village cleaned out, much of which the enemy will later replace and recover-by this measure, too, the casualties must be considered high, not low. Last summer began the big increase in the American fighting force. So this summer, tens of thousands of men will leave Vietnam, but they will be replaced, these veterans, by green troops. However good their training at home, all soldiers are green until they have gone through at least one real battle. And greenness does cost lives. One green com- pany of my acquaintance recently lost 130 men, killed and badly wounded, out of its 170, in one engagement. In the official hand- out later, the casualties of that action were described as "moderate," presumably because other units were also involved or because the enemy lost even more. The phrase "heavy casualties" I don't think I ever saw in those handout statistics. I do not believe we are losing this war or will lose it. I am not sure one can call it a stalemate, as some men do. The Vietcong in the South and those units from the North are getting badly hurt. That is why the Vietcong is now recruiting kids as young as thirteen from their homes in the South, tax- ing the people more heavily and thus losing some of their popular support. That is why some of those Northern units are not at all well-trained; that is why those who desert to the other side are nearly all the enemy fighters, not'South Vietnamese or, of course, Americans. Hanoi may have to call it off, though we see no signs yet that it will. We are not playing chess. Both sides are playing poker, doub- ling each lost bet. It is a test of political will. But, like some others, when I try to en- visage the process of winning, I am haunted by a spectre. The spectre of this fragmen- tized, weary Vietnamese society. It was our official belief and the argument of among many of the so-called Hawks, that as we stopped losing this war-which we've done-and as we started winning it, which we've not quite done-the bitterly conflicting political and social factions in South Vietnam would start to pull together, in their na- tional interest. The trouble is that Vietnam is only a society, not a nation, There is not a single leader of countrywide prestige in South Vietnam. The people have had little experience in responding to general laws and impersonal institutions. They respond to lo- cal personalities, cliques, religious groupings, or their own private interest. The resistance and rioting of the most militant Buddhists Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 13748 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE June 27, 19` low. seems to mean that they hate the central government more than they hate the Com- munist enemy. We try to apply Western logic and exper- ience to this Oriental land. So we encourage the elections, envisage a parliament and eventual civilian rule, representing groups and regions. My own guess is that this pro- cess of democratizing would produce years of political turmoil before stability is reached. It will probably, though not certainly, open a whole new Pandora's box, all the quarrels in the country bursting into the open. Viet- nam, I think myself, Is not to be compared with Korea or Greece, where we were suc- cessful, in these respects; a strong national sense, strong leaders existed there. If this proves to be the trend, as we try to democratize government in Vietnam, then the immediate consequence would be a nightmare for us, for we should then have to involve ourselves deeper and deeper into their politics, their economy and more and more of the fighting and dying would be done by Americans and less and less by the Viet- namese. Ten days ago, Secretary McNamara asserted that Vietnamese politics would not hinder our war effort there. It is part of the duty of national leaders to speak from their faith, not from their fears. But it is part of the duty of the press to examine their faith, to raise the questions that officials never pub- licly raise. The hypothetical alternatives in Vietnam remain about what they were: bomb more of North Vietnam's industry and see what happens while nervously watching. nervous China; halt the bombing and pull back to our base areas and see what happens; en- courage the various third nation efforts to get negotiations started; quit Vietnam en- tirely; keep the pressure on, as we are doing, and wait for Hanoi's will to break. As of now, the prospect is more pressure-more and heavier war; that is the meaning of the stepped-up draft, the new troop shipments, the longer lanes of cargo vessels plowing the South China Sea, the increasing roar of the airplanes settling on to those ever-increasing airfields. I should like to mention, before I end this long and not very happy discourse, two mat- ters: a bit cosmic perhaps, but of funda- mental consequence for Qur future affairs. One is the fantastic size of our military es- tablishment and the fantastic speed by which its cost increases. This can consume our marginal substance. This is what General Eisenhower warned about in his last words as President. He said we must guard against undue power by a military industrial com- plex. It will take a very convincing peace and a very strong President to put our military genie back in the bottle. The other thing is this: the deepest, strongest forces motivating the people of Asia are not those we picture as we sit here at home. From here, one has the illusion that Asia is clanking armies, colliding ideol- ogies, aggression and fear, that Asia is politics. But the deepest forces moving Asian peo- ples now are not these at all, but the forces of the modern scientific-industrial revolu- tion. Asians have discovered the great secret, so long hidden from their hope : that man is not born to a short life of pain and work and poverty. They see the marvelous evidence, nearly everywhere they look: Japan, a boom- ing economic colossus whose production may soon pass Great Britain's. Korea, prosperous enough to do without direct American aid. Taiwan, where food production has doubled in 15 years and where new hotels, highways, factories open every month. Thailand, whose cities boom and grow. Indonesia, which has Stopped its ridiculous war with Malaysia and now wants to join the real procession. Even Communist China, where basic comfort now seems assured for most, and where a new gen- eration of economists, engineers, builders Is slowly but surely coming to replace the old men of politics and war as they were replaced in Russia when Stalin died. In Taiwan I had a Chinese driver, name of Jimmy. A mainlander who had to flee the Chinese Communists and has no love for them at all. But he said to me, "If only American and China can learn to get along- what a wonderful thing for us all." Jimmy perceives what Asia and life can be. Our government perceives it, as attested by the Johnson plans for Southeast Asia's economic development. But if this war in Vietnam goes wrong and the great collision does come, all this will be lost, and that would break history's heart. This reporter, like most, even among those who fear and doubt, still believes that'God and the stars will again indulge their no- torious weakness for Americans and bring us through this unhappy Vietnamese trans- action in safety and peace. There, like the government officials, I speak from faith, not from the facts; knowing, as they know, that faith-even blind faith-can sometimes change the facts. FEDERAL SUPPORT FOR ADULT EDUCATION Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, I should like to call attention to the fact that in its deliberations today and to- morrow, the Education Subcommittee of the Labor and Public Welfare Committee is considering the inclusion of an amend- ment to the elementary and secondary education bill dealing with adult educa- tion. I sincerely hope they will report favorably, and that the Senate will pass such a measure. Specifically, the proposals under con- sideration are those contained in my bill S. 3012, on which testimony was received last month and which bears the endorse- ment of 17 other Senators as cosponsors. I believe it is high time that we moved forward into the area which is now the neediest in the education field, that of adult education. My bill, which I hope will become a title of the elementary and secondary education proposals, calls for primary use of the public schools as the great existing resource for the upgrading of educational opportunity for adults. Adult education is considered in these proposals under the two heads of adult basic education and of adult supplemen- tal education. The concept of adult basic education as contemplated at pres- ent under the Economic Opportunity Act is enlarged to include instruction and services for adults who do not have a secondary education or its equivalent- in other words, all who have not finished high school. Supplemental adult edu- cation is the area which includes, in the language of the bill, Such items as citi- zenship training, parent education, and consumer education. I have previously, both in the Senate and before the committee, spoken of the advantages of giving support to the ex- pansion of such programs through the public schools. There are other avenues of adult education through which per- sons may forward their knoweldge and understanding in an organized way. While the schools were providing, ac- cording to a survey some 5 years ago, adult education for nearly 2 million people, adult education activities of churches and synagogues reached nearly 31/2 million and colleges and universities 3,440,000. The problems of the college and uni- versity in dealing with adult education through extension courses are discussed in a recent Christian Science Monitor ar- ticle by Wesley Max, writing from Los Angeles. He points to the "economic squeeze" faced by extension courses as State support, pressed hard by the needs for the regular university curriculum, has dwindled. In California, the State budget has declined from 20 to 7 percent of the cost of the courses, and those who often need such study the most are being hard pressed by the need to pay fees averaging $45 per course. This article, at this time when adult education is under consideration in the committee, is worthy of attention. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that it may appear in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: AN ECONOMIC SQUEEZE: THE STRANGE WAYS OF ADULT EDUCATION Los ANGELES.-Any university that would consider curtailing education in liberal arts and social sciences while retaining courses in Wine I, Chinese Cooking, and Skills in Social Dance-Advanced would generally be considered an educational degenerate. Yet the highly regarded University of California Extension (or adult-education division) finds it faces just such an embarrassing predica- ment. This predicament arises from a maxim that has plagued the remarkable growth of adult education at the university level over the nation: Courses must make money in order to make the curriculum. This cost consci- ousness often also means that the people who need the courses most are least able to pay for them. At California, Wines I, Chinese Cooking, and Social Dance-Advanced make money; some liberal-arts and social-sciences courses do not. At the same time state support of the extension's budget, now $15,000,000, has dwindled from 20 to 7 per cent in the past several years. One recent legislative report recommends that extension services, normally supported largely by student fees, be sup- ported entirely by them, a proposal that ex- tension officials decry. It is this economic squeeze that prompted Extension Dean Paul Sheats to warn recently that decreasing state support would "force us increasingly into an elitist type of pro- gram." Courses that fail to attract a suffi- cient and affluent clientele will be dropped. An affluent clientele is necessary because student fees now average $45 per course for the 133,000 students who are enrolled at 175 state-wide extension branches. KEEPING UP TO SNUFF Says Dean Sheats: "In general we don't have problems in engineering, science, busi- ness, and law because many firms reimburse employes for extension work. They realize it is necessary to keep their people up to snuff." Although they are not reimbursed, teachers, too, are willing to pay the increased fees be- cause they need the courses in order to be promoted. But lower-income groups like so- cial workers, labor personnel, some night stu- dents, and municipal employes are often thwarted by the higher fees. The pressures of the enrollment economy as it is often called among extension officials are being felt in other university-extensior of state support than the California Exten- systems. Many systems enjoy a higher lever of state support than the California Exten- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 t Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 June 27, 1966 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE now from a crazy- quilt,- unsettling high in- terest rate pattern. On the other hand, candor demands one .note that the protax increase group mis- judged the actual strength of the economy this year. VIETNAM THE KEY A tax increase might have put a real crimp in the economy. -Recession? I doubt it, but that "lull" might have been more painful. To be sure, there has instead been an in- flation of prices, damaging, but not crip- pling. This has. been the "trade off" for keeping unemployment low. But what of the future? The only thing that is certain is that Vietnam is the key. If Tobin's, hunch is right, then 1967 could see a cost push inflation (wages and prices out of hand) s pplementing today's demand pull inflation (loo many dollars chasing too Then the 4eb to will start all over again, and eco o c logic,new" or "old," will again% de is tax boost. PENIVGON EXPERT STUDIES HOW TO STEM VIETNAM INFLATION Mr. PROXMIRE. One of the ablest young men with whom I have worked closely in recent years is Leslie Aspin. He comes from Wisconsin and is a grad- uate of Yale summa cum laude, 1960. He then studied at Oxford and received his master's degree in 1962 in economics. He completed his doctorate study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For some months he has served in the Pentagon as an outstanding economist. A few days ago, he was sent to Saigon by Secretary McNamara to make a study and report on inflation in Vietnam. The Aspin report on Vietnam could be extremely significant. We all know how vital it is to win political stability in South Vietnam if we are to have a chance to negotiate peace and self deter- mination. It is vital that we succeed in stemming Vietnam's rampant inflation, if we are todevelop the basis for political stability. The Aspin study will contribute to that vital objective. I ask unanimous consent to have an article published in the Milwaukee Sen- tinel, entitled "Shorewood Economist Aids Saigon Fight on Inflation," written by James G. Wieghart, printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: SItOREWOOD ECONOMIST AIDS SAIGON FIGHT . ON INFLATION (By James G. Wieghart) WASHINGTON, D.C.-A Shorewood econ- omist left for Saigon Thursday to help fight inflation-which next to the Vietcong poses the most serious threat to the South Vietna- mese government, He Is-Leslie Aspin, 27, of 3935 N. Ridgefield circle, an economic advisor to'Defense Sec- retary McNamara. Aspin will spend two to three weeks tour- Ong South Vietnam to determine if the recent anti-inflationary steps taken by the United States government will be sufficient to save that country's economy. - The South Vietnamese government last Saturday announced a massive devaluation of its piaster currency, Which had been de- preciating alarmingly under the onslaught of inflation. As a result of the devaluation, the com- mercial exchange rate of the piaster to the dollar was raised from 60 to 1 to 118 to 1. The new rates consist of an 80 to 1 exchange plus a 38 plaster tax, for a total of 118 piasters per $1. Aspin conceded that the American govern- ment views the Vietnamese economic crisis just as seriously as it does the political crisis brought on by Buddhist dissidents who have sought to unseat the Saigon government. He said that the country is undergoing an almost classical wartime inflation brought on by a decline and dislocation in agricul- tural and industrial production due to the war. This is aggravated by mounting govern- ment defense expenditures and falling rev- enue caused by decreasing tax collections. On top of all this is the tremendous eco- nomic pressure generated by the presence of 260,000 American troops plus the tremen- dous United States spending for port and other facilities. Just how serious inflation has become In Vietnam is evidenced by the increase in the money supply from 25 billion piasters in April, 1964, to more than 57 billion now, Aspin said. He said the cost of living has risen 130% since January, 1962. He pointed out that food prices alone have jumped 84% since the eve of the American buildup in January, 1965, and have risen 15% in the last six weeks. A recent report from Vietnam lists the price for the most common brand of rice eaten in Saigon at 1,120 piasters for about 200 pounds. In January, the '-ost of the same quantity was estimated at about 800 piasters. The report said the average Viet- namese family spends about 13% of its bud- get for rice. Aspin said that efforts to bring the South Vietnamese economy in line is a joint one between the South Vietnamese government, the International monetary fund and the American government, particularly the de- fense and state departments. He said he will check on methods for dis- tributing the defense department's massive spending to avoid disrupting the economy. One way to do this, he said, is for the de- fense department to buy as much of its sup- plies as possible from sources outside of South Vietnam. The American government also is helping to increase the supply of goods by releasing 160 million dollars to the South Vietnamese treasury for imports between now and Sep- tember. Aspin has been an economic adviser to Mc- Namara since he received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology' last, February. He was graduated from Shorewood high school In 1956, and received his bachelor's de- gree in history from Yale university where he was graduated summa cum laude In 1960. He received his master's degree in econom- ics,.politics and philosophy at Oxford (Eng- land) university in 1962. Aspin also has been active behind the scenes in Wisconsin politics. In the sum- mer of 1960 he worked in the r'ffice of Sen. PROXMIRE (D-Wis.). From February to No- vember, 1964, he was campaign director for PROXMIRE. In July, 1965, he directed a fund raising dinner for PROXMIRE and in August 1965, he was director of a fund raising dinner for Lt. Gov. Patrick J. Lucey. Aspin also has had experience as an eco- nomic consultant. In the summer of 1961, he was economic adviser to the United Af- rica Co., Freetown, Sierra Leone- in western Africa. In the summer of 1963 he was assistant to Walter Holler, another former Shorewood man who was then chairman of the coun- cil of economic advisers in the Kennedy ad- ministration. His mother, Mrs. Leslie Aspin, lives at the Shorewood address. 13763 SCHOOL MILK PROGRAM SHOULD NOT BE MERGED WITH LUNCH PROGRAM Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, when Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman testified before the Senate Agriculture Committee on June 21, he endorsed a permanent special milk program for schoolchildren with no authorization ceiling. Of course, this greatly pleased those of us who have been fighting for a continuation of the program in its pres- ent form. However, it was a matter of some con- cern to me that in his statement Secre- tary Freeman alluded to the milk pro- gram only once-in a single paragraph. This concerns me, because it indicates that the milk program might be swal- lowed up in the school lunch program if it is included as a part of that program. For example, the - lunch program re- quires one-half pint of milk to be served with a school lunch if the Federal Gov- ernment is to contribute to the cost of that lunch. However, the Federal con- tribution does not go toward the cost of the milk. On the other hand, the school milk program provides for Federal reim- bursement for half-pints 'of milk - con- sumed at midmorning and midafternoon milk breaks. It is quite possible that, if these two programs were merged, the school milk program might in the years ahead be used to pay for that half-pint of milk at lunch without a corresponding increase in the funds available. This, of course, would require a cutback in the amount of milk provided in midmorning and midafter- noon. This is just one of the problems that could arise if the programs are merged. It is enough to indicate, however, the dangerous precedent we would be setting. Consequently, I sincerely hope that the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry will take action to insure the in- -tegrity of the school milk program at this vital juncture in its history. FISH PROTEIN CONCENTRATE The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (S. 2720) to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to develop, through the use of experiment and dem- onstration plants, practicable and eco- nomic means for the production by the commercial fishing industry of fish pro- tein concentrate. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to the committee amendments en bloc. The committee amendments were agreed to en bloc. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bill is open to further amendment. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, I send to the desk two amend- ments and ask that they be stated. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The amendments will be stated for the in- formation of the Senate. The legislative clerk read the amend- ments, as follows: On page 2, lines 13 and 14, strike out the words "not to exceed five experimental and demonstration plants" and insert "one ex- perimental and demonstration plant"; and Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 13764 CONGRESSIONAL. RECORD - SENATE June 27, 1966 Mr. KUCHEL. On the basis that it concerns the revitalization of my po- litical party. Mr. GORE. Mr. President, I withdraw my objection on that ground. [Laugh- ter.l The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection to the request of the Senator from California? The Chair hears none, and the yea-and-nay vote will therefore be at 2:30 o'clock p.m. Mr. KUCHEL. I thank the Chair. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, I am not going to delay the bill, but I should like to restate the ques- tion. The purpose of the amendments is merely to bring to bill in line with the recommendations of the administration and every agency affected. I see no reason why the bill should provide for five experimental pilot plants when the agency says they cannot efficiently use but one at this time. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD excerpts from the letter of Director Donald F. Horning, from the Office of Science and Tech- nology in the Executive Office of the President, which endorses the legislation in principle, but specifically recommends that one pilot plant be constructed. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: I am fully in support of the objectives of S. 2720 and agree with its approach. On the basis of the experience gained by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in developing a, promising laboratory process, I believe that there is need for the construction of a single experimental and demonstration pilot plant which would pave the way for the subse- quent construction of semicoinmercial and full-scale production plants. I We now have a fragmented, hand-operated laboratory process. A necessary next step is to construct a relatively small experimental continuous process plant with maximum flexibiity for the conduct of engineering re- search studies under a wide range of conditions. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. I also ask unanimous consent to have printed in the REcaan excerpts from the letter of the Department of the Interior, and an excerpt from the letter of the Comp- troller General. There being no objection, the excerpts were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: on page 4, line 5, strike out "$5,000,000" and insert in lieu thereof "$1,000,000". Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that ;these amendments be considered en bloc. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, I ask for the yeas and nays on the amendments. The yeas and nays were ordered. Mr. KUCHEL, Mr. President, will the Senator from Delaware yield on a pro- cedural question? Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. I yield to the Senator from California. UNANIMOUS-CONSENT AGREEMENT Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, as I suggested informally to my colleagues on the majority side, members of the mincrity leadership are necessarily ab- sent at an important luncheon down- town. If, however, we were able to agree on a time certain for the yea-and- nay vote which has just been ordered, it would accommodate them. Therefore I ask unanimous consent that the yea- and-nay vote take place at 2:30 p.m. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there objection? Mr, MAGNUSON. Mr. President, re- serving the right to object, this is a bill which, of course, is very important to us in the fishery States but it is a bill that I believe is not of great interest to some `Senators. We told the Senate on Friday that the bill would be brought up today and that it. would be the only business for today. The Senator from Alaska and I would not mind putting this over until tomorrow, but we found that in tomor- row. the calendar of the Senate will be wholly preoccupied with another im- portant, major bill and we probably would not get the opportunity to get our bill through. I do not know whether there is anything else before the Senate between now and 2:30 o'clock. I did not now so many Senators were interested in having a yea-and-nay vote on the amendments of the Senator from Del- aware [Mr. WILLIAMS]. There is one other point I would like to make. That is many of us ha'-e been very, patient with the Food and Drug Administration while they have been considering the proposal from the Bu- reau of Commercial Fisheries. I hope these apparent recent delays will not become serious and disturb this fine un- derstanding and relationship. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. I have no objection to Mr, KUCHEL. Mr. President, putting the question, has my unanimous-consent request been acted upon? Mr. MAGNUSON. Mr. President, I am not going to object, but I hope that we can dispose of this matter and get On our way with other important legis- lation. There is not much more to de- bate between now and 2:30 o'clock on the Senator's amendments, unless he has something more to say. Mr. GORE. Mr. President, reserving the right to object, would the able Sen- ator from California CMr. KuCHELI in- dicate on what basis he concludes that this luncheon downtown is important? INTERIOR COMMENTS We recommend the enactment of the bill with the amendments suggested herein. S. 2720 authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to increase his present fish protein concentrate research and experimentation program and to build five experiment and demonstration plants to produce this con- centrate. The bill authorizes a maximum appropriation of $5 million to construct these plants and additional sums for opera- tion and maintenance and the program itself. Our amendments and comments thereon are as follows: 1. On page 2, lines 4 and 5, delete the words "not to exceed five experiment and demonstration plants" and insert "one ex- periment and demonstration plant." 2. Delete the last sentence in subsection 2(a) of the bill. 3. On )age 2, lines 6, 15, 18, and on page 3, lines 1, 21, and 24 delete "plants" and insert 4. On page 2, line 23, delete "or plants". 5. On page 3, line 4, delete "Each con- structed" and substitute "The". These changes reduce the number of au- thorized plants from five to one. This plant would be an expanded version of the exist- ing model-scale solvent system developed by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries of this Department. Studies utilizing the current- ly available model unit have indicated that a highly nutritions fish protein concentrate (FPC) can be produced using solvent extrac- tion procedures. It is now necessary to determine whether a similar product can be manufactured on a commercial scale within the economic limits required. It is, also necessary to pro- duce larger quantities of FPC for testing purposes-to determine and demonstrate where and to what extent it can be used as a supplement with other food stuffs. These needs justify the construction and operation of one experiment and demonstra- tion plant by the Federal Government at this time. It is possible, however, that when the studies on other families of fishes are com- pleted, additional plants may be needed. At that time, the operation of the single plant proposed herein will permit us to design more efficient solvent-extraction plants, tailored to the specific characteristics of these other families of fishes. In addition, work is underway on two other basic proc- esses for the production of FPC--namely, an enzymatic digestion process and a.physi- cal cell disruption process. It should be emphasized that we do not now have a marketable product. Nor do we know whether it can be manufactured on a commercial scale within reasonable eco- nomic limits. COMPTROLLER GENERAL COMMENTS It is our understanding that as of October 31, 1965, the Food and Drug Administration has not approved whole fish protein concen- trate for human consumption. According- ly, you may wish to consider amending this section of the bill to provide for deferment of plant construction until such time as the Secretary of the Interior shall ascertain that the Food and Drug Administration will ap- prove a whole ' fish protein concentrate for human consumption. Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. President, each of these agencies heartily endorses_the principle that we need but one pilot plant. at this particular time. They agree that it would be a waste of money to build five pilot plants at this time. I think It would be the height of folly for the Senate to pass this bill au- thorizing the expenditure of five times as much as the agencies themselves say they need or think they can spend efficiently, particularly at a time when we are al- ready operating on a deficit of several million dollars per day. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President, ]: am sure that most Members of this body are familiar with fish protein concentrate and the efforts which a number of us have made to have it included in our Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 A3420 Approved Fo Ws? A7L1 RE ftfflP6APPENDIX 0400080004Aune 27) 1966 they had been led, bound and barefoot, at the end of ropes. MARCH On June 14 they were marched to another prison camp and Sgt. Dodson told Cpl. Eckes they were heading north, toward Da Nang. On the` evening of June 18, Sgt. Dodson said, he and Cpl. Eckes were sitting in a circle with three Viet Cong guards eating rice. "I kept looking over there toward the car- bines, trying to figure the distance, how quick I could jump over there," Sgt. Dodson said. For a while I almost backed out of it.', But Sgt. Dodson said he jumped up, ran toward the tree, grabbed a carbine, cocked it and whirled about. "When I turned they were on their feet, but they still had their rice dishes in their hands,"', he said.-"I was scared, kind of shaking." "They looked at me," he said. "I looked at them. Then they ran." Sgt. Dodson said he then grabbed another carbine and threw it to Cpl. Eckes. "We just kept a canteen we had taken from one of the VC packs and a little bag of hard candy," Sgt. Dodson said. "We had three pieces of candy each day." On the second night they were almost re- captured, DANGER .The Viet Cong must have had a search party out," Sgt. Dodson said. "We could hear them all around. We stayed as quiet as we could. We'd decided earlier, tho, we'd fight it out with them before they could capture us again. But I was so scared I thought they'd hear my heart beating. They went right by us." Cpl. Eckes said that at least three Viet Gong walked within two or three feet of where he and Sgt. Dodson were lying. They passed two villages, one where the villagers took after them with shovels and the other where they were fed rice. On the fourth night they saw "a light go- ing round and round way off in the distance." "We both figured it must be a light from the Da Nang air base," Sgt. Dodson said. They walked up a mountain to get a better look. "When we got up there we could seethe lights of Da Nang," Sgt. Dodson said. "Man, did that feel good" ORDEAL OF Two MARINES: IN PRISON DA NANG, June 27.-The Viet Cong segre- gated a Negro U.S. Marine from a white Ma- rine in a mountain prison camp to preach to the Negro about the evils of segregation." "You're a black American," they told Sgt. James S. Dodson, 23, of York, Pa. "Why should you fight the white man's battles for him? "Your, own people at home are fighting for the same things we are." When Sgt. Dodson remained silent, they asked: "Do you like the way your people are being treated at home?" "I approve to a certain extent," the Marine said he answered. "Some things aren't right, but many things are." Sgt. Dodson and Cpl. Walter W. Eckes Jr., 23, of New York are now back inside our lines.' They escaped June 20 after disarming their Red guards in the mountains. Sgt. Dodson's interrogators bare down heavily on alleged American injustices to Negroes. IMPERIALISTS Cpl. Eckes said "every other word was about (President) Johnson or (Defense Secretary) McNamara" i4,th4tr questioning of him. "They told me Johnson and McNamara were , imperialists and kept repeating that over, and over. They said the President and McNamara weren't concerned with the little people fighting their war, but only in making money." Later the two, Marines were interrogated jointly and denounced as "imperialist Yankee dogs." "It seemed like the guy was angry when he said it, but then he grinned," Sgt. Dodson recalled. Sgt. Dodson said morale among the Viet Cong seemed high. They saw no signs of defeatism or discouragement. "They believe they're winning this war," Sgt. Dodson said, "and why shouldn't they? They made us listen to Radio Hanoi every day. They hear the same thing. If they're shooting down 200 Yankee planes a day- and Radio Hanoi tells them they are-they're not going to think anything else but in terms of winning," How does a man feel when he realizes he's a prisoner? "It's a hollow, sunk feeling," Cpl. Eckes said. "You're lost. You don't think you have any chance to escape. You think about all those years ahead." "You think about being sent to some kind of concentration camp," said Sgt. Dodson. "That's the hard part." NO SIGNATURES Both men said they were urged to sign papers, but refused. Their captors did not press them. Each prisoner gave only his name, rank and serial number. Neither man was forced to work or abused. They spent their time playing cards and reading. Sgt. Dodson taught Eckes Whist. Their guards taught them a French game called Lecarte. i ou Vietnam Policy ,EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT B. DUNCAN OF OREGON IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 27, 1966 Mr. DUNCAN of Oregon. Mr. Speaker, the Washington Post published in its editions of June 20, 1966, a lead editorial that summed up in clear fashion the ob- jectives of the administration in re,pect to Vietnam. It also properly touched on the many ambiguities, distress, and the distaste that we must acknowledge as we pursue and support our legitimate ob- jectives in that unhappy land. I ask that the editorial be published in the Appendix of the RECORD. SOUTH VIETNAM POLICY President Johnson's press conference state- ments on American policy in South Vietnam put firmly on the record the intention of the Government to persist in its present policy until it achieves the objective of a peace under which the independence of South Vietnam is assured. The President's assertion that "we must continue to raise the cost of aggression at Its source" by further attacks on military targets in North Vietnam' wilt give disquiet to many who would like to limit or diminish the air attack. It well may foretell a long- deferred assault upon petroleum storage fa- cilities that ground and air military experts long have desired. The air war seems bound to escalate to include every military target in the country eventually; but there is no in- dication of an assault beyond military tar- ets, At the same time, any air effort against the the great fuel dumps at Haiphong and else- where no doubt will involve. some civilian casualties. The casualties reported by the President reflect the rising intensity of the conflict. Dismay at the loss of 2200 Americans will not be diminished by the knowledge that the enemy has lost 22,500. The people of this country will grieve over the calamity that war visits upon both friend and foe; no one will exult over the death of the un- fortunate Vietnamese who have been har- nessed to an aggressive military machine by Communist power. The President's plea for peace and an end to the war will find an echo in every Ameri- can heart; and most Americans will support him as well in his determination to carry on until an honorable peace is obtained. It is, as the President says, a "bitter and an ugly war." It also is a war the end of which cannot now be foreseen. It seems likely to go on for a long time. And it is also likely that if the war in South Vietnam ends, there will be aggression elsewhere. There may be aggression at other points in the area even while the war in South Vietnam con- tinues. The President spoke again of this Nation's "responsibility and its commitment to help Vietnam turn. back aggression from the North." There can be disagreement and difference over the legal basis for that re- sponsibility and commitment. But beyond the legal niceties and diplomatic detail there lies a responsibility and a commitment from which we cannot escape, no matter how hard we may struggle or how much we repine. We must be reconciled to the "price of great- ness" to which Winston Churchill referred in his Harvard speech in 1943: "One cannot rise to be in many ways the leading com- munity in the civilized world without being involved in its problems, without being con- vulsed by its agonies and inspired by its causes." The late E. W. Scripps predicted in 1915: "Within two or three, or four decades, of necessity, the American people will be inter- vening in all international and world af- fairs, settling disputes between nations and suppressing such international conflicts as may, by disturbing the world's peace, disturb the serenity of the American people." The destiny that Churchill foretold in 1943 and that Scripps envisioned in 1915 has come upon us. It is a destiny that few Amer- icans view with relish and one from which many recoil with revulsion and dismay; but we cannot retreat into the womb of history and the prenatal comforts of gestating polit- ical might. We find ourselves in a world where great and powerful nations are using force and the threat of force against small countries. In such a world, the decision to use or the decision not to use our power, must determine the fate of many nations. As anguishing as the price of war in South Vietnam may be, in the lives of Americans and in the lives of the soldiers of the coun- tries allied with us, it is difficult to see any alternative that would not exchange pres- ent for future danger, inspire new aggress- sion elsewhere and confirm in all aggressors renewed faith in force as an instrument of policy. EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT A. EVERETT OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, June 27, 1966 Mr. EVERETT, Mr.. Speaker, there appeared an editorial entitled "Pathetic Gesture" in the Wednesday morning, June 1, Commercial Appeal, an outstand- Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6 June 27, 1966 where in the nearby mountains. About 12 South Vietnamese army prisoners also were there, After Several weeks of confinement in a alil.all enemy prison camp somewhere south- west of Danang, Dodson and Eckes were taken by three guards on a march toward a different prison camp. They estimated the date at June 14 when the trip began. As the march progressed the marines noted that their captors were careless with their American-made captured carbines. "They weren't carrying them in a position where they could fire them immediately," Dodson said, "So we started planning how we could get away from them." On the evening of June 16 the two marines were seated In a circle with their three cap- ,tors eating rice. The guerrillas had left their .30-caliber carbines leaning against a tree about 10 feet away. "I kept looking over there toward the car- bines, trying to figure the distance-how quick I could jump over there," Dodson said. `ALMOST BACKED OUT' "For a while I almost backed out of it," he added. Finally, however, Dodson jumped up and raced to the tree, grasping a carbine, cocking It and whirling around. "When I turned they were on their feet, but they still had their rice dishes In their hands," he said. "I was scared, kind of shaking. "They looked at me. I looked at them. And then they ran." Eckes took another carbine and Dodson carried the third as they made ready to flee. Eckes had boots but Dodson had only a pair of sandals. Both men were dressed in Viet- Iiamese peasant black pajamas but still had their Marine fatigue uniforms in their packs. "We went down the side of a mountain," said Dodson, "we kept going all night. We wanted to get as far away as we could." To lighten their burdens they threw away their rice and subsisted for the next four days on three pieces of hard candy a day for each man. On the second night of their escape they were almost recaptured when, on a mountain top, they heard voices and noise. The two marines took cover in deep "elephant grass." During the next two days they were almost run over by the stampeding water buffaloes and wandered until they reached a point where they saw the lights of Danang. "Man did that feel good," said Dodson. Dodson's weight dropped from 195 to less than 185 pounds and Eckes from 135 to 105 pounds. Both men were treated for ex- haustion, lacerations from thorns and brush and sore feet. [From the Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot, June 27,19661 GRABS CONG RIFLE, ESCAPES WITH BUDDY: YORK GI OUTWITS RED CAPTORS DA NANG, SOUTH VIETNAM., The U.S. Ma- rine prisoner made a desperate leap, grabbed the carbine of one of his captors, cocked it, and looked straight down the barrel at the three surprised Viet Cong. And then it was a whole new ball game. This was part of a harrowing tale revealed yesterday-the story of how two Leather- necks, captured in separate Incidents in early May, escaped from their captors and walked for four days before finally reaching friendly lines. The Marines are Sgt. James S. Dodson, 23, of York, Pa., and Lance Cpl. Walter W. Eckes, 20, of New York City. The two met for the first time on May 12 in a Communist detention camp where they had been led-bound and barefoot-at the end,pf ropes. They were suffering from hunger, minor lacerations, infections and near exhaustion Approved FCONGRESSIONAL 1RECORDDP6APPENDIX00400080004-6 when they made contact with a Marine unit last Monday at An Hoag 20 miles southwest of Da Nang. They had survived the last four days of their ordeal on water from streams and rice paddies and a few pieces of candy a day. Their overall condition was described as good. On one occasion they came within a few feet of being recaptured. Dodson, who arrived in Viet Nam in July, 1965, is a member .of the 3rd Engineer Bat- talion, 3rd Marine Division. 'He holds the purple heart for a leg wound sustained last December. He has a 10-month-old son he has never seen. He was working on a roadbuilding project seven miles southeast of Da Nang when he was captured. He had walked forward to check the area where the road was to extend. There was a cluster of huts and he was walking around one when "something hit me on the side of the head. It stunned me and I fell." He said there were six Viet Cong and they subdued him and bound his hands with rope, then removed his boots. They started dragging him by a 10-foot rope but Dodson said he managed to get to his feet. His captors then started running, pulling him behind them. "We got to a river, crossed it In a boat, then started running some more," Dodson said. "Then we stopped and were met by a whole group of VC, maybe 30 or 40, all armed." After a while, he said, four of them led him off in a. southwesterly direction. They walked for three days and nights until they arrived at the detention camp. During the journey, the sergeant said, he and his captors passed through several vil- alges and bypassed others. He said the people in the villages they went through "seemed to be friendly," and some of the people gave him bananas and cookies. Dodson said his captors did not treat him roughly during the trip and that they gave him rice and water. He said they arrived at the camp in the mountains on May 9. Eckes, a radio operator with an artillery forward observer team attached to "Charlie" Company, 9th Marine Regiment, was hitch- hiking back to his company from regimental headquarters at the time of his capture on May 10. He said three armed. Vietnamese, whom he thought were South Vietnamese soldiers, leveled rifles at him. "I was stunned and it was too late to do anything," said Eckes. The Viet Cong took his .45-cal. automatic, bound him and took him to a nearby village. He later was led toward the south. Two days later he reached the camp where Dod- son was held. Both men reported that when they arrived at the camp their feet were blistered, cut and swollen. They said a Vietnamese doctor treated them. They were also taken to a stream to wash and given more rice. Each evening, the Marines said, the Viet Cong leader of the camp came to the hut where they were held. They were taken from the hut and forced to listen for a half hour to an English-language newscast from Radio Hanoi. They also were given Commu- nist newspapers and pamphlets to read. The Marines said that on occasions they were questioned about military matters but refused to answer. They said there were no attempts to force information from them. Dodson and Eckes said they often discussed the possibility of escaping. 'On June 14 they were being taken to an- other camp. "They said they were going to take us there to school us about the National Liberation Front and other things," Dodson said. "I told Eckes we were heading north, to- ward De Nang," Dodson said. "Then after A341!) some time we could even hear the artillery firing and I knew we were heading toward De Nang." Dodson said that on the evening of June 16 he and Eckes were seated in a circle with three Viet Cong guards eating rice. He said their captors had left their carbines against a tree about 10 feet away. "I kept looking over there toward the carbines, trying to figure the distance, how quick I could jump over there," Dodson said. "For a while I almost backed out of it." But Dodson said he jumped up, ran toward the tree, grabbed a carbine, cocked it and whirled about. "When I turned they were on their feet, but they still had their rice dishes in their hands," Dodson said. "I was scared, kind of shaking." "They looked at me," the sergeant said. "I looked at them. And then they ran." Dodson said that when the three Viet Cong guards ran he grabbed another carbine and threw it to Eckes. Dodson said he picked up the third car- bine and a pack he had been carrying. Dodson said the next morning they threw away the extra carbine because it was too much to carry. "We just kept a canteen we had taken from one of the VC packs and a little bag of hard candy," he said. "There was a lot of rice but we did not want to carry it along. Besides, we couldn't take a chance on cook- ing it." The Marines said they limited themselves to three pieces of candy each day of their four-day trek. On the second night they were almost re- captured. "They must have had a search party out," Dodson said. "We could hear them all around. We stayed quiet as we could. We'd decided earlier, though, we'd fight it out with them before they could capture us again. But I was so scared I thought they'd hear my heart beating. They went right by Eckes said that at least three Viet Cong walked within two or three feet of where he and Dodson were lying. "We just stayed in the same spot the rest of the night," he said. On the fourth night they saw "a light going round and round way off in the dis- tance," Dodson said. "We both figured it must be a light from the Da Nang air base." They walked up a mountain to get a bet- ter look. "When we got up there we could see the lights of Da Nang," Dodson said. "Man did that feel good." The two Marines spent the night on the mountaintop. Dodson said they had hoped to signal a plane with a mirror Eckes had stolen from the shaving kit of one of his captors. But they were unsuccessful in signaling a plane. They started moving again. Finally they came to a South Vietnamese military out- post. Dodson, who ordinarily weighs. 195 pounds, had lost over 30 pounds. Eckes was down to .105 pounds from his usual 135. [From the Washington (D.C.) Daily News, June 27, 19661 ORDEAL OF Two MARINES: ESCAPE DA NANG, S. VIET NAM, June 27.-Sgt. James S. Dodson, of York, Pa., held a rice bowl in his shaky hand. His eyes were glued to three carbines his Viet Cong captors stacked against a tree. In one desperate leap, Sgt. Dodson seized one of the carbines, and aimed It at the three Viet Cong. The Viet Cong fled and so did Sgt. Dodson, 23, and a fellow Marine corporal, Walter W. Eckes, 20, of New Bork City. The two Marines met for the first time May ' 12 in a communist prison camp where Approved For Release 2005/07/13 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080004-6