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June 29, 2005
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June 14, 1966
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June 1.~, 1966 pipproved FLe~~~J~~7/~~RDP~~~46R000400080012-7 12497 ordinatin~ Committee version provides that the trggsty shall came into forge`between the &takes that have ratified or adhered to it" and that the Center shall "begin to per- form its duties when 'five instruments of ratification or adherence~~3iave been depos- ited. The Brazilian Article 22 calls for uni- versal adherence before the treaty takes ef- fect.' It provides that the nuclear free zone will only enter into being after (a) all the Latin American states have joined; (b) all states controlling territory in the Western Hemisphere sought of the 30th parallel have signed and ratified the Protocol of Additional Guarantees II which is annexed to the treaty; and (c) all the nuclear powers have signed and ratified the Protocol of Additional Guar- antees I, in which they pledge to respect the denuclearized zone. Corresponding to the differences in Article 22, the Brazilian version of Article 25 pro- vides that authentic texts of the treaty must be written in Russian and Chinese, as well as in Spanish, Portuguese, English and French, as called for Sn Article 25 of the Coordinating Committee draft. Effectively, what the differences boil down to is that under the Coordinating Committee version, a "nuclear free zone" would come into being even if only two countries ratified the treaty; whereas no such sub-regional "zione" could be established under the Brazil- ian draft. ? Other amendments were offered by various countries to portions of the draft treaties where Brazil and Mexico were in accord. These amendments are to be considered, along with t>,P two drafts, at the forthcom- 4ng session of Copredal. Venezuela put forward two amendments, one regarding the right of transit and the other strengthening the role of the QAS, In the Mexican and Brazilian versions, each Latin. American staate may decide for itself whether or not. to permit foreign-owned nu- clear weapons to pass through its territorial air or waters; and in non-territorial sea or airspace there would be no prohibition oP transit. One Venezuelan amendment would add to the treaty a clause banning the pas- sage oP all atomic weapons throU?h the Latin American nuclear free zone. The second Venezuelan amendment would give greater responsibility for inspection and sanctions to the OAS, without entirely replacing the IAEA and the UN. A Uruguayan amendment sought to rein- force t$e notion- of a true atom free zone. In the Brazilian and Coordinating Committee texts, the denuclearization treaty would take force in the area made up of the sum of the territories o' the signatory states. The Uru- guayan proposal, applying a concept similar to that of the Rio Treaty of Reciprocal As- sistance, would establish a definite geograph- ical zone, with the perimeter extending into the oceans, which all states, Latin American and extra-continental would be obliged to re- spect. These different proposals envisage distinct concepts oP what exactly is a nuclear fYee zone. Since Latin America, is the first region of the world to attempt to establish such a zone, there are no precedents to go by. V. P$OSPECTS The fourth session of the Preparatory Com- mission will probably determine whether the hopes expressed in the UN and in Latin Amer- ica far the denuclearization ai the continent can be realized in the face of the numerous obstacles and differences of opinion that have arisen. Much depends an the late of the Latin American effort. IY it succeeds, it is possible that other regions of the world-such as Scahi dinavia and Africa-may be motivated to overcome the problems that lie in the way of denuclearizing their areas. The Tech- niques of building and inspecting future nuclear. free zones, if any, could well be in- fluenced 'by the pattern established in Latin America. Unfortunately, the prospects for rapid es- tablishment of a nuclear free zone encom- passing all of Latin America are not bright. in addition to the difficulties discussed above, there are new problems that are just begin- ning to be thought about by Latin Americans. One involves a possible conflict between a nuclear free zone and the Rio Treaty of Re- ciprocal Assistance. What would happen, for example, if in the event of war between the US and the Soviet Union, the US sought per- mission to base a Polaris submarine in Monte. video? Under the Rio Treaty, the Uruguayan government is bound to assist the US in fighting the extra-continental enemy; yet a denuclearization treaty would prevent Uru- guay from having Polaris submarines sta- tioned in its territory. Which of the two treaties would take precedence? Another consideration is the related ques- tion of whether a Latin American nuclear free zone would have any meaning except in peacetime. In the event oP atomic war, the Panama Canal would certainly be one of the first targets hit-nuclear free zone or not. Thus, one of the purposes of a nuclear free zone-reducing the incentive of the nuclear powers to strike-is probably meaningless fn- safar as Fanama is concerned. Moreover, in world war, no area of the earth would be free from hostile action between the combatants; and in the event of atomic war, the shifting clouds of radioactive fallout would spare few 1P any courariea. Even in peacetime, prohibition of transit, as proposed by Venezuela, would be effec- tively impossible to enforce due to the oppo- sition of the nuclear powers. So too, it would seem, would be the type of geograph- ically delimited zone advocated by Uruguay. The US and Great Britain have shown no Indication of willingness to surrender the traditional right of transit of their nuclear bombers, missiles or submarines across the high seas or through the Panama Canal. Moreover, it would be unrealistic to expect that Soviet submarines with Polaris-type missiles would respect a Latin American "order" to keep out of a geographical zone which extended onto the high seas. The somewhat more realistic Brazilian draft treaty, without the Venezuelan or Uruguayan amendments, would also seem to have slight chances of success at Chia time. The chief reason here is the impasse over Cuban, French, Soviet and probably Chinese participation. As long as President Charles de Gaulle continues to pursue his independ- ent nuclear policy, there is scant likelihood that France will include its Western Hemi- sphere possessions Sn the treaty or guaran- tee to refrain from atomic testing. Nor is the regime of Fidel Castro about to rush into a treaty which would preclude the possibility of ever again wielding Soviet or Chinese nuclear arms. (It is to be noted that the Mexican argument with regard to Cuba is that the Island is to all intents and purposes permanently denuclearized because the US would never permit hostile missiles to be based 90 miles from its shores.) Castro has said he would sign a formal de- nuclearization treaty it the US withdrawn from Guantanamo and includes Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and the Panama Canal Zone Tx1 the atpm-free area. The US posi- tion, expressed by the director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, William C. Foster, is that "we do not wish to have included in the proposed nuclear free zone the Virgin Islands, since it is U.S. territory, or the Commonwealth of Puerto. Rico, be- cause of its integral relationship with the US. In the case of both these areas, the US must deal with disarmament policies affecting other powers. From the US point of view, we .would be agreeable to inclusion of the Panama Canal Zone, although of course the well-established. transit rights would not be affected by the establishment of the proposed nuclear free zone. We could also agree to include Guantanamo iP Cuba participates." ie Thus, at the very least, adoption oP the Brazilian position at the next session of Copredal would mean that a Latin American nuclear free zone would have to wait for (1) the departure of President De Gaulle; (2) a drastic change in US policy; and/or (3) a change of government in Cuba. Even if the Brazilian position does get a majority at the next sessiott of the Prepara- tory Commission, the Mexicans appear to be determined to push ahead. The advantage of the Mexican treaty is that it permits some type of agreement-even if it is a very lim- ited one-to go into force. Mexico could probably get the signatures of Chile, Ecuador, and some of the Caribbean and Central American republics. This would establish the Inter-American Denuclearization Center and leave the door open for future adherents. Mexican diplomats, who are on fairly good terms with Cuba, would attempt to persuade Castro to join. But without Cuba, and probably without Brazil, Argentina, Venezu- ela and Colombia (the four Latin American countries with reactors), the Mexican plan -would hardly lead to a "Latin American" nuclear free zone. The "zone" might not even be contiguous geographically. The question would then be, would this type of "nuclear free zone" be a success or a failure? The Brazilians, the US and the other nuclear powers would probably pay little attention to a "baby" or non-contig- uous Latin American nuclear tree zone. And clearly, by itself, a denuclearization treaty be- tween Mexico, Chile, Haiti, El Salvador acid a few other small republics would not have much meaning. Yet, given the circum- stances, it might be a good beginning. The Moscow Treaty banning atmospheric tests was signed despite the fact that under- ground tests were not prohibited, and with- out the adherence of two of the five nuclear powers.' Thus, an arms control treaty need not tie-in fact, most likely cannot be-per- fect and universal when signed. Possibly diplomacy and the force of world opinion could be brought to bear on Brazil, Argen- tina and ultimately Cuba to join the de- nuclearization organization created by a Mexican-type treaty. At the very least, ii a full-fledged nuclear free zone could not be set up, what might result would be a region- al, verified non-proliferation treaty which would assure that Latin America's resources would not be wasted on a senseless atomic arms race. (Mr. LAIRD (at the request of Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and t0 include ex- traneaus matter.) CMr. LAIRD'S remarks will appear her0~fter in the Appendix.] E OF SPADES PROVING EFFEC- TIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE AMMUNITION IN VIETNAM (Mr. HOSMER (at the request of Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. HOSMER. Mr. Speaker, on February 7 I spoke in this House on the need to utilize psychological warfare against the enemy in the war i11 Viet- ~~ Letter from Foster to the President of Copredal, December 10, 196b. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 I2498 Approved For Rele~s~~~~(~7~/~~A~I~~~g~7~00~~400080012-7 nom. 'My remarks are found at page 2$03 Of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD. EVen before I spoke our colleague from Ohio CMr. HAYS] and our colleague from New Jersey [Mr. THOrvII soN] arose to riducle niy ideas. Their remarks are found at pages 2195 and 2285, respectively, of the same day's RECORD. Since that time certain events have transpired which seem to bear out, from the. standpoint of practical experience, the recommendations which I _ made. Fighting men in Vietnam from their own experience know that the .superstitions of the enemy can be used against him. On their?own they could not finance and carry out some of the suggestions for spooking the Vietcong which I made, but one they could. That was to confront him as much as possible with the ace of spades, a deadly bad luck symbol in that area of the world. Noting a brief item in the Wall Street Journal that the U.S. Playing Card Co. had been furnishing thousands of these cards free to U.S. servicemen in Vietnam who requested them, I wrote the presi- dent of the company, Mr. Allison F. Stan- ley, and received the following letter to- gether with several of fts enclosures and enclosures to the enclosures as follows: TAE UNITED STATES PLAYING CARD CO., Cincinnati, Ohio, June 7, Y9&6. Hon. CRAIG HOSMER, Member of Congress, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN HasMEtt: I certainly appreciate pour letter of June 2, which has to do with the small part we played in the psychological warfare in Vietnam by sending aces of spads from our Bicycle playing ctuds. Candidly, I wish that our organization could take predit for the original idea. We can- not. The only thing we -did was to cazry through on the idea and ?be of assistance to the men who are fighting the war in Vietnam. With the fear of boring you, `I sin going to give you a picture of what has happened, to illustrate how the idea has stimulated the imagination of not only the soldiers but many, many Citizens who read in the news- papers what was being done. I believe you pofn'ted out the psychological angle of the use ai the ace of spades in February. As I recall It, I read your talk in the local paper. On February 28, as you probably have seen, Newsweek had quite a stagy on the ace of spades incident. We were interested but. did not know what to do as it might have the tinge of a publicity campaign put on by this Company. That is far from fact, even though we had a great deal o~f favorable comment on what we have done. On February 16, 1966, we received a letter written from Vietnam on February ,12. This letter was signed by four Lieutenants. En- closed >s a photosatic copy of this letter which I think you will find interesting. From ttlat point on I have dealt with Lieu- tenant Charles W. Brown, who seemed to be the one handling the matter. We Immediately sent one thousand aces of spades and received a fine letter ai appxe- elation from him. He could not reply promptly because he had been out on the battle fields for a period of time and did not have access to facilities for writing and milling an acknowledgment. Also, he sent me a copy of a newspaper clipping from Saigon. I had a typewritten copy made of this,. as it was difficult to photostat, and also copy of Lieutenant Brown's letter of May 7. Next I received a Ietter from Private First- Class John .M. Redmond, photostat of which I am also eilclosingr The wire service got hold of the ace of spades story and our local paper, The Cin- cinnati Enquirer, called me one night and asked me to verify it, which I did. Since then I believe it has been used in probably most of the leading newspapers in the Coun- try. As an example, I am enclosing a photo- static copy of clapping from The Florida Times-Union with copy o2 the letter from the shareholder of our Company who sent it to me. You will notice in the write-up that yoil were given proper credit. The ace of spades' story appeared in color on WLW-TV and the reporter who inter- viewed me on this incident suggested that the story be called our "Secret Weapon". Since you are from the great State of California, I thought you would be interested in a letter I received from Mr. and Mrs. Henry Frese, 8441 Santa Margarita Lane, La Palma, California, 90620. I do not know this couple. I am enclosing a copy of Mr, and Mrs. F'rese's letter, as you may wish to write them. To show you to what extent parents will go to help their sons, i received a letter yesterday from another Californian-Mr. E. Dieckmann., Jr., 79 Rivo Alto Canal, Long Beach 3, California-Telling me that his son was in the Marines at Da Nang, Hill 327, and asking if he could buy Sfty-two of the aces of spades to send on to his son. He cannot buy them from us because we give them free, and his son's package is on its way. Also enclosed is a photostatic copy of Mr. Dieck- mann's letter. I believe you will agree with me that such a letter from a father is really of human interest. In addition to putting the aces of spades on the bodies of the enemy, I am told-and I cannot verify this-that the soldiers intend to stencil the ace of spades on their arma- ments. I presume this fs done for good luck plus the fact that enemies capturing the equipment will be afraid to use it. As you know, we are not making any charges for our service to the soldiers and we have no intention of doing so. Personally, I answer every letter i receive, whether it be from a soldier or an individual, telling them of our policy and our desire to be helpful. Attached are several Bicycle aces of spades to give yoll some idea of what is being used. Incidentally, your newsletter bn the ace of spades was excellent and we appreciate the credit you gave our Company. If i can give you any further information, please let me know and I will do my best. I hope I have not made this letter too long or that it will bore you. Ii so, just throw it away. Thank you for your interest fn the matter and goad luck to you in your endeavors. Sincerely yours, ALLISON F. STANLEY. FERRUARY 12, 1966. DEAR SIRS: We, the officers of Company "C", 2d Battalion, 36th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division, are writing to ask a favor of the U.S. Playing Card Camgany. We are stationed in Pleiko, South Viet- nam and have been using your aces of spades as our calling cards far nearly two months. In Vietnam, the sae of .spades and pictures of women are regarded as symbols of bad luck. Since yonl:r trade mark contains both of these, we have been leaving them in areas we have cleared of Viet Cong as a psychologi- cal weapon. Our supply of cards is rapidly being de- pleted and we were wondering if you could supply us with approximately 1000 aces of .spades. Your support would be greatly appreciated. Sincerely, Lt. BARRIE E. ZAIS, Lt. LEONARD D. DAMS, Lt. CHARLES W. $ROWN, Lt. THOMAS R. WISSINGER, Officers of Ca C 2d Bn 35th Inf; 3d Bde 25th Inf. Div., APO San Francisco 96225. June 1.~, :1966 MAY 7, 1966. Mr. ALLISON F. STANLEY, President, The United States Playini~ Card Co., Cincinnati, Ohio DEAR MR. STANLEY: This article VRaS re- cently published in the "Tropic Lightning News," the official newspaper of the 25th Inf. Div. Another article has been written for the "Stara and Stripes." This is the newspaper that serves all Armed Forces per- sonnel serving in the Pacific Theater of Op- erations. I thought you might be interested in this article and want to Bass it on to Mr. 1?owers. I'm sorry but they wouldn't mention the name of your company. In the near future I may have to ~ISk for more spades but at the present time we still have a couple of hundred left. We are trying to take some pictures to sexed you but as you might guess it is difficult to carry a camera on some of our operations. Thank you again far your cooperation. I hope to hear from you in the future. Sincerely, CHARLES W. BROWN, 21st Infantry. P.S.-Did Bob Considine use our story in his column? If so each of us would like to have a copy li you could obtain them. Thank you. ACES HIGH-KNOCK VC ~.,OW (NOTE.-This article, published in "Tropic Lightning News", sent in by Lt. Charles W. Brown to Mr. Allison F. Stanley, The United States Playing Card Co.) The officers of Company C, 2nd Battalion, 35th Infantry, have more than: a mc;re ace up their sleeves. To be exact, the; each carry 12 aces-all spades. A newspaper column they read meI[tioned that the Viet Cong, normally &uperatitious, were especially leary of the ace of spades. The men quickly decided to launch their awn campaign of psychological warfare. Wherever the men hit, they leave behind them several aces of spades tacked up in a prominent place. The company was quick to take to their new symbol. The only problem was where to get enough of the playing cards so each man would have an adequate supply. A let- ter sent to the president of a major play- ing card company in the States soon rissulted in a shipment of a thousand black aces be- ing hauled off to Vietnam. Each man now wears an ace of spades on each side of his helmet and they are: plan- ning to have an ace of spades stencil made for the butts of their weapons., No VC were available for comment on the company's new symbol. They were last seen headed away from a jungle trail of aces o1 spades. DEAR SIR: My name is John M. Redmond. I am in the United States Army over i:n Viet- nam. I read an article in the newspaper about the Viet-Gong's being supera~titiou: of the black ace of spade. My buddy's anc I decided to go together and buy about e 1,000 ace of spade. Everytime we run into some Viet-Gongs and kill them.. We ;are go? ing to place a couple of aces around th.e Viet? Gongs. We would like for you to send the cards Cash On Delivery if possible. If yoL cannot send them C.O.D., just -send us tht price. My address: P.F.C. Jahn M. Redmond Co "A" 4Bn. 23 Inf., 25 Div., 1st BDIs', Tasty Forces, APO, San Francisco, Calif. .#~ 96225 Sincerely yours, JOHN M. REDM[OND. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., June 4, 1986. DEAR MR. STANLEY: Please fllld $f!rewitl the front page of the Florida Times Union (our morning paper) of June 3, 1965. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 June 11~, 1966 Approved F~rj~~A(~7/~~Er~I~DP~~~46R000400080012-7 12499 i?pe. feel that. regardless of reasons-your sending the aces of spades to Viet Nam is to the very best interests of all concerned. Mrr. RUTH F. ULRICH. [From the Florida Times Union, June 3, 198_8] PSYCHOLOGICAL WEAPON: ACE OF SPADES GOER TO WAR IN VIETNAM WASHINGTON, June 2.-With the help of a businessman whose son was killed in World War II, American servicemen in Viet Nam are fighting the Viet Cong with a psychologi- cal weapon spurned by the Pentagon and ridiculed by some Congressmen. The weapon is a playing card, the ace of spades, which American fighting men are spreading by the thousands through Viet Cong-infested territory in their operation against the Reds. The aces of spades, which the Vietnamese sear as an omen of death, are being supplied to the servicemen free of charge and un- officially by a playing card company in Cincinnati. A spokesman for the" company said that last Feb. 12, Allison F. Stanley, president of the firm, got a letter from four infantry lieutenants from the 25th Division operating in the Pleiku area explaining the psychologi- cal significance of the act of spades and ask- ing for 1,000 cards "to leave in the areas we've cleared of the VC." He said Stanley, who lost a son in World War II, ordered the cards sent free of charge. 'The company, he continued, soon began to get other requests. One such request asked for the cards sa-that the servicemen could leave one on the body of eacli Viet Cong they killed and offered to pay for them. They were sent free. The spokesman added _ that Stanley has since learned that soldiers in the 25th Di- vision have begun wearing the cards on their helmets. In all, several thousand of the cards have been sent to Viet Nam, the spokesman said. The news that the men ixi Viet Nam were using the ace of spades, against the enemy came as a pleasant surprise to Representative. CRAIG HOSMER, Republican, of California. Last Feb. 7 he suggested on the floor of the House that the Pentagon adopt the ace of spades as a psychological weapon. His suggestion was greeted by silence from the Pentagon and jeers from colleagues in the House, particularly Representative WAYNE HAYS, Democrat, of New Jersey, and Representative FRANK THaMPeaN, Democrat, of New Jersey. "This i~idicates," HOSMER said today, "that at least the men in the field know what kind of ammunition they need and that part of that ammunition is psychological." ANAHEIM, CALIF'., June 6, 1966. ALLISON F. STANLEY, President, United States Playing Card Co., Cincinnati, Ohio DEAR MR. STANLEx: After reading in Satur- day's Los Angeles Times about your sending playing cards to our fighting men in Vietnam, I decided that the best way to show my thanks ~o you and your company was to sup- . port your company by purchasing cards made Ziy you. I also mean to spread the word among my friends and card playing acquaint- ances. In chec$ing our local stores, I have found that they stock a multitude of playing cards under various brand names but I cannot find cards specifically marked United States Play- ing Card Company. I have asked that they stock them, but in thinking about it, it dawned on me that you might manufactare .under a series of brand names which I know nothing about." Might I receive a list of brand names which your company iZSes in distributing the oards7 Also, do you manufacture plastic cards? I would like to arrive at bridge parties with full data regarding your products. I feel sure that some ai those people present would feel as I do about your kind gesture and remem- ber your brand names when they next pur- chased playing cards. Again, my thanks to you and your com- pany. Sincerely, Mrs. ROBERT E. JONES. cc/Representative CRAIG HOSMER My personal thanks to you too, Representa- tive HosMER-R.E.J. " LA PALMA, CALTF., ' June 6, 1966. DEAR MR. STANLEY: Having at 9:00 a. m, ,just completed the reading of your "ace in the hole" contribution to our boys, my hus- band and I wish to be counted among your supporters. Thank you, from the bottom of our hearts. We feel very deeply about our boys needing support over there. Incidentally we are a couple ixi our late twenties so don't glue up hope for our mixed up generation. Again sincere thanks. LONG BEACH, CALIF., June 4, 1966. DEAR MR. STANLEY: Have in6t read of your distribution of the ace of spades in Vietnam. My son, P.F.C. Chris Dieckmann, is with the Marines at Da Nang, Hi11327. Could you send me one pack oP 52 cards- all the ace of spades? Money order enclosed, return mail. Let me know how much. Please send to me and I will then send to my son with the clipping from the news-- -paper as explanation, although he has prob- ably heard of its use already. This is a great thing-and shows that Com- munism no matter or how brutal, cannot erase basic superstition Prom the minds of a people! ED DIECKMANN, Jr. Mr. Speaker, the following letter to me, together with its enclosure of an item from the Kansas City Star, should also be of interest in connection with this subject: CORONADO, CALIF., June 5, 1966. DEAR SIR: This article seems to bear out exactly what you are advocating. For the lice of me I can't understand why those who could help the war in this unconventional way don't "turn-tp" and carry out your ideas. Chances are this particular incident was triggered by a reference to your beliefs. Damit, it is an unconventional war so bvhy not treat it as such! Good luck in your fight! Sincerely, (Pram the Kansas City Star, June 1, 1968] "THE BULLET" FOREBODES EVIL TO RED GUERRILLAS WICHTPA,-TO a poker player, the ace of spades is "the bullet." To a fortune teller it's bad luck. To the Viet Cong it's terror. A Wichita soldier serving In Vietnam has learned it pays to have an ace of spades up his sleeve, on his helmet, rifle or anywhere else when the Viet Cong are around. Frankie Gene Wlllard, 22, son of Mr. and Mrs. John Willard, Wichita, recently wrote his parents that he and some of his buddies have discovered the Viet Cong have an un- explained sear of the ace of spades. Wherever Willard and the other members of Company C, 2nd Battalion, 35th infantry hit, they leave several aces tacked to trees and buildings. The company was quick to take to their new symbol, Willard said. The only problem was finding enough cards for each man to have an adequate supply. A letter sent to the president of a maidr playing card company in the United States resulted in a shipment of 1,000 black aces. Each man now wears an ace of spades on each side of his helmet and is having them stenciled on weapons and equipment. Whether the black ace sympalizes death of a friend, emotional strain and bad dreams as well as bad luck, or some special Oriental horror to the Viet Cong is not known. Mr. Speaker, I think it is time for thn~se in the White House and in the Depart- merLt of Defense who are assuming to tell the military haw to run this war to pay some attention t,o the matter of in- cluding psychological as well as explosive in our arsenal. CONTE SEEKS VOTERS' VIEWS (Mr. CONTE (at the request of Mr. AxnaEws of North Dakota) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- traneous matter.) Mr. CONTE. Mr. Speaker, in order to keep myself fully informed of the views of those whom I represent in Congress, I recently circulated a questionnaire ask- ing my constituents to express their opinions on 43 questions in 5 major areas of legislat]ve concern. The results are in, and I would like to share them with. my colleagues in the House. Perhaps the most striking fact re- vealed by the questionnaire is a wide- spread uncertainty among the people concerning America's involvement in Vietnam. Although fewer of my con- stituents who responded favor with- drawal from Vietnam-22.6 percent- than favor escalation of bombing-44.7 percent-there is an unusually high per- centage who recorded "no opinion" on these questions. Asked if they would favor a coalition .government for South Vietnam, 42.9 percent, or close to half, had no opinion. On the significant question of whether or not to maintain our present position in Vietnam, the response was 36.6 percent "yes," 31.5 percent "no," and 31.9 percent "no opinion." The high percentage of""no opinion" answers to Vietnam questions did not carry over into other categories. On the question of continued U.S. opposition to the seating of Communist China in the United Nations, for example, only 8.1 percent of those who answered had no opinion, while 53.5 percent voted in favor of continued U.S. opposition. In other categories dealing with cur- rent issues before the country, 60.4 per- cent voted against an expansion in the war on poverty, and 63.4 percent ex- pressed dissatisfaction with President Johnson's handling of the poverty program. On the lobar front, 65.3 percent ap- posed repeal of the Taft-Hartley 14(b) right-to-work provision, and 73.3 percent Approve~For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 r 125b0 Approved For ReLq~?~~~3A~C~~BO(~~I~Q0400080012-7June 1,,If, 196 gxpressed appmaval of Federal legislation t0 prevent strikes in essential industries. ltxy colleagues in the House will doubt- less be .pleased at the. response to one question in particular. A majority of 62.2 percent of my constituents who an- swered Pavor a 4-year term for Congress- lrien, while only 20.3 percent disagree with this proposal. Mr. Speaker, I was pleased by the prompt response to my questionnaire and by the obviously careful consdera- tion given to the questions I posed. The tabulated results are both .,helpful and encouraging. They have .given me a reading of the feelings of my voters on a wide range of subjects, .and on some of these I had not received ~. great deal of mail. And they hage also given me assurance and slapport for votes I have cast in this Congres;i and favorable re- actions to legislation I have introduced in the House in recent months. The questionnaire was sent to more than 30,000 residents of the First Con- gressional District of Massachusetts; ioning~the NATO alliance into an Atlan- tic Union and he warned against policies which might drive France still further into a position of isolation from other members of the Alliance. He spoke in Springfield, Ill., under the sponsorship of Federal Union; Inc., a nonprofit nonpartisan membership group devoted to the Atlantic Union ob- .. _ r L~QREIGN AFF,tIR& 1. In the liggh~t of our current position in South Viotmzm, do you favor- ((a) Clradual, complete withdrawal?----------------------------------------?-----------------------------------------------?---- (b) Maintaining our present position, hoping to outlast onr opposition?_; ___.______________________________________________________ (c) Blockading North Vietnamese ports?-----------------------------------...----------------------------------------------------- (d) Bombing North Vietnam cities, including :[ianoi, port of IIaiphong, and main railroads leading to Red China7________________ (e A coalition government in South Vietnam?----------------------------------^----------------------_-------------------_----- 2, Do you favor allowing access to U.S. ports to ships of countries whose ships caU at- {a) Red China?^--?-------------^-----------------------------------------?---------?--------^--------------?---------- (b)) Cuba7-------------------------------------------------------------------------------?-------------------------------------- (e North Vietham7---------------------------------------------------------------------------?------------------------------- 9. Do you approve of continued U.S. opposition to the seating of Red China in the United Nations?_____________________________________ 4. Do you Pavor a continuation of our present foreign aid program: (b) Military?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------?------- 6, Should wo spend our time and money trying to introduce some birth control methods in rapidly growing wuntries such as Indfa and Bra7i1 under our foreign and aid program?--------`--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i 90C1AL 1. Dii you favor the proposed administration bill for Federal regulation of firearms?______________________________________________ ______ 2, Do, you favor a program of rental supplements to low-income famines uuable to obtain standard Lousing with their own income?_____ 3. Do you favor the, continuance of the broad scale of the Federal urban redevelopanent F~rogram7___-.___________________________________ 4. Do you approve of the way the Johnson administration is conducting the war on pour:rty7___________________________________________ b. Do you favor an exlxansion in the war on poverty7___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you favor a cutback in the war on Poverty?--------------------------------------------------------------_-------?---_--__----- 7, Do you favor a large scale Federal-State program for construction of plants to take the salt out oP sea water and make it drinkable7___ 8. Do you favor supcrvisrd hospital care of narcotic addicts instead of jail terms?________________________________________________________ 9. Du you favor a tax credit for firms which install antiwater polution deviees?___-______________________________________________________ . ~ ._ Y78C 4L 1, Do you believe the Federal (lavenmient should provide money to large cities to ]xelp modernize their mass transit systems?__________ 2. Da you favor greater executive and congressional control over the Federal Reserve activities than is now in effect?____________________ 3. Do you favor a program of retnrning to the States a percentage of the Federal taxes collected?________________________________________ 4. To meet tho added coats of the war, do you favor-- . (a) Increased taxes, including excise taxes?----------- -----------------------------------__-----__--?_-----------------_--_---- b) Cutting back on domestte ( Society pragrams?___________________________________________________________________________ LnsoR 1. Should tho Foderal government set standards for State compnance with the length and amount of benefit payments in unemploy- ment cornpensatiou?----------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Should wo repeal sec. 14(b) of the Taft-Ilartley Act which gives each State the right to determine its own position on "right-to-work" ]awe?___________________________________________..________________-.____________._____________________________________________________ & Do you favor an increase in the minimum wage of $1.26 an hour to-- (a $1.36 an hour?---------------------------------------------------- (b $1.b0 an hour?-------?---------?--------------------------------------------?----------------------------------------------- (c $1.7b an hour7-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------'------ ------------- 4. Do you favor extendtng such a minimum wage to-- (a Farm workcrs?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- {b Laundry employees?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------?------------- c Tip employees?______________ b. BLoul Congress enactlegislntion curbing strikes in essentfalindustries?_________.._____________________________________________________ 8. 6Lould Congress enact legislation curbing strikes against 6tate arid local govermnents (i.e., New York transit strike)7________________ &ENERAL 1. Do you favor the Federal Government taking steps to withdraw gradually from. farm price-support programs?_______________________ 2. Should the. spaco program be slowed down during periods of large budget deficitn?____.._______________________________________________ 8: Do you favor a proposed 4-ycar term for Congressnxen? (If yes, cheek (a) and/or (b))_ _______________________________________________ ((a All elected during a presidentialelect~on ycar?________________________________________________________________________________ (b ~ elected every 2 ears? --------- ---- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. Do you favor legislation allowing a State the right to apportion 1 Louse of its legislature on factors other than population7____________ b,' Do you Pavor a ational Teachers Corps to augment school facilities in impoverished c~reas?__________________________________________ CANADA'S PRIME MINISTER SPEAKS OUT. (Mr. FINDLEY (at the request of Mr. AlvnxEws of North Dakota) was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include ex- tPaneaUS matter. ) Mr. FINDLEY. Mr. Speaker, the Prime 1Vtinister of Canada, Mr. I.,ester B. Pearson, Saturday -night called on the United States to take the lead in refash- about 15 percent of those responded. i am told. by the American Political Sci- ence Association that this is a well a,bave average response. I am especially grate- ful to my friends.. at the University of Massachusetts who tabulated the in- dividual responses far me. Becau:~e of the enormous demands on my re?,ular staff, this helping hand was most wel- come. The complete questionnaire with per- centage responses tabulated is shown be- low: 22.6 99, 8 27.6 38.8 31, 6 31.9 bb. 9 16.3 28.8 44.7 26.8 29.6 : 22.7 i 39.4 4`1.9 25.8 62. b 11.7 24.2 82.2 13.6 19.8 66.9 13.3 ~, 63. b 38.4 8. 1 Bfi. 3 32.7 11.0 48. B 84.1 34.7 24.4 16.7 11. 6 i 69,1 31.0 9.9 40.2 49.6 10.2 45.9 39.1 16.0 20.4 ~ 83.4 16.1 25.9 B0.4 13.7 47. 2 - - 36.0 17, 8 82.6 22.7 14. 8 81.4 10.2 8.4 89.7 21.0 9. 3 39.0 47.9 13.1 23.9 47.3 29.8 63.2 23.4 13.4 zs. 0 83.3 20.7 71, 6 16.8 11.9 90.8 43.3 16.9 22.6 85.3 12. 2 23.4 39.9 36.7 37.2 36.4 26. 6 ib.l 47.7 37.2 64.9 22.8- 12: 8 87.9 18.0 14.1 3b. 8 46. b 18. 6 73.7 19.8 6. 8 73.4 20.4 6.2 77.4 11.1 11. b 60.4 40.0 9. 6 62.2 20.3 17. 6 20.2 29.6 50.2 64.8 9.2 36.2 36.6 36. b 27.0 62.0 26.0 18.0 United States to provide long-neisded leadership in strengthening the Alliance, and he warned: France, and not only France, feels that Continental Europe is now strong encnrgh, (in large part because of the generous ae~ist- ande of the U.S.A.) to be given its rightful share in the control of the policies of the Alliance. Here is the text of this timely, signifl- cant,. and brilliant message:. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDR67B00446R000400080012-7 ~~une Y.~, 1966Approved For~~~g~/,Q,~~~3~~~~~P67~OUSEROO~U400086012'-7 1~ is to protCCt the public and to make sure the public is informed about what goes on.~ And 13!e Can't; do it if the legal profession is go= ing continually to harass us with new regu- lations .and. new ,proceedings wkiich ~lve judges almost a mandate to muzzle the press. It is a fight that affects every newspaper in every city in America. I don't for one minute. condone trial by newspapers. But let's get one thing clear, let's get this straight: no civil right, includ- ing the right of a fair trial, is worth a tink- er's dam, unless it is protected by the right of free expression. IP an accused man can't say his piece In court, cannot have lawyers and friends plead his case, what good is his so-called "civil right" to a fair trial? With- out the right of free expression, justice would deteriprate .into a tragic comedy. When these two amendments clash-and it seems .they clash only when publicity-seeking law- yers 'stage the collision-the First Amend- ment must take precedence over the Sixth Amendment, because without the First Amendment, the Sixth. Amendment would become a mockery of justice. Thank Gad we have in America hundreds of judges in the high courts and in the lower courts, many of them in this state, who realize that freedom oY expression is the fundamental right of all liberty. , ,The world oY 1966, like Peter Zenger's World oP 1T35, is still engaged in mortal combat with those who would be free and those who would deny freedom to others; those who believe people should have access to the facts and those who are convinced they know what is best for you and for me. Bo long as the forces of freedom exist, we who ar0 privileged to be part of those forces must. resist arbitrary power and secrecy wherever and whenever it appears. We must take our stand on behalf of the people, all the people. It is the only choice-for those who cherish freedom and justice. Liberty can be destroyed by tyrannical government and tyrannical courts if the people oan be threatened or persuaded to abandon free speech and a free press. Newspapers defend the right of individuals against the en- trenched power of arrogant abuse by public officials. They fight to bring the truth to light; to support justice and appose injus- tice; to make certain that every individual 1s treated equally before the law; to make certain that evexy American can speak his piece' without fear or favor. Today the United States is the last great bastion of liberty in the world., anti a free press in America is the last great bastion of the peo- ple against complete domination by govern- ment. If newspapers will recognize their respon- sibility, as well as their opportunity, to grant the truth; refuse to be intimidated; refuse to bow to government bureaucracy; then they will serve the highest cause of civilization 12519 In closing, I want to salute the University svszrrESSMZ?~rr PRaFrr of Arizona, for its vision and wisdom in Here are some of the findings which deeply recognizing the- great contribution Peter disturb some individual members of the sub- Zenger and his wife Anna made to the cause committee: of freedom.. And again a thousand grateful The exchange rate set for the OIP program thanks for this award. is 60 piasters to the dollar. The official rate Good luck and God bless all of you. is 118 to the dollar, and the blackmarket (Mr. SAYLOR was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to -include extraneeus matter. ) rate is 190 to 200. This means United States taxpayers are getting about 30 cents of real value out of every dollar spent. Saigon businessmen pocket the difference. It also means these businessmen can resell the goads for terrific profits-for dollars or even gold . [Mr. SAYLOR'S remarks Wlll appear There is no check on the appropriate hereafter in the Appendix.] amount of a specific item imported into Viet- ~ nom, and there is no way of checking what it (Mr. SAYLOR was granted permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.) CI . SAYLOR'S remarks will appear $e~ ter in the Appendix.] v r will be used for-there is no "end use audit" procedure. Here are two recent blatant ex- amples of what this can mean: Subcommittee members learned that about 15 times the amount of silver nitrate which South Vietnam could possibly use went into that country last year. SHIPMENTS HALTED Likewise, about SO times the amount of another chemical, unite] which could pos- , LAjG`K OF CHECKS AND RESTRAINTS sibly be used in their country was sold to ON PROFITEERING IN VIETNAM Saigon businessmen. B . ALBERT) . Under previous order of the - silver can be extracted Prom sliver nitrate House, .the gentleman from Delaware for hoarding. Shipments of these two chem- [Mr. MCDOWELLI is recognized for 5 icals have been halted now, according to offl- minutes. cials of the Agency for International Devel- Mr. McDOWELL. Mr. Speaker, Isub- opme~It (AID). Congressmen suspect much mat the following interesting report with of these chemicals ended up in Viet Cong hands. respect to the Conflict 1ri Vietnam: The United States and South Vietnam Gov- [From the Christian Science Monitor, June ernments knew practically nothing about the - 8, 1966] Vietnamese businessmen who hold the CIP CONGREaaMEN SEE U.S. AID DOLLARS licenses. United States officials lack basic STRAYING IN VIETNAM knowledge, for example, of whether they are (By William b. Selover) Chinese or Vietnamese in background or what their business connections are. WASHINGTON,-Few businessmen in the world are hauling in as much profit as those SUGGESTIONS VETOED in Saigon, Goods originally ordered by businessmen Business there is booming. can be turned down on arrival and not paid Sut Congress is beginning to wonder fY it for. South Vietnam officials then confiscate should be quite so good. them, auction them off at ~'a very reduced In Pact, members oP a special congressional rate"-and the money then goes into the delegation just returned from Vietnam are South Vietnam coffers, not into the joint raising serious questions about the lack of United States-Vietnamese account. One checks and restraints on profiteering carried subcommittee member pointed out that the out by Vietnamese businessmen at the direct Viet Cong could be buying these goods at expense of American taxpayers. auction-because there is no check on who The basic problem stems from the vast buys them. American aid program. The faint United States-Vietnamese ac- Since 1956, the United States has pumped count, into which Vietnamese businessmen some- $1.7 billion worth of consumer goods pay piasters for the goods, was intended to be into Vietnam under its commodity import used for' United States civil-aid projects. program (CIP). This amounts to 80 per- Also, an agreed amount supports the South cent of all nonmilitary aid sent to that coun- Vietnamese governmental budget. But, in try in that period. effect, the government of South Vietnam ex- FINA7 usE QvESTIONED ercises a veto over the use of these funds so which is individual Freedom, the freedom of This program allows Saigon businessmen rth ni`ta a.nA thw ri aht of frww w .. esin.n a~ ~ on license by the South Vietnamese Govern- partners in freedom, the people and the press in America can saves liberty. Without the right of freedom for the in- dividual, without the right of free expression for everyone, there can be no lasting or satls- iying progress far us in America. This is the Yreedom we must cherish, this fa the freedom we must fight far, this is the freedom if Necessary-we must go to fail to preserve. We must cherish it and bald it the dearest thing in life, because !f America maintains jts freedom, then sometime, somehow, Amer- ica, being free, will show the rest aY the world 'the road to freedom. This I believe,. my friends, is the divine mission of AmeriCa- Preedom for ourselves and eventually freedom Yor all the world, Aid because !t is our special mission we should remind ourselves every morning that "Eternal gigilance~9s. the price oY liberty." No. 97-11 . ment to contract for goods with American businessmen, import the goods to Vietnam, then pay for them in piasters, the local cur- rency. American aid dollars are used to re- imburse the American businesses, and the piasters used to pay for the goods go into a joint United Staten-Vietnamese account. The aim of the program is to stem inflation while promoting economic stability in the country. But members of the House foreign opera- tions and government information subcom- mittee found that CIP money is virtually subsidizing some 40 to 50 big businessmen in Saigon. Furthermore, there is practically no control over the final use of the goods. Subcommittee members believe that some of these goods are being resold to the Viet Cong, the North Vietnamese, and even the Chinese ComDaunlsts, Unfortunately, restraints are so slack, there is no way of knowing for sure. oth these chemicals can be broken into ingredients for high explosives And the completely that the aims of the civil-aid projects are seriously frustrated. Recent examples of projects the United States Embassy was pushing but which failed to gain approval ai the South Vietnamese Government include: use of the funds to pay for garbage collection in Saigon, to build police barracks, and to establish a fund from which to paq Vietnamese claims against the United States. One subcommittee member called the fail- ure of United States controls over this pro- gram a "windfall" for Saigon businessmen. REPORTS WITHHELD Another member of the delegation, ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, now Republican Senator from Michigan, was blunt in his observations. "What we saw over there is a situation where Saigon businessmen have a vested interest in the prolongation of the war," he charged in an interview. The subcommittee, under the chairman- ship of Rep. JoxN E, Moss (D) of California, Approved For Release 2005/07/13 'CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 ~~ 1~52a Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP676Q0446R0.00400080012-7 COI~IGRESSIONAI; $tECORD -HOUSE June 1.~, Y966 `is preparing a report on its flridings. No one Can say what its final shape will take sii}ce it has not been completed. But it will prob&bly place strong blame for the slack program on both AID officials and on the Gen- eral Accounting Office (GAO), charged with the responsibility to double-check the ad- ministration of government programs all over the world. - ~ STAFF INCREASED - One subcommittee member charged that AID administrators in Washington "simply couldn't answer basic questions about their programs. That's why we went to Vietnam." He laic{ they found that AID officials in Viet- nam were simply holding onto the audit re- ports to update them. "They were never sent to Washington." No wonder Washing- ton officials couldn't answer questions, he ob- served. ..Subcommittee members are especially dis- tufibed about what they see as dangerous understaffing of the CIP program, especially in accounting and auditing. In the 10-month period between June, 1965, and April, 1968, the number of AID personnel increased from 630 to 1,900. But until tine past few months, only two of these employees were principally concerned with the CIP. A year ago, only one American was in charge. Now, after the subcommittee began investigations seven or eight months ago, the number has increased to seven. Yet, this year $370 million out of a total AID commitment of $630 million, went to the CIP. The only formal report issued by the GAO on governmental programs in Vietnam in the past seven years came in 1964. Then the GAO, which is an independent arm of the Congress, set up in 1921 to ride herd on the administration, charged that AID was op- erating under completely inadequate pro- cedures-that nonessential commodities were being admitted into the CIP, that pro$teering and overpricing were being ..allowed. "Yet, in spite of-this report, AID conducted no audit until we got there," said one dele- gation member. INADEQVACY CHARGED Rutherford M. Posts, director of AID for the Fesr East, says the procedures are still "not adequate." He said they have steadily expanded the AID auditing staff to 17. ~ He conceded, how- ever, that seven of those were trainees. He said AID had increased the authorized positions to 28, but that since Vietnam is such a dangerous place, it is very hard to get auditors to go there. AID now 1s "ordering them from other AID missions around the world by forced draft to go to Vietnam." Another problem is getting local Viet- namese for the staff. "We can't pay more than the local wages. We've lost some key people to private business which can pay much more." Still there is no "end use" auditing 'pra- GAO officials admit that after the 1964 re- port they had "no one physically in v"iet- nam; ' until "a team of four people" went there briefly this spring. One congressional source said of the GAO: "They have been conspicuously absent in Vietinam:' f~ubcommittee members tend to excuse the GAO on the grounds that it has "no continuing responsibility" in any special. area. Its investigations are made at the dis- cretion of the comptroller general, and ate the request of Congress. . PERbIANENCY STVDIED Yet, GAO. officials themselves say that with the size of the program and the "tremen-? dous expenditure," it might be useful to es- tablish apermanent of&ce there. '!The salutary effect of our presence could be a factor of some consequence," said an official. ' But there are no plans to do this at present. "We were aware that we had not covered anything there in a number of years," he said explaining the decision to investigate in 1964. "But we have same reservations in decid- ing what practically can be accomplished in sending our people to Vietnam under war- time conditions. It might be a better idea to go other places where we could accom- plish more," said an official of the GAO in- ternational operations division. BTAFF DIFFICULTIES He also cited the difficulty in getting a staff overseas. The total worldwide sta.fl of GAO is about 2,000. The Far East headquarters in Hawaii has a staff of about 35. But GAO presently has no one in Vietnam, which has the larg- est United States AID program in the world. Apparently, the subcommittee's investiga- tion has set the ball rc:slling. Since it started, the State Department's inspector general of foreign assistance and the AIb comptroller have been to Vietnam. Also the director of foreign service person- nel was scheduled to go. But a more basic problem 1s pointed out by subcommittee member Rep. DONALD RUNfSFELD (R) of Illinois: "As I look at it, I feel we Pack leverage- with the Government of South Vietnam." He says he believes; American officials are afraid to demand more controls. Another subcommittee member agrees. Says Rep. DAVID S. KING (D) of Utah, "In theory, we can't go in to run the show." But he asserts that this idea has been "used as a cloak to cover up a rather shoddy and unsatisfa.cto~ry performance by the South Vietnamese Government." Adds Mr. GRIFFIN: "My greatest citicism is that the verq expensive CIP, so obviously susceptible to corruption. and abuses, has been aImos.t completely left in the hands of the Sa.igan government. We are ,]ustified ip taking a stronger harsd." Whatever the final recomendations of the subcommittee will be, there are sure to be some strong recomendations for a greater United States role in overseeing the use ai United States taxpayer's money. From what these congressmen say, such supervision barely exists at all today. Total economic aid far fiscal 1987: 71% to South Vietnam; 29% to all others. U.S. economic ofd to South. Vietnam [ In millions ] Fiscal 1963----------.--------------- 8143.6 1964------------------------------- 165.7 1965------------------------------- 224.9 1966------------------------------ b41.1 1967------------------------------- 550.0 LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent,- leave of ab- sence was granted to: Mr. FARNUM (at the request of Mr. Boccs) ,for June 13, on account of illness. Mr. FLYNT (at the request of Mr. DAMS of Creorgia), for Tuesday, June 14, 1966, on account of official business. Mr. KRERS (at the request of Mr. AL- BERT), for today; o~n account of afiicial business. Mr. McEwErr (at the request of Mr. GERALD R. FORD), for balance of week, on account of business. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous .consent, permission to address the House, following the legisla- tive program and any special orders here- tgfore entered, was granted to: Mr. WILLIS, for 15 minutes, today. Mr. HALPERN (at the request of Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota) , far 20 min- utes, today; and to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneols material Mr. CONTE (at the request of Mr. AN- DREws of North Dakota), far 15 minutes, June 15; and to revise and extend remarks and include extraneous material. Mr. MICxEL (at the request of Mr. AN- DREWS of North Dakota) , for 30 min- utes, June 20; and to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous material. Mr. CHAMBERLAIN (at the request of Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota), for 15 min- utes, June 15; and to revise and extend his remarks and include extraneous material. Mr. McDowELL (at the request of Mr. HICKS) , for 5 minutes, today; and to re- vise and extend his remarks and include extraneous matter. EXTENSION OF REMARKS By unanimous consent, permission to extend remarks in the Appendix of t:he RECORD, or to revise and extend remarks was granted to: Mr. H$sERT and to include pertinent material on debate during H.R. 2950. Mr. ICHORD to extend his remarks in the Committee of the Whole following Mr. PRICE. Mr. BENNETT in two instances and to include extraneous matter. Mr. RIVERS of South Carolina to in- clude astatement by General Westmore- land at the beginning of his remarks made today in the Committee of the Whole. (The following Members (at the I?e- quest of Mr. ANDREWS of North Dakota) and to include extraneous matter: ) Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. MOORE in three instances. Mr. BERRY In tW0 inStanCOS. Mr. HALPERN in three lnStance5. Mr. ASIiBROOK. Mr. ADAIR. Mr. MIZE in two instances. Mr. TxolvlsoN of Wisconsin. Mr. MICHEL. Mr. CIJNNINGxAM irl five lnstanceS. Mr. WALKER Of M15SlaSippi. Mr. MoasE in four instances. Mr. SHRIVER. Mr. LAIRD. Mr. PELLY in two instances. Mr. HOSMER in two instances. Mr. GROVER. Mr. RUMSFELD. Mr. REINECKE. Mr. SMITH of New York. Mr. KUPFERMAN in flue instances. Mr. QUILLEN in two instances. (The fallowing Members (at the re- quest of Mr. Hlcxs) and to include ex- traneous matter:) Mr. JONES of Alabama. Mr. BLATNIK in five instances. Mr. WOLFF in tW0 1nStanCeS. Mr. GRABOWSKI in 10 instances. MT. DELANEY. Mr. RACE. Mr. DYAL irl four instances. Mr. BOLAND lri three 1rLStariCeS. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 A319$ Approved For R~#~'$~I~~.i~E c~,~~.>~oA(~0080012-7 It is .not impossible ,at.,all;tk3at her efforts helped, in .the end, when Bunn, did let the goungster go. This will never ba known, yet one thing will be Mra. LaForest, who Inay have known more than the ethers about the dangers involved, went willingly into the nightmare on Wildcat MountaiTx to do her .part in the rescue. It was Wilfred Morin, of course, who made the rescue and who made it under condi- tions of conspicuous great courage. Nocera had already been shot, and Morin knew that he, too, might be. But the Bristol dog warden and bartender was willing to .face a verq good possibility of death in or- der to persuade the crazed and trigger-happy Bunn to release his captive. Thanks to Morin's ingenuity and his dar- ing, the boy was saved. People do not come any braver than Morin, Unless there had been somebody there with Morin's selfless fortitude, even the best that the others could give might not have been enough. That was a morning awful enough to make the whole community want to forget it as soola as possible. And we hope they can. But we hope, at the same time, that the brave people won't be forgotten. This is an age when he hear, too oaten, of people who "don't want to .get involved"-people who turn their backs on fellow .humans .in terrible trouble. Last week in Burlington we all wit- nessed a fine demonstration oP people who were "willing to get involved"-even if it meant getting killed. It was fine demonstration. It makes a person proud to live near these people. It is people like this who make a town good. People like this make you know that there is somebody who will help. Great Plains Program Tremendous Success EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. GRAHAM PURCELL . .. OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday,. June i4, 1966 Mr. PURCELL. Mr. Speaker, one of the truly remarkable achievements in American agriculture in our time is the new look in the vast region of the Great Plains. The change, in terms of greater agri- cultural stability, reduced soil erosion, de- velopment oP water for agricultural and recreational uses, and a more beautiful landscape, has come about as a result of an enlightened partnership between people and their government, between scientist and landowners. It has come about largely through the Great Plains, conservation program, a tool that has been greatly sharpened and strengthened in the last 6 years under leadership that recognizes the funda- mental role land resources plays in the well-being of an entire region. What has h&,ppened in the Great Plains is more than. simple recovery from years of drought and dust storms w111ch, for a time, .gave it the unhappy label of "The Dust Bowl." Droughts will recux', for this is the na- ture of the climatic pattern of the Great Plains.. Wiled will blow, as it always has, across t1~Q rolling prairies. But the farmer and rancher who has reserves of grass and water, who has tied down with grass his soils that are un- suitedfor cultivation, will not become the dispossessed migrant of the thirties. These are the primary goals of the Great Plains conservation program-a program that has been expanded by 60 percent since 1960, to serve a larger member of landowners in the region each year. "Wheat Will Win the War" was a battle cry during World War I, and the wheatlands ,of the Great Plains re- sponded with heavy output. The plow- up was costly, however, for much of the newly cultivated land was extremely sus- ceptible to the winds of the dry years that followed. The term "dust bowl" came out of the disaster. The research scientist and the farmer have formed an effective partnership in solving the problems of the Great Plains. Techinques developed in times of drought and privation are the solid basis now for a far more stable agricul- ture in the plains. The survey of soils, classifying them as to their capability in conservation use, has provided un- mistakable lines of guidance in adapting the lands of the Great Plains to agricul- tural production. The technical help afforded by the Soil Conservation Service of the Depart- ment of Agriculture, its effectivenesi, managed, State-sponsored soil conserva tion districts, .became a useful tool fo June 1 ~, .1966 produced at the cost of damage to the land resource-a damage we cannot afford. Grass and water are the earmarks of the new agriculture in the Great Plains. The Great Plains conservation program is enabling the landowners of the plains to have them-grass as productive as his land and skill in management can produce, and water enough to see him through the years of drought that he wisely presumes to be ahead. With grass and water in abundance, the producer no longer must dispose of livestock on a market glutted by the offerings of owners in the same distress. The new agriculture in the Great Plains is built upon the conservation of soil and .water resources, an approach that was born in times of land disaster and human hardship. The drought of the 1950's was less damaging than the one of the 1930's that aroused the Nation to action-less damaging because of con- servation progress and know-how already moving into use across the plains. Be- cause of work now being done by the region's landowners, much of it prompted and facilitated by agricultural programs supported by the Federal Government, less damage will occur in the plains' next drought. Whatever the future holds for plains agriculture, the farmers and ranchers of the region are in far better condition to cope with emergencies as United States Pleading Viet Case on wrong Grounds? The program was authorized by Con- HON. RICHARD BOLLING gress during the drought of the 1950'S. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES It was conceived. as a pilot program, a Tuesday, June 14, 1966 testing of principles developed fors par- ticular region. It was accepted at first Mr. BOLLING. Mr. Speaker, the by a relatively few landowners, and from Howard K. Smith column which follows 1957 through 1960, received Federal cost- eloquently and accurately states the real sharing appropriations of $10 million reason for our commitment to and pres- each year. Beginning in 1961, however, ence in Vietnam: the appropriation has been increased is U.S. PLEADING VIET CASE ON WRONG gradually to the current level of $16 mil- GROUNDS? lion and in recent years about 5,000 (Bp xoward K. smith) farmers and ranchers have entered the Every successive opinion poll shows that program each year. our appetite for resisting in Viet Nam is de- Approximately 23>000 landowners have dining, and that President Johnson's stock entered the program. Thousands have with the voters is going the same way. completed their work and have been en- one cannot help thinking that the admin- joying the benefits of complete conserva- istration is not putting its case to the Amer- ican people in proper terms. Of several tion treatment and sounder use of their faults, one is outstanding: The President and reSOUrCeS. The size of the units range Secretary of State Dean Rusk and their col- from small to large-an average of 1,900 leagues almost always justify our effort in acres. Southeast Asia on legal or moral grounds. The conversion of unsuitable cropland The fact is that the struggle there is essen- to permanent vegetative use was, at the tiauy and overwhelmingly a power struggle outset, a principal Objectlve. The results regardless of law er moralhwe to undertake have been dramatic. More than 1,400,000 This is not to agree with the host of guilt- acres of these less stable lands have been rlaaen critics who believe our moral case is returned to the protection of grass, or are b~? Compared with Gur foe's case, it is in the process of being converted. This downright good. Ho chi Minh has never represents more than 1 acre iri every 5 dared submit his regime to a tree election Cropland acres il1VOlVed ixi the 23,000 such as we are pressing for under U.N. inspec- -Great Plains contracts. Wheat tion in the south. pro- xis instrument of power has been terror- duced on these acres was, ire recent times, ism,, ats "reforms" lent the average North riot Only surplus to our needs but Was Vietnamese peasant considerably worse off Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 June Y~, Y966 ~NN~v~ CON~RESSIONr~~.JR~~CZ~I~t~'Sir'-"A"`fl~~~Y~I`~?"~~~`'~~~?~~ "-~ A3197 'board were pioneered by MFY people long before they became fashionable currency and last their. radical sting. The real problem that confronts MFY yras dramatized-for this reporter in a teen service center on East Gth Street where youth worker Angel Camavho said bitterly: "We get answers here for most of the prob- 1ms the kids came in with, except the big one. We don't have enough jobs." When all is said and done Mobilization is sG111 dependent upon the workings of the kmerican economy--increasingly automated, increasingly higher-skilled. 6TATE OF-MIND "Poverty" is always a Yelative term. What vas call "poverty" is sheer luxury far the I~easant of India. Perhaps "poverty" is a state-oR-mind, more than anything else. Perhaps "poverty" means a distintegration of self-esteem. And perhaps MFY's contribu- tion, when the final score is fated up, will 1>e in the changing of that state-af-mind, the 7~estoratian of self-esteem. That's the hope anyway. The alternative, a failure right avross the board, raises alter- Iiatives almost too dr`eadiul to contemplate. 'The battle is being fought in the target urea. There are little victories and defeats trvery day. The calculus of those victories and defeats will go a long way towards de- i,ermining the American future. The Spirit That Is America EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. LESTER L. WOLFF OF NEW YORK - ' IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ' Tuesday, June i4, i966 Mr. WOLFF. Mr. Speaker, on Sunday, June 5, 19$6> I attended a farewell party to a truly great individual, Rev. L. R. :Boyll, minister of the Carpenter Memo- rial Methodist Church in Glen Cove, N.Y. A man who has inspired his fellow men and our Community to mutual respect for each other and their individual beliefs- at the same time inspired a unity of pur- pose for all men. The encomiums of praise heaped upon Reverend Boyll at this gathering cannot be lost, fol~ they truly demonstrate the spirit that is America.. Therefore, I en- ter in the RECOxn the statements of three of his fellow clergymen, of different faiths, and the former mayor of Glen Cove, in praise of this great man: Reverend Lauuence Boyll's leaving is a real loss to our community. He has gained an enviable and well-deserved reputation bath within and outside the Carpenter Memorial Methodist Church. His support has been essential far so many good valises in Glen He-and Mrs. 8oy11 go with our good wishes and prayers for their future health and success. . Rabbi ALTON MEYER WINTERS, North Country Reform Temples, Glen Cove, N.Y. 7aaurelice Boyll Ls a loss to Glen Cave. He has, taught men what it is to be men. He has taught dlglaity and restraint. I am proud to say that he has tau~pght me, and I am grateful. ~ir~, CHARLES KOHLI, _:.: St. Patrick's, Glen Cove, N.I'. Rev: Laurence Boyll and his queenly wife, Mrs. Rachel Boyll, will be greatly missed in Glen Cove. Words are inadequate to express what their friendship, love and fellowship has meant to our Church. Mrs. Galloway and the members of our Church join with me in wishing Rev. and Mrs. Boyll the blessings of God. Our thoughts and prayers will ga with them as they leave for their new field of service. God bless them always. DT. B. A. GALLOWAY, Calvary A.M.E. Church, Glen Cove, N.Y. Rev. Boyll, it has been my pleasure and privilege to know you during your years of service to the people of Glen Cave and it fs with heartfelt sadness that T learned you are leaving us. During the days when I was Mayor of Glen Cov?, I can recall so well the times you could be counted on to help our community. It was goad to know Reverend Boyll was there to lend a wise, able and understanding hand. A community seldom has too many citizens conscientious and willing to help in its growth and betterment. '8'ou were always one of our people and so your presence will be missed by many. Far your service as Chaplain to Glen Cove Volunteer Fire Department and your work on many committees responsible for bettering our housing conditions and community rela- tions, you deserve file thanks of the entire community. Lam proud to know you and wish you con- tinned years of wonderful service to the community to which you now go. We shall miss you but are grateful for all you have done for so many. HOn. JOSEPH REILLY, Former mayor of Glen Cove, N.Y. Flag Day 1966 EXTENSION OF REMARKS of HON. JAMES H. (JIMMY} QUILLEN OF TENNESSEE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June i4, i966 Mr. QUILLEN. Mr. Speaker, today, June 14, 1966, is Flag nay, ' and I am taking this opportunity to urge every American to display and proudly honor our flag. The abuses that have been directed at our flag in the past Year can best be re- buffed by every citizen showing deep .respect and devotion to the symbol of our Nation and to the ideals for- which it stands. This year a special effort should be made to observe Flag Day. In concluding my brief remarks, I am inserting an editorial from the Jones- boro, Tenn., Herald and Tribune: FLAG DAY Speaking at the Flag Day celebration, Washington, D.C., on June 14, 1914, Presi- dent Woodrow Wilson said, "This flag for the future is meant to stand power. No nation is ever going to doubt our For bravery and a generous willingness power to assert Its rights, and we should lay to help, Mrs. Joan LaForest should be af- it to heart that no nation shall henceforth forded warm public recognition, too. She doubt our purpose to put it to the highest yeas the sister of the man who had kid- uses to which a great emblem of justice and Hoped the child, and the experience she was government can be put. undergoing must have tortured her. But "It is henceforth to stand far self-posses- she volunteered to go up the hill' with Officer sion, for dignity, for the assertion of the Nocera to try to talk her brother into letting right of one nation to serve the other na- his little victim go free. tions of the world-an emblem that will not condescend to be used for purposes of ag- gression and self-aggrandizement; that it is too great to be debased by selfishness; that has vindicated its right to be honored by all nations of the world and seared by none who do righteousness." Bravery in Burlington EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. BERNARD F. GRABOWSKI OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, June i4, i966 Mr. GRABOWSKI. Mr: Speaker, un- der unanimous consent, I insert in the Appendix of the RECORD an editorial en- titled "Bravery in Burlington" that ap- peared in the Waterbury Republican June 3, 1966. .The editorial follows: BRAVERX IPT BURLINGTON The abduction of a Terryville youngster by a demented and dangerous Burlington man last week might have turned into. a terrible tragedy ii it had not been for some people who were alert and generously re- sponsible and extremely brave. It is impossible to single out all the people who deserve to be commended, for there are many of them and the exceptional assistance they gave may never be known or acknowl- edged. The precise facts of an episode like this one are elusive, and the records are apt to omit the data most important to a trixe, full picture. Memories are short, and eye- witnesses do not all see the same thing. But there are at least six persons who obviously deserve special public praise. We think a debt of gratitude 1s owed to George S. Grodecki and Donald Lassy, of Terryville, passers-by who became suspicious when they saw Albert Bunn Jr. stop his pick-up truck near a group of small children. Grodecki and Lassy slowed down to observe what was going on. They saw Bunn drag a six-year-old boy to his vehicle and drive off. Thanks to Grodecki and Lassy, who fol- lowed Bunn to Burlington, the police knew quickly where to go to begin the rescue. It seems to us, also, Bristol Police Chief Robert Grace deserves a great deal of credit. He had to know that he was sending his men on a dangerous mission that could be ruled to be outside his area of jurisdiction. It is the kind of a decision that could back- fire disastrously on the man who made it. But Chief Grace did not hesitate. He got his men out there Past and went to work. He didn't wait for the State Police, and 1t might have been calamitous ii he had. Bristol Patrolman Joseph Nocera, who was wounded when Bunn hit him with abird- shot blast, is surely one of the heroes of the episode. He is lucky that he wasn't killed or that ho wasn't injured-more serious- ly. But his hurts and scars will testify to the fact that police work is dangerous work, indeed-that a policeman never knows when he may have to lace an insane killer in the Approved For Release 2005/07/13.: CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 June .T I, ~ 966 r+NN~ vvcu ~CC71~R`T~?SI"fYPEFFAL' `R~C6R73`~~rYPg'L'~`PyYh"""`*"""?"" ~ `-~ than tl}e average South Vietnamese peasant- until Ho .made life. in. the south impossible by the murder of nearly all local officials and the systeln~aticintimidation of bhe rest. It is an eloquent fact that.` though war-weary South Vietnamese dissent or riot ar desert the farces, none go over to the Viet Co~IIg. But the real and relevant explanation of why we are fighting is that this is a Bower struggle the loss of which would bring con- sequences awful to contemplate. To make the point, consider what would happen, first if they, then if we, prevail. A Communist. success, following an Amer- ican withdrawal, would be an "open-ended" result. It would sharp$n their appetite and desperately weaken the resistance of neigh- bors waiting to be consumed. It would jus- tify the basic motivation of their ideology which 1s blind faith in a world interpreta- tion that promises universal dominion at the end of the road; The "domino" theory is much discredited in conversation, But the facts oP life are these: "Laos and Cambodia are shot through with guerrilla forces trained where those now in South Viet Nam were trained. Our AID officials in Thailand are watching a guerrilla minority, trained in the same place, begin- . sling to accumulate power by methods of pure terror in northeast Thailand. China has, made public the intentioli of adding Thailand to her bloc, and her actions over many years make clear her ultimate de- sign of forcing the disintegration of India, the .only possible counter-force to China In short, a Communist success would be a destabilizing event; it would be bound to lead to further and worse conflicts. A success for our side, on the other hand, would be a stabilizing result. As in Europe, we seek no territorial gain. Our aim is to find a line and establish the principle that we will not cross it to their detriment if they will not cross it either. In the age of nuclear weapons it is a para- mount mission to establish this principle that borders may not be changed by force in Asia just as we established it in Europe. With China rapidly becoming a nuclear power, we dare not relinquish the effort now by curtailing our force or withdrawing it. In his recent history of our times, Proi. Carroll Quigley makes the point that Ger- many, Italy and Japan gained immensely more by dosing to us in World War II than they could have possibly have gained by winning: I#ad they won, their governments, $lled with the seeds of their own degenera- tion, would have been stimulated to infinite acquisition, with consequent- national im- poverishment and eventual annihilation by the Unite. States. As it is, they have sta- bilized, become progressive, democratic and -prosperous societies. Very much the same can be said about the Communist nations of Asia. IP they win in Viet Nam; they will move on indefinitely to extend their sway. At some point the United States would be forced to intervene again, this time with: the support of the opinion polls of a frightened public that at last .would see -the real nature of the struggle. A much bloodier war would result. South Viet Nam is the right place and this is the right time to make a stand. gene.. Whisenant EXTENSION, OF REMARKS ,.,-. OF I~QN: BASAL L: W~IITEN~R bF NORTH CAROLIfTA IN TH>a ~IO~]'Sl; (>k;~REPItESENTATIVES - ~ ,Tuesday; June 14; 1966- Mr, WHITENER. Mr. Speaker, the peapie of Catawba County, N.C., and her many friends in -other sections- of the country were shocked and saddened last week to learn of the tragic passing of Miss Irene Whisenant, a former em- ployee of the House of Representatives. Miss Whisenant was killed in an auto- mobile accident. She served as private secretary to the late North Carolina Representatives Al- fred L. Bulwinkie and Hamilton C. Jones. Miss Whisenant was a very capable young lady and performed her congres- sional duties in an outstanding manner. Her life was characterized by a dedica- tion to her family, her church, and to her work. She was a kind and understand- ing Christian lady whose sincere interest in people won the admiration and love of all those with wham she associated. Miss Whisenant's many friends mourn her passing. An editorial in the June 10, 1966, edition of the Observer-News-En- terprise at Newton, N.C., very aptly de- scribes the life and character of Miss Whisenant. Under unanimous consent I insert the editorial in the Appendix of the RECORD: [From, the Newton (N.C.) Observer-News- Enterprise, June 10, 1966] IRENE WHISENANT Miss Irene Whisenant was the kind of woman who instinctively liked people. As a member of the administrative staff of Davis Hospital in Statesville she was constantly doing things for the comfort of patients and friends. She was forever running errands for pa- tients because she wanted to. The longtime resident of Maiden was recognized by those who knew her as "a good woman" and. "good friend: ' Miss Whisenant's long career of public serv- ice stretched from the nation's capital to the Catawba Valley. She served Congressmen A. L. Bulwinkle and Hamilton C. Jones as a personal secretary. Her last job-that at Davis Hospital-was perhaps even more rewarding for it meant helping people at close range. Each day she commuted between the home of her parents in Maiden and the Statesville hospital. She often told friends she loved the job and the commuting too much to give up the job. Tuesday she left home as usual and threaded her way down Highway 10 through Catawba. She was hardly outside of down- town ? Catawba when her car was caught up in an accident with a truck. Two hours later Miss Whisenant became the county's 25th tragic fatality of the year. Catawba Countians who knew her will miss this rare woman who liked people so much. The large concourse of friends and relatives from throughout the county attending the rites Thursday attest the high esteem in which she was held. Her pastor of First Methodist Church, of which she had served as a member of the official board, paid tribute to her loyalty to her church and friends, citing her exemplary life of service. .VFW Post in Claxton, Evans County, Ga., Promotes U,S. Flag EXTjaN,SION , OF_ REMARKS of HOId. G. EI,LIOTT HAGAN OF GEORGIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESZ;NTA'IIVES .Thursday, June 2,1966 Mr. HAGAN of Georgia. Mr. Speaker, as we celebrate Flag Day, I want to take A3199 this occasion to agprise my colleagues of an inspiring event which I attended an Memorial Day in Claxton, Ga. When I accepted an invitation from the Claxton-Evans County VFW Post to participate in its Memorial Day pro- gram, little did I realize what an out- standing job this post was performing to encourage patriotism and .respect for our national flag. When I arrived in Claxton, I was pleasantly surprised to discover Ameri- can flags flying everywhere. In asking who was responsible for this wonderful act of patriotism, I was advised that it was the result of a special project of the Claxton-Evans County VFW Post. The post has purchased a number of American flags to be rented to local busi- ness houses, displayed ors national hoIi- days and properly stored when not in use far an annual cost of $12 to -each merchant. The post is also displaying the flag at prominent public buildings on a daily basis. The Post Commander, D. B. Plyler, describes the project as follows: This is not amoney-making project, but is planned to display our National flag and help tell the American story to coming gen- erations. Our flag represents free America, and all the .things far which men have fought and died. We hope to help emphasize its importance in. our Community. When other civic and service clubs around the country are looking for proj- ect ideas, I heartily recommend that they follow the example being set by the Claxton-Evans County VFW Post. What better project can any club adopt than one which will encourage patriot- ism and respect for the American flag? Australia and Edward Clark EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. J. J. PICKLE os TExAs IN THE HOIISE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, Jz~ne i4, i966 Mr. PICKLE, Mr. Speaker, .one of Texas' favorite sons, Austin attorney, Edward Clark, the American Ambassador to Australia, recently returned to this country for a brief visit. He has been enthusiastically received by his friends; his law colleagues and fellow Texans and Americans. He has also been honored by his col- lege alma .mater, Southwestern Univer- sity in Georgetown, Tex, .Far his out- standing leadership and service to this country, he was presented an honorary doctor's degree, an honor, I might add, that has been justly earned by Mr. Clark, who has offered his dedicated slid ta- lented service to this ceuntry. His sojourn to our shores also gave him an opportunity to speak about Aus- tralia before the Lions Club in his boy- hood .home of San Augustine,, Tex.-a town that has been historically axid tra- ditionally noted for the outstandinglead- ers the area has produced, many of whom were prominent in the early development of Texas. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7 A3200 ' ' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -APPENDIX, June 11~, Y9fi6 Mr. Clark's remarks before the club were timely; informative and appropri- ate. ~1`nder leave to extend my remarks,' I wish to include the following in -she R~coaD: AtxasaALIA (Address by the Honorable Edward Clark, :American Ambassador to Australia, before the I,lons .Club, San Augustine, Tex., June 2, 1988) It is a challenge to me to be asked to speak here today, because I feel I must not deal in platitudes. Through a lifetime of talk- ing to people, I have found that the way to hold a demanding audience is to choose a subject that you know something about. f3o today I am going to talk about Australia- not eland oY kangaroos and surfboards and naked Aborigines, but a young 'and vital nation that challenges the United States to acts oY friendship and understanding. Amer- icans are taking a greater and greater interest in Australia. This is natural, because as our own frontiers are pushed back, the Australian Frontier appeals more and more to the pio- neering spirit in many of us. So what kind of country is this? First, Australia is a big country. It is about the same size as the U.S. without Alaska. This inevitably poses problems of transportation and communication which smaller Countries do not experience. Also, A. large ..part of it, especially toward the center, is arid, and Australia is not lucky like we are in having great mountain ranges to catch the rain clouds and feed large river systems. Some day, power, soil chemistry and other forms of science will turn much of these low .rainfall are,xs to pastoral and agricultural use, and in some places this is already happening, but for the present the main importance of theaR arld areas lies in the minerals which are being discovered there. All this should be kept in mind when we-hear talk about the urgent need to fill "the vast empty spaces: ' Second, Australia Ss a young country. It. was settled only 177 years ago, 181 years after the first settlers came to the U.S. This is a disadvantage in one way, because in early days labor was cheap and development costs law; on the other hand, Australia has been able to benefit from modern technological, scientific and engineering knowledge not; available a century ago. Mistakes have been made anti opportunities lost, but all things considered, I think Australia has done pretty Weil durlxig her relatively short life. Third, Australia has a small population. She has about 111/2 million people, or about one-seventeenth of our population. This smallness oY population and labor force in sa large a country aggravates the problems of. rapid development and creates competitive difficulties iqr Australian industries because of limited local markets. Because of these and other factors the Government has pur- sued avigorous migration policy, as a re- sult of which nearly 21/y million migrants- about 1/8 of the total population-have set- ' tied in the country since the last war. Although nearly all of these are from Britain and the rest of Europe, some have come from non-European countries. But most people say that there will always be sub-? stantial restrictions on the entry of non- Europeans, in order to preserve the tradi- tional texture of the population and to pro-? test Australian workers ixx their employ- ment. I am talking here about permanexit settlers, for there is virtually no restric- tion on the entry of tourists, businessmen, students and other visitors from any country. SecaUse Australia, like the U.S., was first settled by British people, Americans will im- mediately notice a similarity in atmosphere .anti way of life. There is the same language, similar forma of representative government, freedom of speech and worship, similar laws and statutes, and similar ideas of right and wrong and fair-play. OY course there are differences,. but an American in Australia. does not feel bewildered, or frustrated or in-: secure, for he flxds himself in a stable, orderly, and familiar enviroliment. Fourth, Australia is very near Asia. Aus- talia is 12,000 miles from England and nearly 7,000 miles from California. But just beyond the northern borders in Australia's near north, are more than a billion people comprising many nations of different cul_ tore, history and background, mast of them in the midst of great tumult and change. The political and military significance of much of this is obvious, and Australian for- eign policies take it into account. But this vast area to the north has another signifi- cance too. Given peace, and such assistance as Australia and others can offer, opportuni- ties for trade and commerce could be tre- mendous too, and Australia is well situated to take advantage of this. Fifth, Australia is a trading nation. Aus- tralia derives about 20% of its national in- come from. foreign trade, compared to 6% for the United States. Notwithstanding her small population, Australia ranks among the top twelve trading nations in the world. Trade is her lifeblood. Australia is the world's biggest exporter of wool, meat and lead; the second biggest exporter of wheat, sugar and zinc; the sixth biggest producer of gold; a large producer and exporter of iron ore, manganese, bauxite and coal. Substantial reserves of natural gas have been discovered and prospects for large finds oP oil, which is already in com- mercial production, are favorable. Although Australia !s often thought of aborad as an agricultural county,. manufacturing is ac- tually the largest single employer of labor. Proportionately to population, about the same percentage of the work force is em- ployed in manufacturing as in the U.S. The gross national product, about the fifth highest per capita in the world, is increasing at some b% a year. About 25% of this is reinvested, but this does not begin to take care of the capital. needs, for Australia's rapid development requires vast inflows of capital from abroad, just as was the case with the U.S. in the Nineteenth Century. The pattern of Australia's trade is chang- ing significantly.. Australia's traditional trading partner and supplier of capital and "know-how" has been Britain. While the British ties are still important, links with America and the Asian countries have grown at a startling rate. For instance, although in the early fifties Britain accounted for nearly half of Australia's imports, today it is down to just over half that percentage. On the export side, alter the war, Britain took more than 40% of Australia's exports; now the proportion is below 20%a. These major re- ductions have occurred when Australia's total overseas trade has increased by over 60% since 1950. The biggest single development since the war has been the emergence of Japan as the likely replacement for Britain as Australia's chief trading partner. With Japan's rapid economic growth, she is now the largest buyer of Australian raw wool, coal and iron ore, and it is evident that the Australian and Japanese economies will become increas- ingly inter-dependent. Australia's relations with the U.$. are good. The common vital interests of both countries are clear. The U,S. and Australia are joined not only by the Seato and Anzua Treaties, but through intimate everyday co- operation at all levels. Australian troops are fighting alongside our own in Vietnam. In fact, the U.S. has no better friend in the world than. Australia. Australia. rxow has 'a commitment to Viet- naxxi of 4,500 troops. 'With our ever'increas- ing commitment numbering about. 250,000, their own troop strength may sound small. However, don't forget that there are seven- teen Americans to every Australian and that one of the scarcest resources in Australia is manpower. I have talked to many Ameri- cans who have fought in Vietnam. Many times I have been told that American sol- diers feel high confidence for their Austral- ian comrades. The best policy in the world is to stay out of trouble, and that is our nation's policy, but if a fight comes for you, it is good to have Australia beside you. Over the widest possible range of political and military subjects the United States a,nd Australia engage in frank, intimate and con- tinuing consultation and discussion. The truly great and enduring alliances are based on mutual interest and mutual respe~et. This is the sort of alliance we have with Australia, and politically and militarily it leaves nothing to be desired. On the trading side, there are some prob- lems, although not serious ones. Australia is at present America's fastest growing ex- port market, and she is a heavy buyer of U.S. military equipment. Last year about 24% of Australia's imports came from the United States, but only about 10 % of :her exports entered the United States. 7.'he Australians point out that we are the only major country to impose a tariff on raw wool, which we do at the high rate of 251/2 cents per pound; and that their capacity to buy is hampered by other U.S. restrictions on imporb~ such as those on meat 'and dairy products. But these and other proble:ma are frankly faced by both parties and do not jeopardize the basic friendship which we enjoy. Finally, Australia is a free enterprise coxxn- try. Australia's wealth and progress are derived mostly from private enterprise. Nearly 80% of the work force is employed. in non-governmental activity. But, because of historical factors and special circum- stances, Australians have accepted the role of government in some fields where it does not participate in the United States. Take the railways, which are owned elt:her by the Commonwealth or the State Govern- ments. In the early days the wool and wheat and produce had to be transported to 'the coast, but distances were so great and popu- lation so small and scattered that private en- terprise would not and could not bo ex- pected to build railways; so governments Yxad to build them. Then again, the Australian economy is vul- nerable, because it depends so much on cir- cumstances beyond the country's control, such as variations in world prices for primary products, and natural disasters such as drought. Just recentlq prolonged and severe drought has cax{sed Australia the lose of about 20 milliax~( sheep, 1%2 million calttle and nearly a third of the wheat harvest. In these circumstances the government has been active in encouraging and elren creating diversity of production; and some- times it has had to take uncomfortable fis- cal and financial measures, through export and import controls, central bank variations in interest rates and lending policy. Like us in the United States, most Australians recog- nize the necessity-for a reasonable amount; of government regulation to keep the economy in balance. I have painted a picture of a country where Americana feel at home, but where they face new and interesting challenges. Although Australia is a foreign country, it is not alien and inhospitable. Above all, Australia is a reliable country. Australia is a friend. Approved For Release 2005/07/13 :CIA-RDP67B00446R000400080012-7